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Sample records for amazonia brazil physical

  1. An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae (Insecta, Plecoptera genera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Hamada Neusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to nymphs of Perlidae collected in streams of Central Amazonia, Brazil is provided. Three genera are reported for this region: Macrogynoplax Enderlein, Anacroneuria Klapálek and Enderleina Jewett. Additional diagnostic characters are provided for Enderleina nymphs.

  2. Brazil nut harvesting in Peruvian Amazonia from the perspective of ecosystem services

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    Risto Kalliola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil nuts are harvested from the primary rainforests in the Amazonian lowlands as a direct form of sustainably using the region’s biological resources. We analyze the ecological economics of Brazil nut production in the Peruvian region of Madre de Dios where nut extraction occurs on hundreds of small-holder concessions operating under long-term agreements. This activity sustains locally important economies that suffer from small volumes and high seasonality. The size and the remoteness of the NTFP concession determine much of its profitability to concessionaires. Seasonality of the harvest generates short-term income peaks for the majority of collectors. The fragility of the Brazil nut economy in the region is compounded by volatile market prices and the overall development pressures in Amazonia, which usually involve deforestation. Although the current regulatory mechanisms in Peru encourage long-term Brazil nut production in concessions, the income level is seldom high enough to help concession-owners to rise from poverty. Auxiliary financial support based on compensations for the non-valued ecosystem services provided by the forest-covered Brazil nut concessions could change the picture. Funds for these could come from international instruments like those of carbon emission control or debt for nature swaps. Green marketing could be developed to consider payments supporting ecosystem values as well as mechanisms supporting indigenous communities working with Brazil nuts. Appropriate indicators are needed to optimize those management, policy and trading conditions that best help to preserve the invaluable ecosystem functions and services.

  3. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  4. Leporinus trimaculatus, a new species from Amazonia, Brazil, and redescription of the sympatric Leporinus aripuanaensis (Pisces, Characiformes, Anostomidae)

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    Garavello, Julio Cesar; Santos, dos Geraldo Mendes

    1992-01-01

    Leporinus trimaculatus n.sp. is described, and Leporinus aripuanaensis Garavello & Santos, 1981 is redescribed, both from the Aripuanã river basin, Mato Grosso state, Amazonia, Brazil. A colour pattern of two, three or more dark brown blotches on the lateral sides of the body in both species

  5. Heterotrophic components of soil respiration in pastures and forests in southwestern Amazonia, Acre, Brazil

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    Eric Atlas Davidson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present data on soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration in pastures, mature and secondary forests, in order to elucidate their contribution to total CO2 flux from soil to atmosphere. The research was conducted in Southwestern Amazonia, Acre State, Brazil. Microbial biomass was estimated using a variation of the traditional fumigation-extraction method and heterotrophic respiration was measured using respirometry flasks attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration did not differ statistically among pastures, mature and secondary forests. These laboratory results indicate that higher CO2 fluxes from pasture soils measured in situ are probably due to higher root respiration by pasture grasses.

  6. The stratigraphy and regional structure of Miocene deposits in western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), with implications for late Neogene landscape evolution

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    Wesselingh, F.P.; Hoorn, M.C.; Guerrero, J.; Räsänen, M.E.; Romero Pittmann, L.; Salo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A biozonation based on molluscs is proposed for Miocene deposits of western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia and Brazil), commonly referred to as the Pebas Formation. The new zonation refines existing pollen zonations and provides a key for the quick assessment of the stratigraphic position of Neogene

  7. Miocene fish faunas from the northwestern Amazonia basin (Colombia, Peru, Brazil) with evidence of marine incursions

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    Monsch, KA

    1998-01-01

    New evidence indicates marine influences during the Miocene in the northwestern Amazonia basin. This is the first major survey of the ichthyofauna from this area in the Miocene. Fossil fish remains from taxa such as the Dasyatoidea, Myliobatoidea, Characiformes, Siluriformes and Sciaenidae are

  8. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

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    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  9. Land-use in Amazonia and the Cerrado of Brazil: State of Knowledge and GIS Database

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    Nepstad, Daniel C.

    1997-01-01

    We have assembled datasets to strengthen the LargeScale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). These datasets can now be accessed through the Woods Hole Research Center homepage (www.whrc.org), and will soon be linked to the Pre-LBA homepages of the Brazilian Space Research Institute's Center for Weather and Climate Prediction (Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais, Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, INPE/CPTEC) and through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL/DMC). Some of the datasets that we are making available involved new field research and/or the digitization of data available in Brazilian government agencies. For example, during the grant period we conducted interviews at 1,100 sawmills across Amazonia to determine their production of sawn timber, and their harvest intensities. These data provide the basis for the first quantitative assessment of the area of forest affected each year by selective logging (Nepstad et al, submitted to Nature). We digitized the locations of all of the rural households in the State of Para that have been mapped by the Brazilian malaria combat agency (SUCAM). We also mapped and digitized areas of deforestation in the state of Tocantins, which is comprised largely of savanna (cerrado), an ecosystem that has been routinely excluded from deforestation mapping exercises.

  10. Feeding ecology of Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae in a riparian flooded forest of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the midnight catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus collected in rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest (Eastern Amazonia, Brazil were investigated through the different hydrological periods (dry, filing, flood and drawdown. A total of 589 specimens were collected throughout seven samplings between July 2008 and July 2009, of which 74 were young males, 177 adult males, 89 young females and 249 adult females. The diet composition (Alimentary index - Ai% was analyzed by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS and by the analysis of similarity (ANOSIM, which included 37 items grouped into nine categories (Aquatic insects, Other aquatic invertebrates, Arthropods fragment, Fish, Plant fragment, Seeds, Terrestrial insects, Other terrestrial invertebrates, and Terrestrial vertebrates. We also calculated the niche breadth (Levins index and the repletion index (RI%. Differences in the diet composition between hydrological seasons were registered, primarily on diet composition between dry and flood season, but changes related with sex and maturity were not observed. The midnight catfish showed more specialists feeder habit in the flood period (March 2009 and more generalist habits in the dry season (November 2008. The amount of food eaten by A. longimanus based on repletion index (RI%, did not differ significantly from sex and maturity. However, we evidenced differences in RI% when comparing the studied months. These results provide important biological information about the trophic ecology of auchenipterids fish. In view of the higher occurrence of allochthonous items, this research also underpins the importance of riparian forests as critical environments in the maintenance and conservation of wild populations of fish in the Amazon basin.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do bagre Auchenipterichthys longimanus coletados em rios da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã (Amazônia Oriental, Brasil ao longo de diferentes

  11. Adsorption of cadmium and copper in representative soils of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Deyvison Andrey Medrado Gonçalves

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of heavy metals adsorption in soil play a key role in predicting environmental susceptibility to contamination by toxic elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu adsorption in surface and subsurface soil. Samples of six soils: Xanthic Hapludox (XH1 and XH2, Typic Hapludox (TH, Typic Rhodudalf (TR, Typic Fluvaquent (TF, and Amazonian dark earths (ADE from Eastern Amazonian, Brazil. The soils were selected for chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization and to determine the adsorption by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. All soils characterized as kaolinitic, and among them, XH1 and XH2 showed the lowest fertility. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms revealed a higher Cu (H curve than Cd (L curve adsorption. Parameters of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms indicate that soils TR, TF and ADE has the greatest capacity and affinity for metal adsorption. Correlation between the curve adsorption parameters and the soil attributes indicates that the pH, CEC, OM and MnO variables had the best influence on metal retention. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily described Cu and Cd soil adsorption, where TR, TF and ADE has a lower vulnerability to metal input to the environment. Besides the pH, CEC and OM the MnO had a significant effect on Cu and Cd adsorption in Amazon soils.

  12. Chemical composition of the fruit mesocarp of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) populations grown in central Amazonia, Brazil.

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    Yuyama, Lúcia K O; Aguiar, Jaime P L; Yuyama, Kaoru; Clement, Charles R; Macedo, Sonja H M; Fávaro, Deborah I T; Afonso, Claudia; Vasconcellos, Marina B A; Pimentel, Sabria A; Badolato, Elsa S G; Vannucchi, Helio

    2003-01-01

    The percent composition, soluble and insoluble food fibers, oil fatty acids and minerals were determined in the mesocarp of fruits of three peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) populations grown in Central Amazonia, Brazil. Amino acids were also determined in one of the populations. The mean protein levels ranged from 1.8 to 2.7%, lipid levels ranged from 3.5 to 11.1%, the nitrogen free fraction ranged from 24.3 to 35%, food fiber ranged from 5.2% to 8.7%, and energy ranged from 179.1 to 207.4 kcal%. All essential, as well as non-essential, amino acids were present, with tryptophan and methionine presenting the lowest mean concentrations. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid predominated in the oil, ranging from 42.8 to 60.8%, and palmitic acid was the most abundant saturated fatty acid, ranging from 24.1 to 42.3%. Among the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid was the most abundant, with a maximum of 5.4% in Pampa-8. The most important mineral elements were potassium, selenium and chromium, respectively corresponding to 12%, 9% and 9% of daily recommended allowances. Considering the nutritional potential of the fruit, we suggest its more frequent incorporation into the diet of the Amazonian population.

  13. The significance of marine microfossils for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Solimões Formation (Miocene), western Amazonia, Brazil

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    Linhares, Ana Paula; Gaia, Valber do Carmo de Souza; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2017-11-01

    Micropalaeontological studies of borehole cores 1AS-7D-AM and 1AS-8-AM, from Atalaia do Norte, Amazonas state, Brazil, support previous evidence for Miocene marine ingressions in Western Amazonia. Three marine incursion events are recorded: the first in the Early/early Middle Miocene (in both cores), the second in the late Middle/early Late Miocene (1AS-8-AM), and the third in the Late Miocene (1AS-7D-AM). The first event is characterized by exclusively mangrove taxa, and the last two present a mixture of marine, fresh, and brackish water taxa. However, at the end of the third event an increase of fluvial influence is demonstrated by the predominance of freshwater taxa. These marine incursions reached the study area through narrow and geographically limited connections, controlled by the tectonic setting, at a time between the Early/early Middle Miocene and late Middle/Late Miocene. Thereafter, fluvial conditions were reestablished before Pliocene times.

  14. Deforestation drivers in Southwest Amazonia: Comparing smallholder farmers in Iñapari, Peru, and Assis Brasil, Brazil

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    Almeyda Zambrano Angelica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broad interpretation of land use and forest cover studies has been limited by the biophysical and socio-economic uniqueness of the landscapes in which they are carried out and by the multiple temporal and spatial scales of the underlying processes. We coupled a land cover change approach with a political ecology framework to interpret trends in multi-temporal remote sensing of forest cover change and socio-economic surveys with smallholders in the towns of Iñapari, Peru and Assis Brasil, Brazil in southwest Amazonia. These adjacent towns have similar biogeophysical conditions, but have undergone differing development approaches, and are both presently undergoing infrastructure development for the new Interoceanic highway. Results show that forest cover patterns observed in these two towns cannot be accounted for using single land use drivers. Rather, deforestation patterns result from interactions of national and regional policies affecting financial credit and road infrastructure, along with local processes of market integration and household resources. Based on our results we develop recommendations to minimise deforestation in the study area. Our findings are relevant for the sustainability of land use in the Amazon, in particular for regions undergoing large-scale infrastructure development projects.

  15. The spatial distribution of Hymenoptera parasitoids in a forest reserve in Central Amazonia, Manaus, AM, Brazil

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    RB. Querino

    Full Text Available Parasitoids are of great importance to forest ecosystems due to their ecological role in the regulation of the population of other insects. The species richness and abundance of parasitoids in the forest canopy and understory, both on the borders and in the interior of a tropical forest reserve in Central Amazonia were investigated. For a 12-month period, specimen collections were made every 15 days from suspended traps placed in the forest canopy and in the understory strata, both on the border and in the interior of forest areas. A total of 12,835 Hymenoptera parasitoids from 23 families were acquired. Braconidae, Diapriidae, Mymaridae, Eulophidae, and Scelionidae were the most represented in the area and strata samples. The results indicate that there were no significant differences in the species richness or abundance of Hymenoptera between the forest borders and the inner forest. The data does show that the presence of Hymenoptera is significantly greater in the understory in both the border and interior areas than in the canopy (vertical stratification. Aphelinidae and Ceraphronidae were significantly associated with the inner forest, while the other seven families with the border of the reserve. The abundance of Hymenoptera parasitoids presented seasonal variations during the year related to the rainy and dry seasons.

  16. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasture chronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    B. Wick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied nitrous oxide (N2O fluxes and soil nitrogen (N cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N2O we measured 27 soil chemical, soil microbiological and soil physical variables. Soil N2O fluxes were higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Fluxes of N2O from forest soils always exceeded fluxes from pasture soils and showed no consistent trend with pasture age. At our forest sites, nitrate was the dominant form of inorganic N both during wet and dry season. At our pasture sites nitrate generally dominated the inorganic N pools during the wet season and ammonium dominated during the dry season. Net mineralization and nitrification rates displayed large variations. During the dry season net immobilization of N was observed in some pastures. Compared to forest sites, young pasture sites (≤2 years had low microbial biomass N and protease activities. Protease activity and microbial biomass N peaked in pastures of intermediate age (4 to 8 years followed by consistently lower values in older pasture (10 to 60 years. The C/N ratio of litter was low at the forest sites (~25 and rapidly increased with pasture age reaching values of 60-70 at pastures of 15 years and older. Nitrous oxide emissions at our sites were controlled by C and N availability and soil aeration. Fluxes of N2O were negatively correlated to leaf litter C/N ratio, NH4+-N and the ratio of NO3--N to the sum of NO3--N + NH4+-N (indicators of N availability, and methane fluxes and bulk density (indicators of soil aeration status during the wet season. During the dry season fluxes of N2O were positively correlated to microbial biomass N, β-glucosidase activity, total inorganic N stocks and NH4+-N. In our study region, pastures of all age emitted less N2O than

  17. Nitrous oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling along a pasturechronosequence in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    B. Wick; E. Veldkamp; W. Z. de Mello; M. Keller; P. Crill

    2005-01-01

    We studied nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes and soil nitrogen (N) cycling following forest conversion to pasture in the central Amazon near Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Two undisturbed forest sites and 27 pasture sites of 0.5 to 60 years were sampled once each during wet and dry seasons. In addition to soil-atmosphere fluxes of N...

  18. Vegetation changes and human impact inferred from an oxbow lake in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil since the 19th century

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    Rodríguez-Zorro, Paula A.; Enters, Dirk; Hermanowski, Barbara; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Pollen and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analyses from a 272 cm-long sediment core of Lago Amapá, an oxbow lake in western Amazonia, reveal the first palaeoecological investigation of late Holocene sediments in Acre state, Brazil. Radiocarbon dating of older sediments failed due to re-deposition of organic material but a historical map suggests that lacustrine deposition started at 1900 AD. We detected two periods of changes in sediment and vegetation, dominated by pioneer taxa especially Cecropia. The first period around 1900 AD is documenting an initial oxbow lake, with regular fluvial input (high Ti) and low accumulation of organic matter (low inc/coh ratio). During that period Andean pollen taxa originating from Peruvian Andean headwaters were deposited. A fully lacustrine phase started about 1950 AD and is characterized by prolonged periods of stagnant water (low Fe/Mn ratio). The increase of pioneer taxa, sedimentation rates and a reduction of most of the XRF element counts point to a period during which Lago Amapá was a more isolated lake which was flooded only during exceptional severe flood events and is catching mainly anthropogenic disturbances. The extensive human influence during this period was assumed by 1) the high occurrence of pioneer taxa and the absence of charcoal which could indicate changes in vegetation possibly as a result of logging, 2) the Ca and Ti/K ratio which reflect changes to a local sediment source, and 3) comparison of Landsat images from the last 30 years which shows broad changes in vegetation cover and land transformation in the peripheral areas of the oxbow lake.

  19. Brazil's Balbina Dam: Environment versus the legacy of the Pharaohs in Amazonia

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    Fearnside, Philip M.

    1989-07-01

    The Balbina Dam in Brazil's state of Amazonas floods 2360 km2 of tropical forest to generate an average of only 112.2 MW of electricity. The flat topography and small size of the drainage basin make output small. Vegetation has been left to decompose in the reservoir, resulting in acidic, anoxic water that will corrode the turbines. The shallow reservoir contains 1500 islands and innumerable stagnant bays where the water's residence time will be even longer than the average time of over one year. Balbina was built to supply electricity to Manaus, a city that has grown so much while the dam was under construction that other alternatives are already needed. Government subsidies explain the explosive growth, including Brazil's unified tariff for electricity. Alternative power sources for Manaus include transmission from more distant dams or from recently discovered oil and natural gas deposits. Among Balbina's impacts are loss of potential use of the forest and displacement of about one third of the surviving members of a much-persecuted Amerindian tribe: the Waimiri-Atroari. The dam was closed on 1 October 1987 and the first of five generators began operation in February 1989. The example of Balbina points to important ways that the decision-making process could be improved in Brazil and in the international funding agencies that have directly and indirectly contributed to the project. Environmental impact analyses must be completed prior to decisions on overall project implementation and must be free of influence from project proponents. The current environmental impact assessment system in Brazil, as in many other countries, has an undesirable influence on science policy, in addition to failing to address the underlying causes of environmentally destructive development processes and inability to halt “irreversible” projects like Balbina.

  20. Distribution of throughfall and stemflow in multi-strata agroforestry, perennial monoculture, fallow and primary forest in central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Schroth, Götz; Ferreira da Silva, Luciana; Wolf, Marc-Andree; Geraldes Teixeira, Wenceslau; Zech, Wolfgang

    1999-07-01

    The partitioning of rain water into throughfall, stemflow and interception loss when passing through plant canopies depends on properties of the respective plant species, such as leaf area and branch angles. In heterogeneous vegetation, such as tropical forest or polycultural systems, the presence of different plant species may consequently result in a mosaic of situations with respect to quantity and quality of water inputs into the soil. As these processes influence not only the water availability for the plants, but also water infiltration and nutrient leaching, the understanding of plant effects on the repartitioning of rain water may help in the optimization of land use systems and management practices. We measured throughfall and stemflow in a perennial polyculture (multi-strata agroforestry), monocultures of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) for fruit and for palmito, a monoculture of cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum), spontaneous fallow and primary forest during one year in central Amazonia, Brazil. The effect on rain water partitioning was measured separately for four useful tree species in the polyculture and for two tree species in the primary forest. Throughfall at two stem distances, and stemflow, differed significantly between tree species, resulting in pronounced spatial patterns of water input into the soil in the polyculture system. For two tree species, peach palm for fruit (Bactris gasipaes) and Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa), the water input into the soil near the stem was significantly higher than the open-area rainfall. This could lead to increased nutrient leaching when fertilizer is applied close to the stem of these trees. In the primary forest, such spatial patterns could also be detected, with significantly higher water input near a palm (Oenocarpus bacaba) than near a dicotyledonous tree species (Eschweilera sp.). Interception losses were 6·4% in the polyculture, 13·9 and 12·3% in the peach palm monocultures for fruit and for

  1. Body size and obesity patterns in Caboclo populations from Pará, Amazonia, Brazil.

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    Silva, Hilton; Padez, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    In many developing countries overweight, obesity and obesity-related morbidity are becoming a problem of increasing public health importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in body size and body composition with age in adults of the Caboclo populations from the Brazilian Amazon as well as to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults aged 20-75 years, taking into account recent trends for the whole country. Caboclo are genetically and culturally admixed rural peasant groups that live along the Amazon River and its tributaries in Brazil, and there are few previous studies of their health and lifestyle. A total of 304 subjects (149 males and 155 females) from two socioecologically different areas were studied. Height, weight and skinfolds (tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured; international intervals (WHO) for overweight and obesity were used. Women showed significantly lower values than men for height, weight, upper arm circumference and fat-free mass and higher values for triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds and body fat (%). In the overall sample combined overweight and obesity was 47.8% in men and 50.8% in women. When compared to recent values published for the Northern region and for the whole of Brazil, 20.5% of Caboclo women aged 20-75 years were obese, which is higher than all other populations, including other rural samples. Caboclo men showed the highest rates of obesity (9.1%) and overweight (39.1%) of any rural population from the country, including Northern Brazil. The results suggest an effect of increased Western lifestyle influence on the body composition of these Caboclo populations. Considering that these are rural populations with limited access to education and health care, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity associated with low socio-economic status makes them a vulnerable group that deserves a higher level of attention by the country's public health authorities.

  2. Deforestation and Carbon Loss in Southwest Amazonia: Impact of Brazil's Revised Forest Code

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    Roriz, Pedro Augusto Costa; Yanai, Aurora Miho; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-09-01

    In 2012 Brazil's National Congress altered the country's Forest Code, decreasing various environmental protections in the set of regulations governing forests. This suggests consequences in increased deforestation and emissions of greenhouse gases and in decreased protection of fragile ecosystems. To ascertain the effects, a simulation was run to the year 2025 for the municipality (county) of Boca do Acre, Amazonas state, Brazil. A baseline scenario considered historical behavior (which did not respect the Forest Code), while two scenarios considered full compliance with the old Forest Code (Law 4771/1965) and the current Code (Law 12,651/2012) regarding the protection of "areas of permanent preservation" (APPs) along the edges of watercourses. The models were parameterized from satellite imagery and simulated using Dinamica-EGO software. Deforestation actors and processes in the municipality were observed in loco in 2012. Carbon emissions and loss of forest by 2025 were computed in the three simulation scenarios. There was a 10% difference in the loss of carbon stock and of forest between the scenarios with the two versions of the Forest Code. The baseline scenario showed the highest loss of carbon stocks and the highest increase in annual emissions. The greatest damage was caused by not protecting wetlands and riparian zones.

  3. Deforestation and Carbon Loss in Southwest Amazonia: Impact of Brazil's Revised Forest Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roriz, Pedro Augusto Costa; Yanai, Aurora Miho; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-09-01

    In 2012 Brazil's National Congress altered the country's Forest Code, decreasing various environmental protections in the set of regulations governing forests. This suggests consequences in increased deforestation and emissions of greenhouse gases and in decreased protection of fragile ecosystems. To ascertain the effects, a simulation was run to the year 2025 for the municipality (county) of Boca do Acre, Amazonas state, Brazil. A baseline scenario considered historical behavior (which did not respect the Forest Code), while two scenarios considered full compliance with the old Forest Code (Law 4771/1965) and the current Code (Law 12,651/2012) regarding the protection of "areas of permanent preservation" (APPs) along the edges of watercourses. The models were parameterized from satellite imagery and simulated using Dinamica-EGO software. Deforestation actors and processes in the municipality were observed in loco in 2012. Carbon emissions and loss of forest by 2025 were computed in the three simulation scenarios. There was a 10% difference in the loss of carbon stock and of forest between the scenarios with the two versions of the Forest Code. The baseline scenario showed the highest loss of carbon stocks and the highest increase in annual emissions. The greatest damage was caused by not protecting wetlands and riparian zones.

  4. Distribution, feeding and ecomorphology of four species of Auchenipteridae (Teleostei: Siluriformes in Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Tiago M. S. Freitas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fish exhibit morphological, physiological and behavioral specializations which enable them to display different ways to explore the environments and resources. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify how four Auchenipteridae species differ in the distribution, feeding habits and morphological traits: Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Günther, 1864, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix & Agassiz, 1829, Tatia intermedia (Steindachner, 1877 and Trachelyopterus galeatus (Linnaeus, 1766. This study was conducted in rivers and bays of the Anapú Basin, Pará State (Brazil, where these species are abundant. Specimens were collected using gillnets, and after caught the stomachs were removed for the contents analyzes. Eighteen morphometric measurements from ten adult specimens of each species were taken, combined into fifteen ecomorphological attributes. The species distribution showed that A. longimanus was restricted to rivers, while the others were exclusively caught in the bays. All four species had their diet composed of allochthonous insects, but A. longimanus also exhibited a great frugivorous habit. The most important ecomorphological attributes were relative to the consumption of larger food items (for A. longimanus and T. galeatus and to the longer swimming capacity (for A. longimanus and T. intermedia. These morphological differences and the trophic diversity presented in this study highlighted some important information about how ecomorphological similar species behave and share resources, which may play a significant role on the coexistence of these species in the Anapú Basin.

  5. New species of titi monkey, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903 (Primates, Pitheciidae, from Southern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Julio César Dalponte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Callicebus is one of the most diverse Neotropical primate groups, with 31 recognized species. However, large knowledge gaps still exist regarding the diversity of this genus. Such gaps are gradually being filled due to recent intensification of sampling efforts. Several geographic distributions have been better delimited, and six new species have been described in the last 15 years. The goal of the present study is to describe a new species of Callicebus belonging to the Callicebus moloch species group, recently discovered in an area previously considered to be part of the geographic distribution of C. cinerascens. Data collection was conducted through direct observations, specimen collection and interviews with local residents during four expeditions. Specimens were deposited in the mammalian collection of the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi.. For a comparative evaluation, we examined specimens of the other species of the Callicebus moloch species group, especially the geographically neighboring forms, C. bernhardi and C. cinerascens. We examined 10 chromatic characters of the fur. In addition to body mass, we verified the conventional external variables and 26 craniometric variables. The new species differs from all other Amazonian Callicebus by an exclusive combination of characters, being easily distinguished by the light gray line of the forehead, dark ocher sideburns and throat, dark gray portions of the torso and flanks, and uniformly orange tail. The geographic distribution of the new species is limited by the Roosevelt and Aripuanã rivers, in the states of Mato Grosso and Amazonas, Brazil. Approximately 25% (1,246.382 ha of this area falls within conservation areas, with five areas of sustainable use (746,818 ha and three of integral protection (499,564 ha. Furthermore, a considerable portion of the distribution area is located within indigenous lands (1,555.116 ha - 32%. Therefore, 57% (2,801.498 ha of the occurrence area of

  6. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Penido

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM. The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005. Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment’s interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001. We did not verify predator’s species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  7. Edge effect on post-dispersal artificial seed predation in the southeastern Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penido, G; Ribeiro, V; Fortunato, D S

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates the post-dispersal artificial seed predation rates in two areas of the southeastern Amazon forest-savanna boundary, central Brazil. We conducted the survey in a disturbance regime controlled research site to verify if exists an edge effect in these rates and if the disturbance (in this case annual fire and no fire) affects seed predation. We placed 800 peanuts seeds in each area at regular distance intervals from the fragment`s edge. Data were analyzed by a likelihood ratio model selection in generalized linear models (GLM). The complete model (with effects from edge distance and site and its interaction) was significative (F3=4.43; p=0.005). Seeds had a larger predation rates in fragment's interior in both areas, but in the controlled area (no disturbance) this effect was less linear. This suggests an edge effect for post-dispersal seed predation, and that disturbances might alter these effects. Even if we exclude the site effect (grouping both areas together) there is still a strong edge effect on seed predation rates (F3=32.679; p>0.001). We did not verify predator's species in this study; however, the presence of several species of ants was extremely common in the seeds. The detection of an edge effect in only a short survey time suggests that there is heterogeneity in predation rates and that this variation might affect plant recruitment in fragmented areas of the Amazon forest. Henceforth, this seed predation should be taken in consideration in reforestation projects, where the main source of plants species is from seed distribution.

  8. Scientific Collaboration Along the Trinational Frontier of Brazil-Bolivia-Peru: Implications for Regional Land-Use in the MAP Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.

    2002-12-01

    High-speed road systems are connecting southwestern Amazonia (~1.5 million km2) to Pacific and Atlantic ports as well as providing greater access to Brazilian, Bolivian and Peruvian urban markets. Coupled with this increased accessibility are ambitious governmental plans to expand production of timber, non-timber forest products, and beef, all of which are likely to modify human migrations in the region. The heart of southwestern Amazonia lies in the trinational frontier region of Madre de Dios Department/Peru, eastern Acre State/Brazil and Pando Department/Bolivia (MAP region: ~200,000 km2, ~500,000 inhabitants). The MAP region composes a global hot spot of terrestrial biodiversity and has become an axis of integration for the three countries. Faced with rapid change in socioeconomic trends, regional environmental scientists and professionals have promoted collaborative projects to analyze land use trends and their forcing functions and to supply these results to local and regional societies. In addition, they have begun to develop a regional scientific community that bridges different nationalities and specialties. The projects are both international - as they involve three countries - and local/regional as they involve institutions that are within a radius of 300 km of the border. In the past two years, LBA-sponsored activities have helped bring over 100 professionals together in the region in five MAP-oriented workshops. The research results are now influencing public policy and are being incorporated into the regional school systems with the objective of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the adverse impacts of the changing socio-economic trends on land-use and development in the MAP region.

  9. New molecular identifiers for Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. and the detection of genetic substructure with potential implications for onchocerciasis epidemiology in the Amazonia focus of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Priscila A; Crainey, James L; Almeida, Tatiana P; Shelley, Anthony J; Luz, Sergio L B

    2013-08-01

    The Amazonia onchocerciasis focus of southern Venezuela and northern Brazil is the larger of the two remaining Latin American onchocerciasis foci where disease transmission still occurs and is often regarded as the most challenging of all the Latin American foci to eliminate onchocerciasis. The site is home to a population of over 20,000 semi-nomadic, hunter-gatherer Yanomami people and is made-up of a mosaic of rainforest and savannah ecologies, which are influenced by the area's undulating terrain and rich geological diversity. At least six blackfly vectors have been implicated in onchocerciasis transmission in this focus; however, because of the difficulty in their routine identification the relative importance of each has been obscured. Simulium limbatum and Simulium incrustatum s.l. have both been recorded as vectors in the Amazonia focus, but they are difficult to discriminate morphologically and thus the ecological range of these species, and indeed the presence of S. limbatum in the Amazonia focus at all, have remained controversial. In the work described here, we report 15 S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences and 27 S. limbatum sequences obtained from field-caught adult female blackflies collected from forest and savannah localities, inside and just outside the Amazonia focus. Phylogenetic analysis with the sequences generated in this study, showed that both the S. limbatum and the S. incrustatum s.l. CO1 sequences obtained (even from specimens living in sympatry) all fell into discrete species-specific bootstrap-supported monophyletic groups and thus confirmed the utility of the CO1 gene for identifying both these species inside the Amazonia focus. As the S. limbatum-exclusive cluster included CO1 sequences obtained from forest-caught and morphologically identified specimens these results provide the clearest evidence yet of the presence of S. limbatum inside the Amazonia focus. The question, however, of whether S. limbatum is actually a vector in the focus

  10. Clinical poisoning in bovine the venom of Bothrops atrox the municipality of Oriximiná-Pará, Central Amazonia, Brazil - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo de Almeida Farias Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Farias Junior U. de A. & Chalkidis H.M. [Clinical poisoning in bovine the venom of Bothrops atrox the municipality of Oriximiná-Pará, Central Amazonia, Brazil - Case report.] Envenenamento clínico de bovino por peçonha de Bothrops atrox no município de Oriximiná-Pará, Amazô- nia Central, Brasil - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(3:264-268, 2015. Laboratório de Pesquisas Zoológicas, Faculdades Integradas do Tapajós, Rua Rosa Vermelha, 335, Aeroporto Velho, Santarém, PA 68010-200, Brasil. E-mail: chalkidis@hotmail.com It explains a case of poisoning bovine by Bothrops atrox, abundant snake family Viperidae, prevalent in northern Brazil, assigned as the etiological agent of over 90% of cases of snakebite in the State of Pará. Report the examination semiological and the clinical symptoms observed due to its evolution as well. Clinical signs are confronted with the findings conferred in similar cases reported by veterinarians and ranchers in the region. The treatment in this particular case was not proceeded in order to examine symptoms presented by the accuracy of these reports.

  11. The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Keller; Maria Assunção Silva-Dias; Daniel C. Nepstad; Meinrat O. Andreae

    2004-01-01

    The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multi-disciplinary, multinational scientific project led by Brazil. LBA researchers seek to understand Amazonia in its global context especially with regard to regional and global climate. Current development activities in Amazonia including deforestation, logging, cattle ranching, and agriculture...

  12. Physics in Brazil in the next decade: condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This book gives a general overview of the present situation in Brazil, concerning research in the different areas of condensed matter physics. The main areas discussed here are: semiconductors, magnetism and magnetic materials, superconductivity liquid crystals and polymers, ceramics, glasses and crystals, statistical physics and solid state physics, crystallography, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy, among others. (A.C.A.S.)

  13. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  14. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima state from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro

    2015-02-01

    Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.

  15. BR-319: Brazil's Manaus-Porto Velho highway and the potential impact of linking the arc of deforestation to central amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima

    2006-11-01

    Brazil's BR-319 Highway linked Manaus, in the state of Amazonas, to Porto Velho, Rondônia, until it became impassable in 1988. Now it is proposed for reconstruction and paving, which would facilitate migration from the "Arc of Deforestation" in the southern part of the Amazon region to new frontiers farther north. The purpose of the highway, which is to facilitate transport to São Paulo of products from factories in the Manaus Free Trade Zone, would be better served by sending the containers by ship to the port of Santos. The lack of a land connection to Manaus currently represents a significant barrier to migration to central and northern Amazonia. Discourse regarding the highway systematically overestimates the highway's benefits and underestimates its impacts. A variety of changes would be needed prior to paving the highway if these potential impacts are to be attenuated. These include zoning, reserve creation, and increased governance in various forms, including deforestation licensing and control programs. More fundamental changes are also needed, especially the abandonment of the long-standing tradition in Brazil of granting squatters' rights to those who invade public land. Organizing Amazonian occupation in such a way that road construction and improvement cease to lead to explosive and uncontrolled deforestation should be a prerequisite for approval of the BR-319 and other road projects for which major impacts are expected. These projects could provide the impetus that is needed to achieve the transition away from appropriation of public land by both small squatters and by grileiros (large-scale illegal claimants). A delay in reconstructing the highway is advisable until appropriate changes can be effected.

  16. Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae, Chiasmocleis avilapiresae Peloso and Sturaro, 2008: First record from the state of Acre, southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio, P. R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We record for the first time the presence of Chiasmocleis avilapiresae in the state of Acre, Brazil. This microhylidfrog is found throughout Amazon in Brazil and no information about its distribution in the Acre state was reported previously.An increase on sampling efforts, revision of material housed in herpetological collections, and use of diverse herpetofaunasampling methods might reveal additional localities and more information about this species.

  17. Amphibia, Anura, Microhylidae, Chiasmocleis avilapiresae Peloso and Sturaro, 2008: first record for the state of Acre, southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Paulo; da Silva, Talisson; Peloso, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We record for the first time the presence of Chiasmocleis avilapiresae in the state of Acre, Brazil. This microhylid frog is found throughout Amazon in Brazil and no information about its distribution in the Acre state was reported previously. An increase on sampling efforts, revision of material housed in herpetological collections, and use of diverse herpetofauna sampling methods might reveal additional localities and more information about this species.

  18. Short-lived U and Th isotope distribution in a tropical laterite derived from granite (Pitinga river basin, Amazonia, Brazil): Application to assessment of weathering rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, D.; Bernat, M.; Nahon, D.

    1995-12-01

    We have analyzed samples of a 15 m thick profile weathered from the Madeira granite, located in the Pitinga basin river, north of Manaus, in the state of Amazonia, Brazil. This profile consists essentially of a yellow-red saprolite covered by a soil. U and Th concentrations are particularly high in the granite (20 and 80 μg/g respectively). Normalized element to Th concentrations indicate that Th is most resistant to chemical weathering, except to some extent in the top soil. Higher concentrations in the saprolite compared to the granite comprise a relative enrichment, resulting from a loss of mass. The saprolites are initially generated by a descending weathering front which alters the granite to a yellow-red saprolite, a second front, close to the top, turns the saprolite into a soil. Weathering has led to leaching of U. The 234U/ 238U and 230Th/ 238U isotopic ratios are in radioactive disequilibrium. Numerous nodules are present and apparently started to form at the base of the saprolite. These nodules achieve more developed form during their relative ascent until they are reached by the descending top front where they undergo dissolution. The Th and Pb are concentrated in the nodules close to the top front. The U, being more mobile, is strongly leached by the first front, and most of the remainder, freed by the second, engages in a descending flux which supplies the underlying saprolite. Using the data an attempt is made to model the isotopic distribution in the profile. We conclude that the first front has descended at a rate of 5 cm/1000 yt, and that the time needed to create the saprolite must have been around 300,000 yr.

  19. Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae in the riverine population of the Tefé River, State of Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study assessed the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi in riverine communities of the Tefé River, Amazonas, Brazil. Methods: The prevalence of M. ozzardi was estimated by microscopic examination of thick blood smears. Results: The M. ozzardi prevalence rate was 6.3% (19/300. Filarial infection was found in 8 of the 11 communities surveyed, with prevalence rates varying from 2.5% to 22.2%. Conclusions: Tefé is a region of oil and natural gas exploration, in which there is a high turnover of workers. Migration patterns may facilitate the dissemination of mansonelliasis to other regions.

  20. Proceedings of the 3. Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is the final report of the III Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil. Many works were presented on the fields related to Nuclear Physics. It was organized some work groups which discussed the following topics: Perspectivas of Nuclear Physics in Brazil, Personnel Formation and Related Instrumentation. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Secular trends in age at menarche among Caboclo populations from Pará, Amazonia, Brazil: 1930-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, H P; Padez, C

    2006-01-01

    The present study is part of a large research project on growth, development, nutrition, and health of Caboclo populations from the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this paper is to analyze the age of menarche in adolescents (N=164) and adult women (219) in the studied populations. Caboclo are admixed rural, peasant groups that live along the Amazon river and its tributaries, and there are few previous studies about them. Probit analysis of the status quo data yielded a median age at menarche of 12.29+/-1.76 years. The retrospective method was applied to recall data of the 77 post-menarcheal adolescents, yielding an average of 13.06+/-1.27 years. Number of children in the family did not show any statistical influence on age at menarche in any age group. In adult women, age at menarche decreased from 14.50 in those born in 1930 to 12.88 for those born in 1980 (F=4.371, P=0.001). The downward trend found was, on average, 0.237 year per decade in the study period. The median age at menarche in the adolescents (12.29 years) is one of the lowest values found for Central and South American populations. In the ecological context, a low age at menarche could be an adaptive advantage because it provides a greater chance for reproduction at a young age in an environment where, until recently, life expectancy was low. As has been reported for other developing countries, the change found in age at menarche in the women born from the 1930s to the 1980s is likely to be related to changes in health and nutritional factors that occurred in Brazil because this country experienced significant improvement in living standards related to education, vaccination, and health conditions, which, although not equally, reached all regions after the 1960s. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:83-92, 2006. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Bradyrhizobium centrolobii and Bradyrhizobium macuxiense sp. nov. isolated from Centrolobium paraense grown in soil of Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Daniele C; Passos, Samuel R; Simões-Araujo, Jean L; Baraúna, Alexandre C; da Silva, Krisle; Parma, Marcia M; Melo, Itamar S; De Meyer, Sofie E; O'Hara, Graham; Zilli, Jerri E

    2017-07-01

    Thirteen Gram-negative, aerobic, motile with polar flagella, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from root nodules of Centrolobium paraense Tul. grown in soils from the Amazon region of Brazil. Growth of strains was observed at temperature range 20-36 °C (optimal 28 °C), pH ranges 5-11 (optimal 6.0-7.0), and 0.1-0.5%NaCl (optimal 0.1-0.3%). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene placed the strains into two groups within Bradyrhizobium. Closest neighbouring species (98.8%) for group I was B. neotropicale while for group II were 12 species with more than 99% of similarity. Multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) with dnaK, glnII, recA, and rpoB confirmed B. neotropicale BR 10247 T as the closest type strain for the group I and B. elkanii USDA 76 T and B. pachyrhizi PAC 48 T for group II. Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) differentiated group I from the B. neotropicale BR 10247 T (79.6%) and group II from B. elkanii USDA 76 T and B. pachyrhizi PAC 48 T (88.1% and 87.9%, respectively). Fatty acid profiles [majority C 16:0 and Summed feature 8 (18:1ω6c/18:1ω7c) for both groups], DNA G + C content, and carbon compound utilization supported the placement of the novel strains in the genus Bradyrhizobium. Gene nodC and nifH of the new strains have in general low similarity with other Bradyrhizobium species. Both groups nodulated plants from the tribes Crotalarieae, Dalbergiae, Genisteae, and Phaseoleae. Based on the presented data, two novel species which the names Bradyrhizobium centrolobii and Bradyrhizobium macuxiense are proposed, with BR 10245 T (=HAMBI 3597 T ) and BR 10303 T (=HAMBI 3602 T ) as the respective-type strains.

