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  1. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  2. Estimating Monthly Rainfall from Geostationary Satellite Imagery Over Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, Elen Maria Camara

    The infrared regression and the grid-history satellite rainfall estimating techniques were utilized to estimate monthly rainfall in Amazonia during one month of the rainy season (March, 1980) and one month of the dry season (September, 1980). The estimates were based on 3-hourly SMS-II infrared and visible images. Three sets of coefficients for the grid history method (Marajo, Arabian Sea, and GATE) were used to estimate rainfall. The estimated rain was compared with gauge measurements over the region. The infrared regression technique overestimated by a factor of 1.5. The Marajo coefficients yielded the best estimate, especially for eastern Amazonia. In the wet month Marajo coefficients overestimated rain by 10% and in the dry month by 70%. The Arabian Sea coefficients overestimated rain and the GATE coefficients slightly underestimated rain for Amazonia. Two maps of monthly rainfall over Amazonia were constructed for March and September, 1980, combining the ground station and satellite inferred rainfall of the grid history method using the Marajo coefficients. The satellite observations and ground data were mutually compatible and were contourable on these final, composite maps. Monthly rainfall was found to be much more inhomogeneous than previously reported. In March there was a belt of high precipitation trending southwest, with higher values and sharpest gradients in the coastal area. The upper Amazon was also an area of high precipitation, both north and south of the equator. In Roraima rainfall decreased drastically to the north. In September, the area of highest precipitation was the northwestern part of Amazonas State (northern hemisphere). Rainfall elsewhere was very localized and in northeastern Amazonia varied from 0 to 150 mm. Even though the grid history method presented better results for estimating rainfall over Amazonia, the IR model could be utilized more efficiently and economically on an operational basis if the calibration were properly made

  3. [Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil].

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    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2009-06-01

    One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA) proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures have contributed to the growth of the economy and the population, as well as to improvements in some traditional health indicators (a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy), alongside major social and economic inequalities and heterogeneity in environmental health impacts. This same process has been accompanied by environmental changes that indicate an unsustainable development model for present and future generations, demanding comprehensive action by public health and environmental institutions.

  4. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  5. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  6. Heterotrophic components of soil respiration in pastures and forests in southwestern Amazonia, Acre, Brazil

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    Eric Atlas Davidson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present data on soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration in pastures, mature and secondary forests, in order to elucidate their contribution to total CO2 flux from soil to atmosphere. The research was conducted in Southwestern Amazonia, Acre State, Brazil. Microbial biomass was estimated using a variation of the traditional fumigation-extraction method and heterotrophic respiration was measured using respirometry flasks attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration did not differ statistically among pastures, mature and secondary forests. These laboratory results indicate that higher CO2 fluxes from pasture soils measured in situ are probably due to higher root respiration by pasture grasses.

  7. The Cotingo Dam as a test of Brazil's system for evaluating proposed developments in Amazonia

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    Fearnside, Philip M.; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    1996-09-01

    The proposed Cotingo Dam in Brazil's far northern state of Roraima is examined with the objective of drawing lessons for Brazil's system of evaluating environmental, social, and financial consequences of development decisions. The Cotingo Dam illustrates the difficulty of translating into practice the principles of economic and environmental assessment. Examination of the financial arguments for the Cotingo Dam indicates that justifications in this sphere are insufficient to explain why the project is favored over other alternatives and points to political factors as the best explanation of the project's high priority. Strong pressure from political and entrepreneurial interest groups almost invariably dominates decision making in Amazonia. The analysis indicates the inherent tendency of the present system to produce decisions in favor of large construction projects at the expense of the environment and local peoples. The requirements intended to assure proper weight for these concerns, such as the report on environmental impacts (RIMA) and the public hearing, fail to serve this role. Cotingo also provides a test case for constitutional protections restricting construction of dams in indigenous lands.

  8. New geological framework for Western Amazonia (Brazil) and implications for biogeography and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Rossetti, Dilce; Mann de Toledo, Peter; Góes, Ana Maria

    2005-01-01

    associated with a lake system (i.e., fan-delta) and/or fluvial flood plain areas. After a period of erosion, a fluvial system with eastward draining channels started to develop at around 27,000 14C yr B.P. The fluvial channels were overflooded in mid-Holocene time. This flooding is attributed to an increased period of humidity, with a peak between 5000 and 2500 14C yr B.P. The data presented herein support that, rather than being a monotonous area, the Amazonia was a place with frequent changes in landscape throughout the Neogene-Quaternary, probably as a result of climatic and tectonic factors. We hypothesize that these changes in the physical environment stressed the biota, resulting in speciation and thus had a great impact on modern biodiversity.

  9. Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil).

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    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E; Ramos, Maria Ines; Douglas da Silva Paz, Jackson

    2011-08-01

    In Miocene times a vast wetland existed in Western Amazonia. Whereas the general development of this amazing ecosystem is well established, many questions remain open on sedimentary environments, stratigraphical correlations as well as its palaeogeographical configuration. Several outcrops located in a barely studied region around Eirunepé (SW Amazonas state, Brazil) were investigated to obtain basic sedimentological data. The observed deposits belong to the upper part of the Solimões Formation and are biostratigraphically dated to the Late Miocene. Vertically as well as laterally highly variable fine-grained clastic successions were recorded. Based on the lithofacies assemblages, these sediments represent fluvial deposits, possibly of an anastomosing river system. Sand bodies formed within active channels and dominant overbank fines are described (levees, crevasse splays/channels/deltas, abandoned channels, backswamps, floodplain paleosols). Lacustrine environments are restricted to local floodplain ponds/lakes. The mollusc and ostracod content as well as very light δ(18)O and δ(13)C values, measured on ostracod valves, refer to exclusively freshwater conditions. Based on palaeontological and geological results the existence of a long-lived lake ("Lake Pebas") or any influx of marine waters can be excluded for that region during the Late Miocene.

  10. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil).

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    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E

    2013-03-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella, Penthesilenula) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ(18)O- and δ(13)C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, "brackish" water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene.

  11. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil

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    Veracilda R. Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand flies from Central Amazonia and four new records for the Amazonas state, Brazil. A survey was conducted in May and June 2008 to study the fauna of insects in Central Amazonia, Brazil. As part of the survey, we report here that sixty species of phlebotomine were identified, totaling 13,712 specimens from 13 genera. The collection sites were located at the border between the states of Pará and Amazonas, comprising three municipalities from the Amazonas state (Borba, Maués, and Nhamundá. Malaise, CDC and Shannon traps were used to collect the insects. Most of the sand flies were collected by CDC traps (89.5%, while Malaise and Shannon traps collected 7% and 3.5%, respectively. The most abundant genera, representing 97.1% of the total sand flies identified were: Trichopygomyia Barretto, 1962 (47.6%, Psathyromyia Barretto, 1962 (17.9%, Psychodopygus Mangabeira, 1941 (17.5% and Trichophoromyia Barretto, 1962 (14.3%. The genera with the largest number of species identified were: Psychodopygus (14, Psathyromyia (10, Evandromyia Mangabeira, 1941 (7, Trichophoromyia (5 and Trichopygomyia (5. The most abundant species was Trichopygomyia trichopyga (Floch & Abonnenc, 1945, which represented 29% of the total sand flies identified. Here we also report new records for four species in the Amazonas state: Ps. complexus (Mangabeira, 1941, Ps. llanosmartinsi Fraiha & Ward, 1980, Ty. pinna (Feliciangeli, Ramirez-Pérez & Ramirez, 1989, and Th. readyi (Ryan, 1986. The results of this study provide new, additional information on the distribution of sand flies in the Amazon and increase the number of species in the Amazonas state from 127 to 131.

  12. Mapping of oil spill environmental sensitivity index (ESI) in western Amazonia, Brazil, using USTC classification of dual season GRFM SAR image mosaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Fernando P. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Beisl, Carlos H.; Pedroso, Enrico C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Centro Brasileiro de Recursos - RADARSAT

    2003-07-01

    This study focuses on improving information about oil spill environmental sensitivity in Western Amazonia, Brazil, using a pair of multi seasonal (1995 - low flood to 1996 - high flood) GRFM JERS-1 SAR mosaics. Fuzzy analysis is carried out to extract information about landscape modifications within half hydrological cycle. The oil spill hazard information derived from JERS-1 SAR data is straightforward to interpret and constitutes a representation of the original Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) product conceived by PETROBRAS. (author)

  13. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

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    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  14. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

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    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  15. Adsorption of cadmium and copper in representative soils of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Deyvison Andrey Medrado Gonçalves

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of heavy metals adsorption in soil play a key role in predicting environmental susceptibility to contamination by toxic elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu adsorption in surface and subsurface soil. Samples of six soils: Xanthic Hapludox (XH1 and XH2, Typic Hapludox (TH, Typic Rhodudalf (TR, Typic Fluvaquent (TF, and Amazonian dark earths (ADE from Eastern Amazonian, Brazil. The soils were selected for chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization and to determine the adsorption by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. All soils characterized as kaolinitic, and among them, XH1 and XH2 showed the lowest fertility. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms revealed a higher Cu (H curve than Cd (L curve adsorption. Parameters of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicate that soils TR, TF and ADE has the greatest capacity and affinity for metal adsorption. Correlation between the curve adsorption parameters and the soil attributes indicates that the pH, CEC, OM and MnO variables had the best influence on metal retention. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily described Cu and Cd soil adsorption, where TR, TF and ADE has a lower vulnerability to metal input to the environment. Besides the pH, CEC and OM the MnO had a significant effect on Cu and Cd adsorption in Amazon soils.

  16. Deforestation drivers in Southwest Amazonia: Comparing smallholder farmers in Iñapari, Peru, and Assis Brasil, Brazil

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    Almeyda Zambrano Angelica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad interpretation of land use and forest cover studies has been limited by the biophysical and socio-economic uniqueness of the landscapes in which they are carried out and by the multiple temporal and spatial scales of the underlying processes. We coupled a land cover change approach with a political ecology framework to interpret trends in multi-temporal remote sensing of forest cover change and socio-economic surveys with smallholders in the towns of Iñapari, Peru and Assis Brasil, Brazil in southwest Amazonia. These adjacent towns have similar biogeophysical conditions, but have undergone differing development approaches, and are both presently undergoing infrastructure development for the new Interoceanic highway. Results show that forest cover patterns observed in these two towns cannot be accounted for using single land use drivers. Rather, deforestation patterns result from interactions of national and regional policies affecting financial credit and road infrastructure, along with local processes of market integration and household resources. Based on our results we develop recommendations to minimise deforestation in the study area. Our findings are relevant for the sustainability of land use in the Amazon, in particular for regions undergoing large-scale infrastructure development projects.

  17. Two Contrasting Severe Seasonal Extremes in Tropical South America in 2012: Flood in Amazonia and Drought in Northeast Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marengo, Jose A; Alves, Lincoln M; Soares, Wagner R; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Camargo, Helio; Riveros, Marco Paredes; Pabló, Amelia Diaz

    2013-01-01

    ... transport of Atlantic moisture into the western part of Amazonia then turning southward to the southern Amazonia region, where the Chaco low was intensified. This was favored by the intensification of subtropical high pressure over the region, associated with an anomalously intense and northward-displaced Atlantic high over a relatively colder subtropica...

  18. Amazonia and Global Change

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    Keller, Michael; Bustamante, Mercedes; Gash, John; Silva Dias, Pedro

    Amazonia and Global Change synthesizes results of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) for scientists and students of Earth system science and global environmental change. LBA, led by Brazil, asks how Amazonia currently functions in the global climate and biogeochemical systems and how the functioning of Amazonia will respond to the combined pressures of climate and land use change, such as • Wet season and dry season aerosol concentrations and their effects on diffuse radiation and photosynthesis • Increasing greenhouse gas concentration, deforestation, widespread biomass burning and changes in the Amazonian water cycle • Drought effects and simulated drought through rainfall exclusion experiments • The net flux of carbon between Amazonia and the atmosphere • Floodplains as an important regulator of the basin carbon balance including serving as a major source of methane to the troposphere • The impact of the likely increased profitability of cattle ranching. The book will serve a broad community of scientists and policy makers interested in global change and environmental issues with high-quality scientific syntheses accessible to nonspecialists in a wide community of social scientists, ecologists, atmospheric chemists, climatologists, and hydrologists.

  19. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

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    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  20. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    B. Wick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than

  1. Sampling effort and fish species richness in small terra firme forest streams of central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Maeda Batista dos Anjos

    Full Text Available Small streams are important components of the landscape in terra firme forests in central Amazonia and harbor a large number of fish species. Nevertheless, the lack of a common sampling protocol in studies of this ichthyofauna hinders comparisons among available results. This study evaluates how the length of stream reach sampled affects estimates of local fish species density in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams, and proposes a mean minimum sampling length that best approximates the absolute number of species in a given stream segment. We sampled three streams in the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project's study sites, between May and August 2004. At each stream, one 1st order, one 2nd order, and one 3rd order segment was sampled. We sampled five 20-m reaches in each stream segment. Three to four people collected along each reach for 45 to 60 minutes. We used Jaccard's coefficient to estimate the similarity of species composition among stream reaches and segments. Estimates of species richness were obtained with Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap algorithms and species accumulation curves. We used simple linear regressions to look for relationships between species density and fish abundance and between species density and the volume of 100-m stream segments. Species density in 1st order stream reaches was slightly higher than in 2nd and 3rd order stream reaches, whereas fish abundance was apparently higher in 3rd order reaches. Similarity in fish species composition between 20-m reaches was low for all studied streams. Species density values in pooled 100-m stream segments represented 71.4% to 94.1% of the estimated values for these streams. Species density showed a direct relationship both with volume of the sampled stream segment and fish abundance. It seems plausible that larger streams contain a higher number of microhabitat types, which allow for the presence of more fish species per stream length. Based on the values of asymptotes and

  2. Spatially complex land change: The Indirect effect of Brazil's agricultural sector on land use in Amazonia.

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    Richards, Peter D; Walker, Robert T; Arima, Eugenio Y

    2014-11-01

    Soybean farming has brought economic development to parts of South America, as well as environmental hopes and concerns. A substantial hope resides in the decoupling of Brazil's agricultural sector from deforestation in the Amazon region, in which case expansive agriculture need not imply forest degradation. However, concerns have also been voiced about the potential indirect effects of agriculture. This article addresses these indirect effects forthe case of the Brazilian Amazon since 2002. Our work finds that as much as thirty-two percent of deforestation, or the loss of more than 30,000 km(2) of Amazon forest, is attributable, indirectly, to Brazil's soybean sector. However, we also observe that the magnitude of the indirect impact of the agriculture sector on forest loss in the Amazon has declined markedly since 2006. We also find a shift in the underlying causes of indirect land use change in the Amazon, and suggest that land appreciation in agricultural regions has supplanted farm expansions as a source of indirect land use change. Our results are broadly congruent with recent work recognizing the success of policy changes in mitigating the impact of soybean expansion on forest loss in the Amazon. However, they also caution that the soybean sector may continue to incentivize land clearings through its impact on regional land markets.

  3. Deforestation and Carbon Loss in Southwest Amazonia: Impact of Brazil's Revised Forest Code

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    Roriz, Pedro Augusto Costa; Yanai, Aurora Miho; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-09-01

    In 2012 Brazil's National Congress altered the country's Forest Code, decreasing various environmental protections in the set of regulations governing forests. This suggests consequences in increased deforestation and emissions of greenhouse gases and in decreased protection of fragile ecosystems. To ascertain the effects, a simulation was run to the year 2025 for the municipality (county) of Boca do Acre, Amazonas state, Brazil. A baseline scenario considered historical behavior (which did not respect the Forest Code), while two scenarios considered full compliance with the old Forest Code (Law 4771/1965) and the current Code (Law 12,651/2012) regarding the protection of "areas of permanent preservation" (APPs) along the edges of watercourses. The models were parameterized from satellite imagery and simulated using Dinamica-EGO software. Deforestation actors and processes in the municipality were observed in loco in 2012. Carbon emissions and loss of forest by 2025 were computed in the three simulation scenarios. There was a 10% difference in the loss of carbon stock and of forest between the scenarios with the two versions of the Forest Code. The baseline scenario showed the highest loss of carbon stocks and the highest increase in annual emissions. The greatest damage was caused by not protecting wetlands and riparian zones.

  4. Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae inhabiting foliar tanks of Guzmania brasiliensis Ule (Bromeliaceae in central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Sharlene Roberta da Silva Torreias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes in the family Culicidae develop their immature forms in different environments depending on various circumstances. This study represents the first contribution to the ecological knowledge of culicids living in the bromeliad G. brasiliensis. The objectives of the study were to compare the Culicidae fauna of bromeliads in two seasonal periods, analyzing their abundance, richness and the influence of pH, conductivity and water volume, on the populations. Sampling was done at Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil between 2003 and 2005. Six samplings were done in the rainy season and six in the dry season. On each sampling day, six terrestrial and six epiphytic bromeliads, totaling 144 sampling units, were retrieved. A total of 444 immature mosquitoes were collected, distributed in the following species: Culex (Microculex stonei Lane & Whitman, Culex (Microculex chryselatus Dyar & Knab, Culex (Microculex sp., Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia autocratica Dyar & Knab and Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia splendida Bonne-Wepster & Bonne. The relationship between abundance of Culicidae and sampling period was not significant, although abundance was higher in the dry period. There were significant correlations between water volume and the abundance (p = 0.003 and richness (p = 0.001 of culicids. The pH was positively related to the occurrence of the species Wy. autocratica (p= 0.010 and Wy. splendida (p= 0.006, demonstrating the influence of this factor in the structuring of bromeliad-inhabiting communities.

  5. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil.

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    Penido, G; Ribeiro, V; Fortunato, D S

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire) affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM). The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction) was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005). Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment's interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance) this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together) there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001). We did not verify predator's species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  6. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Penido

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM. The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005. Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment’s interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001. We did not verify predator’s species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  7. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae) larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Quézia Ribeiro; de Moura Sarquis, Maria Inez; Hamada, Neusa; Alencar, Yamile Benaion

    2008-01-01

    The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi. PMID:24031217

  8. Physical activity in Brazil: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith,Samuel C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study, based on a systematic literature review, was to describe the prevalence of physical activity (or inactivity) in the Brazilian population. The databases consulted were: LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal. The terms "physical activity", "physical exercise", "physical inactivity", "sedentary" "Brazil", and "Brazilian" were used in the search. Overall, 47 studies (all cross-sectional) with random samples were found, and in 26 studies ...

  9. Anthropogenic landscape in southeastern Amazonia: contemporary impacts of low-intensity harvesting and dispersal of Brazil nuts by the Kayapó Indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria Beatriz N; Jerozolimski, Adriano; de Robert, Pascale; Salles, Nilson V; Kayapó, Biribiri; Pimentel, Tania P; Magnusson, William E

    2014-01-01

    Brazil nut, the Bertholletia excelsa seed, is one of the most important non-timber forest products in the Amazon Forest and the livelihoods of thousands of traditional Amazonian families depend on its commercialization. B. excelsa has been frequently cited as an indicator of anthropogenic forests and there is strong evidence that past human management has significantly contributed to its present distribution across the Amazon, suggesting that low levels of harvesting may play a positive role in B. excelsa recruitment. Here, we evaluate the effects of Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó Indigenous people of southeastern Amazonia on seedling recruitment in 20 B. excelsa groves subjected to different harvesting intensities, and investigated if management by harvesters influences patterns of B. excelsa distribution. The number of years of low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó over the past two decades was positively related to B. excelsa seedling density in groves. One of the mechanisms behind the higher seedling density in harvested sites seems to be seed dispersal by harvesters along trails. The Kayapó also intentionally plant B. excelsa seeds and seedlings across their territories. Our results show not only that low-intensity Brazil nut harvesting by the Kayapó people does not reduce recruitment of seedlings, but that harvesting and/or associated activities conducted by traditional harvesters may benefit B. excelsa beyond grove borders. Our study supports the hypothesis that B. excelsa dispersal throughout the Amazon was, at least in part, influenced by indigenous groups, and strongly suggests that current human management contributes to the maintenance and formation of B. excelsa groves. We suggest that changes in Brazil nut management practices by traditional people to prevent harvesting impacts may be unnecessary and even counterproductive in many areas, and should be carefully evaluated before implementation.

  10. Scientific Collaboration Along the Trinational Frontier of Brazil-Bolivia-Peru: Implications for Regional Land-Use in the MAP Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.

    2002-12-01

    High-speed road systems are connecting southwestern Amazonia (~1.5 million km2) to Pacific and Atlantic ports as well as providing greater access to Brazilian, Bolivian and Peruvian urban markets. Coupled with this increased accessibility are ambitious governmental plans to expand production of timber, non-timber forest products, and beef, all of which are likely to modify human migrations in the region. The heart of southwestern Amazonia lies in the trinational frontier region of Madre de Dios Department/Peru, eastern Acre State/Brazil and Pando Department/Bolivia (MAP region: ~200,000 km2, ~500,000 inhabitants). The MAP region composes a global hot spot of terrestrial biodiversity and has become an axis of integration for the three countries. Faced with rapid change in socioeconomic trends, regional environmental scientists and professionals have promoted collaborative projects to analyze land use trends and their forcing functions and to supply these results to local and regional societies. In addition, they have begun to develop a regional scientific community that bridges different nationalities and specialties. The projects are both international - as they involve three countries - and local/regional as they involve institutions that are within a radius of 300 km of the border. In the past two years, LBA-sponsored activities have helped bring over 100 professionals together in the region in five MAP-oriented workshops. The research results are now influencing public policy and are being incorporated into the regional school systems with the objective of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the adverse impacts of the changing socio-economic trends on land-use and development in the MAP region.

  11. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  12. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.

  13. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  14. Saharan dust in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) - Cooperative LBA Regional Experiment (CLAIRE) in March 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, P.; Andreae, M. O.; Lange, L.; Roberts, G.; Cafmeyer, J.; Rajta, I.; Maenhaut, W.; Holben, B. N.; Artaxo, P.; Lelieveld, J.

    2001-07-01

    Advection of Saharan dust was observed via chemical and optical measurements during March 1998 in Brazil and Suriname during the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)-Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment (CLAIRE)-98 experiment. In Brazil the dust outbreak produced an increase of a factor of 3 in the daily mean mass concentration (up to 26±7 μg m-3) of particles smaller than 10 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD), and in the daily mean aerosol particle scattering coefficient σs (up to 26±8 Mm-1 STP, ambient humidity). Background levels of aerosol scattering (ambient) were σs ˜ 10 Mm-1. The effect of dust advection was evident for all major crustal elements (Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe), as well as the sea-salt elements (Na, Cl, and S), as the dust layer was transported at low altitude (below 800 hPa). Coarse P and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were not influenced by the occurrence of dust, and were mainly emitted by the rain forest. The dry scattering mass efficiency of dust (particles smaller than 10 μm EAD) was estimated to be between 0.65 (±0.06) and 0.89 (±0.08) m2 g-1. Airborne profiles of aerosol scattering showed two distinct types of vertical structure in the dust layer over Suriname, either vertically uniform (15, 26 March), or plume-like (25 March). Dust layers extended generally up to 700 hPa, while scattering layers occasionally encountered at higher altitudes resulted from smoke emitted by biomass burning in Venezuela and Colombia. Observations in South America were supported by measurements in Israel and Tenerife (Canary Islands), where the dust outbreaks were also detected.

  15. Comment by J.P. Figueiredo, & Hoorn, C. on 'Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)' by Martin Gross, Werner E. Piller, Maria Ines Ramos, Jackson Douglas da Silva Paz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Jorge Jesus Picanço

    2012-04-01

    In their paper Gross et al., 2011 present an excellent description of a series of outcrops from the Eirunepe region in western Amazonia (Brazil). The authors interpret these sediments as relics of a Late Miocene anastomosing fluvial system and conclude that the paleogeography of the entire western Amazon region must have been characterized by this environmental setting. They also imply that therefore a long-lived lake system - or megawetland - never existed. We contend this assumption for some reasons, amongst them, the most important are: (1) this is an inconsistent overgeneralized conclusion; (2) The authors make references to previous scientific works we published which we consider incorrect, and therefore can mislead their readers.

  16. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-01-01

    A huge wetland (the ‘Pebas system’) covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical–tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ18O, δ13C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  17. A minute ostracod (Crustacea: Cytheromatidae) from the Miocene Solimões Formation (western Amazonia, Brazil): evidence for marine incursions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2016-07-02

    A huge wetland (the 'Pebas system') covered western Amazonia during the Miocene, hosting a highly diverse and endemic aquatic fauna. One of the most contentious issues concerns the existence, potential pathways and effects of marine incursions on this ecosystem. Palaeontological evidences (body fossils) are rare. The finding of a new, presumably marine ostracod species (Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov.) in the upper middle Miocene Solimões Formation initiated a taxonomic, ecological and biogeographical review of the genus Pellucistoma. We demonstrate that this marine (sublittoral, euhaline), subtropical-tropical taxon is biogeographically confined to the Americas. The biogeographical distribution of Pellucistoma largely depends on geographical, thermal and osmotic barriers (e.g. land bridges, deep and/or cold waters, sea currents, salinity). We assume an Oligocene/early Miocene, Caribbean origin for Pellucistoma and outline the dispersal of hitherto known species up to the Holocene. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. is dwarfed in comparison to all other species of this genus and extremely thin-shelled. This is probably related to poorly oxygenated waters and, in particular, to strongly reduced salinity. The associated ostracod fauna (dominated by the eurypotent Cyprideis and a few, also stunted ostracods of possibly marine ancestry) supports this claim. Geochemical analyses (δ(18)O, δ(13)C) on co-occurring ostracod valves (Cyprideis spp.) yielded very light values, indicative of a freshwater setting. These observations point to a successful adaptation of P. curupira sp. nov. to freshwater conditions and therefore do not signify the presence of marine water. Pellucistoma curupira sp. nov. shows closest affinities to Caribbean species. We hypothesize that Pellucistoma reached northern South America (Llanos Basin) during marine incursions in the early Miocene. While larger animals of marine origin (e.g. fishes, dolphins, manatees) migrated actively into the Pebas

  18. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  19. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  20. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts.

  1. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis rev

  2. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis

  3. On relict hydrobiid species in Brazilian Amazonia (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia, Hydrobiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Two extant hydrobiid species from the lower Tapajos river of Brazil are redescribed. Potamopyrgus amazonicus Haas, 1949, is assigned to the genus Dyris Conrad, 1871. At least eleven species from Miocene deposits of Western Amazonia are assigned to Dyris, a genus that was previously assumed to be ext

  4. Application of Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Martins, Tiago D.

    2017-04-01

    Shallow landslides and floods are the processes responsible for most material and environmental damages in Brazil. In the last decades, some landslides events induce a high number of deaths (e.g. Over 1000 deaths in one event) and incalculable social and economic losses. Therefore, the prediction of those processes is considered an important tool for land use planning tools. Among different methods the physically based landslide susceptibility models having been widely used in many countries, but in Brazil it is still incipient when compared to other ones, like statistical tools and frequency analyses. Thus, the main objective of this research was to assess the application of some Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil, identifying their main results, the efficiency of susceptibility mapping, parameters used and limitations of the tropical humid environment. In order to achieve that, it was evaluated SHALSTAB, SINMAP and TRIGRS models in some studies in Brazil along with the Geotechnical values, scales, DEM grid resolution and the results based on the analysis of the agreement between predicted susceptibility and the landslide scar's map. Most of the studies in Brazil applied SHALSTAB, SINMAP and to a lesser extent the TRIGRS model. The majority researches are concentrated in the Serra do Mar mountain range, that is a system of escarpments and rugged mountains that extends more than 1,500 km along the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast, and regularly affected by heavy rainfall that generates widespread mass movements. Most part of these studies used conventional topographic maps with scales ranging from 1:2000 to 1:50000 and DEM-grid resolution between 2 and 20m. Regarding the Geotechnical and hydrological values, a few studies use field collected data which could produce more efficient results, as indicated by international literature. Therefore, even though they have enormous potential in the susceptibility mapping, even for comparison

  5. Fires in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Anderson, Liana O.; Lima, André; Arai, Egidio

    2016-11-01

    Fire has been used since the first humans arrived in Amazonia; however, it has recently become a widely used instrument for large-scale forest clearance. Patterns of fire incidence in the region have been exacerbated by recent drought events. Understanding temporal and spatial fire patterns as well as their consequences for forest structure, species composition, and the carbon cycle is critical for minimising global change impacts on Amazonian ecosystems and people. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the state of our knowledge on the spatial and temporal patterns of fire incidence in Amazonia, depicting the historical fire usage in the region, their relationship with land use and land cover, and their responses to climate seasonality and droughts. We subsequently focus on the impacts of fire, by quantifying the extent of burnt forests during major droughts and describing the main impacts on forest structure, composition, and carbon stocks. Finally, we present an overview of modelling initiatives for forecasting fire incidence in the region. We conclude by providing a comprehensive view of the processes that influence fire occurrence, potential feedbacks, and impacts in Amazonia. We also highlight how key areas within fire ecology must be improved for a better understanding of the long-term effect of fire on the Amazon forest 'biome'.

  6. 3rd Joint Dutch-Brazil School on Theoretical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Joint Dutch-Brazil School on Theoretical Physics is now in its third edition with previous schools in 2007 and 2011. This edition of the school will feature minicourses by Nima Arkani-Hamed (IAS Princeton), Jan de Boer (University of Amsterdam) and Cumrun Vafa (Harvard University), as well as student presentations. The school is jointly organized with the Dutch Research School of Theoretical Physics (DRSTP) and is intended for graduate students and researchers in the field of high-energy theoretical physics. There is no registration fee and limited funds are available for local and travel support of participants. This school in São Paulo will be preceded by the XVIII J. A. Swieca School in Campos de Jordão.

  7. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Patrick Beldini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest. Increases in soil bulk density, exchangeable cations and pH were observed in the soy field soil. In the primary forest, soil microbial biomass and basal respiration rates were higher, and the microbial community was metabolically more efficient. The sum of basal respiration across the A, AB and BA horizons on a mass per area basis ranged from 7.31 to 10.05 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1, thus yielding estimates for total soil respiration between 9.6 and 15.5 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1 across sites and seasons. These estimates are in good agreement with literature values for Amazonian ecosystems. The estimates of heterotrophic respiration made in this study help to further constrain the estimates of autotrophic soil respiration and will be useful for monitoring the effects of future land-use in Amazonian ecosystems.

  8. Navigating Amazonia under uncertainty: past, present and future environmental governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Emily

    2008-05-27

    One of the major environmental challenges of the twenty-first century is the continued rapid deforestation of Amazonia. The 2005 dieback crisis emphasizes the unprecedented challenges facing Brazil. The examination of past and present institutions for ecosystem management, in Amazonia, shows structural barriers across public, private and community arrangements. The adaptive governance concept helps to understand why these institutions are failing to deliver sustainable futures. In looking forward, it is encouraging to see that important networks of knowledge and a number of novel initiatives are emerging in Brazil. These new arrangements are novel in the way that they seem to be adaptive and navigate structures in the hope of overcoming insurmountable drivers of deforestation.

  9. The universalization of the electric power services and the isolated communities of Amazon region, Brazil; A universalizacao dos servicos de energia eletrica e as comunidades isoladas da amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Celia Salama de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the main characteristics of non interconnected systems which composes the Brazilian Electric Power System, the difficulties of rural electrification at the Country, specially in the Amazon region, and the obstacles of Amazon state, Brazil, for transportation energy power to hinterland. The results of Program Light for All are also synthesized in this document, present the profile of communities yet not attended by the Program and will be reached up to the end of the year 2010, at the finalization of the Program.

  10. Ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Marajó Island, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil Conhecimento etnoveterinário dos habitantes da Ilha de Marajó, Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vivina Barros Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been ethnoveterinary reports from around the world investigating plant usage in therapeutic protocols; however, there is no information regarding the ethnoveterinary practices in Brazilian Amazonia. The objective of this work was to register and document the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of the Island of Marajó, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. In the study, interviews were conducted with 50 individuals, with the application of semi-structured questionnaires that were quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistic methods of frequency distribution. Use-value was calculated to determine the most important species. Samples of plants that were reported to have medicinal value were collected and identified by botanical classification. Fifty plants, distributed among 48 genera and 34 families, were indicated for 21 different medicinal uses. The family Asteraceae had the largest number of reported species; Carapa guianensis Aubl., Copaifera martii Hayne, Crescentia cujete L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Jatropha curcas L. and Momordica charantia L. were species with highest use- value. The plant parts that were more commonly utilized for the preparation of ethnoveterinary medicines were the leaves (56%, bark (18%, roots (14%, seeds (14% and fruit (8%. With regard to usage, tea was reported as a usage method by 56% of the informants; most preparations (90.9% utilized only a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, informants reported using products of animal and mineral origin. The present study contributed to the construction of an inventory of Marajó Island's ethnoveterinary plants, which might be the basis for future scientific validation studies.Em várias partes do mundo existem relatos etnoveterinários sobre a utilização de plantas em protocolos terapêuticos, entretanto não existem informações disponíveis sobre a etnoveterinária praticada na Amazônia brasileira. Desta forma

  11. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season.

  12. Amazonia. Violencias, resistencias, propuestas

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La Amazonia, ese vasto territorio en América del Sur, alberga sobre todo dos dicotomías, la abundancia y la violencia; se debate permanentemente entre la vida y la muerte. Durante mucho tiempo la inmensa selva amazónica ha sido vista como una reserva de recursos naturales donde el capital hace “sus compras” a conveniencia. La misma complejidad de ese territorio hace necesarias nuevas perspectivas y varias propuestas de salida a su posible devastación. Ese territorio tiene vida propia y es gen...

  13. First Record of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) on the Trinational Frontier (Brazil-Peru-Bolivia) of South-Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Diones Antonio; Molina, Silvia Maria Guerra; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cesario, Manuel; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan

    2017-09-01

    In South America, the main sand fly species involved in the transmission of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1937), etiological agent of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The species has been recorded in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil, where it is recorded in 24 of the 27 Brazilian states, except Acre, Amazonas, and Santa Catarina. Collections were carried out for one year (April 2013 to March 2014) using modified CDC light traps in different environments in Assis Brasil municipality, state of Acre. Two males of Lu. longipalpis were found in peridomiciliary location in a peri-urban area. This is the first record of the species in Acre. This finding may be considered by the health agencies located in the trinational frontier, and new collections are needed to evaluate the real distribution of the species.

  14. Physical analyses of compost from composting plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, L P; Philippi Junior, A; Rodrigues, M S; Tenório, J A S

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays the composting process has shown itself to be an alternative in the treatment of municipal solid wastes by composting plants. However, although more than 50% of the waste generated by the Brazilian population is composed of matter susceptible to organic composting, this process is, still today, insufficiently developed in Brazil, due to low compost quality and lack of investments in the sector. The objective of this work was to use physical analyses to evaluate the quality of the compost produced at 14 operative composting plants in the Sao Paulo State in Brazil. For this purpose, size distribution and total inert content tests were done. The results were analyzed by grouping the plants according to their productive processes: plants with a rotating drum, plants with shredders or mills, and plants without treatment after the sorting conveyor belt. Compost quality was analyzed considering the limits imposed by the Brazilian Legislation and the European standards for inert contents. The size distribution tests showed the influence of the machinery after the sorting conveyer on the granule sizes as well as the inert content, which contributes to the presence of materials that reduce the quality of the final product.

  15. An Amazonia Symposium: Mixed Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Gloria; Shand, Hope

    1978-01-01

    Reporting on the second symposium on "Amazonia: Extinction or Survival" (Madison, Wisconsin, 1978), this article summarizes papers presented on colonization, health, education, law, etc., and presents the symposium's six resolutions. (JC)

  16. Throughfall and temporal trends of rainfall redistribution in an open tropical rainforest, south-western Amazonia (Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Germer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughfall volumes and incident rainfall were measured between 23 August and 2 December 2004 as well as from 6 January to 15 April 2005 for individual rain events of differing intensities and magnitudes in an open tropical rainforest in Rondônia, Brazil. Temporal patterns of throughfall spatial variability were examined. Estimated interception losses were compared to modeled interception losses obtained by applying the revised Gash model in order to identify sources of throughfall variability in open tropical rainforests.

    Gross precipitation of 97 events amounted to 1309 mm, 89±5.6% (S.E. of which reached the forest floor as throughfall. The redistribution of water within the canopy was highly variable in time, which we attribute to the high density of babassu palms (Orbignya phalerata, their seasonal leaf growth, and their conducive morphology. We identified a 10-min rainfall intensity threshold of 30 mm h−1 above which interception losses were highly variable. This variability is amplified by funneling and shading effects of palms. This interaction between a rainfall variable and vegetation characteristics is relevant for understanding the hydrology of all tropical rainforests with a high palm density.

  17. Tuberculose em populações indígenas de Rondônia, Amazônia, Brasil Tuberculosis among indigenous populations in Rondonia, Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Escobar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A tuberculose permanece como grave problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Atinge níveis preocupantes em certos segmentos sociais, como é o caso dos povos indígenas. O objetivo deste artigo é proceder a uma análise epidemiológica dos registros constantes do banco de dados do Programa Estadual de Controle da Tuberculose em Rondônia, buscando resgatar o perfil da doença entre grupos indígenas, os quais são socialmente mais vulneráveis e exibem problemáticas distintas quanto ao controle da doença. É conduzida análise estatística descritiva e multivariada multinomial dos casos notificados em 1992 e entre 1994 e 1998, buscando identificar fatores relacionados à ocorrência de óbito, abandono do tratamento e ausência de informação. Foram identificadas associações entre variáveis relativas à doença, ao serviço de saúde e aos resultados do tratamento. Há indícios de que as populações indígenas de Rondônia apresentam riscos de adoecer e morrer superiores aos dos demais habitantes do Estado. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de implementação de medidas de prevenção e controle voltados especificamente para a realidade dos povos indígenas.Tuberculosis persists as a serious public health problem in Brazil. Prevalence rates are alarming in certain social groups, including indigenous peoples. This article presents an epidemiological analysis of records in the Rondonia State Tuberculosis Control Program, identifying the disease's profile among indigenous groups, which are socially more vulnerable and have different issues involved in controlling the disease. The study includes a descriptive statistical and multivariate multinomial analysis of cases reported in 1992 and from 1994 to 1998, attempting to identify factors associated with tuberculosis-related deaths, treatment drop-out, and missing data. Associations were identified between variables related to the disease, to the health service, and to treatment results

  18. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia

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    Jaquelina A. Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl, and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  19. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  20. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Alencar, A.; Asner, G.P.; Braswell, B.; Bustamante, M.; Davidson, E.; Feldpausch, T.; Fernandes, E.; Goulden, M.; Kabat, P.; Kruijt, B.; Luizão, F.; Miller, S.; Markewitz, D.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.A.; Priante Filho, N.; Rocha, da H.; Silva Dias, P.; Randow, von C.; Vourlitis, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage,. nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, a

  1. Adherence to a Physical Activity Program by Older Adults in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Doralice Lange; Vendruscolo, Rosecler

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a qualitative research project in which we investigated adherence factors to a physical activity (PA) program for older adults in Brazil named "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais Para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", which translated into English means "Without Borders: Physical Activities for Mature…

  2. Adherence to a Physical Activity Program by Older Adults in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Doralice Lange; Vendruscolo, Rosecler

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a qualitative research project in which we investigated adherence factors to a physical activity (PA) program for older adults in Brazil named "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais Para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", which translated into English means "Without Borders: Physical Activities for Mature and Older…

  3. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) Density in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Daniel Gomes da; Sollmann, Rahel; Ramalho, Emiliano Esterci; Ilha, Renata; Tan, Cedric K W

    2016-01-01

    Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) are presumed to be the most abundant of the wild cats throughout their distribution range and to play an important role in the dynamics of sympatric small-felid populations. However, ocelot ecological information is limited, particularly for the Amazon. We conducted three camera-trap surveys during three consecutive dry seasons to estimate ocelot density in Amanã Reserve, Central Amazonia, Brazil. We implemented a spatial capture-recapture (SCR) model that shared detection parameters among surveys. A total effort of 7020 camera-trap days resulted in 93 independent ocelot records. The estimate of ocelot density in Amanã Reserve (24.84 ± SE 6.27 ocelots per 100 km2) was lower than at other sites in the Amazon and also lower than that expected from a correlation of density with latitude and rainfall. We also discuss the importance of using common parameters for survey scenarios with low recapture rates. This is the first density estimate for ocelots in the Brazilian Amazon, which is an important stronghold for the species.

  4. Evolutionary ecology of the Pachydontinae (Bivalvia, Corbulidae) in the Pebas lake/wetland system (Miocene, western Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    Miocene deposits in western Amazonia and adjacent areas of South America harbour a diverse suite of endemic corbulid bivalves, commonly referred to as Pachydontinae, that show a wide variety of morphologies. Especially in the Miocene Pebas Formation (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), this group diversifie

  5. Holocene development of Amazonia's oldest peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Morris, Paul J.; Whitney, Bronwen; Galka, Mariusz; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Macumber, Andrew L.; Mullan, Donal; Smith, Mark W.; Amesbury, Matt; Roland, Thomas; Sanei, Hameed; Patterson, R. Timothy; Parry, Lauren; Charman, Dan J.; Lopez, Omar R.; Valderamma, Elvis; Watson, Elizabeth J.; Lähteenoja, Outi; Baird, Andy J.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands represent some of the most carbon-dense ecosystems of Amazonia. However, little is known about the mechanisms of Amazonian peatland development and their ecohydrological dynamics over time. We present a comprehensive multiproxy dataset from Aucayacu peat dome, the oldest peatland yet discovered in Amazonia (peat initiation occurred between 8.9 and 5.8 ka cal. BP). Our dataset includes analyses of peat physical properties, carbon and nitrogen, humification, organic matter characteristics, macrofossils, pollen, charcoal and testate amoebae. Sedimentological techniques were applied to minerogenic deposits underneath the peatland to understand the nature of the floodplain environment before peat initiation. A transfer function was used to reconstruct past hydrological conditions from subfossil testate amoeba assemblages and carbon accumulation (CA) rates were determined from bulk density and percentage carbon data. A robust chronology was achieved using 210Pb and 14C (14 radiocarbon dates on a 3-m core) determinations, modelled using a Bayesian approach. We used the datasets to investigate the long-term ecohydrological development and controls on carbon accumulation in an Amazonian peat dome. The peatland developed in three distinct stages; (i) abandoned river channel with standing open water and aquatic plants; (ii) inundated forest swamp; and (iii) ombrotrophic bog ( 3.9 ka cal. BP). Local burning occurred twice during the peatland's development as evidenced by macroscopic charcoal but appears to have become more pronounced in the last 100 years. We present a conceptual model of the role of autogenic and allogenic (climate, floodplain) processes on the long-term development of the peatland and the marked variations in carbon accumulation rates over the Holocene. Amazonian peatlands are important carbon stores and ecosystems, and represent important archives of past climatic and ecological information. They should form key foci for conservation efforts.

  6. Study of the sodalite Bayer synthesis process from reject of kaolin of the Amazon region, Brazil; Estudo do processo de sintese da sodalita Bayer a partir de rejeito de caulim da regiao amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, A.A.B.; Neves, R.F.; Angelica, R.S., E-mail: anabmaia@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), PA (Brazil); Pöllmann, H. [Martin-Luther Universität, Halle Winttenberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an application for the kaolin rejects from Amazonia through the synthesis of sodalite, in addition, the series of sodalites was synthesized with the same conditions of the Bayer process to understand and control their formation when necessary. These tailings are generated by companies located in the state of Para and are mainly composed of kaolinite, thus forming an excellent starting material for the production of zeolites. The synthesis process was carried out in autoclaves and two synthesis temperatures, 150 and 200 deg C, were evaluated, the same ones used in the Bayer process. The anions used in the reaction mixture to obtain the sodalite series were: carbonate chloride and sulfate, and NaOH solution was used as the sodium source. Sodalite was produced in all the synthesis conditions, showing that through the kaolin rejects from the Amazon it was possible to study the sodalite synthesis process.

  7. A new species of phlebotomine, Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (Diptera: Psychodidae of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vasconcelos dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the male and female morphological characteristics of specimens collected at Km 27 of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, municipality of Vitória do Xingu, state of Pará, Brazilian Amazonia. This is an area subject to the direct influence of Belo Monte hydroelectric system. With the description of this new species the number of Trichophoromyia sandflies recorded in Brazil is increased to 20.

  8. Climate change patterns in Amazonia and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Sinha, Ashish; Cruz, Francisco W; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R Lawrence; d'Horta, Fernando M; Ribas, Camila C; Vuille, Mathias; Stott, Lowell D; Auler, Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    Precise characterization of hydroclimate variability in Amazonia on various timescales is critical to understanding the link between climate change and biodiversity. Here we present absolute-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records that characterize hydroclimate variation in western and eastern Amazonia over the past 250 and 20 ka, respectively. Although our records demonstrate the coherent millennial-scale precipitation variability across tropical-subtropical South America, the orbital-scale precipitation variability between western and eastern Amazonia exhibits a quasi-dipole pattern. During the last glacial period, our records imply a modest increase in precipitation amount in western Amazonia but a significant drying in eastern Amazonia, suggesting that higher biodiversity in western Amazonia, contrary to 'Refugia Hypothesis', is maintained under relatively stable climatic conditions. In contrast, the glacial-interglacial climatic perturbations might have been instances of loss rather than gain in biodiversity in eastern Amazonia, where forests may have been more susceptible to fragmentation in response to larger swings in hydroclimate.

  9. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  10. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  11. Prevalence and correlates of physical activity among adolescents from Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Dumith, Samuel C; Domingues, Marlos R; Gigante, Denise P.; Hallal, Pedro C; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Kohl, Harold W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study nested within a cohort of 4,325 subjects from the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, aged 14-15 years in 2008. Physical activity was analyzed using three different approaches: (1) prevalence of any leisure-time physical activity; (2) prevalence of any active commuting to school; and (3) prevalence of engaging in at least 300 minutes per week of both (1) and (2) c...

  12. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  13. Aspectos silviculturais da castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa em sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia Central Silvicultural aspects of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa in agroforestry systems in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Régis Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho da castanha-do-brasil (Bertholletia excelsa em sistemas agroflorestais implantados em ecossistema de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Foram avaliados 3 sítios de sistemas agroflorestais multi-estratificados, implantados em 1992, em áreas de pastagens degradadas, situadas no km 54 da BR-174, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, em Manaus (AM. Os sistemas foram implantados após o processo tradicional de derruba e queima da vegetação secundária estabelecida em pastagens submetidas por 6 anos ao pastejo intensivo e abandonadas por 4 anos, em média, ao processo de regeneração natural. O desempenho da espécie com 12 anos de idade foi avaliado por meio do diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, da altura total, da taxa de sobrevivência e das variáveis morfométricas "Diâmetro da Copa", "Proporção de Copa", "Grau de Esbeltez", "índice de Saliência", "índice de Abrangência" e "Forma de Copa". Os indivíduos atingiram altura total média de 20,9 m e DAP de 37,9 cm, com incremento médio anual de 1,74 m e 3,16cm, respectivamente. A porcentagem média de sobrevivência foi de 78%, cuja mortalidade foi relacionada às ventanias e raios. Os resultados indicaram a eficiência dessa espécie para reabilitar áreas degradadas e confirmaram-na como uma espécie adequada para formar sistemas agroflorestais.This study evaluated the development of Brasil nut (Bertholletia excelsa in agroforestry systems established on non-flooding plateaus in Central Amazonia. Three multi-strata agroforestry systems established in 1992 in degraded pastures, located at the Experiment Station of Embrapa Amazonia Ocidental, BR-174 highway, km 54, Manaus, Amazonas, were evaluated. The area had been intensively managed as pasture for six years, then abandoned for four years, and reopened with traditional slash and burn practices to plant the agroforestry systems. Species development was evaluated with measurements of

  14. Enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares de isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil Extracellular hydrolytic enzymes in indigenous strains of rhizobia in Central Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A associação rizóbia x leguminosa contribui para enriquecer o solo com nitrogênio por meio da fixação biológica. Entretanto, pouco se conhece a respeito do perfil enzimático desses microrganismos. Nesse contexto, a presente investigação propõe avaliar a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares por isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central. Essa triagem constitui o primeiro passo na seleção de microrganismos nativos que são potencialmente exploráveis como produtores de enzimas. Foram testados 67 isolados nativos de rizóbia para as atividades amilolítica, celulolítica, lactolítica, lipolítica, pectinolítica e proteolítica, em meio YMA modificado. A atividade ureolítica foi detectada em meio ágar-uréia. As bactérias isoladas dos nódulos de feijão caupi mostraram maior capacidade em produzir enzimas do que os isolados bacterianos de soja. De todas as enzimas hidrolíticas avaliadas, apenas a pectinase não foi detectada neste estudo. Amilase (32,8%, protease (28,4%, urease (20,9% e carboximetilcelulase (9,0% foram as enzimas mais freqüentes produzidas pelos isolados. Neste trabalho, apenas as enzimas amilase e protease variaram significativamente entre os isolados de rizóbia. Os isolados INPA R-926 e INPA R-915 exibiram os maiores índices amilolíticos (IE = 3,1 e proteolíticos (IE = 6,6, respectivamente. Este estudo revelou alguns isolados de rizóbia nativos da Amazônia Central como fontes promissoras de enzimas de importância industrial para uso biotecnológico.Legumes enrich the soil by contributing nitrogen through symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation by rhizobia bacteria. However, very little is known about the extracellular enzymatic profile of these microorganisms. In this context, the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by indigenous strains of rhizobia in Central Amazonia was evaluated. This screening constitutes the first step in selecting indigenous microorganisms that are

  15. A medium-spatial scale distribution pattern of Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida in a gradient of topography (altitude and inclination, soil factors, and litter in a central Amazonia forest reserve, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Aguiar

    Full Text Available In Amazonia, nothing is known about the distribution of the invertebrates on a medium-spatial scale pattern. In a trail system of 64 km² at Ducke Reserve, we sampled 72 transects using the hand-sorting method and Berlese-Tullgren extraction. The reserve possesses ecosystems of "terra-firme" forest and the trail system represents a gradient of topographic soil factors and vegetation, avoiding categorizations. Considering the abundance and diversity of Pseudoscorpionida, we investigated the relation of the community to environmental factors tested (topography, clay percentage, litter, and soil pH, to the two major drainage basins of the reserve, and if these invertebrates can be used as biological indicators to monitor changes. We registered two species for the first time in the reserve, increasing the known diversity to 17 species. The lack of correlation with the predictor variables and the large home range, indicate that pseudoscorpions are not good biological indicators in the reserve. As the eastern and western watersheds are not separate management units for the community, our results show that they are generalist predators. In spite of our results and lack of knowledge concerning their biology, life history and taxonomy, pseudoscorpions are cosmopolitan and easy to find and measure. Compared with previous studies in the reserve, they have a consistent pattern of abundance and diversity throughout the years showing the stability of the community which can be checked mainly by comparison with environmental changes that would occur in the reserve. An investigation on a medium-spatial scale pattern and over a long-term period including other habitats, and also other predictor variables, like humidity, the structure of the vegetation and canopy closure, will be necessary to reinforce the observed tendencies.

  16. A medium-spatial scale distribution pattern of Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida) in a gradient of topography (altitude and inclination), soil factors, and litter in a central Amazonia forest reserve, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, N O; Gualberto, T L; Franklin, E

    2006-08-01

    In Amazonia, nothing is known about the distribution of the invertebrates on a medium-spatial scale pattern. In a trail system of 64 km2 at Ducke Reserve, we sampled 72 transects using the hand-sorting method and Berlese-Tullgren extraction. The reserve possesses ecosystems of "terra-firme" forest and the trail system represents a gradient of topographic soil factors and vegetation, avoiding categorizations. Considering the abundance and diversity of Pseudoscorpionida, we investigated the relation of the community to environmental factors tested (topography, clay percentage, litter, and soil pH), to the two major drainage basins of the reserve, and if these invertebrates can be used as biological indicators to monitor changes. We registered two species for the first time in the reserve, increasing the known diversity to 17 species. The lack of correlation with the predictor variables and the large home range, indicate that pseudoscorpions are not good biological indicators in the reserve. As the eastern and western watersheds are not separate management units for the community, our results show that they are generalist predators. In spite of our results and lack of knowledge concerning their biology, life history and taxonomy, pseudoscorpions are cosmopolitan and easy to find and measure. Compared with previous studies in the reserve, they have a consistent pattern of abundance and diversity throughout the years showing the stability of the community which can be checked mainly by comparison with environmental changes that would occur in the reserve. An investigation on a medium-spatial scale pattern and over a long-term period including other habitats, and also other predictor variables, like humidity, the structure of the vegetation and canopy closure, will be necessary to reinforce the observed tendencies.

  17. Physicians', nurses' and community health workers' knowledge about physical activity in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Burdick

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Training health professionals in how to convey all relevant information about physical activity to their patients is critical for health promotion within the primary care system in Brazil.

  18. Safety from Crime and Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruí Weber Corseuil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02–1.53; general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01–1.54. Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28–2.80. Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil.

  19. [Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, Luane Margarete; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2010-09-01

    To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo, Brazil. Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  20. [Association between physical activity level and consumption of fruit and vegetables among adolescents in northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    To determine the association between low levels of physical activity and consumption of fruits and vegetables among adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 2,057 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. We analyzed the level of physical activity, consumption of fruits and vegetables by standardized and validated questionnaires. The control variables were sex, age, socioeconomic status, maternal education, alcohol consumption and smoking. For data analysis, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used, with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of low levels of physical activity was 81.9%; the inadequate consumption of fruits ocurred in 79.1% and the inadequate consumption of vegetables in 90.6%. Adolescents who consumed few fruits daily had an increase in 40% of chance of being insufficiently active and, for those who consumed few vegetable,s the likelihood of being insufficiently active was 50% higher, compared to those who had adequate intake of these foods. Low levels of physical activity were associated with inadequate fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents in a city in northeastern Brazil. These findings suggest that insufficiently active adolescents have other unhealthy behaviors that may increase the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. [Physical inactivity and anthropometric measures in school children from Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Flávio Ricardo; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Guilherme, Vânia Renata; Fávero, Maria Teresa Martins; dos Reis, Eliane Josefa Barbosa; Rinaldi, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements in school children from Paranavaí-Paraná, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey, conducted in July and August 2013. Sample of 566 students (287 boys and 278 girls) from 6th to 9th grade aged 10 to 14 years of public and private schools from Paranavaí-PR, Southern Brazil. The variables analyzed were: time of weekly physical activity by a questionnaire (physical inactivity <300 minutes/week), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). In the statistical analysis the U Mann-Whitney and Student t test were used for comparison between genders. To identify factors associated with insufficient levels of physical activity, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied and expressed in Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). There was an association between physical inactivity and anthropometric measurements for BMI (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), with a prevalence rate of 56.1% and 52.7% of inactive adolescents, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, there was significant association of physical inactivity and overweight (OR 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1-3.0) and with increased waist circumference (OR 2.8, 95%CI: 1.4-3.8). Inadequate levels of physical activity is a determining factor for overweight and abdominal adiposity. Accordingly, preventive measures should be taken, especially in schools, emphasizing the importance of exercise in the control of body composition and reduction of weight. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Precipitation chemistry in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Talbot, R. W.; Berresheim, H.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Rain samples from three sites in central Amazonia were collected over a period of 6 weeks during the 1987 wet season and analyzed for ionic species and dissolved organic carbon. A continuous record of precipitation chemistry and amount was obtained at two of these sites, which were free from local or regional pollution, for a time period of over 1 month. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of most species were found to be about a factor of 5 lower during the wet season compared with previous results from the dry season. Only sodium, potassium, and chloride showed similar concentrations in both seasons. When the seasonal difference in rainfall amount is taken into consideration, the deposition fluxes are only slightly lower for most species during the wet season than during the dry season, again with the exception of chloride, potassium, and sodium. Sodium and chloride are present in the same ratio as in sea salt; rapid advection of air masses of marine origin to the central Amazon Basin during the wet season may be responsible for the observed higher deposition flux of these species. Statistical analysis suggests that sulfate is, to a large extent, of marine (sea salt and biogenic) origin, but that long-range transport of combustion-derived aerosols also makes a significant contribution to sulfate and nitrate levels in Amazonian rain. Organic acid concentrations in rain were responsible for a large fraction of the observed precipitation acidity; their concentration was strongly influenced by gas/liquid interactions.

  3. Florística e fitossociologia de uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil Floristic and phytosociology of a slope forest in Central Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo florístico e fitossociológico de árvores, palmeiras e lianas com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP >10 cm, em uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central (2º35'45" S e 60º12'40" W, foi realizado empregando-se 20 parcelas de 50 x 10 m, distribuídas em dois transectos paralelos de 500 x 10 m. Foram registrados 771 indivíduos, pertencentes a 50 famílias, 120 gêneros e 239 espécies. Das espécies amostradas, 44% são "localmente raras". Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae e Chrysobalanaceae constituíram as cinco famílias com maior riqueza de espécies e número de indivíduos. Dos 771 indivíduos amostrados, mais de 65% apresentaram DAP > 20 cm. As espécies Eschweilera bracteosa e Protium apiculatum apresentaram os maiores valores de IVI. Cerca de 83% das espécies encontram-se distribuídas aleatoriamente no hectare amostrado. O índice de diversidade Shannon-Wiener foi de 5,01 nats.indivíduo-1, com uniformidade de 0,91, valores altos no contexto de levantamentos semelhantes na região. A heterogeneidade edáfica e topográfica da área, as taxas de recrutamento de novos indivíduos e de espécies "localmente raras" à comunidade local, podem ter contribuído para as altas dissimilaridade (36,2% e diversidade florísticas documentadas neste estudo.The floristic and phytosociological study of trees, palms and lianas with diameter at breast height (DBH >10 cm in a forest slope in Central Amazonia (2º35'45 "S and 60º12'40" W was carried out using 20 plots of 50 x 10 m, distributed in two parallel transects of 500 x 10 m. A total of 771 plants were registered, belonging to 50 families, 120 genera and 239 species. Of the sampled species, 44% are locally rare. Families with the most species and number of individuals were Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Chrysobalanaceae. More than 65% of the sampled plants had DBH > 20 cm. Eschweilera bracteosa and Protium apiculatum were the most

  4. Proceedings of the 28. Workshop on nuclear physics in Brazil. Program and abstracts; Anais do 28. Reuniao de trabalho sobre fisica nuclear no Brasil. Programa e resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings cover the abstracts presented on the 28. Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil, in the areas of nuclear reactions, high energy physics, hadronic physics, theoretical and experimental nuclear structure, nuclear matter, instrumentation, spectroscopy and thermonuclear reactions.

  5. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  6. Physical performance and environmental conditions: 2014 World Soccer Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroso, Christiano E; Ramos, Guilherme P; Mendes, Thiago T; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is for the special issue "Temperature sciences in Brazil" of the journal Temperature. It focuses on the physical performance and environmental conditions during the 2014 World Cup and the coming 2016 Summer Olympics. It emphasizes that a hot and humid environment imposes a great challenge to the human thermoregulation system, can lead to performance decrements, and increases the risk of developing hyperthermia. Adequate hydration, acclimatization, and body cooling strategies are effective interventions to minimize the risks associated with exercise in the heat.

  7. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  8. Effects of a physical activity program on the quality of life among elderly people in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonte, Eduardo; Feitosa, Pedro Henrique; de Oliveira Neto, Luiz Teixeira; de Araújo, Carla Leal; Figueiroa, José Natal; Alves, João Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people in the “Academia da Cidade program” (ACP), a public Brazilian Government Program encourages physical and leisure activity in Recife, Brazil. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 181 elderly people attending the “ACP” at least twice a week. Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical data were presented according to World Health Organization QOL (WHOQOL)-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD scores. Results: Univariate analysis showed that WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD scores were positively associated with longer duration of participation in “ACP,” P < 0.030 and P < 0.003, respectively, a multivariate regression analysis showed that duration of participation in “ACP” remained associated with higher WHOQOL-BREF (P = 0.023) and WHOQOL-OLD (P = 0.038) scores. Conclusion: A longer duration of participation in a community-based physical activity program, “ACP,” may contribute to a better QOL for the elderly in Brazil. PMID:27453859

  9. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, C.R.; Denevan, W.M.; Heckenberger, M.J.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Neves, E.G.; Teixeira, W.G.; Woods, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Am

  10. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, C.R.; Denevan, W.M.; Heckenberger, M.J.; Braga Junqueira, A.; Neves, E.G.; Teixeira, W.G.; Woods, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Am

  11. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Denevan, William M.; Heckenberger, Michael J.; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G.; Teixeira, Wenceslau G.; Woods, William I.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. PMID:26202998

  12. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  13. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest.

  14. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  15. BEYOND THE “LEAST LIMITING WATER RANGE”: RETHINKING SOIL PHYSICS RESEARCH IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirijn de Jong van Lier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As opposed to objective definitions in soil physics, the subjective term “soil physical quality” is increasingly found in publications in the soil physics area. A supposed indicator of soil physical quality that has been the focus of attention, especially in the Brazilian literature, is the Least Limiting Water Range (RLL, translated in Portuguese as "Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo" or IHO. In this paper the four limiting water contents that define RLLare discussed in the light of objectively determinable soil physical properties, pointing to inconsistencies in the RLLdefinition and calculation. It also discusses the interpretation of RLL as an indicator of crop productivity or soil physical quality, showing its inability to consider common phenological and pedological boundary conditions. It is shown that so-called “critical densities” found by the RLL through a commonly applied calculation method are questionable. Considering the availability of robust models for agronomy, ecology, hydrology, meteorology and other related areas, the attractiveness of RLL as an indicator to Brazilian soil physicists is not related to its (never proven effectiveness, but rather to the simplicity with which it is dealt. Determining the respective limiting contents in a simplified manner, relegating the study or concern on the actual functioning of the system to a lower priority, goes against scientific construction and systemic understanding. This study suggests a realignment of the research in soil physics in Brazil with scientific precepts, towards mechanistic soil physics, to replace the currently predominant search for empirical correlations below the state of the art of soil physics.

  16. Physical Exercise Practice and Associated Factors Among Undergraduate Students from a Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marcio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and factors associated with not performing physical exercise in undergraduate students. Methods. The sample was composed of 2738 undergraduate students of Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. The dependent variables were: not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes per week; not performing vigorous physical exercise for at least 20 minutes per week; not performing muscular strengthening exercises (8-12 repetitions in a week. The independent variables were gender, age, skin colour, marital status, housing, study pattern, year of course, paid work, and area of the course. Odds ratio (OR was estimated by multivariate analysis with the use of binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of undergraduate students not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity, of vigorous intensity, or muscular strengthening exercises was 47.3, 61.0, and 66.2%, respectively. Female sex was associated with a risk of not performing moderate physical exercise (OR = 1.23, vigorous physical exercise (OR = 1.47, and strengthening exercises (OR = 1.22. Undergraduate students of exact sciences (OR = 1.40 and 1.52, juridical sciences (OR = 1.48 and 1.51, and humanities (OR = 1.45 and 1.52 were at risk of not performing physical exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity, respectively. Being a 2nd (OR = 0.79, 3rd (OR = 0.74, or 4th (OR = 0.71 year student was bound with a lower likelihood of not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity. Conclusions. Intervention programmes with the aim of promoting physical exercise practice in undergraduate students should consider gender, year, and area of the course.

  17. Assessing Physical Activity in Public Parks in Brazil Using Systematic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Ferreira Hino, Adriano A.; Dreisinger, Mariah; Coniglio, Kathryn; Munk, Marcia; Brownson, Ross C.; Pratt, Michael; Hoehner, Christine M.; Simoes, Eduardo J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed park use in Recife, Brazil, and differences in physical activity and occupation rates in public parks with and without the Academia da Cidade Program (ACP), which provides cost-free, supervised physical activity classes. Methods. We used the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) in 128 targeted areas in 10 park sites (5 ACP sites, 5 non-ACP sites) to obtain data on the number of users and their physical activity levels and estimated age. Each area was assessed 4 times a day for 11 days over a 4-week period. Results. A total of 32 974 people were observed during 5589 observation visits to target areas. People using ACP parks were more likely to be seen engaging in moderate-to-vigorous (64% vs 49%) and vigorous (25% vs 10%) physical activity. Relatively more participants in ACP sites than in non-ACP sites were females (45% vs 42% of park users) and older adults (14.7% vs 5.7% of park users). Conclusions. On the basis of systematic observation, ACP appears to be a useful strategy in promoting park use and physical activity among the population in Recife. PMID:20558792

  18. Análise econômica de sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia ocidental, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO Economic analysis of agroforestry systems in eastern Amazonia, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes-Gama

    2005-06-01

    tested, T1 Brazil nut-Banana-Black pepper-Cupuaçu was the agroforestry system (AFS with the best financial results, comparing to T2 Frreijó wood- banana-black pepper-cupuaçu and T3 Pupunha palm- banana-black pepper-cupuaçu. The management and harvesting costs represented more than 70% of the total cost composition; and the labor cost participation was higher than 50% in the site preparation and long-term maintenance phases of the agroforestry systems. The risk analysis simulation showed that the variables which affected Infinite Horizon Net Present Value (NPV*, according to the ranking of importance (R, were: discount rate, price of cupuaçu fruits (Theobroma grandiflorum, harvesting cost, price of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa wood, and long-term maintenance costs. Even though the high establishment and the long-term maintenance costs, AFS T1 Castanha-do-brasil-Banana-black pepper-cupuaçu showed a 15% probability that Net Present Value (NPV value could be concentrated around R$ 35.000 ha-1 year-1.

  19. Stages of change for physical activity in adults from Southern Brazil: a population-based survey

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    Gigante Denise P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA interventions tailored to individual's stages of change (SoC are more effective in promote behavior change than "one-size-fits-all" interventions. However, only a few researches have investigated these stages towards PA behavior in representative samples of the population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the SoC for PA in a probabilistic sample of adults aged 20 years or over. Methods A population-based survey was undertaken in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2005. An algorithm was applied to evaluate the SoC for PA, and PA was defined as being engaged in moderate-to-vigorous PA for at least 20 minutes on three times per week. The covariates collected in the questionnaire were: sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, economic status, family income, smoking, body mass index (BMI and self-reported health status. Data analyses were performed through Poisson and multinomial regression, taking the sampling design into account. Results Face-to-face interviews were applied to 3136 individuals, corresponding to a response rate of 93.5%. The prevalence across the stages was as follows: 38.3% in precontemplation, 13.0% in contemplation, 19.5% in preparation, 5.2% in action and 24.0% in maintenance. The elderly, married, smokers, and those with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to adopt, initiate and maintain regular PA. Conclusion Despite the all benefits of PA, a high proportion of adults from Southern Brazil are physically inactive and do not present intention to engage in regular PA. The profile of those who are inactive but intend to do PA resembles those who are physically active. The findings of the present study can contribute to improve health behaviors and to plan health promotion strategies aimed at increasing the level of PA in the community.

  20. Technical and physical analysis of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil: winners vs. losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Michael C; Silva, Joao R; Hertzog, Maxime; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Nassis, George

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the technical and physical performance parameters that distinguish between teams winning and losing matches in the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil. Data were derived from the FIFA website and from live-statistics provided during each game of the world cup. Twelve physical (such as total distance covered in meters (TD), TD in distinct locomotor categories: low-intensity running (LIR; 14 km/h)) and 21 technical parameters (total passes, short-, medium- and long-distance passes, total pass completion rate, dangerous attacks, attacking attempts, delivery in penalty area, ball possession, goals, goals from set-pieces, goals per shot on goal, defending saves, shots, shots on goal, shot accuracy, set-pieces, crosses, corners, clearances, yellow cards) were analyzed. Forty-two games in which a winner and consequently a loser were presented after 90 minutes of game time were investigated with independent t-tests. A binary-logistic regression was utilized to investigate whether the significant variables predicted success of the winning teams. The winning teams scored significantly (PTechnical performance related to goal scoring parameters play a decisive role in World Cup games. Furthermore, scoring efficacy from open-play as well as from set-pieces are crucial to win matches in a World Cup tournament. At this level, physical performance was not the factor to discriminate between winners and losers.

  1. Directionality of physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents in Recife, Brazil

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    Alice Kelly Barreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents with respect to the profiles of directionality - only man perpetrates, only woman perpetrates, and bidirectional, ie, both perpetrate violence. METHODS: Sample was performed by two-stage cluster selection in public and private school in the city of Recife (PE, Brazil, presenting data on 355 adolescents of both sexes between 15 and 19 years old. Psychological violence was measured in dimensions threat, verbal/emotional, and relational. Statistical analyzes incorporated the sampling weight and the complex sample design. RESULTS: Violence is bidirectional in most forms studied (83.9% and girls reported higher levels of perpetration of physical violence, and boys reported more perpetration of relational violence. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that adolescent dating violence shows a pattern where partners attack each other, both physically and psychologically. Future research should study the patterns of these acts of violence, keeping the adolescent couple as the unit of analysis and exploring the context in which such violence occurs.

  2. The presence of phenomenology in physical education in Brazil: implications for the study of the body and other problematizations

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    Felipe Quintão de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the uses of phenomenology in Physical Education in Brazil. In methodological terms, it describes five studies that belong to this theoretical framework in the field, represented by authors such as Silvino Santin, Manuel Sérgio, Wagner Wey Moreira, Elenor Kunz and Terezinha Petrúcia da Nóbrega. It problematizes some aspects of this reception, by highlighting not only its boundaries, but also the challenges for research and reflection within this tradition in physical education

  3. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle among children from private and public schools in Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Thiara Castro de; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Santos, Cristiane de Jesus Nunes dos; Silva, Josenilde Sousa e; Conceição, Sueli Ismael Oliveira da

    2010-12-01

    To analyze factors associated with physical activity and the mean time spent in some sedentary activities among school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a random sample of 592 schoolchildren aged nine to 16 years in 2005, in São Luís, Northern Brazil. Data were collected by means of a 24-Hour Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire, concerning demographic and socioeconomic variables, physical activities practiced and time spent in certain sedentary activities. Physical activities were classified according to their metabolic equivalents (MET), and a physical activity index was estimated for each child. Sedentary lifestyle was estimated based on time spent watching television, playing videogames and on the computer/internet. Chi square test was used to compare proportions. Linear regression analysis was used to establish associations. Estimates were adjusted for the effect of the sampling design. The mean of the physical activity index was 605.73 MET-min/day (SD = 509.45). School children that were male (coefficient=134.57; 95%CI 50.77; 218.37), from public schools (coefficient.= 94.08; 95%CI 12.54; 175.62 and in the 5th to 7th grade (coefficient.=95.01; 95%CI 8.10;181.92 presented higher indices than females, children from private schools and in the 8th to the 9th grade (p<0.05). On average, students spent 2.66 hours/day in sedentary activities. Time spent in sedentary activities was significantly lower for children aged nine to 11 years (coefficient.= -0.49 hr/day; 95%CI -0.88; -0.10) and in lower socioeconomic classes (coefficient.=-0.87; 95%CI -1.45;-0.30). Domestic chores (59.43%) and walking to school (58.43%) were the most common physical activities. Being female, in private schools and in the 8th to 9th grade were factors associated with lower levels of physical activity. Younger schoolchildren and those from low economic classes spent less time engaged in sedentary activities.

  4. Paracoccidioidomicose entre o grupo indígena Suruí de Rondônia, Amazônia, Brasil: registro de caso Paracoccidioidoniycosis among the Surui Indians, State of Rondonia, Amazonia, Brazil: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Francesconi do Valle

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam um caso de paracoccidioidomicose em indígena da tribo Suruí, Estado de Rondônia. Trata-se de paciente adulto, sexo masculino, tendo sido o diagnóstico confirmado com base em exame micológico, sorológico e radiográfico. Foi insitituída terapêutica com a associação sulfametoxazol 800 mg + trimetoprima 160 mg a cada 12 horas. A avaliação do paciente realizada seis meses após o início do tratamento revelou melhora no estado geral, regressão do quadro radiológico, negativação da prova de precipitação em tubo capilar e positivação da intradermorcação com paracoccidioidina. Os Autores também revêem os casos de paracoccidioidomicose descritos na região, em particular no que ser refere ao grupo indígena Suruí.The Authors report a case of paracoccidioidomycosis in a Surui Indian patient from the state of Rondonia, Brazilian Amazon. The subject is an adult male, having been diagnosed on the basis of mycologic, Serologic, and radiographic exams. The prescribed therapy was sulfametoxazol 800 mg associated with trimetoprim 160 mg every 12 hours. A revaluation of the patient conducted six months after the beginning of chemotherapy indicated overall improvement of his physical condition and of the radiologic picture, negativeness of the test of precipitin in capillary tube, and positiveness of the skin test with paracoccidioidin. The Authors also reviewed the cases of paracoccidioidomycosis described in the region, especially among the Surui Indian population.

  5. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia

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    ICG. Vieira

    Full Text Available This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  6. Deforestation and threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, I C G; Toledo, P M; Silva, J M C; Higuchi, H

    2008-11-01

    This is a review of the main factors currently perceived as threats to the biodiversity of Amazonia. Deforestation and the expansion of the agricultural frontier go hand in hand within the context of occupation and land use in the region, followed by a hasty process of industrialization since the 1950s and, more recently, by a nation-wide attempt to adapt Brazil to economic globalization. Intensive agriculture and cattle-raising, lack of territorial planning, the monoculture of certain crops often promoted by official agencies, and the introduction of exotic species by cultivation are some of the factors affecting Amazonian biodiversity. There are still large gaps in knowledge that need to be dealt with for a better understanding of the local ecosystems so as to allow their preservation, but such investigation is subjected to manifold hindrances by misinformation, disinformation and sheer ignorance from the legal authorities and influential media. Data available for select groups of organisms indicate that the magnitude of the loss and waste of natural resources associated with deforestation is staggering, with estimated numbers of lost birds and primates being over ten times that of such animals illegally commercialized around the world in one year. The challenges to be met for an eventual reversal of this situation demand more systematic and concerted studies, the consolidation of new and existing research groups, and a call for a halt to activities depleting the Amazonian rainforest.

  7. Scaling up of physical activity interventions in Brazil: how partnerships and research evidence contributed to policy action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Hallal, Pedro C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Simoes, Eduardo J; Malta, Deborah C; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-12-01

    The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated.

  8. Physical characterization of a watershed through GIS: a study in the Schmidt stream, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, D R; Plangg, R; Tundisi, J G; Quevedo, D M

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing and geoprocessing are essential tools for obtaining and maintaining records of human actions on space over the course of time; these tools offer the basis for diagnoses of land use, environmental interference and local development. The Schmidt stream watershed, located in the Sinos River basin, in southern Brazil, has an environmental situation similar to that of the majority of small streams draining rural and urban areas in southern Brazil: agricultural and urbanization practices do not recognize the riparian area and there is removal of original vegetation, disregarding the suitability of land use; removal of wetlands; intensive water use for various activities; and lack of control and monitoring in the discharge of wastewater, among other factors, deteriorate the quality of this important environment.This article aims to achieve a physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed (Sinos river basin) identifying elements such as land use and occupation, soil science, geology, climatology, extent and location of watershed, among others, so as to serve as the basis for a tool that helps in the integrated environmental management of watersheds. By applying geographic information system - GIS to the process of obtaining maps of land use and occupation, pedologicaland geological, and using climatological data from the Campo Bom meteorological station, field visit, review of literature and journals, and publicly available data, the physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed was performed, with a view to the integrated environmental management of this watershed. Out of the total area of the Schmidt stream watershed (23.92 km(2)), in terms of geology, it was observed that 23.7% consist of colluvial deposits, 22.6% consist of grass facies, and 53.7% consist of Botucatu formation. Major soil types of the watershed: 97.4% Argisols and only 2.6% Planosols. Land use and occupation is characterized by wetland (0.5%), Native Forest (12

  9. Investigations of Mangrove Forest Dynamics in Amazonia, North Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Machado de Menezes, Moirah Paula

    2006-01-01

    The north coast of the Brazilian states of Para, and Maranhao, presents a large continuous belt of mangroves, covering an area of about 700 000 ha. Although mangroves in this region are relatively well preserved, expanding tourism, intensification of fisheries and of urban growth in the region may endanger this important coastal ecosystem. In spite of the immense area covered by mangrove forest, very few is known about species distribution and forest ecology in the region. The present study f...

  10. Vegetation survey in Amazonia using LANDSAT data. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Dossantos, J. R.; Deaquino, L. C. S.

    1982-01-01

    Automatic Image-100 analysis of LANDSAT data was performed using the MAXVER classification algorithm. In the pilot area, four vegetation units were mapped automatically in addition to the areas occupied for agricultural activities. The Image-100 classified results together with a soil map and information from RADAR images, permitted the establishment of the final legend with six classes: semi-deciduous tropical forest; low land evergreen tropical forest; secondary vegetation; tropical forest of humid areas, predominant pastureland and flood plains. Two water types were identified based on their sediments indicating different geological and geomorphological aspects.

  11. Andean settlers rush for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-vega, J

    1990-01-01

    Governments of Andean countries (Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela) have encouraged migration to the Amazon Basin, which has contributed to its destruction. Population pressure, landlessness, and poverty are the inducements to migrate. Efforts to populate the Amazon forest were begun as early as 1964 in Peru without international notice. By 1980, logging was allowed in Peru, and Brazil considered colonization of the Amazon essential to national sovereignty. By 1986, outside of Lima, Peru, a development project originally funded by the World Bank, the InterAmerican Development Bank, and the US, resulted in conflicts between settlers and Indians, in loggers indiscriminately cutting, and in farmers using slash and burn techniques to clear forests. Elsewhere the Peruvian Amazon, in San Ignacio, the population was growing by 5.5%/year. The jungle road that had been started but never completed, Carretera Marginal, destroyed 5 million hectares of primary forest, and much of the 600,000 hectares of arable land gained by the road suffered from inappropriate farming practices which caused massive erosion and laterization of the soils. Food crop production declined, and production of coca for cocaine increased. Coca crops are controlled by the Shining Path guerrillas, who are trying to overthrow the Peruvian government. Devastation of Ecuador around Lago Agrio continues. In Colombia, east of Bogota, forests have disappeared and hills have eroded and silted up rivers and dams. The Andean piedmont in Bolivia has also been devastated by loggers and by slash and burn farming. Southeastern Bolivian forests have been cleared for soya bean cultivation on poor soils. Social and economic crises propel people into the remaining forests. The solution is to ease foreign debt, transfer appropriate technology at affordable prices, refuse to finance destructive development, and help to educate and train scientific researchers. Family planning services are also urgently needed

  12. Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil

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    MARIA HELENA L.R. RECHE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin.

  13. Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reche, Maria Helena L R; Machado, Vilmar; Saul, Danilo A; Macedo, Vera R M; Marcolin, Elio; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin.

  14. Physical attributes of Ultisol of Brazil's northeastern semiarid under organic farming of wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Jardenia R; Mendes, Alessandra M S; Olszevski, Nelci; Cunha, Tony J F; Cortez, Jorge W; Giongo, Vanderlise

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic farming of wine grapes under physical and chemical characteristics of Ultisol Brazil's northeastern semiarid region. The samples of soil were collected from the row and interrow of the farming and from the fallow area, at the depths of 0.0-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30 and 0.30-0.60 m. The samples were collected at six and twelve months after the culture implementation to evaluate the state of aggregation, bulk density and total soil porosity, flocculation index and organic matter contents, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. The adoption of organic farming contributed to the soil aggregation process. The bulk density and total soil porosity did not differ significantly between the evaluations, but were within the critical limits for sandy soils. The index flocculation did not have a great influence on the aggregates formation, being this process influenced by organic matter. The period of one year was considered short to obtain conclusive results in improving the soil quality by organic farming, since there are difficulties in tropical soils in promoting significant increases in organic matter content in short time.

  15. Physical attributes of ultisol of Brazil's northeastern semiarid under organic farming of wine grapes

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    Jardenia R. Feitosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of organic farming of wine grapes under physical and chemical characteristics of Ultisol Brazil's northeastern semiarid region. The samples of soil were collected from the row and interrow of the farming and from the fallow area, at the depths of 0.0-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.30 and 0.30-0.60 m. The samples were collected at six and twelve months after the culture implementation to evaluate the state of aggregation, bulk density and total soil porosity, flocculation index and organic matter contents, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. The adoption of organic farming contributed to the soil aggregation process. The bulk density and total soil porosity did not differ significantly between the evaluations, but were within the critical limits for sandy soils. The index flocculation did not have a great influence on the aggregates formation, being this process influenced by organic matter. The period of one year was considered short to obtain conclusive results in improving the soil quality by organic farming, since there are difficulties in tropical soils in promoting significant increases in organic matter content in short time.

  16. Prevalência de excesso de peso e fatores associados em adolescentes de escolas privadas de região urbana na Amazônia Prevalencia de exceso de peso y factores asociados en adolescentes de escuelas privadas de región urbana en Amazonia Prevalence of excess weight and associated factors in adolescents of private schools of an Amazonic urban area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio M. Silva Júnior

    2012-06-01

    informaciones respecto a sexo, edad, clase socioeconómica, escolaridad de los padres, número de moradores en el domicilio, número de hermanos, actividad física, tiempo gasto asistiendo a la televisión y tiempo de uso de computadora. Los factores asociados al exceso de peso fueron identificados mediante regresión múltiple de Poisson y el uso de eliminación retrógrada para la selección de las variables del modelo múltiple. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de exceso de peso fue de 29,5%. El sexo masculino mostró mayor prevalencia (33,2% en comparación al femenino (26,4%. Respecto a la edad, la prevalencia fue superior a los 14 años (40% en ambos sexos. En el análisis múltiple, ajustado por edad y sexo, el uso de computadora por más que dos horas diarias y el sedentarismo se asociaron al exceso de peso. CONCLUSIONES: El exceso de peso se presenta como un serio problema de Salud Pública en escolares de la secundaria de instituciones privadas de Rio Branco, Acre (Brasil. Se sugiere la promoción de la actividad física y la reducción en el tiempo de uso de computadora para la disminución del exceso de peso.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with excess weight among high school students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 741 adolescents from private schools in Rio Branco, Acre, Northern Brazil. The weight and height were prospectively measured in order to calculate the body mass index. Overweight was defined according to World Health Organization references in 2007. The following variables were collected: gender, age, socioeconomic status, parental education, number of household members and siblings, physical activity, time watching TV and computer time. Factors associated with excess weight were identified by multiple Poisson regression using the backward elimination procedure for variable selection. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 29.5%. Males showed righer prevalence (33.2% compared with females (26.4%. As for age, the prevalence

  17. Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago Garavito, Ana Isabel; Jiménez, Eliana; Tobón, Marco Alejandro; Gendrau Acho, Sheila; Ciro Rodríguez, Estefanía; Ciro Rodríguez, Alejandra; Trujillo Osorio, Catalina; Currea Dereser , Alejandra; Torres Zambrano, Nestor Ned; Serrato Hurtado, Clemencia; Duque, Santiago R.; Moreno Hurtado, Flavio; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Lloyd, Jon; Patiño, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Con el ánimo de contribuir a la comprensión social, histórica y económica de la gente que habita la región amazónica y al entendimiento del funcionamiento de sus ecosistemas surge el libro Gente, tierra y agua en la Amazonia. lmani mundo III. Este libro es el tercero de la serie Imani mundo, la cual expone trabajos de investigación en la región amazónica tanto en aspectos sociales como en aspectos ecológicos, realizados por el instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones IMANI de la Universidad Nac...

  18. Use of global positioning system for physical activity research in youth: ESPAÇOS Adolescentes, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, Claudia Oliveira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2016-12-23

    The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, as well as describes results from the first project using such methodology in adolescents from a developing country. An initial sample of 381 adolescents was recruited from 32 census tracts in Curitiba, Brazil (2013); 80 had their homes geocoded and wore accelerometer and GPS devices for seven days. Four domains were defined as important contexts: home, school, transport and leisure. The majority of participants (n=80) were boys (46; 57.5%), with a normal BMI (52; 65.0%) and a mean age (SD) of 14.5 (5.5) years. Adolescents spent most of their time at home, engaging in SB. Overall, the largest proportion of MVPA was while in transport (17.1% of time spent in this context) and SB while in leisure (188.6min per day). Participants engaged in MVPA for a median of 28.7 (IQR 18.2-43.2) and 17.9 (IQR 9.2-32.1) minutes during week and weekend days, respectively. Participants spent most of their day in the leisure and home domains. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer data allowed objective identification of the amount of time spent in MVPA and SB in four different domains. Though the combination of objective measures is still an emerging methodology, this is a promising and feasible approach to understanding interactions between people and their environments in developing countries.

  19. Spatial and temporal contrasts in the distribution of crops and pastures across Amazonia: A new agricultural land use data set from census data since 1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbach, P; Manrow, M; Barona, E; Barretto, A; Hyman, G; Ciais, P

    2015-06-01

    Amazonia holds the largest continuous area of tropical forests with intense land use change dynamics inducing water, carbon, and energy feedbacks with regional and global impacts. Much of our knowledge of land use change in Amazonia comes from studies of the Brazilian Amazon, which accounts for two thirds of the region. Amazonia outside of Brazil has received less attention because of the difficulty of acquiring consistent data across countries. We present here an agricultural statistics database of the entire Amazonia region, with a harmonized description of crops and pastures in geospatial format, based on administrative boundary data at the municipality level. The spatial coverage includes countries within Amazonia and spans censuses and surveys from 1950 to 2012. Harmonized crop and pasture types are explored by grouping annual and perennial cropping systems, C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, planted and natural pastures, and main crops. Our analysis examined the spatial pattern of ratios between classes of the groups and their correlation with the agricultural extent of crops and pastures within administrative units of the Amazon, by country, and census/survey dates. Significant correlations were found between all ratios and the fraction of agricultural lands of each administrative unit, with the exception of planted to natural pastures ratio and pasture lands extent. Brazil and Peru in most cases have significant correlations for all ratios analyzed even for specific census and survey dates. Results suggested improvements, and potential applications of the database for carbon, water, climate, and land use change studies are discussed. The database presented here provides an Amazon-wide improved data set on agricultural dynamics with expanded temporal and spatial coverage.

  20. Knowledge among physical education professionals about poliomyelitis and post-poliomyelitis syndrome: a cross-sectional study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa BS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira,1 Taíza Márcia de Almeida Alves,1 Luiz Fernando Peixinho-Pena,2 Bolivar Saldanha Sousa,3,4 Marcos Gonçalves de Santana,1 Sandra Aparecida Benite-Ribeiro,1 Marilia dos Santos Andrade,2 Rodrigo Luiz Vancini21Setor de Fisiologia Humana e do Exercício, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Câmpus Jataí, Jataí, 2Departamento de Fisiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Albert Einstein, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Post-poliomyelitis syndrome is a clinical condition that can affect poliomyelitis survivors with the onset of new symptoms several years after the acute disease. These symptoms include new muscular weakness, fatigue, pain, onset or aggravation of muscle atrophy, muscle cramps, onset or aggravation of pre-existing difficulties in accomplishing daily life activities, cold intolerance, sleep disorders, dysphonia or dysphagia, and respiratory deficiency. The treatment of post-poliomyelitis syndrome requires a multiprofessional health team because the rehabilitation procedures include lifestyle changes, physiotherapy, avoidance of secondary complications, and physical exercise. As physical exercise is prescribed by physical education professionals, the assessment of knowledge about post-poliomyelitis syndrome among these professionals is very relevant. The aim of this study was to evaluate poliomyelitis and post-poliomyelitis syndrome knowledge among physical education professionals in Brazil.Methods: We invited participants with an academic degree in physical education (n = 217 to participate in this study. A self-administered survey (30 questions was designed to probe knowledge about poliomyelitis and post-poliomyelitis syndrome. From the survey, we created a questionnaire to evaluate the performance of the professionals. The questionnaire was composed of 20

  1. N2O Emissions in Southeastern Amazonia: The Effect of Agricultural Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Cerri, C. E.; Coe, M. T.; Davidson, E. A.; Galford, G. L.; Macedo, M.; Neill, C.; Venterea, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the last 30 years, Amazonia has been home to extraordinary growth in agricultural production, in part from agricultural expansion, but also due to more intense management on Amazonia's existing croplands. We use a year-long campaign and approximately 500 field chamber measurements to estimate how cropland intensification in Mato Grosso, Brazil affects the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil N dynamics. In this system, soybean cropland intensification occurs when double cropping is introduced, in which maize is planted directly after soybean harvest and fertilized twice with inorganic N. We find that dry season N2O emissions in single-cropped (soybean only) fields, double-cropped (soybean/maize) fields and reference tropical forest are uniformly near zero, or ~0-0.5 ngN/cm^2/hr. Surprisingly, wet season emissions rates remain low as well, between 1-4 ngN/cm^2/hr, for both cropland types and reference forest. By contrast, isolated post-fertilization spikes in N2O emissions are large, with a maximum increase of ~800% and a mean increase of ~400%, though these flux increases resolve rapidly and rates return to their low baseline within days. Finally, we explore the role that soil moisture, soil N availability, and soil C availability play in regulating N2O fluxes in reference forest, soybean fields and intensified soybean-maize fields. Open questions surround how the Amazon's land resources can be leveraged to increase agricultural production at the least harm to the environment. Here, we quantify the consequences of land use change on N2O, a powerful greenhouse gas, in a critical ecosystem undergoing novel agricultural intensification. These results may inform both greenhouse gas accounting and our understanding of the effects of Amazonia's changing agricultural landscape on the nitrogen cycle.

  2. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging

  3. Modelling physical-biological interactions in the Southeast Brazil Bight: transport patterns of Brazilian Sardine larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggiani Dias, D.; Gherardi, D. F.; Pezzi, L. P.