  3. Overview of medical physics teaching in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction:Brazil has seen a rise in the number of undergraduate courses in Medical Physics in recent years, as well as initiatives for the organization of graduation programs and clinical residencies in this multidisciplinary area. The purpose of the present study was to perform a data survey on academic training in Medical Physics in Brazil in the undergraduate, graduate, and residency levels until 2012.MethodsThe relevant information was requested for the leads of the training/teaching programs, which filled specific electronic forms. The data survey was accomplished by sending the forms to 38 educational institutions.ResultsThe majority (90% of the contacted institutions returned their specific requested information. It was estimated an offer of 400 enroll admissions per year in the group of institutions that offer undergraduate programs in Medical Physics. Federal or state public educational institutions offer around 61% of these admissions and 39% are offered by private universities. The average number of candidate competition was estimated on 3.6 ± 3.9 applicants per place in undergraduate programs, and the student’s complete the courses in 5.1 ± 0.7 years. The average number of undergraduate degrees awarded per year is 10.6 ± 7.3. At least 80% of educational programs have compulsory internships in their curricula with average duration of 307 ± 99 hours. In the graduation programs it was verified that the average time for concluding the programs were 2.2 ± 0.2 years, 4.1 ± 0.2 years and 4.7 ± 0.6 years for the MSc, PhD and direct-PhD, respectively. The programs have CAPES ratings varying from 4 to 7. Finally, until 2012 the residence programs offered 31 positions per year and the professional development programs (not residence provide 7 positions per year.ConclusionIt is understood that the presented numerical results offer a reliable scenario for the diagnosis of opportunities and scholarships distributions in each region of

  4. Carbon stock loss from deforestation through 2013 in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Euler Melo; Yanai, Aurora M; Fonseca, Frederico O R; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2015-03-01

    The largest carbon stock in tropical vegetation is in Brazilian Amazonia. In this ~5 million km(2) area, over 750,000 km(2) of forest and ~240,000 km(2) of nonforest vegetation types had been cleared through 2013. We estimate current carbon stocks and cumulative gross carbon loss from clearing of premodern vegetation in Brazil's 'Legal Amazonia' and 'Amazonia biome' regions. Biomass of 'premodern' vegetation (prior to major increases in disturbance beginning in the 1970s) was estimated by matching vegetation classes mapped at a scale of 1 : 250,000 and 29 biomass means from 41 published studies for vegetation types classified as forest (2317 1-ha plots) and as either nonforest or contact zones (1830 plots and subplots of varied size). Total biomass (above and below-ground, dry weight) underwent a gross reduction of 18.3% in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C) and 16.7% in the Amazonia biome (11.2 Pg C) through 2013, excluding carbon loss from the effects of fragmentation, selective logging, fires, mortality induced by recent droughts and clearing of forest regrowth. In spite of the loss of carbon from clearing, large amounts of carbon were stored in stands of remaining vegetation in 2013, equivalent to 149 Mg C ha(-1) when weighted by the total area covered by each vegetation type in Legal Amazonia. Native vegetation in Legal Amazonia in 2013 originally contained 58.6 Pg C, while that in the Amazonia biome contained 56 Pg C. Emissions per unit area from clearing could potentially be larger in the future because previously cleared areas were mainly covered by vegetation with lower mean biomass than the remaining vegetation. Estimates of original biomass are essential for estimating losses to forest degradation. This study offers estimates of cumulative biomass loss, as well as estimates of premodern carbon stocks that have not been represented in recent estimates of deforestation impacts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Overview of physical safety of radiation sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    The threat of 'radiological terrorism' has been recognized worldwide after the event of September 11, 2001. Radioactive sources can be used for the development of DDR ('dirty bomb') devices. Studies show that the use of a DDR could cause health damage, psychosocial and economic and environmental damage. Brazil follows this worldwide concern, since it has a large medical-industrial park that uses radioactive sources. This paper presents an overview of the physical safety of radioactive sources in Brazil, based on the inventory of radiative facilities, regulatory aspects and international recommendations. For the preparation of the study, the database of radioactive sources of the regulatory body, the current normative status and the international recommendations were used. In Brazil there are approximately 2,500 radiative installations, with about 400 radioactive sources Category 1 and 2, which are the biggest concern in terms of physical safety. The Brazilian licensing standard addresses only some aspects of physical protection, not providing a clear orientation for the elaboration and implementation of physical protection systems, in accordance with international recommendations. For Brazil to be included in the world scenario of physical safety of radioactive sources, it is urgent to elaborate specific legislation with well-defined regulatory criteria. The lack of more detailed requirements makes it difficult to make a more careful regulatory assessment of the physical protection conditions of the facilities, either through the evaluation of plans and other physical protection documents or through regulatory inspections

  6. Physics in Brazil in the next decade: atomic, molecular and optical physics, biological, chemical and medical physics, physics teaching and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is an overview of physics in Brazil in the next decade. It is specially concerned with atomic, molecular and optical physics, biological chemical and medical physics, and also teaching of physics and plasma physics. It presents the main research groups in Brazil in the above mentioned areas. It talks as well, about financing new projects and the costs involved to improve these areas. (A.C.A.S.)

  7. Application of Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Martins, Tiago D.

    2017-04-01

    Shallow landslides and floods are the processes responsible for most material and environmental damages in Brazil. In the last decades, some landslides events induce a high number of deaths (e.g. Over 1000 deaths in one event) and incalculable social and economic losses. Therefore, the prediction of those processes is considered an important tool for land use planning tools. Among different methods the physically based landslide susceptibility models having been widely used in many countries, but in Brazil it is still incipient when compared to other ones, like statistical tools and frequency analyses. Thus, the main objective of this research was to assess the application of some Physically based landslide susceptibility models in Brazil, identifying their main results, the efficiency of susceptibility mapping, parameters used and limitations of the tropical humid environment. In order to achieve that, it was evaluated SHALSTAB, SINMAP and TRIGRS models in some studies in Brazil along with the Geotechnical values, scales, DEM grid resolution and the results based on the analysis of the agreement between predicted susceptibility and the landslide scar's map. Most of the studies in Brazil applied SHALSTAB, SINMAP and to a lesser extent the TRIGRS model. The majority researches are concentrated in the Serra do Mar mountain range, that is a system of escarpments and rugged mountains that extends more than 1,500 km along the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast, and regularly affected by heavy rainfall that generates widespread mass movements. Most part of these studies used conventional topographic maps with scales ranging from 1:2000 to 1:50000 and DEM-grid resolution between 2 and 20m. Regarding the Geotechnical and hydrological values, a few studies use field collected data which could produce more efficient results, as indicated by international literature. Therefore, even though they have enormous potential in the susceptibility mapping, even for comparison

  8. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.P. Beldini; R.C. Oliveira Junior; Michael Keller; P.B. de Camargo; P.M. Crill; A. Damasceno da Silva; D. Bentes dos Santos; D. Rocha de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest....

  9. A new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the freshwater fish (red piranha) Pygocentrus nattereri Kner (Characidae) in Amazonia, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cárdenas, M. Q.; Moravec, František; Fernandes, B. M. M.; Morais, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2012), s. 137-144 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * Pygocentrus * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11230-012-9377-4

  10. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil under soybean cultivation and at an adjacent rainforest in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Patrick Beldini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change in the Amazon basin has occurred at an accelerated pace during the last decade, and it is important that the effects induced by these changes on soil properties are better understood. This study investigated the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil in a field under cultivation of soy and rice, and at an adjacent primary rain forest. Increases in soil bulk density, exchangeable cations and pH were observed in the soy field soil. In the primary forest, soil microbial biomass and basal respiration rates were higher, and the microbial community was metabolically more efficient. The sum of basal respiration across the A, AB and BA horizons on a mass per area basis ranged from 7.31 to 10.05 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1, thus yielding estimates for total soil respiration between 9.6 and 15.5 Mg CO2-C ha-1yr-1 across sites and seasons. These estimates are in good agreement with literature values for Amazonian ecosystems. The estimates of heterotrophic respiration made in this study help to further constrain the estimates of autotrophic soil respiration and will be useful for monitoring the effects of future land-use in Amazonian ecosystems.

  11. Indicadores de sustentabilidade ambiental e de saúde na Amazônia Legal, Brasil Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Machado de Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre os desafios atuais para a Saúde Pública está o de estruturar sistemas de indicadores que permitam monitorar as condições e tendências da sustentabilidade ambiental e de saúde. Neste artigo procuramos enfrentar esse desafio tendo como foco de análise os estados integrantes da Macrorregião Amazônia Legal, que desde a segunda metade do século XX vem sofrendo intensos processos de mudanças sócio-econômicas, ambientais, de saúde e bem-estar. Para a reunião e análise do conjunto de indicadores adotamos o modelo Forças Motrizes, Pressão, Situação, Exposição, Efeito e Ação (FMPSEEA proposto pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Os resultados demonstram que, ao mesmo tempo em que as forças motrizes e pressões vêm contribuindo para o crescimento econômico e populacional, resultando em melhoras de indicadores tradicionais de saúde (redução da mortalidade infantil e aumento da expectativa de vida, são grandes as desigualdades sociais e econômicas e a sobreposição dos impactos na saúde da população, em um quadro bastante heterogêneo. Além disso, a situação ambiental também aponta para um modelo de desenvolvimento insustentável para as gerações presentes e futuras, exigindo respostas dos setores ambientais e de saúde à altura dos desafios colocados na atualidade.One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures

  12. Mangrove vegetation in Amazonia: a review of studies from the coast of Pará and Maranhão States, north Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes,Moirah Paula Machado de; Berger,Uta; Mehlig,Ulf

    2008-01-01

    The present study is a compilation of the literature about vegetation of mangrove forest of the north coast of Brazil. It synthesizes the knowledge about this important ecosystem and lists the currently available literature. The study focuses on the coast of Pará and Maranhão states, which are covered by a continuous belt of mangroves. The mangrove flora comprises six mangrove tree species and several associated species. Mangrove tree height and stem diameter vary as a function of abiotic loc...

  13. From the Atlantic Forest to the borders of Amazonia: species richness, distribution, and host association of ectoparasitic flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Eder; Bernard, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    Better knowledge of the geographical distribution of parasites and their hosts can contribute to clarifying aspects of host specificity, as well as on the interactions among hosts, parasites, and the environment in which both exist. Ectoparasitic flies of the Nycteribiidae and Streblidae families are highly specialized hematophagous parasites of bats, whose distributional patterns, species richness, and associations with hosts remain underexplored and poorly known in Brazil. Here, we used information available in the literature and unpublished data to verify if the occurrence of bat hosts in a given environment influences the occurrence and distribution of nycteribiid and streblid flies in different ecoregions in the northeastern Brazil. We evaluate species richness and similarity between ecoregions and tested correlations between species richness and the number of studies in each ecoregion and federative unit. We recorded 50 species and 15 genera of bat ectoparasitic flies on 36 species and 27 genera of bat hosts. The Atlantic Forest had the highest fly species richness (n = 31; 62%), followed by Caatinga (n = 27; 54%). We detected the formation of distinct groups, with low species overlap between ecoregions for both flies and bats. Fly species richness was correlated with host species richness and with the number of studies in each federative unit, but not with the number of studies by ecoregion. Due to the formation of distinct groups with low species overlap for both groups, host availability is likely to be one of the factors that most influence the occurrence of highly specific flies. We also discuss host specificity for some species, produced an updated list of species and distribution for both nycteribiid and streblid flies with information on interaction networks, and conclude by presenting recommendations for more effective inventories of bat ectoparasites in the future.

  14. Small farmers and deforestation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Cak, Anthony; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Mena, Carlos; Bilsborrow, Richard; Futemma, Celia T.; Ludewigs, Thomas; Moran, Emilio F.; Batistella, Mateus

    This chapter discusses the relationship between small farmers' land use and deforestation, with particular attention paid to the past 30 years of Amazonian colonization in Brazil and Ecuador. Our analysis calls attention to common features uniting different social groups as small farmers (e.g., social identity, access to land and resources, technology, market, and credit), as well as the variability between small farmers in terms of time in the region (from native populations to recent colonists), contribution to regional deforestation, types of land use systems. At a regional level, small farmers contribute to the majority of deforestation events, but are responsible for only a fraction of the total deforested area in Amazonia. We discuss three misconceptions that have been used to define small farmers and their contribution to the regional economy, development, and deforestation: (1) small farmers have backward land use systems associated with low productivity and extensive deforestation and subsistence production, (2) small farmers contribute to Amazonian deforestation as much as large farmers, and (3) small farmers, particularly colonist farmers, follow an inexorable path of deforestation unless curbed by government action. We conclude the chapter discussing their growing regional importance and the need for more inclusive public policies concerning infrastructure and services and valorization of resources produced in rural areas of Amazonia.

  15. 3rd Joint Dutch-Brazil School on Theoretical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The Joint Dutch-Brazil School on Theoretical Physics is now in its third edition with previous schools in 2007 and 2011. This edition of the school will feature minicourses by Nima Arkani-Hamed (IAS Princeton), Jan de Boer (University of Amsterdam) and Cumrun Vafa (Harvard University), as well as student presentations. The school is jointly organized with the Dutch Research School of Theoretical Physics (DRSTP) and is intended for graduate students and researchers in the field of high-energy theoretical physics. There is no registration fee and limited funds are available for local and travel support of participants. This school in São Paulo will be preceded by the XVIII J. A. Swieca School in Campos de Jordão.

  16. Women and physics in Brazil: Publications, citations and H index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenzon, Jeferson J.; Duarte, Patrícia; Cavalcanti, Solange; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2013-03-01

    In the last decade, the main Brazilian research funding agencies, CNPq and CAPES, have introduced gender projects aimed to understand the situation of women in general and in science in particular. These projects have led to an increased awareness of the problem. There is still a long way to go in the quest for equal access to opportunities and resources. This paper compares the production and quality of work of female scientists with their male colleagues in the physics and astronomy grant-funded research community in Brazil.

  17. Throughfall and temporal trends of rainfall redistribution in an open tropical rainforest, south-western Amazonia (Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Germer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughfall volumes and incident rainfall were measured between 23 August and 2 December 2004 as well as from 6 January to 15 April 2005 for individual rain events of differing intensities and magnitudes in an open tropical rainforest in Rondônia, Brazil. Temporal patterns of throughfall spatial variability were examined. Estimated interception was compared to modeled interception obtained by applying the revised Gash model in order to identify sources of throughfall variability in open tropical rainforests. Gross precipitation of 97 events amounted to 1309 mm, 89±5.6% (S.E. of which reached the forest floor as throughfall. The redistribution of water within the canopy was highly variable in time, which we attribute to the high density of babassu palms (Orbignya phalerata, their seasonal leaf growth, and their conducive morphology. We identified a 10-min rainfall intensity threshold of 30 mmh-1 above which interception was highly variable. This variability is amplified by funneling and shading effects of palms. This interaction between a rainfall variable and vegetation characteristics is relevant for understanding the hydrology of all tropical rainforests with a high palm density.

  18. First Record of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) on the Trinational Frontier (Brazil-Peru-Bolivia) of South-Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Diones Antonio; Molina, Silvia Maria Guerra; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cesario, Manuel; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan

    2017-09-01

    In South America, the main sand fly species involved in the transmission of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1937), etiological agent of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The species has been recorded in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil, where it is recorded in 24 of the 27 Brazilian states, except Acre, Amazonas, and Santa Catarina. Collections were carried out for one year (April 2013 to March 2014) using modified CDC light traps in different environments in Assis Brasil municipality, state of Acre. Two males of Lu. longipalpis were found in peridomiciliary location in a peri-urban area. This is the first record of the species in Acre. This finding may be considered by the health agencies located in the trinational frontier, and new collections are needed to evaluate the real distribution of the species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. How many species of mammals are there in Brazil? New records of rare rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae from Amazonia raise the current known diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre R. Percequillo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Since 1996, when Vivo questioned how many species of mammals occur in Brazil, there has been a huge effort to assess this biodiversity. In this contribution, we present new records for rare species of the sigmodontine rodent genera Rhagomys and Neusticomys previously unknown to Brazilian Amazon. We provided detailed information on the morphologic variation to allow the proper identification of these species. We also furnished updated information on their collection, aiming to establish hypothesis of their geographic distribution, based on SDM’s, aiming to hypothesize potential occurrence areas for these species. Methods Rodent specimens were sampled in separate inventories in two sites of Rondônia State (Hydroelectric Dam Jirau and Parque Nacional de Pacaás Novos and one site in Pará State (Pacajá, Brazil, and were compared to specimens from museum collections to apply appropriate names. The SDM were conducted using two algorithms for rare species, MaxEnt and randomForest (RF, and were based on seven localities for Rhagomys, and 10 for Neusticomys. Results All specimens were collected with pitfall traps. One specimen of genus Rhagomys was trapped in the Hydroelectric Dam Jirau. We identified this specimen as R. longilingua, and the SDM species indicates suitable areas for its occurrence at high elevations near on the Andes and lowlands of Amazon Basin to the South of the Rio Amazonas. Two specimens of Neusticomys were recorded, and we identified the specimen from Pacaás Novos as N. peruviensis, with SDM suggesting main areas of occurrence on Western Amazon. We applied the name N. ferreirai to the specimen from Pacajá, with SDM recovering suitable areas in Eastern Amazon. Discussion We reinforced the importance of pitfall traps on the study of Neotropical rodents. We described morphologic variation within and among all species that do not invalidate their specific status, but in the near future a re-evaluation will be mandatory

  20. Walkability and physical activity: findings from Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira Reis, Rodrigo; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Ricardo Rech, Cassiano; Kerr, Jacqueline; Curi Hallal, Pedro

    2013-09-01

    Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18-65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥ 150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥ 150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1-10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.06, 2.32, p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with physical activity. People living in high

  1. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  2. Ecological research in the large-scale biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia: early results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, M.; Alencar, A.; Asner, G.P.; Braswell, B.; Bustamante, M.; Davidson, E.; Feldpausch, T.; Fernandes, E.; Goulden, M.; Kabat, P.; Kruijt, B.; Luizão, F.; Miller, S.; Markewitz, D.; Nobre, A.D.; Nobre, C.A.; Priante Filho, N.; Rocha, da H.; Silva Dias, P.; Randow, von C.; Vourlitis, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage,. nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes,

  3. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  4. Assembling the puzzle for promoting physical activity in Brazil: a social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Ross C; Parra, Diana C; Dauti, Marsela; Harris, Jenine K; Hallal, Pedro C; Hoehner, Christine; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Reis, Rodrigo S; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Soares, Jesus; Pratt, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Physical inactivity is a significant public health problem in Brazil that may be addressed by partnerships and networks. In conjunction with Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Physical Activity in Brazil and Latin America), the aim of this study was to conduct a social network analysis of physical activity in Brazil. An online survey was completed by 28 of 35 organizations contacted from December 2008 through March 2009. Network analytic methods examined measures of collaboration, importance, leadership, and attributes of the respondent and organization. Leadership nominations for organizations studied ranged from 0 to 23. Positive predictors of collaboration included: south region, GUIA membership, years working in physical activity, and research, education, and promotion/practice areas of physical activity. The most frequently reported barrier to collaboration was bureaucracy. Social network analysis identified factors that are likely to improve collaboration among organizations in Brazil.

  5. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. These data...

  6. LBA-ECO CD-06 Physical, Political, and Hydrologic Maps, Ji-Parana River Basin, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains physical, hydrologic, political, demographic, and societal maps for the Ji-Parana River Basin, in the state of Rondonia, Brazil....

  7. Physical properties of honeys produced in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Argemira Costa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the rheological, thermal and some other physical-chemical properties of selected honeys produced in the Northeast of Brazil. Two samples were produced by native “Jandaira” bees (Melipona subnitida and ten other samples by Africanized bees (Apis mellifera. The samples were analyzed for pH, water activity (aW, soluble solids and water content. Viscosity flow curves were obtained using a rheometer (25ºC, 0-100s-1. Thermal analyses were performed on a differential scanning calorimeter, with heating rate of 10ºC/min (-100 to 100ºC. The water content and the pH of the honey samples varied from 17.2 to 27.9% and from 3.2 to 4.2, respectively, and, the aW of the samples varied from 0.57 to 0.74. Two samples were out of specification with respect to water content, according to Brazilian laws. In relation to rheology, all honey samples showed Newtonian behaviour with no thixotropy or dilatancy. The viscosity varied as an exponential function of the water content. The highest viscosity was obtained for the sample with lower values of water content and aW. Thermograms showed a glass transition (Tg occurring between -52.4 and -42.6ºC, in the samples produced by Apis mellifera and -67.6 and -57.0ºC for the other samples. A linear relationship was obtained between Tg and water content. In conclusion, the honey viscosity depended on the water content of the product. The higher the water value and therefore the greater the aw, the lower viscosity and Tg of the samples.

  8. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Lee, I-Min

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil, one-fifth of the population reports not doing any physical activity. This study aimed to assess the impact of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), all-cause mortality and life expectancy in Brazil, by region and sociodemographic profile. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) for physical inactivity associated with coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast cancer, colon cancer, and all-cause mortality. To calculate the PAF, we used the physical inactivity prevalence from the 2008 Brazilian Household Survey and relative risk data in the literature. In Brazil, physical inactivity is attributable to 3% to 5% of all major NCDs and 5.31% of all-cause mortality, ranging from 5.82% in the southeastern region to 2.83% in the southern region. Eliminating physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy by an average of 0.31 years. This reduction would affect mainly individuals with ≥ 15 years of schooling, male, Asian, elderly, residing in an urban area and earning ≥ 2 times the national minimum wage. In Brazil, physical inactivity has a major impact on NCDs and mortality, principally in the southeastern and central-west regions. Public policies and interventions promoting physical activity will significantly improve the health of the population.

  9. A new species of phlebotomine, Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (Diptera: Psychodidae of Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vasconcelos dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sandfly Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on the male and female morphological characteristics of specimens collected at Km 27 of the Trans-Amazonian Highway, municipality of Vitória do Xingu, state of Pará, Brazilian Amazonia. This is an area subject to the direct influence of Belo Monte hydroelectric system. With the description of this new species the number of Trichophoromyia sandflies recorded in Brazil is increased to 20.

  10. The environment and the hydroelectric in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rovere, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects about social and environmental impacts due to the hydroelectric power plants constructed in Amazonia region are presented, including considerations of energy planning and management with international example. (C.G.C.)

  11. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  12. Safety from Crime and Physical Activity among Older Adults: A Population-Based Study in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corseuil, M.W.; Schneider, I.J.C.; Orsi, E.; Hallal, P.C.; Corseuil, H.X.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the association between safety from crime and physical activity among older adults. Methods. A population-based survey including 1,656 older adults (60+ years) took place in Florianopolis, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Commuting and leisure time physical activity were assessed through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perception of safety from crime was assessed using the Neighbourhood Environment Walk ability Scale. Results. Perceiving the neighbourhood as safe during the day was related to a 25% increased likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.02-1.53); general perception of safety was also associated with a 25% increase in the likelihood of being active in leisure time (95% CI 1.01-1.54). Street lighting was related to higher levels of commuting physical activity (prevalence ratio: 1.89; 95% CI 1.28-2.80). Conclusions. Safety investments are essential for promoting physical activity among older adults in Brazil

  13. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  14. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter; Hawes, Joseph

    basin of western Brazilian Amazonia. We discuss the most important extractive activities for ~100 households, how socio-economic factors influence NTFP extractive patterns across households, and the benefits and constraints of using participatory approaches to monitor extractivism in Amazonia....

  15. A medium-spatial scale distribution pattern of Pseudoscorpionida (Arachnida in a gradient of topography (altitude and inclination, soil factors, and litter in a central Amazonia forest reserve, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Aguiar

    Full Text Available In Amazonia, nothing is known about the distribution of the invertebrates on a medium-spatial scale pattern. In a trail system of 64 km² at Ducke Reserve, we sampled 72 transects using the hand-sorting method and Berlese-Tullgren extraction. The reserve possesses ecosystems of "terra-firme" forest and the trail system represents a gradient of topographic soil factors and vegetation, avoiding categorizations. Considering the abundance and diversity of Pseudoscorpionida, we investigated the relation of the community to environmental factors tested (topography, clay percentage, litter, and soil pH, to the two major drainage basins of the reserve, and if these invertebrates can be used as biological indicators to monitor changes. We registered two species for the first time in the reserve, increasing the known diversity to 17 species. The lack of correlation with the predictor variables and the large home range, indicate that pseudoscorpions are not good biological indicators in the reserve. As the eastern and western watersheds are not separate management units for the community, our results show that they are generalist predators. In spite of our results and lack of knowledge concerning their biology, life history and taxonomy, pseudoscorpions are cosmopolitan and easy to find and measure. Compared with previous studies in the reserve, they have a consistent pattern of abundance and diversity throughout the years showing the stability of the community which can be checked mainly by comparison with environmental changes that would occur in the reserve. An investigation on a medium-spatial scale pattern and over a long-term period including other habitats, and also other predictor variables, like humidity, the structure of the vegetation and canopy closure, will be necessary to reinforce the observed tendencies.

  16. Proceedings of the 10. Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies on Nuclear Physics are presented. Nuclei structures, nuclear reaction cross sections, collision phenomena between particles at several energy ranges and radiation effects on solids and liquids are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. [Physical activity in staff workers at Centers for Psychosocial Care in southern Brazil: temporal trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerônimo, Jeferson Santos; Jardim, Vanda Maria da Rosa; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Domingues, Marlos Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze temporal trends of physical activity among staff workers in Centers for Psychosocial Care and associated factors in southern Brazil from 2006 to 2011. This cross-sectional study was part of the Evaluation of Centers for Psychosocial Care in Southern Brazil/CAPSUL. Physical and mental health variables were collected using the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and physical activity was measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Participation included 435 staff workers in 2006 and 546 in 2011. Total prevalence rates were: physical activity (≥ 150 minutes/week) 23.2% in 2006 and 17.6% in 2011 and minor psychiatric disorders 11% and 8.4%. There was no statistically significant difference in physical activity between men and women. In 2006, individuals with less schooling (p = 0.03) and lower income (p = 0.01) showed higher levels of physical activity. In 2011, staff workers in larger cities showed higher levels of physical activity (p = 0.02). Interventions are needed to promote physical activity in this population, especially among staff workers at Centers for Psychosocial Care in smaller municipalities.

  18. The role of nuclear emulsions in the institutionalization of research in experimental physics in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Cassio Leite; Videira, Antonio A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the introduction and the use of the nuclear emulsions technique in Brazil. Even though consistent researches in cosmic ray physics had been done since the forties of the last century in this country, physicists here only began using this technique after Cesar Lattes' works in Bristol (England) and Berkeley (US). Despite being the implantation of the technique in this country posterior to the origin of the method itself dated from late 1900s, Brazilian scientists were quickly familiarized with it and adopted it not only in cosmic rays, but also in particle physics and nuclear physics, employing it until recently. In our work, we will be concerned with the reasons of this longevity. In other words, why were the nuclear emulsions technique employed for so many years in Brazil, even after its vanishing in physics researches centers in the world? We advance here that the answer to this question involves the institutionalization of science in Brazil mainly physics and economical, social, and geographic reasons. (author)

  19. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-01-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO 2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N 2 O by soil process, and CH 4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO 2 , CH 4 , CO, H 2 , N 2 O and SF 6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO 2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO 2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H 2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO 2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was

  20. Florística e fitossociologia de uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil Floristic and phytosociology of a slope forest in Central Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo florístico e fitossociológico de árvores, palmeiras e lianas com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP >10 cm, em uma floresta de vertente na Amazônia Central (2º35'45" S e 60º12'40" W, foi realizado empregando-se 20 parcelas de 50 x 10 m, distribuídas em dois transectos paralelos de 500 x 10 m. Foram registrados 771 indivíduos, pertencentes a 50 famílias, 120 gêneros e 239 espécies. Das espécies amostradas, 44% são "localmente raras". Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae e Chrysobalanaceae constituíram as cinco famílias com maior riqueza de espécies e número de indivíduos. Dos 771 indivíduos amostrados, mais de 65% apresentaram DAP > 20 cm. As espécies Eschweilera bracteosa e Protium apiculatum apresentaram os maiores valores de IVI. Cerca de 83% das espécies encontram-se distribuídas aleatoriamente no hectare amostrado. O índice de diversidade Shannon-Wiener foi de 5,01 nats.indivíduo-1, com uniformidade de 0,91, valores altos no contexto de levantamentos semelhantes na região. A heterogeneidade edáfica e topográfica da área, as taxas de recrutamento de novos indivíduos e de espécies "localmente raras" à comunidade local, podem ter contribuído para as altas dissimilaridade (36,2% e diversidade florísticas documentadas neste estudo.The floristic and phytosociological study of trees, palms and lianas with diameter at breast height (DBH >10 cm in a forest slope in Central Amazonia (2º35'45 "S and 60º12'40" W was carried out using 20 plots of 50 x 10 m, distributed in two parallel transects of 500 x 10 m. A total of 771 plants were registered, belonging to 50 families, 120 genera and 239 species. Of the sampled species, 44% are locally rare. Families with the most species and number of individuals were Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Chrysobalanaceae. More than 65% of the sampled plants had DBH > 20 cm. Eschweilera bracteosa and Protium apiculatum were the most

  1. Time trends of physical activity in Brazil (2006-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Knuth, Alan G; Reis, Rodrigo S; Rombaldi, Airton J; Malta, Deborah C; Iser, Betine P M; Bernal, Regina T I; Florindo, Alex A

    2011-09-01

    To examine time trends in physical activity (PA) in Brazilian state capitals from 2006 to 2009. This analysis is based on data from the Telephone-based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL) accounting for an annual sample of approximately 54,000 individuals. PA indicators were analyzed in free time (leisure), work, home and transportation, time spent in front of the television and inactivity considering all PA domains. Poisson regression models were used to measure the variation of indicators over time. We considered the changes corresponding to a regression coefficient different from zero as being statistically significant (p<0.05). The percentage of active commuters increased from 11.7 to 14.4% (p<0.001) whereas the proportion of physically inactive individuals in the four domains decreased from 11.7 to 8.7% (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in the other indicators. Women were less active than men in all indicators, except for household chores. However, in this indicator the percentage of active women decreased from 71.4 to 67.1% (p<0.001). Between 2006 and 2009, PA levels in the Brazilian population were stable during free time and household chores, but increased in transportation, resulting in a decrease in the percentage of inactive individuals. The continued monitoring and strengthening of VIGITEL are public health priorities, and PA is a key part of it. In the long run, PA evolution may be re-evaluated.

  2. How does network structure affect partnerships for promoting physical activity? Evidence from Brazil and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Dauti, Marsela; Harris, Jenine K; Reyes, Lissette; Malta, Deborah C; Brownson, Ross C; Quintero, Mario A; Pratt, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the network structure and factors associated with collaboration in two networks that promote physical activity (PA) in Brazil and Colombia. Organizations that focus on studying and promoting PA in Brazil (35) and Colombia (53) were identified using a modified one-step reputational snowball sampling process. Participants completed an on-line survey between December 2008 and March 2009 for the Brazil network, and between April and June 2009 for the Colombia network. Network stochastic modeling was used to investigate the likelihood of reported inter-organizational collaboration. While structural features of networks were significant predictors of collaboration within each network, the coefficients and other network characteristics differed. Brazil's PA network was decentralized with a larger number of shared partnerships. Colombia's PA network was centralized and collaboration was influenced by perceived importance of peer organizations. On average, organizations in the PA network of Colombia reported facing more barriers (1.5 vs. 2.5 barriers) for collaboration. Future studies should focus on how these different network structures affect the implementation and uptake of evidence-based PA interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  4. The domestication of Amazonia before European conquest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Denevan, William M; Heckenberger, Michael J; Junqueira, André Braga; Neves, Eduardo G; Teixeira, Wenceslau G; Woods, William I

    2015-08-07

    During the twentieth century, Amazonia was widely regarded as relatively pristine nature, little impacted by human history. This view remains popular despite mounting evidence of substantial human influence over millennial scales across the region. Here, we review the evidence of an anthropogenic Amazonia in response to claims of sparse populations across broad portions of the region. Amazonia was a major centre of crop domestication, with at least 83 native species containing populations domesticated to some degree. Plant domestication occurs in domesticated landscapes, including highly modified Amazonian dark earths (ADEs) associated with large settled populations and that may cover greater than 0.1% of the region. Populations and food production expanded rapidly within land management systems in the mid-Holocene, and complex societies expanded in resource-rich areas creating domesticated landscapes with profound impacts on local and regional ecology. ADE food production projections support estimates of at least eight million people in 1492. By this time, highly diverse regional systems had developed across Amazonia where subsistence resources were created with plant and landscape domestication, including earthworks. This review argues that the Amazonian anthrome was no less socio-culturally diverse or populous than other tropical forested areas of the world prior to European conquest. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna

  6. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  7. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M (National Institute for Research in the Amazon, Manaus-Amazonas (Brazil))

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  8. Evolution of the physical protection and control of nuclear materials in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Renha, G.; Mafra, O.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Brazil started protecting its nuclear materials soon after the end of the World War II, when the Combined Development Trust intended to control the world supply of uranium and thorium. This happened in 1944, but on December 27, 1946, an amendment to the report of Committee II of the United Nations established that the international ownership of the unexplored uranium and thorium would not be mandatory. Brazil nationalized its thorium and uranium reserves in 1951. The Brazil-Germany agreement signed in 1975 enhanced the need for Brazilian nuclear safeguards and security. The physical protection (PP) and control of nuclear materials (CNM) became activities under the supervision of the Brazilian military forces. The System for Protection of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (SIPRON), established on 7 October 1980, took over the responsibilities for PP and other aspects of the Brazilian nuclear program. The central organ of SIPRON was the Brazilian National Security Council (CSN). The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) was in charge of coordinating, among others, the PP sector. Earlier that year - on 3 March 1980 - the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) was signed simultaneously in New York and Vienna. The Brazilian congress approved the CPPNM on 27 November 1984, and the Brazilian government deposited the ratification letter on 17 October 1985. On 16 April 1991 the Brazilian government issued a decree to enforce the CPPNM in the Brazilian territory. CNEN published the regulatory documents NE - 2.01 on 19 April 1996, and NN - 2.02 on 21 September 1999 for PP, and CNM, respectively. CNEN has the ultimate responsibility to enforce these regulations. The operational aspects of PP and CNM in Brazil are still improving. Potential nuclear terrorism for example needs to be examined. Activities concerning training personnel and implementing PP and CNM will be described in the paper. (author)

  9. Physical activity and quality of life of amputees in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rudney; Rizzo, Julia Ghazel; Gutierres Filho, Paulo José Barbosa; Ramos, Valmor; Deans, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Physical activity is a positive component of human health. Its effects are associated with improvement in physical, psychological and social aspects of quality of life. Physical activity is therefore an important factor in the rehabilitation of amputees. To analyse the relationship between physical activity and quality of life for amputees in southern Brazil. Descriptive, cross-sectional design with nonrandomized sample. A total of 40 questionnaire instruments were distributed to subjects who met the inclusion criteria, with a response rate of 55% (22 individuals, n = 15 males, n = 7 females). Outcome measurements were obtained through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref. The sample was characterized by physically active adult male prosthetic users with positive quality of life, and amputation below the right knee caused by mechanical trauma related to traffic accidents with motorcycles. Significant correlations were identified between all domains of quality of life and between level of physical activity and psychological quality of life. No correlation was identified between gender and quality of life variables or physical activity levels. This study showed that in very active amputees of both genders, level of physical activity is not associated with quality of life except for the psychological domain.

  10. Physical inactivity and associated factors among women from a municipality in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, Cristiano; Henn, Ruth Liane; Olinto, Maria Teresa; Bressan, Ana Weigert; Paniz, Vera Maria; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important modifiable risk factors that is raising the global burden of chronic diseases. This is a cross-sectional, population-based study of 790 women aged 20 years or older living in the urban area of a municipality in Southern Brazil. The level of physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, short form. Inactivity was defined as fewer than 150 min/wk-1 spent in moderate or vigorous physical activities. Prevalence ratios were calculated by robust Poisson regression. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3%-54.1%). After adjusting for confounders, we found a linear trend for increasing prevalence of physical inactivity with increasing body mass index (P = .008). Women who were married or in a domestic partnership were 29% less physically active than single women (P = .044). A borderline association was detected between the presence of minor psychiatric disorders (MPD) and physical inactivity (P = .058). There was a high prevalence of inactivity. Obese women, those married or in domestic partnerships and those with MPD were more likely to lead an inactive lifestyle. These results suggest that strategies are required for breaking down barriers to physical activity in this demographic group.

  11. Análise econômica de sistemas agroflorestais na Amazônia ocidental, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO Economic analysis of agroforestry systems in eastern Amazonia, Machadinho d'Oeste- RO, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes-Gama

    2005-06-01

    tested, T1 Brazil nut-Banana-Black pepper-Cupuaçu was the agroforestry system (AFS with the best financial results, comparing to T2 Frreijó wood- banana-black pepper-cupuaçu and T3 Pupunha palm- banana-black pepper-cupuaçu. The management and harvesting costs represented more than 70% of the total cost composition; and the labor cost participation was higher than 50% in the site preparation and long-term maintenance phases of the agroforestry systems. The risk analysis simulation showed that the variables which affected Infinite Horizon Net Present Value (NPV*, according to the ranking of importance (R, were: discount rate, price of cupuaçu fruits (Theobroma grandiflorum, harvesting cost, price of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa wood, and long-term maintenance costs. Even though the high establishment and the long-term maintenance costs, AFS T1 Castanha-do-brasil-Banana-black pepper-cupuaçu showed a 15% probability that Net Present Value (NPV value could be concentrated around R$ 35.000 ha-1 year-1.

  12. Developing a research agenda for promoting physical activity in Brazil through environmental and policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo S; Kelly, Cheryl M; Parra, Diana C; Barros, Mauro; Gomes, Grace; Malta, Deborah; Schmid, Thomas; Brownson, Ross C

    2012-08-01

    To identify the highest priorities for research on environmental and policy changes for promoting physical activity (PA) in Brazil; to uncover any gaps between researchers' and practitioners' priorities; and to consider which tools, methods, collaborative strategies, and actions could be useful to moving a research agenda forward. This was a mixed-methods study (qualitative and quantitative) conducted by Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) in February 2010-January 2011. A total of 240 individuals in the PA field (186 practitioners and 54 researchers) were asked to generate research ideas; 82 participants provided 266 original statements from which 52 topics emerged. Participants rated topics by "importance" and "feasibility;" a separate convenience sample of 21 individuals categorized them. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to create concept maps and pattern matches. Five distinct clusters emerged from the concept mapping, of which "effectiveness and innovation in PA interventions" was rated most important by both practitioners and researchers. Pattern matching showed a divergence between the groups, especially regarding feasibility, where there was no consensus. The study results provided the basis for a research agenda to advance the understanding of environmental and policy influences on PA promotion in Brazil and Latin America. These results should stimulate future research and, ultimately, contribute to the evidence-base of successful PA strategies in Latin America.

  13. Assessing participation in community-based physical activity programs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo S; Yan, Yan; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model to examine the characteristics that are associated with participation in community-based physical activity programs in Brazil. We used pooled data from three surveys conducted from 2007 to 2009 in state capitals of Brazil with 6166 adults. A risk prediction model was built considering program participation as an outcome. The predictive accuracy of the model was quantified through discrimination (C statistic) and calibration (Brier score) properties. Bootstrapping methods were used to validate the predictive accuracy of the final model. The final model showed sex (women: odds ratio [OR] = 3.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.14-4.71), having less than high school degree (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.16-2.53), reporting a good health (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02-2.24) or very good/excellent health (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.05-2.51), having any comorbidity (OR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.26-2.39), and perceiving the environment as safe to walk at night (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.18-2.15) as predictors of participation in physical activity programs. Accuracy indices were adequate (C index = 0.778, Brier score = 0.031) and similar to those obtained from bootstrapping (C index = 0.792, Brier score = 0.030). Sociodemographic and health characteristics as well as perceptions of the environment are strong predictors of participation in community-based programs in selected cities of Brazil.

  14. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p food access and health inequalities.

  15. BEYOND THE “LEAST LIMITING WATER RANGE”: RETHINKING SOIL PHYSICS RESEARCH IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirijn de Jong van Lier

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As opposed to objective definitions in soil physics, the subjective term “soil physical quality” is increasingly found in publications in the soil physics area. A supposed indicator of soil physical quality that has been the focus of attention, especially in the Brazilian literature, is the Least Limiting Water Range (RLL, translated in Portuguese as "Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo" or IHO. In this paper the four limiting water contents that define RLLare discussed in the light of objectively determinable soil physical properties, pointing to inconsistencies in the RLLdefinition and calculation. It also discusses the interpretation of RLL as an indicator of crop productivity or soil physical quality, showing its inability to consider common phenological and pedological boundary conditions. It is shown that so-called “critical densities” found by the RLL through a commonly applied calculation method are questionable. Considering the availability of robust models for agronomy, ecology, hydrology, meteorology and other related areas, the attractiveness of RLL as an indicator to Brazilian soil physicists is not related to its (never proven effectiveness, but rather to the simplicity with which it is dealt. Determining the respective limiting contents in a simplified manner, relegating the study or concern on the actual functioning of the system to a lower priority, goes against scientific construction and systemic understanding. This study suggests a realignment of the research in soil physics in Brazil with scientific precepts, towards mechanistic soil physics, to replace the currently predominant search for empirical correlations below the state of the art of soil physics.

  16. Physical Exercise Practice and Associated Factors Among Undergraduate Students from a Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marcio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and factors associated with not performing physical exercise in undergraduate students. Methods. The sample was composed of 2738 undergraduate students of Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. The dependent variables were: not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes per week; not performing vigorous physical exercise for at least 20 minutes per week; not performing muscular strengthening exercises (8-12 repetitions in a week. The independent variables were gender, age, skin colour, marital status, housing, study pattern, year of course, paid work, and area of the course. Odds ratio (OR was estimated by multivariate analysis with the use of binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of undergraduate students not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity, of vigorous intensity, or muscular strengthening exercises was 47.3, 61.0, and 66.2%, respectively. Female sex was associated with a risk of not performing moderate physical exercise (OR = 1.23, vigorous physical exercise (OR = 1.47, and strengthening exercises (OR = 1.22. Undergraduate students of exact sciences (OR = 1.40 and 1.52, juridical sciences (OR = 1.48 and 1.51, and humanities (OR = 1.45 and 1.52 were at risk of not performing physical exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity, respectively. Being a 2nd (OR = 0.79, 3rd (OR = 0.74, or 4th (OR = 0.71 year student was bound with a lower likelihood of not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity. Conclusions. Intervention programmes with the aim of promoting physical exercise practice in undergraduate students should consider gender, year, and area of the course.

  17. Results From Brazil's 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Nelson; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Moraes Ferrari, Gerson Luis; Petroski, Edio Luiz; Pacheco, Ricardo Lucas; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Mendes, Anselmo Alexandre; Lazarin, Samara Pereira Brito; Dos Santos, Tamires Leal Cordeiro; Matsudo, Victor

    2016-11-01

    Very few studies have comprehensively analyzed the physical activity of children and adolescents in Brazil. The purpose of this article is to show the methodology and summarize findings from the first Brazilian Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. Three Brazilian research institutions coordinated the activities to develop the Brazilian 2016 Report Card. The data available were collected independently and then synthesized by the Research Work Group using the grade system developed for the First Global Matrix released in 2014, which included 9 indicators of physical activity. Where possible, grades were assigned based on the percentage of children and youth meeting each indicator: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%; D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%; INC is incomplete data. Among the 9 indicators, only 5 had sufficient data for grading. Overall Physical Activity received a C- grade, Active Transportation received a C+ grade, Sedentary Behavior received a D+ grade, and Government Strategies and Investments received a D grade. The low grades observed highlight the need for continued efforts aimed at improving physical activity in Brazilian children.

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Inactivity among Older Adults in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Adelle M. R.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; Blay, Sergio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current information on the epidemiology of physical inactivity among older adults is lacking, making it difficult to target the inactive and to plan for interventions to ameliorate adverse effects. Objectives To present statewide representative findings on the prevalence of physical inactivity among older community residents, its correlates and associated health service use. Methods A representative non-institutionalized random sample of 6963 individuals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, aged ≥60 years, was interviewed face-to-face. Information was obtained on demographic characteristics, social resources, health conditions and behaviors, health service use, and physical inactivity. Controlled logistic regression was used to determine the association of physical inactivity with these characteristics. Results Overall, 62% reported no regular physical activity. Physical inactivity was significantly more prevalent among women, older persons, those with lower education and income, Afro-Brazilians (73%; White: 61%; “other”: 64%), those no longer married, and was associated with multiple individual health conditions and impaired activities of daily living (ADL). In adjusted analyses, associations remained for sociodemographic characteristics, social participation, impaired self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression (odds ratios (OR) 1.2–1.7). Physically inactive respondents were less likely to report outpatient visits (OR 0.81), but more likely to be hospitalized (OR 1.41). Conclusions Physical inactivity is highly prevalent, particularly among Afro -Brazilians. It is associated with adverse sociodemographic characteristics; lack of social interaction; and poor self-rated health, ADL, vision, and depression; although not with other health conditions. Self-care may be neglected, resulting in hospitalization. PMID:25700161

  19. Andean settlers rush for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-vega, J

    1990-01-01

    Governments of Andean countries (Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela) have encouraged migration to the Amazon Basin, which has contributed to its destruction. Population pressure, landlessness, and poverty are the inducements to migrate. Efforts to populate the Amazon forest were begun as early as 1964 in Peru without international notice. By 1980, logging was allowed in Peru, and Brazil considered colonization of the Amazon essential to national sovereignty. By 1986, outside of Lima, Peru, a development project originally funded by the World Bank, the InterAmerican Development Bank, and the US, resulted in conflicts between settlers and Indians, in loggers indiscriminately cutting, and in farmers using slash and burn techniques to clear forests. Elsewhere the Peruvian Amazon, in San Ignacio, the population was growing by 5.5%/year. The jungle road that had been started but never completed, Carretera Marginal, destroyed 5 million hectares of primary forest, and much of the 600,000 hectares of arable land gained by the road suffered from inappropriate farming practices which caused massive erosion and laterization of the soils. Food crop production declined, and production of coca for cocaine increased. Coca crops are controlled by the Shining Path guerrillas, who are trying to overthrow the Peruvian government. Devastation of Ecuador around Lago Agrio continues. In Colombia, east of Bogota, forests have disappeared and hills have eroded and silted up rivers and dams. The Andean piedmont in Bolivia has also been devastated by loggers and by slash and burn farming. Southeastern Bolivian forests have been cleared for soya bean cultivation on poor soils. Social and economic crises propel people into the remaining forests. The solution is to ease foreign debt, transfer appropriate technology at affordable prices, refuse to finance destructive development, and help to educate and train scientific researchers. Family planning services are also urgently needed

  20. Technical and physical analysis of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil: winners vs. losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, Michael C; Silva, Joao R; Hertzog, Maxime; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Nassis, George

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the technical and physical performance parameters that distinguish between teams winning and losing matches in the 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil. Data were derived from the FIFA website and from live-statistics provided during each game of the world cup. Twelve physical (such as total distance covered in meters (TD), TD in distinct locomotor categories: low-intensity running (LIR; 14 km/h)) and 21 technical parameters (total passes, short-, medium- and long-distance passes, total pass completion rate, dangerous attacks, attacking attempts, delivery in penalty area, ball possession, goals, goals from set-pieces, goals per shot on goal, defending saves, shots, shots on goal, shot accuracy, set-pieces, crosses, corners, clearances, yellow cards) were analyzed. Forty-two games in which a winner and consequently a loser were presented after 90 minutes of game time were investigated with independent t-tests. A binary-logistic regression was utilized to investigate whether the significant variables predicted success of the winning teams. The winning teams scored significantly (PTechnical performance related to goal scoring parameters play a decisive role in World Cup games. Furthermore, scoring efficacy from open-play as well as from set-pieces are crucial to win matches in a World Cup tournament. At this level, physical performance was not the factor to discriminate between winners and losers.

  1. Directionality of physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents in Recife, Brazil

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    Alice Kelly Barreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the physical and psychological dating violence among adolescents with respect to the profiles of directionality - only man perpetrates, only woman perpetrates, and bidirectional, ie, both perpetrate violence. METHODS: Sample was performed by two-stage cluster selection in public and private school in the city of Recife (PE, Brazil, presenting data on 355 adolescents of both sexes between 15 and 19 years old. Psychological violence was measured in dimensions threat, verbal/emotional, and relational. Statistical analyzes incorporated the sampling weight and the complex sample design. RESULTS: Violence is bidirectional in most forms studied (83.9% and girls reported higher levels of perpetration of physical violence, and boys reported more perpetration of relational violence. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that adolescent dating violence shows a pattern where partners attack each other, both physically and psychologically. Future research should study the patterns of these acts of violence, keeping the adolescent couple as the unit of analysis and exploring the context in which such violence occurs.

  2. The presence of phenomenology in physical education in Brazil: implications for the study of the body and other problematizations

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    Felipe Quintão de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the uses of phenomenology in Physical Education in Brazil. In methodological terms, it describes five studies that belong to this theoretical framework in the field, represented by authors such as Silvino Santin, Manuel Sérgio, Wagner Wey Moreira, Elenor Kunz and Terezinha Petrúcia da Nóbrega. It problematizes some aspects of this reception, by highlighting not only its boundaries, but also the challenges for research and reflection within this tradition in physical education

  3. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle among children from private and public schools in Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Thiara Castro de; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Santos, Cristiane de Jesus Nunes dos; Silva, Josenilde Sousa e; Conceição, Sueli Ismael Oliveira da

    2010-12-01

    To analyze factors associated with physical activity and the mean time spent in some sedentary activities among school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a random sample of 592 schoolchildren aged nine to 16 years in 2005, in São Luís, Northern Brazil. Data were collected by means of a 24-Hour Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire, concerning demographic and socioeconomic variables, physical activities practiced and time spent in certain sedentary activities. Physical activities were classified according to their metabolic equivalents (MET), and a physical activity index was estimated for each child. Sedentary lifestyle was estimated based on time spent watching television, playing videogames and on the computer/internet. Chi square test was used to compare proportions. Linear regression analysis was used to establish associations. Estimates were adjusted for the effect of the sampling design. The mean of the physical activity index was 605.73 MET-min/day (SD = 509.45). School children that were male (coefficient=134.57; 95%CI 50.77; 218.37), from public schools (coefficient.= 94.08; 95%CI 12.54; 175.62 and in the 5th to 7th grade (coefficient.=95.01; 95%CI 8.10;181.92 presented higher indices than females, children from private schools and in the 8th to the 9th grade (p<0.05). On average, students spent 2.66 hours/day in sedentary activities. Time spent in sedentary activities was significantly lower for children aged nine to 11 years (coefficient.= -0.49 hr/day; 95%CI -0.88; -0.10) and in lower socioeconomic classes (coefficient.=-0.87; 95%CI -1.45;-0.30). Domestic chores (59.43%) and walking to school (58.43%) were the most common physical activities. Being female, in private schools and in the 8th to 9th grade were factors associated with lower levels of physical activity. Younger schoolchildren and those from low economic classes spent less time engaged in sedentary activities.

  4. Prevalência de excesso de peso e fatores associados em adolescentes de escolas privadas de região urbana na Amazônia Prevalencia de exceso de peso y factores asociados en adolescentes de escuelas privadas de región urbana en Amazonia Prevalence of excess weight and associated factors in adolescents of private schools of an Amazonic urban area, Brazil

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    Laércio M. Silva Júnior

    2012-06-01

    informaciones respecto a sexo, edad, clase socioeconómica, escolaridad de los padres, número de moradores en el domicilio, número de hermanos, actividad física, tiempo gasto asistiendo a la televisión y tiempo de uso de computadora. Los factores asociados al exceso de peso fueron identificados mediante regresión múltiple de Poisson y el uso de eliminación retrógrada para la selección de las variables del modelo múltiple. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de exceso de peso fue de 29,5%. El sexo masculino mostró mayor prevalencia (33,2% en comparación al femenino (26,4%. Respecto a la edad, la prevalencia fue superior a los 14 años (40% en ambos sexos. En el análisis múltiple, ajustado por edad y sexo, el uso de computadora por más que dos horas diarias y el sedentarismo se asociaron al exceso de peso. CONCLUSIONES: El exceso de peso se presenta como un serio problema de Salud Pública en escolares de la secundaria de instituciones privadas de Rio Branco, Acre (Brasil. Se sugiere la promoción de la actividad física y la reducción en el tiempo de uso de computadora para la disminución del exceso de peso.OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with excess weight among high school students. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 741 adolescents from private schools in Rio Branco, Acre, Northern Brazil. The weight and height were prospectively measured in order to calculate the body mass index. Overweight was defined according to World Health Organization references in 2007. The following variables were collected: gender, age, socioeconomic status, parental education, number of household members and siblings, physical activity, time watching TV and computer time. Factors associated with excess weight were identified by multiple Poisson regression using the backward elimination procedure for variable selection. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 29.5%. Males showed righer prevalence (33.2% compared with females (26.4%. As for age, the prevalence

  5. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  6. Sources of water vapor to economically relevant regions in Amazonia and the effect of deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, G. F.; Fontes, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon rain forest helps regulate the regional humid climate. Understanding the effects of Amazon deforestation is important to preserve not only the climate, but also economic activities that depend on it, in particular, agricultural productivity and hydropower generation. This study calculates the source of water vapor contributing to the precipitation on economically relevant regions in Amazonia according to different scenarios of deforestation. These regions include the state of Mato Grosso, which produces about 9% of the global soybean production, and the basins of the Xingu and Madeira, with infrastructure under construction that will be capable to generate 20% of the electrical energy produced in Brazil. The results show that changes in rainfall after deforestation are stronger in regions nearest to the ocean and indicate the importance of the continental water vapor source to the precipitation over southern Amazonia. In the two more continental regions (Madeira and Mato Grosso), decreases in the source of water vapor in one region were offset by increases in contributions from other continental regions, whereas in the Xingu basin, which is closer to the ocean, this mechanism did not occur. As a conclusion, the geographic location of the region is an important determinant of the resiliency of the regional climate to deforestation-induced regional climate change. The more continental the geographic location, the less climate changes after deforestation.

  7. Geostationary satellite estimation of biomass burning in Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, W.P.; Cutrim, E.C.; Prins, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) infrared window (3.9 and 11.2 microns) data to monitor biomass burning several times per day in Amazonia. The technique of Matson and Dozier using two window channels was adapted to GOES VAS infrared data to estimate the size and temperature of fires associated with deforestation in the vicinity of Alta Floresta, Brazil, during the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment - Amazonia (BASE-A). Although VAS data do not offer the spatial resolution available with AVHRR data 97 km versus 1 km, respectively, this decreased resolution does not seem to hinder the ability of the VAS instrument to detect fires; in some cases it proves to be advantageous in that saturation does not occur as often. VAS visible data are additionally helpful in verifying that the hot spots sensed in the infrared are actually related to fires. Furthermore, the fire plumes can be tracked in time to determine their motion and extent. In this way, the GOES satellite offers a unique ability to monitor diurnal variations in fire activity and transport of related aerosols

  8. Outstanding insecurities concerning the use of an Ov16-based ELISA in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus

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    Sérgio Luiz Bessa Luz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a recent issue of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, published in Rio de Janeiro in February 2014 (109: 87-92, Adami et al. have published a survey reporting Mansonella parasite prevalence in the Amazon Region. This report makes a useful contribution to the existing knowledge of filarial parasite distribution within the Amazon area, parasite prevalence rates in relation to age and occupation and provides observations on the possible clinical impact of Mansonella ozzardi. Their publication also provides an account of what appears to be a novel ELISA that has recently been used in the Simuliidae and Onchocerciasis Laboratory of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We are concerned that the publication of this ELISA may have created an excessively positive impression of the effectiveness of the onchocerciasis recrudescence serological surveillance tools that are presently available for use in the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus. In this letter we have, thus, sought to highlight some of the limitations of this ELISA and suggest how continuing insecurities concerning the detection of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus within the Amazonia onchocerciasis focus might be minimised.

  9. Physical characterization of a watershed through GIS: a study in the Schmidt stream, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, D R; Plangg, R; Tundisi, J G; Quevedo, D M

    2015-12-01

    Remote sensing and geoprocessing are essential tools for obtaining and maintaining records of human actions on space over the course of time; these tools offer the basis for diagnoses of land use, environmental interference and local development. The Schmidt stream watershed, located in the Sinos River basin, in southern Brazil, has an environmental situation similar to that of the majority of small streams draining rural and urban areas in southern Brazil: agricultural and urbanization practices do not recognize the riparian area and there is removal of original vegetation, disregarding the suitability of land use; removal of wetlands; intensive water use for various activities; and lack of control and monitoring in the discharge of wastewater, among other factors, deteriorate the quality of this important environment.This article aims to achieve a physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed (Sinos river basin) identifying elements such as land use and occupation, soil science, geology, climatology, extent and location of watershed, among others, so as to serve as the basis for a tool that helps in the integrated environmental management of watersheds. By applying geographic information system - GIS to the process of obtaining maps of land use and occupation, pedologicaland geological, and using climatological data from the Campo Bom meteorological station, field visit, review of literature and journals, and publicly available data, the physical characterization of the Schmidt stream watershed was performed, with a view to the integrated environmental management of this watershed. Out of the total area of the Schmidt stream watershed (23.92 km(2)), in terms of geology, it was observed that 23.7% consist of colluvial deposits, 22.6% consist of grass facies, and 53.7% consist of Botucatu formation. Major soil types of the watershed: 97.4% Argisols and only 2.6% Planosols. Land use and occupation is characterized by wetland (0.5%), Native Forest (12

  10. Reference standards to assess physical fitness of children and adolescents of Brazil: an approach to the students of the Lake Itaipú region—Brazil

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    Edilson Hobold

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The importance of assessing body fat variables and physical fitness tests plays an important role in monitoring the level of activity and physical fitness of the general population. The objective of this study was to develop reference norms to evaluate the physical fitness aptitudes of children and adolescents based on age and sex from the lake region of Itaipú, Brazil. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 5,962 students (2,938 males and 3,024 females with an age range of 6.0 and 17.9 years. Weight (kg, height (cm, and triceps (mm, and sub-scapular skinfolds (mm were measured. Body Mass Index (BMI kg/m2 was calculated. To evaluate the four physical fitness aptitude dimensions (morphological, muscular strength, flexibility, and cardio-respiratory, the following physical education tests were given to the students: sit-and-reach (cm, push-ups (rep, standing long jump (cm, and 20-m shuttle run (m. Results and Discussion Females showed greater flexibility in the sit-and-reach test and greater body fat than the males. No differences were found in BMI. Percentiles were created for the four components for the physical fitness aptitudes, BMI, and skinfolds by using the LMS method based on age and sex. The proposed reference values may be used for detecting talents and promoting health in children and adolescents.

  11. Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia

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    Stéphen Rostain

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.

  12. Within-canopy sesquiterpene ozonolysis in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; YañEz Serrano, A.; Arneth, A.; Abrell, L.; Jardine, A.; van Haren, J.; Artaxo, P.; Rizzo, L. V.; Ishida, F. Y.; Karl, T.; Kesselmeier, J.; Saleska, S.; Huxman, T.

    2011-10-01

    Through rapid reactions with ozone, which can initiate the formation of secondary organic aerosols, the emission of sesquiterpenes from vegetation in Amazonia may have significant impacts on tropospheric chemistry and climate. Little is known, however, about sesquiterpene emissions, transport, and chemistry within plant canopies owing to analytical difficulties stemming from very low ambient concentrations, high reactivities, and sampling losses. Here, we present ambient sesquiterpene concentration measurements obtained during the 2010 dry season within and above a primary tropical forest canopy in Amazonia. We show that by peaking at night instead of during the day, and near the ground instead of within the canopy, sesquiterpene concentrations followed a pattern different from that of monoterpenes, suggesting that unlike monoterpene emissions, which are mainly light dependent, sesquiterpene emissions are mainly temperature dependent. In addition, we observed that sesquiterpene concentrations were inversely related with ozone (with respect to time of day and vertical concentration), suggesting that ambient concentrations are highly sensitive to ozone. These conclusions are supported by experiments in a tropical rain forest mesocosm, where little atmospheric oxidation occurs and sesquiterpene and monoterpene concentrations followed similar diurnal patterns. We estimate that the daytime dry season ozone flux of -0.6 to -1.5 nmol m-2 s-1 due to in-canopy sesquiterpene reactivity could account for 7%-28% of the net ozone flux. Our study provides experimental evidence that a large fraction of total plant sesquiterpene emissions (46%-61% by mass) undergo within-canopy ozonolysis, which may benefit plants by reducing ozone uptake and its associated oxidative damage.

  13. Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil

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    MARIA HELENA L.R. RECHE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin.

  14. Use of global positioning system for physical activity research in youth: ESPAÇOS Adolescentes, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, Claudia Oliveira; Schipperijn, Jasper; Reis, Rodrigo S

    2017-10-01

    The built environment is an important factor associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior (SB) during adolescence. This study presents the methods for objective assessment of context-specific moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB, as well as describes results from the first project using such methodology in adolescents from a developing country. An initial sample of 381 adolescents was recruited from 32 census tracts in Curitiba, Brazil (2013); 80 had their homes geocoded and wore accelerometer and GPS devices for seven days. Four domains were defined as important contexts: home, school, transport and leisure. The majority of participants (n=80) were boys (46; 57.5%), with a normal BMI (52; 65.0%) and a mean age (SD) of 14.5 (5.5) years. Adolescents spent most of their time at home, engaging in SB. Overall, the largest proportion of MVPA was while in transport (17.1% of time spent in this context) and SB while in leisure (188.6min per day). Participants engaged in MVPA for a median of 28.7 (IQR 18.2-43.2) and 17.9 (IQR 9.2-32.1) minutes during week and weekend days, respectively. Participants spent most of their day in the leisure and home domains. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer data allowed objective identification of the amount of time spent in MVPA and SB in four different domains. Though the combination of objective measures is still an emerging methodology, this is a promising and feasible approach to understanding interactions between people and their environments in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. On the Relationship of Rainfall and Temperature across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme droughts in Amazonia seem to become more frequent and have been associated with local and global impacts on society and the ecosystem. The understanding of the dynamics and causes of Amazonia droughts have attracted some attention in the last years and pose several challenges for the scientific community. For instance, in previous work we have identified, based on empirical data, a compounding effect during Amazonia droughts: periods of low rainfall are always associated with positive anomalies of near surface air temperature. This inverse relationship of temperature and rainfall appears at multiple time scales and its intensity varies across Amazonia. To our knowledge, these findings have not been properly addressed in the literature, being not clear whether there is a causal relationship between these two variables, and in this case, which one leads the other one, or they are just responding to the same causal factor. Here we investigate the hypothesis that high temperatures during drought periods are a major response to an increase in the shortwave radiation (due to the lack of clouds) not compensating by an expected increase in the evapotranspiration from the rainforest. Our empirical analysis is based on observed series of daily temperature and rainfall over the Brazilian Amazonia and reanalysis data of cloud cover, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and moisture fluxes. The ability of Global Circulation Models (GCMs) to reproduce such compounding effect is also investigated for the historical period and for future RCP scenarios of global climate change. Preliminary results show that this is a plausible hypothesis, despite the complexity of land-atmosphere processes of mass and energy fluxes in Amazonia. This work is a step forward in better understanding the compounding effects of rainfall and temperature on Amazonia droughts, and what changes one might expect in a future warming climate.

  16. Caracterização físico-química de polpas de frutos da Amazônia e sua correlação com a atividade anti-radical livre Physical and chemical characterization of fruit pulps from Amazonia and their correlation to free radical scavenger activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele André Baptista Canuto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Características físico-químicas (cor, pH, acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais, conteúdo de lipídios e umidade e níveis de compostos bioativos (ácido ascórbico, fenólicos totais foram determinados em quinze amostras de polpas de frutos procedentes da região Amazônica (abiu, acerola, açaí, araçá-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. A atividade de radicais livres foi avaliada pelo método de ABTS. Algumas polpas apresentaram alta potencialidade antioxidante, associada com a atividade antirradicais livres obtida e os conteúdos dos componentes bioativos como compostos fenólicos e ácido ascórbico, destacando-se acerola e acaí. O conteúdo total de compostos fenólicos foi correlacionado à capacidade antioxidante das polpas.Physical and chemical characteristics (color, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, lipid content, moisture and levels of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics were determined in fifteen samples of fruit pulps from Amazonia (abiu, acerola, açaí, araça-boi, bacaba, bacuri, buriti, cajá, cajarana, caju, cupuaçu, graviola, murici, noni e tamarindo. The free radical scavenger activity was evaluated by the ABTS assay. Some pulps presented high antioxidant potential, associated with the free radical scavenger activity measured and the content of bioactive components, such as phenolic compounds and ascorbic acid, especialy in acerola and açaí. The total phenolic content was correlated to antioxidant capacity of pulps.

  17. Mortality and years of life lost by colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil (1990-2015): Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Souza, Maria de Fatima Marinho de; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate all-cause and cause-specific mortality and years of life lost, investigated by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil and in the states; to analyze the temporal trend of these estimates over 25 years (1990-2015) compared with global estimates and according to the socioeconomic status of states of Brazil. Databases from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) for Brazil, Brazilian states and global information were used. It was estimated the total number and the age-standardized rates of deaths and DALYs for colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in the years 1990 and 2015. We used the Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI). Physical inactivity was responsible for a substantial number of deaths (1990: 1,302; 2015: 119,351) and DALYs (1990: 31,121; 2015: 87,116) due to colorectal cancer in Brazil. From 1990 to 2015, the mortality and DALYs due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity increased in Brazil (0.6% and 0.6%, respectively) and decreased around the world (-0.8% and -1.1%, respectively). The Brazilian states with better socioeconomic indicators had higher rates of mortality and morbidity by colorectal cancer due to physical inactivity (pBrazil. Over 25 years, the Brazilian population showed more worrisome results than around the world. Actions to combat physical inactivity and greater cancer screening and treatment are urgent in the Brazilian states.

  18. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale between Portugal and Brazil Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Luis; Lettnin, Carla; Stobäus, Claus; Monteiro, Diogo; Davoglio, Tárcia; Moutão, João

    2016-02-19

    The main propose of this study is the cross-cultural validation of the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Education Scale among Portugal and Brazil samples, through the study of measurement model invariance. Participated in this study, two independent samples, one with 616 Portuguese students, of the 2nd and 3rd basic grade of public school, aged between 9 and 18 years old and another with 450 Brazilian students, from 1st, 2nd and 3rd middle grade of public and private school, aged between 14 and 18 years old. The results support the suitability of the model (three factors, each one with four items), showing an adequate fit to the data in each sample (Portugal: χ2 = 203.8, p = .001, df = 51, SRMR = .062, NNFI = .926, CFI = .943, RMSEA = .070, RMSEA 90% IC = .060-.080; Brazil: χ2 = 173.7, p = .001, df = 51, SRMR = .052, NNFI = .940, CFI = .954, RMSEA = .073, RMSEA 90% IC = .061-.085), as well valid cross-cultural invariance among Portuguese e Brazilian samples (∆CFI ≤ .01). Those findings allow us to conclude that scale can be used to measure the basic psychological needs in physical education in Portugal and in Brazil.

  19. Perceived environmental correlates of physical activity for leisure and transportation in Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Hallal, Pedro C; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Reis, Rodrigo; Brownson, Ross C; Pratt, Michael; Simoes, Eduardo J

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has consistently been associated with perceived environmental characteristics. To examine the association between perceived environmental attributes and various forms of PA in Curitiba, Brazil. A cross-sectional phone survey of adults was conducted in 2008 (n=2097). The questionnaire included environmental perceptions and PA. Principal components analysis was used to identify groups of perceived environmental attributes. Multivariate methods tested the associations of PA with perceived environment characteristics. Perceptions of moderate and high personal safety were positively associated with walking for transportation (53.0%, 53.1% vs. 47.3%, both adjusted ORs [aOR]=1.5). Number of destinations within a 10-minute walk (4 and >6 vs. transportation (7.8%, 9.9% vs.4.8%, aOR=2.5). Perception of high accessibility was positively associated with MVPA during leisure time (35.1% vs. 19.1, aOR=1.7) and meeting recommendations for total PA (58.7% vs. 45.1%, aOR=1.4). Perception of high quality of the pedestrian space (57.3% vs. 46.5%, aOR=1.4) and moderate levels of personal safety (54.3% vs. 47.6%, aOR=1.3) were also positively associated with meeting recommendations for total PA. Different environmental attributes were associated with different PA outcomes, suggesting that these relationships are complex and may differ from those in high-income countries. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors

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    Ana Paula Belon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  1. Possibilities and challenges for physical and social environment research in Brazil: a systematic literature review on health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nykiforuk, Candace

    2013-10-01

    This systematic review analyzed articles focused on the relationship between environment (physical, built, perceived, and social) and smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet, and obesity in Brazil. Studies published between 19952011 were retrieved from seven databases and hand searches. Based on the 42 articles reviewed, gaps were identified and recommendations were made for future research. Despite a growing number of studies, the Brazilian literature is still limited. The increase of articles in 2010-2011 coincided with the diversification of lifestyles studied, although physical activity domain remains predominant. Most studies analyzed neighborhood settings and used subjective measures for lifestyle and for environment. The presence of recreational facilities was the main physical environment aspect studied, while safety from crime was the prominent social environment factor. More research is needed to yield a rich body of evidence that leads to theoretical and methodological advances, and that supports interventions aimed at creating healthy environments.

  2. Occurrence of filamentous fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello (diptera: simuliidae larvae in central Amazonia, Brazil Ocorrência de fungos filamentosos associados a larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia Central, Brasil

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    Quézia Ribeiro Fonseca

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The family Simuliidae is the host of simbiontes fungi that inhabit the digestive tracts of arthropods. This paper reports the presence of fungi in Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello larvae in Amazonia. We observed that the larvae are a good component of aquatic systems to isolate filamentous fungi.A família Simuliidae é hospedeira de fungos simbiontes que habitam o trato digestivo de artrópodos. Este estudo reporta a presença de fungos em larvas de Simulium goeldii Cerqueira & Nunes de Mello da Amazônia. Foi observado que as larvas são bons componentes do sistema aquático para isolar fungos filamentosos.

  3. HABITS OF PATIENTS AND IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATOR IN THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II IN PALMAS, TOCANTINS, BRAZIL

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    Maynard Noleto SALES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, a non-communicable disease that can affect men and women, can be classified as type I or type II. This disease is in the 4th position in numbers of deaths in Brazil, and therefore, involves attention, both from the government, as the patients and family. The aims of this study is describe the lifestyle in relation to diet, foot care and proper medication, and the point of view of patients with diabetes mellitus type II, on the importance of the practice of physical exercise, coordinated and programmed. We performed a study using Questionnaire of Self-Care Activities with Diabetes (QAD and a second questionnaire with questions related to the importance of exercise for patients with diabetes mellitus type II. Questionnaires were applied in 20 patients with the disease (08 men and 12 women, living in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. Result: We noticed that even with the recommendations of healthcare professionals, most patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 has not adapted verification of blood glucose, proper nutrition and foot care. Moreover, despite the interviewees know the importance of performing regular physical activity, we noticed that these do not know how much of weekly days in which they must get physical exercise in order to control the disease. Most interviewees adopt just walk as the physical activity, and we have not verified from the answers of patients, if they know what the most beneficial exercises to control this disease.

  4. Pre-Columbian agricultural landscapes, ecosystem engineers, and self-organized patchiness in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Doyle; Rostain, Stéphen; Iriarte, José; Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Holst, Irene; Renard, Delphine

    2010-04-27

    The scale and nature of pre-Columbian human impacts in Amazonia are currently hotly debated. Whereas pre-Columbian people dramatically changed the distribution and abundance of species and habitats in some parts of Amazonia, their impact in other parts is less clear. Pioneer research asked whether their effects reached even further, changing how ecosystems function, but few in-depth studies have examined mechanisms underpinning the resilience of these modifications. Combining archeology, archeobotany, paleoecology, soil science, ecology, and aerial imagery, we show that pre-Columbian farmers of the Guianas coast constructed large raised-field complexes, growing on them crops including maize, manioc, and squash. Farmers created physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity in flat, marshy environments by constructing raised fields. When these fields were later abandoned, the mosaic of well-drained islands in the flooded matrix set in motion self-organizing processes driven by ecosystem engineers (ants, termites, earthworms, and woody plants) that occur preferentially on abandoned raised fields. Today, feedbacks generated by these ecosystem engineers maintain the human-initiated concentration of resources in these structures. Engineer organisms transport materials to abandoned raised fields and modify the structure and composition of their soils, reducing erodibility. The profound alteration of ecosystem functioning in these landscapes coconstructed by humans and nature has important implications for understanding Amazonian history and biodiversity. Furthermore, these landscapes show how sustainability of food-production systems can be enhanced by engineering into them follows that maintain ecosystem services and biodiversity. Like anthropogenic dark earths in forested Amazonia, these self-organizing ecosystems illustrate the ecological complexity of the legacy of pre-Columbian land use.

  5. Biogeochemistry and ecology of terrestrial ecosystems of Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Davidson, Eric A.

    The last decade of research associated with the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) has led to substantial advances in our understanding of the biogeochemistry and ecology of Amazonian forests and savannas, in particular in relation to the carbon cycle of Amazonia. In this chapter, we present a synthesis of results and ideas that are presented in more detail in subsequent chapters, drawing together evidence from studies of forest ecology, ecophysiology, trace gas fluxes and atmospheric flux towers, large-scale rainfall manipulation experiments and soil surveys, satellite remote sensing, and quantification of carbon and nutrient stocks and flows. The studies have demonstrated the variability of the functioning and biogeochemistry of Amazonian forests at a range of spatial and temporal scales, and they provide clues as to how Amazonia will respond to ongoing direct pressure and global atmospheric change. We conclude by highlighting key questions for the next decade of research to address.

  6. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2017-05-22

    We present distribution data of all Alopoglossidae and Gymnophthalmidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 54 species-level taxa, belonging to 17 genera and two families. This represents 22 more species-level taxa than previously reported. Data were based on 17,431 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~80%) are endemic to Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open vegetation (savanna) enclaves or open dry (semideciduous) forest in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa (including one species complex) are widespread in Amazonia, six are restricted to eastern Amazonia, seven to western Amazonia, two to southwestern Amazonia, 11 to southern Amazonia, 11 to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), and six to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, four species present unique distributions. Considering this study and the other three catalogues of distribution of lizards already published, the total number of lizard species from Brazilian Amazonia increased from 97 to 142 species-level tava. It represents an increase of 45 species from the region since the last revision.

  7. Dynamics, patterns and causes of fires in Northwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Retana, Javier

    2012-01-01

    According to recent studies, two widespread droughts occurred in the Amazon basin, one during 2005 and one during 2010. The drought increased the prevalence of climate-driven fires over most of the basin. Given the importance of human-atmosphere-vegetation interactions in tropical rainforests, these events have generated concerns over the vulnerability of this area to climate change. This paper focuses on one of the wettest areas of the basin, Northwestern Amazonia, where the interactions between the climate and fires are much weaker and where little is known about the anthropogenic drivers of fires. We have assessed the response of fires to climate over a ten-year period, and analysed the socio-economic and demographic determinants of fire occurrence. The patterns of fires and climate and their linkages in Northwestern Amazonia differ from the enhanced fire response to climate variation observed in the rest of Amazonia. The highest number of recorded fires in Northwestern Amazonia occurred in 2004 and 2007, and this did not coincide with the periods of extreme drought experienced in Amazonia in 2005 and 2010. Rather, during those years, Northwestern Amazonia experienced a relatively small numbers of fire hotspots. We have shown that fire occurrence correlated well with deforestation and was determined by anthropogenic drivers, mainly small-scale agriculture, cattle ranching (i.e., pastures) and active agricultural frontiers (including illegal crops). Thus, the particular climatic conditions for air convergence and rainfall created by proximity to the Andes, coupled with the presence of one of the most active colonisation fronts in the region, make this region differently affected by the general drought-induced fire patterns experienced by the rest of the Amazon. Moreover, the results suggest that, even in this wet region, humans are able to modify the frequency of fires and impact these historically well preserved forests.

  8. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

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    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  9. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km 2 ) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km 2 ). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km 2 ) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  10. [Physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Mielke, Grégore Iven; Camargo, Aline Lins; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, screen time, and use of medicines among adolescents from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, followed at 11 (N = 4,452), 15 (N = 4,325), and 18 years of age (N = 4,106). The study recorded the use of medicines in the previous 15 days, continuous use of some medication, level of physical activity (by questionnaire and accelerometry), and screen time (TV, computer, and videogame). One-third of adolescents had used at least one medicine in the previous 15 days and approximately 10% were on some continuous medication. In the adjusted analysis, the results showed that higher levels of physical activity at 18 years and less screen time at 15 years in boys were associated with lower overall use of medicines (p adolescence showed lower use of medicines at 18 years of age.

  11. Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Scan Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. A. O.; Santos, N. T.; Carneiro, A. P. S.; Balieiro, A. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation's alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia), which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE). The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation's alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became actives again; and finally

  12. BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA DEFORESTATION DETECTION USING SPATIO-TEMPORAL SCAN STATISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. O. Vieira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation’s alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia, which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE. The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation’s alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became

  13. Multi year aerosol characterization in the tropical Andes and in adjacent Amazonia using AERONET measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Daniel; Andrade-Flores, Marcos; Eck, Thomas F.; Stein, Ariel F.; O'Neill, Norman T.; Lyamani, Hassan; Gassó, Santiago; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Velarde, Fernando; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of columnar aerosol properties in the complex geophysical tropical region of South America within 10-20° South and 50-70° West. The region is quite varied and encompasses a significant part of Amazonia (lowlands) as well as high mountains in the Andes (highlands,∼4000 m a.s.l.). Several AERONET stations were included to study the aerosol optical characteristics of the lowlands (Rio Branco, Ji Parana and Cuiaba in Brazil and Santa Cruz in Bolivia) and the highlands (La Paz, Bolivia) during the 2000-2014 period. Biomass-burning is by far the most important source of aerosol in the lowlands, particularly during the dry season (August-October). Multi-annual variability was investigated and showed very strong burning activity in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. This resulted in smoke characterized by correspondingly strong, above-average AODs (aerosol optical depths) and homogeneous single scattering albedo (SSA) across all the stations (∼0.93). For other years, however, SSA differences arise between the northern stations (Rio Branco and Ji Parana) with SSAs of ∼0.95 and the southern stations (Cuiaba and Santa Cruz) with lower SSAs of ∼0.85. Such differences are explained by the different types of vegetation burned in the two different regions. In the highlands, however, the transport of biomass burning smoke is found to be sporadic in nature. This sporadicity results in highly variable indicators of aerosol load and type (Angstrom exponent and fine mode fraction) with moderately significant increases in both. Regional dust and local pollution are the background aerosol in this highland region, whose elevation places it close to the free troposphere. Transported smoke particles were generally found to be more optical absorbing than in the lowlands: the hypothesis to explain this is the significantly higher amount of water vapor in Amazonia relative to the high mountain areas. The air-mass transport to La Paz was investigated using

  14. Astrocaryum (palmae in Amazonia a preliminary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN AMAZONIE. TRAITEMENT PRÉLIMINAIRE. Le genre Astrocaryum est composé de 24 espèces amazoniennes: cinq appartiennent au sous-genre Pleiogynanthus et 19 au sous-genre Monogynanthus (3 à la section Munbaca et 16 à la section Ayri. Une clé d’identification est proposée, ainsi que la description de chaque espèce, complétée par de nouvelles observations et suivie de notes sur la distribution géographique, l’écologie et les utilisations. Six espeses nouvelles sont décrites. ASTROCARYUM (PALMAE EN LA AMAZONIA. TRATAMIENTO PRELIMINAR. Astrocaryum consta de 24 especies amazónicas, 5 de las cuales pertenecen al subgénero Pleiogynanthus y 19 al subgénero Monogynanthus (3 a la sección Munbaca, 16 a la sección Ayri. Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies, y para cada una, su descripción con nuevos datos, así como notas sobre la distribución geográfica, la ecología y los usos. Se describen seis especies nuevas. In the Amazon, Astrocaryum includes 24 species of which five belong to the subgenus Pleiogynanthus and 19 to the subgenus Monogynanthus - three in the section Munbaca and 16 in the section Ayri. A key to these 24 species is presented followed by description based on new data, and notes on their distribution, ecology and uses. Six new species are described.

  15. Effects of reduced-impact logging on fish assemblages in central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Murilo S; Magnusson, William E; Zuanon, Jansen

    2010-02-01

    In Amazonia reduced-impact logging, which is meant to reduce environmental disturbance by controlling stem-fall directions and minimizing construction of access roads, has been applied to large areas containing thousands of streams. We investigated the effects of reduced-impact logging on environmental variables and the composition of fish in forest streams in a commercial logging concession in central Amazonia, Amazonas State, Brazil. To evaluate short-term effects, we sampled 11 streams before and after logging in one harvest area. We evaluated medium-term effects by comparing streams in 11 harvest areas logged 1-8 years before the study with control streams in adjacent areas. Each sampling unit was a 50-m stream section. The tetras Pyrrhulina brevis and Hemigrammus cf. pretoensis had higher abundances in plots logged > or =3 years before compared with plots logged fish composition did not differ two months before and immediately after reduced-impact logging. Temperature and pH varied before and after logging, but those differences were compatible with normal seasonal variation. In the medium term, temperature and cover of logs were lower in logged plots. Differences in ordination scores on the basis of relative fish abundance between streams in control and logged areas changed with time since logging, mainly because some common species increased in abundance after logging. There was no evidence of species loss from the logging concession, but differences in log cover and ordination scores derived from relative abundance of fish species persisted even after 8 years. For Amazonian streams, reduced-impact logging appears to be a viable alternative to clear-cut practices, which severely affect aquatic communities. Nevertheless, detailed studies are necessary to evaluated subtle long-term effects.

  16. Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae associado a Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae em um Lago de Várzea na Amazônia Central, Brasil Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae associated with Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae in a Floodplain Lake in Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Elias Braga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O gafanhoto Neotropical Cornops aquaticum (Bruner vive associado às macrófitas da família Pontederiaceae da qual se alimenta. Nos lagos da Amazônia Central, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (mururé ou aguapé é considerada a planta hospedeira de maior importante para este gafanhoto. Esse trabalho teve o objetivo de realizar um estudo fenológico de adultos e ninfas desse gafanhoto em associação a sua planta hospedeira, frente ao regime hidrológico da Amazônia Central. Tal estudo foi realizado entre os meses de abril de 2006 a agosto de 2007 no Lago Camaleão (03º17'05"S 60º11'11"W, na várzea da Amazônia Central. Para isso, utilizou-se uma rede entomológica (70 cm de diâmetro adaptada para a captura dos gafanhotos. Onde foram capturados 850 exemplares (296 adultos e 554 ninfas. Observou-se que a abundância e a biomassa de adultos e de ninfas de C. aquaticum, bem como de sua macrófita hospedeira, estão relacionados com a oscilação sazonal do nível do rio (pulso de inundação.La tucura Neotropical, Cornops aquaticum (Bruner, vive asociada a las macrófitas de la familia Pontederiaceae, de las cuales se alimenta. En los lagos de la Amazonia Central, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms (camalote o aguape constituye la planta huésped más importante de esta tucura. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la fenología de los adultos y las ninfas de C. aquaticum en los camalotales de E. crassipes, en relación al régimen hidrológico de la Amazonia Central. Los muestreos se realizaron entre los meses de abril de 2006 a agosto de 2007, en el Lago Camaleón (03º17'05"S 60º 11 '11 "O en la Várzea de la Amazonia Central. Los individuos fueron capturados desde una embarcación a motor, utilizando una red entomológica de 70 cm de diámetro. Durante este estudio, se capturaron un total de 850 ejemplares (296 adultos y 554 ninfas. Se observó que la abundancia y la biomasa de los adultos y de las ninfas de C. aquaticum, así como

  17. Physical activity and screen time in children and adolescents in a medium size town in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, João Paulo de Aguiar; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Loch, Mathias Roberto

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the associations between sex and age with behaviour related to physical activity practice and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study with 480 (236 boys) subjects enrolled in a public school in the city of Londrina, in the south of Brazil, aged 8-17 years. Measures of physical activity, sports practice and screen times were obtained using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare variables between boys and girls. The Chi squared test was used for categorical analysis and Poisson regression was used to identify prevalence. Girls (69.6%; PR=1.05 [0.99-1.12]) spent more time with sedentary behaviour than boys (62.2%). Boys (80%; PR=0.95 [0.92-0.98]) were more physically active than girls (91%). Older students aged 13-17 showed a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (91.4%; PR=1.06 [1.02-1.10]) and time spent with sedentary behaviour of ≥2h/day (71.8%; PR=0.91 [0.85-0.97]) when compared to younger peers aged 8-12 (78.7 and 58.5%, respectively). The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher in girls. Older students spent more screen time in comparison to younger students. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview of physical safety of radiation sources in Brazil; Panorama da segurança física de fontes radioativoas no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da, E-mail: alexandre.lima@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DRS/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escritorio de Segurança Física; Filho, J.S.M.; Tavares, R.L.A. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN -RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The threat of 'radiological terrorism' has been recognized worldwide after the event of September 11, 2001. Radioactive sources can be used for the development of DDR ('dirty bomb') devices. Studies show that the use of a DDR could cause health damage, psychosocial and economic and environmental damage. Brazil follows this worldwide concern, since it has a large medical-industrial park that uses radioactive sources. This paper presents an overview of the physical safety of radioactive sources in Brazil, based on the inventory of radiative facilities, regulatory aspects and international recommendations. For the preparation of the study, the database of radioactive sources of the regulatory body, the current normative status and the international recommendations were used. In Brazil there are approximately 2,500 radiative installations, with about 400 radioactive sources Category 1 and 2, which are the biggest concern in terms of physical safety. The Brazilian licensing standard addresses only some aspects of physical protection, not providing a clear orientation for the elaboration and implementation of physical protection systems, in accordance with international recommendations. For Brazil to be included in the world scenario of physical safety of radioactive sources, it is urgent to elaborate specific legislation with well-defined regulatory criteria. The lack of more detailed requirements makes it difficult to make a more careful regulatory assessment of the physical protection conditions of the facilities, either through the evaluation of plans and other physical protection documents or through regulatory inspections.