    2013-05-01

    The advection of Brazilian Sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis) eggs and larvae in the SBB was modeled using an individual-based model (Ichthyop) and a hydrodynamic model (Regional Ocean Modeling System, ROMS) to test for differences in larval retention for five spawning areas with high probability of egg occurrence: i) two areas north of the domain - Cape Frio and Rio de Janeiro, ii) one in the middle in Sao Sebastiao, and iii) two in the South in Paranagua. According to previous studies, this encompasses the known spawning habitat. Advective processes and physical characteristics, such as water temperature and salinity, were considered to determine larvae transport and survival. The hydrodynamic model grid has a horizontal resolution of 1/12o. Results of monthly mean Sea Surface Temperature (MSST) and Sea Surface Height (MSSH) indicate there isn't warming or cooling trend over the years, and the seasonal cycle well represented. These results were compared with satellite-derived data from the AVHRR sensor and AVISO project. Model results accurately represent the position and shape of the main surface structures observed in the satellite data. Monthly MSST maps for the experiment period indicate that the model tends to underestimate temperatures in upwelling areas and overestimate in the Brazil Current region, with differences mostly around ±1oC. For MSSH, although the model represents well the main surface ocean structures, it tends to underestimate along the domain. Temperature-salinity diagrams plotted in a coastal area for December of four years (1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988), near Ubatuba region, are consistent with field collected data, suggesting that the main water masses in SBB are reliably represented. The IBM experiments were carried out during the summer of six years (1980, 1981, 1988, 1991, 1992 and 1993). For each year, 20000 eggs were released, distributed in the five areas, and tracked for 45 days. At the end of simulation, the mortality due to

  4. EVALUATION OF THE DEMANDED LOAD OF PHYSICAL WORK IN ACTIVITIES OF FURNITURE PRODUCTION IN DISTRITO FEDERAL - BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Cesar Fiedler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in carpentries in the city of Brasilia DF (Brazil, aimingat evaluating the physical workload of the employees in different activities of the furniture industry.The physical workload was gotten in a survey of the cardiac frequency in the work. The activities hadbeen considered light, with exception of to rough-hew, that was considered heavy work. Thecalculation of the time of rest was not necessary because the maximum limit of 40% of the cardiac frequency was not exceeded.

  5. Morphological characterization of Eustrongylides sp. larvae (Nematoda, Dioctophymatoidea) parasite of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Melo, Caroline do Socorro Barros; Nascimento, Luciana de Cássia Silva do; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-06-07

    Absctract Eustrongylides spp. nematodes have birds as final hosts and uses other vertebrates as intermediate/paratenic host (fish, amphibians and reptiles) and have zoonotic potential. In amphibians, the larvae may be located in the subcutaneous tissues, liver and mesentery, between the muscle fibres, especially in the lower limbs. Rhinella marina, which is widely observed in Brazil, has exhibited complex diversity in its helminth fauna, reflecting the unique habitat of the Amazon biome. For the first time, this study describes the morphological aspects of third-stage larvae of Eustrongylides sp. in Rhinella marina from Santa Cruz do Ararí, Marajó Archipelago, Eastern Amazonia, using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Aerosol chemistry during the wet season in central Amazonia - The influence of long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Artaxo, P.; Garstang, M.

    1990-01-01

    The temporal variation in the concentration and chemistry of the atmospheric aerosol over central Amazonia, Brazil, during the 1987 wet season is discussed based on ground and aircraft collected data obtained during the NASA GTE ABLE 2B expedition conducted in April/May 1987. It is found that wet-season aerosol concentrations and composition are variable in contrast to the more uniform biogenic aerosol observed during the 1985 dry season; four distinct intervals of enhanced aerosol concentration coincided with short periods (3 to 5 d) of extensive rainfall. It is hypothesized that aerosol chemistry in Amazonia during the wet season is strongly influenced by long-range transport of soil dust, marine aerosol, and possibly biomass combustion products advected into the central Basin by large-scale tropospheric circulation, producing periodic pulses of material input to local boundary layer air. The resultant wet-season aerosol regime is dynamic, in contrast to the uniformity of natural biogenic aerosols during the dry season.

  7. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Crainey, James Lee; Shelley, Anthony John; Rubio, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92), Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  8. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  9. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Belon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  10. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nykiforuk, Candace

    2013-10-01

    This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social) and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  11. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  12. Tracking anthropogenic influence on isoprene chemistry over Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; McKinney, K. A.; Watson, T. B.; Springston, S. R.; Seco, R.; Park, J. H.; Kim, S.; Shilling, J. E.; Guenther, A. B.; Dorris, M. R.; Thayer, M.; Keutsch, F. N.; Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Wurm, F.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Longo, K.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    Primarily emitted by vegetation, isoprene is the dominant nonmethane hydrocarbon in the atmosphere. Photooxidation of isoprene has a large influence on the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere and the production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). As a part of the GoAmazon2014 Experiment, isoprene and some of its oxidation products were measured using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) at a research site 60 km west of the city of Manaus, Brazil. The fetch of the research site oscillated between the extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the interactions of heavy pollution from Manaus with the natural environment, which allowed for an assessment of the modifications of natural isoprene chemistry by anthropogenic pollution over Amazonia. Photooxidation of isoprene leads to chemically different oxidation products depending on the fate of isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO), but different oxidation products can produce the same ions in PTR-MS analysis due to similarity in their chemical structures. A cold trap was deployed in front of the PTR-TOF-MS for separation and differential classification of some of these isoprene oxidation products. For example, isoprene-derived hydroperoxides (C5H10O3) and methyl vinyl ketone/methacrolein (C4H6O), which are the major oxidation products of the HO2 and NO pathways of ISOPOO reaction, respectively, and both detected as C4H7O+ ion by PTR-MS, were separately measured. Using the measurements of these and other oxidation products of isoprene by PTR-TOF-MS and other complementary measurements, the isoprene chemistry (particularly the fate of ISOPOO) under pristine and polluted scenarios are compared and the implication for SOA formation is discussed.

  13. HABITS OF PATIENTS AND IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATOR IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II IN PALMAS, TOCANTINS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maynard Noleto SALES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, a non-communicable disease that can affect men and women, can be classified as type I or type II. This disease is in the 4th position in numbers of deaths in Brazil, and therefore, involves attention, both from the government, as the patients and family. The aims of this study is describe the lifestyle in relation to diet, foot care and proper medication, and the point of view of patients with diabetes mellitus type II, on the importance of the practice of physical exercise, coordinated and programmed. We performed a study using Questionnaire of Self-Care Activities with Diabetes (QAD and a second questionnaire with questions related to the importance of exercise for patients with diabetes mellitus type II. Questionnaires were applied in 20 patients with the disease (08 men and 12 women, living in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. Result: We noticed that even with the recommendations of healthcare professionals, most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 has not adapted verification of blood glucose, proper nutrition and foot care. Moreover, despite the interviewees know the importance of performing regular physical activity, we noticed that these do not know how much of weekly days in which they must get physical exercise in order to control the disease. Most interviewees adopt just walk as the physical activity, and we have not verified from the answers of patients, if they know what the most beneficial exercises to control this disease.

  14. Solidarity Economy Networks: the Case of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla-Carrascal, Ivette Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    This article presents reflections (resulting from a Master’s dissertation in sociology) about diversecontributions by the solidarity economy networks in the construction of a solidarity market in Brazil.The first part of the article is a discussion about the different characteristics of the networks in terms ofmore general social theories, such as networks in the field of the solidarity economy. The second partbriefly characterizes the Redes Bodega, acs Amazonia, Rede Ecovida, Central do Cerr...

  15. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  16. Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera da Amazônia brasileira Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera from brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José do Nascimento Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia brasileira são registradas dezenove espécies de Leptophlebiidae, distribuídas em dez gêneros. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma lista de todos os gêneros de Leptophlebiidae ocorrentes na Região Neotropical, o numero de espécies de cada gênero no Brasil e um catálogo das espécies registradas na Amazônia brasileira.Brazilian Amazonia has nineteen registered species of Leptophlebiidae, distributed in ten genera. In this work a list of all genera of Leptophlebiidae from the Neotropical Region is presented, the number of species of each genus in Brazil and a catalog of the species occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

  17. Rainfall and surface kinematic conditions over central amazonia during ABLE 2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Steven; Swap, Robert; Garstang, Michael; Ulanski, Stanley; Shipham, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Rainfall, rainfall systems, and surface kinematics of the central Amazon basin wet season are investigated using meteorological and chemical data collected during the wet season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE) near Manaus, Brazil. Through analysis of (GOES-West) imagery, it is determined that, based on location of the initial development, there are three main types of convective systems which influence a mesoscale network near Manaus, namely the Coastal Occurring Systems (COS), the Basin Occurring Systems (BOS), and the Locally Occurring Systems (LOS). Chemical analysis of rainwater delivered by these systems shows significant differences in concentrations of formate, acetate, pyruvate, sulfate, and hydrogen ion, and measurements of aerosol concentrations near Manaus show large influxes of aerosols into central Amazonia after passage of BOS and COS. Results of satellite based classification of the rain-producing systems are discussed.

  18. [Molding soldiers, forming citizens: doctor Eduardo Augusto Pereira de Abreu, the Paraguayan War, and physical education in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Carlos Leonardo Bahiense; de Melo, Victor Andrade

    2011-06-01

    The article discusses Eduardo Augusto Pereira de Abreu's Estudos higiênicos sobre a educação física, intelectual e moral do soldado (Hygienic studies on the physical, intellectual, and moral education of soldiers), published in 1867. Marked by the experience of the Paraguayan War, this was one of the first works that endeavored explicitly to conjoin medical and military concerns and to establish a clear link between molding a soldier and forming a citizen, both ready to defend the fatherland. Placing heavy emphasis on the practice of physical activities tied in with civism, robustness, and good health, the book both anticipated and influenced subsequent debates in Brazil on the importance of physical education.

  19. Caracterização físico-química de polpas de frutos da Amazônia e sua correlação com a atividade anti-radical livre Physical and chemical characterization of fruit pulps from Amazonia and their correlation to free radical scavenger activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele André Baptista Canuto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Características físico-químicas (cor, pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, conteúdo de lipídios e umidade e níveis de compostos bioativos (ácido ascórbico, fenólicos totais foram determinados em quinze amostras de polpas de frutos procedentes da região Amazônica (abiu, acerola, açaí, araçá-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. A atividade de radicais livres foi avaliada pelo método de ABTS. Algumas polpas apresentaram alta potencialidade antioxidante, associada com a atividade antirradicais livres obtida e os conteúdos dos componentes bioativos como compostos fenólicos e ácido ascórbico, destacando-se acerola e acaí. O conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos foi correlacionado à capacidade antioxidante das polpas.Physical and chemical characteristics (color, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, lipid content, moisture and levels of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics were determined in fifteen samples of fruit pulps from Amazonia (abiu, acerola, açaí, araça-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. The free radical scavenger activity was evaluated by the ABTS assay. Some pulps presented high antioxidant potential, associated with the free radical scavenger activity measured and the content of bioactive components, such as phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, especialy in acerola and açaí. The total phenolic content was correlated to antioxidant capacity of pulps.

  20. The Greatest Legacy of the Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA): A Bibliometric Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is an international continental scale effort led by Brazil to understand how land use change and climate change affects the role of Amazonia in the Earth system. During the first decade of studies (1998-2007), LBA researchers generated new understanding of Amazonia and published over 1000 papers. However, most LBA participants agree that training and education of a large cohort of scientists, especially students from Brazil, was the greatest contribution of LBA. I analyzed bibliographic data from the NASA supported component project known as LBA-ECO. This component covered a large cross-section of the LBA subject areas highlighting land use and land cover change, carbon cycling, nutrient cycling and other aspects of terrestrial and aquatic ecology. I reviewed the complete bibliography of peer-reviewed papers reported by LBA-ECO researchers (http://www.lbaeco.org/cgi-bin/web/investigations/lbaeco_refs.pl). The researchers reported 691 contributions from 1996 through 2013 of which 24 were theses that were removed them from further analysis. Of 667 papers and book chapters, I tallied the first authors separating categories for Brazilians, all students, and Brazilian students. Numerically, LBA-ECO production of papers peaked in 2004. Publication by Brazilians, students, and Brazilian students generally followed the same pattern as publication in general. However, student and Brazilian student contributions as first authors showed clearly increasing proportions of the papers from project initiation through peak publication. Brazilian student participation as first authors averaged more than 20% of all publications from 2003 to 2010 and more than half of all student publications had Brazilians as first authors. Foreign researchers, some initially reluctant to invest in Brazilian students, almost universally adapted the belief that the greatest legacy of LBA would be the contribution to building a cadre of

  1. Amazonia desde dentro: aportes a la investigación de la Amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Palacio Castañeda, Germán A.; Nieto Moreno, Juana Valentina; Rosas Riaño, Diana; Buitrago Garavito, Ana Isabel; Cure Valdivieso, Salima; Hurtado Gómez, Lina María; Bolívar Urueta, Edgar Eduardo; Moncayo Martínez, Patricia; Bonilla López, Omar Alfonso; Lozano, Carolina María; Builes, Diego Fernando; Arias García, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Este libro es una compilación y selección de artículos cuya materia prima la constituyen algunos de los mejores trabajos de tesis de la Maestría en Estudios Amazónicos de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Amazonia. De este modo, los primeros artículos del libro están reunidos bajo el título "Sociedad, comunidades y representaciones"; donde Valentina Nieto describe cómo "mujer de la abundancia", una imagen central en la ideología uitoto, se mantiene viva en las actividades cotidian...

  2. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil Ocorrência de fungos filamentosos associados a larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia Central, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quézia Ribeiro Fonseca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi.A família Simuliidae é hospedeira de fungos simbiontes que habitam o trato digestivo de artrópodos. Este estudo reporta a presença de fungos em larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia. Foi observado que as larvas são bons componentes do sistema aquático para isolar fungos filamentosos.

  3. Predicting pre-Columbian anthropogenic soils in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, C H; Palace, M W; Bush, M B; Braswell, B; Hagen, S; Neves, E G; Silman, M R; Tamanaha, E K; Czarnecki, C

    2014-02-22

    The extent and intensity of pre-Columbian impacts on lowland Amazonia have remained uncertain and controversial. Various indicators can be used to gauge the impact of pre-Columbian societies, but the formation of nutrient-enriched terra preta soils has been widely accepted as an indication of long-term settlement and site fidelity. Using known and newly discovered terra preta sites and maximum entropy algorithms (Maxent), we determined the influence of regional environmental conditions on the likelihood that terra pretas would have been formed at any given location in lowland Amazonia. Terra pretas were most frequently found in central and eastern Amazonia along the lower courses of the major Amazonian rivers. Terrain, hydrologic and soil characteristics were more important predictors of terra preta distributions than climatic conditions. Our modelling efforts indicated that terra pretas are likely to be found throughout ca 154 063 km(2) or 3.2% of the forest. We also predict that terra preta formation was limited in most of western Amazonia. Model results suggested that the distribution of terra preta was highly predictable based on environmental parameters. We provided targets for future archaeological surveys under the vast forest canopy and also highlighted how few of the long-term forest inventory sites in Amazonia are able to capture the effects of historical disturbance.

  4. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km(2)) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km(2)). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km(2)) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  5. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km2) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km2). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km2) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  6. Dynamics, Patterns and Causes of Fires in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests. PMID:22523580

  7. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolors Armenteras

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops. Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  8. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  9. Physical characterization and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places in three municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Santos Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese type cabacinha from Vale do Jequitinhonha is obtained by curd heating in a similar process made to Mozzarella, but the raw milk is unpasteurized and the final product is stored unpackaged and at room temperature. This milk derivative may contribute to the increase the income of the local population, especially the residents of the edges of roads, due to the flow of vehicles and possible buyers. The purpose of this work was to identify the physical and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places present in three municipalities of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil. Previously the investigation was detected the number of marketplaces that sell these cheese in the Medina, Cachoeira de Pajeú and Pedra Azul, municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, located on the surrounding area of the highways BR 251 and BR 116. Afterward as developed a physical and sanitary checklist and it were filled in loco. It was observed that most market places were not provided of masonry walls, piped water or toilet and sink. It is also common to the presence of possible contamination vectors in surroundings, such as dogs and insects. It is verified that most of these cheese is exposed in pairs held by string and unpackaged. This study demonstrated the precariousness of the physical structures and consequently the lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the cheese type cabacinha market places. Because it is an artisanal product from family farming, which generates income and employment in the field deserve more attention of competent state and municipal authorities.

  10. Remote sensing of forest dynamics and land use in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Michael Paul

    The rich, vast Amazonian ecosystem is directly and indirectly threatened by human activities; remote sensing serves as an essential tool for monitoring, understanding and mitigating these threats. A multi-faceted body of work is described here, addressing three major issues that employ and advance remote sensing techniques for the study of Amazonia and other tropical rainforest regions. In Chapter 2, canopy reflectance modeling and satellite observations were used to quantify the effect of epiphylls on remote sensing of humid forests. Modeling simulations demonstrated sensitivity of canopy-level near infrared and green reflectance to epiphylls on leaves. Time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) data corroborated the modeling results, suggesting a degree of coupling between epiphyll cover and vegetation indices which must be accounted for when using optical remote sensing in humid forests. In Chapter 4, 11 years (2000--2010) of MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data covering the entire Amazon basin were used to ascertain the role of heat stress during droughts in 2005 and 2010. Preliminary accuracy assessments showed that LST data provided reasonably accurate estimates of daytime air temperatures (RMSE = 1.45°C; Chapter 3). There were moderate to strong correlations between LST-based air temperature estimates and tower measurements (mean r = 0.64), illustrating a sensitivity to temporal variability. During both droughts, MODIS LST data detected anomalously high daytime and nighttime canopy temperatures throughout drought-affected regions. Multivariate linear models of LST and precipitation anomalies explained 65.1% of the variability in forest biomass losses, as determined from a wide network of forest inventory plots. These results suggest that models should incorporate both heat and moisture to predict drought effects on tropical forests. In Chapter 5, I performed high spatial and temporal resolution modeling of carbon stocks and fluxes

  11. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  12. Physical violence against patients with mental disorders in Brazil: sex differences in a cross-sectional study

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    Helian Nunes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Patients with mental illness are more exposed to violence than the general population. This study assessed factors associated with lifetime physical violence against these patients stratified by sex in Brazil. METHODS: This is a National cross-sectional multicenter study with a representative sample of 2,475 patients randomly selected from 26 public mental health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with physical violence and crude (OR and adjusted odds ratios (aOR with 95% confidence interval were estimated. Statistical level considered was 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime physical violence against mental patients was similar for women (57.6% and men (57.8%. Physical violence against women was independently associated with: previous psychiatric hospitalizations (aOR = 2.09, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.75, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.59, age of sexual debut (< 16 y.o. (aOR = 1.40, lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use (aOR = 2.08, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.73 and lifetime incarceration (aOR = 1.69. Among men, associated factors were: age (18-40 y.o. (aOR = 1.90, history of homelessness (aOR = 1.71, previous psychiatric hospitalization (aOR = 1.39, lifetime STD (aOR = 1.52, lifetime alcohol consumption (aOR = 1.41, lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine (aOR = 1.54, having received/offered money for sex (aOR = 1.47, lifetime history of incarceration (aOR = 2.07. DISCUSSION: The prevalence of physical violence in this population was high for both sexes. Although there were similar factors independently associated with physical violence among men and women, there are important differences, such as age of sexual debut and lifetime sex under alcohol/drugs use for women, but not for men, while younger age, history of homelessness, and lifetime use of marijuana or cocaine were associated factors for men only. Screening for history of violence upon admission and early

  13. CERN - CLAF School of Physics, Itacurua, Brazil, 6 - 19 May 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The basic aim of the School is to teach various aspects of high-energy physics, and especially theoretical physics, primarily to Post-Graduates in experimental particle physics, typically aged under thirty years and about one year from submitting their PhD theses.

  14. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Haffer

    Full Text Available The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1 Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis, (2 the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis, (3 a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis, (4 the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis, (5 changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis (6 the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis, (7 competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis and (8 parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis. Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch‡ cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on

  15. Hypotheses to explain the origin of species in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffer, J

    2008-11-01

    The main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different factors, as follow: (1) Changes in the distribution of land and sea or in the landscape due to tectonic movements or sea level fluctuations (Paleogeography hypothesis), (2) the barrier effect of Amazonian rivers (River hypothesis), (3) a combination of the barrier effect of broad rivers and vegetational changes in northern and southern Amazonia (River-refuge hypothesis), (4) the isolation of humid rainforest blocks near areas of surface relief in the periphery of Amazonia separated by dry forests, savannas and other intermediate vegetation types during dry climatic periods of the Tertiary and Quaternary (Refuge hypothesis), (5) changes in canopy-density due to climatic reversals (Canopy-density hypothesis) (6) the isolation and speciation of animal populations in small montane habitat pockets around Amazonia due to climatic fluctuations without major vegetational changes (Museum hypothesis), (7) competitive species interactions and local species isolations in peripheral regions of Amazonia due to invasion and counterinvasion during cold/warm periods of the Pleistocene (Disturbance-vicariance hypothesis) and (8) parapatric speciation across steep environmental gradients without separation of the respective populations (Gradient hypothesis). Several of these hypotheses probably are relevant to a different degree for the speciation processes in different faunal groups or during different geological periods. The basic paleogeography model refers mainly to faunal differentiation during the Tertiary and in combination with the Refuge hypothesis. Milankovitch cycles leading to global main hypotheses proposed to explain barrier formation separating populations and causing the differentiation of species in Amazonia during the course of geological history are based on different

  16. The first species of the genus Caponina from Brazilian Amazonia (Araneae: Caponiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The genus Caponina Simon, 1891 comprises eleven species of medium-sized, soil-dwelling caponiids. Most members of Caponina have six eyes, but some have five, four, three or two eyes (Brignoli 1977, Platnick 1994). The genus is widespread in South and Central America (Platnick 2012). To date, only three species have been recorded from Brazil: Caponina alegre Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, C. notabilis (Mello-Leitão, 1939) from the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, and C. tijuca Platnick, 1994 from the state of Rio de Janeiro (Platnick 1994). In this paper we describe a new species from the state of Pará, in Brazilian Amazonia. Caponina papamanga new species was collected during the "Butantan na Amazonia" project, founded by the Instituto Butantan. The phylogenetic relationships of C. papamanga could not be studied, but the greatly elongated embolus, the dorsal tubercle on the palpal femur (Figs. 7, 9) and the massive epigynal sclerotizations (Fig. 10) suggest that this species belongs to the monophyletic Andean group proposed by Platnick (1994: 7). All morphological observations and illustrations were made using a Leica MZ12 stereomicroscope with camera lucida. The epigynum was dissected and immersed in clove oil for visualization of internal structures following Levi (1965). Descriptions and measurements follow Platnick (1994). Measurements are given in millimeters. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken using a Jeol-JSM-5200 with attached SLR digital camera. The material examined was deposited in the collections of the Instituto Butantan, Sgo Paulo (IBSP, curator: D.M. Barros Battesti) and the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém (MPEG, curator: A.B. Bonaldo).

  17. In Search of the Autonomous and Critical Individual: A Philosophical and Pedagogical Analysis of the Physical Education Curriculum of São Paulo (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, Mauro; Knijnik, Jorge; Venâncio, Luciana; Neto, Luiz Sanches

    2015-01-01

    Background: Academics, teachers and policy-makers across the world have discussed how to develop a relevant physical education (PE) curriculum that addresses the "body education" needs and interests of twenty-first-century students. In Brazil, after the launch of the national curricular parameters (PCNs) in the late 1990s, many new PE…

  18. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  19. Disentangling the contribution of multiple land covers to fire-mediated carbon emissions in Amazonia during the 2010 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liana Oighenstein; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Gloor, Manuel; Arai, Egídio; Adami, Marcos; Saatchi, Sassan S; Malhi, Yadvinder; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Barlow, Jos; Berenguer, Erika; Duarte, Valdete

    2015-10-01

    In less than 15 years, the Amazon region experienced three major droughts. Links between droughts and fires have been demonstrated for the 1997/1998, 2005, and 2010 droughts. In 2010, emissions of 510 ± 120 Tg C were associated to fire alone in Amazonia. Existing approaches have, however, not yet disentangled the proportional contribution of multiple land cover sources to this total. We develop a novel integration of multisensor and multitemporal satellite-derived data on land cover, active fires, and burned area and an empirical model of fire-induced biomass loss to quantify the extent of burned areas and resulting biomass loss for multiple land covers in Mato Grosso (MT) state, southern Amazonia-the 2010 drought most impacted region. We show that 10.77% (96,855 km(2)) of MT burned. We estimated a gross carbon emission of 56.21 ± 22.5 Tg C from direct combustion of biomass, with an additional 29.4 ± 10 Tg C committed to be emitted in the following years due to dead wood decay. It is estimated that old-growth forest fires in the whole Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) have contributed to 14.81 Tg of C (11.75 Tg C to 17.87 Tg C) emissions to the atmosphere during the 2010 fire season, with an affected area of 27,555 km(2). Total C loss from the 2010 fires in MT state and old-growth forest fires in the BLA represent, respectively, 77% (47% to 107%) and 86% (68.2% to 103%) of Brazil's National Plan on Climate Change annual target for Amazonia C emission reductions from deforestation.

  20. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. II. Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae, Sphaerodactylidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-02

    I present distribution data of all geckos (Gekkonidae, Phyllodactylidae and Sphaerodactylidae) known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 19 species, belonging to nine genera. This represents six more taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 23,094 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums. Most species (68.4%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia. As a whole, three taxa are widespread in Amazonia, two are restricted to eastern Amazonia, two to western Amazonia, three to northern Amazonia (either widespread or restriced to parts of the Guiana region), one to southern Amazonia, one to southwestern Amazonia, and three to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Additionally, four species have unique distributions and four species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in the area of endemism of Guiana, one in Inambari, and one in Tapajós.

  1. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  2. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical r

  3. Paleoclimates of Amazonia: An ice-age view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, M.B.; De Oliveira, P.E.; Raczka, M.F.; Gosling, W.D.; Mayle, F.E.; McMichael, C.H.; Urrego, D.H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Cunha Lana, C.; Strohschoen Jr., O.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence points to climatic complexity during the Ice-Ages. Amazonia does not respond uniformly to modern climatic forcing, and the same was true of the past. Although some climatic forcings were probably expressed everywhere, they were manifested differently. Consequently, climate

  4. Evapotranspiration of deforested areas in central and southwestern Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randow, von R.C.S.; Randow, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Tomasella, J.; Kruijt, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high rates of evapotranspiration of Amazonian forests, understanding the impacts of deforestation on water loss rates is important for assessing those impacts on a regional and global scale. This paper quantifies evapotranspiration rates in two different pasture sites in Amazonia and

  5. Taxonomy and distribution of the salamander genus Bolitoglossa Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854 (Amphibia, Caudata, Plethodontidae) in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcko, Isabela Carvalho; Hoogmoed, Marinus Steven; Neckel-Oliverira, Selvino

    2013-01-01

    For nearly 40 years Bolitoglossa paraensis has been synonymized with Bolitoglossa altamazonica. This fact has been mainly related to taxonomic ambiguities arising from the morphological similarities between these species and the scarcity of material deposited in collections. However, during the past 30 years new material of Bolitoglossa has been collected in many places throughout the Brazilian Amazonia, including the type locality of B. paraensis, Santa Isabel do Pará. In this article we designate the neotype of B. paraensis based on new material from the type locality, correct misinterpretations about this name. We determined how many species of the genus Bolitoglossa occur in Brazilian Amazonia, described three new species, B. caldwellae sp. nov., B. madeira sp. nov., and B. tapajonica sp. nov., provide a key for identifying Brazilian salamanders. Were analyzed two hundred and seventy eight specimens of Bolitoglossa from the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, and Rondonia; morphological data ofB. altamazonica from Colombia were used for comparison purposes. We confirm the presence of B. altamazonica in extreme western Brazil, and expand the number of species occurring in Brazilian Amazonia to five.

  6. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria Conceição Chagas; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Aquino, Estela Maria Leão de; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants' physical activity. Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women). The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income), environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity) and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image). The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years). Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  7. The Araceae in Ceará, Brazil: humid forest plants in a semi-arid region

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Ivanilza Moreira de; Mayo,Simon Joseph; Silva, Maria Francilene Souza; Sousa,Danilo José Lima de; Matias,Lígia Queiroz; Ribeiro,Thales Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study consists of a taxonomic treatment of the Araceae of Ceará, a state lying within Brazil's semi-arid region. The aroid flora shows greater similarity to those of central Brazil and Amazonia than to the Atlantic forest. Most species occur in humid forest fragments - the "florestas serranas". Geophytes are also found in caatinga and dry forest (Taccarum ulei) and lithophytes on rock outcrops in dry forest (Philodendron acutatum). Floating aquatics occur in ponds and lakes throughout the...

  8. Tiempos afroindígenas en la Amazonia brasileña. Primera mitad del siglo XIX

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    Ruiz-Peinado Alonso, José Luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Brazilian Amazonia was marked by extraordinary political-military instability: its belated support of Brazil’s independence (1823, the discussion on slavery and the explosion of the Cabanagem. During this period the leading figures were not only the Portuguese-Brazilian political elites, but also the different groups of fugitive slaves and natives who operated along the vast and complicated border areas, alert to revolutionary ideas coming from abroad, and who played an essential role in the construction of the specificity of northern Brazil.

    La Amazonia brasileña durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX estuvo marcada por una extraordinaria inestabilidad político-militar. Su adhesión tardía a la independencia de Brasil (1823, el debate sobre la esclavitud y la explosión de la Cabanagem fueron procesos que tuvieron como protagonistas no sólo a las elites políticas lusobrasileñas, sino también a diferentes grupos cimarrones e indígenas que actuaban desde amplios e intrincados espacios de frontera, atentos a las ideas revolucionarias que provenían del exterior y que jugaron un papel fundamental en la construcción de la especificidad del norte de Brasil.

  9. On the Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of Western Amazonia (Solimões Formation): Refining taxonomy on species level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2014-12-18

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic ostracod fauna. Among them, especially the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400 m long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. We evaluate the diagnostic value of shell characters and provide an extensive illustration of the intraspecific variability of species. Based on comparative morphology, the 20 recorded Cyprideis species are arranged in groups and subgroups. The "smooth" group comprises C. amazonica, C. kotzianae, C. kroemmelbeini, C. machadoi, C. multiradiata, C. olivencai, C. paralela and C. simplex; the "ornate" group C. curucae nom. nov., C. cyrtoma, C. aff. graciosa, C. inversa, C. ituiae n. sp., C. matorae n. sp., C. minipunctata, C. munoztorresi nom. nov., C. pebasae, C. reticulopunctata, C. schedogymnos and C. sulcosigmoidalis. Five species have been revalidated, two renamed, two synonymised and two are new descriptions. Along with 10 further formally established species, for which a review is pending, Cyprideis keeps at least 30 endemic species in that region during Miocene times. Up to 12 Cyprideis species have been found to occur sympatrically, representing >90% of the entire ostracod fauna. Ostracod index species enable a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones, corresponding to a late Middle to early Late Miocene age (late Serravallian-early Tortonian).

  10. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

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    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  11. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

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    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  12. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  13. Spatialization of climate, physical and socioeconomic factors that affect the dairy goat production in Brazil and their impact on animal breeding decisions

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    Fernando B. Lopes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to implement animal breeding programs to meet the needs of each region.

  14. The role of cultural identity as a learning factor in physics: a discussion through the role of science in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Ivã; Pietrocola, Mauricio; Watanabe, Graciella

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, changes in society have deeply affected the internal organization and the main goals of schools. These changes are particularly important in science education because science is one of the major sources of change in peoples' lives. This research provided the opportunity to investigate how these changes affect the way teachers develop their classroom activities. In this work, we focus on science as part of the cultural identity of a society and how this identity affects the process of teaching and learning inside the classroom. Other works have shown that certain social characteristics such as gender, race, religion, etc., can create a cultural barrier to learning science. This results in an obstacle between those particular students and the science that is taught, hindering their learning process. We first aim to present the notion of identity in education and in other related fields such as social psychology and sociology. Our main purpose is to focus on identity in a school setting and how that identity affects the relationship students have with the science content. Next, we present and analyze an intervention in the subject of Modern and Contemporary Physics composed by a sequence of activities in a private school in the region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This intervention serves to illustrate how scientific topics may be explored while considering aspects of cultural differences as an obstacle. The intervention was completed in two steps: first, in the classroom with a discussion concerning scientific works and nationality of scientists, with one being a Brazilian physicist; second, taking students to visit a particle collider at the University of São Paulo. One of the results of our research was realizing that students do not perceive science as something representative of the Brazilian cultural identity. At the same time, the activity gave the students the opportunity to make the connection between doing physical sciences at an

  15. Nutritional status, physical performance and functional capacity in an elderly population in southern Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Danielewicz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the association between nutritional status and functional limitation and disability in an elderly population in southern Brazil. Methods: epidemiological, cross-sectional household-based study carried out with 477 elderly of both sexes (60 to 100 years. Body mass index (BMI served to assess the nutritional status: underweight (BMI 27 kg/m2. The sum score (0-5 obtained in three tests: "chair stand" and "pick up a pen" (measured by time and standing balance (four static measurements assessed the functional limitation. The disability was evaluated by the difficulty in performing one or more self-reported tasks related to basic activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Crude and adjusted analyzes (3 models were carried out using Poisson regression; prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results: crude analyzes showed a positive association between underweight and functional limitation (PR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.63 to 4.51; overweight and disability in ADLs (PR = 2.20, CI 95% = 1.44 to 3.35; overweight and disability in IADLs (PR = 1.56, CI 95% = 1.20 to 2.03. The additional adjustments for gender, age, level of education, living arrangements, current work, cognitive function and number of morbidities reduced the strength of the associations, without changing the statistical strength. Conclusion: nutritional status is a factor that is independently and positively associated with functional limitation and disability. We recommend the use of this indicator to monitor the health of the elderly.

  16. Low-Cost Educational Robotics Applied to Physics Teaching in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcos A. M.; Duarte, José R. R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose some of the strategies and methodologies for teaching high-school physics topics through an educational robotics show. This exhibition was part of a set of actions promoted by a Brazilian government program of incentive for teaching activities, whose primary focus is the training of teachers, the improvement of teaching…

  17. Low-Cost Educational Robotics Applied to Physics Teaching in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcos A. M.; Duarte, José R. R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose some of the strategies and methodologies for teaching high-school physics topics through an educational robotics show. This exhibition was part of a set of actions promoted by a Brazilian government program of incentive for teaching activities, whose primary focus is the training of teachers, the improvement of teaching…

  18. Low-Cost Evaluation of EO-1 Hyperion and ALI for Detection and Biophysical Characterization of Forest Logging in Amazonia (NCC5-481)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael M.; Silva, Jose Natalino; Zweede, Johan C.; Pereira, Rodrigo, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Major uncertainties exist regarding the rate and intensity of logging in tropical forests worldwide: these uncertainties severely limit economic, ecological, and biogeochemical analyses of these regions. Recent sawmill surveys in the Amazon region of Brazil show that the area logged is nearly equal to total area deforested annually, but conversion of survey data to forest area, forest structural damage, and biomass estimates requires multiple assumptions about logging practices. Remote sensing could provide an independent means to monitor logging activity and to estimate the biophysical consequences of this land use. Previous studies have demonstrated that the detection of logging in Amazon forests is difficult and no studies have developed either the quantitative physical basis or remote sensing approaches needed to estimate the effects of various logging regimes on forest structure. A major reason for these limitations has been a lack of sufficient, well-calibrated optical satellite data, which in turn, has impeded the development and use of physically-based, quantitative approaches for detection and structural characterization of forest logging regimes. We propose to use data from the EO-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer to greatly increase our ability to estimate the presence and structural attributes of selective logging in the Amazon Basin. Our approach is based on four "biogeophysical indicators" not yet derived simultaneously from any satellite sensor: 1) green canopy leaf area index; 2) degree of shadowing; 3) presence of exposed soil and; 4) non-photosynthetic vegetation material. Airborne, field and modeling studies have shown that the optical reflectance continuum (400-2500 nm) contains sufficient information to derive estimates of each of these indicators. Our ongoing studies in the eastern Amazon basin also suggest that these four indicators are sensitive to logging intensity. Satellite-based estimates of these indicators should provide a means to

  19. OSL age determinations of Pleistocene fluvial deposits in Central Amazonia

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    Emílio A.A. Soares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Absolute dating methods have been used in chronological studies of geological processes and sedimentary units of Quaternary age in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Although radiocarbon dating has been very useful in archaeological research and soil studies, the temporal interval of this method is inefficient in evaluating the sedimentation aspects and geological events from the beginning of the Quaternary in the Amazon basin. The use of crystal luminescence dating has been one of the most promising tool for determining the absolute dating of Quaternary deposits in the Amazonian region. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating, following the MAR and SAR protocols, in a tectonic-sedimentary study of Quaternary fluvial deposits in the confluence area of the Negro and Solimões rivers, indicated ages from 1.3 (Holocene to about 67.4 kyears (Late Pleistocene for these sediments. Low radioactive isotope concentrations were found about 2ppm for 235U and 238U; 5ppm for 232Th; and the 40K concentrations were almost zero. A comparison was made between MAR and SAR protocols taking into account the fluvial depositional process.Métodos de datação absoluta têm sido usados em estudos cronológicos de processos geológicos e unidades sedimentares de idade quaternária na Amazônia Central, Brasil. Embora as datações pelo 14C tenham sido muito úteis na pesquisa arqueológica e estudos de solos, o intervalo de tempo abrangido por este método é ineficiente para avaliar aspectos da sedimentação e eventos geológicos do início do Quaternário na bacia Amazônica. O uso da datação por luminescência de cristais tem sido uma das ferramentas mais promissoras para a determinação da idade absoluta de depósitos quaternários na região amazônica. A datação por luminescência opticamente estimulada (LOE, seguindo os protocolos MAR e SAR, em um estudo tectono-sedimentar de depósitos aluviais quaternários da área de confluência dos rios Negro e Solim

  20. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil

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    Jorge Both

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women, corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Spearman’s correlation test. The results showed the dissatisfaction of teachers with wages, working conditions and balance between work and leisure. Most subjects presented positive lifestyle behaviors, but the components nutrition, physical activity and stress management were a matter of concern. Internal evaluation of QWL yielded higher correlation coefficients than lifestyle. When comparing the two analytical matrices, low levels of correlation were observed between components and overall assessment of the constructs.

  1. Simultaneous development of semigrabens orthogonal and oblique to the extension direction: physical modeling of natural analogues in Northeastern Brazil

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    André João Palma Conde Blanco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical modeling tool is being increasingly used in geology to provide information about the evolutionary stages (nucleation, growth and geometry of geological structures at various scales. In the simulations of extensional tectonics, modeling provides a better understanding of fault geometry and evolution of the tectonic-stratigraphic architecture of rift basins. In this study a sandbox type apparatus was used to study the nucleation and development of basins influenced by previous structures in the basement, variably oriented as regards to the main extensional axis. Two types of experiments were conducted in order to: (i simulate the individual (independent development of half-grabens oriented orthogonal or oblique to the extension direction; (ii simulate the simultaneous development of such half-grabens, orthogonal or oblique to the extension direction. In both cases the same materials (sand mixed with gypsum were used and the same boundary conditions were maintained. The results were compared with a natural analogue represented by the Rio do Peixe Basin (one of the eocretaceous interior basins of Northeast Brazil. The obtained models allowed to observe the development of segmented border faults with listric geometry, often forming relay ramps, and the development of inner basins faults that affect only the basal strata, like the ones observed in the seismic sections of the natural analogue. The results confirm the importance of basement tectonic heritage in the geometry of rift depocenters.

  2. Educational Robotics of low cost applied to Physics Teaching in Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Marcos A M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose strategies and methodologies of teaching topics in high school physics, through a show of Educational Robotics. The Exhibition was part of a set of actions promoted by a brazilian government program of incentive for teaching activities (PIBID) and whose primary focus is the training of teachers, improvement of teaching in public schools, dissemination of science and formation of new scientists and researchers. By means of workshops, banners and prototyping of robotics, we are able to create a connection between the study areas and their surrounding, making learning meaningful and accessible for the students involved and contributing to their cognitive development.

  3. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-08

    I present distribution data of all Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae and Tropiduridae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 40 species-level taxa, belonging to 11 genera. This represents four more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 41,243 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian musea, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (62.5%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa are widespread in Amazonia, one is restricted to eastern Amazonia, three to western Amazonia, five to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), two to northwestern Amazonia, one to southern Amazonia, nine to southwestern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Five species have unique distributions and five species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates). The first herpetological gazetteer for the Brazilian Amazonia with about 3,600 georeferenced localities was also produced.

  4. Epidemiology of leisure-time physical activity: a population-based study in southern Brazil

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    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI during leisure time and to identify variables associated with it in a southern Brazilian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,968 subjects aged 20-69 years. Weekly participation in leisure-time physical activity was addressed. For each activity, energy expenditure was calculated using data on duration, metabolic equivalent, and body weight. Energy expenditures of individual activities were summed to give a weekly total. PI was defined as fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per week. The prevalence of PI was 80.7% (95%CI: 78.9-82.4. After adjusted analyses, the following variables were positively associated with the outcome: female gender, age, living with a partner, and smoking. Schooling and economic status were inversely associated with PI. Chronically undernourished individuals were significantly more likely to be inactive. We found no differences according to skin color or alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the prevalence of PI in this adult population was higher than in populations from developed countries, but the associated variables were similar.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plants of Theobroma grandiflorum Schum and Paullinia cupana Mart. of aN agroforestry system in Central Amazonia, Amazonas State, Brazil Dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantas de Theobroma grandiflorum Schum e Paullinia cupana Mart. de um sistema agroflorestal na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF was investigated in the rhizosphere of two fruit species in a terra firme (upland ecosystem in Central Amazonia. Two host species (Theobroma grandiflorum and Paullinia cupana and nine sampling months (August, September and December/1998, February, April, May and December/1999, February and May/2000 were studied in a completely randomized design, with five replications, set in a 2 x 9 factorial experiment. Soil (0-20 cm depth and root samples were collected between August 1998 and May 2000. The mean percent colonization of AMF for both species reached maximal values in February and May 2000 (rainy season. In April and May 1999, February and May 2000 (rainy season the highest AMF spore numbers were registered. The pluvial precipitation was significantly positively correlated with AMF number spores for both fruit species, and significant positive correlation only with AMF colonization of P. cupana. Soil moisture content was positively correlated with colonization and spore numbers of AMF for both species evaluated. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were positively correlated with soil Mg and K concentrations. AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were also negatively correlated with effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers in the rhizosphere of P. cupana were positively correlated with pH and Mn concentrations. AMF colonization was also positively correlated with AMF spore numbers for both species evaluated. In conclusion, this study showed that AMF colonization and sporulation are seasonal and dependent on host plant species, pluvial precipitation, soil moisture content and soil chemistry in Central Amazonia conditions.A dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA foi investigada na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas em um ecossistema de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Adotou-se o delineamento

  6. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolman, A.J.; Ashby, M.; Kabat, P. [DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands). Winand Staring Centre; Silva Dias, M.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Calvet, J.-C.; Delire, C. [Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, 31 - Toulouse (France); Tahara, A.S.; Nobre, C.A. [INPE/CPTEC, Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil). Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estidps Climaticos; Fisch, G.A. [Centro Tecnico Aerospacial, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    As part of the preparation for the large-scale biosphere atmosphere experiment in amazonia, a mesoscale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to subcontinental scales in the dry season. Mesoscale models were run in 1D and 3D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture) poor. The models` underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area. The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the mesoscale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric mesoscale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role. (orig.) 39 refs.

  7. Dietary practices and nutritional status of 0-24-month-old children from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T G; Baraldi, L G; Muniz, P T; Cardoso, M A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 0-24-month-old children living in Brazilian Amazonia. Cross-sectional study. Information on children's dietary intakes was obtained from diet history data. Weight and length were measured for anthropometric evaluation. Fe status was assessed using fasting venous blood samples; Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations were measured. The towns of Assis Brasil and Acrelândia in the state of Acre, north-west Brazil. A total of sixty-nine randomly selected 0-24-month-old children. Of these children, 40.3 % were anaemic, 63.1 % were Fe-deficient, 28.1 % had Fe-deficiency anaemia and 11.6 % were stunted. Breast-feeding was initiated by 97.1 % of mothers, followed by early feeding with complementary foods. The dietary pattern reflected a high intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and cow's milk, with irregular intakes of fruit, vegetables and meat. All infants and 92.3 % of toddlers were at risk of inadequate Fe intakes. Fe from animal foods contributed on average 0.5 % and 14.3 % to total dietary Fe intake among infants and toddlers, respectively. Poor nutritional status and inadequate feeding practices in this study population reinforce the importance of exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life. Greater emphasis is required to improve the bioavailability of dietary Fe during complementary feeding practices.

  8. Diversity of bats trypanosomes in hydroeletric area of Belo Monte in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa P; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Leite, Beatriz Helena Santos; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel G da S; Tonhosolo, Renata; da Rosa, Adriana Ruckert; da Rocha, Patricio Adriano; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2016-12-01

    The Trypanosoma comprises flagellates able to infect many mammalian species and is transmitted by several groups of invertebrates. The order Chiroptera can be infected by the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum and Trypanozoon. In this study, we described the diversity of bats trypanosomes, inferring the phylogenetic relationships among the trypanosomes from bats caught Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (Brazilian Amazonia). Trypanosomes from bats were isolated by haemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences. Morphological characterization included light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of 157 bats were caught in the area belonging 6 Families (Emballonuridae, Furipteridae, Mormoopidae, Natalidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) and 34 species. The bat trypanosome prevalence, as evaluated through haemoculture, was 5,7%. Phylogenetic trees grouped the isolates in T. cruzi branch (TCI and TCbat lineage), T. cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma wauwau from Pteronotus parnellii. This is the first isolate from T. wauwau in Para state. The occurrence of T. cruzi in the ​​ Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (UHE Belo Monte) in Amazon/Brazil attentive to the risk of migration human population required for the works of the dam and new cities that grow in the vicinity of these businesses, but it is a zoonosis already known to the Amazon region, and the presence of unclassified Trypanosoma species, attend to the large parasitic biodiversity still unknown.

  9. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C., E-mail: ahorbe@ufam.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Behling, Hermann [Georg August Universitaet Goettingen (Germany). Albrecht von Haller Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften. Abteilung fuer Palynologie und Klimadynamik; Nogueira, Afonso C.R. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Mapes, Russell [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Geological Science

    2011-09-15

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palynology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, FeO, CaO, K{sub 2}O, MgO, Na{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  10. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  11. Branch xylem density variations across Amazonia

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    S. Patiño

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of branch xylem density, Dx, were made for 1466 trees representing 503 species, sampled from 80 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 240 kg m−3 for a Brosimum parinarioides from Tapajos in West Pará, Brazil to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average Dx across the sample plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that geographic location and plot accounted for 33% of the variation with species identity accounting for an additional 27%; the remaining "residual" 40% of the variance accounted for by tree to tree (within species variation. Variations in plot means, were, however, hardly accountable at all by differences in species composition. Rather, it would seem that variations of xylem density at plot level must be explained by the effects of soils and/or climate. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the xylem density of the more widely distributed species varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing and in a predictable manner. Exceptions to this general rule may be some pioneers belonging to Pourouma and Miconia and some species within the genera Brosimum, Rinorea and Trichillia which seem to be more constrained in terms of this plasticity than most species sampled as part of this study.

  12. The large scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA); concise experimental plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LBAScience Planning Group (Cachoeira Paulista),

    1996-01-01

    The large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) aims at enhancing knowledge of the climatological, ecological, biogeochemical, and hydrological functioning of Amazonia. It will address the effects of changes in land use and climate on these functions, including also the

  13. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summary in English, 163 pp. Rural Amazonia is increasingly experiencing environmental and socio-economic changes that directly affect smallholder farmers, with ...

  14. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  15. A qualitative study analyzing access to physical rehabilitation for traffic accident victims with severe disability in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Kelienny de Meneses; Oliveira, Wagner Ivan Fonsêca de; Melo, Laiza Oliveira Mendes de; Alves, Emanuel Augusto; Piuvezam, Grasiela; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To identify access barriers to physical rehabilitation for traffic accident (TA) victims with severe disability and build a theoretical model to provide guidance towards the improvement of these services. Methods Qualitative research carried out in the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil), with semi-structured interviews with 120 subjects (19 key informer health professionals and 101 TA victims) identified in a database made available by the emergency hospital. The interviews were analyzed using Alceste software, version 4.9. Results The main barriers present in the interviews were: (1) related to services: bureaucratic administrative practises, low offer of rehabilitation services, insufficient information on rehabilitation, lack of guidelines that integrate hospital and ambulatory care and (2) related to patients: financial difficulties, functional limitations, geographic distance, little information on health, association with low education levels and disbelief in the system and in rehabilitation. Conclusion The numerous access barriers were presented in a theoretical model with causes related to organizational structure, processes of care, professionals and patients. This model must be tested by health policy-makers and managers to improve the quality of physical rehabilitation and avoid unnecessary prolongation of the suffering and disability experienced by TA survivors. Implications for rehabilitation Traffic accidents (TAs) are a global health dilemma that demands integrality of preventive actions, pre-hospital and hospital care and physical rehabilitation (PR). This study lays the foundation for improving access to PR for TA survivors, an issue of quality of care that results in preventable disabilities. The words of the patients interviewed reveal the suffering of victims, which is often invisible to society and given low priority by health policies that relegate PR to a second plan ahead of prevention and urgent care. A theoretical model of the

  16. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  17. Investigação da ocorrência da Mansonella ozzardi no Estado de Rondônia, Amazônia Ocidental Investigation of the occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi in the State of Rondônia, Western Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Almeida Basano

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Mansonella ozzardi é uma filária humana que tem como vetor dípteros simulídeos e é amplamente distribuída na Amazônia. Não há informações sobre a ocorrência de casos de mansonelose no Estado de Rondônia, e neste trabalho procurou-se investigar a situação epidemiológica desta parasitose em áreas urbanas e ribeirinhas na Amazônia Ocidental. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 4.452 moradores às margens dos rios Madeira, Mamoré, Guaporé, Machado e Preto em Rondônia, através da técnica da gota espessa de sangue. Capturou-se às margens do rio Machado e Guaporé 2.112 simulídeos adultos das espécies Cerqueirellum pydanieli e Chirostilbia pertinax. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas pessoas infectadas com M. ozzardi e foram encontradas diferentes espécies de simulídeos com potencial de transmissão da mansonelose. CONCLUSÕES: Não foram encontrados indivíduos infectados com M. ozzardi neste estudo. Este fato pode ser explicado pela existência de pacientes com baixas microfilaremias, associado à técnica diagnóstica de baixa sensibilidade utilizada no estudo. Pode-se ainda aventar a possibilidade de ter ocorrido migração insuficiente de pacientes infectados de áreas endêmicas, impossibilitando a implantação da endemia. Estudos posteriores com técnicas diagnósticas mais sensíveis podem ajudar a esclarecer esta questão.INTRODUCTION: Mansonella ozzardi, a human filarial nematode transmitted by Diptera Simuliidae flies (black flies, is widely spread in the Amazon, while the occurrence of mansonelliasis in the State of Rondônia (Western Amazonia has not been reported thus far. The existence of this parasitic disease in this state is investigated in this study. METHODS: A total of 4,452 people who lived alongside the Madeira, Mamore, Guapore, Machado and Preto Rivers, in the State of Rondônia, were examined using the thick blood smear method. Alongside the Machado and Guapore rivers, 2,112 adult simuliid

  18. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and physical activity: a study of nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L.M. Forjaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP and physical activity (PA levels are inversely associated. Since genetic factors account for the observed variation in each of these traits, it is possible that part of their association may be related to common genetic and/or environmental influences. Thus, this study was designed to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations of BP and PA phenotypes in nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil. Families including 236 offspring (6 to 24 years and their 82 fathers and 122 mothers (24 to 65 years were evaluated. BP was measured, and total PA (TPA was assessed by an interview (commuting, occupational, leisure time, and school time PA. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate maximal heritability (h², and genetic and environmental correlations. Heritability was significant for all phenotypes (systolic BP: h² = 0.37 ± 0.10, P < 0.05; diastolic BP: h² = 0.39 ± 0.09, P < 0.05; TPA: h² = 0.24 ± 0.09, P < 0.05. Significant genetic (r g and environmental (r e correlations were detected between systolic and diastolic BP (r g = 0.67 ± 0.12 and r e = 0.48 ± 0.08, P < 0.05. Genetic correlations between BP and TPA were not significant, while a tendency to an environmental cross-trait correlation was found between diastolic BP and TPA (r e = -0.18 ± 0.09, P = 0.057. In conclusion, BP and PA are under genetic influences. Systolic and diastolic BP share common genes and environmental influences. Diastolic BP and TPA are probably under similar environmental influences.

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and physical activity: a study of nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forjaz, C.L.M.; Bartholomeu, T. [Laboratório de Hemodinâmica da Atividade Motora (LAHAM), Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rezende, J.A.S. [Escola Superior de Educação Física de Muzambinho, Muzambinho, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, J.A.; Basso, L.; Tani, G. [Laboratório de Comportamento Motor (LACOM), Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Prista, A. [Faculdade de Educação Física e Desporto, Universidade Pedagógica, Maputo (Mozambique); Maia, J.A.R. [CIFI2D, Laboratório de Cineantropometria e Gabinete de Estatística Aplicada, Faculdade de Desporto, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-09-07

    Blood pressure (BP) and physical activity (PA) levels are inversely associated. Since genetic factors account for the observed variation in each of these traits, it is possible that part of their association may be related to common genetic and/or environmental influences. Thus, this study was designed to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations of BP and PA phenotypes in nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil. Families including 236 offspring (6 to 24 years) and their 82 fathers and 122 mothers (24 to 65 years) were evaluated. BP was measured, and total PA (TPA) was assessed by an interview (commuting, occupational, leisure time, and school time PA). Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate maximal heritability (h{sup 2}), and genetic and environmental correlations. Heritability was significant for all phenotypes (systolic BP: h{sup 2} = 0.37 ± 0.10, P < 0.05; diastolic BP: h{sup 2} = 0.39 ± 0.09, P < 0.05; TPA: h{sup 2} = 0.24 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). Significant genetic (r{sub g}) and environmental (r{sub e}) correlations were detected between systolic and diastolic BP (r{sub g} = 0.67 ± 0.12 and r{sub e} = 0.48 ± 0.08, P < 0.05). Genetic correlations between BP and TPA were not significant, while a tendency to an environmental cross-trait correlation was found between diastolic BP and TPA (r{sub e} = -0.18 ± 0.09, P = 0.057). In conclusion, BP and PA are under genetic influences. Systolic and diastolic BP share common genes and environmental influences. Diastolic BP and TPA are probably under similar environmental influences.

  20. [Validity of indicators on physical activity and sedentary behavior from the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey among adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the relative validity of physical activity indicators from the questionnaire used in the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on a sample of 174 students. The following indicators of weekly physical activity were evaluated: ACTIVE-300MIN (≥ 300 minutes/week); ACTIVE-150MIN (≥ 150 minutes), INACTIVE (no physical activity). Additionally, indicators of sedentary behavior were also assessed, as daily screen time (TV, videogames, and computer). The results from the questionnaire were compared with three 24-hour recalls. The results of ACTIVE-300MIN, ACTIVE-150MIN, and INACTIVE generated by PeNSE showed high accuracy. These indicators performed better than those of sedentary behavior in relation to frequency estimates as well as sensitivity, specificity, and correct classification rate. The indicators of physical activity from PeNSE showed satisfactory relative validity.

  1. Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    J. A. Marengo * and J. C. Espinoza** * Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alerta de Desastres Naturais, Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Sao Paulo, Brazil ** Subdirección de Ciencias de la Atmósfera e Hidrósfera (SCAH), Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Peru This paper reviews recent progress in the study and understanding of extreme seasonal events in the Amazon region, focusing on drought and floods. The review includes a history of droughts and floods in the past, in the present and some discussions on future extremes in the context of climate change and its impacts on the Amazon region. Several extreme hydrological events, some of them characterized as 'once in a century', have been reported in the Amazon region during the last decade. While abundant rainfall in various sectors of the basin has determined extreme floods along the river's main stem in 1953, 1989, 1999, 2009, 2012-2015, deficient rainfall in 1912, 1926, 1963, 1980, 1983, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2005 and 2010 has caused anomalously low river levels, and an increase in the risk and number of fires in the region, with consequences for humans. This is consistent with changes in the variability of the hydrometeorology of the basin and suggests that extreme hydrological events have been more frequent in the last two decades. Some of these intense/reduced rainfalls and subsequent floods/droughts were associated (but not exclusively) with La Niña/El Niño events. In addition, moisture transport anomalies from the tropical Atlantic into Amazonia, and from northern to southern Amazonia alter the water cycle in the region year-to-year. We also assess the impacts of such extremes on natural and human systems in the region, considering ecological, economic and societal impacts in urban and rural areas, particularly during the recent decades. In the context of the future climate change, studies show a large range of uncertainty, but suggest that drought might intensify through the 21st

  2. Epidemiology of disappearing Plasmodium vivax malaria: a case study in rural Amazonia.

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    Susana Barbosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings.Eight community-wide cross-sectional surveys, involving 584 subjects, were carried out in Remansinho over 3 years and complemented by active and passive surveillance of febrile illnesses between the surveys. We used quantitative PCR to detect low-density asexual parasitemias and gametocytemias missed by conventional microscopy. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression models were used to characterize independent risk factors for P. vivax infection and disease.P. vivax prevalence decreased from 23.8% (March-April 2010 to 3.0% (April-May 2013, with no P. falciparum infections diagnosed after March-April 2011. Although migrants from malaria-free areas were at increased risk of malaria, their odds of having P. vivax infection and disease decreased by 2-3% with each year of residence in Amazonia. Several findings indicate that low-density and asymptomatic P. vivax parasitemias may complicate residual malaria elimination in Remansinho: (a the proportion of subpatent infections (i.e. missed by microscopy increased from 43.8% to 73.1% as P. vivax transmission declined; (b most (56.6% P. vivax infections were asymptomatic and 32.8% of them were both subpatent and asymptomatic; (c asymptomatic parasite carriers accounted for 54.4% of the total P. vivax biomass in the host population; (d over 90% subpatent and asymptomatic P. vivax had PCR-detectable gametocytemias; and (e few (17.0% asymptomatic and subpatent P. vivax infections that were left untreated

  3. Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae da coleção de invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae of the invertebrate collection of the National Institute of Research of Amazonia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Jaime Gasca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA possui 554 espécimes de Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae, pertencentes a 7 gêneros, 16 espécies e 2 subespécies. As distribuições geográficas das espécies são fornecidas, sendo que 97% do material examinado procedem de coletas feitas em diferentes locais da Amazônia brasileira.The Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, has 554 specimens of Oryctini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae, belonging to seven genera, 16 species and two subspecies. Information about geographical distribution are provided, of which 97% of the material examined was collected from several places in the Brazilian Amazon.

  4. Surface Ozone Enrichment Downwind of Manaus City, in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Rizzo, L. V.; Rodrigues, N. P.; Brito, J.; Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Barbosa, H. M.; Artaxo, P.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Amazonia is a unique place to study the impact of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric photochemistry, fueled by large inputs of solar radiation, humidity, biogenic emissions and turbulent mixing. In the wet season, thousands of km2 of Amazonian forest areas can be considered pristine, whereas in the dry season biomass burning emissions in regional scale add to picture. The Amazon region is also going through localized urban development, in particular, the Manaus city, with 2 million inhabitants. The GoAmazon2014/5 experiment seeks to understand the interactions between urban and biogenic emissions in Amazonia. The combination of biogenic volatile organic compounds and urban NOx emissions is expected to increase tropospheric O3 production, with impacts to the ecosystem and human health. To investigate this issue, surface O3 measurements were taken between Feb and Dec 2014 at two sites in Amazonia: T2, located in the outflow of the Manaus urban plume, and T3, sitting 60 km downwind of the city. The influence of the urban plume at T3 site was detected by a combination of typical ΔCN/ΔCO ratios, Hysplit backtrajectories and threshold concentrations of tracers such as particle number and black carbon. The transport from T2 to T3 typically lasted 7 hours. At T2, the O3 diurnal cycle showed a diurnal peak of 20 ppb in the wet season and of 35 ppb in the dry season, suggesting the contribution of regional biomass burning to O3 photochemical production. In the absence of urban or biomass burning emissions, O3 diurnal cycle at T3 showed a peak of 15 ppb, similar to observations taken in pristine forest areas in Amazonia. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site in the afternoon, the diurnal O3 peak increased to 40 ppb, indicating a net O3 production rate of 3.6 ppb h-1 along this diurnal transport. When the Manaus plume reached the T3 site before sunrise, i.e., a transport during the night, the diurnal peak was anticipated and reached 25 ppb.

  5. Labrets in Africa and Amazonia: medical implications and cultural determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garve, Roland; Garve, Miriam; Türp, Jens C; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-02-01

    The custom of wearing labrets has a long tradition. Labrets appeared independently several thousand years ago in various culture groups in Asia, Europe, Africa and the Americas. Today, apart from diverse body modifications as increasingly practiced in western civilisations, lip plates and plugs are found among a small number of tribal groups only in Africa and Amazonia. We summarise the history of labrets in different societies, describe medical consequences of wearing lip plates and plugs for jaws and teeth and address relevant cultural issues.

  6. Factors associated with physical violence against pregnant women from São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil: an approach using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Silva; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Valente, Camila Maia; Ribeiro, João Victor Fonseca; Almeida, Laysa Andrade; Costa, Ludmilla Emilia Martins; Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto E; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2017-01-23

    The factors associated with physical violence against pregnant women were analyzed in a cross-sectional study of 1,446 pregnant women from a prenatal cohort who were interviewed in 2010 and 2011 in São Luís, Brazil. In the initial model, socioeconomic status occupied the most distal position, determining sociodemographic factors, social support and the behavioral factors that ultimately determined physical violence, which was investigated as a latent variable. Structural equation modeling was used in the analysis. Pregnant women who were from more disadvantaged backgrounds (p = 0.027), did not reside with intimate partners (p = 0.005), had low social support (p violence. Low social support was the primary mediator of the effect of socioeconomic status on physical violence. The effect of marital status was mainly mediated by a high number of lifetime intimate partners.

  7. O Brazil-Medico e as contribuições do pensamento médico-higienista para as bases científicas da educação física brasileira Brazil-Medico and the contributions of medical-hygienist thought to the scientific bases of Brazilian physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Brandão de Souza Mendes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O final do século XIX e o início do XX foram emblemáticos para a 'cientificização' da educação física no Brasil. A presente investigação se direcionou para o Brazil-Medico no período de 1887-1923, com o objetivo de identificar as compreensões de corpo e saúde, buscando-se contribuições para as bases científicas da educação física brasileira.The end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth were emblematic in the 'scientifization' of physical education in Brazil. This examination of the journal Brazil-Medico during 1887-1923 seeks to identify views of the body and health as well as contributions to the scientific bases of physical education in Brazil.

  8. Body fat, physical activity, and dietary patterns of adolescents in a mountainous region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Lopes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the body fat, physical activity, and dietary patterns of male adolescents in a mountainous region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The subjects were 1,024 adolescents, 10 to 17 years old, from public and private schools. The sample was selected by a three-stage cluster sampling method, where the laststage sampling units were entire classes. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined considering body fat level estimated using predictive equations. Physical activity and food intake were assessed using a questionnaire. Statistical analyses included: descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post hoc multiple comparisons. It was observed that 25.6% of the adolescents were overweight or obese and 29.4% were physically inactive. Regardingdietary patterns, subjects reported the following consumption levels of sugars and fats: soft drinks (36.9%, sweets (41.3%, and fries (29.1%. In general, there were no differences in activity patterns, diet, or body fatness between age groups (10-17years. Adolescents enrolled at private schools exhibited higher body fatness (p RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a gordura corporal, o nível de atividade física e hábitos alimentares de adolescentes do Município de Lages, Região Serrana do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. A amostra, constituída de 1024 adolescentes do sexo masculino (10 a 17 anos, foi selecionada de forma aleatória simples quanto às escolas, conglomerada por sala de aula e estratifi cada por rede de ensino. A gordura corporal foi estimada por meio de equações preditivas do percentual de gordura. O nível de atividade física e os hábitos alimentares foram coletados por meio de umquestionário. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, teste do Qui-quadrado, análise de variância (ANOVA one-way e o teste de Scheffé (p0,05. Os escolares da rede particular

  9. Selection of soil physical attributes spatially related with the grain yield common bean in Chapadão do Sul, MS, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, J. T.; Jung, L. H.; Correa, A. R.; Pellin, D. M. P.; Souza, B. R. F.; Roque, C. G.; Teixeira, R. B.; Minotto, V.; Montanari, R.

    2012-04-01

    In Brazil, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is in one of the most representative farms, not only by the area under cultivation as well as the value of production. Thus, in the agricultural year 2010/2011, the Foundation of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) Campus de Chapadão do Sul, we studied the variability and spatial dependence between physical properties of the soil and grain yield common bean under conventional tillage in Oxisol of Chapadão do Sul, Northeast region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We also studied the linear and spatial correlations between these attributes, investigating conditions that provide increased agricultural productivity. For this, the area with the cultivation of common bean under conventional tillage installed a mesh containing 121 sampling points, with spacing of 5.0 x 5.0 m between them, a total area of 1600 m2. The grain yield common bean, with high variability, was found to average national standards. However, variability in soil physical attributes was higher, indicating that conventional tillage is a system that generates the heterogeneity of the environment, and the total porosity at a depth of 0.00 to 0.10 m is the attribute that might explain the average variability of grain yield. Index terms: soil management, conventional tillage, soil physical attributes.

  10. [Physical inactivity among adults and elderly living in areas covered by primary healthcare units with and without the Family Health Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Siqueira, Fernando Vinholes; Figueiroa, José Natal; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Hallal, Pedro C

    2010-03-01

    The epidemiological transition in Brazil has been explained partially by the low levels of physical activity. However, few studies have explored physical inactivity in low-income population groups. Within this context, primary healthcare units gain strategic importance. This article describes the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in a cross-sectional study, including 1,018 adults and 1,010 elderly adults in 10 cities in Pernambuco State. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 37.8% (95%CI: 34.0-40.2) in adults and 68.3% (95%CI: 65.3-71.3) in the elderly. Identification of physical activity as the most important factor for good health was associated with sedentary lifestyle in elderly adults. A lower proportion of sedentary lifestyle among non-elderly adults was associated with good self-reported health status. We concluded that sedentary lifestyle prevalence is high in elderly and non-elderly people covered by primary healthcare units in Pernambuco State as compared to the South of Brazil.

  11. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  12. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wagening

  13. The Amazonia Variant of Vibrio cholerae: Molecular Identification and Study of Virulence Genes

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    Baptista MAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenic O1 Amazonia variant of Vibrio cholerae has been shown previously to have a cytotoxin acting on cultured Vero and Y-1 cells, and to lack important virulence factors such as the cholera toxin (Coelho et al. 1995a. This study extends the molecular analysis of the Amazonia strains, detecting the presence of the toxR gene, with a very similar sequence to that of the El Tor and classical biotypes. The outer membrane proteins are analyzed, detecting a variation among the group of Amazonia strains, with three different patterns found. As a by-product of this work a polymerase chain reaction fragment was sequenced, reading part of the sequence of the Lon protease of the Amazonia strains. This gene was not previously described in V. cholerae, but its sequence is present in the TIGR database specific for this species.

  14. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis, Wagening

  15. Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braga Junqueira, A.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Terra Preta; Amazonian Dark Earths; Shifting cultivation; Homegardens; Intensification; Diversification; Smallholder farming. André Braga Junqueira (2015). Anthropogenic soils in central Amazonia: farmers’ practices, agrobiodiversity and land-use patterns. PhD thesis,

  16. Amazonian dark earths and Caboclo subsistence on the middle Madeira River, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, James Angus

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) and Caboclo subsistence on the Middle Madeira River, Brazil. ADE are fertile anthropogenic (man-made) soils formed through practices of burning and waste disposal by pre-Columbian Amerindian populations. “Caboclo” is a social category that refers to the people of diverse origins that form the majority of the contemporary rural population of Brazilian Amazonia. Bitter manioc fields (roças) and homegardens (sítios) are th...

  17. CO2 and CO emission rates from three forest fire controlled experiments in Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Amaral, S. S.; Costa, M. A. M.; Soares Neto, T. G.; Veras, C. A. G.; Costa, F. S.; van Leeuwen, T. T.; Krieger Filho, G. C.; Tourigny, E.; Forti, M. C.; Fostier, A. H.; Siqueira, M. B.; Santos, J. C.; Lima, B. A.; Cascão, P.; Ortega, G.; Frade, E. F., Jr.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important role in the control of atmospheric emissions through carbon capture. However, in forest fires, the carbon stored during photosynthesis is released into the atmosphere. The carbon quantification, in forest burning, is important for the development of measures for its control. The aim of this study was to quantify CO2 and CO emissions of forest fires in Western Amazonia. In this paper, results are described of forest fire experiments conducted in Cruzeiro do Sul and Rio Branco, state of Acre, and Candeias do Jamari, state of Rondônia, Brazil. These cities are located in the Western portion of the Brazilian Amazon region. The biomass content per hectare, in the virgin forest, was measured by indirect methods using formulas with parameters of forest inventories in the central hectare of the test site. The combustion completeness was estimated by randomly selecting 10% of the total logs and twelve 2 × 2 m2 areas along three transects and examining their consumption rates by the fire. The logs were used to determine the combustion completeness of the larger materials (characteristic diameters larger than 10 cm) and the 2 × 2 m2 areas to determine the combustion completeness of small-size materials (those with characteristic diameters lower than 10 cm) and the. The overall biomass consumption by fire was estimated to be 40.0%, 41.2% and 26.2%, in Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Branco and Candeias do Jamari, respectively. Considering that the combustion gases of carbon in open fires contain approximately 90.0% of CO2 and 10.0% of CO in volumetric basis, the average emission rates of these gases by the burning process, in the three sites, were estimated as 191 ± 46.7 t ha-1 and 13.5 ± 3.3 t ha-1, respectively.

  18. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

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    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  19. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

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    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  20. Pre-Columbian Floristic Legacies in Modern Homegardens of Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Lins; Helena P Lima; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Valdely F Kinupp; Glenn H Shepard; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more comple...

  1. Cloud condensation nuclei in pristine tropical rainforest air of Amazonia:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthe, S. S.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. We have measured and characterized CCN at water vapor supersaturations in the range of S = 0.10-0.82% in pristine tropical rainforest air during the AMAZE-08 campaign in central Amazonia. The effective hygroscopicity parameters describing the influence of chemical composition on the CCN activity of aerosol particles varied in the range of ΰ = 0.05-0.45. The overall median value of ΰ ? 0.15 was only half of the value typically observed for continental aerosols in other regions of the world. Aitken mode particles were less hygroscopic than accumulation mode particles (ΰ ? 0.1 at D ? 50 nm; ΰ ? 0.2 at D ? 200 nm). The CCN measurement results were fully consistent with aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) data, which showed that the organic mass fraction (Xm,org) was on average as high as ~90% in the Aitken mode (D ? 100 nm) and decreased with increasing particle diameter in the accumulation mode (~80% at D ? 200 nm). The ΰ values exhibited a close linear correlation with Xm,org and extrapolation yielded the following effective hygroscopicity parameters for organic and inorganic particle components: ΰorg ? 0.1 which is consistent with laboratory measurements of secondary organic aerosols and ΰinorg ? 0.6 which is characteristic for ammonium sulfate and related salts. Both the size-dependence and the temporal variability of effective particle hygroscopicity could be parameterized as a function of AMS-based organic and inorganic mass fractions (ΰp = 0.1 Xm,org + 0.6Xm,inorg), and the CCN number concentrations predicted with ΰp were in fair agreement with the measurement results. The median CCN number concentrations at S = 0.1-0.82% ranged from NCCN,0.10 ? 30 cm-3to NCCN,0.82 ? 150 cm-3, the median concentration of aerosol particles larger than 30 nm was NCN,30 ? 180 cm-3, and the corresponding integral CCN efficiencies

  2. Mangrove vegetation in Amazonia: a review of studies from the coast of Pará and Maranhão States, north Brazil Vegetação de manguezais na Amazônia: uma revisão dos estudos da costa dos Estados Pará e Maranhão, norte do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moirah Paula Machado de Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a compilation of the literature about vegetation of mangrove forest of the north coast of Brazil. It synthesizes the knowledge about this important ecosystem and lists the currently available literature. The study focuses on the coast of Pará and Maranhão states, which are covered by a continuous belt of mangroves. The mangrove flora comprises six mangrove tree species and several associated species. Mangrove tree height and stem diameter vary as a function of abiotic local stand parameters. Seasonal variation in rainfall and salinity affect the species' phenology and litter fall. Local population use products derived from mangrove plants for different purposes (e.g. fuel; medicinal; rural construction. The increase in the coastal population has given rise to conflicts, which impact on mangrove forest.O presente estudo apresenta uma compilação da literatura sobre a vegetação dos manguezais da costa norte do Brasil, apresentando uma síntese do conhecimento e listando a literatura disponível. O estudo se concentra na costa dos estados do Pará e Maranhão que formam um cinturão contínuo de manguezais . Foram contabilizadas seis espécies arbóreas exclusivas de mangue e várias outras associadas. A altura e o diâmetro das árvores de mangue variam em função de parâmetros abióticos locais. As variações sazonais do regime de chuvas e da salinidade afetam a fenologia das espécies e a produção de serapilheira. A população costeira utiliza a flora do manguezal para diferentes fins (ex: combustível, medicinal, construção rural. O aumento da ocupação costeira inicia um processo de impacto para as florestas de mangue e a disponibilidade de seus recursos.

  3. Evolução do estado nutricional de menores de 5 anos em aldeias indígenas da Tribo Parakanã, na Amazônia Oriental Brasileira (1989-1991 Nutritional status of Parakanã Indian - children from birth through 5 years of age, eastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro J. Martins

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a recente evolução do estado nutricional de menores de 5 anos nas aldeias Parakanã, Maroxewara e Paranatinga. Dados antropométricos (peso, altura foram obtidos em três estudos transversais para avaliação da prevalência de desnutrição e acompanhamento da evolução nutricional pelo incremento médio do índice peso/idade de 70 crianças (87,5% dos menores existentes. A desnutrição nas aldeias foi proporcional ao tempo de contato com nossa cultura e atribuível a fatores socioculturais relatados. Na Paranatinga, os valores médios dos indicadores antropométricos - peso/idade, altura/idade e peso/altura - foram os menores, principalmente nas crianças entre o sexto e o 24º mês. Reduziu-se em 76, 1 % a prevalência de desnutrição global no grupo estudado, não havendo mais casos de desnutrição aguda na última avaliação. O incremento do indicador peso/idade foi proporcional à severidade do caso, não havendo diferença significante entre as aldeias. Medidas de natureza preventiva adotadas foram eficazes em reduzir a prevalência de desnutrição infantil entre os Parakanã.The evolution of the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age living in two Indian settlements of the Parakanã tribe, Maroxewara and Paratininga, situated in the southest of Pará State (Brazil, with less than 20 years of direct contact with our society, was studied. The main purpose of this study was to register the effects of the preventive and curative health activities of the "Parakanã Program" (created by an agreement between the National Indian Foundation- FUNAI and Northern Hydroelectric Project- ELETRONORTE, undertaken with the technical cooperation of the Tropical Medicine Center (Federal University of Pará. Anthropometric data were obtained in there cross-sectional studies (April 89; January 90 and October 91 for the purpose of evaluating the prevalence of malnutrition by means of Gomez's, Waterlow's and WHO criteria. The

  4. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ribeiro Manoel CSA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging" studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P , older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P , dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P or had experienced a history of falls with

  5. Nuevos registros de Diatomeas (Bacillariophyceae de la Amazonia Colombiana

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    Sala Silvia Estela

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten diatom taxa are recorded for the first time from the Colombian Amazon basin, in the genera Cyclotella (1, Aulacoseira (2, Achnanthes (1, Lemnicola (1, Amphipleura (1, Gyrosigma (1, Stauroneis (1, Hantzschia (1 and Nitzschia (1. Four of these, Aulacoseira granulata var. angustissima, Achnanthes intlete, Gyrosigma spencerii, and Stauroneis phoenicenteron, are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Details of the valve morphology for five taxa are discussed.Se citan diez taxones de diatomeas por primera vez para la Amazonia colombiana. Los taxones pertenecen a los géneros Cyclotella (1, Aulacoseira (2, Achnanthes (1, Lemnicola (1, Amphipleura (1, Gyrosigma (1, Stauroneis (1, Hantzschia (1 Y Nitzschia (1. Cuatro de ellos, Aulacosiera granulata var. anqustissima, Achnanthes inflata, Gyrosigma spencerii y Stauroneis phoenicenteron se registran por primera vez en Colombia. Se discute la morfología valvar de cinco de las especies tratadas.

  6. CHLOROCOCCALES DE LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA I: Chlorellaceae y Scenedesmaceae

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    ECHENIQUE RICARDO O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo damos a conocer 41 taxones pertenecientes a las familias Chlorellaceaey Scenedesmaceae del orden Chlorococcales (Algae, Cholophyceae hallados entres cuencas de la Amazonia colombiana: Amazonas (Solimões, Putumayo (Içã yCaquetá (Japurá. Del total encontrado, 19 son nuevas citas para Colombia, nueveson nuevos registros para la cuenca en estudio y se propone una nueva entidadtaxonómica Tetraedron triangulare f. major Echenique nova forma. La mayor riquezase encontró en los lagos de inundación del río Amazonas, en particular en el lagoYahuarcaca que presenta amplio desarrollo de macrófitos y los mayores nivelestróficos de la región.

  7. Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2005-06-01

    This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life.

  8. Shuttle imaging radar A analysis of land use in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas A.; Woodwell, George M.

    1988-01-01

    Over large areas in the tropics, satellite imagery is the principal source of data on the area, current stature, and extent of disturbance of the forests. The information from imagery that covers large areas at low resolution is greatly enhanced when different types of imagery can be compared. The paper presents a comparison of data from Landsat MSS and from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) L band HH polarization data for sites in the Amazon Basin. Results indicate that SIR-A backscatter from the undisturbed forest was lower than that from some disturbed areas and from flooded forests and that SIR-A brightness, increases nonlinearly with the Landsat normalized difference vegetation index. It is hypothesized that the brightest radar returns in southern Amazonia are from newly cleared forests that are littered with standing and fallen tree boles that function as corner reflectors; and that backscatter will diminish from disturbed areas over time as fields are burned repeatedly.

  9. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

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    LAURA MESA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico del estado actual de conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en la Amazonia colombiana, se revisaron las principales fuentes de información. Treinta y seis de las 41 etnias indígenas consideradas tuvieron registros de uso. Se registraron 82 especies de palmas usadas (78% de las potenciales y 165 usos distribuidos en ocho categorías; todos los usos se presentan de manera detallada en un catálogo. Las categorías de uso más importantes fueron: utensilios y herramientas, construcción, y alimentación humana. Las diez especies más importantes fueron Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa, Oenocarpus minor, Astrocaryum chambira, Iriartea deltoidea, Oenocarpus bacaba y Socratea exorrhiza; la mayoría de ellas también han sido registradas como las más importantes en otras partes del Neotrópico. No se encontró ninguna información sobre usos de palmas para varios grupos indígenas, especialmente para las etnias cocama, letuama, piaroa, pisamira y yurí, para las cuales se requieren investigaciones detalladas. Se concluye que a pesar de los vacíos de información, los resultados muestran que las palmas son un recurso muy importante con un gran potencial, y una pieza fundamental para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo sustentable de la Amazonia colombiana. Sugerimos la inclusión de las especies más importantes en programas de manejo y agroforestales, al igual que la implementación y popularización de técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Recomendamos además que las investigaciones futuras estén enfocadas en desarrollar estrategias de manejo que garanticen el uso sostenible de todas estas especies útiles.

  10. Two hundred years of local avian extinctions in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Nárgila G; Lees, Alexander C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Barlow, Jos; Dantas, Sidnei M; Ferreira, Joice; Lima, Maria de Fátima C; Gardner, Toby A

    2014-10-01

    Local, regional, and global extinctions caused by habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation have been widely reported for the tropics. The patterns and drivers of this loss of species are now increasingly well known in Amazonia, but there remains a significant gap in understanding of long-term trends in species persistence and extinction in anthropogenic landscapes. Such a historical perspective is critical for understanding the status and trends of extant biodiversity as well as for identifying priorities to halt further losses. Using extensive historical data sets of specimen records and results of contemporary surveys, we searched for evidence of local extinctions of a terra firma rainforest avifauna over 200 years in a 2500 km(2) eastern Amazonian region around the Brazilian city of Belém. This region has the longest history of ornithological fieldwork in the entire Amazon basin and lies in the highly threatened Belém Centre of Endemism. We also compared our historically inferred extinction events with extensive data on species occurrences in a sample of catchments in a nearby municipality (Paragominas) that encompass a gradient of past forest loss. We found evidence for the possible extinction of 47 species (14% of the regional species pool) that were unreported from 1980 to 2013 (80% last recorded between 1900 and 1980). Seventeen species appear on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and many of these are large-bodied. The species lost from the region immediately around Belém are similar to those which are currently restricted to well-forested catchments in Paragominas. Although we anticipate the future rediscovery or recolonization of some species inferred to be extinct by our calculations, we also expect that there are likely to be additional local extinctions, not reported here, given the ongoing loss and degradation of remaining areas of native vegetation across eastern Amazonia.

  11. Megafans and Trumpeter Bird Biodiversity-Psophia Phylogeography and Landscape Evolution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Based on geomorphic character and mapped geology, geologists have interpreted the landscape surrounding the Andes Mountains as becoming progressively younger to the East. These sedimentary materials filled the late Miocene swampland that formerly occupied central and western Amazonia. Apart from the ancient landscapes of the Guiana Highlands (top right, figure 1a), Zone Ac is the oldest, followed by Zone Aw, within which megafan Jw is older than megafan Je (figure 1a). DNA-based paleogeography of the trumpeters shows that younger clades diverge from parent lineages with increasing distance from the Andes chain. Thus, Psophia napensis diverges from the P. crepitans parent, and P. ochroptera diverges from P. napensis. The P. ochroptera population is confined solely to the Je megafan (figure 1a). The same trend is seen on the south side of the Amazon depression. Since the timing of the events seems to be of exactly the same order [post-Miocene for the land surfaces and trumpeter divergence within the last 3 million years (figure 1d)], it seems reasonable to think that the megafans provided the substrate on which new bird lineages could speciate. Such physical controls of evolution are becoming more important in the understanding of biodiversity.

  12. Responses of Aquatic Saproxylic Macroinvertebrates to Reduced-Impact Logging in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, F O; Escarpinati, S C; Valente-Neto, F; Hamada, N

    2015-08-01

    Reduced-impact logging (RIL) is an alternative land use because it reduces damage to forest cover in comparison with clear-cut practices. However, management practices adopted in RIL can affect wood availability and, consequently, fauna associated with dead wood during part of their life cycle (saproxylic). In this study, we evaluated whether aquatic saproxylic macroinvertebrates are affected by reduced-impact logging in Central Amazonia. We selected six streams in areas under reduced-impacted logging and six in primary forest areas and collected submerged woody debris. We did not find any differences in water pH, conductivity, and wood availability between reduced-impacted forest and primary forest streams. We found 248 saproxylic aquatic macroinvertebrates belonging to 37 taxa. We found five wood specialist (Dryops, Lutrochus, Stenochironomus, Oukuriella, and Endotribelos) and 32 generalists, totalling 98 and 150 individuals, respectively. In general, our results show that reduced-impact logging does not affect richness, abundance, and composition of saproxylic macroinvertebrates. The main explanation for this pattern is that management practices do not change important macroinvertebrate niche dimensions, including wood availability and the water's chemical and physical variables. Thus, controlled logging, such as applied in the area of the Central Amazonian streams studied, opens a new prospect for insect conservation and commercial exploitation of wood, which is not possible when clear-cut practices are adopted.

  13. Prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors among adolescents from public schools in Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the prevalence of physical inactivity and associated factors in adolescents, using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 1,455 adolescents (741 females. Data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic, perceptual, and behavioral variables. Physical activity was estimated with the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children and Adolescents. Prevalence of physical inactivity was 68% (95%CI: 65.6%-70.4%. The following variables remained associated with physical inactivity in the adjusted analysis (p < 0.05: living in an apartment, female gender, older adolescents, lower self-rated physical activity compared to peers, low perception of maternal physical activity, passive commuting to school, non-participation in physical education at school, non-enjoyment of physical education classes, and limited involvement in other types of physical exercise besides physical education at school. There were a high proportion of inactive adolescents. Strategies to prevent physical inactivity in adolescents should be elaborated with a central role for the school and family.

  14. a Bayesian Approach for Calibration of Trmm 3B42 Over North Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguet, L.; Marie-Joseph, I.; Becker, M.; Seyler, F.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Amazonian regions experience extremes conditions like floods and droughts. These regions are also characterized by the limited spatial coverage of ground based rain gauges, and unavailability of real-time rainfall data. Satellite-based rainfall estimates (SRE) may be one of the best and appropriate approaches in detecting rainfall distribution. However SRE data need specific calibration and validation for use in flood and drought monitoring activities. This study aimed to calibrate of TRMM 3B42 RT rainfall products over northern Amazonia with a Bayesian filtering approach [1] [2]. The study area is located north of the Amazon River and includes the three Guianas and northern states of Brazil. A set of daily satellite rainfall products with spatial resolution of 0.25°x0.25° (TRMM 3B42 RT) from the year 2000 to 2010 has been selected. Ground reference data are located in French Guiana (27 ground stations from French national meteorological agency) and in the northern Brazilian states (70 ground stations from Brazilian Agência Nacional de Aguas). A lot of bias-adjustment methods rely on computing the difference between satellite and gauge-based precipitation [3] [4]. In this study we defend the idea that an inverse approach based on sequential Monte Carlo filtering helps to calibrate of TRMM 3B42 RT rainfall products. The developed method combines a model of the rainfall process at rain gauge locations with a stochastic observation model based on the joint distribution between ground reference data of the state variable (rainfall data) and the observed satellite data. 50% of the total ground based rainfall measurements were used for the joint distribution and the remaining 50% were used for validation purposes. Validation of the method has been done by comparing the corrected satellite data against independent observed data from rain gauges using the standard verification techniques: mean bias error, root mean square error, and correlation coefficient

  15. Chronology of Terra Firme formation in western Amazonia and implications for the diversification of Amazonian biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do N.; Sawakushi, André O.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Savian, Jairo F.; Kern, Andrea K.; Mineli, Thays D.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Almeida, Renato P.; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Ribas, Camila C.; d'Horta, Fernando M.; Bertassoli, Dailson J.; Marconato, André; Nogueira, Luciana; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2017-04-01

    The shift from a large wetland dominated by avulsive channels and flooded forests to the incised transcontinental Amazon River valley (Várzea) bounded by non-flooded forests (Terra Firme) is suggested as one of the main drivers of diversification of the mega diverse Amazonian Biota. Nonetheless, there is no consensus about the timing of this landscape shift, with the current literature suggesting a period that ranges from the Miocene (11 Ma) and the Late Pleistocene (100 ka). This uncertainty may be due to a lack of absolute ages for the sediments forming Terra Firme forest substrates in western Amazonian lowlands. In Brazil, the Içá Formation represents the uppermost fluvial deposits of Terra Firme forests substrates in western Amazonia. Therefore, a reliable chronology for the last depositional stage of the Içá Formation is key for an improved understanding of the formation of the current Terra Firme-Várzea system. Four sediment profiles were sampled along the margins of the Solimões and Içá rivers for Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, geomagnetic excursions, and palynological analysis. OSL dating was performed in twelve samples using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol in quartz sand grains. The equivalent doses ranged from 47 to 130 Gy (Central Age Model) and the dose rate values ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 Gy/ka. The resulting sediment burial ages range from 48 to 112 ka. Paleomagnetic data were obtained from samples collected at same profiles sampled for OSL dating and results suggest the presence of Post-Blake geomagnetic excursion ( 100 ka). The age of 100 ka for Post-Blake excursion are adopted for the Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale. Pollen assemblage data show a similarity to a more modern flora and the presence of Alnus clearly points towards Pleistocene deposition as it is unknown before in South America. The combined OSL, paleomagnetism and pollen data is a robust geochronological dataset that indicates Late Pleistocene

  16. [The impact of professional activities on the physical and mental health of the civil and military police of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we analyze the physical and mental stress and illness of military and civil police force officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) due to their working conditions and professional activities. The same methodology was used for the study of two categories, namely a quantitative approach (simple random sampling by conglomerates, involving a total of 1,458 civil police officers and 1,108 military police officers, who answered questionnaires anonymously) and a qualitative approach (focal groups involving 143 professionals and 18 interviews with managers of both police forces). The data presented here are all original. Disorders identified were: overweight and obesity in both forces but mainly in the Military Police; low frequency of physical exercise and high levels of cholesterol, especially in the Civil Police. The main health complaints are neck, back or spinal cord pain, eyesight complaints and headaches/ migraines. Sixteen point two per cent of officers of both forces reported physical lesions that were more prevalent in the Military Police, among whom psychic suffering was also more frequent (SRQ20). The need for changes in the individual and professional dimensions and in institutional aspects regarding the conditions and organization of work and of health services is emphasized.

  17. [Factors associated with the degree of participation in physical activities among students of a public university in the south of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2011-10-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the factors associated with the degree of participation in physical activities (DPPA) among students of a public university in the south of Brazil. The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Questionnaire was used for the evaluation of DPPA. DPPA was classified as adequate and inadequate. Nutritional status was evaluated based on BMI, classified as normal ( 25 kg/m²). The following socio-demographic variables were analyzed: gender, age group, work, maternal educational level, class period, and marital status. Poisson regression was used to examine the association between DPPA and independent variables, considering p < 0.05. The sample, which was representative of the institution, consisted of 738 students (59.2% males). The prevalence of inadequate physical activity participation was 30.8%. Adjusted analysis showed that female (PR=2.79; 95%CI: 2.10-3.68) and overweight students (PR=1.53; 95%CI: 1.04-2.23) presented a higher risk of inadequate physical activity participation. These findings might be useful for the implementation of health promotion programs in universities, which should pay special attention to female and overweight students in their freshman year.