  19. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  20. Paleoclimates of Amazonia: An ice-age view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, M.B.; De Oliveira, P.E.; Raczka, M.F.; Gosling, W.D.; Mayle, F.E.; McMichael, C.H.; Urrego, D.H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Cunha Lana, C.; Strohschoen Jr., O.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence points to climatic complexity during the Ice-Ages. Amazonia does not respond uniformly to modern climatic forcing, and the same was true of the past. Although some climatic forcings were probably expressed everywhere, they were manifested differently. Consequently, climate

  1. Evapotranspiration of deforested areas in central and southwestern Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randow, von R.C.S.; Randow, C.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Tomasella, J.; Kruijt, B.

    2012-01-01

    Considering the high rates of evapotranspiration of Amazonian forests, understanding the impacts of deforestation on water loss rates is important for assessing those impacts on a regional and global scale. This paper quantifies evapotranspiration rates in two different pasture sites in Amazonia and

  2. Molluscan radiations and landscape evolution in Miocene Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.

    2008-01-01

    This PhD study aims to exploit the rich archive provided by the Miocene mollusc fauna of the Pebas Formation and other inland Miocene Amazonian formations to reconstruct landscape evolution and biotic development in lowland Amazonia during the Neogene. Over 160 samples from more than 70 Pebas

  3. Droughts in Amazonia: Spatiotemporal Variability, Teleconnections, and Seasonal Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Carlos H. R.; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2017-12-01

    Most Amazonia drought studies have focused on rainfall deficits and their impact on river discharges, while the analysis of other important driver variables, such as temperature and soil moisture, has attracted less attention. Here we try to better understand the spatiotemporal dynamics of Amazonia droughts and associated climate teleconnections as characterized by the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which integrates information from rainfall deficit, temperature anomalies, and soil moisture capacity. The results reveal that Amazonia droughts are most related to one dominant pattern across the entire region, followed by two seesaw kind of patterns: north-south and east-west. The main two modes are correlated with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The teleconnections associated with global SST are then used to build a seasonal forecast model for PDSI over Amazonia based on predictors obtained from a sparse canonical correlation analysis approach. A unique feature of the presented drought prediction method is using only a few number of predictors to avoid excessive noise in the predictor space. Cross-validated results show correlations between observed and predicted spatial average PDSI up to 0.60 and 0.45 for lead times of 5 and 9 months, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the region that, based on cross-validation results, leads to appreciable forecast skills for lead times beyond 4 months. This is a step forward in better understanding the dynamics of Amazonia droughts and improving risk assessment and management, through improved drought forecasting.

  4. Mortality and years of life lost by colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil (1990–2015): Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to estimate all-cause and cause-specific mortality and years of life lost, investigated by disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in Brazil and in the states; to analyze the temporal trend of these estimates over 25 years (1990–2015) compared with global estimates and according to the socioeconomic status of states of Brazil. Methods Databases from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) for Brazil, Brazilian states and global information were used. It was estimated the total number and the age-standardized rates of deaths and DALYs for colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity in the years 1990 and 2015. We used the Socioeconomic Development Index (SDI). Results Physical inactivity was responsible for a substantial number of deaths (1990: 1,302; 2015: 119,351) and DALYs (1990: 31,121; 2015: 87,116) due to colorectal cancer in Brazil. From 1990 to 2015, the mortality and DALYs due to colorectal cancer attributable to physical inactivity increased in Brazil (0.6% and 0.6%, respectively) and decreased around the world (-0.8% and -1.1%, respectively). The Brazilian states with better socioeconomic indicators had higher rates of mortality and morbidity by colorectal cancer due to physical inactivity (pBrazil. Conclusions Over 25 years, the Brazilian population showed more worrisome results than around the world. Actions to combat physical inactivity and greater cancer screening and treatment are urgent in the Brazilian states. PMID:29390002

  5. Neogene Amazonia: Introduction to the special issue Journal of South American Earth Sciences, New contributions on Neogene geography and depositional environments in Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Vonhof, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    The paleontological data presented in this special issue provide a new insight into species migration and radiation in Amazonia during the Miocene. At the time, Amazonia was characterized by a very extensive, long-lived, semi-isolated, freshwater wetland ecosystem that was supplied with water and

  6. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquetti, Roberto K; Gonçalves, José Francisco C

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  7. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO K. JAQUETTI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  8. Tiempos afroindígenas en la Amazonia brasileña. Primera mitad del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Peinado Alonso, José Luis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the nineteenth century, the Brazilian Amazonia was marked by extraordinary political-military instability: its belated support of Brazil’s independence (1823, the discussion on slavery and the explosion of the Cabanagem. During this period the leading figures were not only the Portuguese-Brazilian political elites, but also the different groups of fugitive slaves and natives who operated along the vast and complicated border areas, alert to revolutionary ideas coming from abroad, and who played an essential role in the construction of the specificity of northern Brazil.

    La Amazonia brasileña durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX estuvo marcada por una extraordinaria inestabilidad político-militar. Su adhesión tardía a la independencia de Brasil (1823, el debate sobre la esclavitud y la explosión de la Cabanagem fueron procesos que tuvieron como protagonistas no sólo a las elites políticas lusobrasileñas, sino también a diferentes grupos cimarrones e indígenas que actuaban desde amplios e intrincados espacios de frontera, atentos a las ideas revolucionarias que provenían del exterior y que jugaron un papel fundamental en la construcción de la especificidad del norte de Brasil.

  9. Physical characterization and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places in three municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Santos Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese type cabacinha from Vale do Jequitinhonha is obtained by curd heating in a similar process made to Mozzarella, but the raw milk is unpasteurized and the final product is stored unpackaged and at room temperature. This milk derivative may contribute to the increase the income of the local population, especially the residents of the edges of roads, due to the flow of vehicles and possible buyers. The purpose of this work was to identify the physical and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places present in three municipalities of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil. Previously the investigation was detected the number of marketplaces that sell these cheese in the Medina, Cachoeira de Pajeú and Pedra Azul, municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, located on the surrounding area of the highways BR 251 and BR 116. Afterward as developed a physical and sanitary checklist and it were filled in loco. It was observed that most market places were not provided of masonry walls, piped water or toilet and sink. It is also common to the presence of possible contamination vectors in surroundings, such as dogs and insects. It is verified that most of these cheese is exposed in pairs held by string and unpackaged. This study demonstrated the precariousness of the physical structures and consequently the lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the cheese type cabacinha market places. Because it is an artisanal product from family farming, which generates income and employment in the field deserve more attention of competent state and municipal authorities.

  10. An analysis of the suitability of public spaces to physical activity practice in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcelo Carvalho; Sperandei, Sandro; Reis, Arianne; da Silva, Cláudia Gonçalves Thaumaturgo

    2013-09-01

    To assess the physical characteristics of public spaces designed for sport/physical activity/leisure in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and their relationship to the socioeconomic indicators. Public spaces (n = 38) spread across the city were evaluated between December 2011 and January 2012 using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA) instrument. Based on PARA results, a Quality Indicator (QI) was prepared and the sample was grouped into "High QI" and "Low QI" using a k-means clustering algorithm. The association between QI and the local Social Development Index (SDI) was tested using a Chi-square test. The average QI was 13.6 ± 4.91 and the median was equal to 13 points. The High QI group, composed of sites with a QI above median, reached 17.9 ± 2.35 points, while the Low QI group reached 9.3 ± 2.16 points. Pearson's Chi-square tests identified a significant association between QI and SDI when the value of SDI 0.7 was used as a criterion for separation (χ(2) = 17.84, p public spaces usually had a lower QI. Policies to encourage physical activity need to focus attention on the built environment also, particularly in socially vulnerable areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting physical activity and quality of life in Vitoria, Brazil: evaluation of the Exercise Orientation Service (EOS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo S; Hino, Adriano Akira F; Cruz, Danielle K; da Silva Filho, Lourival Espiridião; Malta, Deborah C; Domingues, Marlos R; Hallal, Pedro C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between exposure to the Exercise Orientation Service (EOS) program and physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL) in adults from Vitoria, Brazil. A phone survey was conducted with 2023 randomly selected participants (≥ 18 years) to measure awareness about the program, participation in the program, PA levels, and QoL. The associations were tested using Poisson and Linear regression models. 31.5% reported awareness about the program, 1.5% reported current participation, and 5.8% reported previous participation. Participation was higher among women (2.1%), older subjects (2.8%), and those reporting morbidities (2.4%). Awareness was higher among middle-aged persons (36.0%) and highly educated participants (37.1%). Current participation (PR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.65-2.99) and awareness (PR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02-1.30) were associated with leisure-time PA (LTPA). Exposure to the program was not associated with QoL but was consistently associated with sufficient levels of LTPA among adults from Vitoria, Brazil.

  12. Use of physical techniques for dating of archaeological and geological materials in Brazil and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, M.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1980-01-01

    The principle of ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) dating is described briefly. The dating of stalagtites and stalagmites at Caverna do Diabo (Brazil) follows as an example. ESR dating of archaeological materials (shells and bones) at the shell mound of Sambaqui in the Brazilian coast is presented and compared with the results of bone and shell dating in Japan. The use of ESR dating technique to indicate coffee bean oil decomposition (for the quality assessement of Brazilian coffee beans) is also described. (I.C.R.) [pt

  13. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  14. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and

  15. Physical inactivity of adults and 1-year health care expenditures in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Codogno, J.S.; Turi, B.C.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Fernandes, R.A.; Christofaro, D.G.D.; Monteiro, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the association between physical inactivity in different domains and direct public healthcare expenditures in adults and to identify whether the clustering of physical inactivity in different domains would contribute to increased public healthcare. Methods: The sample composed

  16. Morphological, physical and pedogenetic attributes related to water yield in small watersheds in Guarapari/ES, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexson de Mello Cunha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil characteristics related to the genesis, land use and management are important factors in water dynamics in watersheds. This study evaluated physical, morphological and pedogenetic attributes related to water yield potential in small watersheds in Guarapari, ES, Brazil. The following representative profiles were selected, morphologically described and sampled in area of Atlantic Forest domain: Lithic Udifolists, Oxyaquic Udifluventes, Typic Paleudults, Typic Hapludults, Typic Hapludox, Oxic Dystrudepts and Typic Endoaquents. Samples were collected in the soil profiles for physical analysis. Measurements of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil penetration resistance were perfomed in some profiles, which were under different uses. The Endoaquents of Limão Creek can be considered efficient as temporary water reservoirs. However, the use of artificial drainage tends to reduce this effect. Differential erosion was detected by the sand texture on the surface of the Typic Paleudults due to the low degree of clay flocculation, slope, high resistance to the penetration and low hydraulic conductivity of the Bt horizon, making it necessary to adopt soil management practices to increase the water infiltration. Under pasture, mainly in the cattle trails where the trampling is more intense, there was high resistance to penetration in the superficial layers of the Typic Hapludults. The Typic Hapludox have the greatest potential for water yield in the small watersheds because of its greater extent in the headwaters and their morphological and physical characteristics, which can result in increased aquifer recharge.

  17. UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE COSTUS (COSTACEAE DE LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALINAS NELSON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra Costus fissicalyx N. R. Salinas, Clavijo & Betancur, una especienueva del sudeste de la Amazonia colombiana; además, se presenta información sobresus relaciones taxonómicas, distribución y hábitat. Costus fissicalyx se diferencia delas otras especies del género principalmente por la forma y el tipo de crecimientodel cáliz

  18. Time trends of physical activity and television viewing time in Brazil: 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore I; Hallal, Pedro C; Malta, Deborah C; Lee, I-Min

    2014-08-15

    Despite recent advances in surveillance of physical activity, data on time trends of physical activity in low and middle-income countries are lacking. This study describes time trends in physical activity and television viewing between 2006 and 2012 among Brazilian adults. Data from 371,271 adult participants (18 + years) in the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Illnesses using Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) were analysed. Time trends in leisure-time physical activity (≥ 5 days/wk; ≥ 30 min/day), transportation physical activity (using bicycle or walking for ≥ 30 minutes per day as a means of transportation to/from work) and proportion of participants spending more than three hours per day watching television were analysed. Annual changes according to sex, age and years of schooling were calculated. There was an increase in leisure-time physical activity from 12.8% in 2006 to 14.9% in 2012 (annual increase of 1.9%; p physical activity decreased 12.9% per year (p physical activity appears to be increasing, while television viewing time appears to be decreasing in recent years. However, transportation physical activity has been declining. These data are important for informing national public health policies.

  19. Physical and chemical properties of fluid and melt inclusions of the Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Alexandre de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Data of melt and fluid inclusions obtained by LA-ICP-MS and microthermometry techniques represent an important investigation complement to understand geological processes which took place in Lagoa Real uraniferous albitites (Brazil). Melt inclusions found in augite structure, which reveals the previous presence of U in the syenitic magma. Primary fluid inclusions in magmatic augite of the albitites contain Na, denoting once more its presence in original magma. The formation of andradite from augite during shear events that generated the metamorphosed syenite (uraniferous albitite) was certified by the ICP-MS signals and uranium released by magmatic titanite (U source mineral)during the 1.9 Ga metamorphism was recorded in the fluid inclusions found in andradite, mineral that was formed in this same metamorphic event which recrystallized titanite crystals. Such uranium was responsible by precipitation of the disseminated uraninite found inside andradite. (author)

  20. Age of depositional and weathering events in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Lucy Gomes; Soares, Emílio Alberto do Amaral; Riccomini, Claudio; Tatumi, Sonia Hatsue; Yee, Marcio

    2017-08-01

    In the last three decades, several studies have been devoted to understanding the role of Late Pleistocene-Holocene climate changes in the Amazonia lowlands environment. However, most of these studies used data obtained from sedimentary deposits (lakes, swamps, and colluvium) located away from the central plain or on the edges of the Amazonia region. This article integrates optically stimulated luminescence and accelerated mass spectrometry 14C ages with sedimentological and geomorphological data obtained during this study or compiled from the literature for fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the central alluvial plain of the Solimões-Amazon River. The age data allow us to present a chronological framework for the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits and conclude that (i) the dryness of the LGM in central Amazonia lowlands is recorded by the formation of fluvial terraces and their weathering to pedogenic hematite between 25.3 ka and 17.7 ka; (ii) floodplain deposition was contemporaneous with terrace weathering and occurred in a context of decreased water volume in fluvial channels, lowering of river base level and sea level, and isostatic rebound of the continent; and (iii) lateral and mid-channel fluvial bars in the Solimões-Amazon River have a minimum age of 11.5 ± 1.5 ka, and their deposition responded to increased precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene.

  1. Las palmeras en los valles principales de la Amazonia peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available LES PALMIERS DES PRINCIPALES VALLEES DE L’AMAZONIE PERUVIENNE. La distribution géographique des espèces de palmiers de l’Amazonie péruvienne est présentée selon les principales vallées. Pour chaque affluent important est donnée la liste des espèces récoltées, et pour chaque espèce sont réunies les références des échantillons d’herbiers, collecteur(s et numéro de collection, ainsi que les herbiers de dépôt. Se presenta la distribución de las palmeras de la Amazonia en función de los valles principales. Por cada río de mayor importancia, se da la lista de las especies colectadas, las referencias de las muestras botánicas, colector(es y número de colección, y los herbarios de depósito de dichas muestras. PALMS OF THE MAJOR RIVER VALLEYS OF PERUVIAN AMAZONIA. Palm species distribution in Peruvian Amazonia is presented according to the major river valleys. The species collected are listed for each tributary valley. The collection references, collector(s and number of the specimen and the herbaria of deposit are given for each species.

  2. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. I. Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae, Tropiduridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A

    2015-07-08

    I present distribution data of all Dactyloidae, Hoplocercidae, Iguanidae, Leiosauridae, Polychrotidae and Tropiduridae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 40 species-level taxa, belonging to 11 genera. This represents four more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families. Data were based on the direct examination of 41,243 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian musea, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (62.5%) are endemic to the Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa are widespread in Amazonia, one is restricted to eastern Amazonia, three to western Amazonia, five to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), two to northwestern Amazonia, one to southern Amazonia, nine to southwestern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Five species have unique distributions and five species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates). The first herpetological gazetteer for the Brazilian Amazonia with about 3,600 georeferenced localities was also produced.

  3. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria Conceição Chagas; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Aquino, Estela Maria Leão de; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants' physical activity. Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women). The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income), environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity) and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image). The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years). Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  4. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review

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    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants’ physical activity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. METHODS: Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women. The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income, environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image. The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years. Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  5. New Odostomia species (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Western Amazonia (Peru, Colombia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aartsen, van J.J.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Odostomia nuttalli spec. nov. and O. coluhensis spec. nov. are described from the Miocene Pebas Formation of Peruvian and Columbian Amazonia. A third pyramidellid snail is also diagnosed. These species are indicators for marine influence in the late Middle to early Late Miocence of Western Amazonia.

  6. Distribution of physical therapists working on public and private establishments in different levels of complexity of health care in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa R; Costa, José L R; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Health System is organized on a regional and hierarchical form with three levels of complexity of health care. The Primary Care represents the first element of a continuing health care process, complemented by specialized actions. However, the centrality of the specialized care is still a problem in Brazil, especially in the private sector. Studies on the distribution of professionals in the health system allowing the formulation of appropriate policies are needed. To investigate the distribution of physical therapists in the levels of complexity of health care and between public and private establishments, according to data from the National Register of Health Service Providers (NRHSP). A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed considering NRHSP-national bank data collected in March 2010 and demographic census 2010 data. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics techniques. We identified 53,181 registries of physical therapists, 60% linked to the private sector. Only 13% of all entries were linked to primary care. The predominance in specialized care occurred in the public sector (65%) and private sector (100%). The specialized establishments of private sector linked to the southeast region (16,043) were the main sites of physical therapists. Only the public sector in the south had a majority in the Primary Care. When considering the sizes of the cities, there is focus on specialist care in bigger cities. This study identified the concentration of physical therapists in the specialized care, mostly in metropolis and big cities and in the private sector, with restricted to participation in the primary care.

  7. Reflecting about the “gender trouble” in Brazil: contributions to research in Physical Education

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    Marcelo Moraes e Silva Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a reflection about how the so-called "gender trouble" can contribute to the researches in the Brazilian Physical Education. To accomplish such a task, there was introduced a dialogue among epistemological definitions that permeate this field of study. In conclusion, the essay shows that it is possible to work with performative notions and also to use the binomial sex / gender, especially when working with certain objects of research in the area of Physical Education.

  8. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Both; Christi Noriko Sonoo; Juarez Vieira Nascimento; Hudson de Resende Moreira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL) and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women), corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection....

  9. Dietary practices and nutritional status of 0-24-month-old children from Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T G; Baraldi, L G; Muniz, P T; Cardoso, M A

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices of 0-24-month-old children living in Brazilian Amazonia. Cross-sectional study. Information on children's dietary intakes was obtained from diet history data. Weight and length were measured for anthropometric evaluation. Fe status was assessed using fasting venous blood samples; Hb, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations were measured. The towns of Assis Brasil and Acrelândia in the state of Acre, north-west Brazil. A total of sixty-nine randomly selected 0-24-month-old children. Of these children, 40.3 % were anaemic, 63.1 % were Fe-deficient, 28.1 % had Fe-deficiency anaemia and 11.6 % were stunted. Breast-feeding was initiated by 97.1 % of mothers, followed by early feeding with complementary foods. The dietary pattern reflected a high intake of carbohydrate-rich foods and cow's milk, with irregular intakes of fruit, vegetables and meat. All infants and 92.3 % of toddlers were at risk of inadequate Fe intakes. Fe from animal foods contributed on average 0.5 % and 14.3 % to total dietary Fe intake among infants and toddlers, respectively. Poor nutritional status and inadequate feeding practices in this study population reinforce the importance of exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months of life. Greater emphasis is required to improve the bioavailability of dietary Fe during complementary feeding practices.

  10. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  11. Environmental changes in the western Amazonia: morphological framework, geochemistry, palynology and radiocarbon dating data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbe, Adriana M.C.; Behling, Hermann; Nogueira, Afonso C.R.; Mapes, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The sediments from the Coari lake, a 'terra firme' lake sculpted into Plio-Pleistocene deposits, and the Acara lake, a flooding-type lake developed on Quaternary sediments in the flood plain of the mid-Solimoes river, in the western Amazonia, Brazil, were studied to investigate the environmental condition of their developing. This study includes mineral composition, geochemistry, Pb isotope, palinology, radiocarbon-age and morphological framework of the lakes obtained from SRTM satellite images. The geological and the environmental conditions in the two lakes are highly variable and suggest that their evolution reflect autogenic processes under humid rain forest condition. Although kaolinite, quartz, muscovite, illite, and smectite are the main minerals in both lakes, the geochemistry indicates distinct source, the Acara lake sediments have higher concentrations of Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , Fe O, Ca O, K 2 O, Mg O, Na 2 O, P 2 O 5 , Ba, V, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Sr, Li, Y and La and have more radiogenic Pb than the Coari lake sediments. The radiocarbon ages suggest that at 10160 yr BP the Coari lake started to be developed due to avulsion of the Solimoes river, and the Acara lake was formed by the meander abandonment of Solimoes river retaining its grass dominated shore at ca. 3710 yr BP. (author)

  12. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970’s, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration. PMID:26247467

  13. Seasonal dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plants of Theobroma grandiflorum Schum and Paullinia cupana Mart. of aN agroforestry system in Central Amazonia, Amazonas State, Brazil Dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantas de Theobroma grandiflorum Schum e Paullinia cupana Mart. de um sistema agroflorestal na Amazônia Central, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF was investigated in the rhizosphere of two fruit species in a terra firme (upland ecosystem in Central Amazonia. Two host species (Theobroma grandiflorum and Paullinia cupana and nine sampling months (August, September and December/1998, February, April, May and December/1999, February and May/2000 were studied in a completely randomized design, with five replications, set in a 2 x 9 factorial experiment. Soil (0-20 cm depth and root samples were collected between August 1998 and May 2000. The mean percent colonization of AMF for both species reached maximal values in February and May 2000 (rainy season. In April and May 1999, February and May 2000 (rainy season the highest AMF spore numbers were registered. The pluvial precipitation was significantly positively correlated with AMF number spores for both fruit species, and significant positive correlation only with AMF colonization of P. cupana. Soil moisture content was positively correlated with colonization and spore numbers of AMF for both species evaluated. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were positively correlated with soil Mg and K concentrations. AMF spore numbers of T. grandiflorum were also negatively correlated with effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC. AMF colonization and AMF spore numbers in the rhizosphere of P. cupana were positively correlated with pH and Mn concentrations. AMF colonization was also positively correlated with AMF spore numbers for both species evaluated. In conclusion, this study showed that AMF colonization and sporulation are seasonal and dependent on host plant species, pluvial precipitation, soil moisture content and soil chemistry in Central Amazonia conditions.A dinâmica sazonal de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA foi investigada na rizosfera de duas espécies frutíferas em um ecossistema de terra firme na Amazônia Central. Adotou-se o delineamento

  14. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  15. The burden of abdominal obesity with physical inactivity on health expenditure in Brazil

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    Jamile S. Codogno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between the clustering of physical inactivity with abdominal obesity and public health care expenditure in Brazilian adults. The sample was composed of 963 patients of both genders, randomly selected in the Brazilian Public Health care System during 2010. Entire health care expenditures during the last year were computed and stratified into: medical consultations, medication dispensing, laboratory tests and overall expenditure. Waist circumference was used to diagnose abdominal obesity and physical activity was assessed by previously validated questionnaire. Sedentary and abdominally obese patients (OR= 3.01 [OR95%CI= 1.81-4.99] had higher likelihood be inserted in the group of higher expenditures than only abdominally obese patients (OR= 1.66 [OR95%CI= 1.07-2.59]. There is a synergic effect between abdominal obesity and physical inactivity on overall health care expenditures.

  16. Autonomy of action among elderly women on physical activity programs in Brazil and Belgium: a comparative study

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    Paulo de Tarso Veras Farinatti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p107 Autonomy of action is important for quality of life. This study compared the autonomy of action of elderly female participants on physical activity programs in Brazil (IMMA, n=47, age=75±5 years and Belgium (ISEPK, n=77; age=69±7 years, using the Senior System for Evaluation of Autonomy of Action (SysSen. The SysSen is composed of a questionnaire (QSAP about the aerobic power and upper limb strength needed for a life perceived as autonomous, and a fi eld test (TSMP, in which the subject walks 800 m carrying predetermined loads. The QSAP results are used to calculate an Index of Expressed Autonomy (IAE and the TSMP to calculate an Index of Potential Autonomy (IAP. The ratio of IAP to IAE then gives an Index of Autonomy of Action (IAP/IAE=ISAC. An ISAC of 1.0 or more defi nes the subject as independent. IMMA and ISEPK data were compared with ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman ANOVA, depending on distribution (p<.05. The results revealed that: a the IAP was lower for women on the IMMA than for those on the ISEPK, whereas their needs in terms of physical activities (IAE were similar; b Most of the IMMA subjects had ISAC<1.0, in contrast with those on the ISEPK program; c In both groups, the activities related to aerobic power made a greater contribution to the IAE than those depending on upper limb strength; d All four parts of the QSAP made similar contributions to the IAE. In conclusion, the elderly women from IMMA had defi cits in autonomy of action, mainly as a result of insuffi cient physical fi tness for the declared demands of daily activities.

  17. Spatialization of climate, physical and socioeconomic factors that affect the dairy goat production in Brazil and their impact on animal breeding decisions

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    Fernando B. Lopes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to implement animal breeding programs to meet the needs of each region.

  18. The role of cultural identity as a learning factor in physics: a discussion through the role of science in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Ivã; Pietrocola, Mauricio; Watanabe, Graciella

    2016-06-01

    In recent decades, changes in society have deeply affected the internal organization and the main goals of schools. These changes are particularly important in science education because science is one of the major sources of change in peoples' lives. This research provided the opportunity to investigate how these changes affect the way teachers develop their classroom activities. In this work, we focus on science as part of the cultural identity of a society and how this identity affects the process of teaching and learning inside the classroom. Other works have shown that certain social characteristics such as gender, race, religion, etc., can create a cultural barrier to learning science. This results in an obstacle between those particular students and the science that is taught, hindering their learning process. We first aim to present the notion of identity in education and in other related fields such as social psychology and sociology. Our main purpose is to focus on identity in a school setting and how that identity affects the relationship students have with the science content. Next, we present and analyze an intervention in the subject of Modern and Contemporary Physics composed by a sequence of activities in a private school in the region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. This intervention serves to illustrate how scientific topics may be explored while considering aspects of cultural differences as an obstacle. The intervention was completed in two steps: first, in the classroom with a discussion concerning scientific works and nationality of scientists, with one being a Brazilian physicist; second, taking students to visit a particle collider at the University of São Paulo. One of the results of our research was realizing that students do not perceive science as something representative of the Brazilian cultural identity. At the same time, the activity gave the students the opportunity to make the connection between doing physical sciences at an

  19. Low-Cost Educational Robotics Applied to Physics Teaching in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcos A. M.; Duarte, José R. R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose some of the strategies and methodologies for teaching high-school physics topics through an educational robotics show. This exhibition was part of a set of actions promoted by a Brazilian government program of incentive for teaching activities, whose primary focus is the training of teachers, the improvement of teaching…

  20. Health physics routine at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The routine health physics work at the IEAR-1 reactor and the modifications that are being made, are described. The Personal Dosimetry Laboratory, Waste Disposal and Decontamination Laboratory, Shielding Calculation Section, Dosimetry Laboratory, Radioactive Source and Instrumentation Calibration, are presented. Methods of calibration of radioactive sources and instrumentation are also presented [pt

  1. Social impacts of Brazil's Tucurui Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Tucurui Dam, which blocked the Tocantins River in 1984 in Brazil's eastern Amazonian state of Para, is a continuing source of controversy. Most benefits of the power go to aluminum smelting companies, where only a tiny amount of employment is generated. Often presented by authorities as a model for hydroelectric development because of the substantial power that it produces, the project's social and environmental impacts are also substantial. Examination of Tucurui reveals a systematic overestimation of benefits and underestimation of impacts as presented by authorities. Tucurui offers many as-yet unlearned lessons for hydroelectric development in Amazonia

  2. Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    J. A. Marengo * and J. C. Espinoza** * Centro Nacional de Monitoramento e Alerta de Desastres Naturais, Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Sao Paulo, Brazil ** Subdirección de Ciencias de la Atmósfera e Hidrósfera (SCAH), Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Peru This paper reviews recent progress in the study and understanding of extreme seasonal events in the Amazon region, focusing on drought and floods. The review includes a history of droughts and floods in the past, in the present and some discussions on future extremes in the context of climate change and its impacts on the Amazon region. Several extreme hydrological events, some of them characterized as 'once in a century', have been reported in the Amazon region during the last decade. While abundant rainfall in various sectors of the basin has determined extreme floods along the river's main stem in 1953, 1989, 1999, 2009, 2012-2015, deficient rainfall in 1912, 1926, 1963, 1980, 1983, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2005 and 2010 has caused anomalously low river levels, and an increase in the risk and number of fires in the region, with consequences for humans. This is consistent with changes in the variability of the hydrometeorology of the basin and suggests that extreme hydrological events have been more frequent in the last two decades. Some of these intense/reduced rainfalls and subsequent floods/droughts were associated (but not exclusively) with La Niña/El Niño events. In addition, moisture transport anomalies from the tropical Atlantic into Amazonia, and from northern to southern Amazonia alter the water cycle in the region year-to-year. We also assess the impacts of such extremes on natural and human systems in the region, considering ecological, economic and societal impacts in urban and rural areas, particularly during the recent decades. In the context of the future climate change, studies show a large range of uncertainty, but suggest that drought might intensify through the 21st

  3. Epidemiology of Disappearing Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Case Study in Rural Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nathália F.; Batista, Camilla L.; Bastos, Melissa da Silva; Nicolete, Vanessa C.; Fontoura, Pablo S.; Gonçalves, Raquel M.; Viana, Susana Ariane S.; Menezes, Maria José; Scopel, Kézia Katiani G.; Cavasini, Carlos E.; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Castro, Márcia C.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2014-01-01

    Background New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings. Methods Eight community-wide cross-sectional surveys, involving 584 subjects, were carried out in Remansinho over 3 years and complemented by active and passive surveillance of febrile illnesses between the surveys. We used quantitative PCR to detect low-density asexual parasitemias and gametocytemias missed by conventional microscopy. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression models were used to characterize independent risk factors for P. vivax infection and disease. Principal Findings/Conclusions P. vivax prevalence decreased from 23.8% (March–April 2010) to 3.0% (April–May 2013), with no P. falciparum infections diagnosed after March–April 2011. Although migrants from malaria-free areas were at increased risk of malaria, their odds of having P. vivax infection and disease decreased by 2–3% with each year of residence in Amazonia. Several findings indicate that low-density and asymptomatic P. vivax parasitemias may complicate residual malaria elimination in Remansinho: (a) the proportion of subpatent infections (i.e. missed by microscopy) increased from 43.8% to 73.1% as P. vivax transmission declined; (b) most (56.6%) P. vivax infections were asymptomatic and 32.8% of them were both subpatent and asymptomatic; (c) asymptomatic parasite carriers accounted for 54.4% of the total P. vivax biomass in the host population; (d) over 90% subpatent and asymptomatic P. vivax had PCR-detectable gametocytemias; and (e) few (17.0%) asymptomatic and subpatent P

  4. A TRMM-Calibrated Infrared Rainfall Algorithm Applied Over Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, A. J.; Xu, L.; Adler, R. F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The development of a satellite infrared technique for estimating convective and stratiform rainfall and its application in studying the diurnal variability of rainfall in Amazonia are presented. The Convective-Stratiform. Technique, calibrated by coincident, physically retrieved rain rates from the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), is applied during January to April 1999 over northern South America. The diurnal cycle of rainfall, as well as the division between convective and stratiform rainfall is presented. Results compare well (a one-hour lag) with the diurnal cycle derived from Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) radar-estimated rainfall in Rondonia. The satellite estimates reveal that the convective rain constitutes, in the mean, 24% of the rain area while accounting for 67% of the rain volume. The effects of geography (rivers, lakes, coasts) and topography on the diurnal cycle of convection are examined. In particular, the Amazon River, downstream of Manaus, is shown to both enhance early morning rainfall and inhibit afternoon convection. Monthly estimates from this technique, dubbed CST/TMI, are verified over a dense rain gage network in the state of Ceara, in northeast Brazil. The CST/TMI showed a high bias equal to +33% of the gage mean, indicating that possibly the TMI estimates alone are also high. The root mean square difference (after removal of the bias) equaled 36.6% of the gage mean. The correlation coefficient was 0.77 based on 72 station-months.

  5. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Both

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women, corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Spearman’s correlation test. The results showed the dissatisfaction of teachers with wages, working conditions and balance between work and leisure. Most subjects presented positive lifestyle behaviors, but the components nutrition, physical activity and stress management were a matter of concern. Internal evaluation of QWL yielded higher correlation coefficients than lifestyle. When comparing the two analytical matrices, low levels of correlation were observed between components and overall assessment of the constructs.

  6. Satisfaction with physical and social surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Ricardo Alexandre de; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between individual satisfaction with social and physical surroundings and the habit of smoking cigarettes. Data from the Health Survey of Adults from the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used. Based on a probability sample, participants (n = 12,299) were selected among residents aged 20 years old or more. The response variable was the smoking habit and the explanatory variable of interest was the neighborhood perception. Potential confounding variables included demographic characteristics, health behaviors and other indicators of socioeconomic position. The prevalence of current smokers, former smokers and never smokers were 20.8, 14.1 and 65.1%, respectively; 74.4 and 25.5% of the participants were categorized as being more satisfied and less satisfied with the neighborhood, respectively. Compared to those who never smoked, former smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.20 - 1.62) and current smokers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.03 - 1.34) were less satisfied with the neighborhood compared to those who never smoked. The results of this study indicate there is an independent association between the smoking habit and a less satisfying neighborhood perception in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, which does not depend on individual characteristics, traditionally reported as being associated with smoking.

  7. [Domains of physical activity in slave-descendant communities in Southwest Bahia State, Brazil: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Vanessa Moraes; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; César, Cibele Comini; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the prevalence of physical activity (PA) and associated factors in various domains (leisure-time, work, home, and commuting) among quilombolas (descendants of African slaves) in Bahia State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study of 797 individuals from 18 to 100 years of age. The study adopted a cutoff point of 150 minutes of PA per week. A hierarchical Poisson model was used. The highest prevalence of PA was at work (42.1%), followed by the home environment (39.3%), commuting (35.5%), and leisure time (13.1%). PA at work was associated with male gender, lower age, higher schooling, and consumption of alcohol and fruits. PA in the household domain was associated with female gender, lower age, marital status (married), and negative self-rated health. In commuting, PA was associated with male gender and lower age bracket, and during leisure time with safety, male gender, lower age, and higher schooling. The study concludes that this slave-descendant community displays a profile of PA that is characteristic of rural groups (more active at work, with little leisure-time activity). The determinants of PA were similar to those seen in urban groups.

  8. Eficiencia reproductiva de diferentes genotipos bovinos en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Naveda, N. R.; Castro Guamán, W. E.; Marin, P. R.; Universidad de Cuenca; Dirección de Investigación de la Universidad de Cuenca; DIUC

    2015-01-01

    Los problemas reproductivos en el centro de la Amazonia Ecuatoriana, están condicionados por un sin número de factores, que directa e indirectamente conspiran para mejorar los parámetros productivos de la zona. Las condiciones ambientales, el manejo, la falta de energía en la dieta, la salud, la infraestructura y los genotipos utilizados influyen para no lograr una eficiente reproducción Lopez et al., 2014). El anestro posparto es el principal factor que afecta negativamente el desempeño repr...

  9. Ozone concentrations in the Brazilian Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, A.W.; Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H.; Pereira, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment--Amazonia, thermal images of fires were made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board meteorological NOAA series satellites. The results of ozone measurements made on board the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) airplane during September of 1989 are presented and analyzed in relation to the temporal and geographical location of fires detected before and during the sampling. Results show that on a synoptic scale, concentrations of ozone rise sharply in regions of more intense burning

  10. Low-cost educational robotics applied to physics teaching in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcos A. M.; Duarte, José R. R.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose some of the strategies and methodologies for teaching high-school physics topics through an educational robotics show. This exhibition was part of a set of actions promoted by a Brazilian government program of incentive for teaching activities, whose primary focus is the training of teachers, the improvement of teaching in public schools, the dissemination of science, and the formation of new scientists and researchers. By means of workshops, banners and the prototyping of robotics, we were able to create a connection between the study areas and their surroundings, making learning meaningful and accessible for the students involved and contributing to their cognitive development.

  11. Epidemiology of leisure-time physical activity: a population-based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa

    Full Text Available We aimed to measure the prevalence of physical inactivity (PI during leisure time and to identify variables associated with it in a southern Brazilian adult population. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out, covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,968 subjects aged 20-69 years. Weekly participation in leisure-time physical activity was addressed. For each activity, energy expenditure was calculated using data on duration, metabolic equivalent, and body weight. Energy expenditures of individual activities were summed to give a weekly total. PI was defined as fewer than 1,000 kilocalories per week. The prevalence of PI was 80.7% (95%CI: 78.9-82.4. After adjusted analyses, the following variables were positively associated with the outcome: female gender, age, living with a partner, and smoking. Schooling and economic status were inversely associated with PI. Chronically undernourished individuals were significantly more likely to be inactive. We found no differences according to skin color or alcohol consumption. In conclusion, the prevalence of PI in this adult population was higher than in populations from developed countries, but the associated variables were similar.

  12. Using observational methods to evaluate public open spaces and physical activity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino A A, F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C; Fermino, Rogerio C

    2010-07-01

    Open public spaces have been identified as important facilities to promote physical activity (PA) at the community level. The main goals of this study are to describe open public spaces user's characteristics and to explore to what extent these characteristics are associated with PA behavior. A system of direct observation was used to evaluate the PA levels on parks and squares (smaller parks) and users's characteristics (gender and age). The 4 parks and 4 squares observed were selected from neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and environmental characteristics. The settings were observed 3 times a day, 6 days per week, during 2 weeks. More men than women were observed in parks (63.1%) and squares (70.0%) as well as more adults and adolescents than older adults and children. Users were more physically active in parks (men = 34.1%, women = 36.1%) than in squares (men = 25.5%, women 22.8%). The characteristics of public open spaces may affect PA in the observed places. Initiatives to improve PA levels in community settings should consider users' characteristics and preferences to be more effective and reach a larger number of people.

  13. Physical and microstructural characterization of clay base ceramic product produced in Icoaraci (PA, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, N.S.S.; Mendes, J.F.; Pamplona, V.M.S.; Andrade, S.M.C.; Dias, C.G.B.T.

    2011-01-01

    The pottery currently produced in the pole ceramist Icoaraci (PA) is an artistic legacy of indigenous peoples who inhabited the Amazon region. In the pole are produced artifacts such as vases and other decorative items, and household appliances. In this work characterizations were obtained from samples of the final product (after firing), using the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis by Fourier transform spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determining the density of the material. The objective was to evaluate the physical, microstructural and composition of the ceramics after firing. The results revealed the existence of pores and impurities, all of which can influence the quality of the final product, as well as the main elements that constitute mineralogical and chemical material. The photomicrographs showed a considerable degree of porosity, which agrees with the density results. (author)

  14. Ostracods biostratigraphy of the Oligocene-Miocene carbonate platform in the Northeastern Amazonia coast and its correlation with the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Anna Andressa Evangelista; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues

    2017-12-01

    Oligocene-Miocene ostracods biozones are proposed for the ∼65 m-thick platform carbonate succession exposed in the Northeastern Amazonia coast, Brazil. Previous biostratigraphic studies based on planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils and palynomorphs are poorly age constrained and have hindered the correlation with other units of the Atlantic Equatorial margin. Tectonic stability of the Northeastern Amazonia coast during Neogene, associated with reduced riverine inflow and continuous sea level rise, allowed the establishment of lagoon/mangroves, tidal channel and shallow platform settings favoring massive proliferation of benthic ostracods. The recurrence of these depositional systems along of entire Oligocene-Miocene succession contributed mainly for the preservation of typical assemblages of lagoonal ostracods. Among thirty-two ostracods genera identified, the most of them are generally polyhalines associated with a mesohaline genus as Perissocytheridea. Rare ostracods genera typical of offshore zone indicate limited oceanic connection with lagoon. Additionally, the rare presence of Cyprideis indicates a relatively stable salinity degree suggesting change in the lagoon dynamic until estuarine conditions. The ostracods comprise more than 100 species, ranging from Upper Oligocene to Lower Miocene with five index species correspondent to a single zone called the Cytherella stainforthi Zone that was subdivided in four sub-biozones: 1) Jugosocythereis pannosa, 2) Quadracythere brachypygaia, 3) Triebelina crumena and 4) Neocaudites macertus. This new zonation was calibrated with the Blow's and Wade's planktonic foraminifers zones (N.3 to N.7 zones corresponding to O6 to M4b of Wade) and with van den Bold's zonation in the Neogene Caribbean region. Ostracod assemblages described here provide an excellent biostragraphic framework for local, intrabasinal and regional correlation for the Oligocene-Miocene deposits of the Northeastern Amazonia coast and Caribbean regions

  15. The expansion of intensive agriculture and ranching in Brazilian Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert; DeFries, Ruth; del Carmen Vera-Diaz, Maria; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Venturieri, Adriano

    Agriculture in Amazonia has often provoked controversy, given the tremendous ecological value of the region's environment. First with ranching, and now with the soybean boom, tractors and cattle have marched across lands that for millennia supported only closed moist forest, resident ecosystems, and dispersed indigenous peoples. The present chapter considers this expansion, focusing on the Brazilian portion of the basin. Its premise is that effective Amazonian policy must be grounded on an understanding of the region's agriculture. The chapter pursues its objectives by first addressing the development initiatives that created the preconditions for Amazonia's current agricultural economy. The region is remote and has therefore required sustained government intervention to release its potential. The policy discussion is followed by descriptions of cattle ranching and soy farming. For each, market settings and trajectories of expansion are presented. Although these sectoral descriptions are data rich, they do not provide a conceptual framework for analyzing the environmental impacts of evolving market conditions. To accomplish this, the chapter invokes the classical land use model of von Thünen to explain Amazonian land cover dynamics in relation to soy-cattle linkages. It addresses these dynamics with remote sensing data from Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia, and then discusses scenarios of agricultural advances on the forest. Conclusions follow, considering possible policy responses to deforestation, and the social context of agricultural intensification, with special attention to the issues of land tenure security and distributional equity.