  18. HBV/HDV co-infection in the Western Brazilian Amazonia: an intriguing mutation among HDV genotype 3 carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, A; Melo da Silva, E; Pedreira, H; Negreiros, S; Lobato, C; Braga, W; Muwonge, R; Dény, P; Reis, M; Zoulim, F; Trepo, C; D'Oliveira, A; Salcedo, J M; Schinoni, M I; Parana, R

    2014-12-01

    HDV infection still remains a serious public health problem in Amazonia. There are few data regarding the biomolecular aspects of HBV/HDV co-infection in this region. We studied 92 patients HBsAg(+) /anti-HDV IgG(+) followed at the Hepatitis Referral Centers of Porto Velho (RO), Rio Branco and Cruzeiro do Sul (AC), Brazil, from March 2006 to March 2007 for whom the HDV and/or the HBV genotype could be determined. The HDV genotype could be determined in 90 patients, while the HBV genotypes could be positively determined in 74. HBV subgenotype F2 is the most prevalent (40.2%), followed by the subgenotypes A1 (15.2%) and D3 (8.7%), while 16.4% were other subgenotypes or genotypes, 4.3% were discordant and 15.2% were unamplifiable. Surprisingly, HDV genotype 3 (HDV-3) was found in all of the HBV/HDV-infected patients that could be genotyped for HDV, confirming that HDV-3 can associate with non-F HBV genotypes. However, a HDV-3 mutant was found in 29.3% of patients and was more frequently associated with non-F HBV genotypes (P HBV genotypes.

  19. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  20. Toward an Understanding of the Democratic Reconceptualization of Physical Education Teacher Education in Post-Military Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Matta, Gylton; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Hemphill, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher education, including physical education teacher education (PETE), around the world remains highly autocratic and content focused [Apple, M. W. 2000. "Official Knowledge: Democratic Education in a Conservative Age." New York: Routledge]. Scholars in physical education [O'Sullivan, M., D. Siedentop, and L. F. Locke.…

  1. Workplan for Catalyzing Collaboration with Amazonian Universities in the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I. Foster; Moreira, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    Success of the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmospheric Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) program depends on several critical factors, the most important being the effective participation of Amazonian researchers and institutions. Without host-county counterparts, particularly in Amazonia, many important studies cannot he undertaken due either to lack of qualified persons or to legal constraints. No less important, the acceptance of the LBA program in Amazonia is also dependent on what LBA can do for improving the scientific expertise in Amazonia. Gaining the active investment of Amazonian scientists in a comprehensive research program is not a trivial task. Potential collaborators are few, particularly where much of the research was to be originally focused - the southern arc of Brazilian Amazonia. The mid-term goals of the LBA Committee on Training and Education are to increase the number of collaborators and to demonstrate that LBA will be of benefit to the region.

  2. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  3. Arcella peruviana sp. nov. (Amoebozoa: Arcellinida, Arcellidae), a new species from a tropical peatland in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczuga, Monika K; Swindles, Graeme T; Grewling, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    There has only been one study on the ecology of testate amoebae from Amazonian peatlands, despite Amazonia being a biodiversity hotspot of global importance. During analysis of litter samples from Aucayacu peatland, western (Peruvian) Amazonia, we discovered a testate amoeba with a distinct morphology unlike any other species reported previously. We describe a new species, Arcella peruviana, based on its distinct morphology, compare it to morphologically similar species and provide information about its ecology. This new species is characterised by a distinct cruciform aperture (diameter ranges between 12 and 17μm) which is slightly invaginated. The test is small (height 43-57μm) and polygonal in cross-section. Our discovery suggests the existence of an unknown diversity of testate amoebae in Amazonia. The absence of the new Arcella species in more intensively-sampled regions supports the view that protists have restricted distributions.

  4. The role of nuclear emulsions in the institutionalization of research in experimental physics in Brazil; O papel das emulsoes nucleares na institucionalizacao da pesquisa em fisica experimental no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Cassio Leite [Instituto Ciencia Hoje, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Videira, Antonio A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the introduction and the use of the nuclear emulsions technique in Brazil. Even though consistent researches in cosmic ray physics had been done since the forties of the last century in this country, physicists here only began using this technique after Cesar Lattes' works in Bristol (England) and Berkeley (US). Despite being the implantation of the technique in this country posterior to the origin of the method itself dated from late 1900s, Brazilian scientists were quickly familiarized with it and adopted it not only in cosmic rays, but also in particle physics and nuclear physics, employing it until recently. In our work, we will be concerned with the reasons of this longevity. In other words, why were the nuclear emulsions technique employed for so many years in Brazil, even after its vanishing in physics researches centers in the world? We advance here that the answer to this question involves the institutionalization of science in Brazil mainly physics and economical, social, and geographic reasons. (author)

  5. The influence of vegetation cover and soil physical properties on deflagration of shallow landslides - Nova Friburgo, RJ / Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Marques, Maria Clara; Silva, Roberta; Fraga, Joana; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; Mululo Sato, Anderson

    2017-04-01

    In 2011, the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) suffered enormous social and economic losses due to thousands of landslides caused by an extreme rainfall event. The mapping of the scars of these landslides in an area of 421 km2 in the municipality of Nova Friburgo, RJ - Brazil resulted in a total of 3622, and 89% of these scars were located in areas covered by grasses and forests. Despite the unexpected result (64% of scars in forest areas), field evidence has shown that most of the forest fragments in the municipality are in the initial stages of succession and in different states of degradation, evidencing the need for a better understanding of the role of these forests in the detonation and propagation of landslides. Two slope forest areas with different ages (20 and 50 years) were evaluated in relation to the vegetative aspects that influence the stability of the slopes in each area. Hydrological monitoring, including precipitation, interception by manual and automatic method, soil moisture and subsurface flows were performed in two different areas: forest and grass. Soil moisture was monitored by granular matrix sensors and flows by collecting troughs in trenches at depths of 0 cm, 20 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, 150 cm and 220 cm, which were also analyzed for biomass and length of thick roots (> 2 mm diameter) and thin roots (responsible for the higher subsurface flows found in the forest, that is, the greater aggregation of the soil, the existence of interconnected macropores, ducts and roots facilitate the transmission of water in depth. Associated with the high rainfall and high relative humidity, these vegetation favoured the formation of saturation zones and increased pore pressures of the water, causing landslides on lands between 0.5 m and 2.0 m. The results of hydraulic conductivity show that the difference (lateritic = 10-4 cm/s; saprolitic = 10-5 cm/s) between the layers of the soil can generate zones of hydraulic discontinuity in

  6. Electric systems failures produced by CG lightning in Eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Paes dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational records of power outages of the electric energy distribution systems in eastern Amazonia presented a large number of events attributed to lightning strikes, during the 2006 to 2009 period. The regional electricity concessionary data were compared to actual lightning observations made by SIPAM's LDN system, over two areas where operational sub systems of transmission lines are installed. Statistical relations were drawn between the monthly lightning occurrence density and the number of power outages of the electric systems for both areas studied. The results showed that, although with some delays between these variables peaks, the number of power disruptions has a tendency to follow the behavior of the lightning occurrence densities variations. The numerical correlations were positive and may be useful to the transmission lines maintenance crews at least for the Belém-Castanhal electricity distribution sub system. Evidence was found, that the SST's over certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, influence convection over the area of interest, and may help to prognosticate the periods of intense electric storms, requiring repair readiness for the regional electric systems.

  7. The prevalence of physical activity and its associated effects among students in the São Paulo public school network, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leonardo José; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Andrade, Douglas Roque; Azevedo, Mário; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Matsudo, Sandra Marcela Mahecha

    2016-04-01

    The current study evaluated physical activity (PA) level and its associated effects among students in the public network of São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was taken using a representative sample of students in São Paulo public school system. International Physical Activity Questionnaire determined PA level. Students who reported at least 300 minutes/week of PA were considered active. The independente variables were: gender, age, body mass index, education, region, recognition of the Agita São Paulo program. The prevalence of regular PA was 71.7%. Males (PR = 1.09, 95% CIs = 1.04 -1.15) at least 17 years old (PR = 1.16, 95% CIs 1.09-1.24) in their 3rd year of high school (PR = 1.20, 95% CIs = 1.12-1.29) who resided in the Midwest region (PR = 1.27, 95% CIs 1.16-1.38) were most likely to be active. Males at least 17 years old in their 3rd year of high school who lived in the Midwest and recognized the Agita São Paulo/Agita Galera program had higher levels of PA. São Paulo students presented a high level of PA. Moreover, males older than 17 years, attending their 3rd year of high school, who lived in the Midwest region, and recognized the Agita São Paulo/Agita Galera program were the most likely to be more active.

  8. The tadpole of Osteocephalus cabrerai (Anura: Hylidae from central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Menin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe the tadpoles of Osteocephalus cabrerai based on 37 individuals of eight different development stages. We provide comments on spawning sites and breeding period, and compare these tadpoles with those of congeners. The tadpole of O. cabrerai (Stage 39 is characterized by an ovoid body, elongated in lateral view and oval in dorsal view. The snout is rounded, the nostrils oval and the eyes lateral. The tail length is 67% of total length. The larva has a single, sinistral spiracle that is ventrolateral in position. The short vent tube is dextral and attached to the ventral fin. The anteroventral oral disc has marginal and submarginal papillae and a labial tooth row formula 2(2/6(1. Tadpoles inhabit streams in terra firme forest.

  9. Evaluation of simple diffusion chlorinators for decontamination of wells in a rural settlement in Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Danielle Costa; Luz, Sergio Luiz Bessa; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2016-03-01

    While the Amazon region has the world's largest reserve of fresh water, the lack of water services and water treatment, especially in non-urban regions, causes environmental and health problems. In isolated rural settlements supply is usually by shallow wells, and the quality of water is a concern for residents. These are situations where there are restricted options for water treatment. This study aimed to assess the use of simplified diffusion chlorinators as an alternative water treatment method. Bacteriological analyses were made of 100 samples of water from the wells, before and after application of the chlorinators, in the Rural Settlement of Rio Pardo, Presidente Figueiredo in the Brazilian State of Amazonas. The sources that were analyzed were considered inappropriate for consumption without prior treatment, and the use of the chlorinators eliminated all contamination by thermotolerant coliforms in the great majority of cases. Also, the method was well received by residents, because it does not leave a taste in the water, is relatively low-cost and handling is easy. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the use of this method of treatment for this social-environmental context and present suggestions for improvement and adaptation, for application of this methodology in other settlements.

  10. Viruses Surveillance Under Different Season Scenarios of the Negro River Basin, Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Carmen Baur; de Abreu Corrêa, Adriana; de Jesus, Michele Silva; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Kay, David; Vargha, Marta; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-03-01

    The Negro River is located in the Amazon basin, the largest hydrological catchment in the world. Its water is used for drinking, domestic activities, recreation and transportation and water quality is significantly affected by anthropogenic impacts. The goals of this study were to determine the presence and concentrations of the main viral etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis, such as group A rotavirus (RVA) and genogroup II norovirus (NoV GII), and to assess the use of human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) as viral indicators of human faecal contamination in the aquatic environment of Manaus under different hydrological scenarios. Water samples were collected along Negro River and in small streams known as igarapés. Viruses were concentrated by an organic flocculation method and detected by quantitative PCR. From 272 samples analysed, HAdV was detected in 91.9%, followed by JCPyV (69.5%), RVA (23.9%) and NoV GII (7.4%). Viral concentrations ranged from 10(2) to 10(6) GC L(-1) and viruses were more likely to be detected during the flood season, with the exception of NoV GII, which was detected only during the dry season. Statistically significant differences on virus concentrations between dry and flood seasons were observed only for RVA. The HAdV data provides a useful complement to faecal indicator bacteria in the monitoring of aquatic environments. Overall results demonstrated that the hydrological cycle of the Negro River in the Amazon Basin affects the dynamics of viruses in aquatic environments and, consequently, the exposure of citizens to these waterborne pathogens.

  11. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  12. Physical activity throughout adolescence and body composition at 18 years: 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramires, Virgílio Viana; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Wehrmeister, Fernando Cesar; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Gonçalves, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a period of accelerated development and increases in body composition. Physical activity (PA) practice has been associated with the development of major components of body composition (bone, muscle and fat). However, the longitudinal effects of PA of different intensities during adolescence are still not well understood. Thus, the main goal this study has investigate the association between practice of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity throughout adolescence and body composition, specifically lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM), at age 18. In this cohort study, physical activity was measured at 11, 15 and 18 years, using questionnaires. Thresholds of 300, 150 and 75 min per week, were used for MVPA, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity, respectively. Consistent physical activity was defined as reaching the thresholds at the three follow-ups. FM and LM at age 18 were assessed by DXA and expressed as fat mass (FMI) and lean mass (LMI) indexes. To verify the association between the trajectories of MVPA, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity in adolescence and FM and LM at 18, multivariate analyses were performed through multiple linear regressions adjusted for co-variables. A total of 3,176 adolescents were evaluated. The consistent practice of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity according to thresholds during adolescence were directly related to the LMI in boys (moderate-intensity - β = 0.40 and CI95 % 0.13; 0.68 and vigorous-intensity - β = 0.95 and CI95 % 0.69; 1.21) and girls (Moderate-intensity - β = 0.23 and CI95 % 0.02; 0.45 and vigorous-intensity - β = 0.80 and CI95 % 0.29; 1.32). Practice of vigorous-intensity physical activity alone showed to be inversely associated with the FMI in boys (β = -0.53 and CI95 % -0.96;-0.10). Consistent physical activity practice during adolescence was associated with greater lean mass in both sexes. In boys, vigorous

  13. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

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    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in official settlements and other small farmers also are responsible for substantial amounts of clearing, but ranchers constitute the largest component of the region's clearing. This group is most responsive to macroeconomic changes affecting such factors as commodity prices, and also receives substantial subsidies. Ulterior motives, such as land speculation and money laundering, also affect this group. Drug trafficking and money laundering represent strong forces in some areas and help spread deforestation where it would be unprofitable based only on the legitimate economy. Goldminers increase the population in distant areas and subsequently enter the ranks of other groups. Work as laborers or debt slaves provides an important entry to the region for poor migrants from northeast Brazil, providing cheap labor to large ranches and a large source of entrants to other groups, such as landless farmers and colonists. Capitalized farmers, including agribusiness for soy production, have tremendous impact in certain areas, such as Mato Grosso. This group responds to commodity markets and provides justification for major infrastructure projects. Landgrabbers, or grileiros, are important in entering public land and beginning the process of deforestation and transfer of land to subsequent groups of actors. These include sawmill owners and loggers, who play an important role in generating funds for clearing by other groups, ranging from landless migrants to large ranchers. They

  14. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    Barros Flávio B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zootherapy inventories are important as they contribute to the world documentation of the prevalence, importance and diversity of the medicinal use of animals in traditional human communities. The present study aims to contribute with a more valuable example of the zootherapy practices of a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia – the “Riozinho do Anfrísio” Extractive Reserve, in Northern Brazil. Methods We used the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, applied to 25 informants. We employed the combined properties of two indices to measure the medicinal importance of each cited species to the studied community, as well as their versatility in the treatment of diseases: the well known Use Value (UV and the Medicinal Applications Value (MAV that we developed. Results We recorded 31 species of medicinal animals from six taxonomic categories, seven of which are new to science. The species are used for the treatment of 28 diseases and one species is used as an amulet against snakebites. The five species with the highest UV indices are the most popular and valued by the studied community. Their contrasting MAV indices indicate that they have different therapeutic properties: specific (used for the treatment of few diseases; low versatility and all-purpose (several diseases; high versatility. Similarly, the most cited diseases were also those that could be treated with a larger number of animal species. Ten species are listed in the CITES appendices and 21 are present in the IUCN Red List. The knowledge about the medicinal use of the local fauna is distributed evenly among the different age groups of the informants. Conclusions This study shows that the local fauna represents an important medicinal resource for the inhabitants of the protected area. The combined use of the UV and MAV indices allowed identifying the species with the highest therapeutic potential. This type of information

  15. Medicinal use of fauna by a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Flávio B; Varela, Susana A M; Pereira, Henrique M; Vicente, Luís

    2012-09-27

    Zootherapy inventories are important as they contribute to the world documentation of the prevalence, importance and diversity of the medicinal use of animals in traditional human communities. The present study aims to contribute with a more valuable example of the zootherapy practices of a traditional community in the Brazilian Amazonia - the "Riozinho do Anfrísio" Extractive Reserve, in Northern Brazil. We used the methods of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, applied to 25 informants. We employed the combined properties of two indices to measure the medicinal importance of each cited species to the studied community, as well as their versatility in the treatment of diseases: the well known Use Value (UV) and the Medicinal Applications Value (MAV) that we developed. We recorded 31 species of medicinal animals from six taxonomic categories, seven of which are new to science. The species are used for the treatment of 28 diseases and one species is used as an amulet against snakebites. The five species with the highest UV indices are the most popular and valued by the studied community. Their contrasting MAV indices indicate that they have different therapeutic properties: specific (used for the treatment of few diseases; low versatility) and all-purpose (several diseases; high versatility). Similarly, the most cited diseases were also those that could be treated with a larger number of animal species. Ten species are listed in the CITES appendices and 21 are present in the IUCN Red List. The knowledge about the medicinal use of the local fauna is distributed evenly among the different age groups of the informants. This study shows that the local fauna represents an important medicinal resource for the inhabitants of the protected area. The combined use of the UV and MAV indices allowed identifying the species with the highest therapeutic potential. This type of information about a species may be of interest to pharmacological research, and is

  16. Inatividade física e fatores associados em adultos, São Paulo, Brasil Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luane Margarete Zanchetta

    2010-09-01

    , Brazil. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. RESULTS: Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  17. Santarém, entre la Amazonia de los ríos y la Amazonia de las carreteras Santarém, entre l’Amazonie des fleuves et l’Amazonie des routes

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    Ruben Valbuena

    2008-04-01

    égional, jusque là dominé par la maille fluviale et un faible réseau de lieux peuplés, formé par les noyaux de population apparus au bord des voies navigables. Santarém, une ville historique à la localisation stratégique entre les deux plus grands centres urbains amazoniens, a été le théâtre de transformations énormes depuis la construction des routes, parce que sa liaison, via la route Cuibá-Santarém, au Centre Ouest du Brésil et via la Transamazonienn au Nord-est brésilien et  à l'Amazonie Occidentale a commencé à jouer un rôle important comme articulateur de la région Nord. En même temps, elle est devenue comme le principal foyer de peuplement de cette vaste région centrale, en organisant un processus émergent de construction régionale.The great northern area of Brazil, Amazonia, which during several centuries represented only an enormous vacuum and a source of potential richness, has been during the last half-century the object of an accelerated process of occupation and of intensive exploitation. A strong dynamics of appropriation facilitated the incursion of new human and financial resources into the Amazonian hinterland, especially during three last decades, when the realization of a ground network articulated the right bank of the big river.This network restructured the regional space, until then dominated by the rivers and a weak network of populated places, formed by small settlements at the edge of the inland waterways. Santarém, a historical city with a strategic localization between the two greater Amazonian urban centres, has been the theatre of enormous transformations since the construction of the road. The connection, via the Cuibá-Santarém road, with the Center-West region of Brazil and, via Transamazonian road, with the Brazilian North-East and Western Amazonia, started to play a significant role as articulator of the Northern area. At the same time, it became the principal focus of settlement of this vast central area, by

  18. Species diversity of edaphic mites (Acari: Oribatida) and effects of topography, soil properties and litter gradients on their qualitative and quantitative composition in 64 km² of forest in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Jamile; Franklin, Elizabeth; de Morais, José Wellington; de Souza, Jorge Luiz Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Small-scale spatial distribution of oribatid mites has been investigated in Amazonia. In addition, medium- and large-scale studies are needed to establish the utility of these mites in detecting natural environmental variability, and to distinguish this variability from anthropogenic impacts. We are expanding the knowledge about oribatid mites in a wet upland forest reserve, and investigate whether a standardized and integrated protocol is an efficient way to assess the effects of environmental variables on their qualitative and quantitative composition on a large spatial scale inside an ecological reserve in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Samples for Berlese-Tullgren extraction were taken in 72 plots of 250 × 6 m distributed over 64 km(2). In total 3,182 adult individuals, from 82 species and 79 morphospecies were recorded, expanding the number of species known in the reserve from 149 to 254. Galumna, Rostrozetes and Scheloribates were the most speciose genera, and 57 species were rare. Rostrozetes ovulum, Pergalumna passimpuctata and Archegozetes longisetosus were the most abundant species, and the first two were the most frequent. Species number and abundance were not correlated with clay content, slope, pH and litter quantity. However, Principal Coordinate Analysis indicated that as the percentage of clay content, litter quantity and pH changed, the oribatid mite qualitative and quantitative composition also changed. The standardized protocol effectively captured the diversity, as we collected one of the largest registers of oribatid mites' species for Amazonia. Moreover, biological and ecological data were integrated to capture the effects of environmental variables accounting for their diversity and abundance.

  19. Downgrading, downsizing, degazettement, and reclassification of protected areas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E; Penna, L A O; Araújo, E

    2014-08-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are key elements for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Brazil has the largest PA system in the world, covering approximately 220 million ha. This system expanded rapidly in the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. Recent events in Brazil, however, have led to an increase in PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). Does this reflect a shift in the country's PA policy? We analyzed the occurrence, frequency, magnitude, type, spatial distribution, and causes of changes in PA boundaries and categories in Brazil. We identified 93 PADDD events from 1981 to 2012. Such events increased in frequency since 2008 and were ascribed primarily to generation and transmission of electricity in Amazonia. In Brazilian parks and reserves, 7.3 million ha were affected by PADDD events, and of these, 5.2 million ha were affected by downsizing or degazetting. Moreover, projects being considered by the Federal Congress may degazette 2.1 million ha of PA in Amazonia alone. Relaxing the protection status of existing PAs is proving to be politically easy in Brazil, and the recent increase in frequency and extension of PADDD reflects a change in governmental policy. By taking advantage of chronic deficiencies in financial and personnel resources and surveillance, disputes over land tenure, and the slowness of the Brazilian justice, government agencies have been implementing PADDD without consultation of civil society. If parks and reserves are to maintain their integrity, there will need to be investments in Brazilian PAs and a better understanding of the benefits PAs provide.

  20. Physical-chemical and bacteriological aspects of the groundwater in the sanitary landfills in the metropolitan region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

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    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the physical-chemical and bacteriological qualities of the subterranean water at sanitary landfills in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (PR, was carried out. The field of twelve wells that reach the groundwater as well as the emergence of the watertable of the Periquitos River, were also monitored. The results of the analyses of 120 samples of the collected water were compared to the permissible maximum values for human consumption according to the Federal Legislation in Brazil. Total excrements were found around 3,1 NMP/100mL (Well 4 and 120330 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River and fecal matter between 0 and 4100 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River. Such values were associated to the contamination caused by the presence of animals from neighbor properties, feeding themselves in that region. The pH, turbidity, COD and BOD were among the values expected, except for the conductivity that showed to be altered.

  1. Variation of climatic and physical co-determinants of phytoplankton community in four nictemeral sampling days in a shallow tropical reservoir, Southeastern Brazil

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    J. J. RAMÍREZ

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variation of climatic and physical characteristics in a shallow tropical reservoir in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, and their possible influence on the dynamics of the phytoplankton population. Samples were taken at 5 depths of the water column (subsurface: 1% Io, 10% Io, 2 m, and bottom and at 4 hour intervals (6:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, 22:00, 2:00, and 6:00 h during summer (March 3-4, fall (June 13-14, winter (August 29-30, and spring (November 29-30 of 1994 at a single sampling station. Garças Reservoir (23º39'S, 46º37'W is a kinetic turbulent system, highly influenced by winds, with stratification that may last for days or weeks, and which undergoes mixing periods more than once in a year. A thermal pattern of this type is comparable to the warm discontinuous polymictic. Considering its optical properties, the water body was classified as an ecosystem with moderate turbidity, which decreases basically due to increased phaeopigment concentration during the spring. Also, the reservoir is an ecosystem whose phytoplanktonic community is subjected to stress, the degree of which depends on level of light penetration.

  2. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil

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    Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  3. Mental and Physical Health and Spiritual Healing: An Evaluation of Complementary Religious Therapies Provided by Spiritist Centers in the City of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Leão, Frederico Camelo; Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Vallada, Homero

    2016-09-01

    The present study aims to describe the characteristics of the complementary religious treatment conducted by Spiritist centers in the city of São Paulo (Brazil), to understand how physical and mental health problems are addressed and how the directors of these centers differentiate between persons with spiritual experiences from those with psychiatric disorders. From 365 Spiritist centers, which received the questionnaire, 55 (15.1 %) were included in the final analysis. There were on average 261 people per week attending spiritual sessions in each center, totalizing approximately 15,000 attendees per week in all 55 centers. The most common treatment performed in these centers was disobsession (Spirit release therapy) (92.7 %); the least common was the 'spiritual surgery', present in only 5.5 %. The most frequent health problems reported by attendees were depression (45.1 %), cancer (43.1 %) and diseases in general (33.3 %). Concerning the directors' awareness to differentiate between spiritual experiences and psychiatric disorders, we found some remarkable divergent opinions. In conclusion, the Spiritist centers are an important health related support system for the city of São Paulo, responsible for a significant share of the city's total health consultations. The most common conditions the patients suffer from were depression and cancer.

  4. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  5. A new species of Cryptocellus (Arachnida: Ricinulei from Eastern Amazonia

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    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocellus canga sp. nov. is described from specimens collected in several caves at Carajás National Forest, Pará, Brazil. The new species differs from other species of the genus by the morphology of copulatory apparatus of the male leg III.

  6. Intergenerational Coresidence among Small Farmers in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah K.; Cebulko, Kara B.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines intergenerational coresidence among rural farm families near Santarem, Para, Brazil using survey data collected by the authors on 896 children whose parents live in 175 households on 150 farms. Married adult children, daughters, and the best educated are more likely to live off their parents' rural property (vs. on the…

  7. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br

    2008-05-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.

  8. Phytolith assemblages along a gradient of ancient human disturbance in western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMichael, C.N.H.; Piperno, D.R.; Neves, E.G.; Bush, M.B.; Almeida, F.O.; Mongelo, G.; Eyjolfsdottir, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    The ecological status of prehistoric Amazonian forests remains widely debated. The concept of ancient Amazonia as a pristine wilderness is largely discredited, but the alternative hypothesis of extensive anthropogenic landscapes remains untested in many regions. We assessed the degree of ancient hum

  9. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca Villegas, S.; van Soelen, E.; Teunissen van Manen, M.L.; Flantua, S.G.A.; Santos, R.V.; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, E.L.; van Loon, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.-H.; Hoorn, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-westernAmazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also deter-mined the sediment provenance in the ?uvio-estuarine system and recon-structed the overall ?oral composition of the Amazon lowland forest duringthe Miocen

  10. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area: floodplain

  11. Association of vascular epiphytes with landscape units and phorophytes in humid lowland forests of Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, A.M.; Vasco, A.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The species composition of vascular epiphytes and phorophytes (trees and lianas) was studied in ten 0.1-ha forest plots distributed over three landscape units (floodplains, swamps and well-drained uplands) in Colombian Amazonia. The aim was to analyse how host-preferences contributed to the patterns

  12. The Pleasures and Pitfalls of a "Participatory" Documentation Project: An Experience in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    This article adds a voice from Amazonia to the reflective discussion on documentation projects designed within a "participatory" or "collaborative" paradigm of language research. It offers a critical assessment of one such documentation project carried out from 2007-2011 with the Kotiria and Wa'ikhana (East Tukano) language…

  13. Contrasting andean geodynamics drive evolution of lowland taxa in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using a palm lineage of 15 species (Astrocaryum sect. Huicungo), we tested an hypothesis that past geologic events in western Amazonia influenced the modern configuration of the upper Amazon drainage and thus diversification and distribution of these palsm, which found only in this region. The chang...

  14. Mapping landscape scale variations of forest structure, biomass, and productivity in Amazonia

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    S. Saatchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Landscape and environmental variables such as topography, geomorphology, soil types, and climate are important factors affecting forest composition, structure, productivity, and biomass. Here, we combine a network of forest inventories with recently developed global data products from satellite observations in modeling the potential distributions of forest structure and productivity in Amazonia and examine how geomorphology, soil, and precipitation control these distributions. We use the RAINFOR network of forest plots distributed in lowland forests across Amazonia, and satellite observations of tree cover, leaf area index, phenology, moisture, and topographical variations. A maximum entropy estimation (Maxent model is employed to predict the spatial distribution of several key forest structure parameters: basal area, fraction of large trees, fraction of palms, wood density, productivity, and above-ground biomass at 5 km spatial resolution. A series of statistical tests at selected thresholds as well as across all thresholds and jackknife analysis are used to examine the accuracy of distribution maps and the relative contributions of environmental variables. The final maps were interpreted using soil, precipitation, and geomorphological features of Amazonia and it was found that the length of dry season played a key role in impacting the distribution of all forest variables except the wood density. Soil type had a significant impact on the wood productivity. Most high productivity forests were distributed either on less infertile soils of western Amazonia and Andean foothills, on crystalline shields, and younger alluvial deposits. Areas of low elevation and high density of small rivers of Central Amazonia showed distinct features, hosting mainly forests with low productivity and smaller trees.

  15. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders from southern Brazil Atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos sul-brasileiros da comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Reichert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the existence of a relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 379 community-dwelling elders from Novo Hamburgo, state of RS, Brazil. The level of physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and depressive symptoms were diagnosed according to the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale. The association between the level of physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A tendency towards a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed in individuals with higher levels of physical activity, both in the sample as a whole as well as among men, but not among women (p for linear trend 0.04, 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The odds ratio of the presence of depressive symptoms in the very active group as compared against that of the insufficiently active group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.86 for men and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.39-1.46 for women. CONCLUSION: In this population of aged individuals, more intense physical activity is related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. As shown by gender stratification, physical activity is inversely related to depressive symptoms in men, albeit not in women.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos da comunidade. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional que incluiu 379 idosos da comunidade da cidade de Novo Hamburgo-RS, Brasil. O nível de atividade física foi estimado pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física e os sintomas depressivos foram diagnosticados por meio da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica de Yesavage. A associação entre nível de atividade física e sintomas depressivos foi analisada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma tendência a menor prevalência de sintomas depressivos em indiv

  16. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders from southern Brazil Atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos sul-brasileiros da comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Reichert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the existence of a relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 379 community-dwelling elders from Novo Hamburgo, state of RS, Brazil. The level of physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and depressive symptoms were diagnosed according to the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale. The association between the level of physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A tendency towards a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed in individuals with higher levels of physical activity, both in the sample as a whole as well as among men, but not among women (p for linear trend 0.04, 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The odds ratio of the presence of depressive symptoms in the very active group, as compared against that of the insufficiently active group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.86 for men and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.39-1.46 for women. CONCLUSION: In this population of aged individuals, more intense physical activity is related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. As shown by gender stratification, physical activity is inversely related to depressive symptoms in men, albeit not in women.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos da comunidade. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional que incluiu 379 idosos da comunidade da cidade de Novo Hamburgo-RS, Brasil. O nível de atividade física foi estimado pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física e os sintomas depressivos foram diagnosticados por meio da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica de Yesavage. A associação entre nível de atividade física e sintomas depressivos foi analisada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma tendência a menor prevalência de sintomas depressivos em indiv

  17. Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory

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    Phil Riris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. 'Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia:' 'Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory.' Boulder: University Press of Colorado, £60

  18. After trees die: quantities and determinants of necromass across Amazonia

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    K.-J. Chao

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon basin, one of the most substantial biomass carbon pools on earth, is characterised by strong macroecological gradients in biomass, mortality rates, and wood density from west to east. These gradients could affect necromass stocks, but this has not yet been tested. This study aims to assess the stocks and determinants of necromass across Amazonian forests. Field-based and literature data were used to find relationships between necromass and possible determinants. Furthermore, a simple model was applied to estimate and extrapolate necromass stocks across terra firma Amazonian forests. In eight northwestern and three northeastern Amazonian permanent plots, volumes of coarse woody debris (≥10 cm diameter were measured in the field and the density of each decay class was estimated. Forest structure and historical mortality data were used to determine the factors controlling necromass. Necromass is greater in forests with low stem mortality rates (northeast rather than in forests with high stem mortality rates (northwest (58.5±10.6 and 27.3±3.2 Mg ha−1, respectively. Using all published necromass values, we find that necromass across terra firma forests in Amazonia is positively related to both forest dynamics (mortality mass inputs and a surrogate for decomposition rate (average wood density of living trees and forest structure (biomass, but is better explained by forest dynamics. We propose an improved method to estimate necromass for plots where necromass has not been measured. The estimates, together with other actual measurements of necromass, were scaled-up to project a total Amazonian necromass of 9.6±1.0 Pg C. The ratio of necromass (on average weighted by forest region to coarse aboveground biomass is 0.127. Overall, we find (1 a strong spatial trend in necromass in parallel with other macroecological gradients and (2 that necromass is a substantial component of the carbon pool

  19. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2016-12-14

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr(-1) . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha(-1) ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha(-1) ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha(-1)  yr(-1) . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests.

  20. Long term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Rizzo, Luciana V.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-04-01

    The central region of the Amazonian forest is a pristine region in terms of aerosol and trace gases concentrations. In the wet season, Amazonia is actually one of the cleanest continental region we can observe on Earth. A long term observational program started 20 years ago, and show important features of this pristine region. Several sites were used, between then ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) and ZF2 ecological research site, both 70-150 Km North of Manaus, receiving air masses that traveled over 1500 km of pristine tropical forests. The sites are GAW regional monitoring stations. Aerosol chemical composition (OC/EC and trace elements) is being analysed using filters for fine (PM2.5) and coarse mode aerosol as well as Aerodyne ACSM (Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors). VOCs are measured using PTR-MS, while CO, O3 and CO2 are routinely measured. Aerosol absorption is being studied with AE33 aethalometers and MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometers). Aerosol light scattering are being measured at several wavelengths using TSI and Ecotech nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution is determined using scanning mobility particle sizer at each site. Lidars measure the aerosol column up to 12 Km providing the vertical profile of aerosol extinction. The aerosol column is measures using AERONET sun photometers. In the wet season, organic aerosol comprises 75-85% of fine aerosol, and sulfate and nitrate concentrations are very low (1-3 percent). Aerosols are dominated by biogenic primary particles as well as SOA from biogenic precursors. Black carbon in the wet season accounts for 5-9% of fine mode aerosol. Ozone in the wet season peaks at 10-12 ppb at the middle of the day, while carbon monoxide averages at 50-80 ppb. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT) is a low 0.05 to 0.1 at 550 nm in the wet season. Sahara dust transport events sporadically enhance the concentration of soil dust aerosols and black carbon. In the dry season (August-December), long range transported

  1. Light Absorption of Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, B. A.; Artaxo, P.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Saturno, J.; Pöhlker, C.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol absorption is a key issue in proper calculation of aerosol radiative forcing. Especially in the tropics with the dominance of natural biogenic aerosol and brown carbon, the so called anomalous absorption is of particular interest. A special experiment was designed to study the wavelength dependence of aerosol absorption for PM2.5 as well as for PM10 particles in the wet season in Central Amazonia. Aerosol analysis occurred from May to August 2014, in the ZF2 ecological reservation, situated at about 55 km North of Manaus in very pristine conditions Two 7 wavelengths AE33 Aethalometers were deployed measuring in parallel, but with a PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Two MAAP (Multiangle Aerosol Absorption Photometer) were operated in parallel with the AE33 exactly at the same PM2.5 and PM10 inlets. Organic and elemental carbon was analyzed using collection with quartz filters and analysis using a Sunset OC/EC analyzer. Aerosol light scattering for 3 wavelengths was measured using Air Photon and TSI Nephelometers. Aerosol size distribution was measured with one TSI SMPS and a GRIMM OPC to have the size range from 10 nm to 10 micrometers. Particles were measured under dry conditions using diffusion dryers. Aerosol optical depth and absorption was also measured with an AERONET sunphotometer operated close to the site. As the experiment was run in the wet season, very low equivalent black carbon (EBC) were measured, with average concentrations around 50 ng/m³ during May, increasing to 130 ng/m³ in June and July. The measurements adjusted for similar wavelengths shows excellent agreement between the MAAP and AE33 for both inlets (PM2.5 and PM10). It was not possible statistically infer absorption from the coarse mode biogenic particles, since the absorption was completely dominated by fine mode particles. AERONET measurements shows very low values of AOD, at 0.17 at 500 nm and 0.13 at 870 nm, with very low absorption AOD values at 0.00086 at 676 nm and 0.0068 at 872 nm

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  3. The effects of land use and soil management on the physical properties of an Oxisol in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio de Freitas Seben Junior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils of the tropics are prone to a decrease in quality after conversion from native forest (FO to a conventional tillage system (CT. However, the adoption of no-tillage (NT and complex crop rotations may improve soil structural quality. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of an Oxisol under FO, CT, and three summer crop sequences in NT: continuous corn (NTcc, continuous soybean (NTcs, and a soybean/corn rotation (NTscr. Both NT and CT decreased soil organic carbon (SOC content, SOC stock, water stable aggregates (WSA, geometric mean diameter (GMD, soil total porosity (TP, macroporosity (MA, and the least limiting water range (LLWR. However they increased soil bulk density (BD and tensile strength (TS of the aggregates when compared to soil under FO. Soil under NT had higher WSA, GMD, BD, TS and microporosty, but lower TP and MA than soil under CT. Soil under FO did not attain critical values for the LLWR, but the lower limit of the LLWR in soils under CT and NT was resistance to penetration (RP for all values of BD, while the upper limit of field capacity was air-filled porosity for BD values greater than 1.46 (CT, 1.40 (NTscr, 1.42 (NTcc, and 1.41 (NTcs kg dm-3. Soil under NTcc and NTcs decreased RP even with the increase in BD because of the formation of biopores. Furthermore, higher critical BD was verified under NTcc (1.62 kg dm-3 and NTcs (1.57 kg dm-3 compared to NTscr and CT (1.53 kg dm-3.

  4. Amazonia boliviana: arqueología de los Llanos de Mojos Bolivian Amazonia: archaeology of the Llanos de Mojos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Adolfo Calandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A arqueologia da Amazônia boliviana ou das "Terras Baixas" compreende um imenso território que mostra, a luz da informação disponível, significativas descontinuidades espaço-temporais. A identificação nesta área de sociedades constituindo "cacicados da floresta tropical" a partir de critérios baseados em preconceitos, requer a reavaliação da pré-história regional do ponto de vista causal. A arqueologia beniana (de Llanos de Mojos é conhecida, fundamentalmente, a partir das escavações de Erland Nordenskiöld, que sem dúvida estabeleceu as bases conceituais existentes atualmente. Entre os anos de 1977 e 1981 uma missão do Museu de La Plata (Argentina, sob a direção de B. Dougherty, e em estreita colaboração com o Instituto de Arqueologia de La Paz (Bolívia e com o Amazonian Ecosystem Research (EUA, conduziu pesquisas sistemáticas considerando variados itens antropológicos e produzindo numerosas datações de radiocarbono. Estas contribuições ajudaram a esclarecer, mas não a simplificar o panorama pré-hispânico regional, tão importante na temática arqueológica sul-americana. Complementa este artigo uma exaustiva lista de bibliografias que facilita o acesso ao conhecimento sobre este grande território.The archaeology of the Bolivian Amazonia or "Low lands" comprises a large territory that shows, significant time and spatial discontinuities. The identification of societies in this area constituting "Jefaturas de la Floresta Tropical", from criteria based on preconceptions requires the reassessment of regional prehistory from the causal point of view. Benian archeology (Llanos de Mojos is fundamentally known, from the Erland Nordenskiöld excavations, which undoubtedly sets the conceptual bases existing to date. Between 1977 and 1981 a Mission of Museo de La Plata (Argentina, under the direction of B. Dougherty together with the Instituto Nacional de Arqueología of La Paz (Bolivia and the Amazonian Ecosystem

  5. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  6. Genetic variability in physic nuts cultivated in Northeastern Brazil Variabilidade genética de pinhão manso cultivado no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanice Dias Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to characterize genetically individuals of physic nut cultivated in experimental areas in Sergipe, Brazil by means of RAPD molecular markers. Leaves of 40 individuals were collected and DNA was isolated using CTAB 2% method. Were used 30 primers RAPD for DNA amplification, and this data was used to estimate the genetic similarity among the pairs of individuals, using Jaccard coefficient, and group them out for the UPGMA method. Also, the genetic structure and diversity of the populations were assessed using AMOVA. Of the 100 fragments generated, 29 of were polymorphic. A similarity average of 0.54 among the individuals was found and the amplitude similarities varied from 0.18 to 1.00. One of them (U5 was unit clusters and formed by the most divergent individuals. AMOVA indicated that there is more variation within (63% the population. In conclusion, it was possible verify genetic variability in physic nut using RAPD markers at these experimental areas.O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar genótipos de pinhão manso cultivados em áreas experimentais do Estado de Sergipe no Brasil, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. Foi utilizada a metodologia CTBA 2% para extração do DNA de 40 genótipos e para a amplificação do DNA foram utilizados 30 primers RAPD. Os dados foram utilizados para estimar a similaridade genética entre pares de genótipos, usando o coeficiente de Jaccard e o método UPGMA para agrupamento e avaliação da estrutura genética e diversidade de populações usando AMOVA. Fragmentos (100 foram gerados, sendo 29 polimórficos. A similaridade encontrada foi de 0,54 entre genótipos, sendo que a amplitude variou de 0,18 a 1,00. O genótipo U5 foi o mais divergente, agrupado isoladamente dos demais. A AMOVA indicou que a maior variação é encontrada dentro da população (63%. É possível verificar a variabilidade genética em pinhão manso usando marcadores RAPD nas áreas experimentais

  7. Days out-of-role due to common physical and mental health problems: Results from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helena Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relative importance of common physical and mental disorders with regard to the number of days out-of-role (DOR; number of days for which a person is completely unable to work or carry out normal activities because of health problems in a population-based sample of adults in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. METHODS: The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey was administered during face-to-face interviews with 2,942 adult household residents. The presence of 8 chronic physical disorders and 3 classes of mental disorders (mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders was assessed for the previous year along with the number of days in the previous month for which each respondent was completely unable to work or carry out normal daily activities due to health problems. Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the associations of the disorders and their comorbidities with the number of days out-of-role while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Both individual-level and population-level associations were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 13.1% of the respondents reported 1 or more days out-of-role in the previous month, with an annual median of 41.4 days out-of-role. The disorders considered in this study accounted for 71.7% of all DOR; the disorders that caused the greatest number of DOR at the individual-level were digestive (22.6, mood (19.9, substance use (15.0, chronic pain (16.5, and anxiety (14.0 disorders. The disorders associated with the highest population-attributable DOR were chronic pain (35.2%, mood (16.5%, and anxiety (15.0% disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Because pain, anxiety, and mood disorders have high effects at both the individual and societal levels, targeted interventions to reduce the impairments associated with these disorders have the highest potential to reduce the societal burdens of chronic illness in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  8. Maize (Zea Mays L landraces from the southern region of Brazil: contamination by Fusarium sp, zearalenone, physical and mechanical characteristics of the kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Roselena de Oliveira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives the study of the physical and mechanical characteristics of maize kernels in relation to the contamination by Fusarium sp and by zearalenone in twenty landraces of maize from the southern region of Brazil. From the analyzed samples, 60 % has been considered to have a hard endosperm type and 40 % an intermediary one. A correlation between the physical and mechanical variables was observed as an indication that the higher is the proportion of hard endosperm, more dense will be the kernel and more force for its rupture will be necessary. The level of contamination by Fusarium sp was between 5.5 and 24.75% among the analyzed grains, correlating positively with the flotation index, indicating that the landraces of maize with a softer endosperm can present a higher contamination by this genus. The presence of zearalenone was verified in 75 % of the samples, in concentrations varying from 50 to 640 µg kg-1.Este trabalho teve por objetivos verificar as características físicas, mecânicas, contaminação por Fusarium sp e por zearalenona e suas relações, em vinte variedades crioulas de milho da região sul do Brasil. Verificou-se que das amostras analisadas, 60% foram consideradas como possuidoras de endosperma do tipo duro e 40% com endosperma do tipo intermediário. As variáveis físicas e mecânicas se correlacionaram, indicando que quanto maior a proporção de endosperma vítreo, mais denso e maior a força necessária até a ruptura do grão. A contaminação por Fusarium sp esteve entre 5,5% e 24,75% nos grãos analisados, correlacionando-se positivamente com o índice de flotação, indicando que as variedades crioulas de milho com uma maior proporção de endosperma macio podem apresentar uma maior contaminação por Fusarium sp, sugerindo-se a utilização de variedades crioulas com a textura do endosperma predominantemente vítrea. A presença de zearalenona foi verificada em 75% das amostras, em concentra

  9. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Larissa Pruner; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-22

    The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP). The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1). The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  13. Helminths of the Lizard Salvator merianae (Squamata, Teiidae) in the Caatinga, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A A M; Brito, S V; Teles, D A; Ribeiro, S C; Araujo-Filho, J A; Lima, V F; Pereira, A M A; Almeida, W O

    2017-01-01

    The lizard Salvator merianae is a widely distributed species in South America, occurring from southern Amazonia to the eastern Andes and northern Patagonia. Studies on the parasitic fauna of this lizard have revealed that it is a host for helminths in various Brazilian biomes. The present work provides new parasitological data on the gastrointestinal nematodes associated with the lizard S. merianae. Sixteen specimens were analyzed from nine different locations in a semi-arid region in northeastern Brazil. Five species of nematodes were identified. Oswaldofilaria petersi was first recorded as a parasite of the S. merianae, thus increasing the knowledge of the fauna of parasites that infect large Neotropical lizards.

  14. The effect of seasonality on the structure of rotifers in a black-water shallow lake in Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARICE C. NOVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers have often been used as indicators of sudden changes in physical and chemical features of the aquatic environment. Such features vary greatly during flood pulse events in small lakes connected to major floodplains. However, few are the studies that investigate the consequences of the flood pulse in rotifer species composition, abundance, richness and diversity, especially in Amazonian lakes. We analyzed samples from a small blackwater lake of an “igarapé” connected permanently to the Negro river, in Central Amazonia. Samples were taken twice a year for two years, comprising flooding and receding periods of the flood pulse. Rotifer abundance increased significantly after draught events, and electrical conductivity and turbidity were intrinsically related to such variation. Species composition also changed from flooding to receding periods. Some taxa, such as Brachionus zahniseri reductus and Lecane remanei were restricted to receding periods, while Brachionus zahniseri, Brachionus gillardi and Lecane proiecta were only present during flooding. A shift in the composition of rotifer families was observed from one period to another, showing the effect of renewing waters of the flood pulse. These results suggest that the flood pulse acts as a driving force and stressing condition, considerably altering rotifer community dynamics, either changing species composition or decreasing abundance.

  15. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

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    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  16. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal, Julissa

    2014-01-01

    Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonomamacrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae), a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  18. Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Militão AG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Angeliete Garcez Militão,1,2 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Fernanda Rodrigues da Silva,4 Elba Sancho Garcez Militão,3 Raiane Maiara dos Santos Pereira,5 Carmen Silvia Grubert Campbell,2,5 1Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil; 2Post-Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brazil; 4Laboratory of Physical Evaluation and Training, 5Laboratory of Physical Education and Health Studies, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil Introduction: Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. Methods: The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40% participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF: the intervention group (IG, n = 17 and the control group (CG, n = 17. The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children's weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC, maximum oxygen intake (VO2max, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used

  19. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectorie...

  20. CARNE DE MONTE Y CONSUMO DE FAUNA SILVESTRE EN LA ORINOQUIA Y AMAZONIA ( COLOMBIA Y VENEZUELA)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Este taller regional estuvo dirigido al tema de carne de monte, consumo de fauna silvestre y procesos alternativos (cría de animales en cautiverio y piscicultura extensiva, entre otros), como elementos que aportan a la seguridad alimentaria de las comunidades locales (rurales e indígenas) en la Orinoquia y Amazonia (Colombia -­ Venezuela). Este evento tuvo como antecedente tres talleres realizados desde 2009 (talleres II, III, IV) y reuniones de expertos llevadas a cabo en 2002 para actual...

  1. Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia in a Healthy Patient Returning from a Trip to the Ecuadorian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G

    2016-12-27

    Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection.

  2. Is Rhodnius prolixus (Triatominae) invading houses in central Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Ferreira, Jonatas B C; Santana, Daniella B; Cuba, César A Cuba

    2008-08-01

    Sylvatic triatomines of the genus Rhodnius commonly fly into houses in Latin America, maintaining the risk of Chagas disease transmission in spite of control efforts. In the recent past, adult bugs collected inside houses in central Brazil were identified as R. prolixus, a primary disease vector whose natural geographical range excludes this region. Three nearly sibling species (R. neglectus, R. nasutus, and R. robustus), secondary vectors with limited epidemiological significance, occur naturally south of the Brazilian Amazon. The specific status of Rhodnius specimens found inside houses in central Brazil is therefore an epidemiologically important (and still debated) issue. We used wing and head geometric morphometrics to investigate the taxonomic status of 230 adult specimens representing all four 'R. prolixus group' species (19 populations from palm trees, domiciles, and reference laboratory colonies). Discriminant analyses of shape variation allowed for an almost perfect reclassification of individuals to their putative species. Shape patterning revealed no consistent differences between most specimens collected inside houses in central Brazil and R. neglectus, and showed that R. robustus and R. neglectus occur sympatrically (and fly into houses) in southern Amazonia. Furthermore, all Brazilian specimens clearly differed from our reference R. prolixus population. Using geometric morphometrics, we confidently ascribed individual triatomines to their species within the problematic 'R. prolixus group', illustrating the potential value of this approach in entomological surveillance. Our results strongly support the idea that R. neglectus, and not R. prolixus, is the species invading houses in central Brazil.

  3. Phytolith assemblages along a gradient of ancient human disturbance in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal eMcmichael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological status of prehistoric Amazonian forests remains widely debated. The concept of ancient Amazonia as a pristine wilderness is largely discredited, but the alternative hypothesis of extensive anthropogenic landscape remains untested in many regions. We assessed the degree of ancient human impacts across western Amazonia based on archaeological and paleoecological data using methodologies that would allow inter-regional comparisons. We also aimed to establish baselines for estimating the legacies of ancient disturbances on modern vegetation. We analyzed charcoal and phytolith assemblages from soil samples from an archaeological site, sites in close proximity to archaeological sites, sites from riverine and interfluvial forests, and a biological research station believed to contain some of the least disturbed forests within Amazonia. We then quantitatively compared phytolith assemblages within and between the surveyed regions. Palm enrichment was evident at the archaeological site, and the biological station survey contained little to no evidence of ancient human activity. The other sites exhibited a gradient of ancient disturbance across the landscape. The phytolith assemblages showed statistically significant between-region variations that indicated our metrics were sufficiently sensitive to detecting ancient disturbance. Our data highlight the spatial heterogeneity of ancient human disturbances in Amazonian forests. The quantification of these disturbances provides empirical data and a more concrete link between the composition of the modern forest and ancient disturbance regimes. Accounting for ancient disturbances will allow a deeper understanding of the landscape heterogeneity observed in the modern forests.

  4. Poverty and environment in Amazonia: a specific challenge for joint implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitschein, T.A.; Schreiber, V. [Federal University of Para (Brazil). Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia

    1998-08-01

    The largest continuous tropical forest is found in Amazonia. Its destruction by burning for cattle pastures and subsistence agriculture contributes to the increases in concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere and at the same time exhausts the extraordinary biodiversity of this region. In this sense, global ecological problems such as the greenhouse effect and genetic erosion and the future modes of development in Amazonia represent the same side of a coin. This means that the elaboration and implementation of strategies that understand the value of joint implementation as an indispensable element to reverse the tendencies of devastation which are underway in the regional context are required. It is from this principle that the Program Poverty and Environment in Amazonia of the Federal University of Para has been working since its creation in 1992. Through this approach, encroachment on primary forest areas is avoided, while agroforestry systems restore degraded areas in a manner which mimics the natural regeneration of the forest, enriched with species which produce natural products with potential for industrial use. (author)

  5. Hydro-climate and ecological behaviour of the drought of Amazonia in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J A; Nobre, C A; Tomasella, J; Cardoso, M F; Oyama, M D

    2008-05-27

    In 2005, southwestern Amazonia experienced the effects of an intense drought that affected life and biodiversity. Several major tributaries as well as parts of the main river itself contained only a fraction of their normal volumes of water, and lakes were drying up. The consequences for local people, animals and the forest itself are impossible to estimate now, but they are likely to be serious. The analyses indicate that the drought was manifested as weak peak river season during autumn to winter as a consequence of a weak summertime season in southwestern Amazonia; the winter season was also accompanied by rainfall that sometimes reached 25% of the climatic value, being anomalously warm and dry and helping in the propagation of fires. Analyses of climatic and hydrological records in Amazonia suggest a broad consensus that the 2005 drought was linked not to El Niño as with most previous droughts in the Amazon, but to warming sea surface temperatures in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Forest productivity and water stress in Amazonia: observations from GOSAT chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Frankenberg, Christian; van der Tol, Christiaan; Berry, Joseph A; Guanter, Luis; Boyce, C Kevin; Fisher, Joshua B; Morrow, Eric; Worden, John R; Asefi, Salvi; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-06-22

    It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.

  7. Spotlight: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  8. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  10. The effect of atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on Net Ecosystem Exchange in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, G. G.; Souza, R. F.; Adams, D. K.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-11-01

    Carbon cycling in Amazonia is closely linked to atmospheric processes and climate in the region as a consequence of the strong coupling between the atmosphere and biosphere. This work examines the effects of changes in net radiation due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of CO2 in the Amazon region. Some of the major environmental factors affecting the photosynthetic activity of plants, such as air temperature and relative humidity were also examined. An algorithm for clear-sky irradiance was developed and used to determine the relative irradiance f, which quantifies the percentage of solar radiation absorbed and scattered due to atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) was calculated from irradiances measured with the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, onboard the TERRA and AQUA satellites, and was validated with ground-based AOD measurements from AERONET sun photometers. Carbon fluxes were measured using eddy-correlation techniques at LBA (The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) flux towers. Two sites were studied: the Biological Reserve of Jaru (located in Rondonia) and the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (located in a preserved region in central Amazonia). In the Jaru Biological Reserve, a 29% increase in carbon uptake (NEE) was observed when the AOD ranged from 0.10 to 1.5. In the Cuieiras Biological Reserve, this effect was smaller, accounting for an approximately 20% increase in NEE. High aerosol loading (AOD above 3 at 550 nm) or cloud cover leads to reductions in solar flux and strong decreases in photosynthesis up to the point where NEE approaches 0. The observed increase in NEE is attributed to an enhancement (~50%) in the diffuse fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Significant changes in air temperature and relative humidity resulting from changes in solar radiation fluxes under high aerosol loading were also observed at

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  13. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  17. There's no place like home: seedling mortality contributes to the habitat specialisation of tree species across Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunel, Claire; Paine, C E Timothy; Fine, Paul V A; Mesones, Italo; Goret, Jean-Yves; Burban, Benoit; Cazal, Jocelyn; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the mechanisms generating species distributions remains a challenge, especially in hyperdiverse tropical forests. We evaluated the role of rainfall variation, soil gradients and herbivory on seedling mortality, and how variation in seedling performance along these gradients contributes to habitat specialisation. In a 4-year experiment, replicated at the two extremes of the Amazon basin, we reciprocally transplanted 4638 tree seedlings of 41 habitat-specialist species from seven phylogenetic lineages among the three most important forest habitats of lowland Amazonia. Rainfall variation, flooding and soil gradients strongly influenced seedling mortality, whereas herbivory had negligible impact. Seedling mortality varied strongly among habitats, consistent with predictions for habitat specialists in most lineages. This suggests that seedling performance is a primary determinant of the habitat associations of adult trees across Amazonia. It further suggests that tree diversity, currently mostly harboured in terra firme forests, may be strongly impacted by the predicted climate changes in Amazonia.

  18. Efeito da colheita seletiva de madeira sobre algumas características físicas de um latossolo amarelo sob floresta na Amazônia Central Effect of selective logging on some physical characteristics of a yellow latosol under rainforest in Central Amazonia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walane Maria Pereira de Mello-Ivo

    2006-10-01

    objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of selective logging on some soil physical characteristics. The study area lies about 80 km north of Manaus and the vegetation is a humid tropical rainforest. Seven to ten trees/ha (DAP > 55 cm were felled and removed by a D6 bulldozer, in 1993. Six disturbance classes were defined in the logged plots, with three replicates each: tractor track, center of clearing, edge of clearing, edge of forest, remaining forest and control forest. Soil under tractor tracks represented 13.8 % of the exploited area, and showed higher values of bulk density, and penetration resistance, and lower macroporosity and available water for plants than the other disturbance classes. The other classes were less affected and no significant differences were observed between their soil properties and the control forest, indicating selective logging as a practice that causes less impact on soils of Amazon forest ecosystems.

  19. Remote sensing and conservation of isolated indigenous villages in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Groth, Aaron A

    2014-11-01

    The vast forests on the border between Brazil and Peru harbour a number of indigenous groups that have limited contact with the outside world. Accurate estimates of population sizes and village areas are essential to begin assessing the immediate conservation needs of such isolated groups. In contrast to overflights and encounters on the ground, remote sensing with satellite imagery offers a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive and systematic approach to provide demographic and land-use information for isolated peoples. Satellite imagery can also be used to understand the growth of isolated villages over time. There are five isolated villages in the headwaters of the Envira River confirmed by overflights that are visible with recent satellite imagery further confirming their locations and allowing measurement of their cleared gardens, village areas and thatch roofed houses. These isolated villages appear to have population densities that are an order of magnitude higher than averages for other Brazilian indigenous villages. Here, we report on initial results of a remote surveillance programme designed to monitor movements and assess the demographic health of isolated peoples as a means to better mitigate against external threats to their long-term survival.

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique.

  7. Physically-based slope stability modelling and parameter sensitivity: a case study in the Quitite and Papagaio catchments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Neves Seefelder, Carolina; Mergili, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We use the software tools r.slope.stability and TRIGRS to produce factor of safety and slope failure susceptibility maps for the Quitite and Papagaio catchments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The key objective of the work consists in exploring the sensitivity of the geotechnical (r.slope.stability) and geohydraulic (TRIGRS) parameterization on the model outcomes in order to define suitable parameterization strategies for future slope stability modelling. The two landslide-prone catchments Quitite and Papagaio together cover an area of 4.4 km², extending between 12 and 995 m a.s.l. The study area is dominated by granitic bedrock and soil depths of 1-3 m. Ranges of geotechnical and geohydraulic parameters are derived from literature values. A landslide inventory related to a rainfall event in 1996 (250 mm in 48 hours) is used for model evaluation. We attempt to identify those combinations of effective cohesion and effective internal friction angle yielding the best correspondence with the observed landslide release areas in terms of the area under the ROC Curve (AUCROC), and in terms of the fraction of the area affected by the release of landslides. Thereby we test multiple parameter combinations within defined ranges to derive the slope failure susceptibility (fraction of tested parameter combinations yielding a factor of safety smaller than 1). We use the tool r.slope.stability (comparing the infinite slope stability model and an ellipsoid-based sliding surface model) to test and to optimize the geotechnical parameters, and TRIGRS (a coupled hydraulic-infinite slope stability model) to explore the sensitivity of the model results to the geohydraulic parameters. The model performance in terms of AUCROC is insensitive to the variation of the geotechnical parameterization within much of the tested ranges. Assuming fully saturated soils, r.slope.stability produces rather conservative predictions, whereby the results yielded with the sliding surface model are more

  8. Influence of land use changes on soil physical, chemical and biological atributes in a family farming settlement in Eastern Amazon, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miguel; de Pierri Castilho, Selene Cristina; Camilo Bedano, José; Dominguez, Anahi; Fernanda Simões da Silva, Laura; Nascimento Delgado Oliveira, Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Soil knowledge and the changes in its attributes due to land use modifications in the Amazon region is important for decision making by family farmers. These farmers have to choose sustainable land use management practices for their survival in the region and, for soil and forest conservation. The study area is located in the Piranheira Praialta Agroextrativist Settlement Project in the county of Nova Ipixuna, Pará, Brazil. The objective of this research is to understand the relations between soil physical, chemical and biological attributes, and how these relations change with modifications in land use. This information is important for defining best management practices for family farming in the region. Two toposequences were chosen, one under native forest and the other under pasture. 40 cm pits were opened with five replicates in three landscape positions (upslope, midslope and downslope). Sampling periods were July/2012 (dry season); January/2013 (beginning of rainy season) and march/2013 (rainy season). Samples were taken for soil particle size analysis, bulk density, particle density, moisture, porosity, water retention, chemical, litter dry matter and macrofauna analysis. Statistical analysis techniques were performed uni and multivariate. No significant differences were observed in the particle size distribution of the studied soils. The soils presented sandy surface horizons with an increase of clay in depth in both land use systems. Soil bulk density values were higher in the surface horizons and, in general, in the pasture toposequence. Differences were also observed in the soil moisture content and litter dry matter which were higher under the native forest, and in the pH and organic matter values which were higher in the pasture. Higher water retention capacity was observed in the surface horizons of the forest when compared to the pasture, corroborating the higher values of macroporosity observed in the forest soils. Due to higher moisture content

  9. Influence of urban pollution on the production of organic particulate matter from isoprene epoxydiols in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Sá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chemistry of isoprene contributes to the production of a substantial mass fraction of the particulate matter (PM over tropical forests. Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX produced in the gas phase by the oxidation of isoprene under HO2-dominant conditions are subsequently taken up by particles, thereby leading to production of secondary organic PM. The present study investigates possible perturbations to this pathway by urban pollution. The measurement site in central Amazonia was located 4 to 6 h downwind of Manaus, Brazil. Measurements took place from February through March 2014 of the wet season, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. Mass spectra of organic PM collected with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were analyzed by positive-matrix factorization. One resolved statistical factor (IEPOX-SOA factor was associated with PM production by the IEPOX pathway. The IEPOX-SOA factor loadings correlated with independently measured mass concentrations of tracers of IEPOX-derived PM, namely C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols (R = 0. 96 and 0.78, respectively. The factor loading, as well as the ratio f of the loading to organic PM mass concentration, decreased under polluted compared to background conditions. For an increase in NOy concentration from 0.5 to 2 ppb, the factor loading and f decreased by two to three fold. Overall, sulfate concentration explained 37 % of the variability in the factor loading. After segregation of factor loading into subsets based on NOy concentration, the sulfate concentration explained up to 75 % of the variability. Considering both factors, the data sets show that the suppressing effects of increased NO concentrations dominated over the enhancing effects of higher sulfate concentrations. The pollution from Manaus elevated NOy concentrations more significantly than sulfate concentrations relative to background conditions. In this light, increased emissions of nitrogen oxides, as

  10. Influence of urban pollution on the production of organic particulate matter from isoprene epoxydiols in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Suzane S.; Palm, Brett B.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Hu, Weiwei; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Yee, Lindsay D.; Thalman, Ryan; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Artaxo, Paulo; Goldstein, Allen H.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Mei, Fan; Shilling, John E.; Springston, Stephen R.; Wang, Jian; Surratt, Jason D.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-06-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of isoprene contributes to the production of a substantial mass fraction of the particulate matter (PM) over tropical forests. Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX) produced in the gas phase by the oxidation of isoprene under HO2-dominant conditions are subsequently taken up by particles, thereby leading to production of secondary organic PM. The present study investigates possible perturbations to this pathway by urban pollution. The measurement site in central Amazonia was located 4 to 6 h downwind of Manaus, Brazil. Measurements took place from February through March 2014 of the wet season, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. Mass spectra of organic PM collected with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were analyzed by positive-matrix factorization. One resolved statistical factor (IEPOX-SOA factor) was associated with PM production by the IEPOX pathway. The IEPOX-SOA factor loadings correlated with independently measured mass concentrations of tracers of IEPOX-derived PM, namely C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols (R = 0. 96 and 0.78, respectively). The factor loading, as well as the ratio f of the loading to organic PM mass concentration, decreased under polluted compared to background conditions. For an increase in NOy concentration from 0.5 to 2 ppb, the factor loading and f decreased by two to three fold. Overall, sulfate concentration explained 37 % of the variability in the factor loading. After segregation of factor loading into subsets based on NOy concentration, the sulfate concentration explained up to 75 % of the variability. Considering both factors, the data sets show that the suppressing effects of increased NO concentrations dominated over the enhancing effects of higher sulfate concentrations. The pollution from Manaus elevated NOy concentrations more significantly than sulfate concentrations relative to background conditions. In this light, increased emissions of nitrogen oxides, as anticipated for some scenarios of

  11. From forest to cropland and pasture systems: a critical review of soil organic carbon stocks changes in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Kenji; Perrin, Anne-Sophie; Desjardins, Thierry; Bernoux, Martial; Balbino, Luiz Carlos; Brossard, Michel

    2015-02-26

    The impact of deforestation on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is important in the context of climate change and agricultural soil use. Trends of SOC stock changes after agroecosystem establishment vary according to the spatial scale considered, and factors explaining these trends may differ sometimes according to meta-analyses. We have reviewed the knowledge about changes in SOC stocks in Amazonia after the establishment of pasture or cropland, sought relationships between observed changes and soil, climatic variables and management practices, and synthesized the δ(13) C measured in pastures. Our dataset consisted of 21 studies mostly synchronic, across 52 sites (Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Suriname), totalling 70 forest-agroecosystem comparisons. We found that pastures (n = 52, mean age = 17.6 years) had slightly higher SOC stocks than forest (+6.8 ± 3.1 %), whereas croplands (n = 18, mean age = 8.7 years) had lower SOC stocks than forest (-8.5 ± 2.9 %). Annual precipitation and SOC stocks under forest had no effect on the SOC changes in the agroecosystems. For croplands, we found a lower SOC loss than other meta-analyses, but the short time period after deforestation here could have reduced this loss. There was no clear effect of tillage on the SOC response. Management of pastures, whether they were degraded/nominal/improved, had no significant effect on SOC response. δ(13) C measurements on 16 pasture chronosequences showed that decay of forest-derived SOC was variable, whereas pasture-derived SOC was less so and was characterized by an accumulation plateau of 20 Mg SOC ha(-1) after 20 years. The large uncertainties in SOC response observed could be derived from the chronosequence approach, sensitive to natural soil variability and to human management practices. This study emphasizes the need for diachronic and long-term studies, associated with better knowledge of agroecosystem management.

  12. Amazonia Introduced to General Relativity: The May 29, 1919, Solar Eclipse from a North-Brazilian Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Luís C. B.; de Lima, Marcelo C.

    2016-12-01

    In 1919, A. C. D. Crommelin and C. R. Davidson, British astronomers from the Greenwich Observatory in England, passed by Amazonia on their Brazilian journey aiming to measure the bending of stars' light rays during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, and thereby put the theory of general relativity to the test. In the context of Crommelin's and Davidson's visit, we discuss how Amazonia was introduced to Einstein's theory of gravitation, and also the observations and repercussions of the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse in Belém, capital city of the North-Brazilian Pará state.

  13. Relação entre a altura de inundação, riqueza específica de plantas e o tamanho de clareiras naturais em uma floresta inundável de igapó, na Amazônia Central Relationship between flooding level, plant species diversity and tree fall gap size in a seasonally flooded forest in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Valle Ferreira

    2005-06-01

    of them addresses the regeneration of plant species in natural gaps in the Amazonian seasonally flooded forests. These forests undergo a large fluctuation of the water level which may vary up to 15 meters between the high and low water seasons, flooding extensive areas along rivers and streams. The objective of this study was to determine whether differences in the duration of annual flooding could affect the parameters of size, species diversity, and composition in natural gaps. This study sampled 10 natural gaps in black water floodplain forests of different areas and flood levels along the Tarumã-Mirim River, a tributary of the Rio Negro, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. There was a significant increase in gap size, varying from 101 to 1.001 m2, in relation to the level of flooding. There was also a significant increase in species diversity, varying from 14 to 51 species, depending upon the increase in the level of flooding. The species composition in the gaps was closely related to the level of flooding, resulting in gaps located in areas subjected to a long flooding period being colonized mainly by species with a high flooding tolerance, whereas gaps located in regions of short periods of inundation were mainly colonized by species with a low flooding tolerance. In conclusion, the gap size, diversity, and floristic composition within the gaps of the black water flooded forests sampled in this study were related to the level of flooding, demonstrating that that annual flooding duration influenced these parameters.

  14. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  17. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  19. New species of Lachesilla Westwood in the pedicularia group (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae) from the Colombian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2015-02-05

    Two species of Lachesilla, in the pedicularia species group, from the Colombian Amazonia, are here described and illustrated. Also, a record of L. asymmetriproctus García Aldrete, for the Colombian Department of Putumayo is provided. An identification key to Lachesilla species in the pedicularia group with a single male clunial apophysis is presented, together with a diagnosis of this assemblage of species. A table is included indicating the distribution of Lachesilla species with one and two male clunial apophyses. The species treated in this paper constitute the first lachesillids known from the Department of Putumayo, Colombia. 

  20. The Flux of Carbon from Selective Logging, Fire, and Regrowth in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    The major goal of this work was to develop a spatial, process-based model (CARLUC) that would calculate sources and sinks of carbon from changes in land use, including logging and fire. The work also included Landsat data, together with fieldwork, to investigate fire and logging in three different forest types within Brazilian Amazonia. Results from these three activities (modeling, fieldwork, and remote sensing) are described, individually, below. The work and some of the personnel overlapped with research carried out by Dr. Daniel Nepstad's LBA team, and thus some of the findings are also reported in his summaries.

  1. New tools and insights to assist with the molecular identification of Simulium guianense s.l., main Onchocerca volvulus vector within the highland areas of the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Mattos-Glória, Aline; Hamada, Neusa; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2014-03-01

    Following the success of the Onchocerciasis Elimination Programme for the Americas (OEPA), there is now just one Latin American onchocerciasis focus where onchocerciasis transmission is described as 'on-going:' the Amazonia Onchocerciasis focus. In the hyperendemic highland areas of the Amazonia focus, Simulium guianense s.l. Wise are the most important vectors of the disease. Populations of S. guianense s.l. are, however, known to vary in their cytogenetics and in a range of behaviours, including in their biting habits. In the hypoendemic lowland areas of the Amazonia focus, for example, S. guianense s.l. are generally regarded as zoophilic and consequently unimportant to disease transmission. Robust tools, to discriminate among various populations of S. guianense s.l. have, however, not yet been developed. In the work reported here, we have assessed the utility of a ribosomal DNA sequence fragment spanning the nuclear ribosomal ITS-1, ITS-2 and 5.8S sequence regions and a ∼850 nucleotide portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (CO1) for species-level identification and for resolving the within species substructuring. We report here how we have generated 78 CO1 sequences from a rich set of both zoophilic and anthropophilic populations of S. guianense s.l. that were collected from eight sites that are broadly distributed across Brazil. Consistent with previous findings, our analysis supports the genetic isolation of Simulium litobranchium from S. guianense s.l. In contrast with previous findings, however, our results did not provide support for the divergence of the two species prior to the radiation of S. guianense s.l. In our analysis of the S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA sequence trace files we generated, we provide clear evidence of multiple within-specimen single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels suggesting that S. guianense s.l. ribosomal DNA is not a good target for conventional DNA barcoding. This is the first report of S. guianense s

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  3. Evidences for a Paleocene marine incursion in southern Amazonia (Madre de Dios Sub-Andean Zone, Peru)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louterbach, M.; Roddaz, M.; Bailleul, J.; Antoine, P.O.; Adnet, S.; Kim, J.H.; van Soelen, E.E.; Parra, F.; Gérard, J.; Calderon, Y.; Gagnaison, C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Baby, P.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents new biostratigraphic dating, facies analysis, organic geochemical data and Nd–Sr isotopic provenance from five outcrops of southern Amazonia (MD-85, MD-177 MD-184, MD-255 and MD-256) to document for the first time the presence of a shallow marine ingression in the Paleocene of

  4. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar

  5. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar ind

  6. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asnera; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweeded

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  7. Miocene long-lived lake Pebas as a stage of mollusc radiations, with implications for landscape evolution in western Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2006-01-01

    The Miocene Pebas system was a huge (> 1 million km2) system of long-lived lakes and wetlands that occupied most of western Amazonia between c. 23 and 8 Ma. Remarkable endemic radiations of molluscs and ostracods occurred in the Pebas system. The continuity of many of the endemic lineages between c.

  8. Large-scale expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leydimere J. C.; Costa, Marcos H.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Coe, Michael T.

    2013-06-01

    Using simplified climate and land-use models, we evaluated primary forests’ carbon storage and soybean and pasture productivity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon under several scenarios of deforestation and increased CO2. The four scenarios for the year 2050 that we analyzed consider (1) radiative effects of increased CO2, (2) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2, (3) effects of land-use changes on the regional climate and (4) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2 plus land-use climate feedbacks. Under current conditions, means for aboveground forest live biomass (AGB), soybean yield and pasture yield are 179 Mg-C ha-1, 2.7 Mg-grains ha-1 and 16.2 Mg-dry mass ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario: in addition to reductions in carbon storage due to deforestation, total agriculture output may either increase much less than proportionally to the potential expansion in agricultural area, or even decrease, as a consequence of climate feedbacks from changes in land use. These climate feedbacks, usually ignored in previous studies, impose a reduction in precipitation that would lead agriculture expansion in Amazonia to become self-defeating: the more agriculture expands, the less productive it becomes.

  9. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lins

    Full Text Available Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.

  10. Coupling Between the Climate Variables of Amazonia and its Surrounding Oceans During Drought Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antônio M. de T.; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Teleconnection patterns between different climate systems have been seen as a feature of the internal dynamics of atmosphere and ocean. However several questions about this non-linear dynamics remain open, especially the interplay of the warming of Oceans and the anomaly precipitation in the Amazon region. For this reason, we investigate how the coupling between the ocean's temperature and the precipitation in Amazon evolve in time. In particular, how does this coupling behave during an anomalous drought period in Amazonia. Here a data-driven approach is applied to detect the coupling time scale between the precipitation in the North/South Amazonia and its surrounding oceans. The framework comprises statistical and information theory approaches that can reveal directional links between the different regional domains. The method is applied on a daily resolution data sets, the variables are average over regional domains well studied in the literature. Finally, the outcomes are systematically analysed seeking patterns that may reveal the underlying dynamics between these climate systems. Also, the study sheds light into the elementary form of the climate network between these systems.

  11. Long term measurements of the elemental composition and optical properties of aerosols in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arana A. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols are being collected and analyzed for trace elements in two sites in Amazonia since January 2008. On eof the site, Manaus is located in a very pristine area in Central Amazonia. The site is nt affected directly by any urban plume for thousands of kilometers. A second site is located in Porto Velho, in a region with heavy land use change and deforestation. Optical properties (light scattering ad absorption are also being measured in order to study the climatic impact of aerosols. It was observed a clear seasonal pattern for both sites, with higher concentrations in the dry season. But the difference in seasonal concentrations observed for Porto Velho is much larger due to stronger anthropogenic influences. In Manaus during the wet season, very low concentrations of heavy metals, maybe the smallest measured in continental regions are reported. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF was used to separate the different aerosol components. In general, for fine and coarse mode and wet and dry season, 3 aerosol components could be observed: 1 Natural biogenic aerosol; 2 biomass burning component; 3 Soil dust both locally and long range transported Sahara dust

  12. Pre-Columbian Floristic Legacies in Modern Homegardens of Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P.; Baccaro, Fabricio B.; Kinupp, Valdely F.; Shepard, Glenn H.; Clement, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape. PMID:26030879

  13. Do the recent severe droughts in the Amazonia have the same period of length?

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    Zou, Yong; Sampaio, Gilvan; Mário, Antônio; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new measure based on drought period length to assess the temporal difference between the recent two severe droughts of 2005 and 2010 in the Amazonia. The sensitivity of the measure is demonstrated by disclosing the distinct spatial responding mechanisms of the Northeastern and Southwestern Amazon (NA, SA) to the surrounding sea surface temperature (SST) variabilities. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans have different roles on the precipitation patterns in Amazonia. More specifically, the very dry periods in the NA are influenced by El Ni\\~no events, while the very dry periods in the SA are affected by the anomalously warming of the SST in the North Atlantic. We show convincingly that the drought 2005 hit SA, which is caused by the North Atlantic only. There are two phases in the drought 2010: (i) it was started in the NA in August 2009 affected by the El Ni\\~no event, and (ii) later shifted the center of action to SA resulted from anomalously high SST in North Atlantic, which further intensifies the...

  14. Do the recent severe droughts in the Amazonia have the same period of length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yong; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Ramos, Antônio M. T.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new measure based on drought period length to assess the temporal difference between the recent two severe droughts of 2005 and 2010 in the Amazonia. The sensitivity of the measure is demonstrated by disclosing the distinct spatial responding mechanisms of the Northeastern and Southwestern Amazon (NA, SA) to the surrounding sea surface temperature (SST) variabilities. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans have different roles on the precipitation patterns in Amazonia. More specifically, the very dry periods in the NA are influenced by El Niño events, while the very dry periods in the SA are affected by the anomalously warming of the SST in the North Atlantic. Our analysis discloses convincingly that the drought 2005 hit SA, which is correlated to the North Atlantic only. Furthermore, it suggests that there are two phases in the drought 2010: (1) it was started in the NA in August 2009 co-occurred with the El Niño event, and (2) later shifted the center of action to SA resulted from anomalously high SST in North Atlantic, which further intensifies the impacts on the spatial coverage.

  15. Oil palm expansion drives avifaunal decline in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Srinivas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the world’s most rapidly expanding crops, replacing humid forests across tropical regions. Studies examining the effect of this land conversion on biodiversity have tended to focus predominantly on Southeast Asia, where the majority of the world’s oil palm is produced. Because the Amazon possesses the greatest area of suitable land for oil palm expansion, oil palm is considered an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity. This is the first study to examine how oil palm agriculture affects avian diversity within the context of Western Amazonia. We used mist nets to conduct avifaunal surveys of forest and oil palm habitat in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia. Bird species richness, species evenness, and overall abundance were all significantly higher in the forest than in oil palm habitat. Strikingly, less than 5% of all captured species were common to both forest and oil palm habitat. The species absent from the oil palm plantations were disproportionately habitat specialists, forest interior birds, birds with high sensitivity to disturbance, and insectivores and frugivores. The results suggest that oil palm is particularly poor habitat for Amazonian birds, and that the species that are persist on them are of lower conservation value. Given the apparent lack of diversity on oil palm plantations, preventing further conversion of forests to oil palm should be prioritized.

  16. Early and Middle Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Occupations in Western Amazonia: The Hidden Shell Middens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M.; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region’s past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene “Earthmovers” of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged. PMID:24013964

  17. Avian malaria, ecological host traits and mosquito abundance in southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecchio, Alan; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Bell, Jeffrey A; Andretti, Christian B; D'Horta, Fernando M; Silva, Allan M; Tkach, Vasyl V; Weckstein, Jason D

    2017-03-27

    Avian malaria is a vector transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium and recent studies suggest that variation in its prevalence across avian hosts is correlated with a variety of ecological traits. Here we examine the relationship between prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium lineages in southeastern Amazonia and: (1) host ecological traits (nest location, nest type, flocking behaviour and diet); (2) density and diversity of avian hosts; (3) abundance and diversity of mosquitoes; and (4) season. We used molecular methods to detect Plasmodium in blood samples from 675 individual birds of 120 species. Based on cytochrome b sequences, we recovered 89 lineages of Plasmodium from 136 infected individuals sampled across seven localities. Plasmodium prevalence was homogeneous over time (dry season and flooding season) and space, but heterogeneous among 51 avian host species. Variation in prevalence among bird species was not explained by avian ecological traits, density of avian hosts, or mosquito abundance. However, Plasmodium lineage diversity was positively correlated with mosquito abundance. Interestingly, our results suggest that avian host traits are less important determinants of Plasmodium prevalence and diversity in southeastern Amazonia than in other regions in which they have been investigated.

  18. Early and middle holocene hunter-gatherer occupations in western Amazonia: the hidden shell middens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Szabo, Katherine; Capriles, José M; May, Jan-Hendrik; Amelung, Wulf; Hutterer, Rainer; Lehndorff, Eva; Plotzki, Anna; Veit, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We report on previously unknown early archaeological sites in the Bolivian lowlands, demonstrating for the first time early and middle Holocene human presence in western Amazonia. Multidisciplinary research in forest islands situated in seasonally-inundated savannahs has revealed stratified shell middens produced by human foragers as early as 10,000 years ago, making them the oldest archaeological sites in the region. The absence of stone resources and partial burial by recent alluvial sediments has meant that these kinds of deposits have, until now, remained unidentified. We conducted core sampling, archaeological excavations and an interdisciplinary study of the stratigraphy and recovered materials from three shell midden mounds. Based on multiple lines of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, sedimentary proxies (elements, steroids and black carbon), micromorphology and faunal analysis, we demonstrate the anthropogenic origin and antiquity of these sites. In a tropical and geomorphologically active landscape often considered challenging both for early human occupation and for the preservation of hunter-gatherer sites, the newly discovered shell middens provide evidence for early to middle Holocene occupation and illustrate the potential for identifying and interpreting early open-air archaeological sites in western Amazonia. The existence of early hunter-gatherer sites in the Bolivian lowlands sheds new light on the region's past and offers a new context within which the late Holocene "Earthmovers" of the Llanos de Moxos could have emerged.

  19. A palaeobiogeographic model for biotic diversification within Amazonia over the past three million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Camila C; Aleixo, Alexandre; Nogueira, Afonso C R; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Cracraft, Joel

    2012-02-22

    Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain high species diversity in Amazonia, but few generalizations have emerged. In part, this has arisen from the scarcity of rigorous tests for mechanisms promoting speciation, and from major uncertainties about palaeogeographic events and their spatial and temporal associations with diversification. Here, we investigate the environmental history of Amazonia using a phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of trumpeters (Aves: Psophia), which are represented by species in each of the vertebrate areas of endemism. Their relationships reveal an unforeseen 'complete' time-slice of Amazonian diversification over the past 3.0 Myr. We employ this temporally calibrated phylogeny to test competing palaeogeographic hypotheses. Our results are consistent with the establishment of the current Amazonian drainage system at approximately 3.0-2.0 Ma and predict the temporal pattern of major river formation over Plio-Pleistocene times. We propose a palaeobiogeographic model for the last 3.0 Myr of Amazonian history that has implications for understanding patterns of endemism, the temporal history of Amazonian diversification and mechanisms promoting speciation. The history of Psophia, in combination with new geological evidence, provides the strongest direct evidence supporting a role for river dynamics in Amazonian diversification, and the absence of such a role for glacial climate cycles and refugia.

  20. Pre-Columbian floristic legacies in modern homegardens of Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Juliana; Lima, Helena P; Baccaro, Fabricio B; Kinupp, Valdely F; Shepard, Glenn H; Clement, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    Historical ecologists have demonstrated legacy effects in apparently wild landscapes in Europe, North America, Mesoamerica, Amazonia, Africa and Oceania. People live and farm in archaeological sites today in many parts of the world, but nobody has looked for the legacies of past human occupations in the most dynamic areas in these sites: homegardens. Here we show that the useful flora of modern homegardens is partially a legacy of pre-Columbian occupations in Central Amazonia: the more complex the archaeological context, the more variable the floristic composition of useful native plants in homegardens cultivated there today. Species diversity was 10% higher in homegardens situated in multi-occupational archaeological contexts compared with homegardens situated in single-occupational ones. Species heterogeneity (β-diversity) among archaeological contexts was similar for the whole set of species, but markedly different when only native Amazonian species were included, suggesting the influence of pre-conquest indigenous occupations on current homegarden species composition. Our findings show that the legacy of pre-Columbian occupations is visible in the most dynamic of all agroecosystems, adding another dimension to the human footprint in the Amazonian landscape.

  1. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Moraes, Elisabete C; Bertani, Gabriel; Dos Santos, Thiago V; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2016-06-24

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001-December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance.

  2. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  3. Characterization of Aspergillus section Flavi isolated from organic Brazil nuts using a polyphasic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, T A; Baquião, A C; Atayde, D D; Grabarz, F; Corrêa, B

    2014-09-01

    Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), an important non-timber forest product from Amazonia, is commercialized in worldwide markets. The main importers of this nut are North America and European countries, where the demand for organic products has grown to meet consumers concerned about food safety. Thus, the precise identification of toxigenic fungi is important because the Brazil nut is susceptible to colonization by these microorganisms. The present study aimed to characterize by polyphasic approach strains of Aspergillus section Flavi from organic Brazil nuts. The results showed Aspergillus flavus as the main species found (74.4%), followed by Aspergillus nomius (12.7%). The potential mycotoxigenic revealed that 80.0% of A. flavus were toxin producers, 14.3% of which produced only aflatoxin B (AFB), 22.85% of which produced only cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), and 42.85% produced both them. All strains of A. nomius were AFB and AFG producers and did not produce CPA. There is no consensus about what Aspergillus species predominates on Brazil nuts. Apparently, the origin, processing, transport and storage conditions of this commodity influence the species that are found. The understanding about population of fungi is essential for the development of viable strategies to control aflatoxins in organic Brazil nuts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical characteristics and discharges of suspended particulate matter at the continent-ocean interface in an estuary located in a semiarid region in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Francisco Jose da Silva; Castro, Belmiro Mendes; Lacerda, Luiz Drude; Miranda, Luiz Brunner; Marins, Rozane Valente

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the hydrodynamics of the transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Jaguaribe River estuary, which receives the runoff from the largest drainage basin in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The estuary is located in the semiarid region of Brazil, where rainfall occurs primarily between January and May and results in water flow rates exceeding 3000 m3s-1. The drainage basin contains more than 4000 dams, which, during the dry season, block most of the flow of freshwater and sediment. The net balance and transport of sediments were calculated for the wet and dry seasons considering a tidal cycle of 13 h at the interfaces between the upper and middle estuary and between the middle and lower estuary. The Jaguaribe River estuary is classified as partially mixed with weak vertical stratification and a tendency toward being well mixed. The SPM transported during the rainy season originates in the drainage basin due to high river inflow, whereas during the dry season, resuspension and hydraulic fills generated by tides causes the accumulation of SPM in the middle estuary, forming a zone of maximum turbidity. The transport of salt in the estuary was predominantly caused by gravity flow and tidal propagation.

  5. The movement of pre-adapted cool taxa in north-central Amazonia during the last glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apolito, Carlos; Absy, Maria Lúcia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of climate change on the lowland vegetation of Amazonia during the last glacial cycle are partially known for the middle and late Pleniglacial intervals (late MIS 3, 59-24 ka and MIS 2, 24-11 ka), but are still unclear for older stages of the last glacial and during the last interglacial. It is known that a more seasonal dry-wet climate caused marginal forest retraction and together with cooling rearranged forest composition to some extent. This is observed in pollen records across Amazonia depicting presence of taxa at glacial times in localities where they do not live presently. The understanding of taxa migration is hindered by the lack of continuous interglacial-glacial lowland records. We present new data from a known locality in NW Amazonia (Six Lakes Hill), showing a vegetation record that probably started during MIS 5 (130-71 ka) and lasted until the onset of the Holocene. The vegetation record unravels a novel pattern in tree taxa migration: (1) from the beginning of this cycle Podocarpus and Myrsine are recorded and (2) only later do Hedyosmum and Alnus appear. The latter group is largely restricted to montane biomes or more distant locations outside Amazonia, whereas the first is found in lowlands close to the study site on sandy soils. These findings imply that Podocarpus and Myrsine responded to environmental changes equally and this reflects their concomitant niche use in NW Amazonia. Temperature drop is not discarded as a trigger of internal forest composition change, but its effects are clearer later in the Pleniglacial rather than the Early Glacial. Therefore early climatic/environmental changes had a first order effect on vegetation that invoke alternative explanations. We claim last glacial climate-induced modifications on forest composition favoured the expansion of geomorphologic-soil related processes that initiated forest rearrangement.

  6. [Indicators of physical activity and frailty in the elderly: data from the FIBRA study in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Taiguara Bertelli; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2011-08-01

    The literature shows methodological differences in measuring physical activity in relation to frailty in the elderly. Therefore, the aim of the present study, part of FIBRA (the Frailty in Brazilian Elderly study), was to investigate relationships between frailty and measurements of physical activity. The study used a probabilistic sample of 689 elderly (72.28 ± 5.40 years; 68.21% women). An adapted version of the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire was used and two criteria were established for measuring physical activity: regular physical exercise and weekly calorie expenditure during physical exercise and household activities. Of the total sample, 15.09% scored on weight loss, 17.13% on fatigue, 16.96% on low grip strength, 15.87% on slow gait, and 43.02% on comorbidities. According to the calorie expenditure criterion, 83.55% of the elders were classified as active, as compared to 45.27% according to the physical activity criterion. Low calorie expenditure was associated with low grip strength, slow gait, and advanced age. Sedentary lifestyle (limited physical activity) was associated with comorbidities. Calorie expenditure was more sensitive for measuring frailty, while physical activity was more sensitive for measuring health status.