  16. A qualitative study analyzing access to physical rehabilitation for traffic accident victims with severe disability in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Kelienny de Meneses; Oliveira, Wagner Ivan Fonsêca de; Melo, Laiza Oliveira Mendes de; Alves, Emanuel Augusto; Piuvezam, Grasiela; Gama, Zenewton André da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To identify access barriers to physical rehabilitation for traffic accident (TA) victims with severe disability and build a theoretical model to provide guidance towards the improvement of these services. Methods Qualitative research carried out in the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil), with semi-structured interviews with 120 subjects (19 key informer health professionals and 101 TA victims) identified in a database made available by the emergency hospital. The interviews were analyzed using Alceste software, version 4.9. Results The main barriers present in the interviews were: (1) related to services: bureaucratic administrative practises, low offer of rehabilitation services, insufficient information on rehabilitation, lack of guidelines that integrate hospital and ambulatory care and (2) related to patients: financial difficulties, functional limitations, geographic distance, little information on health, association with low education levels and disbelief in the system and in rehabilitation. Conclusion The numerous access barriers were presented in a theoretical model with causes related to organizational structure, processes of care, professionals and patients. This model must be tested by health policy-makers and managers to improve the quality of physical rehabilitation and avoid unnecessary prolongation of the suffering and disability experienced by TA survivors. Implications for rehabilitation Traffic accidents (TAs) are a global health dilemma that demands integrality of preventive actions, pre-hospital and hospital care and physical rehabilitation (PR). This study lays the foundation for improving access to PR for TA survivors, an issue of quality of care that results in preventable disabilities. The words of the patients interviewed reveal the suffering of victims, which is often invisible to society and given low priority by health policies that relegate PR to a second plan ahead of prevention and urgent care. A theoretical model of the

  17. A simplified physical model for assessing solar radiation over Brazil using GOES 8 visible imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Juan Carlos; Bottino, Marcus Jorge; de Souza, Jaidete Monteiro

    2004-01-01

    Solar radiation assessment by satellite is constrained by physical limitations of imagery and by the accuracy of instantaneous local atmospheric parameters, suggesting that one should use simplified but physically consistent models for operational work. Such a model is presented for use with GOES 8 imagery applied to atmospheres with low aerosol optical depth. Fundamental satellite-derived parameters are reflectance and cloud cover. A classification method applied to a set of images shows that reflectance, usually defined as upper-threshold Rmax in algorithms assessing cloud cover, would amount ˜0.465, corresponding to the transition between a cumuliform and a stratiform cloud field. Ozone absorption is limited to the stratosphere. The model considers two spectral broadband intervals for tropospheric radiative transfer: ultraviolet and visible intervals are essentially nonabsorbing and can be processed as a single interval, while near-infrared intervals have negligible atmospheric scattering and very low cloud transmittance. Typical values of CO2 and O3 content and of precipitable water are considered. A comparison of daily values of modeled mean irradiance with data of three sites (in rural, urban industrial, and urban coastal environments), September-October 2002, exhibits a bias of +5 W m-2 and a standard deviation of ˜15 W m-2 (0.4 and 1.3 MJ m-2 for daily irradiation). A comparison with monthly means from about 80 automatic weather stations (covering a large area throughout the Brazilian territory) still shows a bias generally within ±10 W m-2 and a low standard deviation (annual cycle of local Rmax values. Systematic (mean) errors in partial cloud cover and in nearly clear-sky situations may be enhanced using regional values for atmospheric and surface parameters, such as precipitable water, Rmax, and ground reflectance. The larger errors are observed in situations of high aerosol load (especially in regions with industrial activity or forest or

  18. Physical violence by an intimate partner and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services among women in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Jackelyne Faierstein; Valongueiro, Sandra; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the association between physical violence by an intimate partner (PVIP) and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services. A nested cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,026 women, based on data from a prospective cohort study designed to investigate intimate partner violence among pregnant women enrolled in the Family Health Program (PSF) in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. The use of prenatal care services was assessed with basis on the guidelines from the Program for Humanization of Prenatal Care and Childbirth (Brazilian Ministry of Health) and considered the time of the first prenatal care visit and the total number of visits during the pregnancy. Data were collected through two face-to-face interviews (one in the last pregnancy trimester and the other in the postpartum period), using standardized questionnaires and data on Pregnancy Card records. An unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence intervals to measure the association between an PVIP and the inappropriate use of prenatal care services, using the stepwise method. The prevalence of the inappropriate use of prenatal care services was 44.1% and of an PVIP, 25.6%. In the logistic regression analysis, an intimatePVIP was associated with inappropriate prenatal care (OR = 1.37; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.85; p = 0.04) after adjustment by variables confirmed as confounders (parity, alcohol use in pregnancy, and education level). Women who are victims of an PVIP have more chance of receiving inappropriate prenatal care due to late onset of prenatal care, fewer prenatal care visits, or both.

  19. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and physical activity: a study of nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forjaz, C.L.M.; Bartholomeu, T. [Laboratório de Hemodinâmica da Atividade Motora (LAHAM), Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rezende, J.A.S. [Escola Superior de Educação Física de Muzambinho, Muzambinho, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, J.A.; Basso, L.; Tani, G. [Laboratório de Comportamento Motor (LACOM), Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Prista, A. [Faculdade de Educação Física e Desporto, Universidade Pedagógica, Maputo (Mozambique); Maia, J.A.R. [CIFI2D, Laboratório de Cineantropometria e Gabinete de Estatística Aplicada, Faculdade de Desporto, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-09-07

    Blood pressure (BP) and physical activity (PA) levels are inversely associated. Since genetic factors account for the observed variation in each of these traits, it is possible that part of their association may be related to common genetic and/or environmental influences. Thus, this study was designed to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations of BP and PA phenotypes in nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil. Families including 236 offspring (6 to 24 years) and their 82 fathers and 122 mothers (24 to 65 years) were evaluated. BP was measured, and total PA (TPA) was assessed by an interview (commuting, occupational, leisure time, and school time PA). Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate maximal heritability (h{sup 2}), and genetic and environmental correlations. Heritability was significant for all phenotypes (systolic BP: h{sup 2} = 0.37 ± 0.10, P < 0.05; diastolic BP: h{sup 2} = 0.39 ± 0.09, P < 0.05; TPA: h{sup 2} = 0.24 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). Significant genetic (r{sub g}) and environmental (r{sub e}) correlations were detected between systolic and diastolic BP (r{sub g} = 0.67 ± 0.12 and r{sub e} = 0.48 ± 0.08, P < 0.05). Genetic correlations between BP and TPA were not significant, while a tendency to an environmental cross-trait correlation was found between diastolic BP and TPA (r{sub e} = -0.18 ± 0.09, P = 0.057). In conclusion, BP and PA are under genetic influences. Systolic and diastolic BP share common genes and environmental influences. Diastolic BP and TPA are probably under similar environmental influences.

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and physical activity: a study of nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L.M. Forjaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP and physical activity (PA levels are inversely associated. Since genetic factors account for the observed variation in each of these traits, it is possible that part of their association may be related to common genetic and/or environmental influences. Thus, this study was designed to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations of BP and PA phenotypes in nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil. Families including 236 offspring (6 to 24 years and their 82 fathers and 122 mothers (24 to 65 years were evaluated. BP was measured, and total PA (TPA was assessed by an interview (commuting, occupational, leisure time, and school time PA. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate maximal heritability (h², and genetic and environmental correlations. Heritability was significant for all phenotypes (systolic BP: h² = 0.37 ± 0.10, P < 0.05; diastolic BP: h² = 0.39 ± 0.09, P < 0.05; TPA: h² = 0.24 ± 0.09, P < 0.05. Significant genetic (r g and environmental (r e correlations were detected between systolic and diastolic BP (r g = 0.67 ± 0.12 and r e = 0.48 ± 0.08, P < 0.05. Genetic correlations between BP and TPA were not significant, while a tendency to an environmental cross-trait correlation was found between diastolic BP and TPA (r e = -0.18 ± 0.09, P = 0.057. In conclusion, BP and PA are under genetic influences. Systolic and diastolic BP share common genes and environmental influences. Diastolic BP and TPA are probably under similar environmental influences.

  1. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure and physical activity: a study of nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forjaz, C.L.M.; Bartholomeu, T.; Rezende, J.A.S.; Oliveira, J.A.; Basso, L.; Tani, G.; Prista, A.; Maia, J.A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) and physical activity (PA) levels are inversely associated. Since genetic factors account for the observed variation in each of these traits, it is possible that part of their association may be related to common genetic and/or environmental influences. Thus, this study was designed to estimate the genetic and environmental correlations of BP and PA phenotypes in nuclear families from Muzambinho, Brazil. Families including 236 offspring (6 to 24 years) and their 82 fathers and 122 mothers (24 to 65 years) were evaluated. BP was measured, and total PA (TPA) was assessed by an interview (commuting, occupational, leisure time, and school time PA). Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate maximal heritability (h 2 ), and genetic and environmental correlations. Heritability was significant for all phenotypes (systolic BP: h 2 = 0.37 ± 0.10, P < 0.05; diastolic BP: h 2 = 0.39 ± 0.09, P < 0.05; TPA: h 2 = 0.24 ± 0.09, P < 0.05). Significant genetic (r g ) and environmental (r e ) correlations were detected between systolic and diastolic BP (r g = 0.67 ± 0.12 and r e = 0.48 ± 0.08, P < 0.05). Genetic correlations between BP and TPA were not significant, while a tendency to an environmental cross-trait correlation was found between diastolic BP and TPA (r e = -0.18 ± 0.09, P = 0.057). In conclusion, BP and PA are under genetic influences. Systolic and diastolic BP share common genes and environmental influences. Diastolic BP and TPA are probably under similar environmental influences

  2. Nuevas especies de Axonopus (Poaceae: Panicoideae: Paniceae de la Amazonia Colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Cañas Diego

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Axonopus, A. morronei (series Axonopus and A. zuloagae (series Barbigen are described. The new species are known only from the savannas and sandstone plateau of Colombian northwest Amazonia.Se describen dos nuevas especies de Axonopus, A. morronei y A. zuloagae, de las series Axonopus y Barbigeri, respectivamente. Las nuevas especies son conocidas únicamente de las sabanas y afloramientos rocosos de la Amazonia noroccidental colombiana.

  3. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  4. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dolman

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  5. Meso-scale effects of tropical deforestation in Amazonia: preparatory LBA modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Dolman

    Full Text Available As part of the preparation for the Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia, a meso-scale modelling study was executed to highlight deficiencies in the current understanding of land surface atmosphere interaction at local to sub-continental scales in the dry season. Meso-scale models were run in 1-D and 3-D mode for the area of Rondonia State, Brazil. The important conclusions are that without calibration it is difficult to model the energy partitioning of pasture; modelling that of forest is easier due to the absence of a strong moisture deficit signal. The simulation of the boundary layer above forest is good, above deforested areas (pasture poor. The models' underestimate of the temperature of the boundary layer is likely to be caused by the neglect of the radiative effects of aerosols caused by biomass burning, but other factors such as lack of sufficient entrainment in the model at the mixed layer top may also contribute. The Andes generate patterns of subsidence and gravity waves, the effects of which are felt far into the Rondonian area The results show that the picture presented by GCM modelling studies may need to be balanced by an increased understanding of what happens at the meso-scale. The results are used to identify key measurements for the LBA atmospheric meso-scale campaign needed to improve the model simulations. Similar modelling studies are proposed for the wet season in Rondonia, when convection plays a major role.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; biosphere-atmosphere interactions · Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meterology

  6. CHLOROCOCCALES DE LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA I: Chlorellaceae y Scenedesmaceae

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    ECHENIQUE RICARDO O.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo damos a conocer 41 taxones pertenecientes a las familias Chlorellaceaey Scenedesmaceae del orden Chlorococcales (Algae, Cholophyceae hallados entres cuencas de la Amazonia colombiana: Amazonas (Solimões, Putumayo (Içã yCaquetá (Japurá. Del total encontrado, 19 son nuevas citas para Colombia, nueveson nuevos registros para la cuenca en estudio y se propone una nueva entidadtaxonómica Tetraedron triangulare f. major Echenique nova forma. La mayor riquezase encontró en los lagos de inundación del río Amazonas, en particular en el lagoYahuarcaca que presenta amplio desarrollo de macrófitos y los mayores nivelestróficos de la región.

  7. Drug tourism or spiritual healing? Ayahuasca seekers in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2005-06-01

    This research addresses the question of whether Westerners who seek traditional spiritual medicine known as ayahuasca can be best characterized as "drug tourists" or as people pursuing spiritual and therapeutic opportunities. Participants in an ayahuasca retreat in Amazonia were interviewed regarding their motivations for participation and the benefits they felt that they received. These findings from the interviews were organized to reveal common motivations and benefits. Contrary to the characterization as "drug tourists", the principal motivations can be characterized as: seeking spiritual relations and personal spiritual development; emotional healing; and the development of personal self-awareness, including contact with a sacred nature, God, spirits and plant and natural energies produced by the ayahuasca. The motivation and perceived benefits both point to transpersonal concerns, with the principal perceived benefits involving increased self awareness, insights and access to deeper levels of the self that enhanced personal development and the higher self, providing personal direction in life.

  8. Pervasive Rise of Small-scale Deforestation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamandeen, Michelle; Gloor, Emanuel; Mitchard, Edward; Quincey, Duncan; Ziv, Guy; Spracklen, Dominick; Spracklen, Benedict; Adami, Marcos; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galbraith, David

    2018-01-25

    Understanding forest loss patterns in Amazonia, the Earth's largest rainforest region, is critical for effective forest conservation and management. Following the most detailed analysis to date, spanning the entire Amazon and extending over a 14-year period (2001-2014), we reveal significant shifts in deforestation dynamics of Amazonian forests. Firstly, hotspots of Amazonian forest loss are moving away from the southern Brazilian Amazon to Peru and Bolivia. Secondly, while the number of new large forest clearings (>50 ha) has declined significantly over time (46%), the number of new small clearings (<1 ha) increased by 34% between 2001-2007 and 2008-2014. Thirdly, we find that small-scale low-density forest loss expanded markedly in geographical extent during 2008-2014. This shift presents an important and alarming new challenge for forest conservation, despite reductions in overall deforestation rates.

  9. Mangrove vegetation in Amazonia: a review of studies from the coast of Pará and Maranhão States, north Brazil Vegetação de manguezais na Amazônia: uma revisão dos estudos da costa dos Estados Pará e Maranhão, norte do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moirah Paula Machado de Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a compilation of the literature about vegetation of mangrove forest of the north coast of Brazil. It synthesizes the knowledge about this important ecosystem and lists the currently available literature. The study focuses on the coast of Pará and Maranhão states, which are covered by a continuous belt of mangroves. The mangrove flora comprises six mangrove tree species and several associated species. Mangrove tree height and stem diameter vary as a function of abiotic local stand parameters. Seasonal variation in rainfall and salinity affect the species' phenology and litter fall. Local population use products derived from mangrove plants for different purposes (e.g. fuel; medicinal; rural construction. The increase in the coastal population has given rise to conflicts, which impact on mangrove forest.O presente estudo apresenta uma compilação da literatura sobre a vegetação dos manguezais da costa norte do Brasil, apresentando uma síntese do conhecimento e listando a literatura disponível. O estudo se concentra na costa dos estados do Pará e Maranhão que formam um cinturão contínuo de manguezais . Foram contabilizadas seis espécies arbóreas exclusivas de mangue e várias outras associadas. A altura e o diâmetro das árvores de mangue variam em função de parâmetros abióticos locais. As variações sazonais do regime de chuvas e da salinidade afetam a fenologia das espécies e a produção de serapilheira. A população costeira utiliza a flora do manguezal para diferentes fins (ex: combustível, medicinal, construção rural. O aumento da ocupação costeira inicia um processo de impacto para as florestas de mangue e a disponibilidade de seus recursos.

  10. USOS DE LAS PALMAS EN LA AMAZONIA COLOMBIANA

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    LAURA MESA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico del estado actual de conocimiento sobre usos de las palmas en la Amazonia colombiana, se revisaron las principales fuentes de información. Treinta y seis de las 41 etnias indígenas consideradas tuvieron registros de uso. Se registraron 82 especies de palmas usadas (78% de las potenciales y 165 usos distribuidos en ocho categorías; todos los usos se presentan de manera detallada en un catálogo. Las categorías de uso más importantes fueron: utensilios y herramientas, construcción, y alimentación humana. Las diez especies más importantes fueron Bactris gasipaes, Euterpe precatoria, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea maripa, Oenocarpus minor, Astrocaryum chambira, Iriartea deltoidea, Oenocarpus bacaba y Socratea exorrhiza; la mayoría de ellas también han sido registradas como las más importantes en otras partes del Neotrópico. No se encontró ninguna información sobre usos de palmas para varios grupos indígenas, especialmente para las etnias cocama, letuama, piaroa, pisamira y yurí, para las cuales se requieren investigaciones detalladas. Se concluye que a pesar de los vacíos de información, los resultados muestran que las palmas son un recurso muy importante con un gran potencial, y una pieza fundamental para la seguridad alimentaria y el desarrollo sustentable de la Amazonia colombiana. Sugerimos la inclusión de las especies más importantes en programas de manejo y agroforestales, al igual que la implementación y popularización de técnicas de cosecha no destructivas. Recomendamos además que las investigaciones futuras estén enfocadas en desarrollar estrategias de manejo que garanticen el uso sostenible de todas estas especies útiles.

  11. O Brazil-Medico e as contribuições do pensamento médico-higienista para as bases científicas da educação física brasileira Brazil-Medico and the contributions of medical-hygienist thought to the scientific bases of Brazilian physical education

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    Maria Isabel Brandão de Souza Mendes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O final do século XIX e o início do XX foram emblemáticos para a 'cientificização' da educação física no Brasil. A presente investigação se direcionou para o Brazil-Medico no período de 1887-1923, com o objetivo de identificar as compreensões de corpo e saúde, buscando-se contribuições para as bases científicas da educação física brasileira.The end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth were emblematic in the 'scientifization' of physical education in Brazil. This examination of the journal Brazil-Medico during 1887-1923 seeks to identify views of the body and health as well as contributions to the scientific bases of physical education in Brazil.

  12. Megafans and Trumpeter Bird Biodiversity-Psophia Phylogeography and Landscape Evolution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Based on geomorphic character and mapped geology, geologists have interpreted the landscape surrounding the Andes Mountains as becoming progressively younger to the East. These sedimentary materials filled the late Miocene swampland that formerly occupied central and western Amazonia. Apart from the ancient landscapes of the Guiana Highlands (top right, figure 1a), Zone Ac is the oldest, followed by Zone Aw, within which megafan Jw is older than megafan Je (figure 1a). DNA-based paleogeography of the trumpeters shows that younger clades diverge from parent lineages with increasing distance from the Andes chain. Thus, Psophia napensis diverges from the P. crepitans parent, and P. ochroptera diverges from P. napensis. The P. ochroptera population is confined solely to the Je megafan (figure 1a). The same trend is seen on the south side of the Amazon depression. Since the timing of the events seems to be of exactly the same order [post-Miocene for the land surfaces and trumpeter divergence within the last 3 million years (figure 1d)], it seems reasonable to think that the megafans provided the substrate on which new bird lineages could speciate. Such physical controls of evolution are becoming more important in the understanding of biodiversity.

  13. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A.; Universidade de Sao Paulo

    2017-01-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  14. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br, E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (MAE/USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2017-11-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  15. Variability and correlation of physical attributes of soils cultivated with cacao trees in two climate zones in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a very important crop in southern Bahia, Brazil, which needs good climate and soil conditions and management for great productivity. In this region, the culture is developed in a large variety of soils, which indicates differentiated products. The aim of this study was to ...

  16. Evapotranspiration measurements in rainfed and irrigated cropland illustrate trade-offs in land and water management in Southern Amazonia's agricultural frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Black, T. A.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Hawthorne, I.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Amazonia, Brazil, is home to a rapidly expanding agricultural frontier in which tropical forest and savanna landscapes have been increasingly replaced by agricultural land since the 1990s. One important impact of deforestation is the reduction in water vapour transferred to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) from rainfed agriculture landscapes compared to natural vegetation, leading to a reduction in regional precipitation recycling. Here, we discuss land and water management choices for future agricultural production in Southern Amazonia and their potential effects on the atmospheric water cycle. We illustrate these choices by presenting ET measurements on an agricultural landscape by eddy covariance (EC) between September 2015 and February 2017. Measurements were made for two fields adjacent to one micrometeorological EC tower: (1) one rainfed field containing a succession of soybean, maize, brachiara and soybean, and (2) one irrigated field with a succession of soybean, rice, beans, and soybean. Over the time period, total ET in the rainfed and irrigated fields was 1266 ± 294 mm and 1415 ± 180 mm, respectively for a total precipitation of 3099 mm. The main difference in ET between the fields was attributed to the application of 118 mm of surface water irrigated for bean production in the irrigated field between June and September 2016. In the rainfed field, soybean ET was 332 ± 82 mm (2015-2016) and 423 ± 99 mm (2016-2017) for 824 mm and 1124 mm of precipitation, respectively. In the irrigated field, soybean ET was 271 ± 38 mm (2015) and 404 ± 60 mm (2016-2017) with supplemental irrigation added in 2015. Our results illustrate how supplemental irrigation can favour early soybean planting while transferring additional water vapour to the atmosphere at levels similar to natural vegetation. We conclude by discussing our results in the context of future land and water trade-offs for agricultural intensification in Brazil's "arc-of-deforestation".

  17. Autonomy of action among elderly women on physical activity programs in Brazil and Belgium: a comparative study

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    Nádia Souza Lima da Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy of action is important for quality of life. This study compared the autonomy of action of elderly female participants on physical activity programs in Brazil (IMMA, n=47, age=75±5 years and Belgium (ISEPK, n=77; age=69±7 years, using the Senior System for Evaluation of Autonomy of Action (SysSen. The SysSen is composed of a questionnaire (QSAP about the aerobic power and upper limb strength needed for a life perceived as autonomous, and a fi eld test (TSMP, in which the subject walks 800 m carrying predetermined loads. The QSAP results are used to calculate an Index of Expressed Autonomy (IAE and the TSMP to calculate an Index of Potential Autonomy (IAP. The ratio of IAP to IAE then gives an Index of Autonomy of Action (IAP/IAE=ISAC. An ISAC of 1.0 or more defi nes the subject as independent. IMMA and ISEPK data were compared with ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman ANOVA, depending on distribution (p Resumo A autonomia de ação é importante para a qualidade de vida. O presente estudo comparou a autonomia de ação de idosas participantes de programas de atividades físicas no Brasil (IMMA, n=47, idade=75±5 anos e na Bélgica (ISEPK, n=77; idade=69±7 anos, utilizando o Sistema Sênior de Avaliação da Autonomia de Ação (SysSen. O SysSen é composto por questionário (QSAP, voltado para as necessidades de potência aeróbia e força de membros superiores em atividades compatíveis com uma vida percebida como autônoma, e teste de campo (TSMP, no qual se caminha 800 m transportando cargas pré-determinadas. O QSAP fornece um Índice de Autonomia Exprimida (IAE e o TSMP um Índice de Autonomia Potencial (IAP que, cruzados, defi nem o Índice de Autonomia de Ação (IAP/IAE=ISAC. Um ISAC≥1,0 caracteriza o sujeito como autônomo. IMMA e ISEPK foram comparados por ANOVA para medidas repetidas ou ANOVA Friedman, conforme a natureza dos dados (p<0,05. Os resultados revelaram que: a O IAP foi menor para o IMMA que para o ISEPK

  18. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

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    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  19. Health-related factors correlate with behavior trends in physical activity level in old age: longitudinal results from a population in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ribeiro Manoel CSA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity in leisure time is common among elderly in Brazil and this finding is particularly alarming considering that this population is greatly affected by chronic diseases. The identification of health factors that influence physical activity level (PAL will help in the development of strategies for increasing PAL older adults. The current research aimed to identify variables that independently affect behavior trends in PAL over the course of two years among elderly. Methods A survey entitled the Epidoso Project ("Epidemiology of aging" studied 1,667 community-based older individuals in São Paulo city, Brazil over the course of two years. Physical activity level was determined through questions about frequency and duration of physical activities. Body Mass Index was calculated; functional capacity was assessed through the ADL (activities of daily living scale; cognition was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination; and mental health was assessed through the Dysthymia Screening. Experiences of falls and fractures were also assessed. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their self-report of Physical Activity Level: a - Regularly Active; b - Insufficiently Active and c - Physically Inactive. Behavior trends in PAL were also measured after two years. Multivariate regression model methodology was used to test associations longitudinally. Results Results from the final model demonstrated that the risk of a not favorable behavior trend in PAL, which included the group who remained physically inactive and the group that displayed decreased PAL, in this cohort of older adults was significantly increased if the individual was female (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.60-3.89; P , older (80 y vs. 65 y, OR = 6.29, 95% CI = 2.69-14.67; P , dependent on help from others for activities in the ADL scale (moderate-severe = 4-7+ vs. 0 ADLs (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.20-4.21; P or had experienced a history of falls with

  20. Electric systems failures produced by CG lightning in Eastern Amazonia

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    Ana Paula Paes dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operational records of power outages of the electric energy distribution systems in eastern Amazonia presented a large number of events attributed to lightning strikes, during the 2006 to 2009 period. The regional electricity concessionary data were compared to actual lightning observations made by SIPAM's LDN system, over two areas where operational sub systems of transmission lines are installed. Statistical relations were drawn between the monthly lightning occurrence density and the number of power outages of the electric systems for both areas studied. The results showed that, although with some delays between these variables peaks, the number of power disruptions has a tendency to follow the behavior of the lightning occurrence densities variations. The numerical correlations were positive and may be useful to the transmission lines maintenance crews at least for the Belém-Castanhal electricity distribution sub system. Evidence was found, that the SST's over certain areas of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, influence convection over the area of interest, and may help to prognosticate the periods of intense electric storms, requiring repair readiness for the regional electric systems.

  1. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  2. Biome-Scale Forest Properties in Amazonia Based on Field and Satellite Observations

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    Liana O. Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian forests are extremely heterogeneous at different spatial scales. This review intends to present the large-scale patterns of the ecosystem properties of Amazonia, and focuses on two parts of the main components of the net primary production: the long-lived carbon pools (wood and short-lived pools (leaves. First, the focus is on forest biophysical properties, and secondly, on the macro-scale leaf phenological patterns of these forests, looking at field measurements and bringing into discussion the recent findings derived from remote sensing dataset. Finally, I discuss the results of the three major droughts that hit Amazonia in the last 15 years. The panorama that emerges from this review suggests that slow growing forests in central and eastern Amazonia, where soils are poorer, have significantly higher above ground biomass and higher wood density, trees are higher and present lower proportions of large-leaved species than stands in northwest and southwest Amazonia. However, the opposite pattern is observed in relation to forest productivity and dynamism, which is higher in western Amazonia than in central and eastern forests. The spatial patterns on leaf phenology across Amazonia are less marked. Field data from different forest formations showed that new leaf production can be unrelated to climate seasonality, timed with radiation, timed with rainfall and/or river levels. Oppositely, satellite images exhibited a large-scale synchronized peak in new leaf production during the dry season. Satellite data and field measurements bring contrasting results for the 2005 drought. Discussions on data processing and filtering, aerosols effects and a combined analysis with field and satellite images are presented. It is suggested that to improve the understanding of the large-scale patterns on Amazonian forests, integrative analyses that combine new technologies in remote sensing and long-term field ecological data are imperative.

  3. [Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and associated factors: a population-based study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Clóvis Arlindo de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical activity and related factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009. A population- based cross-sectional study interviewed 2,691 individuals of both sexes, 12 years or older. A two-stage cluster (census tract, household) random sample provided data using home interviews in 2008 and 2009. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with IPAQ, long version. Complex sample-adjusted descriptive statistics provided prevalence estimates, chi-square tests screened associations, and prevalence ratios (PR) expressed effects. Multiple Poisson regression was used to ascertain adjusted effects, and design effects were calculated. Of the interviewees, 16.4% (95%CI: 14.3-18.7) reported leisure-time physical activity. The findings indicate the importance of encouraging leisure-time physical activity, which was associated with male sex, higher income, younger age (12 to 29 years), not smoking, and not reporting frequent fatigue.

  4. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

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    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in official settlements and other small farmers also are responsible for substantial amounts of clearing, but ranchers constitute the largest component of the region's clearing. This group is most responsive to macroeconomic changes affecting such factors as commodity prices, and also receives substantial subsidies. Ulterior motives, such as land speculation and money laundering, also affect this group. Drug trafficking and money laundering represent strong forces in some areas and help spread deforestation where it would be unprofitable based only on the legitimate economy. Goldminers increase the population in distant areas and subsequently enter the ranks of other groups. Work as laborers or debt slaves provides an important entry to the region for poor migrants from northeast Brazil, providing cheap labor to large ranches and a large source of entrants to other groups, such as landless farmers and colonists. Capitalized farmers, including agribusiness for soy production, have tremendous impact in certain areas, such as Mato Grosso. This group responds to commodity markets and provides justification for major infrastructure projects. Landgrabbers, or grileiros, are important in entering public land and beginning the process of deforestation and transfer of land to subsequent groups of actors. These include sawmill owners and loggers, who play an important role in generating funds for clearing by other groups, ranging from landless migrants to large ranchers. They

  5. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil, as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

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    Ericson H. Hayakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics.

  6. Water balance, nutrient and carbon export from a heath forest catchment in central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanchi, F. .B.; Waterloo, M.J.; Tapia, A.P.; Alvarado Barrientos, M.S.; Bolson, M.A.; Luizao, F.J.; Manzi, A.O.; Dolman, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon storage values in the Amazon basin have been studied through different approaches in the last decades in order to clarify whether the rainforest ecosystem is likely to act as a sink or source for carbon in the near future. This water balance, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrient export

  7. Spatial heterogeneity of malaria in Indian reserves of Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil

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    Santos Ricardo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria constitutes a major cause of morbidity in the Brazilian Amazon where an estimated 6 million people are considered at high risk of transmission. Indigenous peoples in the Amazon are particularly vulnerable to potentially epidemic disease such as malaria; notwithstanding, very little is known about the epidemiology of malaria in Indian reservations of the region. The aim of this paper is to present a spatial analysis of malaria cases over a four-year time period (2003–2006 among indigenous peoples of the Brazilian State of Rondônia, southwestern Amazon, by using passive morbidity data (results from Giemsa-stained thick blood smears gathered from the National Malaria Epidemiologic Surveillance System databank. Results A total of 4,160 cases of malaria were recorded in 14 Indian reserves in the State of Rondônia between 2003 and 2006. In six reservations no cases of malaria were reported in the period. Overall, P. vivax accounted for 76.18 of malaria cases reported in the indigenous population of Rondônia. The P. vivax/P. falciparum ratio for the period was 3.78. Two reserves accounted for over half of the cases reported for the total indigenous population in the period – Roosevelt and Pacaas Novas – with a total of 1,646 (39.57% and 1,145 (27.52% cases, respectively. Kernel mapping of malaria mean Annual Parasite Index – API according to indigenous reserves and environmental zones revealed a heterogeneous pattern of disease distribution, with one clear area of high risk of transmission comprising reservations of west Rondônia along the Guaporé-Madeira River basins, and another high risk area to the east, on the Roosevelt reserve. Conclusion By means of kernel mapping, it was shown that malaria risk varies widely between Indian reserves and environmental zones defined on the basis of predominant ecologic characteristics and land use patterns observed in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon. The geographical approach in this paper helped to determine where the greatest needs lie for more intensively focused malaria control activities in Indian reserves in the region. It also provided a reference to assess the effectiveness of control measures that have been put in place by Brazilian public health authorities.

  8. [The impact of professional activities on the physical and mental health of the civil and military police of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we analyze the physical and mental stress and illness of military and civil police force officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) due to their working conditions and professional activities. The same methodology was used for the study of two categories, namely a quantitative approach (simple random sampling by conglomerates, involving a total of 1,458 civil police officers and 1,108 military police officers, who answered questionnaires anonymously) and a qualitative approach (focal groups involving 143 professionals and 18 interviews with managers of both police forces). The data presented here are all original. Disorders identified were: overweight and obesity in both forces but mainly in the Military Police; low frequency of physical exercise and high levels of cholesterol, especially in the Civil Police. The main health complaints are neck, back or spinal cord pain, eyesight complaints and headaches/ migraines. Sixteen point two per cent of officers of both forces reported physical lesions that were more prevalent in the Military Police, among whom psychic suffering was also more frequent (SRQ20). The need for changes in the individual and professional dimensions and in institutional aspects regarding the conditions and organization of work and of health services is emphasized.

  9. Association of socioeconomic factors with body mass index, obesity, physical activity, and dietary factors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: The BH Health Study

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    Julia Ward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Existing research investigating social patterning of obesity and its risk factors in Latin American urban contexts has inconsistent findings. This study analyzed a multistage household survey in adults in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Marginal models were used to examine the association of education and household and neighborhood income with body mass index (BMI, obesity, physical inactivity, and low fruit and vegetable intake after adjusting for age and ethnicity and stratifying by sex. BMI and obesity were inversely associated with education in women. BMI was positively associated with household and neighborhood income in men. Additionally, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with education and household income in both men and women, and physical inactivity was inversely associated with neighborhood income in men. Understanding the drivers of these patterns will allow for development of appropriate policy and interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in large cities in Latin America.

  10. Association between leisure-time physical activity and C-reactive protein levels in adults, in the city of Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanga, Francisco; Lessa, Ines

    2009-04-01

    Leisure time physical activity (LTPA), defined as any type of bodily movement performed during leisure time, is associated with a reduction in the risk for many cardiovascular injuries. To investigate the existence of an association between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in adults, in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study, with a sample of 822 men and women, aged > 20 years. Active in leisure time were those with a self-reported practice of physical activities in leisure time; high serum CRP levels were those with values > 3.0 mg/l. Logistic regression analysis was used to compute the odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Using multivariate analysis to adjust for potential confounders, we found an OR of 0.73 (0.68-0.79) among the men which shows the existence of an association between LTPA and high CRP levels only in male individuals. After a stratification by gender, obesity, diabetes and smoking habit, we found an association between LTPA and high CRP in non-obese and non-diabetic male smokers or former smokers; and in obese and non-smoking females. The results of this study may bring contributions to public health, since they can be used to raise awareness of the importance of LTPA as a prospective strategy for population health improvement.

  11. Santarém, entre la Amazonia de los ríos y la Amazonia de las carreteras Santarém, entre l’Amazonie des fleuves et l’Amazonie des routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Valbuena

    2008-04-01

    égional, jusque là dominé par la maille fluviale et un faible réseau de lieux peuplés, formé par les noyaux de population apparus au bord des voies navigables. Santarém, une ville historique à la localisation stratégique entre les deux plus grands centres urbains amazoniens, a été le théâtre de transformations énormes depuis la construction des routes, parce que sa liaison, via la route Cuibá-Santarém, au Centre Ouest du Brésil et via la Transamazonienn au Nord-est brésilien et  à l'Amazonie Occidentale a commencé à jouer un rôle important comme articulateur de la région Nord. En même temps, elle est devenue comme le principal foyer de peuplement de cette vaste région centrale, en organisant un processus émergent de construction régionale.The great northern area of Brazil, Amazonia, which during several centuries represented only an enormous vacuum and a source of potential richness, has been during the last half-century the object of an accelerated process of occupation and of intensive exploitation. A strong dynamics of appropriation facilitated the incursion of new human and financial resources into the Amazonian hinterland, especially during three last decades, when the realization of a ground network articulated the right bank of the big river.This network restructured the regional space, until then dominated by the rivers and a weak network of populated places, formed by small settlements at the edge of the inland waterways. Santarém, a historical city with a strategic localization between the two greater Amazonian urban centres, has been the theatre of enormous transformations since the construction of the road. The connection, via the Cuibá-Santarém road, with the Center-West region of Brazil and, via Transamazonian road, with the Brazilian North-East and Western Amazonia, started to play a significant role as articulator of the Northern area. At the same time, it became the principal focus of settlement of this vast central area, by

  12. Clustering of Physical Inactivity in Leisure, Work, Commuting, and Household Domains: Data From 47,477 Industrial Workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Duca, Giovâni F; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; da Silva, Shana Ginar; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Oliveira, Elusa S; Barros, Mauro V; Nahas, Markus V

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity in each domain (leisure, work, commuting, and household) is not completely independent. This study aimed to describe the clustering of physical inactivity in different domains and its association with sociodemographic factors among Brazilian industrial workers. This was a cross-sectional, population-based study using data from 23 Brazilian states and the Federal District collected via questionnaires between 2006 and 2008. Physical inactivity in each domain was defined as nonparticipation in specific physical activities. Clustering of physical inactivity was identified using the ratio of the observed (O) and expected (E) percentages of each combination. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors with the outcome. Among the 44,477 interviewees, most combinations exceeded expectations, particularly the clustering of physical inactivity in all domains among men (O/E = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.30; 1.44) and women (O/E = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.36; 1.60). Physical inactivity in 2 or more domains was observed more frequently in women, older age groups, individuals living without a partner, and those with higher education and income levels. Physical inactivity tends to be observed in clusters regardless of gender. Women and workers with higher income levels were the main factors associated with to be physically inactive in 2 or more domains.

  13. Distance decay of tree species similarity in protected areas on terra firme forests in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duque, Á.; Phillips, J.F.; von Hildebrand, P.; Posada, C.A.; Prieto, A.; Rudas, A.; Suescún, M.; Stevenson, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pattern of floristic similarity as a function of geographical distances and environmental variability in well-drained uplands (terra firme) in Colombian Amazonia. The study site comprised three National Natural Parks, Tinigua, Chiribiquete, and Amacayacu, located

  14. Estimates of the height of the boundary layer using SODAR and rawinsoundings in Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, G [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, 12228-904 (Brazil); Santos, L A R dos [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET), BrasIlia, 70680-900 (Brazil)], E-mail: gfisch@iae.cta.br, E-mail: landre@inmet.gov.br

    2008-05-01

    During the LBA campaign in Amazonia 2002, simultaneous measurements were made of the boundary layer using different instruments (rawinsoundings and SODAR). The profiles of potential temperature and humidity were used to estimates the height of the boundary layer using 3 different techniques. The SODAR's measurements did not capture the shallow morning boundary layer observed at the profiles.

  15. The Amazonian Craton and its influence on past fluvial systems (Mesozoic-Cenozoic, Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Roddaz, M.; Dino, R.; Soares, E.; Uba, C.; Ochoa-Lozano, D.; Mapes, R.; Hoorn, C.; Wesselingh, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    The Amazonian Craton is an old geological feature of Archaean/Proterozoic age that has determined the character of fluvial systems in Amazonia throughout most of its past. This situation radically changed during the Cenozoic, when uplift of the Andes reshaped the relief and drainage patterns of

  16. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca Villegas, S.; van Soelen, E.; Teunissen van Manen, M.L.; Flantua, S.G.A.; Santos, R.V.; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, E.L.; van Loon, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.-H.; Hoorn, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-westernAmazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also deter-mined the sediment provenance in the ?uvio-estuarine system and recon-structed the overall ?oral composition of the Amazon lowland forest duringthe

  17. Species richness and distribution of understorey bryophytes in different forest types in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benavides, J.C.; Duque, A.J.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Cleef, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The first bryophyte survey results from Colombian Amazonia are presented. Bryophyte species, differentiated into mosses and liverworts, and further into four life-form classes, were sampled in 0.1-ha plots. These plots were distributed over four landscape units in the middle Caquetá area:

  18. Amazon forest dynamics under changing abiotic conditions in the early Miocene (Colombian Amazonia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca, S.; van Soelen, E.E.; Teunissen van Manen, Milan L.; Flantua, Suzette G.A.; Ventura Santos, Roberto; Roddaz, M.; Dantas, Elton Luiz; van Loon, Emiel; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Hoorn, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Aim We analysed in detail a past marine incursion event in north-western Amazonia and measured its effect on the forest composition. We also determined the sediment provenance in the fluvio-estuarine system and reconstructed the overall floral composition of the Amazon lowland forest during the

  19. Modeling fire-driven deforestation potential in Amazonia under current and projected climate conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Page, Y.; van der Werf, G.R.; Morton, D.C.; Pereira, J.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fire is a widely used tool to prepare deforested areas for agricultural use in Amazonia. Deforestation is currently concentrated in seasonal forest types along the arc of deforestation, where dry-season conditions facilitate burning of clear-felled vegetation. Interior Amazon forests, however, are

  20. Carbon replacement and stability changes in short-term silvo-pastoralo experiments in Colombian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Vidal, O.; Buurman, P.; Ramirez, B.L.; Amezquita, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    There is little information on the effects of land use change on soil Carbon stocks in Colombian Amazonia. Such information would be needed to assess the impact of this area on the global C cycle and the sustainability of agricultural systems that are replacing native forest. The aim of this study

  1. The role of nuclear emulsions in the institutionalization of research in experimental physics in Brazil; O papel das emulsoes nucleares na institucionalizacao da pesquisa em fisica experimental no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Cassio Leite [Instituto Ciencia Hoje, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Videira, Antonio A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the introduction and the use of the nuclear emulsions technique in Brazil. Even though consistent researches in cosmic ray physics had been done since the forties of the last century in this country, physicists here only began using this technique after Cesar Lattes' works in Bristol (England) and Berkeley (US). Despite being the implantation of the technique in this country posterior to the origin of the method itself dated from late 1900s, Brazilian scientists were quickly familiarized with it and adopted it not only in cosmic rays, but also in particle physics and nuclear physics, employing it until recently. In our work, we will be concerned with the reasons of this longevity. In other words, why were the nuclear emulsions technique employed for so many years in Brazil, even after its vanishing in physics researches centers in the world? We advance here that the answer to this question involves the institutionalization of science in Brazil mainly physics and economical, social, and geographic reasons. (author)

  2. Changes in Bottom Water Physical Properties Above the Mid-Atlantic Ridge Flank in the Brazil Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Thurnherr, Andreas M.

    2018-01-01

    Warming of abyssal waters in recent decades has been widely documented around the global ocean. Here repeat hydrographic data collected in 1997 and 2014 near a deep fracture zone canyon in the eastern Brazil Basin are used to quantify the long-term change. Significant changes are found in the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) within the canyon. The AABW in 2014 was warmer (0.08 ± 0.06°C), saltier (0.01 ± 0.005), and less dense (0.005 ± 0.004 kg m-3) than in 1997. In contrast, the change in the North Atlantic Deep Water has complicated spatial structure and is almost indistinguishable from zero at 95% confidence. The resulting divergence in vertical displacement of the isopycnals modifies the local density stratification. At its peak, the local squared buoyancy frequency (N2) near the canyon is reduced by about 20% from 1997 to 2014. Similar reduction is found in the basinwide averaged profiles over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge flank along 25°W in years 1989, 2005, and 2014. The observed changes in density stratification have important implications for internal tide generation and dissipation.

  3. Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia: Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Riris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Hornborg, A. & Hill, J. D. (eds. 2011. 'Ethnicity in Ancient Amazonia:' 'Reconstructing Past Identities from Archaeology, Linguistics and Ethnohistory.' Boulder: University Press of Colorado, £60

  4. LBA-ECO LC-04 Satellite/Census-Based 5-Minute Land Use Data, Amazonia: 1980 and 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 5-minute land use maps for agricultural activity in Amazonia. The data set was produced by the statistical fusion of agricultural census data...

  5. Impact of Biomass Burning Aerosols on the Biosphere over Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavelle, F.; Haywood, J.; Mercado, L.; Folberth, G.; Bellouin, N.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) smoke from deforestation and the burning of agricultural waste emit a complex cocktail of aerosol particles and gases. BB emissions show a regional hotspot over South America on the edges of Amazonia. These major perturbations and impacts on surface temperature, surface fluxes, chemistry, radiation, rainfall, may have significant consequent impacts on the Amazon rainforest, the largest and most productive carbon store on the planet. There is therefore potential for very significant interaction and interplay between aerosols, clouds, radiation and the biosphere in the region. Terrestrial carbon production (i.e. photosynthesis) is intimately tied to the supply of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR - i.e. wavelengths between 300-690 nm). PAR in sufficient intensity and duration is critical for plant growth. However, if a decrease in total radiation is accompanied by an increase in the component of diffuse radiation, plant productivity may increase due to higher light use efficiency per unit of PAR and less photosynthetic saturation. This effect, sometimes referred as diffuse light fertilization effect, could have increased the global land carbon sink by approximately one quarter during the global dimming period and is expected to be a least as important locally. By directly interacting with radiation, BB aerosols significantly reduce the total amount of PAR available to plant canopies. In addition, BB aerosols also play a centre role in cloud formation because they provide the necessary cloud condensation nuclei, hence indirectly altering the water cycle and the components and quantity of PAR. In this presentation, we use the recent observations from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) to explore the impact of radiation changes on the carbon cycle in the Amazon region caused by BB emissions. A parameterisation of the impact of diffuse and direct radiation upon photosynthesis rates and net primary productivity in the

  6. Continuous soil carbon storage of old permanent pastures in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Clément; Fontaine, Sébastien; Klumpp, Katja; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Grise, Marcia Mascarenhas; Dezécache, Camille; Ponchant, Lise; Freycon, Vincent; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Burban, Benoit; Soussana, Jean-François; Blanfort, Vincent

    2017-08-01

    Amazonian forests continuously accumulate carbon (C) in biomass and in soil, representing a carbon sink of 0.42-0.65 GtC yr -1 . In recent decades, more than 15% of Amazonian forests have been converted into pastures, resulting in net C emissions (~200 tC ha -1 ) due to biomass burning and litter mineralization in the first years after deforestation. However, little is known about the capacity of tropical pastures to restore a C sink. Our study shows in French Amazonia that the C storage observed in native forest can be partly restored in old (≥24 year) tropical pastures managed with a low stocking rate (±1 LSU ha -1 ) and without the use of fire since their establishment. A unique combination of a large chronosequence study and eddy covariance measurements showed that pastures stored between -1.27 ± 0.37 and -5.31 ± 2.08 tC ha -1  yr -1 while the nearby native forest stored -3.31 ± 0.44 tC ha -1  yr -1 . This carbon is mainly sequestered in the humus of deep soil layers (20-100 cm), whereas no C storage was observed in the 0- to 20-cm layer. C storage in C4 tropical pasture is associated with the installation and development of C3 species, which increase either the input of N to the ecosystem or the C:N ratio of soil organic matter. Efforts to curb deforestation remain an obvious priority to preserve forest C stocks and biodiversity. However, our results show that if sustainable management is applied in tropical pastures coming from deforestation (avoiding fires and overgrazing, using a grazing rotation plan and a mixture of C3 and C4 species), they can ensure a continuous C storage, thereby adding to the current C sink of Amazonian forests. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Plantation forestry in Brazil: the potential impacts of climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Most climatic changes predicted to occur in Brazil would replace yields of silvicultural plantations, mainly through increased frequency and severity of droughts brought on by global warming and by reduction of water vapor sources in Amazonia caused by deforestation. Some additional negative effects could result from changes in temperature, and positive effects could result from CO 2 enrichment. The net effects would be negative, forcing the country to expand plantations onto less-productive land, requiring increased plantation area (and consequent economic losses) out of proportion to the climatic change itself. These impacts would affect carbon sequestration and storage consequences of any plans for subsidizing silviculture as a global warming mitigation option. Climate change can be expected to increase the area of plantations needed to supply projected internal demand for and exports of end products from Brazil. June-July-August (dry season) precipitation reductions indicated by simulations reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) correspond to rainfall declines in this critical season of approximately 34% in Amazonia, 39% in Southern Brazil and 61% in the Northeast. As an example, if rainfall in Brazilian plantation areas (most of which are now in Southern Brazil) were to decline by 50%, the area needed in 2050 would expand by an estimated 38% over the constant climate case, bringing the total area to 4.5 times the 1991 area. These large areas of additional plantations imply substantial social and environmental impacts. Further addition of plantation area as a global warming response option would augment these impacts, indicating the need for caution in evaluating carbon sequestration proposals. (author)

  8. Downgrading, downsizing, degazettement, and reclassification of protected areas in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, E; Penna, L A O; Araújo, E

    2014-08-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are key elements for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Brazil has the largest PA system in the world, covering approximately 220 million ha. This system expanded rapidly in the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s. Recent events in Brazil, however, have led to an increase in PA downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD). Does this reflect a shift in the country's PA policy? We analyzed the occurrence, frequency, magnitude, type, spatial distribution, and causes of changes in PA boundaries and categories in Brazil. We identified 93 PADDD events from 1981 to 2012. Such events increased in frequency since 2008 and were ascribed primarily to generation and transmission of electricity in Amazonia. In Brazilian parks and reserves, 7.3 million ha were affected by PADDD events, and of these, 5.2 million ha were affected by downsizing or degazetting. Moreover, projects being considered by the Federal Congress may degazette 2.1 million ha of PA in Amazonia alone. Relaxing the protection status of existing PAs is proving to be politically easy in Brazil, and the recent increase in frequency and extension of PADDD reflects a change in governmental policy. By taking advantage of chronic deficiencies in financial and personnel resources and surveillance, disputes over land tenure, and the slowness of the Brazilian justice, government agencies have been implementing PADDD without consultation of civil society. If parks and reserves are to maintain their integrity, there will need to be investments in Brazilian PAs and a better understanding of the benefits PAs provide. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. The influence of vegetation cover and soil physical properties on deflagration of shallow landslides - Nova Friburgo, RJ / Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Marques, Maria Clara; Silva, Roberta; Fraga, Joana; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; Mululo Sato, Anderson

    2017-04-01

    In 2011, the mountainous region of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) suffered enormous social and economic losses due to thousands of landslides caused by an extreme rainfall event. The mapping of the scars of these landslides in an area of 421 km2 in the municipality of Nova Friburgo, RJ - Brazil resulted in a total of 3622, and 89% of these scars were located in areas covered by grasses and forests. Despite the unexpected result (64% of scars in forest areas), field evidence has shown that most of the forest fragments in the municipality are in the initial stages of succession and in different states of degradation, evidencing the need for a better understanding of the role of these forests in the detonation and propagation of landslides. Two slope forest areas with different ages (20 and 50 years) were evaluated in relation to the vegetative aspects that influence the stability of the slopes in each area. Hydrological monitoring, including precipitation, interception by manual and automatic method, soil moisture and subsurface flows were performed in two different areas: forest and grass. Soil moisture was monitored by granular matrix sensors and flows by collecting troughs in trenches at depths of 0 cm, 20 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, 150 cm and 220 cm, which were also analyzed for biomass and length of thick roots (> 2 mm diameter) and thin roots (particle size, aggregate stability, porosity and hydraulic conductivity in situ). In the grass area, the lower soil structure in relation to the forest areas makes it difficult to transmit the water through the soil matrix. During the monitoring period, that area preserved the moisture in depths of 100 cm, 150 cm and 220 cm. The fasciculate root system of the grasses increased the infiltration of water at the top of the soil, favouring the formation of more superficial saturation zones in the heavy rains, due to the hydraulic discontinuities. In forest areas, infiltration by preferential paths allows the concentration of

  10. Where Latin Americans are physically active, and why does it matter? Findings from the IPEN-adult study in Bogota, Colombia; Cuernavaca, Mexico; and Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo S; Hino, Adriano A F; Bolivar, Manuel A; Lemoine, Pablo D; Gonçalves, Priscilla B; Pratt, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Latin America (LA) has a unique structural, political, cultural and social environment. This study aimed to identify the places where Latin American adults are physically active; and to determine the association of using public- and restricted-access places with physical activity (PA). We used data from the International PA Environment Network study in Bogota, Colombia (n=1000, accelerometry=249); Cuernavaca, Mexico (n=677, accelerometry=652); and Curitiba, Brazil (n=697, accelerometry=331) (2010-2011). Walking and moderate-to-vigorous PA for leisure were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Overall PA and PA within 10-minute bouts were measured with accelerometers. Participants reported use of public- and restricted-access places for PA. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the association of using public- and restricted-access places with PA. The streets were the most frequently-reported place for PA, and walking was the most common PA in the studied places. 'Informal', non-exercise-or-sports places (e.g., shopping malls) ranked high for use for PA in Bogota and Cuernavaca. In Curitiba, use of 'formal' places for sports/exercise (e.g., gyms) was more prevalent. Using public-access places was directly related to walking for leisure in all cities, and to additional PA outcomes in Bogota and Cuernavaca. In Cuernavaca and Curitiba, using restricted-access places was also associated with PA. Our study highlights the importance of public-access places for PA in LA. In some contexts, places for social interaction may be as important for PA as places for exercise/sport. Strategies increasing the availability, accessibility and quality of these places may effectively promote PA in LA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The discipline and the content of kinematics in physics text books of Brazil – 1801 to 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto B. Nicioli Junior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed how the content of kinematics was presented in Physics textbooks used in the Brazilian school since the 19th century to the 1930’s. We showed that the textbooks used at the beginning of the studied period were in its most part French. But, at the end of the 19th century and in the beginning of the 20th century, there was an increase on the production of Brazilian Physics textbooks, whose authors were mainly teachers of renowned Brazilian schools. Analyzing the content of kinematics in these books along the time, we identified different approaches to deal with this content. Those changes could be justified through a cut on the history of the Physical discipline, showing a strong relationship of the content of the textbooks with the history of the discipline. Besides the connection between textbook and discipline, they are other clear connections when we considered the history of the institutions of education and the system of preparatory exams. In that sense, we discuss how Brazilian education, in the first decades of the 20th century, was altered in face of the educational reforms that constrained Physics textbooks profile to one that prevailed for decades, which presents some characteristics until our days.

  12. Inatividade física e fatores associados em adultos, São Paulo, Brasil Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Margarete Zanchetta

    2010-09-01

    , Brazil. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study with a stratified sample of clusters performed in multiple stages. Physical inactivity was determined using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ and by a question on the regular practice of leisure time physical activity. Data analysis took the sample design into account. RESULTS: Prevalence of physical inactivity during leisure was higher among women. Poisson multiple regression model in man indicated that overall sedentarism was lower among single and separated men, students and without car in the household. Leisure physical inactivity was greater among men over forty years, among those with less schooling and full-time students. Overall physical inactivity was more prevalent among woman with more schooling, with less qualified occupations and widows. Leisure physical inactivity decreased with age and schooling. Among modalities practiced for leisure, walking was more prevalent among women and football was more prevalent among men. Most modalities were directly associated with schooling; approximately 25% of the individuals with more than 12 years of schooling practiced walking. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that interventions and public policies to promote physical activity should consider differences in gender and socioeconomic status as well as the preferences for different modalities and the context in which the physical activity is practiced.

  13. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  14. Preface [13. international workshop on hadron physics, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil), 22-27 March 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The Hadron Physics series of workshops, which started in 1988, take place every two or three years. They have the format of an advanced school, consisting of didactic courses, thematic seminars and the presentation of posters on frontier topics in the physics of strong interactions. It is characterized by the active participation of graduate students and postdocs, and also promotes collaboration between reserach groups in Latin America and others distributed worldwide. The XIII International Workshop on Hadron Physics - XIII Hadron Physics - was held from 22-27 March 2015, in Hotel do Bosque, Mambucaba, near the city of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state. With good weather, a beach and splendid natural beauty, the surroundings offered all the conditions for a fruitful and pleasant meeting. The scientific program of the XIII Hadron Physics workshop was composed of courses, seminars and contributed papers. The courses consisted of four sets of lectures of three hours each, which are all reproduced in the present volume, thanks to the kind efforts of the lecturers, for the use and appreciation of a wider public. These courses provided a pedagogical and updated account of recent developments that gave support to the discussion of frontier problems in the physics of strong interactions. Organizers and participants are aware that the lecturers bore primary responsibility for the success of the workshop and are especially grateful to them. The seminars reviewed recent developments in theory, computational techniques and experimentations investigating QCD in nonperturbative and high density regimes. Most of these seminars are reproduced in this volume. The Organizing Committee is thankful to the invited speakers for the quality of the presentations, which contributed to the success of the workshop. The contributed papers, mainly representing the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters all throughout the event in the breakout area, and are also

  15. Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of honeys from the bee Melipona fasciculata produced in two regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Torquato Fernandes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The honey from Tiúba bees (Melipona fasciculata is commercially important in the Brazilian state of Maranhão. However, the absence of any specific legislation for this kind of honey is an obstacle to its increased production and commercialization. Determining the microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of different Tiúba honey can inform the elaboration of specific legislation. Thus, honey samples from two Water Catchment Areas in Maranhão (Munim and Pericumã, sample size 20 for each were collected and submitted for microbiological analysis (total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, molds and yeasts, Clostridium sulfite reducers and Salmonella sp. and physical-chemical analysis (moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, insoluble and soluble solids, ash content, acidity and pH. Most of honeys sampled were suitable for human consumption, except for one sample from Pericumã. Honeys from the two water catchment areas presented differences in some physicochemical characteristics, which can be attributed to the botanic, soil and climatic diversity of the two areas. Still, these Tiúba honey samples did not fall within the Brazilian legislation for Apis mellifera honey for some of the physical-chemical characteristics, and so is not properly regulated, thus reinforcing the need for specific legislation for this type of honey.

  16. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Beatriz Fátima Alves de; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM) and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  17. A systematic review of the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from biomass burning and combustion of fossil fuels and health effects in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Fátima Alves de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a review of scientific literature published in Brazil between 2000 and 2009 on the characteristics of air pollutants from different emission sources, especially particulate matter (PM and its effects on respiratory health. Using electronic databases, a systematic literature review was performed of all research related to air pollutant emissions. Publications were analyzed to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants from different emission sources and their related effects on the respiratory system. The PM2.5 is composed predominantly of organic compounds with 20% of inorganic elements. Higher concentrations of metals were detected in metropolitan areas than in biomass burning regions. The relative risk of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases in children was higher than in the elderly population. The results of studies of health effects of air pollution are specific to the region where the emissions occurred and should not be used to depict the situation in other areas with different emission sources.

  18. Health impact modelling of different travel patterns on physical activity, air pollution and road injuries for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Tainio, Marko; Goodman, Anna; Edwards, Phil; Haines, Andy; Gouveia, Nelson; Monteiro, Carlos; Woodcock, James

    2017-11-01

    São Paulo city, Brazil, faces challenges caused by rapid urbanization. We illustrate how future travel patterns could lead to different health consequences in the city. We evaluated the health impacts of different travel pattern scenarios for the São Paulo adult population by comparing the travel patterns of São Paulo in 2012 with counterfactual scenarios in which the city adopted travel patterns of i) those living in the city's expanded centre; ii) London (2012); iii) a highly motorized São Paulo (SP California); and iv) a visionary São Paulo (SP 2040), with high levels of walking and cycling and low levels of car and motorcycle use. For each scenario we estimated changes in exposure to air pollution, road injury risk, and physical activity. Health outcomes were estimated using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and premature deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the main sources of uncertainty. We found considerable health gains in the SP 2040 scenario (total 63.6k DALYs avoided), with 4.7% of premature deaths from ischemic heart disease avoided from increases in physical activity alone. Conversely, we found substantial health losses in the scenario favouring private transport (SP California, total increase of 54.9k DALYs), with an increase in road traffic deaths and injuries among pedestrians and motorized vehicles. Parameters related to air pollution had the largest impact on uncertainty. Shifting travel patterns towards more sustainable transport can provide major health benefits in São Paulo. Reducing the uncertainties in the findings should be a priority for empirical and modelling research on the health impacts of such shifts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil texture derived from topography in North-eastern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, François; Poccard-Chapuis, René; Plassin, Sophie; Pimentel Martinez, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    We present a 1:100,000 scale soil texture map of Paragominas county (Pará, Brazil), covering 19,330 km2. The method allows rapid production of a soil texture map of a large area where the strength of a duricrust controls the relief. It is based on an easily accessible explanatory variable, topography, which is represented using a Digital Elevation Model. The method makes it possible to map the spatial distribution of the texture of the topsoil layer. Modelling was complemented by field observ...

  20. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  1. Size distribution and hygroscopic properties of aerosol particles from dry-season biomass burning in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rissler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties were measured at a pasture site in the southwestern Amazon region (Rondonia. The measurements were performed 11 September-14 November 2002 as part of LBA-SMOCC (Large scale Biosphere atmosphere experiment in Amazonia - SMOke aerosols, Clouds, rainfall and Climate, and cover the later part of the dry season (with heavy biomass burning, a transition period, and the onset of the wet period. Particle number size distributions were measured with a DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizer, 3-850nm and an APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer, extending the distributions up to 3.3 µm in diameter. An H-TDMA (Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer measured the hygroscopic diameter growth factors (Gf at 90% relative humidity (RH, for particles with dry diameters (dp between 20-440 nm, and at several occasions RH scans (30-90% RH were performed for 165nm particles. These data provide the most extensive characterization of Amazonian biomass burning aerosol, with respect to particle number size distributions and hygroscopic properties, presented until now. The evolution of the convective boundary layer over the course of the day causes a distinct diel variation in the aerosol physical properties, which was used to get information about the properties of the aerosol at higher altitudes. The number size distributions averaged over the three defined time periods showed three modes; a nucleation mode with geometrical median diameters (GMD of ~12 nm, an Aitken mode (GMD=61-92 nm and an accumulation mode (GMD=128-190 nm. The two larger modes were shifted towards larger GMD with increasing influence from biomass burning. The hygroscopic growth at 90% RH revealed a somewhat external mixture with two groups of particles; here denoted nearly hydrophobic (Gf~1.09 for 100 nm particles and moderately hygroscopic (Gf~1.26. While the hygroscopic growth factors were surprisingly similar over the

  2. The Roles and Movements of Actors in the Deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Philip M. Fearnside

    2008-01-01

    Containing the advance of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia requires understanding the roles and movements of the actors involved. The importance of different actors varies widely among locations within the region, and also evolves at any particular site over the course of frontier establishment and consolidation. Landless migrants have significant roles in clearing the land they occupy and in motivating landholders to clear as a defense against invasion or expropriation. Colonists in offic...

  3. IKONOS imagery for the Large Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Hurtt; Xiangming Xiao; Michael Keller; Michael Palace; Gregory P. Asner; Rob Braswell; Brond& #305; Eduardo S. zio; Manoel Cardoso; Claudio J.R. Carvalho; Matthew G. Fearon; Liane Guild; Steve Hagen; Scott Hetrick; Berrien Moore III; Carlos Nobre; Jane M. Read; S& aacute; Tatiana NO-VALUE; Annette Schloss; George Vourlitis; Albertus J. Wickel

    2003-01-01

    The LBA-ECO program is one of several international research components under the Brazilian-led Large Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). The field-oriented research activities of this study are organized along transects and include a set of primary field sites, where the major objective is to study land-use change and ecosystem dynamics, and a...

  4. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtchev, I; Godoi, RHM; Connors, S; Levine, JG; Archibald, AT; Godoi, AFL; Paralovo, SL; Barbosa, CGG; Souza, RAF; Manzi, AO; Seco, R; Sjostedt, S; Park, J-H; Guenther, A; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM$_{2.5}$ aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagr...

  5. Bryophyte diversity patterns in flooded and tierra firme forests in the Araracuara Region, Colombian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Benavides, Juan C.; Idarraga, Alvaro; Alvarez, Esteban

    2004-01-01

    We investigated patterns of bryophyte species richness and composition in two forest types of Colombian Amazonia, non-flooded tierra firme forest and floodplain forest of the Caquetá River. A total of 109 bryophyte species were recorded from 14 0.2 ha plots. Bryophyte life forms and habitats were analyzed, including the canopy and epiphylls. Bryophyte species did not show significant differences between landscapes but mosses and liverworts were different and with opposite responses balancing ...

  6. Biomass power production in Amazonia: Environmentally sound, economically productive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddle, D.B. [National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Washington, DC (United States); Hollomon, J.B. [Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    With the support of the US Agency for International Development, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) is assisting their utility counterparts in Bolivia to improve electric service in the country`s rural population. In remote areas, the cost of extending transmission lines to small communities is prohibitive, and diesel generators represent an expensive alternative, especially for baseload power. This has led to serious consideration of electric generating systems using locally available renewable resources, including biomass, hydro, wind, and solar energy. A project has recently been initiated in Riberalta, in the Amazonian region of Bolivia, to convert waste Brazil nut shells and sawmill residues to electricity. Working in tandem with diesel generators, the biomass-fired plant will produce base-load power in an integrated system that will be able to provide reliable and affordable electricity to the city. The project will allow the local rural electric cooperative to lower the price of electricity by nearly forty percent, enable the local Brazil nut industry to increase its level of mechanization, and reduce the environmental impacts of dumping waste shells around the city and in an adjacent river. The project is representative of others that will be funded in the future by NRECA/AID.

  7. Hydro-climate and ecological behaviour of the drought of Amazonia in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, J A; Nobre, C A; Tomasella, J; Cardoso, M F; Oyama, M D

    2008-05-27

    In 2005, southwestern Amazonia experienced the effects of an intense drought that affected life and biodiversity. Several major tributaries as well as parts of the main river itself contained only a fraction of their normal volumes of water, and lakes were drying up. The consequences for local people, animals and the forest itself are impossible to estimate now, but they are likely to be serious. The analyses indicate that the drought was manifested as weak peak river season during autumn to winter as a consequence of a weak summertime season in southwestern Amazonia; the winter season was also accompanied by rainfall that sometimes reached 25% of the climatic value, being anomalously warm and dry and helping in the propagation of fires. Analyses of climatic and hydrological records in Amazonia suggest a broad consensus that the 2005 drought was linked not to El Niño as with most previous droughts in the Amazon, but to warming sea surface temperatures in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Forest productivity and water stress in Amazonia: observations from GOSAT chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Eun; Frankenberg, Christian; van der Tol, Christiaan; Berry, Joseph A; Guanter, Luis; Boyce, C Kevin; Fisher, Joshua B; Morrow, Eric; Worden, John R; Asefi, Salvi; Badgley, Grayson; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-06-22

    It is unclear to what extent seasonal water stress impacts on plant productivity over Amazonia. Using new Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, we show that midday fluorescence varies with water availability, both of which decrease in the dry season over Amazonian regions with substantial dry season length, suggesting a parallel decrease in gross primary production (GPP). Using additional SeaWinds Scatterometer onboard QuikSCAT satellite measurements of canopy water content, we found a concomitant decrease in daily storage of canopy water content within branches and leaves during the dry season, supporting our conclusion. A large part (r(2) = 0.75) of the variance in observed monthly midday fluorescence from GOSAT is explained by water stress over moderately stressed evergreen forests over Amazonia, which is reproduced by model simulations that include a full physiological representation of photosynthesis and fluorescence. The strong relationship between GOSAT and model fluorescence (r(2) = 0.79) was obtained using a fixed leaf area index, indicating that GPP changes are more related to environmental conditions than chlorophyll contents. When the dry season extended to drought in 2010 over Amazonia, midday basin-wide GPP was reduced by 15 per cent compared with 2009.

  9. Comparison among chemical, mineralogical and physical analysis from alluvial clays from counties of Southwest of Minas Gerais state (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar Junior, L.A.; Varajao, A.F.D.C.; Souza, M.H.O.; Moreno, M.M.T.

    2011-01-01

    The studied area is located in the southwestern portion of Minas Gerais State, encompassing the counties of Alfenas, Areado, Machado, Poco Fundo, Campestre, Serrania, Monte Belo, Bandeira do Sul, Botelhos and Cabo Verde. This region is dominated by strongly weathered pre-cambrian rocks in association with colluvial-alluvial sediments. The present work consisted in a comparison among the mineralogical (X-Ray Diffraction), textural (Laser Granulometry), chemical (X-Ray Fluorescence) and technological (mechanical resistance, water absorption, etc, made in specimen tests) properties of the clays collected on potteries located in these counties. The mineralogical and chemical analysis displayed the kaolinitic nature of the clays from this region, showing also small amount of interlayered clays and large amount of quartz. The best results of physical analysis were obtained for clays from the counties of Cabo Verde and Monte Belo due to the presence of lower values of SiO 2 (quartz) associated with a finer particle size distribution. (author)

  10. Changes in Leisure-Time Physical Activity From the Prepregnancy to the Postpartum Period: 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Carolina; Domingues, Marlos; Santos, Iná; Matijasevich, Alicia; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Hallal, Pedro C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and its correlates from prepregnancy to the postpartum period in mothers enrolled in a Brazilian birth cohort study. Our hypothesis was that LTPA would decline considerably during pregnancy. Maternal LTPA in the 3 months before pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy was assessed soon after delivery. A follow-up visit was conducted 3 months later. Weekly frequency and duration of each session of LTPA in a typical week were assessed for each period and a cut-off point of 150 minutes per week was used to classify women as active or not. The proportion of women active in leisure time declined from 11.3% in the prepregnancy to 2.3% in pregnancy and 0.1% in the postpartum period (P for trend benefits of LTPA prepregnancy, during, and postpregnancy.

  11. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders from southern Brazil Atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos sul-brasileiros da comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Reichert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the existence of a relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 379 community-dwelling elders from Novo Hamburgo, state of RS, Brazil. The level of physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and depressive symptoms were diagnosed according to the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale. The association between the level of physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A tendency towards a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed in individuals with higher levels of physical activity, both in the sample as a whole as well as among men, but not among women (p for linear trend 0.04, 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The odds ratio of the presence of depressive symptoms in the very active group, as compared against that of the insufficiently active group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.86 for men and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.39-1.46 for women. CONCLUSION: In this population of aged individuals, more intense physical activity is related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. As shown by gender stratification, physical activity is inversely related to depressive symptoms in men, albeit not in women.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos da comunidade. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional que incluiu 379 idosos da comunidade da cidade de Novo Hamburgo-RS, Brasil. O nível de atividade física foi estimado pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física e os sintomas depressivos foram diagnosticados por meio da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica de Yesavage. A associação entre nível de atividade física e sintomas depressivos foi analisada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma tendência a menor prevalência de sintomas depressivos em indiv

  12. Physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders from southern Brazil Atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos sul-brasileiros da comunidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César L. Reichert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the existence of a relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling elders. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional, population-based study, which included 379 community-dwelling elders from Novo Hamburgo, state of RS, Brazil. The level of physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and depressive symptoms were diagnosed according to the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale. The association between the level of physical activity and depressive symptoms was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A tendency towards a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms was observed in individuals with higher levels of physical activity, both in the sample as a whole as well as among men, but not among women (p for linear trend 0.04, 0.03 and 0.36, respectively. The odds ratio of the presence of depressive symptoms in the very active group as compared against that of the insufficiently active group was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12-0.86 for men and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.39-1.46 for women. CONCLUSION: In this population of aged individuals, more intense physical activity is related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. As shown by gender stratification, physical activity is inversely related to depressive symptoms in men, albeit not in women.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre atividade física e sintomas depressivos em idosos da comunidade. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de base populacional que incluiu 379 idosos da comunidade da cidade de Novo Hamburgo-RS, Brasil. O nível de atividade física foi estimado pelo Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física e os sintomas depressivos foram diagnosticados por meio da Escala de Depressão Geriátrica de Yesavage. A associação entre nível de atividade física e sintomas depressivos foi analisada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi observada uma tendência a menor prevalência de sintomas depressivos em indiv

  13. Translating evidence to policy: urban interventions and physical activity promotion in Bogotá, Colombia and Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo S; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-06-01

    The growing evidence of the influence of urban environment on physical activity (PA) underscore the need for novel policy solutions to address the inequality, lack of space, and limited PA resources in rapidly growing Latin American cities. This study aims to better understand the PA policy process by conducting two case studies of Bogotá's Ciclovía and Curitiba's CuritibAtiva. Literature review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed documents and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders was conducted. In the cases of Ciclovía and CuritibAtiva, most policies conducive to program development and sustainability were developed outside the health sector in sports and recreation, urban planning, environment, and transportation. Both programs were developed by governments as initiatives to overcome inequalities and provide quality of life. In both programs, multisectoral policies mainly from recreation and urban planning created a window of opportunity for the development and sustainability of the programs and environments supportive of PA.

  14. Influence of anthropometric factors and physical activity on blood pressure in adolescents from Taguatinga, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Lobo Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the influence of body mass index (BMI and physical activity level (PAL on blood pressure (BP in adolescents. The sample was composed of 799 students of both genders, aged 12.09 (± 0.80. The weight, height and BP were assessed according to internationally established criteria, and BMI was calculated and classified according to the cutoff points proposed by Cole, Flegal and Dietz (2000. To evaluate the PAL, the modified lifestyle questionnaire was used (Silva, Silva, & Martins, 2006. We found that 9.1% of the subjects evaluated have high blood pressure, 11.8% were overweight, 5.4% were obese and 47.2% of the people presented low PAL. The fact of being inactive (OR = 1.99, insufficiently active (OR = 1.87 and obese (OR = 5.1 was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Being inactive or insufficiently active was strongly associated with the development of the obesity (OR = 7.97 and 4.35 respectively. In the studied sample, the overweight, the obesity and low PAL are associated with the development of arterial hypertension. In addition, a low PAL is associated with an increasing number of overweight adolescents.

  15. Body mass index and association with use of and distance from places for physical activity and active leisure among schoolchildren in Brazil. Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Camila Elizandra; Correa, Elizabeth Nappi; Neves, Janaina das; Gabriel, Cristine Garcia; Benedet, Jucemar; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2018-06-18

    We evaluated associations between use of public places for physical activity and active leisure (PAAL) and their distances from subjects' homes and indicators of overweight and obesity, among schoolchildren from different socioeconomic levels, in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil. Cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 2,152 schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years, enrolled at 30 public and private schools. The exposure variables were the use of public places for PAAL in the neighborhood and their distance from schoolchildren's homes. The outcomes were body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted according to income strata. Among the schoolchildren from low-income families, living closer to parks/playgrounds was associated with lower BMI (β = -2.15; 95% confidence interval, CI = -2.53; -1.77) and lower WC (β = -0.11 95% CI = -0.17; -0.05), while living at these distances from football pitches was associated with higher BMI (β = 1.73; 95% CI = 0.31; 3.15) and larger WC measurements (β = 0.03; 95% CI = 0.005; 0.14). Among the schoolchildren in low-income groups, living at an intermediate distance from beaches was associated with lower BMI (β = -1.10; 95% CI = -1.61; -0.59). Living closer to parks/playgrounds was associated with lower BMI and WC among schoolchildren from low-income families. Living closer to football pitches was associated with higher BMI and WC among these schoolchildren. Living at intermediate distances from beaches was associated with lower BMI among these schoolchildren.

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  17. Carbon stock, chemical and physical properties of soils under management systems with different deployment times in western region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the organic carbon stock and chemical and physical properties of soils in management systems with different deployment times under clayey Red Latosol in western region of Paraná, Brazil. Five managed areas and a reference area (native forest without anthropic action were analyzed in completely randomized design with five repetitions. Management systems include three areas with different time of first adoption of no-till: 6 years – NT6 (transition phase, 14 years – NT14 (consolidation phase and 22 years – NT22 (maintenance phase; 16 years of no-till, and in the last four years with integration of maize and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis – (NT+B and an area of permanent and continuous extensive cattle pasture of coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon – (P. Physical and chemical properties, total soil organic carbon (TOC stock and carbon stratification index (SI of soils were evaluated in depths of 0-0.05; 0.05-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The macroporosity (MA was higher in the area of native forest, ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 m3 m-3 and the microporosity (MI was higher in cultivated areas. The areas of NT+B and P presented lower ratio macroporosity/total pore volume (MA/TPV. For soil bulk density (BD and soil penetration resistance (SPR, the managed areas show higher values, suggesting the occurrence of compacted subsurface layers. Native forest area showed the highest TOC levels in the depths of 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m, reaching 30.5 g kg-1 in the 0–0.05 m soil layer. There was negative change on TOC stocks in the managed areas in relation to forest area, being more evident in the more superficial soil layers. The SI was greater than one, however there is a reduction in function of adoption time of no-till. There was higher soil compaction in the managed areas, and the NT in soybean/maize succession system does not contribute effectively to the increase of TOC stocks.

  18. Days out-of-role due to common physical and mental health problems: Results from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Helena Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relative importance of common physical and mental disorders with regard to the number of days out-of-role (DOR; number of days for which a person is completely unable to work or carry out normal activities because of health problems in a population-based sample of adults in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. METHODS: The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey was administered during face-to-face interviews with 2,942 adult household residents. The presence of 8 chronic physical disorders and 3 classes of mental disorders (mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders was assessed for the previous year along with the number of days in the previous month for which each respondent was completely unable to work or carry out normal daily activities due to health problems. Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the associations of the disorders and their comorbidities with the number of days out-of-role while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Both individual-level and population-level associations were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 13.1% of the respondents reported 1 or more days out-of-role in the previous month, with an annual median of 41.4 days out-of-role. The disorders considered in this study accounted for 71.7% of all DOR; the disorders that caused the greatest number of DOR at the individual-level were digestive (22.6, mood (19.9, substance use (15.0, chronic pain (16.5, and anxiety (14.0 disorders. The disorders associated with the highest population-attributable DOR were chronic pain (35.2%, mood (16.5%, and anxiety (15.0% disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Because pain, anxiety, and mood disorders have high effects at both the individual and societal levels, targeted interventions to reduce the impairments associated with these disorders have the highest potential to reduce the societal burdens of chronic illness in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  19. Maize (Zea Mays L landraces from the southern region of Brazil: contamination by Fusarium sp, zearalenone, physical and mechanical characteristics of the kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Roselena de Oliveira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives the study of the physical and mechanical characteristics of maize kernels in relation to the contamination by Fusarium sp and by zearalenone in twenty landraces of maize from the southern region of Brazil. From the analyzed samples, 60 % has been considered to have a hard endosperm type and 40 % an intermediary one. A correlation between the physical and mechanical variables was observed as an indication that the higher is the proportion of hard endosperm, more dense will be the kernel and more force for its rupture will be necessary. The level of contamination by Fusarium sp was between 5.5 and 24.75% among the analyzed grains, correlating positively with the flotation index, indicating that the landraces of maize with a softer endosperm can present a higher contamination by this genus. The presence of zearalenone was verified in 75 % of the samples, in concentrations varying from 50 to 640 µg kg-1.Este trabalho teve por objetivos verificar as características físicas, mecânicas, contaminação por Fusarium sp e por zearalenona e suas relações, em vinte variedades crioulas de milho da região sul do Brasil. Verificou-se que das amostras analisadas, 60% foram consideradas como possuidoras de endosperma do tipo duro e 40% com endosperma do tipo intermediário. As variáveis físicas e mecânicas se correlacionaram, indicando que quanto maior a proporção de endosperma vítreo, mais denso e maior a força necessária até a ruptura do grão. A contaminação por Fusarium sp esteve entre 5,5% e 24,75% nos grãos analisados, correlacionando-se positivamente com o índice de flotação, indicando que as variedades crioulas de milho com uma maior proporção de endosperma macio podem apresentar uma maior contaminação por Fusarium sp, sugerindo-se a utilização de variedades crioulas com a textura do endosperma predominantemente vítrea. A presença de zearalenona foi verificada em 75% das amostras, em concentra

  20. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pruner Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP. The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1. The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  1. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Larissa Pruner; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-22

    The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP). The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1). The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  2. Remote sensing and conservation of isolated indigenous villages in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Groth, Aaron A

    2014-11-01

    The vast forests on the border between Brazil and Peru harbour a number of indigenous groups that have limited contact with the outside world. Accurate estimates of population sizes and village areas are essential to begin assessing the immediate conservation needs of such isolated groups. In contrast to overflights and encounters on the ground, remote sensing with satellite imagery offers a safe, inexpensive, non-invasive and systematic approach to provide demographic and land-use information for isolated peoples. Satellite imagery can also be used to understand the growth of isolated villages over time. There are five isolated villages in the headwaters of the Envira River confirmed by overflights that are visible with recent satellite imagery further confirming their locations and allowing measurement of their cleared gardens, village areas and thatch roofed houses. These isolated villages appear to have population densities that are an order of magnitude higher than averages for other Brazilian indigenous villages. Here, we report on initial results of a remote surveillance programme designed to monitor movements and assess the demographic health of isolated peoples as a means to better mitigate against external threats to their long-term survival.

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  6. Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Militão AG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Angeliete Garcez Militão,1,2 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Fernanda Rodrigues da Silva,4 Elba Sancho Garcez Militão,3 Raiane Maiara dos Santos Pereira,5 Carmen Silvia Grubert Campbell,2,5 1Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil; 2Post-Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brazil; 4Laboratory of Physical Evaluation and Training, 5Laboratory of Physical Education and Health Studies, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil Introduction: Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. Methods: The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40% participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF: the intervention group (IG, n = 17 and the control group (CG, n = 17. The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children's weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC, maximum oxygen intake (VO2max, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used

  7. Influence of urban pollution on the production of organic particulate matter from isoprene epoxydiols in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Sá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chemistry of isoprene contributes to the production of a substantial mass fraction of the particulate matter (PM over tropical forests. Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX produced in the gas phase by the oxidation of isoprene under HO2-dominant conditions are subsequently taken up by particles, thereby leading to production of secondary organic PM. The present study investigates possible perturbations to this pathway by urban pollution. The measurement site in central Amazonia was located 4 to 6 h downwind of Manaus, Brazil. Measurements took place from February through March 2014 of the wet season, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. Mass spectra of organic PM collected with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were analyzed by positive-matrix factorization. One resolved statistical factor (IEPOX-SOA factor was associated with PM production by the IEPOX pathway. The IEPOX-SOA factor loadings correlated with independently measured mass concentrations of tracers of IEPOX-derived PM, namely C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols (R = 0. 96 and 0.78, respectively. The factor loading, as well as the ratio f of the loading to organic PM mass concentration, decreased under polluted compared to background conditions. For an increase in NOy concentration from 0.5 to 2 ppb, the factor loading and f decreased by two to three fold. Overall, sulfate concentration explained 37 % of the variability in the factor loading. After segregation of factor loading into subsets based on NOy concentration, the sulfate concentration explained up to 75 % of the variability. Considering both factors, the data sets show that the suppressing effects of increased NO concentrations dominated over the enhancing effects of higher sulfate concentrations. The pollution from Manaus elevated NOy concentrations more significantly than sulfate concentrations relative to background conditions. In this light, increased emissions of nitrogen oxides, as

  8. Efeito da colheita seletiva de madeira sobre algumas características físicas de um latossolo amarelo sob floresta na Amazônia Central Effect of selective logging on some physical characteristics of a yellow latosol under rainforest in Central Amazonia State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walane Maria Pereira de Mello-Ivo

    2006-10-01

    objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of selective logging on some soil physical characteristics. The study area lies about 80 km north of Manaus and the vegetation is a humid tropical rainforest. Seven to ten trees/ha (DAP > 55 cm were felled and removed by a D6 bulldozer, in 1993. Six disturbance classes were defined in the logged plots, with three replicates each: tractor track, center of clearing, edge of clearing, edge of forest, remaining forest and control forest. Soil under tractor tracks represented 13.8 % of the exploited area, and showed higher values of bulk density, and penetration resistance, and lower macroporosity and available water for plants than the other disturbance classes. The other classes were less affected and no significant differences were observed between their soil properties and the control forest, indicating selective logging as a practice that causes less impact on soils of Amazon forest ecosystems.

  9. Environmental impact of geometric earthwork construction in pre-Columbian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John Francis; Whitney, Bronwen S; Mayle, Francis E; Iriarte, José; Prümers, Heiko; Soto, J Daniel; Watling, Jennifer

    2014-07-22

    There is considerable controversy over whether pre-Columbian (pre-A.D. 1492) Amazonia was largely "pristine" and sparsely populated by slash-and-burn agriculturists, or instead a densely populated, domesticated landscape, heavily altered by extensive deforestation and anthropogenic burning. The discovery of hundreds of large geometric earthworks beneath intact rainforest across southern Amazonia challenges its status as a pristine landscape, and has been assumed to indicate extensive pre-Columbian deforestation by large populations. We tested these assumptions using coupled local- and regional-scale paleoecological records to reconstruct land use on an earthwork site in northeast Bolivia within the context of regional, climate-driven biome changes. This approach revealed evidence for an alternative scenario of Amazonian land use, which did not necessitate labor-intensive rainforest clearance for earthwork construction. Instead, we show that the inhabitants exploited a naturally open savanna landscape that they maintained around their settlement despite the climatically driven rainforest expansion that began ∼2,000 y ago across the region. Earthwork construction and agriculture on terra firme landscapes currently occupied by the seasonal rainforests of southern Amazonia may therefore not have necessitated large-scale deforestation using stone tools. This finding implies far less labor--and potentially lower population density--than previously supposed. Our findings demonstrate that current debates over the magnitude and nature of pre-Columbian Amazonian land use, and its impact on global biogeochemical cycling, are potentially flawed because they do not consider this land use in the context of climate-driven forest-savanna biome shifts through the mid-to-late Holocene.

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  11. Food niche overlap between two sympatric leaf-litter frog species from Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Talione Sabagh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding habits and similarities in the diet of two sympatric and syntopic Amazonian frog species, Anomaloglossus stepheni (Aromobatidae and Leptodactylus andreae (Leptodactylidae in a forested area in Central Amazonia. The breadth of the trophic niche of these species was 5.89 and 3.75, respectively, and approximately 85% of their diets were similar. Ants were main food item in the diets of both frog species. The coexistence between these frog species may be facilitated by the significant differences in the size of their mouths. This difference allows them to consume preys items of different sizes.

  12. 'Formidable contagion': epidemics, work and recruitment in Colonial Amazonia (1660-1750).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambouleyron, Rafael; Barbosa, Benedito Costa; Bombardi, Fernanda Aires; Sousa, Claudia Rocha de

    2011-12-01

    The text analyzes the extent to which smallpox and measles epidemics provoked transformations in the ways in which workforces were acquired and used in colonial Amazonia from the mid-seventeenth to mid-eighteenth century, with an increase in slave raids on the indigenous population and the attempt to organize a trade route in African slaves to the region. It also explores how indigenous mortality rates at the end of the seventeenth century led to a concern with the region's defence and prompted the recruitment of soldiers from the Madeira islands.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of the New World screwworm fly from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago; Fresia, Pablo; Lyra, Mariana L; Rodrigues, Rosangela A; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L

    2014-10-01

    Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) is a myiasis fly that causes economic losses to livestock farmers in warmer American regions. Previous studies of this pest had found population structure at north and south of the Amazon Basin, which was considered to be a barrier to dispersal. The present study analyzed three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure across the Brazilian Amazon region (Amazonia). Both mtDNA and microsatellite data supported the existence of much diversity and significant population structure among nine regional populations of C. hominivorax, which was found to be surprisingly common in Amazonia. Forty-six mtDNA haplotypes were identified, of which 39 were novel and seven had previously been found only at south of Amazonia. Seventy microsatellite alleles were identified by size, moderate to high values of heterozygosity were discovered in all regions, and a Bayesian clustering analysis identified four genetic groups that were not geographically distributed. Reproductive compatibility was also investigated by laboratory crossing, but no evidence of hybrid dysgenesis was found between an Amazonian colony and one each of from Northeast and Southeast Brazil. The results have important implications for area-wide control by the Sterile Insect Technique. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Late Quaternary sedimentary dynamics in Western Amazonia: Implications for the origin of open vegetation/forest contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, D. F.; Bertani, T. C.; Zani, H.; Cremon, E. H.; Hayakawa, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    This work investigated the evolution of sedimentary environments during the latest Quaternary and their influence on the paradoxical occurrence of open vegetation patches in sharp contact with the Amazonian forest. The approach integrated pre-existing geological and floristic data from lowlands in the Brazilian Amazonia, with remote sensing imagery including multispectral optical images (TM, ETM+, and ASTER), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), InSAR C-band SRTM-DEMs, and high resolution images obtained from Google Earth™. The detection of an abundance of paleomorphologies provided evidence of a scenario in which constant environmental shifts were linked to the evolution of fluvial and megafan depositional systems. In all studied areas, the open vegetation patches are not random, but associated with sedimentary deposits representative of environments either deactivated during the Holocene or presently in the process of deactivation. Sedimentary evolution would have determined the distribution of wetlands and terra firme in many areas of the Amazonian lowlands, and would have a major impact on the development of open vegetated patches within the modern rainforest. Subsiding areas were filled up with megafan deposits, and many fluvial tributaries were rearranged on the landscape. The close relationship between vegetation and the physical environment suggests that sedimentary history related to the evolution of depositional settings during the latest Quaternary played a major role in the distribution of flooded and non-flooded areas of the Amazonian lowlands, with a direct impact on the distribution of modern floristic patterns. As the depositional sites were abandoned and their sedimentary deposits were exposed to the surface, they became sites suitable for vegetation growth, first of herbaceous species and then of forest. Although climate fluctuations might have been involved, fault reactivation appears to have been the main cause of changes in

  15. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  17. Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira; Johan C. Zweede

    2002-01-01

    We combined a detailed field study of forest canopy damage with calibrated Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) reflectance data and texture analysis to assess the sensitivity of basic broadband optical remote sensing to selective logging in Amazonia. Our field study encompassed measurements of ground damage and canopy gap fractions along a chronosequence of...

  18. Interpreting seasonal changes in the carbon balance of southern Amazonia using measurements of XCO2 and chlorophyll fluorescence from GOSAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Bowman, Kevin; Frankenberg, Christian; Lee, Jung-Eun; Fisher, Joshua B.; Worden, John; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Berry, Joseph; Collatz, G. James; Baker, Ian T.; Jung, Martin; Liu, Junjie; Osterman, Gregory; O'Dell, Chris; Sparks, Athena; Butz, Andre; Guerlet, Sandrine; Yoshida, Yukio; Chen, Huilin; Gerbig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Amazon forests exert a major influence on the global carbon cycle, but quantifying the impact is complicated by diverse landscapes and sparse data. Here we examine seasonal carbon balance in southern Amazonia using new measurements of column-averaged dry air mole fraction of CO2 (XCO2) and solar

  19. Accessibility evaluation model to support decision-making in urban investments : the case of Santarém-Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rui A. R.; Rodrigues, Daniel Souto; Tobias, Maisa

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to present an accessibility evaluation model for the urban area of Santarém, in Brazil. Located midway between the larger cities of Belém and Manaus, Santarém plays a crucial role in the region of Lower Amazonia. The paper describes the research instruments, sampling method and data analysis proposed for mapping urban accessibility. Basic activities (education, health, services, leisure and commerce) provided by the city were used to identify the main key-destina...

  20. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Buendía

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  1. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

    2013-06-05

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

  2. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Moraes, Elisabete C.; Bertani, Gabriel; dos Santos, Thiago V.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.

    2016-01-01

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001–December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance. PMID:27347957

  3. Use of MODIS Sensor Images Combined with Reanalysis Products to Retrieve Net Radiation in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gabriel; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Moraes, Elisabete C; Bertani, Gabriel; Dos Santos, Thiago V; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2016-06-24

    In the Amazon region, the estimation of radiation fluxes through remote sensing techniques is hindered by the lack of ground measurements required as input in the models, as well as the difficulty to obtain cloud-free images. Here, we assess an approach to estimate net radiation (Rn) and its components under all-sky conditions for the Amazon region through the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) model utilizing only remote sensing and reanalysis data. The study period comprised six years, between January 2001-December 2006, and images from MODIS sensor aboard the Terra satellite and GLDAS reanalysis products were utilized. The estimates were evaluated with flux tower measurements within the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. Comparison between estimates obtained by the proposed method and observations from LBA towers showed errors between 12.5% and 16.4% and 11.3% and 15.9% for instantaneous and daily Rn, respectively. Our approach was adequate to minimize the problem related to strong cloudiness over the region and allowed to map consistently the spatial distribution of net radiation components in Amazonia. We conclude that the integration of reanalysis products and satellite data, eliminating the need for surface measurements as input model, was a useful proposition for the spatialization of the radiation fluxes in the Amazon region, which may serve as input information needed by algorithms that aim to determine evapotranspiration, the most important component of the Amazon hydrological balance.

  4. Fire as a Factor of Variation of Soil Respiration in Amazonia of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, L.; Kruijt, B.

    2007-05-01

    Severe changes are affecting the role of Amazonia in the Earth system. One of these possible effects could be the modification of the relevance of soil in the carbon cycle. In this sense, fire is an important factor for mobilizing C from the soil to the atmosphere, mainly as CO2. This could have an important effect in the global warming. Our proposal will evaluate the variation of the soil respiration related to the seasonality and the fire effects on soils in the Amazonia of Peru and Brasil. In experimental parcels of four locations of Peru with different vegetation cover (forest and pasture), we will measure soil respiration along with the organic carbon and the microbial biomass of soils during campaigns of wet and dry seasons, with complementary measurements of soil temperature, water and nutrient content. Also, we will reproduce a fire experiment simulating local activity of "slash and burn" to evaluate fire effects. Measurements will be taken after the soil cooled and 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 days after the fire. Additionally, the carbon stock of the subparcels will be evaluated. Evaluation of the variations of CO2 fluxes and the capacity of adaptation to fire and water content will be done through the comparisons of the different locations, type of soils and concentration of available N as an indicator of nutrient content.

  5. Dynamic Mesoscale Land-Atmosphere Feedbacks in Fragmented Forests in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, D.; Baidya Roy, S.

    2011-12-01

    This paper investigates land-atmosphere feedbacks in disturbed rainforests of Amazonia. Deforestation along the rapidly expanding highways and road network has created the unique fishbone land cover pattern in Rondonia, a state in southwestern Amazonia. Numerical experiments and observations show that sharp gradients in land cover due to the fishbone heterogeneity triggers mesoscale circulations. These circulations significantly change the spatial pattern of local hydrometeorology, especially convection, clouds and precipitation. The primary research question now is can these changes in local hydrometeorology affect vegetation growth in the clearings. If so, that would be a clear indication that land-atmosphere feedbacks can affect vegetation recovery in fragmented forests. A computationally-efficient modeling tool consisting of a mesoscale atmospheric model dynamically coupled with a plant growth model has been specifically developed to identify the atmospheric feedback pathways. Preliminary experiments focus on the seasonal-scale feedbacks during the dry season. Results show that temperature, incoming shortwave and precipitation are the three primary drivers through which the feedbacks operate. Increasing temperature increases respiratory losses generating a positive feedback. Increased cloud cover reduces incoming PAR and photosynthesis, resulting in a positive feedback. Increased precipitation reduces water stress and promotes growth resulting in a negative feedback. The net effect is a combination of these 3 feedback loops. These findings can significantly improve our understanding of ecosystem resiliency in disturbed tropical forests.

  6. Economically important species dominate aboveground carbon storage in forests of southwestern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Galia Selaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree species in tropical forests provide economically important goods and ecosystem services. In submontane forests of southwestern Amazonia, we investigated the degree to which tree species important for subsistence and trade contribute to aboveground carbon storage (AGC. We used 41 1-hectare plots to determine the species abundance, basal area, and AGC of stems > 10 cm diameter at breast height (dbh. Economically important taxa were classified using ethnobotanical studies and according to their stem density. These taxa (n = 263 accounted for 45% of total stems, 53% of total basal area, and 56% of total AGC, significantly more than taxa with minor or unknown uses (Welch test at p 40 cm and few stems in regeneration classes of dbh < 10 to 20 cm (e.g., Bertholletia excelsa, Cariniana spp., Cedrelinga spp., Ceiba spp., Dipteryx spp., whereas dominant Tetragastris spp., and Pseudolmedia spp. had most stems in low diameter classes and a median diameter of < 30 cm. Bertholletia excelsa, with 1.5 stems per hectare, showed the highest basal area of any species and accounted for 9% of AGC (11 Mg/ha, twice that of the second-ranking species. Our study shows that economic importance and carbon stocks in trees are closely linked in southwestern Amazonia. Unplanned harvests can disrupt synergistic dual roles altering carbon stocks temporally or permanently. Precautionary measures based on species ecology, demography, and regeneration traits should be at the forefront of REDD+ to reconcile maximum harvesting limits, biodiversity conservation, and sustainable forest management.

  7. Arsenic, manganese and aluminum contamination in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meyer, Caroline M C; Rodríguez, Juan M; Carpio, Edward A; García, Pilar A; Stengel, Caroline; Berg, Michael

    2017-12-31

    This paper presents a first integrated survey on the occurrence and distribution of geogenic contaminants in groundwater resources of Western Amazonia in Peru. An increasing number of groundwater wells have been constructed for drinking water purposes in the last decades; however, the chemical quality of the groundwater resources in the Amazon region is poorly studied. We collected groundwater from the regions of Iquitos and Pucallpa to analyze the hydrochemical characteristics, including trace elements. The source aquifer of each well was determined by interpretation of the available geological information, which identified four different aquifer types with distinct hydrochemical properties. The majority of the wells in two of the aquifer types tap groundwater enriched in aluminum, arsenic, or manganese at levels harmful to human health. Holocene alluvial aquifers along the main Amazon tributaries with anoxic, near pH-neutral groundwater contained high concentrations of arsenic (up to 700μg/L) and manganese (up to 4mg/L). Around Iquitos, the acidic groundwater (4.2≤pH≤5.5) from unconfined aquifers composed of pure sand had dissolved aluminum concentrations of up to 3.3mg/L. Groundwater from older or deeper aquifers generally was of good chemical quality. The high concentrations of toxic elements highlight the urgent need to assess the groundwater quality throughout Western Amazonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the effect of nutrient redistribution by animals on the phosphorus cycle of lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Corina; Kleidon, Axel; Manzoni, Stefano; Reu, Björn; Porporato, Amilcare

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability decreases with soil age and potentially limits the productivity of ecosystems growing on old and weathered soils. Despite growing on ancient soils, ecosystems of lowland Amazonia are highly productive and are among the most biodiverse on Earth. P eroded and weathered in the Andes is transported by the rivers and deposited in floodplains of the lowland Amazon basin creating hotspots of P fertility. We hypothesize that animals feeding on vegetation and detritus in these hotspots may redistribute P to P-depleted areas, thus contributing to dissipate the P gradient across the landscape. Using a mathematical model, we show that animal-driven spatial redistribution of P from rivers to land and from seasonally flooded to terra firme (upland) ecosystems may sustain the P cycle of Amazonian lowlands. Our results show how P imported to land by terrestrial piscivores in combination with spatial redistribution of herbivores and detritivores can significantly enhance the P content in terra firme ecosystems, thereby highlighting the importance of food webs for the biogeochemical cycling of Amazonia.

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  11. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  15. Physically-based slope stability modelling and parameter sensitivity: a case study in the Quitite and Papagaio catchments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Neves Seefelder, Carolina; Mergili, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We use the software tools r.slope.stability and TRIGRS to produce factor of safety and slope failure susceptibility maps for the Quitite and Papagaio catchments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The key objective of the work consists in exploring the sensitivity of the geotechnical (r.slope.stability) and geohydraulic (TRIGRS) parameterization on the model outcomes in order to define suitable parameterization strategies for future slope stability modelling. The two landslide-prone catchments Quitite and Papagaio together cover an area of 4.4 km², extending between 12 and 995 m a.s.l. The study area is dominated by granitic bedrock and soil depths of 1-3 m. Ranges of geotechnical and geohydraulic parameters are derived from literature values. A landslide inventory related to a rainfall event in 1996 (250 mm in 48 hours) is used for model evaluation. We attempt to identify those combinations of effective cohesion and effective internal friction angle yielding the best correspondence with the observed landslide release areas in terms of the area under the ROC Curve (AUCROC), and in terms of the fraction of the area affected by the release of landslides. Thereby we test multiple parameter combinations within defined ranges to derive the slope failure susceptibility (fraction of tested parameter combinations yielding a factor of safety smaller than 1). We use the tool r.slope.stability (comparing the infinite slope stability model and an ellipsoid-based sliding surface model) to test and to optimize the geotechnical parameters, and TRIGRS (a coupled hydraulic-infinite slope stability model) to explore the sensitivity of the model results to the geohydraulic parameters. The model performance in terms of AUCROC is insensitive to the variation of the geotechnical parameterization within much of the tested ranges. Assuming fully saturated soils, r.slope.stability produces rather conservative predictions, whereby the results yielded with the sliding surface model are more

  16. Report of the Second Brazil/U.S. Workshop on Physical Oceanography Held 18-21 September 1989 at the Institute of Oceanography, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Frank

    1989-01-01

    .... physical oceanographers met to present results of work in the tropical and South Atlantic Oceans, identify major scientific questions about that region, and discuss possible collaborative research opportunities...

  17. The Role of Physical and Human Landscape Properties on Carbon Composition of Organic Matter in Tropical Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, M. R.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Deegan, L.; Neill, C.

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate physical and human controls organic matter carbon composition in tropical rivers, we applied an integrated analysis of landscape properties and riverine isotopic composition. Our goal was to establish the relationships between basin attributes and forms and composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter in rivers. A GIS template was developed as tool to support the understanding of the biogeochemistry of the surface waters of the Ji-Paraná (Western Amazonia) and the Piracicaba (southeastern of Brazil)rivers. Each basin was divided into drainage units, organized according to river network morphology and degree of land-use impact. The delineated drainage areas were individually characterized in terms of topography, soils and land use using data sets compiled as layers in ArcGis and ERDAS-IMAGINE software. DOM and POM carbon stable isotopic composition were determined at several sites along the main tributaries and small streams. The effects of these drivers on the fluvial carbon was quantified by a multiple linear regression analysis, relating basin characteristics and river isotopic composition. The results showed that relatively recent land cover changes have already had an impact on the composition of the riverine DOM and POM, indicating that, as in natural ecosystems, the vegetation plays a key role in the composition of the riverine organic matter in agricultural systems.

  18. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  6. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  8. Factors that affect riverines territorial behavior on fishing environments in flooding areas, Low Solimões, Central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Sánchez-Botero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Flooding areas present high biological productivity and are inhabited by populations that practice agriculture-fishing activities, based on the multiple use of resources. The economicity of the system leads the riverines to territorial appropriation and the common dependence of the resources leads to the establishment of internal agreements, defining criteria of access and intensity of extraction. This study, through 244 interviews with fishermen and meetings at 16 communities of Low Solimões River, identified factors that influence on the magnitude and purpose of the fisheries, especially at common use fishing spots, describing appropriation mechanisms and conflicts. The studied area comprehends two systems of terra firme and one of flooding lakes. For subsistence and commercial fisheries was estimated the area, extension, and frequency of use for period of the year (dry/flood. Each community explored the fishing environments depending on the proximity and/or accessibility, revealing uses inside its territorial delimitations, with superposing on that explored for subsistence and commercial means. There are conflicts with commercial and sporting fisheries, fishermen out from the region and farmers. Prohibitions or access control don't exist to the igapós systems, but informal rules regulating the use. Three sceneries are proposed for the integrated management of the systems in the area, due to the diversity of environments and interests of the involved groups.

  9. Resilience of a cerradão subjected to intermediate disturbance in the Cerrado-Amazonia transition, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hur Marimon-Junior

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hypothesis that remnant forests in small protected areas may be resilient to intermediate disturbances. We analyzed the diameter and height distributions of the tree community in a typical cerradão (14°42’02.3”S and 52°21’02.6”W and determined which species were most abundant, sampling at two- to three-year intervals over eight years. In 2002, 2005, 2008 and 2010, we measured all live trees with a diameter ≥ 5 cm at 0.3 m above ground in 50 plots of 10 x 10 m. Although significant variation was observed in the density of the trees and the distributions of their diameters and heights, the community maintained the “reverse-J” and unimodal patterns for these distributions, respectively. These results indicate continuous recruitment and little change in the structure of the community over the study period, supporting our hypothesis. Three different patterns of diametric distribution were observed among the analyzed species, likely reflecting different forest occupation strategies. Hirtella glandulosa was the speciesmost able to exploit its environment, as it possessed the greatest overall abundance and was represented by individuals in all diameter classes.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of ectoparasitic skin diseases and dermatomycoses in a rural community in Amazonia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lütkepohl, Anna-Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Infectious dermatoses such as ectoparasitoses and dermatomycoses are globally associated with morbidity, loss of income and social exclusion. Their distribution in society is inhomogeneous with a disproportionately high burden in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, particularly in countries of the global South. However, little is known about the epidemiological determinants in these populations. This knowledge is essential for effective control measures. In order to generate meaning...

  11. A new species of Scinax from the Purus-Madeira interfluve, Brazilian Amazonia (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquéias Ferrão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new tree frog species of the genus Scinax from the interfluve between the Purus and Madeira rivers, Brazilian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. The new species is diagnosed by medium body size, snout truncate in dorsal view, ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent, nuptial pads poorly developed, skin on dorsum shagreen, dorsum light brown with dark brown spots and markings, white groin with black spots, anterior and posterior surfaces of thighs black, and iris bright orange. The advertisement call consists of a single short note, with 16−18 pulses and dominant frequency at 1572−1594 Hz. Tadpoles are characterized by body ovoid in dorsal view and triangular in lateral view, tail higher than body, oral disc located anteroventrally and laterally emarginated, dorsum of body uniformly grey-brown with dark brown eye-snout stripe in preservative, fins translucent with small to large irregular diffuse dark brown spots.

  12. Impact of the Education Continues in Teachers of the UNAE Amazonia, Equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelin Rodríguez Rensoli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to socialize the research results obtained in the evaluation of attitudes, values and emotional states in teachers who went through the Continued Education Program developed by UNAE Amazonia. Semantic Differential Tables (TDS were used to identify the positive changes that were taking place in them during the implementation of innovative methodological strategies in teaching and learning. To achieve a positive change of the teacher to be involved in processes of changes in their pedagogical practice implied a permanent accompaniment in the identification of the problems that were faced, as well as in the design and implementation of alternative solutions according to the requirements of the new Curriculum oriented by the Ministry of Education in the country.

  13. Deforestation and climate feedbacks threaten the ecological integrity of south-southeastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Michael T; Marthews, Toby R; Costa, Marcos Heil; Galbraith, David R; Greenglass, Nora L; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley M A; Levine, Naomi M; Malhi, Yadvinder; Moorcroft, Paul R; Muza, Michel Nobre; Powell, Thomas L; Saleska, Scott R; Solorzano, Luis A; Wang, Jingfeng

    2013-06-05

    A mosaic of protected areas, including indigenous lands, sustainable-use production forests and reserves and strictly protected forests is the cornerstone of conservation in the Amazon, with almost 50 per cent of the region now protected. However, recent research indicates that isolation from direct deforestation or degradation may not be sufficient to maintain the ecological integrity of Amazon forests over the next several decades. Large-scale changes in fire and drought regimes occurring as a result of deforestation and greenhouse gas increases may result in forest degradation, regardless of protected status. How severe or widespread these feedbacks will be is uncertain, but the arc of deforestation in south-southeastern Amazonia appears to be particularly vulnerable owing to high current deforestation rates and ecological sensitivity to climate change. Maintaining forest ecosystem integrity may require significant strengthening of forest conservation on private property, which can in part be accomplished by leveraging existing policy mechanisms.

  14. Evaluating the impact of distance measures on deforestation simulations in the fluvial landscapes of amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Maria; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Toivonen, Tuuli

    2014-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LUCC) models frequently employ different accessibility measures as a proxy for human influence on land change processes. Here, we simulate deforestation in Peruvian Amazonia and evaluate different accessibility measures as LUCC model inputs. We demonstrate how the selection, and different combinations, of accessibility measures impact simulation results. Out of the individual measures, time distance to market center catches the essential aspects of accessibility in our study area. The most accurate simulation is achieved when time distance to market center is used in association with distance to transport network and additional landscape variables. Although traditional Euclidean measures result in clearly lower simulation accuracy when used separately, the combination of two complementary Euclidean measures enhances simulation accuracy significantly. Our results highlight the need for site and context sensitive selection of accessibility variables. More sophisticated accessibility measures can potentially improve LUCC models' spatial accuracy, which often remains low.

  15. Implicações biogeográficas de novos registros ornitológicos em um enclave de vegetação de campina no sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira Biogeographic implications of new avian records from a patch of white-sand forest in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Poletto

    2005-12-01

    growing on bleached sandy soils throughout Amazonia; despite their widespread distribution, WSF occur predominantly in the upper Rio Negro drainage (NW Brazil, SE Colombia, and S Venezuela. Smaller and isolated WSF patches located in SW. Brazilian Amazonia have not been studied systematically by ornithologists; therefore, some important ornithological results obtained during a field-trip to a WSF patch in the extreme SW. corner of the state of Amazonas, centered at 7º22'33.2"S and 73º00'42.5"W, are presented here. The first records of Hemitriccus striaticollis (Lafresnaye, 1853 (Aves, Tyrannidae and Xenopipo atronitens Cabanis, 1847 (Aves, Pipridae for SW. Brazilian Amazonia are presented, along with additional records of the following little known or rare species inhabiting this region: Formicivora grisea (Boddaert, 1783 (Aves, Thamnophilidae, Conopias parvus (Pelzeln, 1868 (Aves, Tyrannidae, and Heterocercus linteatus (Strickland, 1850 (Aves, Pipridae. As verified in WSF patches distributed throughout N. Peru, the WSF avifauna occurring in SW. Brazilian Amazonia is also highly influenced by species closely associated with the upper Rio Negro drainage. However, a second distinct biogeographic influence was also noted: that of species whose distribution's strongholds are located in central and E. Amazonia, S. of the Amazon river. The WSF avifauna of SW. Brazilian Amazonia is still poorly known; future ornithological surveys of isolated WSF patches in this region could lead to new range extensions and even to the discovery of unnamed taxa.

  16. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species) responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  17. Widespread Forest Vertebrate Extinctions Induced by a Mega Hydroelectric Dam in Lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Benchimol

    Full Text Available Mega hydropower projects in tropical forests pose a major emergent threat to terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity worldwide. Despite the unprecedented number of existing, under-construction and planned hydroelectric dams in lowland tropical forests, long-term effects on biodiversity have yet to be evaluated. We examine how medium and large-bodied assemblages of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates (including 35 mammal, bird and tortoise species responded to the drastic 26-year post-isolation history of archipelagic alteration in landscape structure and habitat quality in a major hydroelectric reservoir of Central Amazonia. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam inundated 3,129 km2 of primary forests, simultaneously isolating 3,546 land-bridge islands. We conducted intensive biodiversity surveys at 37 of those islands and three adjacent continuous forests using a combination of four survey techniques, and detected strong forest habitat area effects in explaining patterns of vertebrate extinction. Beyond clear area effects, edge-mediated surface fire disturbance was the most important additional driver of species loss, particularly in islands smaller than 10 ha. Based on species-area models, we predict that only 0.7% of all islands now harbor a species-rich vertebrate assemblage consisting of ≥80% of all species. We highlight the colossal erosion in vertebrate diversity driven by a man-made dam and show that the biodiversity impacts of mega dams in lowland tropical forest regions have been severely overlooked. The geopolitical strategy to deploy many more large hydropower infrastructure projects in regions like lowland Amazonia should be urgently reassessed, and we strongly advise that long-term biodiversity impacts should be explicitly included in pre-approval environmental impact assessments.

  18. Interactions between rainfall, deforestation and fires during recent years in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz Eduardo O C; Malhi, Yadvinder; Barbier, Nicolas; Lima, Andre; Shimabukuro, Yosio; Anderson, Liana; Saatchi, Sassan

    2008-05-27

    Understanding the interplay between climate and land-use dynamics is a fundamental concern for assessing the vulnerability of Amazonia to climate change. In this study, we analyse satellite-derived monthly and annual time series of rainfall, fires and deforestation to explicitly quantify the seasonal patterns and relationships between these three variables, with a particular focus on the Amazonian drought of 2005. Our results demonstrate a marked seasonality with one peak per year for all variables analysed, except deforestation. For the annual cycle, we found correlations above 90% with a time lag between variables. Deforestation and fires reach the highest values three and six months, respectively, after the peak of the rainy season. The cumulative number of hot pixels was linearly related to the size of the area deforested annually from 1998 to 2004 (r2=0.84, p=0.004). During the 2005 drought, the number of hot pixels increased 43% in relation to the expected value for a similar deforested area (approx. 19000km2). We demonstrated that anthropogenic forcing, such as land-use change, is decisive in determining the seasonality and annual patterns of fire occurrence. Moreover, droughts can significantly increase the number of fires in the region even with decreased deforestation rates. We may expect that the ongoing deforestation, currently based on slash and burn procedures, and the use of fires for land management in Amazonia will intensify the impact of droughts associated with natural climate variability or human-induced climate change and, therefore, a large area of forest edge will be under increased risk of fires.

  19. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the actual situation of nuclear physics in Brazil as well as its perspectives of developments and real needs in the next decade. It discusses the main projects and the financing of brazilian research groups and Universities. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  2. Spatial variability of the direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols and the effects of land use change in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the Amazonian shortwave radiative budget over cloud-free conditions after considering three aspects of deforestation: (i the emission of aerosols from biomass burning due to forest fires; (ii changes in surface albedo after deforestation; and (iii modifications in the column water vapour amount over deforested areas. Simultaneous Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES shortwave fluxes and aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS were analysed during the peak of the biomass burning seasons (August and September from 2000 to 2009. A discrete-ordinate radiative transfer (DISORT code was used to extend instantaneous remote sensing radiative forcing assessments into 24-h averages.

    The mean direct radiative forcing of aerosols at the top of the atmosphere (TOA during the biomass burning season for the 10-yr studied period was −5.6 ± 1.7 W m−2. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols over Amazonia was obtained for the biomass burning season of each year. It was observed that for high AOD (larger than 1 at 550 nm the maximum daily direct aerosol radiative forcing at the TOA may be as high as −20 W m−2 locally. The surface reflectance plays a major role in the aerosol direct radiative effect. The study of the effects of biomass burning aerosols over different surface types shows that the direct radiative forcing is systematically more negative over forest than over savannah-like covered areas. Values of −15.7 ± 2.4 W m−2τ550 nm and −9.3 ± 1.7 W m−2τ550 nm were calculated for the mean daily aerosol forcing efficiencies over forest and savannah-like vegetation respectively. The overall mean annual land use change radiative forcing due to deforestation over the state of Rondônia, Brazil, was determined as −7.3 ± 0.9 W m

  3. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condamine Fabien L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae. First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. Results The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33–42 Ma origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades + Parides reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the “museum model” of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. Conclusions This study demonstrates that: (i current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed

  4. Biogeographic and diversification patterns of Neotropical Troidini butterflies (Papilionidae) support a museum model of diversity dynamics for Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, Fabien L; Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Kergoat, Gael J; Sperling, Felix A H

    2012-06-12

    The temporal and geographical diversification of Neotropical insects remains poorly understood because of the complex changes in geological and climatic conditions that occurred during the Cenozoic. To better understand extant patterns in Neotropical biodiversity, we investigated the evolutionary history of three Neotropical swallowtail Troidini genera (Papilionidae). First, DNA-based species delimitation analyses were conducted to assess species boundaries within Neotropical Troidini using an enlarged fragment of the standard barcode gene. Molecularly delineated species were then used to infer a time-calibrated species-level phylogeny based on a three-gene dataset and Bayesian dating analyses. The corresponding chronogram was used to explore their temporal and geographical diversification through distinct likelihood-based methods. The phylogeny for Neotropical Troidini was well resolved and strongly supported. Molecular dating and biogeographic analyses indicate that the extant lineages of Neotropical Troidini have a late Eocene (33-42 Ma) origin in North America. Two independent lineages (Battus and Euryades+Parides) reached South America via the GAARlandia temporary connection, and later became extinct in North America. They only began substantive diversification during the early Miocene in Amazonia. Macroevolutionary analysis supports the "museum model" of diversification, rather than Pleistocene refugia, as the best explanation for the diversification of these lineages. This study demonstrates that: (i) current Neotropical biodiversity may have originated ex situ; (ii) the GAARlandia bridge was important in facilitating invasions of South America; (iii) colonization of Amazonia initiated the crown diversification of these swallowtails; and (iv) Amazonia is not only a species-rich region but also acted as a sanctuary for the dynamics of this diversity. In particular, Amazonia probably allowed the persistence of old lineages and contributed to the steady

  5. Maximizing Amazonia's Ecosystem Services: Juggling the potential for carbon storage, agricultural yield and biodiversity in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, C. S.; Foley, J. A.; Gerber, J. S.; Polasky, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the next forty years it will continue to experience pressure from an urbanizing and increasingly affluent populace: under a business-as-usual scenario, global cropland, pasture and biofuels systems will carry on expanding, while the Amazon's carbon storage potential will likely become another viable revenue source under REDD+. Balancing those competing land use pressures ought also take into account Amazonia's high - but heterogeneous - biodiversity. Knowing where Amazonia has opportunities to make efficient or optimal trade offs between carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity can allow policymakers to direct or influence LUC drivers. This analysis uses a spatially-explicit model that takes climate and management into account to quantify the potential agricultural yield of both the Amazon's most important agricultural commodities - sugar, soy and maize - as well as several that are going to come into increasing prominence, including palm oil. In addition, it maps the potential for carbon to be stored in forest biomass and relative species richness across Amazonia. We then compare carbon storage, agricultural yield and species richness and identify areas where efficient trade offs occur between food, carbon, and biodiversity - three critical ecosystem goods and services provided by the world's largest tropical forest.

  6. Datafile: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    There is as yet little to show for the enormous investment made by Brazil over the past 20 years in nuclear power and the fuel cycle. The only nuclear power plant (657MWe PWR) in operation has had a poor performance record and the two reactors (1309MWe PWRs) under construction are more than ten years behind the original schedule. Aspirations of building commercial fuel cycle facilities have proved extremely optimistic. In the latest reorganization of the industry, the construction and operation of nuclear power stations is entrusted to the national utility and the various civilian/military R and D efforts in the fuel cycle are being integrated under civilian supervision. This should lead to greater accountability and efficiency in the future. (author)

  7. Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militão, Angeliete Garcez; de Oliveira Karnikowski, Margô Gomes; da Silva, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez Militão, Elba Sancho; Dos Santos Pereira, Raiane Maiara; Grubert Campbell, Carmen Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40%) participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF): the intervention group (IG, n = 17) and the control group (CG, n = 17). The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children's weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC), maximum oxygen intake (VO2max), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used descriptive statistics and paired and unpaired t-tests, using a significance level of 0.05. For assessment of dietary habits, a questionnaire, contingency tables, and the chi-squared test were used, with motivated to change their poor eating habits and to increase their physical activity level.

  8. Seasonal variation of ozone deposition to a tropical rain forest in southwest Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Rummel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the project EUropean Studies on Trace gases and Atmospheric CHemistry as a contribution to Large-scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH, we performed tower-based eddy covariance measurements of O3 flux above an Amazonian primary rain forest at the end of the wet and dry season. Ozone deposition revealed distinct seasonal differences in the magnitude and diel variation. In the wet season, the rain forest was an effective O3 sink with a mean daytime (midday maximum deposition velocity of 2.3 cm s−1, and a corresponding O3 flux of −11 nmol m−2 s−1. At the end of the dry season, the ozone mixing ratio was about four times higher (up to maximum values of 80 ppb than in the wet season, as a consequence of strong regional biomass burning activity. However, the typical maximum daytime deposition flux was very similar to the wet season. This results from a strong limitation of daytime O3 deposition due to reduced plant stomatal aperture as a response to large values of the specific humidity deficit. As a result, the average midday deposition velocity in the dry burning season was only 0.5 cm s−1. The large diel ozone variation caused large canopy storage effects that masked the true diel variation of ozone deposition mechanisms in the measured eddy covariance flux, and for which corrections had to be made. In general, stomatal aperture was sufficient to explain the largest part of daytime ozone deposition. However, during nighttime, chemical reaction with nitrogen monoxide (NO was found to contribute substantially to the O3 sink in the rain forest canopy. Further contributions were from non-stomatal plant uptake and other processes that could not be clearly identified.

    Measurements, made simultaneously on a 22 years old cattle pasture enabled the spatially and temporally direct comparison of O3

  9. Land cover change interacts with drought severity to change fire regimes in Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Vélez, Víctor H; Uriarte, María; DeFries, Ruth; Pinedo-Vásquez, Miguel; Fernandes, Katia; Ceccato, Pietro; Baethgen, Walter; Padoch, Christine

    Fire is becoming a pervasive driver of environmental change in Amazonia and is expected to intensify, given projected reductions in precipitation and forest cover. Understanding of the influence of post-deforestation land cover change on fires in Amazonia is limited, even though fires in cleared lands constitute a threat for ecosystems, agriculture, and human health. We used MODIS satellite data to map burned areas annually between 2001 and 2010. We then combined these maps with land cover and climate information to understand the influence of land cover change in cleared lands and dry-season severity on fire occurrence and spread in a focus area in the Peruvian Amazon. Fire occurrence, quantified as the probability of burning of individual 232-m spatial resolution MODIS pixels, was modeled as a function of the area of land cover types within each pixel, drought severity, and distance to roads. Fire spread, quantified as the number of pixels burned in 3 × 3 pixel windows around each focal burned pixel, was modeled as a function of land cover configuration and area, dry-season severity, and distance to roads. We found that vegetation regrowth and oil palm expansion are significantly correlated with fire occurrence, but that the magnitude and sign of the correlation depend on drought severity, successional stage of regrowing vegetation, and oil palm age. Burning probability increased with the area of nondegraded pastures, fallow, and young oil palm and decreased with larger extents of degraded pastures, secondary forests, and adult oil palm plantations. Drought severity had the strongest influence on fire occurrence, overriding the effectiveness of secondary forests, but not of adult plantations, to reduce fire occurrence in severely dry years. Overall, irregular and scattered land cover patches reduced fire spread but irregular and dispersed fallows and secondary forests increased fire spread during dry years. Results underscore the importance of land cover

  10. Visual assessment of soil structure quality in an agroextractivist system in Southeastern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernanda Simões da Silva, Laura; Stuchi Boschi, Raquel; Ortega Gomes, Matheus; Cooper, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Soil structure is considered a key factor in the functioning of soil, affecting its ability to support plant and animal life, and moderate environmental quality. Numerous methods are available to evaluate soil structure based on physical, chemical and biological indicators. Among the physical indicators, the attributes most commonly used are soil bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to penetration, tensile strength of aggregates, soil water infiltration, and available water. However, these methods are expensive and generally time costly for sampling and laboratorial procedures. Recently, evaluations using qualitative and semi-quantitative indicators of soil structure quality have gained importance. Among these methods, the method known as Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Ball et al., 2007; Guimarães et al., 2011) can supply this necessity in temperate and tropical regions. The study area is located in the Piranheira Praialta Agroextrativist Settlement Project in the county of Nova Ipixuna, Pará, Brazil. Two toposequences were chosen, one under native forest and the other under pasture. Pits were opened in different landscape positions (upslope, midslope and downslope) for soil morphological, micromorphological and physical characterization. The use of the soil visual evaluation method (SVE) consisted in collecting an undisturbed soil sample of approximately 25 cm in length, 20 cm in width and 10 cm in depth. 12 soil samples were taken for each land use. The samples were manually fragmented, respecting the fracture planes between the aggregates. The SVE was done comparing the fragmented sample with a visual chart and scores were given to the soil structure. The categories that define the soil structure quality (Qe) vary from 1 to 5. Lower scores mean better soil structure. The final score calculation was done using the classification key of Ball et al. (2007) adapted by Guimarães (2011). A change in soil structure was observed between forest and

  11. Envia garciai, a new genus and species of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Microstigmatidae from Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Envia, comprising only the new species Envia garciai, is proposed. These small mygalomorph spiders were abundantly collected in soil cores and litter samples in primary rain forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice of women in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil with respect to physical exercise in pregnancy: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carmen P; Milanez, Helaine

    2011-11-03

    Pregnancy is a good time to develop healthy lifestyle habits including regular exercise and good nutrition. Programs of physical exercise for pregnant women have been recommended; however, there are few references on this subject in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of pregnant women with respect to appropriate physical exercise during pregnancy, and also to investigate why some women do not exercise during pregnancy. A descriptive study was conducted in which 161 women of 18 to 45 years of age were interviewed in the third trimester of pregnancy. These women were receiving prenatal care at National Health Service (SUS) primary healthcare units and had no pathologies for which physical exercise would constitute a risk. The women were selected at an ultrasonography clinic accredited to the SUS in Campinas, São Paulo. A previously elaborated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then stored in an Epinfo database. Statistical analysis was conducted using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test to evaluate the association between the study variables (p exercise during pregnancy and the vast majority (93.8%) was in favor of it. Nevertheless, only just over 20% of the women in this sample exercised adequately. Significant associations were found between an adequate knowledge of physical exercise during pregnancy and education level (p = 0.0014) and between the adequate practice of physical exercise during pregnancy and having had fewer pregnancies (p = 0.0001). Lack of time and feeling tired and uncomfortable were the principal reasons given by the women for not exercising. These results suggest that women's knowledge concerning the practice of physical exercise during pregnancy is reasonable and their attitude is favorable; however, relatively few actually exercise during pregnancy.