  7. Comparative biology of two populations of Lutzomyia umbratilis (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Central Amazonia, Brazil, under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justiniano, S C B; Chagas, A C; Pessoa, F A C; Queiroz, R G

    2004-05-01

    Lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis in northern South America. It has been found naturally infected with this species of Leishmania only east of the Rio Negro and north of the Rio Amazonas. However, populations of this sand fly species are also present in areas south of the Amazon river system, which may act as a geographical barrier to the Leishmania guyanensis cycle. With the aim of looking for possible biological differences between populations of L. umbratilis from each side of this river system, their biology in the laboratory was investigated. Progenitors collected on tree bases in Manaus and Manacapuru (east and west, respectively, of the Rio Negro) were reared in the laboratory. Results from observations of the life cycle, fecundity, fertility, and adult longevity at 27 degrees C and 92% RH were analyzed by descriptive statistics and z, t, U, and chi2 tests. Although the Manaus and Manacapuru colonies showed a longer developmental time than most Lutzomyia species reared at similar temperatures, length of time of egg and 4th instar larva of the two populations differed significantly (p < 0.01). Females of the latter retained significantly (p < 0.001) less mature oocytes, and the general productivity (% adults from a known number of eggs) of the colony was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that of the former. These results show that the L. umbratilis population of Manaus is more productive, and thus a better candidate for future mass-rearing attempts. The two populations differ in their life cycle, fecundity, fertility, adult longevity, and emergence. These differences may reflect some divergence of intrinsic biological features evolved as a result of their geographical isolation by the Rio Negro. It is expected that further investigations on morphometry, cuticular hydrocarbon, isoenzyme, molecular and chromossomal analyses, infection, and cross-mating experiments with these and other allopatric populations of both margins of the Amazon river system will help reveal whether or not L. umbratilis has genetically diverged into two or more reproductively isolated populations of vectors or non-vectors of Leishmania guyanensis.

  8. Comparative biology of two populations of Lutzomyia umbratilis (Diptera: Psychodidae of Central Amazonia, Brazil, under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. B. Justiniano

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia umbratilis is the main vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania guyanensis in northern South America. It has been found naturally infected with this species of Leishmania only east of the Rio Negro and north of the Rio Amazonas. However, populations of this sand fly species are also present in areas south of the Amazon river system, which may act as a geographical barrier to the Leishmania guyanensis cycle. With the aim of looking for possible biological differences between populations of L. umbratilis from each side of this river system, their biology in the laboratory was investigated. Progenitors collected on tree bases in Manaus and Manacapuru (east and west, respectively, of the Rio Negro were reared in the laboratory. Results from observations of the life cycle, fecundity, fertility, and adult longevity at 27ºC and 92% RH were analyzed by descriptive statistics and z, t, U, and chi2 tests. Although the Manaus and Manacapuru colonies showed a longer developmental time than most Lutzomyia species reared at similar temperatures, length of time of egg and 4th instar larva of the two populations differed significantly (p < 0.01. Females of the latter retained significantly (p < 0.001 less mature oocytes, and the general productivity (% adults from a known number of eggs of the colony was significantly (p < 0.01 higher than that of the former. These results show that the L. umbratilis population of Manaus is more productive, and thus a better candidate for future mass-rearing attempts. The two populations differ in their life cycle, fecundity, fertility, adult longevity, and emergence. These differences may reflect some divergence of intrinsic biological features evolved as a result of their geographical isolation by the Rio Negro. It is expected that further investigations on morphometry, cuticular hydrocarbon, isoenzyme, molecular and chromossomal analyses, infection, and cross-mating experiments with these and other allopatric populations of both margins of the Amazon river system will help reveal whether or not L. umbratilis has genetically diverged into two or more reproductively isolated populations of vectors or non-vectors of Leishmania guyanensis.

  9. Resilience of a cerradão subjected to intermediate disturbance in the Cerrado-Amazonia transition, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hur Marimon-Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that remnant forests in small protected areas may be resilient to intermediate disturbances. We analyzed the diameter and height distributions of the tree community in a typical cerradão (14°42’02.3”S and 52°21’02.6”W and determined which species were most abundant, sampling at two- to three-year intervals over eight years. In 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2010, we measured all live trees with a diameter ≥ 5 cm at 0.3 m above ground in 50 plots of 10 x 10 m. Although significant variation was observed in the density of the trees and the distributions of their diameters and heights, the community maintained the “reverse-J” and unimodal patterns for these distributions, respectively. These results indicate continuous recruitment and little change in the structure of the community over the study period, supporting our hypothesis. Three different patterns of diametric distribution were observed among the analyzed species, likely reflecting different forest occupation strategies. Hirtella glandulosa was the speciesmost able to exploit its environment, as it possessed the greatest overall abundance and was represented by individuals in all diameter classes.

  10. 1.3-0.9 Ga Oaxaquia (Mexico): Remnant of an arc/backarc on the northern margin of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppie, J. Duncan; Ortega-Gutiérrez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Rocks with ages of ca. 1 Ga occur in central and southern Mexico as inliers surrounded by ubiquitous Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks. They appear to share a common history consisting of: (i) ca. 1300-1200 Ma arc magmatism and deposition of sediments including evaporites; (ii) ca.1160-1100 Ma intrusion of syenite, granite and anorthosite, the later part of which is synchronous with migmatization; (iii) intrusion of a ca. 1035-1010 Ma anorthosite-gabbro-charnockite-granite (AMCG) suite; (iv) a 1000-980 Ma granulite facies tectonothermal event with a stretching axis parallel to the long axis of Oaxaquia; (v) gradual exhumation at 750 and/or 545 Ma; and (vi) 517 Ma intrusion of an isolated calcalkaline granitoid pluton. The common Precambrian geological record of these outcrops suggests that they belonged to a single terrane (Oaxaquia) and formed a juvenile arc/backarc bordering a continent that underwent collision with, and overthrusting of, the Avalonian arc at 1000-980 Ma. This buried Oaxaquia to 25-30 km and was followed by further supra-subduction zone magmatism at ca. 917 Ma. These Precambrian rocks are unconformably overlain by uppermost Cambrian and Silurian platform rocks containing Gondwanan fauna and ca. 1 detrital zircons of Oaxacan provenance. The neighbouring Mixteca terrane includes lower Paleozoic, rift-passive margin sedimentary rocks that also contain 900-750 Ma detrital zircons probably derived from the Goiás arc in eastern Amazonia. The arc-backarc tectonic setting inferred for the 1300-900 Ma rocks also suggests that Oaxaquia lay on an active periphery of Amazonia until ca. 900 Ma, well after the amalgamation of Rodinia. This precludes a location for Oaxaquia off southern and western Amazonia that are inferred to have been juxtaposed against eastern Laurentia; contiguity with eastern Amazonia is also unlikely given the absence of the 900-750 Ma convergent tectonics in the Goiás arc. This leaves northern Amazonia as the most likely position, a

  11. Physical growth and nutritional status of schoolchildren from Valley of the Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p363

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n4p363The study analyzed physical growth and nutritional status in a representative sample of schoolchildren from the Jequitinhonha Valley region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 5100 subjects (2730 girls and 2370 boys aged 6 to 18 years were included in the study. Nutritional status of the under-10 group was assessed by z +2 for weight-for-height (overweight. For children over 10, the 5th and 85th percentiles of weight for age were used to assess underweight and overweight respectively, according to World Health Organization recommendations. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria were also calculated. The data showed a prevalence of undernutrition below the expected level for the reference population (girls, 1.2%; boys, 3.9%. The prevalence of overweight was approximately 13% for girls and 6% for boys, and obesity was 2% for both sexes. In short, the results indicated a low prevalence of undernutrition and a high prevalence of overnutrition. This shows an urgent need for implementation of educational intervention programs geared to the improvement of physical activity and appropriate dietary habits in this population.

  12. Chemical fingerprints of hydrological compartments and flow paths at La Cuenca, western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; Lack, Andreas; Cassel, Keith

    A forested first-order catchment in western Amazonia was monitored for 2 years to determine the chemical fingerprints of precipitation, throughfall, overland flow, pipe flow, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow. We used five tracers (hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and silica) to distinguish ``fast'' flow paths mainly influenced by the biological subsystem from ``slow'' flow paths in the geochemical subsystem. The former comprise throughfall, overland flow, and pipe flow and are characterized by a high potassium/silica ratio; the latter are represented by soil water and groundwater, which have a low potassium/silica ratio. Soil water and groundwater differ with respect to calcium and magnesium. The groundwater-controlled streamflow chemistry is strongly modified by contributions from fast flow paths during precipitation events. The high potassium/silica ratio of these flow paths suggests that the storm flow response at La Cuenca is dominated by event water.

  13. Hydrometric and hydrochemicai evidence for fast flowpaths at La Cuenca, Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; Lack, Andreas

    1996-05-01

    A hydrological reconnaissance study in a first-order tropical rainforest catchment in western Amazonia implicated overland flow as an important hydrological pathway. A complementary hydrometric and hydrochemical approach that involved the recording of overland flow hydrographs and the determination of streamflow, overland flow, groundwater, soil water, and throughfall chemical signatures, was essential to establish unambiguously the importance of this pathway. Largely uncontrolled by topography, overland flow does occur in any season, regardless of antecedent moisture conditions, which only influence the volumes generated. The latter effect is also reflected in a close approximation of stormflow and overland flow chemical signatures, as expressed in the K/SiO ratio. We conclude that, despite its greater logistical demands, a complementary hydrometric/hydrochemical approach is essential to understand a catchment's hydrological behaviour, especially where fast pathways are at work; such pathways are apparently common in more forest ecosystems than has been previously assumed.

  14. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low.

  15. Neogene and Quaternary history of vegetation, climate, and plant diversity in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hammen, Thomas; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    2000-04-01

    The neotropical Amazonian and Andean plant diversity developed mainly during the Tertiary. In Amazonia, Miocene floral diversity seems considerably higher than today. During the Neogene, tropical taxa entered newly created montane area, and montane taxa entered the tropical lowlands. The general decrease of temperature during the upper Neogene and especially during the Quaternary glacial periods may have caused considerable extinctions in the lowlands. Representation of pollen of apparently principally montane taxa ( Podocarpus, Hedyosmum) in Miocene, Pliocene, and Quaternary sediments of Amazonia and surroundings, is still difficult to interpret in terms of temperature decrease at low elevation. Changes in precipitation may have profound impact on the composition of vegetation communities; Ilex and Melastomataceae increase significantly in many glacial pollen records. Increase of Weinmannia in Amazonian pollen records seems the best indicator of downward migration of montane vegetation belts. A temperature lowering at sea-level of 4.5 ±1°C during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) seems reasonable; it may have caused a downslope migration of some 700 m of the lower montane vegetation belt; lower montane arboreal species may have been able to grow in higher elevation areas (>500 m) of Amazonia, increasing background pollen values of montane taxa in the area. Difference between a cool and wet Middle Pleniglacial (60-28 ka BP), and a cold and dry Upper Pleniglacial (28-14 ka BP; thus including the LGM) is evident in Andean and Amazonian records; statements about environmental conditions of the ice-age Amazon should be specified chronologically. The Middle Pleniglacial is a time of accumulation of fluvial sediments. The Upper Pleniglacial is a time of incision of the rivers in their sediments; sedimentation started again in the Lateglacial (since ca. 13 ka BP) and the Holocene, when lake levels rose again. Based on simplified considerations of precipitation changes and

  16. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador. R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  17. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-05

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

  18. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south–southeastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T.; Marthews, Toby R.; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R.; Greenglass, Nora L.; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M. A.; Levine, Naomi M.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L.; Saleska, Scott R.; Solorzano, Luis A.; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-01-01

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south–southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms. PMID:23610166

  19. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic. PMID:24473808

  20. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti, a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l., but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the "robustus lineage", i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus, Rhodnius neglectus, Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l., including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic.

  1. Glacial Amazonia at the canopy-scale: Using a biophysical model to understand forest robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiromitsu; Cowling, Sharon Anne

    2017-09-01

    A canopy-scale model (CANOAK) was used to simulate lowland Amazonia during the Last Glacial Maximum. Modeled values of Net Ecosystem Exchange driven by glacial environmental conditions were roughly half the magnitude of modern fluxes. Factorial experiments reveal lowered [CO2] to be the primary cause of reduced carbon fluxes while lowered air temperatures enhance net carbon uptake. LGM temperatures are suggested to be closer to optimal for carbon uptake than modern temperatures, explained through the canopy energy balance. Further analysis of the canopy energy balance and resultant leaf temperature regime provide viable mechanisms to explain enhanced carbon-water relations at lowered temperatures and forest robustness over glaciations. An ecophysiological phenomena known as the 'cross-over' point, wherein leaf temperatures sink below air temperature, was reproduced and found to demarcate critical changes in energy balance partitioning.

  2. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and may influence the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth's radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of submicrometer size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of new particle formation in Amazonia.

  3. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Zuchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mayaro virus (MAYV is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5% of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.

  4. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-09-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.

  5. Variation in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation along edaphic and compositional gradients in northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. A.; Asner, G. P.; Perez, E.; Elespuru, N.; Alonso, A.

    2014-07-01

    Tropical forests vary substantially in aboveground properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, and plant species composition, corresponding to underlying variations in soils and geology. Forest properties are often difficult to detect and map in the field, however, due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of these forests. Spectral mixture analysis of Landsat imagery allows mapping of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation quantities (PV and NPV), corresponding to biophysical properties such as canopy openness, forest productivity, and disturbance. Spectral unmixing has been used for applications ranging from deforestation monitoring to identifying burn scars from past fires, but little is known about variations in PV and NPV in intact rainforests. Here we use spectral unmixing of Landsat imagery to map PV and NPV in northern Amazonia, and to test their relationship to soils and plant species composition. To do this we sampled 117 sites crossing a geological boundary in northwestern Amazonia for soil cation concentrations and plant species composition. We then used the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System to map PV and NPV for these sites from multiple dates of Landsat imagery. We found that soil cation concentrations and plant species composition consistently explain a majority of the variation in remotely sensed PV and NPV values. After combining PV and NPV into a single variable (PV-NPV), we determined that the influence of soil properties on canopy properties was inseparable from the influence of plant species composition. In all cases, patterns in PV and NPV corresponded to underlying geological patterns. Our findings suggest that geology and soils regulate canopy PV and NPV values in intact tropical forests, possibly through changes in plant species composition.

  6. Assessing the Impact of Recurrent Fires on Forests in Southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.

    2008-12-01

    Human-caused fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. Repeated exposure to fire may eventually convert tropical forest into fire-adapted grasslands, a process described as savannization, with dramatic consequences for carbon storage, regional climate, and biodiversity. We tested the savannization hypothesis for a study area in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso using annual satellite data to determine the frequency of fire damages and characterize vegetation recovery following repeated burning. We then incorporated results from the remote sensing analysis into the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model to quantify the long-term carbon consequences of recurrent forest fire damages in southern Amazonia. Our analysis of time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) revealed that burned forests are an extensive and long-term component of the frontier landscape, but recurrent fire damages did not lead to evidence of savannization in MODIS-based measures of vegetation greenness following fire. Comparable recovery of dry-season vegetation greenness in the years following first, second, and third fires suggests that tree sprouts and other woody vegetation quickly regained dominance following initial and repeated burning. ED model results demonstrated that establishment of pioneer tree species in fire-damaged forests leads to a short-term increase in the risk of future fires and a long-term decrease in aboveground biomass. Without widespread conversion of forests to grasslands, the long-term impacts from fire in southern Amazonia could still be large if frequent fires trap burned forests in early succession.

  7. Genetic structure of traditional varieties of bitter manioc in three soils in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Peroni, Nivaldo; Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves; Gribel, Rogério; Clement, Charles R

    2011-10-01

    Manioc is the most important food crop that originated in Amazonia. Many studies have increased our understanding of its evolutionary dynamics under cultivation. However, most of them focused on manioc cultivation in environments with low soil fertility, generally Oxisols. Recent ethnobotanical observations showed that bitter manioc also performs well in high fertility soils, such as Amazonian dark earths (ADE) and the floodplain. We used 10 microsatellite loci to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of bitter manioc varieties grown in different soil types in communities of smallholder farmers along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. The genetic diversity of some sweet varieties and seedlings was also evaluated. Adult individuals showed higher levels of genetic diversity and smaller inbreeding coefficients (A ( R ) = 5.52, H ( O ) = 0.576, f = 0.086) than seedlings (A ( R ) = 4.39, H ( O ) = 0.421, f = 0.242). Bitter manioc varieties from the floodplain showed higher levels of genetic diversity (A ( R ) = 5.19, H ( O ) = 0.606) than those from ADE (A ( R ) = 4.45, H ( O ) = 0.538) and from Oxisols (A ( R ) = 4.15, H ( O ) = 0.559). The varieties grown in the floodplain were strongly differentiated from the varieties grown in Oxisols (F ( ST ) = 0.093) and ADE (F ( ST ) = 0.108), suggesting important genetic structuring among varieties grown in the floodplain and upland soils (ADE and Oxisols). This is the first time that genetic divergence of bitter manioc varieties in cultivation in different Amazonian soils in a small geographic area is reported.

  8. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  9. Helminth fauna of chiropterans in Amazonia: biological interactions between parasite and host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ana Cláudia Alexandre; Moraes, Marcela Figueiredo Duarte; Silva, Ana Carolina; Lapera, Ivan Moura; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Lux Hoppe, Estevam G

    2016-08-01

    Amazonia, the largest Brazilian biome, is one of the most diverse biomes around the world. Considering the Brazilian chiropteran species, 120 out of known 167 species are registered in Pará state, with 10 endemic species. Despite the high diversity of bats in Amazonia, studies on their parasites, especially on helminths, are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to study the helminth fauna of different bats from the Pará state, Amazon biome, determine the descriptors of infection, and evaluate the host-parasite interactions, as well as evaluate differences in ecological indexes in accordance with the feeding guilds. The study was developed on 67 bats of 21 species captured in several areas of the Pará state. The animals were identified, divided into feeding guilds, and necropsied. The parasites obtained were identified and quantified. A total of 182 parasites were found in 20.89 % of the studied bats, representing nine species, as follows: Anenterotrema eduardocaballeroi, Anenterotrema liliputianum, Ochoterenatrema caballeroi, Tricholeiperia sp., Parahistiostrongylus octacanthus, Litomosoides guiterasi, Litomosoides brasiliensis, Capillariinae gen. sp., and Hymenolepididae gen. sp. Also, the results indicated that there was no impact of parasitism on host body condition and no relationship between sex and parasite intensity. In relation to the feeding guilds, the omnivores showed higher prevalence and mean intensity. Animals from regions closer to the equator tend to have greater richness in parasite species, but the present study revealed low diversity and richness in species. In conclusion, the ecological pattern observed for other animal groups, in which higher parasitic diversity are registered in lower latitudes, is not applicable to chiropterans from the study area.

  10. The Elusive Multiplying Factor for Sustainable Development: The Case for Integrating Scientific Research and Basic Education in the MAP Region, SW Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; de Los Rios, M.; Mendoza, E.; Reis, V. L.

    2005-05-01

    The Region of Madre de Dios-Peru, the State of Acre-Brazil, and the Department of Pando-Bolivia, known collectively as the trinational MAP Region, lies at the heart of Southwestern Amazonia. This region covers over 300,000 km2 with a population of 700,000 that ranges from urban dwellers to indigenous groups trying to avoid contact with industrial society. This region, home of incredible biological and cultural wealth, represents some of the economically poorest areas of the respective countries. It is also a site of accelerating global change in land-use, with three highways being developed for all-weather transport between central Brazil and Pacific ports. Our group has engaged in pilot experiments to provide regional societies with access to recent scientific results. Our objective is to help these societies in their quest to develop through: a) the use of GPS and satellite imagery for land use planning by small rural producers; b) municipal-level meetings in two countries to evaluate current problems and future land use along the inter-oceanic highway; c) the analysis of deforestation in the trinational river basin; d) dissemination via the media of imagery and analysis of fires during the burning season; and e) incorporation of nearby forests into the rural educational system. While most of these experiments have proven successful, they pale before the challenge of expanding them to become significant in changing land use and promoting sustainable development in this region. The multiplying factors need to be in the range of ten to a thousand times the size of the pilot experiments. Public policy and economic initiatives are crucial, but are often treated as the only means for such multiplication. The basic education system represents another, complementary multiplying factor. In the State of Acre, about a third of the population, 200,000, are in the K-12 school system and of these over 80% are in the 1- to 8-year series. Currently, we are helping local school

  11. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  12. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Rizzo, Luciana V; Brito, Joel F; Barbosa, Henrique M J; Arana, Andrea; Sena, Elisa T; Cirino, Glauber G; Bastos, Wanderlei; Martin, Scot T; Andreae, Meinrat O

    2013-01-01

    In the wet season, a large portion of the Amazon region constitutes one of the most pristine continental areas, with very low concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosol particles. However, land use change modifies the biosphere-atmosphere interactions in such a way that key processes that maintain the functioning of Amazonia are substantially altered. This study presents a comparison between aerosol properties observed at a preserved forest site in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-western Amazonia (PVH, close to Porto Velho). Amazonian aerosols were characterized in detail, including aerosol size distributions, aerosol light absorption and scattering, optical depth and aerosol inorganic and organic composition, among other properties. The central Amazonia site (TT34) showed low aerosol concentrations (PM2.5 of 1.3 +/- 0.7 microg m(-3) and 3.4 +/- 2.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively), with a median particle number concentration of 220 cm(-3) in the wet season and 2200 cm(-3) in the dry season. At the impacted site (PVH), aerosol loadings were one order of magnitude higher (PM2.5 of 10.2 +/- 9.0 microg m(-3) and 33.0 +/- 36.0 microg m(-3) in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). The aerosol number concentration at the impacted site ranged from 680 cm(-3) in the wet season up to 20 000 cm(-3) in the dry season. An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was deployed in 2013 at both sites, and it shows that organic aerosol account to 81% to the non-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic particles. Three years of filter-based elemental composition measurements shows that sulphate at the impacted site decreases, on average, from 12% of PM2.5 mass during the wet season to 5% in the dry season. This result corroborates the ACSM finding that the biomass burning contributed overwhelmingly to the organic

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil with respect to physical exercise in pregnancy: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanez Helaine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a good time to develop healthy lifestyle habits including regular exercise and good nutrition. Programs of physical exercise for pregnant women have been recommended; however, there are few references on this subject in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of pregnant women with respect to appropriate physical exercise during pregnancy, and also to investigate why some women do not exercise during pregnancy. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in which 161 women of 18 to 45 years of age were interviewed in the third trimester of pregnancy. These women were receiving prenatal care at National Health Service (SUS primary healthcare units and had no pathologies for which physical exercise would constitute a risk. The women were selected at an ultrasonography clinic accredited to the SUS in Campinas, São Paulo. A previously elaborated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then stored in an Epinfo database. Statistical analysis was conducted using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test to evaluate the association between the study variables (p Results Almost two-thirds (65.6% of the women were sufficiently informed about the practice of physical exercise during pregnancy and the vast majority (93.8% was in favor of it. Nevertheless, only just over 20% of the women in this sample exercised adequately. Significant associations were found between an adequate knowledge of physical exercise during pregnancy and education level (p = 0.0014 and between the adequate practice of physical exercise during pregnancy and having had fewer pregnancies (p = 0.0001. Lack of time and feeling tired and uncomfortable were the principal reasons given by the women for not exercising. Conclusion These results suggest that women's knowledge concerning the practice of physical exercise during pregnancy is reasonable

  14. Evolução da pesquisa epidemiológica em atividade física no Brasil: revisão sistemática Evolution of the epidemiological research on physical activity in Brazil: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Curi Hallal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a evolução da pesquisa epidemiológica em atividade física no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática da literatura, realizada em bases de dados eletrônicas (Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, Ovid, Science Direct, BioMed Central e High Wire, em periódicos nacionais não indexados, por busca específica por autores e contato com pesquisadores. A seleção dos artigos teve como critérios de inclusão: amostra representativa de alguma população definida; tamanho da amostra de pelo menos 500 indivíduos; coleta de dados realizada no Brasil; mensuração de atividade física e relato dos resultados com base nessa variável. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 42 estudos. O primeiro artigo foi publicado em 1990, observando-se tendência de aumento de publicações a partir de 2000. Foi detectada disparidade regional nas publicações, com concentração de estudos nas regiões Sudeste e Sul. A maioria dos estudos (93% utilizou questionários como instrumentos de pesquisa, cujos conteúdos variaram, assim como as definições operacionais de sedentarismo, dificultando a comparação dos resultados. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a literatura em epidemiologia da atividade física venha crescendo quantitativamente no Brasil, limitações metodológicas dificultam a comparação entre os estudos, tornando a padronização de instrumentos e definições essenciais para o avanço científico da área.OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of the epidemiological research on physical activity in Brazil. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was carried out in electronic databases (Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, Ovid, Science Direct, BioMed Central and High Wire, non-indexed Brazilian journals, query by specific authors, and contact with other researchers. The inclusion criteria were: the sample should be representative of a defined population; sample size equal to or greater than 500 individuals; data collection in Brazil; measurement of physical activity

  15. Spatial variability of the direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols and the effects of land use change in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian shortwave radiative budget over cloud-free conditions after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation; and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages.

    The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazonia was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the maximum daily direct aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2τ550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2τ550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual land use change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m

  16. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  17. Inatividade física no lazer em trabalhadores da indústria do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Physical inactivity during leisure-time among industrial workers from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Giovâni Firpo Del Duca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investigou a prevalência e os fatores associados à inatividade física no lazer em trabalhadores da indústria do Rio Grande do Sul. Empregou-se questionário para a coleta de dados, com uso da regressão de Poisson na análise. Participaram do estudo 2.265 trabalhadores, sendo a maioria homens (55,9%. Grande proporção dos trabalhadores enquadrou-se na faixa etária de até 29 anos (47,6%. A prevalência de inatividade física no lazer foi de 45,6% (IC95%: 43,5; 47,6, associando-se com: sexo feminino, ter companheiro(a, ser fumante, não estar satisfeito(a com o peso corporal e apresentar percepção negativa de bem-estar no lazer. Detectou-se associação direta do desfecho com o aumento da idade e associação inversa com a autopercepção de saúde. Conclui-se que a prevalência de inatividade física no lazer em trabalhadores foi elevada, sendo o sexo feminino e a percepção de bem-estar no lazer negativa os fatores mais fortemente associados à ocorrência de tal comportamento..The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors to physical inactivity during leisure-time in a representative sample of industrial workers from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Physical inactivity was defined as the negative response to the question: "Do you perform any type of physical activity during leisure-time, such as exercises (calisthenics, walking, jogging, sports, dance or martial arts?" The sample included 2,265 workers, and the prevalence of physical inactivity was 45.6% (CI95%: 43.5; 47.6, which was significantly higher for females, those living with a companion, smokers, those not satisfied with their body weight, and those with a negative perception of their own leisure. Besides, it was observed a positive association of physical inactivity with age, and a negative association with self assessment of health status. Overall, results indicate that the prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity among

  18. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  19. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    OpenAIRE

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO_2 (XCO_2) and solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) from July 2009 to December 2010. SIF, which reflects gross primary production (GPP), is used to disentang...

  20. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae) support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae). First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma) origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides) reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i) current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii) the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii) colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv) Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed the persistence of old

  1. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

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    Condamine Fabien L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae. First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed

  2. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  3. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  4. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  5. Relações do parâmetro S para algumas propriedades físicas de solos do sul do Brasil Relationships of the S parameter of some physical properties of soils of southern Brazil

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    Carlos Arnoldo Streck

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O parâmetro S representa o valor da inclinação da curva de retenção de água no seu ponto de inflexão. Um aumento nos valores de S indica uma ampla distribuição de tamanho de poros, condizente com condições estruturais que estabelecem um adequado funcionamento físico do solo. Neste trabalho, testou-se a sensibilidade do parâmetro S, proposto na literatura, em relação a algumas propriedades físicas de solos do Sul do Brasil. O parâmetro S não se relacionou com o teor de argila total, nem com o teor de argila dispersa dos sete solos utilizados neste trabalho. Para o grupamento dos solos argilosos e muito argilosos, o parâmetro S apresentou decréscimo exponencial com o aumento da densidade do solo e um crescimento exponencial com o aumento da matéria orgânica do solo. Nesses solos, a água disponível às plantas aumentou de forma linear (ADP= 3,19*S passando pela origem e a pressão de pré-consolidação reduziu exponencialmente com o aumento do valor de S. Conclui-se que o parâmetro S apresentou sensibilidade para determinar a qualidade física dos solos de textura argilosa e muito argilosa.The S index corresponds to the slope of the soil water retention curve at its inflection point. A high S value indicates the presence of structural pores, which are essential for a good soil physical condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the index of soil physical quality (S, as proposed in the literature for some physical properties of soils from Southern Brazil. In the seven soils used here, no relationship was found between clay and water dispersible clay content with soil physical quality index S. However, in soils with high clay content, the S index decreases with an increase in soil bulk density and increases with an increase in soil organic matter content. For a given texture class, plant available water increased linearly (PAW= 3.19*S to the origin and the preconsolidation pressure decreased

  6. Visual assessment of soil structure quality in an agroextractivist system in Southeastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernanda Simões da Silva, Laura; Stuchi Boschi, Raquel; Ortega Gomes, Matheus; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Soil structure is considered a key factor in the functioning of soil, affecting its ability to support plant and animal life, and moderate environmental quality. Numerous methods are available to evaluate soil structure based on physical, chemical and biological indicators. Among the physical indicators, the attributes most commonly used are soil bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to penetration, tensile strength of aggregates, soil water infiltration, and available water. However, these methods are expensive and generally time costly for sampling and laboratorial procedures. Recently, evaluations using qualitative and semi-quantitative indicators of soil structure quality have gained importance. Among these methods, the method known as Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Ball et al., 2007; Guimarães et al., 2011) can supply this necessity in temperate and tropical regions. The study area is located in the Piranheira Praialta Agroextrativist Settlement Project in the county of Nova Ipixuna, Pará, Brazil. Two toposequences were chosen, one under native forest and the other under pasture. Pits were opened in different landscape positions (upslope, midslope and downslope) for soil morphological, micromorphological and physical characterization. The use of the soil visual evaluation method (SVE) consisted in collecting an undisturbed soil sample of approximately 25 cm in length, 20 cm in width and 10 cm in depth. 12 soil samples were taken for each land use. The samples were manually fragmented, respecting the fracture planes between the aggregates. The SVE was done comparing the fragmented sample with a visual chart and scores were given to the soil structure. The categories that define the soil structure quality (Qe) vary from 1 to 5. Lower scores mean better soil structure. The final score calculation was done using the classification key of Ball et al. (2007) adapted by Guimarães (2011). A change in soil structure was observed between forest and

  7. Epidemiologia das atividades físicas praticadas no tempo de lazer por adultos do Sul do Brasil Epidemiology of leisure-time physical activities among adults from Southern Brazil

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    Samuel C. Dumith

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os tipos de atividades físicas de lazer praticadas, bem como analisar o perfil de seus praticantes. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa transversal de base-populacional com indivíduos de 20 anos ou mais, residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. O desfecho foi o tipo de atividade física de lazer praticada na semana anterior à entrevista. A associação bruta e ajustada com características demográficas, socioeconômicas e com o índice de massa corporal foi feita mediante testes qui-quadrado e regressão de Poisson, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Ao todo, foram entrevistados 3.136 indivíduos, dos quais 1.239 (40% relataram praticar alguma atividade física de lazer, constituindo-se no denominador deste estudo. A grande maioria (91% relatou praticar apenas uma atividade física. A modalidade mais praticada foi a caminhada, referida por 57% daqueles que estão engajados em alguma atividade. A seguir, as modalidades mais frequentes foram: futebol (14%, bicicleta (13%, musculação (8% e ginástica (6%. A frequência semanal teve mediana de 3 dias, enquanto a mediana da duração diária foi de 60 minutos. Mais da metade (56% referiu que faz atividade física numa intensidade moderada ou vigorosa. No entanto, apenas 30% atingiram a recomendação proposta para adultos e idosos. Quando considerado o tempo de prática, 53% praticam atividade física há mais de seis meses. O motivo mais comum foi por razões de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: Menos da metade da população investigada pratica alguma atividade física no lazer. A modalidade mais comum para todos os grupos examinados foi caminhada. Diferenças no perfil demográfico e socioeconômico foram observadas conforme o tipo de atividade física.OBJECTIVES: To describe types of leisure-time physical activities and to analyze the profile of their practitioners. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based survey comprising individuals aged 20 years or over, resident in Pelotas, Brazil. The outcome was the

  8. Impact of mixing state and hygroscopicity on CCN activity of biomass burning aerosol in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gácita, Madeleine; Longo, Karla M.; Freire, Julliana L. M.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Martin, Scot T.

    2017-02-01

    Smoke aerosols prevail throughout Amazonia because of widespread biomass burning during the dry season, and external mixing, low variability in the particle size distribution and low particle hygroscopicity are typical. There can be profound effects on cloud properties. This study uses an adiabatic cloud model to simulate the activation of smoke particles as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) for three hypothetical case studies, chosen as to resemble biomass burning aerosol observations in Amazonia. The relative importance of variability in hygroscopicity, mixing state, and activation kinetics for the activated fraction and maximum supersaturation is assessed. For a population with κp = 0.04, an overestimation of the cloud droplet number concentration Nd for the three selected case studies between 22.4 ± 1.4 and 54.3 ± 3.7 % was obtained when assuming a hygroscopicity parameter κp = 0.20. Assuming internal mixing of the aerosol population led to overestimations of up to 20 % of Nd when a group of particles with medium hygroscopicity was present in the externally mixed population cases. However, the overestimations were below 10 % for external mixtures between very low and low-hygroscopicity particles, as seems to be the case for Amazon smoke particles. Kinetic limitations were significant for medium- and high-hygroscopicity particles, and much lower for very low and low-hygroscopicity particles. When particles were assumed to be at equilibrium and to respond instantly to changes in the air parcel supersaturation, the overestimation of the droplet concentration was up to ˜ 100 % in internally mixed populations, and up to ˜ 250 % in externally mixed ones, being larger for the higher values of hygroscopicity. In addition, a perceptible delay between the times when maximum supersaturation and maximum aerosol activated fraction are reached was noticed and, for aerosol populations with effective hygroscopicity κpeff higher than a certain threshold value, the delay in

  9. A phylogenetic lineage of closely related trypanosomes (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) of anurans and sand flies (Psychodidae, Diptera) sharing the same ecotopes in brazilian amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Robson C; De Souza, Adelson A; Freitas, Rui A; Campaner, Marta; Takata, Carmem S A; Barrett, Toby V; Shaw, Jeffrey J; Teixeira, Marta M G

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among trypanosomes from vertebrates and invertebrates disclosed a new lineage of trypanosomes circulating among anurans and sand flies that share the same ecotopes in Brazilian Amazonia. This assemblage of closely related trypanosomes was determined by comparing whole SSU rDNA sequences of anuran trypanosomes from the Brazilian biomes of Amazonia, the Pantanal, and the Atlantic Forest and from Europe, North America, and Africa, and from trypanosomes of sand flies from Amazonia. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum likelihood and parsimony corroborated the positioning of all new anuran trypanosomes in the aquatic clade but did not support the monophyly of anuran trypanosomes. However, all analyses always supported four major clades (An01-04) of anuran trypanosomes. Clade An04 is composed of trypanosomes from exotic anurans. Isolates in clades An01 and An02 were from Brazilian frogs and toads captured in the three biomes studied, Amazonia, the Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Clade An01 contains mostly isolates from Hylidae whereas clade An02 comprises mostly isolates from Bufonidae; and clade An03 contains trypanosomes from sand flies and anurans of Bufonidae, Leptodactylidae, and Leiuperidae exclusively from Amazonia. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing morphological and growth features, and molecular phylogenetic affiliation of trypanosomes from anurans and phlebotomines, incriminating these flies as invertebrate hosts and probably also as important vectors of Amazonian terrestrial anuran trypanosomes.

  10. Characterization of physical parameters and environmental sanitation for experimental-representative catchment located in the lowlands of Jacarepaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luciene Pimentel da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the physical characteristics and environmental sanitation aspects for a drainage area inserted in the region of Morto river catchment, taken as experimental and representative of Jacarepaguá Lowland Basin in Rio de Janeiro, where city´s growth is taking place very fast. It is expected that this study will support the development of public policies that may guide the conservation of water and sustainable development of the region. The methodology used for watershed delimitation and the physical characteristics calculation involved the application of small computational procedures associated to ArcGis 9.2, ArcHydro®. It was determined the area, the perimeter, the compactness index, shape factor, drainage density, average extension of runoff and catchment´s slope. The observed low slope along the river coast combined with the physical parameters of the basin, enabled to conclude that this catchment is susceptible to floods especially during concomitant events of high tide and heavy rain. The analysis of social and environmental sanitation aspects took into account IBGE`s 2000 Census results. It was observed that illiteracy rates for the catchment area was doubled of that observed for the city as whole and that services such as water supply, sewage and garbage collection are more precarious in the catchment area than in the neighborhood of Jacarepaguá or the city of Rio de Janeiro. In relative terms, sewage collection was in the worst situation while the garbage collection services were in the best for the studied basin.

  11. A forensic entomology case from the Amazon rain forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol-Luz, José R; Marques, Helder; Ururahy-Rodrigues, Alexandre; Rafael, José Albertino; Santana, Fernando H A; Arantes, Luciano C; Constantino, Reginaldo

    2006-09-01

    The first case of application of forensic entomology in the Brazilian Amazonia is described. The corpses of 26 men were found in the rainforest in Rondonia State, Brazil. Fly larvae collected on the bodies during autopsy were identified as Paralucilia fulvinota (Diptera, Calliphoridae). No data or specimens were collected at the crime scene. At the laboratory, the larvae developed into pupae in 58 h and into adults in 110.5 h. The total development time for P. fulvinota was measured in field experiments inside the forest. The age of the larvae when collected from the bodies was estimated as the difference between the time required for them to become adults and the total development time for this species. The estimated age of the maggots and the minimum postmortem interval was 5.7 days.

  12. Estudo da qualidade da carne ovina do nordeste brasileiro: propriedades físicas e sensoriais Study on lamb quality from Northeast Brazil: physical and sensory properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.F. ZAPATA

    2000-08-01

    37.70 for L*, from 14.85 to 15.54 for a* and from 0.83 to 1.37 for b*. Sensory analysis of lamb showed a good acceptability with no differences between treatments. Regardless of crossbreed or feeding regime used in this study lamb from Northeast Brazil is acceptable as measured by subjective or objective means.

  13. Fatores associados à atividade física insuficiente em adultos: estudo de base populacional no sul do Brasil Factors associated with insufficient physical activity: a population-based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Altamiro Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência de atividade física (AF insuficiente na população adulta do município de Lages (Santa Catarina em 2007 e verificar os fatores associados a este desfecho. Trata-se de um estudo transversal de base populacional. A amostra foi obtida através de sorteio em múltiplos estágios de adultos entre 20 e 59 anos, de ambos os sexos (n = 2.051. Empregou-se o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ, versão curta, para estimar a prevalência de AF insuficiente, definida como tempo gasto em atividade física moderada ou vigorosa menor do que 150 minutos por semana. Considerou-se como referência a semana anterior à entrevista. A prevalência de AF insuficiente foi de 29,6% (IC95%: 27,6; 31,7. No modelo ajustado, a atividade física insuficiente foi associada positivamente ao sexo masculino, renda familiar alta, obesidade e auto-avaliação negativa de saúde. As prevalências de AF insuficiente foram menores do que as relatadas pela maioria dos estudos brasileiros. Pesquisas que distingam diferentes tipos de atividade física podem contribuir para melhor conhecer o perfil de uma população a fim de contribuir para a implantação de políticas públicas que estimulem a população à prática regular de exercícios.The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of insufficient physical activity and to find the factors associated to this outcome in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil (2007. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a representative sample of individuals between 20 and 59 years of age (n=2,051. Physical activity was estimated using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Insufficient physical activity was defined as less than 150 minutes per week spent in moderate or vigorous physical activity. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity was 29.6% (95%CI: 27.6; 31.7. The associated factors were to be male, obese, have

  14. Envia garciai, a new genus and species of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Microstigmatidae from Brazilian Amazonia

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    Ott Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Envia, comprising only the new species Envia garciai, is proposed. These small mygalomorph spiders were abundantly collected in soil cores and litter samples in primary rain forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

  15. Shifting Patterns of Pasturelands and Stocking Rates of Cattle in Brazil: 1940 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, L. C. P.; Santos, A.; Pimenta, F. M.; Costa, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the shifting in historical patterns of pastureland (natural and planted) in Brazil using a new high-resolution (approximately 1 km x 1 km) spatially explicit reconstruction of land use from 1940 to 2012 and stocking rate of cattle maps from 1990 to 2012. We also identified the top 5% (highest yields) pixels in the 2010 stocking rate map and we assessed the historical trends in intensification and extensification practices in Brazil. We focus our analyzes in Amazonia and Cerrado biomes, in Mato Grosso and Pará states, and in the new agricultural frontier called MATOPIBA - which is formed by Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Natural pastureland expanded until the 1970s and, after that, most areas with natural pasture were replaced by planted pasture, which is more profitable. In 2012, natural pastures were still predominant in the Pampas (located in southern Rio Grande do Sul) and the Pantanal (located in western Mato Grosso do Sul). On the other hand, planted pastureland expanded in area between 1975 and 2012, especially in the Cerrado biome. Brazilian stocking rate of cattle increased, but remains close to 1.0 head/ha between 1990 and 2010 and the top 5% were about twice as high as the average in all regions analyzed. The yield gap (difference between average and the top 5% pixels) was largest in Pará state, where the stocking rate of cattle was below 50% of the potential given 2010 practices. The increase in cattle production in Amazonia biome and in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará came from both intensification and expansion of pasturelands. In contrast, pasturelands in Cerrado and MATOPIBA decreased in area while stocking rates of cattle increased gradually. Our results provide new insights about land use change and productivity in Brazilian territory that could guide future agricultural and conservation discussions, decisions, and policies.

  16. [Health conditions and sociodemographic variables associated with quality of life in elderly women from a physical activity program in Curitiba, Paraná State, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Moreira, Natália Boneti; Oliveira, Valdomiro de; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Campos, Wagner de

    2013-05-01

    The current study aimed to explore the association between sociodemographic variables and health conditions and quality of life domains among female participants in the "Elders in Movement" program. The sample consisted of 1,806 elderly women that were evaluated through interviews for potential correlates and quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD). Body mass index was calculated after measuring height and weight. Quality of life domains were categorized into tertiles. Data analysis used ordinal logistic regression. After adjusting for confounders, the variables age, economic class, education, occupation, and marital status were associated with some domains of quality of life (p elderly women and/or those with health problems had decreased odds of higher quality of life scores, while those that used one or two medicines had increased odds of higher scores in the physical domain. The study concludes that sociodemographic factors and health conditions were associated with quality of life in this sample of elderly women.

  17. Spatial and temporal characterization of some water quality physical parameters and their relationships with land-use in Água Fria watershed (Palmas – TO, Brazil

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    Harry Edmar Schulz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to a high population growth that has been occurring in Palmas and due to land use changes that are caused by this population growth and development, the goal of this paper was to study the behavior of four physical parameters of water quality of the Água Fria watershed. The parameters were turbidity, total suspended solids, settleable solids and total dissolved solids. Eight gauging stations were established and the water samples were monthly collected from February/1998 to February/1999. The water bodies of the watershed were generally in good condition concerning these four parameters. However, there were some cases of seasonal irregularity of some parameters, as well as no correlation among some of studied parameters. This might be an indicator of some impacts like accelerated erosion due to a misuse of the lands and misuse of local water resources.

  18. The integration of physical rock properties, mineralogy and geochemistry for the exploration of large zinc silicate deposits: A case study of the Vazante zinc deposits, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGladrey, Alexandra J.; Olivo, Gema Ribeiro; Silva, Adalene Moreira; Oliveira, Gustavo Diniz; Neto, Basilio Botura; Perrouty, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The Vazante deposit, which is the world's largest zinc silicate deposit, occurs in brecciated dolomite and comprises mainly willemite with various proportions of hematite, Fe-carbonate, minor franklinite and magnetite. Exploration for this type of deposit is more challenging than zinc sulfide deposits, as they do not exhibit similar geophysical anomalies. To improve the application of geophysical surveys to the exploration of hypogene silicate zinc deposits, data from 475 samples were investigated from drill holes representative of the various types of ore and host rocks as well as barren zones of known geophysical anomalies in the Vazante District. Lithogeochemical and mineralogical (optical, SEM and MLA) data were integrated with physical rock properties (density, magnetic susceptibility and Ksbnd Usbnd Th gamma-ray spectrometry) to assist in exploring for this type of deposit. The most distinct physical property of the ore is density, compared with the host rocks due to high proportion of denser minerals (hematite and willemite). However, barren hematite breccias also have high densities. The zinc ore and hematite breccias yielded higher magnetic susceptibilities than the surrounding host rocks, with the highest values associated with greater proportions of franklinite and magnetite. The density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts are a result of hydrothermal fluids interacting with and altering the carbonate host rocks. Zinc ore also yielded elevated U concentrations relative to the various host rocks, yielding higher gamma-ray spectrometric values. The results of this investigation indicate that an integration of magnetic, gravimetric and radiometric surveys would be required to identify zinc silicate ore zones.