  13. Functional diversity of bacterial genes associated with aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gomes Germano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the catabolic gene diversity for the bacterial degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE and their biochar (BC. Functional diversity analyses in ADE soils can provide information on how adaptive microorganisms may influence the fertility of soils and what is their involvement in biogeochemical cycles. For this, clone libraries containing the gene encoding for the alpha subunit of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (α-ARHD bacterial gene were constructed, totaling 800 clones. These libraries were prepared from samples of an ADE soil under two different land uses, located at the Caldeirão Experimental Station - secondary forest (SF and agriculture (AG -, and the biochar (SF_BC and AG_BC, respectively. Heterogeneity estimates indicated greater diversity in BC libraries; and Venn diagrams showed more unique operational protein clusters (OPC in the SF_BC library than the ADE soil, which indicates that specific metabolic processes may occur in biochar. Phylogenetic analysis showed unidentified dioxygenases in ADE soils. Libraries containing functional gene encoding for the alpha subunit of the aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHD gene from biochar show higher diversity indices than those of ADE under secondary forest and agriculture.

  14. The trophic role of microbial loop in an Amazonia central floodplain lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraballo, Pedro; Forsberg, Bruce R; Leite, Rosseval G

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of heterotrophic bacteria on carbon flow in food chains of an Amazonian floodplain lake, monthly collections of these organisms were made during the hydrological year from December 2007 to November 2008. Littoral, pelagic, and aquatic macrophyte regions of the Catalao Lake in central Amazonia were sampled and bacteria were multiplied in vitro, using dissolved organic carbon (COD) of each one of the regions studied as a substrate. The bacterial biomass obtained was used for stable isotope analyses of carbon and nitrogen. These data were confronted with COD values of the four hydrological periods of the lake (dry, rising, flood and fall). In general, it was found that the main source of carbon for heterotrophic bacteria was that of C4 origin, which presented a minimum contribution of 75% of bacterial biomass, to the extent that the bacteria D13C average value -17.72 Per Mille ± 2.25 was comparing this value with the D13C of zooplankton in the same period (-33.04 Per Mille ± 3.81) permit concludes that the contribution of heterotrophic bacteria in the carbon flow to higher trophic levels in the Catalao lake is minimal.

  15. Microbial diversity of an anoxic zone of a hydroelectric power station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graças, Diego A; Miranda, Paulo R; Baraúna, Rafael A; McCulloch, John A; Ghilardi, Rubens; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Silva, Artur

    2011-11-01

    Microbial diversity was evaluated in an anoxic zone of Tucuruí Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia using a culture-independent approach by amplifying and sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA gene using metagenomic DNA as a template. Samples obtained from the photic, aphotic (40 m) and sediment (60 m) layers were used to construct six 16S rDNA libraries containing a total of 1,152 clones. The sediment, aphotic and photic layers presented 64, 33 and 35 unique archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The estimated richness of these layers was evaluated to be 153, 106 and 79 archaeal OTUs, respectively, using the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and 114, 83 and 77 OTUs using the Chao1 estimator. For bacterial sequences, 114, 69 and 57 OTUs were found in the sediment, aphotic and photic layers, which presented estimated richnesses of 1,414, 522 and 197 OTUs (ACE) and 1,059, 1,014 and 148 OTUs (Chao1), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences obtained revealed a high richness of microorganisms which participate in the carbon cycle, namely, methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic proteobacteria. Most sequences obtained belong to non-culturable prokaryotes. The present study offers the first glimpse of the huge microbial diversity of an anoxic area of a man-made lacustrine environment in the tropics.

  16. Population Development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Landrace Bean Varieties Occurring in Southwestern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H

    2016-02-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.

  17. [The fleas of mammals from the Ucayali River basin (the Peruvian Amazonia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darskaia, N F; Malygin, V M

    1996-01-01

    The material collected from 57 specimens of 9 mammalian species in two localities of the Peruvian Amazonia includes 212 specimens of fleas belonging to four species (Polygenis klagesi, Ropalopsyllus lugubris, Rh. australis and Rothschildopsylla noctilionis). This is the first record of fleas in the Ucayali River basin. The majority of flea specimens were collected form three morphologically similar but karyotypically and electrophoretically distinct species of spiny rats of the genus Proechimys. These fleas belong to the species P. klagesi. The subspecies P. k. samuelis was collected from 32-chromosome spiny rats nearby Pucallpa (8 degrees 22' S, 74 degrees 43' W), whereas in the locality nearby the village Jenaro Errera (4 degrees 52' S, 73 degrees 39' W) only the nominative subspecies P. k. klagesi were collected from all three species of spiny rats. Other species of fleas have relatively less abundance. Six fleas Rh. l. lugubris were found on one specimen of Cuniculus paca; a single Rh. australis--on one specimen of Myoprocta pratti; and a single R. noctilionis--on one specimen of Eptesicus brasiliensis.

  18. Structuring of Milk Production Basins: Comparison between Brazilian Amazonia and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Poccard Chapuis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazilian Amazonia, structuring of dairy basins is progressing fast. In Mali, these processes are not engaged, although the activity of cattle keeping is ancient and currently thriving. This difference covers essential stakes: fight against poverty, food production in the face of the demographic challenge, current debates on the theories of the development. The comparative analysis is based on a diachronic model of the successive phases of structuring of the Amazonian dairy basins. This model is then applied to dairy dynamics in Mali to identify blockages in the structuring of basins. Six phases are highlighted in the Amazonian model, from subsistence consumption of raw milk to basin specialization and establishment of an industrial monopoly. The application in Mali shows that the initial situations are similar (territory constraints. But two essential mechanisms are not working: transportation of finished products to distant markets, and fresh milk collection extended beyond the boundaries of the direct sale to urban consumers. These two aspects, essential to ensure the flow upstream and downstream of the products, address the question of dairy unit location as well as the distribution organization in Bamako. In spite of the limits of the comparative analysis, the model shows that the keys to a positive evolution in Mali are more to be found at the industry and distribution levels than at the production level. Public actions (State and collectivities could focus on these two points, notably through training activities and credit policies.

  19. Late Quaternary landscape evolution of northeastern Amazonia from pollen and diatom records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARCILÉA F. CASTRO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to reconstruct the Late Pleistocene-Holocene floristic composition in an area of the northern Brazilian Amazonia, comparing the results with other Amazonian localities in order to discuss the factors that have influenced phytophysiognomic changes over this time period. The work in eastern Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazonas River was approached based on analysis of 98 pollen and diatom samples from core data distributed along a proximal to distal transect of a paleoestuarine system. The results indicated high concentration of Rhizophora, associated with arboreal pollen grains typical of the modern Amazonian rainforest during the last 40,000 cal yrs BP. Pollen composition also included wetland herbs. Diatoms were dominated by marine and fresh water taxa. Wetland forest, mangrove and, subordinately herbs remained constant during most of the latest Pleistocene-early/middle Holocene. At 5,000 cal yrs BP, there was a distinguished change from forest and mangrove to wet grassland savanna due to sea level fluctuation. As marine influence decreased, the estuary gave rise to fresh water lacustrine and swamp environments, with establishment of herbaceous campos. A main conclusion from this study is that solely the occurrence of herbaceous savanna can not be used as a definitive indicator of past dry climates in Amazonian areas.

  20. The distribution and amount of carbon in the largest peatland complex in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, Frederick C; Baker, Timothy R; Roucoux, Katherine H; Lawson, Ian T; Mitchard, Edward T A; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Zaráte, Ricardo; Lähteenoja, Outi; Torres Montenegro, Luis; Valderrama Sandoval, Elvis

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands in Amazonian Peru are known to store large quantities of carbon, but there is high uncertainty in the spatial extent and total carbon stocks of these ecosystems. Here, we use a multi-sensor (Landsat, ALOS PALSAR and SRTM) remote sensing approach, together with field data including 24 forest census plots and 218 peat thickness measurements, to map the distribution of peatland vegetation types and calculate the combined above- and below-ground carbon stock of peatland ecosystems in the Pastaza-Marañon foreland basin in Peru. We find that peatlands cover 35 600 ± 2133 km 2 and contain 3.14 (0.44–8.15) Pg C. Variation in peat thickness and bulk density are the most important sources of uncertainty in these values. One particular ecosystem type, peatland pole forest, is found to be the most carbon-dense ecosystem yet identified in Amazonia (1391 ± 710 Mg C ha −1 ). The novel approach of combining optical and radar remote sensing with above- and below-ground carbon inventories is recommended for developing regional carbon estimates for tropical peatlands globally. Finally, we suggest that Amazonian peatlands should be a priority for research and conservation before the developing regional infrastructure causes an acceleration in the exploitation and degradation of these ecosystems. (letter)

  1. Allometry and growth of six tree species in a terra firme forest in colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Pamplona Wilson A; Dairon, Alvaro; Cardenas Montoya J, Duque

    2011-01-01

    In this study carried out in the Amacayacu National Park in the Colombian Amazonia, we assessed the allometric relationship among different tree structural variables and the growth in diameter and biomass of six species classified according to their wood specific gravity. The tree species chosen were Eschweilera rufolia, Eschweilera itayensis, Conceveiba guianensis, Otoba parvifolia, Pseudolmedia laevis, and Apeiba aspera. The dbh was the most important structural explanatory variable. Regarding the total height dbh model, the allometric coefficient b changed between species showing a trend to increase, and thus a taper decrease, proportional to. There were o significant differences in diameter growth between species (P=0.119, F=1.80) or functional groups (P=0.153, F= 1.19). Likewise, biomass growth did not show significant differences neither between species (P=0.0784, F=2.05) nor functional groups (P=0.0711, F=2.71). However, there was a positive trend between and diameter growth and a negative one between and biomass growth. The results of this study suggest that this forest is recovering in biomass at a constant rate independent of the patch age, which emphasizes on the importance of pioneer species and gap formation on the carbon dynamics and the species coexistence in Amazonian tierra firme forests.

  2. Regional-Scale Drivers of Forest Structure and Function in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest. PMID:25793602

  3. Lipid Oxidation Inhibitory Effects and Phenolic Composition of Aqueous Extracts from Medicinal Plants of Colombian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Ruiz-Sanz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diverse plants of ethnobotanic interest in Amazonia are commonly used in traditional medicine. We determined the antioxidant potential against lipid peroxidation, the antimicrobial activity, and the polyphenol composition of several Amazonian plants (Brownea rosademonte, Piper glandulosissimum, Piper krukoffii, Piper putumayoense, Solanum grandiflorum, and Vismia baccifera. Extracts from the plant leaf, bark, and stem were prepared as aqueous infusions, as used in folk medicine, and added to rat liver microsomes exposed to iron. The polyphenolic composition was detected by reverse-phase HPLC coupled to diode-array detector and MS/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the spot-on-a-lawn method against several indicator microorganisms. All the extracts inhibited lipid oxidation, except the P. glandulosissimum stem. The plant extracts exhibiting high antioxidant potential (V. baccifera and B. rosademonte contained high levels of flavanols (particularly, catechin and epicatechin. By contrast, S. grandiflorum leaf, which exhibited very low antioxidant activity, was rich in hydroxycinnamic acids. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence of bioactive polyphenolic compounds in several Amazonian plants, and highlights the importance of flavanols as major phenolic contributors to antioxidant activity.

  4. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliola, Risto; Toivonen, Tuuli; Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere

  5. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  6. Urban Forest and Rural Cities: Multi-sited Households, Consumption Patterns, and Forest Resources in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Padoch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In much of the Amazon Basin, approximately 70% of the population lives in urban areas and urbanward migration continues. Based on data collected over more than a decade in two long-settled regions of Amazonia, we find that rural-urban migration in the region is an extended and complex process. Like recent rural-urban migrants worldwide, Amazonian migrants, although they may be counted as urban residents, are often not absent from rural areas but remain members of multi-sited households and continue to participate in rural-urban networks and in rural land-use decisions. Our research indicates that, despite their general poverty, these migrants have affected urban markets for both food and construction materials. We present two cases: that of açaí palm fruit in the estuary of the Amazon and of cheap construction timbers in the Peruvian Amazon. We find that many new Amazonian rural-urban migrants have maintained some important rural patterns of both consumption and knowledge. Through their consumer behavior, they are affecting the areal extent of forests; in the two floodplain regions discussed, tree cover is increasing. We also find changes in forest composition, reflecting the persistence of rural consumption patterns in cities resulting in increased demand for and production of açaí and cheap timber species.

  7. Open access to information bridges science and development in Amazonia: lessons of the SIAMAZONIA service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalliola, Risto [Department of Geography, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Toivonen, Tuuli [Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Miyakawa, Victor; Mavila, Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones de la AmazonIa Peruana, Apartado Postal 784, Iquitos (Peru)

    2008-07-15

    Access to and availability of accurate information has often been stated to play an important role in sustainable environmental management. There is a growing trend of setting up internet-based information services to support the availability of relevant information. The current initiatives that aim to facilitate such information sharing through the web are still, however, often premature and unable to ensure constant flow of data from producers to users. We examine these common challenges by using as an example a network-based facility of biodiversity and environmental information about the Peruvian Amazon region called SIAMAZONIA. Launched in 2001, the service includes data provided by 13 different nodes. The experiences of this initiative have been both encouraging and confusing. A good professional level has been reached, but participation by large information holders is impeded. Participation is obviously considered an additional task rather than an attractive option for enhanced performance at the individual or institutional levels. This dilemma reflects a genuine problem in the modern scientific community, which still lacks agreed ways to reward those who share their data and results through the web. If these problems are solved, internet-based information sharing may become a vital resource for environmental management in Amazonia and also elsewhere.

  8. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Marenco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

  9. Terrestrial mammal assemblages in protected and human impacted areas in Northern Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Burgos de Luna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammal communities in the vicinity of human settlements are often subject to subsistence hunting and retaliatory killings. We used fourteen digital camera traps equipped with infrared triggers to sample the medium-sized and large mammal communities for ca. 34 (±1.64 days per site. Diversity was measured as both Shannon entropy and Fager´s number of moves (NMS, and dominance was quantified using the Berger-Parker index. We used Kruskall-Wallis tests to investigate if there were statistically significant differences in richness, diversity and dominance among the sites. At an overall sampling effort of 1,946 trap days we recorded 216 independent observations of a total of 20 species belonging to 17 genera and 15 families. Richness and diversity appeared to be determined by forest structure, since, independent of the level of human impact, the richest areas were those closest to the ombrophilous forests of southern Guyana shield, closest to central Amazonia, whereas the poorest were at those sites closest to the vegetation mosaics of central Guyana shield. The disappearance of Tayassu pecari from the impacted areas as well as higher relative abundances in the protected areas, albeit not significant, foresees a possible bleak future for the mammalian assemblages in the near future.

  10. The inclusion of electric power and the challenge of sustainability in remote inland areas of the Amazon; A inclusao eletrica e o desafio da sustentabilidade nas areas remotas do interior da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua

    2008-07-01

    This article brings some reflections on the National Program of Universalization of the Access and Use of the Electric Energy, Luz para Todos, in areas as the Amazonia. This Program when implanting and executing the actions characterized the Brazilian state in way uniform, disrespecting the particularity and diversity of the Amazon region. This attitude has not met of the goals foreseen for the electrification of the Amazonian, evidencing thus, that the geographic, cultural and social multiplicities of climates and characteristics constitute great obstacles for the implantation of homogeneous politics. This, for certain, demonstrates that the potential of development of each region has differentiated dynamic, which would have to influence and to direct the formularization of politics. It characterizes this proposal bold and ambitious of the Federal Government from carried through empirical experience in an Amazonian community, Terra Preta do Limao, located in the city of Barreirinha. In this way, given referring to the organizational structure, the situation of job and income, to the access the social goods and services and the productive occupational vocation of this population bring answers on the impacts of the program in the improvement of the quality of life of this social segment. Moreover, it presents indications of that the resources destined to the implantation of the program, make impracticable, for its high cost, other social priorities. Although the electric energy is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to the necessary society to be seen in accord with sustainable criteria, of form to prevent the exploration and high consumption of the natural resources and the wastefulness of energy. With this reading, the work if considers to show to the incoherencies of the Program in the State of Amazon, evidencing the obstacles for the reach of the goals traced for the State. Therefore, considering what the Amazonia

  11. The role of the medical physic on radiologic, hemodynamic and surgery unit at Hospital das Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacelar, A.; Furtado, A.P.A.; Krebs, E.M.; Oliveira, S.S.; Lima, A.A.; Jacques, L.C.; Silveira, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    The activities executed by the medical physic in the radiologic, hemodynamic and surgery unit are presented. Topics such as organization of a radiologic protection project and a quality assurance program, monthly information of the individual doses, sanitary inspection and training of the professionals involved are emphasized. The methodology and results are briefly presented

  12. A new diminutive frog species of Adelophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Moraes, Ricardo; Ferreira, Rodrigo Barbosa; Fouquet, Antoine; Bastos, Rogério Pereira

    2014-08-04

    The genus Adelophryne is composed of diminutive frogs occurring in northern Amazonia and the Atlantic Forest. Herein we describe a new species of Adelophryne found in the leaf litter of primary and secondary forests in the mountainous region of Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small body size, two phalanges in the finger IV, and a glandular ridge line that runs from the posterior part of eye to the insertion of the forelimb. This species is sensitive to edge effect and conversion of native forest into coffee and Eucalyptus plantations and may be listed as Endangered (EN) under B1ab(iii) criteria of the IUCN Red List.

  13. Relações do parâmetro S para algumas propriedades físicas de solos do sul do Brasil Relationships of the S parameter of some physical properties of soils of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arnoldo Streck

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O parâmetro S representa o valor da inclinação da curva de retenção de água no seu ponto de inflexão. Um aumento nos valores de S indica uma ampla distribuição de tamanho de poros, condizente com condições estruturais que estabelecem um adequado funcionamento físico do solo. Neste trabalho, testou-se a sensibilidade do parâmetro S, proposto na literatura, em relação a algumas propriedades físicas de solos do Sul do Brasil. O parâmetro S não se relacionou com o teor de argila total, nem com o teor de argila dispersa dos sete solos utilizados neste trabalho. Para o grupamento dos solos argilosos e muito argilosos, o parâmetro S apresentou decréscimo exponencial com o aumento da densidade do solo e um crescimento exponencial com o aumento da matéria orgânica do solo. Nesses solos, a água disponível às plantas aumentou de forma linear (ADP= 3,19*S passando pela origem e a pressão de pré-consolidação reduziu exponencialmente com o aumento do valor de S. Conclui-se que o parâmetro S apresentou sensibilidade para determinar a qualidade física dos solos de textura argilosa e muito argilosa.The S index corresponds to the slope of the soil water retention curve at its inflection point. A high S value indicates the presence of structural pores, which are essential for a good soil physical condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the index of soil physical quality (S, as proposed in the literature for some physical properties of soils from Southern Brazil. In the seven soils used here, no relationship was found between clay and water dispersible clay content with soil physical quality index S. However, in soils with high clay content, the S index decreases with an increase in soil bulk density and increases with an increase in soil organic matter content. For a given texture class, plant available water increased linearly (PAW= 3.19*S to the origin and the preconsolidation pressure decreased

  14. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  15. Prediction of rainfall anomalies during the dry to wet transition season over the Southern Amazonia using machine learning tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, X.; Zhang, K.; Zhuang, Y.; Fu, R.; Hong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal prediction of rainfall during the dry-to-wet transition season in austral spring (September-November) over southern Amazonia is central for improving planting crops and fire mitigation in that region. Previous studies have identified the key large-scale atmospheric dynamic and thermodynamics pre-conditions during the dry season (June-August) that influence the rainfall anomalies during the dry to wet transition season over Southern Amazonia. Based on these key pre-conditions during dry season, we have evaluated several statistical models and developed a Neural Network based statistical prediction system to predict rainfall during the dry to wet transition for Southern Amazonia (5-15°S, 50-70°W). Multivariate Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) Analysis is applied to the following four fields during JJA from the ECMWF Reanalysis (ERA-Interim) spanning from year 1979 to 2015: geopotential height at 200 hPa, surface relative humidity, convective inhibition energy (CIN) index and convective available potential energy (CAPE), to filter out noise and highlight the most coherent spatial and temporal variations. The first 10 EOF modes are retained for inputs to the statistical models, accounting for at least 70% of the total variance in the predictor fields. We have tested several linear and non-linear statistical methods. While the regularized Ridge Regression and Lasso Regression can generally capture the spatial pattern and magnitude of rainfall anomalies, we found that that Neural Network performs best with an accuracy greater than 80%, as expected from the non-linear dependence of the rainfall on the large-scale atmospheric thermodynamic conditions and circulation. Further tests of various prediction skill metrics and hindcasts also suggest this Neural Network prediction approach can significantly improve seasonal prediction skill than the dynamic predictions and regression based statistical predictions. Thus, this statistical prediction system could have

  16. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  17. Application of the Forhyd model to simulate net precipitation and intercepted water evaporation in forest canopies in Colombian amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez Guio, Patricia; Boschell Villamarin, Francisco; Tobon Marin, Conrado

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic simulation is a technique, which allows us to understand the relationships among hydrological, biological and ecological variables in an ecosystem. In this research, the FORHYD model is used to simulate the net precipitation and the water intercepted by the canopies of a mature forest, a 30-year old secondary forest, an 18-year old secondary forest, a 5-year old secondary forest, and a shifting cultivation plot, all located in Colombia's amazonia. The model calculates the water budget of the canopy by using the precipitation rates, canopy drainage and evaporation of the water intercepted by the canopy. This paper is the second one in a series of papers reporting the results of the research on the simulation of the hydrological fluxes in three different land use types of Colombian amazonia. The research was carried out in middle Caqueta of Colombian amazonia (northwest amazon basin). The FORHYD model was calibrated and validated by using field observations of the climate, net precipitation (PT), thoughtful (TH) and stem flow (ST), which were monitored during a period of 15 months from March 2001 to June 2002. These observations were used as both input variables and diagnostic variables to probe the model's precision to simulate field observations. Results showed that FORHYD simulates with a good precision the net precipitation and the evaporation of the water intercepted by the canopy. However, the model's precision depends on a good parameterization, which in turn depends on a good database of field observations. The model is a good tool for simulating the hydrological cycle and can be used to simulate critical scenarios of climate variability

  18. Quality of life of teaching in Physical Education of Parana state, Brazil doi: 10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n6p435

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    Hudson de Resende Moreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the constructs of quality of work life (QWL and lifestyle in Physical Education teachers from public schools in Parana State. The sample consisted of 654 teachers (299 men and 355 women, corresponding to a sampling error of 3.5%. A sociodemographic questionnaire, “Perceived Work Quality of Life Scale by Physical Education Teachers from Elementary to High School” and “Profile of Individual Lifestyle” were used for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and Spearman’s correlation test. The results showed the dissatisfaction of teachers with wages, working conditions and balance between work and leisure. Most subjects presented positive lifestyle behaviors, but the components nutrition, physical activity and stress management were a matter of concern. Internal evaluation of QWL yielded higher correlation coefficients than lifestyle. When comparing the two analytical matrices, low levels of correlation were observed between components and overall assessment of the constructs.

  19. Preservación ambiental de la amazonia colombiana: retos para la política fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Azuero; Jorge Armando Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo explora los retos encarados por la política fiscal en la preservación de la Amazonia colombiana. Se discuten algunos sesgos en contra del gasto público ambiental y se examinan las modalidades de financiación de la función estatal de protección del ambiente en la región. Los autores arguyen que muchas de las herramientas fiscales empleadas en Colombia para el efecto generan incentivos contrarios a los objetivos de conservación. Además de que las externalidades ambientales rebasan...

  20. Ocurrencia de hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular asociados a ají (Capsicum sp.) en la Amazonia colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Cardona, Gladys; Peña-Venegas, Clara Patricia; arcos, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Capsicum sp. es una especie nativa de América de gran importancia por su diversidad de usos. La Amazonia colombiana es considerada uno de los centros de origen y alberga una gran riqueza de morfoespecies. A pesar de su importancia para el crecimiento y supervivencia de plantas bajo condiciones limitantes de nutrientes, son escasos los trabajos relacionados con la dinámica de los hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular (HFMA) en Capsicum. Se estudió la ocurrencia de HFMA, a partir de colecta...

  1. Epidemiologia das atividades físicas praticadas no tempo de lazer por adultos do Sul do Brasil Epidemiology of leisure-time physical activities among adults from Southern Brazil

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    Samuel C. Dumith

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os tipos de atividades físicas de lazer praticadas, bem como analisar o perfil de seus praticantes. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa transversal de base-populacional com indivíduos de 20 anos ou mais, residentes na cidade de Pelotas, RS. O desfecho foi o tipo de atividade física de lazer praticada na semana anterior à entrevista. A associação bruta e ajustada com características demográficas, socioeconômicas e com o índice de massa corporal foi feita mediante testes qui-quadrado e regressão de Poisson, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Ao todo, foram entrevistados 3.136 indivíduos, dos quais 1.239 (40% relataram praticar alguma atividade física de lazer, constituindo-se no denominador deste estudo. A grande maioria (91% relatou praticar apenas uma atividade física. A modalidade mais praticada foi a caminhada, referida por 57% daqueles que estão engajados em alguma atividade. A seguir, as modalidades mais frequentes foram: futebol (14%, bicicleta (13%, musculação (8% e ginástica (6%. A frequência semanal teve mediana de 3 dias, enquanto a mediana da duração diária foi de 60 minutos. Mais da metade (56% referiu que faz atividade física numa intensidade moderada ou vigorosa. No entanto, apenas 30% atingiram a recomendação proposta para adultos e idosos. Quando considerado o tempo de prática, 53% praticam atividade física há mais de seis meses. O motivo mais comum foi por razões de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: Menos da metade da população investigada pratica alguma atividade física no lazer. A modalidade mais comum para todos os grupos examinados foi caminhada. Diferenças no perfil demográfico e socioeconômico foram observadas conforme o tipo de atividade física.OBJECTIVES: To describe types of leisure-time physical activities and to analyze the profile of their practitioners. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based survey comprising individuals aged 20 years or over, resident in Pelotas, Brazil. The outcome was the

  2. Estudo da qualidade da carne ovina do nordeste brasileiro: propriedades físicas e sensoriais Study on lamb quality from Northeast Brazil: physical and sensory properties

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    J.F.F. ZAPATA

    2000-08-01

    37.70 for L*, from 14.85 to 15.54 for a* and from 0.83 to 1.37 for b*. Sensory analysis of lamb showed a good acceptability with no differences between treatments. Regardless of crossbreed or feeding regime used in this study lamb from Northeast Brazil is acceptable as measured by subjective or objective means.

  3. Synergistic impacts of deforestation, climate change and fire on the future biomes distribution in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, G.; Cardoso, M. F.; Nobre, C. A.; Salazar, L. F.

    2013-05-01

    Several studies indicate future increase of environmental risks for the ecosystems in the Amazon region as a result of climate and land-use change, and their synergistic interactions. Modeling studies (e.g. Oyama and Nobre 2004, Salazar et al. 2007, Malhi et al. 2008) project rapid and irreversible replacement of forests by savannas with large-scale losses of biodiversity and livelihoods for people in the region. This process is referred to as the Amazon Dieback, where accelerated plant mortality due to environmental changes lead to forest collapse and savannas expansion after "tipping points" in climate and land surface changes are achieved. In this study we performed new analyses to quantify how deforestation, climate change and fire may combine to affect the distribution of major biomes in Amazonia. Changes in land use consider deforestation scenarios of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (Sampaio et al., 2007), with and without fires (Cardoso et al., 2008), under the two greenhouse gases scenarios B1 and A2 and three "representative concentration pathways" (RCPs): 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5, for years 2015-2034 and 2040-2059 ("2025" and "2050" time-slices), from IPCC AR4 and CMIP5. The results show that the area affected in scenarios A2 and RCP 8.5 is larger than in the climate scenario B1 and RCP 2.6, and in both cases the effect is progressively higher in time. Most important changes occur in the East and South of the Amazon, with replacement of tropical forest by seasonal forest and savanna. The effect of fire in this region is important in all scenarios. The Northwest Amazon presents the smallest changes in the area of tropical forest, indicating that even for substantial land-use modifications and global climate change, the resulting atmospheric conditions would still support tropical forest in the region. In summary, we conclude that the synergistic combination of deforestation, climate change resulting from global warming, and the potential for higher fire occurrence may lead

  4. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

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    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  5. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

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    James A. Fraser

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes. This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  6. Dark Earths and manioc cultivation in Central Amazonia: a window on pre-Columbian agricultural systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Fraser

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Many commentators highlight the fertility of Anthropogenic Dark Earths (ADE, emphasizing their potential for sustainable agriculture. Some scholars believe that terra mulata (the less fertile, more extensive form of ADE was created by means of agricultural practices used by large settled populations of pre-Columbian farmers. But what was it that these Amerindian farmers were growing? Until recently, scholarly consensus held that manioc does not perform well on ADE. New research on the middle Madeira River is showing, however, that this consensus was premature. In this region, the most common crop in ADE fields is bitter manioc. Farmers there have various landraces of manioc that they believe yield particularly well on ADE, and logically plant more of these varieties on ADE. Aspects of the behaviour and perception of manioc cultivation among 52 farmers at the community of Barro Alto were measured quantitatively on four terra firme soil types (Terra Preta, Terra Mulata, Oxisols and Ultisols. These farmers plant different configurations of landraces in different soils, according to their perception of the suitability of particular landraces and their characteristics to certain soil types and successional processes.This, in turn, shapes selective pressures on these varieties, as new genetic material incorporated from volunteer seedlings is more likely to contain traits present in the most prevalent landrace(s in each soil type. Owing to localized population pressure at Barro Alto, manioc is under more intensive cultivation systems, with shorter cropping periods (5-10 months and shorter fallow periods (1-2 years. The outcome of these processes is different co-evolutionary dynamics on ADE as opposed to non-anthropogenic soils. Further anthropological study of manioc swiddening in one of the richest agricultural environments in Amazonia can fill a gap in the literature, thus opening an additional window on the pre-Columbian period.

  7. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  8. Global warming and climate change in Amazonia: Climate-vegetation feedback and impacts on water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, José; Nobre, Carlos A.; Betts, Richard A.; Cox, Peter M.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Salazar, Luis

    This chapter constitutes an updated review of long-term climate variability and change in the Amazon region, based on observational data spanning more than 50 years of records and on climate-change modeling studies. We start with the early experiments on Amazon deforestation in the late 1970s, and the evolution of these experiments to the latest studies on greenhouse gases emission scenarios and land use changes until the end of the twenty-first century. The "Amazon dieback" simulated by the HadCM3 model occurs after a "tipping point" of CO2 concentration and warming. Experiments on Amazon deforestation and change of climate suggest that once a critical deforestation threshold (or tipping point) of 40-50% forest loss is reached in eastern Amazonia, climate would change in a way which is dangerous for the remaining forest. This may favor a collapse of the tropical forest, with a substitution of the forest by savanna-type vegetation. The concept of "dangerous climate change," as a climate change, which induces positive feedback, which accelerate the change, is strongly linked to the occurrence of tipping points, and it can be explained as the presence of feedback between climate change and the carbon cycle, particularly involving a weakening of the current terrestrial carbon sink and a possible reversal from a sink (as in present climate) to a source by the year 2050. We must, therefore, currently consider the drying simulated by the Hadley Centre model(s) as having a finite probability under global warming, with a potentially enormous impact, but with some degree of uncertainty.

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN DIFFERENT SOIL FRACTIONS IN ECOSYSTEMS OF CENTRAL AMAZONIA

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    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter plays an important role in many soil properties, and for that reason it is necessary to identify management systems which maintain or increase its concentrations. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality and quantity of organic C in different compartments of the soil fraction in different Amazonian ecosystems. The soil organic matter (FSOM was fractionated and soil C stocks were estimated in primary forest (PF, pasture (P, secondary succession (SS and an agroforestry system (AFS. Samples were collected at the depths 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100, 100-160, and 160-200 cm. Densimetric and particle size analysis methods were used for FSOM, obtaining the following fractions: FLF (free light fraction, IALF (intra-aggregate light fraction, F-sand (sand fraction, F-clay (clay fraction and F-silt (silt fraction. The 0-5 cm layer contains 60 % of soil C, which is associated with the FLF. The F-clay was responsible for 70 % of C retained in the 0-200 cm depth. There was a 12.7 g kg-1 C gain in the FLF from PF to SS, and a 4.4 g kg-1 C gain from PF to AFS, showing that SS and AFS areas recover soil organic C, constituting feasible C-recovery alternatives for degraded and intensively farmed soils in Amazonia. The greatest total stocks of carbon in soil fractions were, in decreasing order: (101.3 Mg ha-1 of C - AFS > (98.4 Mg ha-1 of C - FP > (92.9 Mg ha-1 of C - SS > (64.0 Mg ha-1 of C - P. The forms of land use in the Amazon influence C distribution in soil fractions, resulting in short- or long-term changes.

  10. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devisscher, Tahia; Anderson, Liana O; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Galván, Luis; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2016-01-01

    Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can inform fire and land

  11. Increased Wildfire Risk Driven by Climate and Development Interactions in the Bolivian Chiquitania, Southern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia Devisscher

    Full Text Available Wildfires are becoming increasingly dominant in tropical landscapes due to reinforcing feedbacks between land cover change and more severe dry conditions. This study focused on the Bolivian Chiquitania, a region located at the southern edge of Amazonia. The extensive, unique and well-conserved tropical dry forest in this region is susceptible to wildfires due to a marked seasonality. We used a novel approach to assess fire risk at the regional level driven by different development trajectories interacting with changing climatic conditions. Possible future risk scenarios were simulated using maximum entropy modelling with presence-only data, combining land cover, anthropogenic and climatic variables. We found that important determinants of fire risk in the region are distance to roads, recent deforestation and density of human settlements. Severely dry conditions alone increased the area of high fire risk by 69%, affecting all categories of land use and land cover. Interactions between extreme dry conditions and rapid frontier expansion further increased fire risk, resulting in potential biomass loss of 2.44±0.8 Tg in high risk area, about 1.8 times higher than the estimates for the 2010 drought. These interactions showed particularly high fire risk in land used for 'extensive cattle ranching', 'agro-silvopastoral use' and 'intensive cattle ranching and agriculture'. These findings have serious implications for subsistence activities and the economy in the Chiquitania, which greatly depend on the forestry, agriculture and livestock sectors. Results are particularly concerning if considering the current development policies promoting frontier expansion. Departmental protected areas inhibited wildfires when strategically established in areas of high risk, even under drought conditions. However, further research is needed to assess their effectiveness accounting for more specific contextual factors. This novel and simple modelling approach can

  12. The costs of evaluating species densities and composition of snakes to assess development impacts in amazonia.

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    Rafael de Fraga

    Full Text Available Studies leading to decision-making for environmental licensing often fail to provide accurate estimates of diversity. Measures of snake diversity are regularly obtained to assess development impacts in the rainforests of the Amazon Basin, but this taxonomic group may be subject to poor detection probabilities. Recently, the Brazilian government tried to standardize sampling designs by the implementation of a system (RAPELD to quantify biological diversity using spatially-standardized sampling units. Consistency in sampling design allows the detection probabilities to be compared among taxa, and sampling effort and associated cost to be evaluated. The cost effectiveness of detecting snakes has received no attention in Amazonia. Here we tested the effects of reducing sampling effort on estimates of species densities and assemblage composition. We identified snakes in seven plot systems, each standardised with 14 plots. The 250 m long centre line of each plot followed an altitudinal contour. Surveys were repeated four times in each plot and detection probabilities were estimated for the 41 species encountered. Reducing the number of observations, or the size of the sampling modules, caused significant loss of information on species densities and local patterns of variation in assemblage composition. We estimated the cost to find a snake as $ 120 U.S., but general linear models indicated the possibility of identifying differences in assemblage composition for half the overall survey costs. Decisions to reduce sampling effort depend on the importance of lost information to target-issues, and may not be the preferred option if there is the potential for identifying individual snake species requiring specific conservation actions. However, in most studies of human disturbance on species assemblages, it is likely to be more cost-effective to focus on other groups of organisms with higher detection probabilities.

  13. Las palmas entre los grupos cazadores-recolectores de la Amazonia Colombiana

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    Morcote Ríos Gaspar

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We compare past and present systems of management of palms in the Colombian Amazon, based on archaeological studies of preceramic groups in the middle Caquetá region and ethnographic research on the nomadic Nukak people, who inhabit northeastern Guaviare department. Astrocaryum aculeatum, Attalea maripe, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Oenocarpus bacaba y Oenocarpus mapora, have been used from the early Holocene through the present time. Among these, Oenocarpus bataua has remained the most important food species. We conclude that one of the mananging strategies of the tropical rain forest is the simultaneous improvement of ecological units, especially in the tertiary sedimentary plains, and that such management probably has a long history in the region.Se presenta una comparación sobre el manejo de las palmas en la Amazonia Colombiana, basado en los resultados de un estudio arqueológico de grupos precerámicos en la región del Medio Caquetá y uno etnográfico del pueblo nómada Nukak que habita la zona nororiental del departamento del Guaviare. Se encontró que Astrocaryum aculeatum, A ttalea maripa, Mauritia flexuosa, Oenocarpus bataua, Oenocarpus bacaba y Oenocarpus mapora son algunas de las palmas usadas desde el Holoceno temprano hasta el presente. Entre estas Oenocarpus bataua es la especie más importante como fuente de alimento. Así mismo, se concluye que una de las estrategias de manejo en el bosque húmedo tropical es el aprovechamiento simultáneo de diferentes unidades ecológicas, con predominio del plano sedimentario terciario. Es probable que este tipo de manejo tenga en la región una larga historia.

  14. A 6900-year history of landscape modification by humans in lowland Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M. B.; Correa-Metrio, A.; McMichael, C. H.; Sully, S.; Shadik, C. R.; Valencia, B. G.; Guilderson, T.; Steinitz-Kannan, M.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2016-06-01

    A sedimentary record from the Peruvian Amazon provided evidence of climate and vegetation change for the last 6900 years. Piston cores collected from the center of Lake Sauce, a 20 m deep lake at 600 m elevation, were 19.7 m in length. The fossil pollen record showed a continuously forested catchment within the period of the record, although substantial changes in forest composition were apparent. Fossil charcoal, found throughout the record, was probably associated with humans setting fires. Two fires, at c. 6700 cal BP and 4270 cal BP, appear to have been stand-replacing events possibly associated with megadroughts. The fire event at 4270 cal BP followed a drought that caused lowered lake levels for several centuries. The successional trajectories of forest recovery following these large fires were prolonged by smaller fire events. Fossil pollen of Zea mays (cultivated maize) provided evidence of agricultural activity at the site since c. 6320 cal BP. About 5150 years ago, the lake deepened and started to deposit laminated sediments. Maize agriculture reached a peak of intensity between c. 3380 and 700 cal BP. Fossil diatom data provided a proxy for lake nutrient status and productivity, both of which peaked during the period of maize cultivation. A marked change in land use was evident after c. 700 cal BP when maize agriculture was apparently abandoned at this site. Iriartea, a hyperdominant of riparian settings in western Amazonia, increased in abundance within the last 1100 years, but declined markedly at c. 1070 cal BP and again between c. 80 and -10 cal BP.

  15. Synchrotron radiation use in some researchs in program in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1983-01-01

    Physical and biological applications of the synchrotron radiation in some pure and applied research programs in progress in Brazil are presented, in special those related with crystallografic research. (L.C.) [pt

  16. Fatores associados à atividade física insuficiente em adultos: estudo de base populacional no sul do Brasil Factors associated with insufficient physical activity: a population-based study in southern Brazil

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    João Altamiro Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência de atividade física (AF insuficiente na população adulta do município de Lages (Santa Catarina em 2007 e verificar os fatores associados a este desfecho. Trata-se de um estudo transversal de base populacional. A amostra foi obtida através de sorteio em múltiplos estágios de adultos entre 20 e 59 anos, de ambos os sexos (n = 2.051. Empregou-se o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ, versão curta, para estimar a prevalência de AF insuficiente, definida como tempo gasto em atividade física moderada ou vigorosa menor do que 150 minutos por semana. Considerou-se como referência a semana anterior à entrevista. A prevalência de AF insuficiente foi de 29,6% (IC95%: 27,6; 31,7. No modelo ajustado, a atividade física insuficiente foi associada positivamente ao sexo masculino, renda familiar alta, obesidade e auto-avaliação negativa de saúde. As prevalências de AF insuficiente foram menores do que as relatadas pela maioria dos estudos brasileiros. Pesquisas que distingam diferentes tipos de atividade física podem contribuir para melhor conhecer o perfil de uma população a fim de contribuir para a implantação de políticas públicas que estimulem a população à prática regular de exercícios.The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of insufficient physical activity and to find the factors associated to this outcome in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil (2007. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out in a representative sample of individuals between 20 and 59 years of age (n=2,051. Physical activity was estimated using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Insufficient physical activity was defined as less than 150 minutes per week spent in moderate or vigorous physical activity. The prevalence of insufficient physical activity was 29.6% (95%CI: 27.6; 31.7. The associated factors were to be male, obese, have

  17. Environmental Factors and Ecosystems Associated with Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Pereira; Costa, Francisco Borges; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Ramirez, Diego Garcia; de Carvalho Araújo, Andreina; da Silva Ferreira, Juliana Isabel Giuli; Tonhosolo, Renata; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-12-