  19. Anamnese and physical examination are the main strategies for detection of systemic recidive in patients with breast cancer: Faculdade de Medicina do ABC (SP, Brazil) experience; Anamnese e exame fisico sao as principais estrategias para o rastreamento de recidiva sistemica em pacientes com cancer de mama em seguimento: experiencia da Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, SP, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andrea Felice dos; Segredo, Manuella Pacifico; Nunes Pinto, Fernanda; Centofanti, Guilherme; Sarmano, Eliana Sueco Tibana [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Megale Costa, Luciano Jose; Giglio, Auro del [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Oncologia]. E-mail: sandrabr.netpoint.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Objective: to evaluate the strategies for the detection of distant recurrence after primary treatment of breast cancer at Oncology Clinics of ABC Foundation School of Medicine, SP, Brazil. Methods: a retrospective study of 206 charts from 1996 to 2002 was carried out. We analyzed the 16 identified charts of patients who had distant recurrence. Results: History and physical examination were the first indicators of distant recurrence in 68.7% of the patients. Conclusion: history and physical examinations the most sensitive surveillance strategy for the detection of distant recurrence in the follow-up of patients with breast cancer after primary treatment at our institution. (author)

  20. The inclusion of electric power and the challenge of sustainability in remote inland areas of the Amazon; A inclusao eletrica e o desafio da sustentabilidade nas areas remotas do interior da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua

    2008-07-01

    This article brings some reflections on the National Program of Universalization of the Access and Use of the Electric Energy, Luz para Todos, in areas as the Amazonia. This Program when implanting and executing the actions characterized the Brazilian state in way uniform, disrespecting the particularity and diversity of the Amazon region. This attitude has not met of the goals foreseen for the electrification of the Amazonian, evidencing thus, that the geographic, cultural and social multiplicities of climates and characteristics constitute great obstacles for the implantation of homogeneous politics. This, for certain, demonstrates that the potential of development of each region has differentiated dynamic, which would have to influence and to direct the formularization of politics. It characterizes this proposal bold and ambitious of the Federal Government from carried through empirical experience in an Amazonian community, Terra Preta do Limao, located in the city of Barreirinha. In this way, given referring to the organizational structure, the situation of job and income, to the access the social goods and services and the productive occupational vocation of this population bring answers on the impacts of the program in the improvement of the quality of life of this social segment. Moreover, it presents indications of that the resources destined to the implantation of the program, make impracticable, for its high cost, other social priorities. Although the electric energy is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to the necessary society to be seen in accord with sustainable criteria, of form to prevent the exploration and high consumption of the natural resources and the wastefulness of energy. With this reading, the work if considers to show to the incoherencies of the Program in the State of Amazon, evidencing the obstacles for the reach of the goals traced for the State. Therefore, considering what the Amazonia

  1. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

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    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  2. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

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    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  3. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

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    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  4. The legacy of the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions on nutrient availability in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Wolf, Adam; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-09-01

    In the late Pleistocene, 97 genera of large animals went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. These extinctions had significant effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we analyse this process using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process, and we demonstrate that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna decreased the lateral flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus by more than 98%, with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing. The current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectivity it once had. We argue that the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions resulted in large and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  5. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P.; Fewster, Rachel M.; Venticinque, Eduardo M.; Peres, Carlos A.; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an “empty forest” loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance. PMID:27757421

  6. Party size and diet of syntopic atelids (Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana) in Southwestern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, S; Ferrari, S F

    2001-01-01

    Syntopic Alouatta seniculus, Ateles chamek and Lagothrix cana (Atelidae) were studied in southwestern Amazonia. Primate populations were first surveyed, and then the party size, diet and vertical spacing were monitored over a 5-month period. Atelids accounted for more than half the survey sightings and Lagothrix was the most abundant. Party sizes recorded for both Alouatta and Lagothrix during monitoring were significantly larger than those recorded during surveys, but no such difference was found for Ateles. Monitored parties were significantly larger in Lagothrix in comparison with either Alouatta or Ateles, as were groups of Ateles in comparison with Alouatta. Mean party size in Ateles decreased progressively during the course of the study, from 8.9 +/- 3.4 in June to 3.9 +/- 2.3 in October. Moraceae was the most important dietary resource for Ateles and Lagothrix, in terms of both feeding records and number of species exploited. There was considerable overlap in the plant taxa exploited, but some notable differences, such as the exclusive use of Hymenaea courbaril (Caesalpinaceae) by Lagothrix and of Euterpe precatoria (Arecaceae) by Ateles. As at other sites in the region, Ateles occupied significantly higher forest strata in comparison with Lagothrix. Despite the preliminary nature of the study, the results indicate a number of ecological differences between species that undoubtedly play an important role in niche separation. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Temporal Scales of the Nocturnal Flow Within and Above a Forest Canopy in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniel M.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Chamecki, Marcelo; Fuentes, José D.; Gerken, Tobias; Stoy, Paul C.

    2016-10-01

    Multiresolution decomposition is applied to 10 months of nocturnal turbulence observations taken at eight levels within and above a forest canopy in Central Amazonia. The aim is to identify the contributions of different temporal scales of the flow above and within the canopy. Results show that turbulence intensity in the lower canopy is mostly affected by the static stability in the upper canopy. Horizontal velocity fluctuations peak at time scales longer than 100 s within the canopy, which correspond to the scale of non-turbulent submeso motions above the canopy. In the vertical velocity spectrum near the surface, the peak occurs at time scales around 100 s, which are larger than the time scales of the turbulent flow above the canopy. Heat-flux cospectra within the canopy peak at the same temporal scales as the vertical velocity fluctuations at that level, suggesting the existence of buoyancy driven turbulence. Case studies are presented as evidence that low-frequency fluctuations propagate towards the canopy interior more easily than does turbulence.

  8. Food habits of Anilius scytale (Serpentes: Aniliidae in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    Gleomar F. Maschio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Information on the diet of Anilius scytale is provided based on the analysis of 162 specimens from the Brazilian Amazonia. Amphisbaenians (Aulura anomala Barbour, 1914; Leposternon polystegumn [Duméril, 1951] and Amphisbaena sp., which are highly specialized for a fossorial life, accounted for 81.25% of the recorded items, followed by snakes - Anilius scytale (Linnaeus, 1758, and Tantilla melanocephala (Linnaeus, 1758: 12.5% - and caecilians - Caecilia cf. gracilis Shaw, 1802: 6.25%. We found a positive, although not significant, relationship between the snout-vent length of A. scytale and the total length of the prey and a tendency for smaller specimens to ingest proportionately larger prey. Anilius scytale forages mainly on the ground, at night, as well as in aquatic environments. The non-selective capture of either proportionately large or small prey by A. scytale may reflect the opportunistic nature of the encounters. A tendency of the juveniles of this species to ingest proportionately larger prey may be associated with either a low availability of prey with a size compatible to that of the juveniles, or with their inexperience in selecting prey. Ingestion of prey headfirst may be an attempt to minimize the risk of injury the prey could cause through their rigid, pointed and sharp structures or powerful bites.

  9. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalliola, Risto [Department of Geography, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Toivonen, Tuuli [Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones de la AmazonIa Peruana, Apartado Postal 784, Iquitos (Peru)

    2008-07-15

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere.

  10. Functional diversity of bacterial genes associated with aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia

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    Mariana Gomes Germano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the catabolic gene diversity for the bacterial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE and their biochar (BC. Functional diversity analyses in ADE soils can provide information on how adaptive microorganisms may influence the fertility of soils and what is their involvement in biogeochemical cycles. For this, clone libraries containing the gene encoding for the alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (α-ARHD bacterial gene were constructed, totaling 800 clones. These libraries were prepared from samples of an ADE soil under two different land uses, located at the Caldeirão Experimental Station - secondary forest (SF and agriculture (AG -, and the biochar (SF_BC and AG_BC, respectively. Heterogeneity estimates indicated greater diversity in BC libraries; and Venn diagrams showed more unique operational protein clusters (OPC in the SF_BC library than the ADE soil, which indicates that specific metabolic processes may occur in biochar. Phylogenetic analysis showed unidentified dioxygenases in ADE soils. Libraries containing functional gene encoding for the alpha subunit of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD gene from biochar show higher diversity indices than those of ADE under secondary forest and agriculture.

  11. Rupturing of Biological Spores As a Source of Secondary Particles in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China, Swarup; Wang, Bingbing; Weis, Johannes; Rizzo, Luciana; Brito, Joel; Cirino, Glauber G.; Kovarik, Libor; Artaxo, Paulo; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-15

    Airborne biological particles, such as fungal spores and pollen, are ubiquitous in the Earth’s atmosphere and play an important role in the atmospheric environment and climate, impacting air quality, cloud formation, and the Earth’s radiation budget. The atmospheric transformations of airborne biological spores at elevated relative humidity remain poorly understood and their climatic role is uncertain. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), we observed rupturing of Amazonian fungal spores and subsequent release of nanometer to submicron size fragments after exposure to high humidity. We find that fungal fragments contain elements of inorganic salts (e.g., Na and Cl). They are hygroscopic in nature with a growth factor up to 2.3 at 96% relative humidity, thus they may potentially influence cloud formation. Due to their hygroscopic growth, light scattering cross sections of the fragments are enhanced by up to a factor of 10. Furthermore, rupturing of fungal spores at high humidity may explain the bursting events of nanoparticles and may provide insight into new particle formation in Amazonia.

  12. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin R. Sears

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural–urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural–urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural–urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural–urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  13. EFFECT OF WATER AVAILABILITY ON SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS IN SECONDARY FOREST IN EASTERN AMAZONIA

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    Lívia Gabrig Turbay Rangel-Vasconcelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial biomass (SMB plays an important role in nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and is limited by several factors, such as soil water availability. This study assessed the effects of soil water availability on microbial biomass and its variation over time in the Latossolo Amarelo concrecionário of a secondary forest in eastern Amazonia. The fumigation-extraction method was used to estimate the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content (SMBC and SMBN. An adaptation of the fumigation-incubation method was used to determine basal respiration (CO2-SMB. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 and ratio of microbial carbon:organic carbon (CMIC:CORG were calculated based on those results. Soil moisture was generally significantly lower during the dry season and in the control plots. Irrigation raised soil moisture to levels close to those observed during the rainy season, but had no significant effect on SMB. The variables did not vary on a seasonal basis, except for the microbial C/N ratio that suggested the occurrence of seasonal shifts in the structure of the microbial community.

  14. Late Quaternary landscape evolution of northeastern Amazonia from pollen and diatom records

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    DARCILÉA F. CASTRO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to reconstruct the Late Pleistocene-Holocene floristic composition in an area of the northern Brazilian Amazonia, comparing the results with other Amazonian localities in order to discuss the factors that have influenced phytophysiognomic changes over this time period. The work in eastern Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazonas River was approached based on analysis of 98 pollen and diatom samples from core data distributed along a proximal to distal transect of a paleoestuarine system. The results indicated high concentration of Rhizophora, associated with arboreal pollen grains typical of the modern Amazonian rainforest during the last 40,000 cal yrs BP. Pollen composition also included wetland herbs. Diatoms were dominated by marine and fresh water taxa. Wetland forest, mangrove and, subordinately herbs remained constant during most of the latest Pleistocene-early/middle Holocene. At 5,000 cal yrs BP, there was a distinguished change from forest and mangrove to wet grassland savanna due to sea level fluctuation. As marine influence decreased, the estuary gave rise to fresh water lacustrine and swamp environments, with establishment of herbaceous campos. A main conclusion from this study is that solely the occurrence of herbaceous savanna can not be used as a definitive indicator of past dry climates in Amazonian areas.

  15. Molecular phylogeny and morphometric analyses reveal deep divergence between Amazonia and Atlantic Forest species of Dendrophryniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Antoine; Recoder, Renato; Teixeira, Mauro; Cassimiro, José; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Camacho, Agustín; Damasceno, Roberta; Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Moritz, Craig; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2012-03-01

    Dendrophryniscus is an early diverging clade of bufonids represented by few small-bodied species distributed in Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. We used mitochondrial (414 bp of 12S, 575 bp of 16S genes) and nuclear DNA (785 bp of RAG-1) to investigate phylogenetic relationships and the timing of diversification within the genus. These molecular data were gathered from 23 specimens from 19 populations, including eight out of the 10 nominal species of the genus as well as Rhinella boulengeri. Analyses also included sequences of representatives of 18 other bufonid genera that were publically available. We also examined morphological characters to analyze differences within Dendrophryniscus. We found deep genetic divergence between an Amazonian and an Atlantic Forest clade, dating back to Eocene. Morphological data corroborate this distinction. We thus propose to assign the Amazonian species to a new genus, Amazonella. The species currently named R. boulengeri, which has been previously assigned to the genus Rhamphophryne, is shown to be closely related to Dendrophryniscus species. Our findings illustrate cryptic trends in bufonid morphological evolution, and point to a deep history of persistence and diversification within the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests. We discuss our results in light of available paleoecological data and the biogeographic patterns observed in other similarly distributed groups.

  16. Empty forest or empty rivers? A century of commercial hunting in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, André P; Fewster, Rachel M; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Rohe, Fabio; Shepard, Glenn H

    2016-10-01

    The Amazon basin is the largest and most species-rich tropical forest and river system in the world, playing a pivotal role in global climate regulation and harboring hundreds of traditional and indigenous cultures. It is a matter of intense debate whether the ecosystem is threatened by hunting practices, whereby an "empty forest" loses critical ecological functions. Strikingly, no previous study has examined Amazonian ecosystem resilience through the perspective of the massive 20th century international trade in furs and skins. We present the first historical account of the scale and impacts of this trade and show that whereas aquatic species suffered basin-wide population collapse, terrestrial species did not. We link this differential resilience to the persistence of adequate spatial refuges for terrestrial species, enabling populations to be sustained through source-sink dynamics, contrasting with unremitting hunting pressure on more accessible aquatic habitats. Our findings attest the high vulnerability of aquatic fauna to unregulated hunting, particularly during years of severe drought. We propose that the relative resilience of terrestrial species suggests a marked opportunity for managing, rather than criminalizing, contemporary traditional subsistence hunting in Amazonia, through both the engagement of local people in community-based comanagement programs and science-led conservation governance.

  17. Late Quaternary landscape evolution of northeastern Amazonia from pollen and diatom records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Darciléa F; De Oliveira, Paulo E; Rossetti, Dilce F; Pessenda, Luiz C R

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this study was to reconstruct the Late Pleistocene-Holocene floristic composition in an area of the northern Brazilian Amazonia, comparing the results with other Amazonian localities in order to discuss the factors that have influenced phytophysiognomic changes over this time period. The work in eastern Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazonas River was approached based on analysis of 98 pollen and diatom samples from core data distributed along a proximal to distal transect of a paleoestuarine system. The results indicated high concentration of Rhizophora, associated with arboreal pollen grains typical of the modern Amazonian rainforest during the last 40,000 cal yrs BP. Pollen composition also included wetland herbs. Diatoms were dominated by marine and fresh water taxa. Wetland forest, mangrove and, subordinately herbs remained constant during most of the latest Pleistocene-early/middle Holocene. At 5,000 cal yrs BP, there was a distinguished change from forest and mangrove to wet grassland savanna due to sea level fluctuation. As marine influence decreased, the estuary gave rise to fresh water lacustrine and swamp environments, with establishment of herbaceous campos. A main conclusion from this study is that solely the occurrence of herbaceous savanna can not be used as a definitive indicator of past dry climates in Amazonian areas.

  18. Mortality from contact-related epidemics among indigenous populations in Greater Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Hill, Kim R

    2015-09-10

    European expansion and contact with indigenous populations led to catastrophic depopulation primarily through the introduction of novel infectious diseases to which native peoples had limited exposure and immunity. In the Amazon Basin such contacts continue to occur with more than 50 isolated indigenous societies likely to make further contacts with the outside world in the near future. Ethnohistorical accounts are useful for quantifying trends in the severity and frequency of epidemics through time and may provide insight into the likely demographic consequences of future contacts. Here we compile information for 117 epidemics that affected 59 different indigenous societies in Greater Amazonia and caused over 11,000 deaths between 1875 and 2008, mostly (75%) from measles, influenza, and malaria. Results show that mortality rates from epidemics decline exponentially through time and, independently, with time since peaceful contact. The frequency of documented epidemics also decreases with time since contact. While previous work on virgin soil epidemics generally emphasizes the calamity of contacts, we focus instead on improvements through time. The prospects for better survivorship during future contacts are good provided modern health care procedures are implemented immediately.

  19. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  20. Tersilochinae of Western Amazonia (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Genus Stethantyx Townes, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Bordera, Santiago

    2015-07-02

    In this paper we describe four new species of Stethantyx Townes (Ichneumonidae: Tersilochinae) from Ecuador and Peru characterized by the fore wing with first and second abscissae of radius meeting at right angle: S. erwini Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov., S. radiata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov., S. rufispa Khalaim & Bordera, sp. nov. and S. undulata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, sp. nov. Second part of the key to species of Stethantyx occurring in Western Amazonia is given. Additionally, S. altamira Khalaim & Broad and S. aprica Khalaim & Broad are recorded from South America for the first time, and new data on distribution of S. alajuela Khalaim & Broad, S. amazonica Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, S. heredia Kha-laim & Broad, S. orellana Khalaim & Sääksjärvi, S. sinuata Khalaim & Sääksjärvi and S. trepida Khalaim & Sääksjärvi in South America are provided. Male of S. orellana is recorded for the first time.

  1. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A; Asner, Gregory P; Anderson, Christopher B; Martin, Roberta E; Knapp, David E; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  2. Relationships between microbial activity and soil physical and chemical properties in native and reforested Araucaria angustifolia forests in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jamil de Morais Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze is the main component of the Mixed Ombrophilous forest and, in the State of São Paulo, it is associated with a high diversity of soil organisms, essential for the maintenance of soil quality, making the conservation of this ecosystem a major and pressing challenge. The objective of this study was to identify the physical and chemical properties that are most closely correlated with dehydrogenase enzyme activity, basal respiration and microbial biomass under native (NF and replanted (RF Araucaria angustifolia forests in three regions of the state of São Paulo, in winter and summer. The main differentiating factors between the areas were also determined. Each forest was represented by three true replications; at each site, from around the araucaria trees, 15 soil samples (0-20 cm were collected to evaluate the soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties. At the same points, forest litter was sampled to assess mass and chemical properties. The following microbiological properties were evaluated: microbial biomass carbon (MBC, basal respiration (CO2-C, metabolic quotient (Q: CO2, dehydrogenase enzyme activity (DHA as well as the physical properties (moisture, bulk density, macroporosity and total porosity, soil chemical properties [pH, organic carbon (org-C, P, Ca, K, Mg, Al, H+Al], litter dry mass, and C, N and S contents. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (TWO-WAY: ANOVA. A Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA and a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA were also performed. In the soil under NF, the values of K, P, soil macroporosity, and litter dry mass were higher and Q: CO2 and DHA lower, regardless of the sampling period, and DHA was lower in winter. In the RF areas, the levels of moisture, porosity and Q: CO2 were higher in both sampling periods, and DHA was higher in winter. The MBC was only higher under NF in the summer, while the litter contents of C, N and S were greater in

  3. Conhecimento sobre atividade física dos estudantes de uma cidade do sul do Brasil Knowledge about physical activity of students in a city in southern Brazil

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    Eder Fontoura Silveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o conhecimento dos escolares sobre atividade física (AF e sua associação com fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos, comportamental, nutricional e de saúde. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base escolar na cidade de Pelotas/RS com 1233 adolescentes, 54% do sexo feminino, com idades entre 13 e 19 anos. A coleta de dados foi feita através de questionário com questões fechadas. O desfecho foi analisado de forma contínua (0 a 22 e a média de acertos foi de 14.1. Mais de 60% dos adolescentes associaram corretamente AF como fator de prevenção de doenças como hipertensão, hipercolesterolemia, osteoporose e depressão. Classes sociais mais elevadas, cor da pele branca, maiores faixas etárias e anos de estudo associaram-se a maiores níveis de conhecimento. Com base nos achados, programas de educação para a saúde devem ser desenvolvidos aos jovens na tentativa de ajudar a minimizar o sedentarismo e suas morbidades associadas.This study evaluated the knowledge about physical activity and its relation to the prevention of chronic diseases and effect on the human body in adolescents who attend classes in high school in the urban area of Pelotas. It was conducted a cross-sectional, school-based survey was carried out among 1233 individuals aged 13 to 19 years. The questionnaire originated a score (range 0-22 points. Mean score for the sample was 14.1 (SD = 3.0. More than 60% of adolescents associated physical activity to the prevention of chronic diseases like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, osteoporosis and depression. The knowledge was positively associated to social strata, white color and age and grade. Among women, those who had a self-perceived health the good and excellent also had the knowledge. Education programs for health must be desenvolved to in for young people about the influence of the risk behavior in an attempt to minimize the sendentary behavior and possibly the number of obese in

  4. Tendências temporais de atividade física no Brasil (2006-2009 Time trends of physical activity in Brazil (2006-2009

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    Pedro C Hallal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as tendências temporais de atividade física (AF nas capitais brasileiras entre 2006 e 2009. MÉTODOS: A análise apresentada neste artigo é baseada nos dados do VIGITEL, totalizando uma amostra anual aproximada de 54.000 indivíduos. Foram analisados indicadores de AF no tempo livre, trabalho, em casa e no deslocamento, além do tempo assistindo à televisão e de inatividade considerando todos os domínios de AF. A variação dos indicadores no período foi aferida por meio de modelos de regressão de Poisson, tendo como variável explanatória o ano do inquérito. Foi considerada significativa a evolução correspondente a um coeficiente de regressão diferente de zero (pOBJECTIVE: To examine time trends in physical activity (PA in Brazilian state capitals from 2006 to 2009. METHODS: This analysis is based on data from the Telephone-based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL accounting for an annual sample of approximately 54,000 individuals. PA indicators were analyzed in free time (leisure, work, home and transportation, time spent in front of the television and inactivity considering all PA domains. Poisson regression models were used to measure the variation of indicators over time. We considered the changes corresponding to a regression coefficient different from zero as being statistically significant (p<0.05. RESULTS: The percentage of active commuters increased from 11.7 to 14.4% (p<0.001 whereas the proportion of physically inactive individuals in the four domains decreased from 11.7 to 8.7% (p<0.001. There were no significant changes in the other indicators. Women were less active than men in all indicators, except for household chores. However, in this indicator the percentage of active women decreased from 71.4 to 67.1% (p<0.001. Between 2006 and 2009, PA levels in the Brazilian population were stable during free time and household chores, but increased in transportation

  5. The relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Élvio R; Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Odim, Angeany; Machado, Floramara T; Muniz, Bárbara R; Antunes, António A; Ornelas, Rui T; Gouveia, Bruna R

    2017-08-10

    (1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤-0.10; p<0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tuberculosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis in the Baixo Araguari Region, Amapá, Brazil

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    Silvia Minharro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Water buffalo are of great economic importance in Brazilian Amazonia, which has the largest herd in Brazil. Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a zoonotic disease that results in severe losses to water buffalo production. Although the disease has already been described in the country, data on the occurrence and distribution of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in Brazil is very scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region of Amapá, Brazil. Thirty herds, randomly selected from the 41 herds of water buffalo in the region, were sampled. From those herds, 212 randomly selected water buffalo were subjected to the comparative tuberculin skin test. The proportion of Baixo Araguari River region herds that were positive for bovine tuberculosis was 50.0% (95% CI 31.3% to 68.7% and the proportion of animals that were positive was estimated to be 14.8% (95% CI 7.8% to 21.9%. Our results show that bovine tuberculosis is spread widely among water buffalo in the Baixo Araguari River region, which suggests that measures to control the disease should be undertaken in the region.

  7. Organizaciones públicas en la Amazonia: ¿cambio autorreferencial o adaptación? Public organizations in the Amazon ¿self-referential change or adaptation?

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    Josep Pont Vidal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Las instituciones gubernamentales y organizaciones públicas de la Amazonia oriental brasileña se hallan inmersas en un proceso de profundas transformaciones. La Administración pública, las instituciones municipales, la correspondiente gestión pública y el sistema jurídico son los principales sistemas en que tiene lugar este cambio. En este artículo se analiza la cuestión de si realmente se trata de un proceso de cambio autorreferencial, resultado de decisiones internas de las organizaciones, o si, por el contrario, se trata de meras adaptaciones necesarias para cumplir su función y mandato. La aportación de los postulados sistémicos de la acción se limita a los aspectos tecnológicos, siendo necesaria la comprensión de la acción desde la perspectiva del sujeto. A partir de una serie de «observaciones» basadas en casos, estos aspectos se analizan en la Administración pública municipal, más concretamente en la gestión pública y en la Defensoria Pública.The governmental institutions and public organizations of the Eastern Amazon in Brazil are immersed in a process of far-reaching transformations, which are mainly being implemented in the public authorities, the municipal institutions, public management and the legal system. This article analyzes whether the process is really one of self-referential change, the result of internal decisions taken by the organizations, or, on the other hand, whether these organizations are merely making the necessary adaptations for them to fulfill their function and their mandate. The contribution made by the systemic postulates of action are restricted to technological issues, and the action needs to be understood from the perspective of the subject. On the basis of a series of case-based «observations», these issues are analyzed within municipal public authorities, and particularly in the realm of public management and citizens’ rights.

  8. Study of the physical and physicochemical characteristics of fruits of the licuri palm (Syagrus coronata (Mart. Becc. found in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Galdino Xavier de Paula Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Atlantic Forest has species of native fruits, consumed fresh and processed, which have an important contribution to food sovereignty of families that consume it. This study examined the physical and physicochemical characteristics, proximate composition, concentration of carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E and minerals in the pulp and kernels of fruits of licuri (Syagrus coronata (Mart. Becc.. Titratable acidity was analyzed by volumetric neutralization, soluble solids by refractometry, proteins by the micro-Kjeldahl method, lipids by gravimetry using soxhlet, dietary fiber by non-enzymatic gravimetry, carotenoids and vitamin C by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E by HPLC-fluorescence, and minerals by ICP-AES. Pulp were a source of Zn (0.95 mg 100–1, a good source of fiber (6.15 g 100–1, excellent source of provitamin A (758.75 RAE 100–1, Cu (0.69 mg 100–1, Fe (3.81 mg 100–1, Mn (3.40 mg 100–1 and Mo (0.06 mg 100–1. The kernel were a source of Fe (3.36 mg 100–1 and excellent source of Mn (6.14 mg 100–1, Cu (0.97 mg 100–1 and Mo (0.07 mg 100–1. The nutritional value and wide availability of licuri fruit make it an important resource for reducing food insecurity and improving nutrition of the rural population and other individuals who have access to it.

  9. Arquivo de Antropologia Física do Museu Nacional: fontes para a história da eugenia no Brasil The National Museum's physical anthropology archive: sources on the history of eugenics in Brazil

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    Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta um conjunto de fontes documentais que integram o Arquivo de Antropologia Física, de responsabilidade do Setor de Antropologia Biológica do Museu Nacional/UFRJ. O arquivo contém importante documentação sobre o Primeiro Congresso Brasileiro de Eugenia, realizado em 1929, no Rio de Janeiro, em comemoração ao centenário da Academia Nacional de Medicina. Além de originais dos trabalhos apresentados no evento - alguns inéditos -, constam também nesse arquivo documentos reunidos pela secretaria do Congresso, como convocações para a sua realização, ficha dos inscritos, correspondências, recortes de jornais e revistas com artigos sobre eugenia, bem como moções, relatórios e atas finais, constituindo acervo fundamental para a compreensão da história da eugenia no Brasil.The article presents a set of documental sources that are part of the physical anthropology archive administered by the National Museum's biological anthropology sector (UFRJ. The archive holds important documentation on the first Brazilian congress of eugenics, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1929, in celebration of the National Academy of Medicine centennial. In addition to the originals of papers presented at the event (some unpublished, the archive also contains a series of documents compiled by the congress organizers, including announcements of the event, attendee registrations, correspondence, newspaper and magazine clippings of articles on eugenics, as well as motions, reports, and final minutes, all of which makes this collection invaluable in understanding the history of eugenics in Brazil.

  10. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  11. Late Pleistocene-Holocene paleoclimate in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia with basis on floristic changes interpreted from isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, D. F.; Cohen, M. C. L.; Pessenda, L. C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Previous late Quaternary paleoclimatic interpretations in Amazonia have considered fluctuating dry to wet episodes with changes from savanna to forest, a view that concurs with other proposals of undisturbed rainforest despite global oscillations. Most of this debate is based on pollen data, but such elements are scarce in Amazonian sedimentary records. This work interprets vegetation in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in a southwestern Amazonia lowland using δ13C, δ15N, C/N integrated with geomorphology, sedimentology and radiocarbon dating. The goal was to reconstruct vegetation changes through time and analyze their relation to climate and sedimentary dynamics. Fluvial channel and floodplain deposits with phytoplankton, as well as C3 and C4 land plants, were recorded. Between 42,033-43,168 cal yr BP and 34,804-35,584 cal yr BP, C4 land plants increased as a result of a climate drier than todaýs. However, wet climate prevailed from this time-frame until the onset of the Last Glaciation Maximum. In the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, there was an increased contribution of C4 land plants potentially related to dry episodes. However, the increased contribution of this type of land plant is not synchronous with Holocene dry episodes previously documented for the Amazonian lowland. On the other hand, it is remarkable that the record of this plant type was verified only in sites with modern grassland confined to fluvial paleo-landforms. Thus, rather than due to a dry climatic episode, the recorded grassland expansion and its maintenance up to the present time in the studied sites is more likely associated with the evolution of depositional environments, being coincidental with the progressive abandonment of fluvial systems. An important conclusion derived from the present work is that great care must be placed when reconstructing late Quaternary paleoclimate in Amazonia based on changes in floristic patterns, as they may be also a response to sedimentary dynamics.

  12. On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia

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    L. Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water, and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon Basin have global implications for current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate service (MACC was used to further study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made over more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. This study added four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion were compared to independent estimates of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia, and against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We focused on the impact of the interannual variation of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons, and of the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE were also investigated. While the inversion supported the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results revealed critical limitations that prevent global inversion frameworks from capturing the data-driven seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. In particular, it highlighted issues due to the configuration of the observation network in South America and the lack of continuity of the measurements. However, some robust patterns from the inversion seemed consistent with the abnormal moisture conditions in 2009.

  13. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

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    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  14. On the ability of a global atmospheric inversion to constrain variations of CO2 fluxes over Amazonia

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    L. Molina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and the Amazon basin have global implications for the current and future climate. Here, the global atmospheric inversion system of the Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC service is used to study the seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic CO2 fluxes in Amazonia during the period 2002–2010. The system assimilated surface measurements of atmospheric CO2 mole fractions made at more than 100 sites over the globe into an atmospheric transport model. The present study adds measurements from four surface stations located in tropical South America, a region poorly covered by CO2 observations. The estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE optimized by the inversion are compared to an independent estimate of NEE upscaled from eddy-covariance flux measurements in Amazonia. They are also qualitatively evaluated against reports on the seasonal and interannual variations of the land sink in South America from the scientific literature. We attempt at assessing the impact on NEE of the strong droughts in 2005 and 2010 (due to severe and longer-than-usual dry seasons and the extreme rainfall conditions registered in 2009. The spatial variations of the seasonal and interannual variability of optimized NEE are also investigated. While the inversion supports the assumption of strong spatial heterogeneity of these variations, the results reveal critical limitations of the coarse-resolution transport model, the surface observation network in South America during the recent years and the present knowledge of modelling uncertainties in South America that prevent our inversion from capturing the seasonal patterns of fluxes across Amazonia. However, some patterns from the inversion seem consistent with the anomaly of moisture conditions in 2009.

  15. Límites a la autonomía indígena en la Amazonia colombiana

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    François Correa Rubio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas tres décadas, la imagen del Estado sobre la Amazonia se ha transformado. De considerarla como una región que solo producía gastos al erario público, las prospecciones minero-energéticas demuestran la presencia de recursos ávidamente demandados por el mercado mundial que aclimatará la política de reprimarización de la economía y la privatización de los procesos extractivos, en manos de empresas transnacionales, amparado en la propiedad estatal del subsuelo y en el de interés nacional con respecto a sus bienes. Paradójicamente, durante el mismo periodo, las normas nacionales e internacionales han reconocido la autonomía de los indígenas, como un derecho fundamental, que promovió su reorganización, bajo una entidad panétnica, con vínculosnacionales e internacionales, que participa de escenarios de concertación política con el Estado, en defensa de sus derechos colectivos, articulándolos con reivindicaciones popularesregionales. Aunque la autonomía no se restringe al control territorial, como siempre ocurre con las economías de enclave, su oneroso impacto se descargará sobre el territorioy sus pobladores, que en la Amazonia incluye más del 60 % de los grupos indígenas del país. Este artículo introduce la tensión sobre las expectativas y el reciente impacto de las políticas de intervención del Estado en la Amazonia y el proceso de reorganización del movimiento indígena. 

  16. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  17. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  18. Physical physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  19. Qualidade física e fisiológica de sementes de braquiárias comercializadas em Campo Grande-MS Physical and physiological quality of seeds of Brachiaria grass commercialized in Campo Grande (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdemir Antônio Laura

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se, o presente trabalho, no Laboratório Didático de Análise de Sementes da Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal - UNIDERP, com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade física e fisiológica de sementes de três espécies de braquiárias (Brachiaria brizantha, B. humidicola e B. decumbens, provenientes de seis empresas estabelecidas no comércio de Campo Grande-MS. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 X 6, com três espécies e seis procedências, totalizando 18 tratamentos. As variáveis analisadas foram: pureza física, primeira contagem do teste de germinação, germinação, valor cultural e massa de 1.000 sementes. Para análise estatística, os dados, quando necessário, foram transformados e as médias comparadas. Há grande variação na qualidade física e fisiológica das sementes de braquiárias comercializadas em Campo Grande-MS; as sementes da espécie B. humidicola, comercializadas em Campo Grande-MS são, em geral, de baixa qualidade física e fisiológica.The present work was carried out at the Didactic Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal - UNIDERP, with the aim of evaluating the physical and physiological quality of seeds of three Brachiaria grass species (Brachiaria brizantha, B. humidicola and B. decumbens, proceeding from six companies located at the commercial area of Campo Grande (Brazil. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized experimental design in factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were: species (three and origins (six; totalizing 18 treatments. The pureness, first counting of the germination test, germination, pure germinating seeds and biomass of 1,000 seeds were evaluated. For the statistical analysis, the data were transformed and the means were compared, when necessary. There is high variation in the

  20. REDVET y RECVET están disponibles desde la biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veterinaria.org

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos artículos publicados en REDVET y en RECVET son inmediatamente accesibles desde la Biblioteca de la Universidad de la Amazonia, con sede en Florencia, Caquetá, Colombia, Suramérica, donde las dos revistas científicas editadas por Veterinaria Organización aparece en el área de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia junto a la Bases de datos bibliográficas de la Biblioteca Agropecuaria de Colombia (BAC del Centro Internacional de Agricultura tropical (CIAT y la Biblioteca de la FAO (Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación.

  1. Chemical, mineralogical and physical characteristics of a material accumulated on the river margin from mud flowing from the collapse of the iron ore tailings dam in Bento Rodrigues, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Alexandre Christofaro Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of an itabirito mining tailings dam at the headwaters of the Doce River Basin (Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo, Brazil caused the greatest environmental catastrophe of the planet Earth related to this activity. The tailings were deposited both in the bottom and on the riverside terrace of the rivers, causing silting and deep changes in the water quality and burial of the main agricultural areas of this basin. For these areas to return to pre-disaster levels, it is imperative that the material deposited on the river terraces be thoroughly characterized. The objective of this work was to characterize the material from the rupture of the Fundão dam, deposited on the river terrace of the Carmo River, a tributary of the Doce River. The material was collected at a depth of 0 to 30 cm from a tail layer about 3 meters thick deposited on the river terrace on the right bank of the Carmo River in the urban area of Barra Longa, Minas Gerais. The physical analyses included soil, particle and porosity density, chemical analyses were pH, sorption complex, organic matter, exchangeable Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni, total oxides, and mineralogical analyses were performed by X-ray diffractometer and Mössbauer spectrometry. The reject has high levels of sand and silt and a low clay content. The densities of soil and particles are high, and the porosity is low. The pH is alkaline, the levels of organic matter, plant nutrients and CEC are very low. The exchangeable heavy metals Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb and Ni are very low, and the exchangeable Mn contents of the tailings are high. The predominant total oxides of the tailings are SiO2 and Fe2O3. The most abundant minerals of the tailings are quartz and hematite. The physical, chemical, and mineralogical attributes of mine tailings restrict the restoration of native vegetation or the agricultural use of the river terraces on which it was deposited.

  2. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  3. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

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    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  4. Allocating logging rights in Peruvian Amazonia--does it matter to be local?

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    Matti Salo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fate of tropical forests is a global concern, yet many far-reaching decisions affecting forest resources are made locally. We explore allocation of logging rights using a case study from Loreto, Peruvian Amazonia, where millions of hectares of tropical rainforest were offered for concession in a competitive tendering process that addressed issues related to locality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After briefly presenting the study area and the tendering process, we identify and define local and non-local actors taking part in the concession process. We then analyse their tenders, results of the tendering, and attributes of the concession areas. Our results show that there was more offer than demand for concession land in the tendering. The number of tenders the concession areas received was related to their size and geographic location in relation to the major cities, but not to their estimated timber volumes or median distances from transport routes. Small and Loreto-based actors offered lower yearly area-based fees compared to larger ones, but the offers did not significantly affect the results of the tenders. Local experience in the form of logging history or residence near the solicited concession areas, as well as being registered in the region of Loreto, improved the success of the tenders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The allocation process left a considerable number of forest areas under the management of small and local actors, and if Peru is to reach its goal of zero deforestation rate by safeguarding 75 per cent of its forests by 2020, the small and the local actors need to be integrated to the forest regime as important constituents of its legitimacy.

  5. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for ‘extensive cattle ranching’, ‘agro-silvopastoral use’ and ‘intensive cattle ranching and agriculture’. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire

  6. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

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    Rafael de Fraga

    Full Text Available Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  7. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas.

  8. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  9. The Costs of Evaluating Species Densities and Composition of Snakes to Assess Development Impacts in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fraga, Rafael; Stow, Adam J.; Magnusson, William E.; Lima, Albertina P.

    2014-01-01

    Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD) to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities. PMID:25147930

  10. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.; Connors, Sarah; Levine, James G.; Archibald, Alex T.; Godoi, Ana F. L.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Seco, Roger; Sjostedt, Steve; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Guenther, Alex; Kim, Saewung; Smith, James; Martin, Scot T.; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagrams, carbon oxidation state and aromaticity equivalent) were used to identify compound classes and mass distributions of the detected species. Nitrogen- and/or sulfur-containing organic species contributed up to 60 % of the total identified number of formulae. A large number of molecular formulae in organic aerosol (OA) were attributed to later-generation nitrogen- and sulfur-containing oxidation products, suggesting that OA composition is affected by biomass burning and other, potentially anthropogenic, sources. Isoprene-derived organosulfate (IEPOX-OS) was found to be the most dominant ion in most of the analysed samples and strongly followed the concentration trends of the gas-phase anthropogenic tracers confirming its mixed anthropogenic-biogenic origin. The presence of oxidised aromatic and nitro-aromatic compounds in the samples suggested a strong influence from biomass burning especially during the dry period. Aerosol samples from the dry period and under enhanced biomass burning conditions contained a large number of molecules with high carbon oxidation state and an increased number of aromatic compounds compared to that from the wet period. The results of this work demonstrate that the studied site is influenced not only by biogenic emissions from the forest but also by biomass burning and potentially other anthropogenic emissions from the neighbouring urban environments.

  11. A 6900-year history of landscape modification by humans in lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; McMichael, C. H.; Sully, S.; Shadik, C. R.; Valencia, B. G.; Guilderson, T.; Steinitz-Kannan, M.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    A sedimentary record from the Peruvian Amazon provided evidence of climate and vegetation change for the last 6900 years. Piston cores collected from the center of Lake Sauce, a 20 m deep lake at 600 m elevation, were 19.7 m in length. The fossil pollen record showed a continuously forested catchment within the period of the record, although substantial changes in forest composition were apparent. Fossil charcoal, found throughout the record, was probably associated with humans setting fires. Two fires, at c. 6700 cal BP and 4270 cal BP, appear to have been stand-replacing events possibly associated with megadroughts. The fire event at 4270 cal BP followed a drought that caused lowered lake levels for several centuries. The successional trajectories of forest recovery following these large fires were prolonged by smaller fire events. Fossil pollen of Zea mays (cultivated maize) provided evidence of agricultural activity at the site since c. 6320 cal BP. About 5150 years ago, the lake deepened and started to deposit laminated sediments. Maize agriculture reached a peak of intensity between c. 3380 and 700 cal BP. Fossil diatom data provided a proxy for lake nutrient status and productivity, both of which peaked during the period of maize cultivation. A marked change in land use was evident after c. 700 cal BP when maize agriculture was apparently abandoned at this site. Iriartea, a hyperdominant of riparian settings in western Amazonia, increased in abundance within the last 1100 years, but declined markedly at c. 1070 cal BP and again between c. 80 and -10 cal BP.

  12. The Temporal Scale of Holocene Climatic Variability: From the Galapagos to Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Restrepo, A.; Correa, A.; Ford, R.; Valencia, B.; Gosling, W.; Silman, M.; Conroy, J.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution lake cores from the Andes and Amazonian lowlands of W. South America and the Galapagos Islands provide new insights into the Holocene climate history of this region and its interactions with Pacific climate drivers. Our data reveal that a major drought event reported broadly from the Andes and Amazonia in the early to mid-Holocene is actually a complex series of droughts with wet interludes. These results suggest strong climatic instability prior to c. 5600 cal. yr BP. Establishment of wetter conditions at our Andean study site at c. 5600 cal. yr BP correspond to the start of Quinoa cultivation. A similar pattern of higher lake levels coinciding with the local spread of agriculture is also evident in the lowlands. Within an overall pattern of progressively wetter conditions over the last 4000 years there are periods of pronounced climatic instability (drought and flood). Fossil pollen, charcoal, sediment color, and carbon content identify periods of peak erosion between c. 900 and 1100 cal. yr BP. On the Galapagos Islands, a subdecadally resolved analysis of fossil pollen provides a striking pattern of climatic change and human-induced alteration of the landscape. Prior to the period of transforming human activity, the fossil pollen record contains a multidecadal oscillation, with wavlet analysis evealing a quasi- periodicty of c. 60 years. Andean pollen are readily identifible in the Galapagos record and transport of mainland pollen to the islands has varied markedly within the past millennium. These multiproxy records reveal the dynamic nature of Holocene climates in the tropics and the impact those changes have had on people and landscapes.

  13. Regional N2O fluxes in Amazonia derived from aircraft vertical profiles

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    P. Tans

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N2O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rainforest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N2O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajós National Forest (SAN and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (MAN, and the estimation of N2O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites. To our knowledge, these regional scale N2O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. The fluxes upwind of MAN exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 2.1±1.0 mg N2O m−2 day−1, higher than that for fluxes upwind of SAN, which averaged 1.5±1.6 mg N2O m−2 day−1. The higher rainfall around the MAN site could explain the higher N2O emissions. For fluxes from the coast to SAN seasonality is present for all years, with high fluxes in the months of March through May, and in November through December. The first peak of N2O flux is strongly associated with the wet season. The second peak of high N2O flux recorded at SAN occurs during the dry season and can not be easily explained. However, about half of the dry season profiles exhibit significant correlations with CO, indicating a larger than expected source of N2O from biomass burning. The average CO:N2O ratio for all profiles sampled during the dry season is 94±77 mol CO:mol N2O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N2O budget than previously reported.

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN DIFFERENT SOIL FRACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS OF CENTRAL AMAZONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays an important role in many soil properties, and for that reason it is necessary to identify management systems which maintain or increase its concentrations. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality and quantity of organic C in different compartments of the soil fraction in different Amazonian ecosystems. The soil organic matter (FSOM was fractionated and soil C stocks were estimated in primary forest (PF, pasture (P, secondary succession (SS and an agroforestry system (AFS. Samples were collected at the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-160, and 160-200 cm. Densimetric and particle size analysis methods were used for FSOM, obtaining the following fractions: FLF (free light fraction, IALF (intra-aggregate light fraction, F-sand (sand fraction, F-clay (clay fraction and F-silt (silt fraction. The 0-5 cm layer contains 60 % of soil C, which is associated with the FLF. The F-clay was responsible for 70 % of C retained in the 0-200 cm depth. There was a 12.7 g kg-1 C gain in the FLF from PF to SS, and a 4.4 g kg-1 C gain from PF to AFS, showing that SS and AFS areas recover soil organic C, constituting feasible C-recovery alternatives for degraded and intensively farmed soils in Amazonia. The greatest total stocks of carbon in soil fractions were, in decreasing order: (101.3 Mg ha-1 of C - AFS > (98.4 Mg ha-1 of C - FP > (92.9 Mg ha-1 of C - SS > (64.0 Mg ha-1 of C - P. The forms of land use in the Amazon influence C distribution in soil fractions, resulting in short- or long-term changes.

  15. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  16. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Rafael de; Stow, Adam J; Magnusson, William E; Lima, Albertina P

    2014-01-01

    Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD) to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia.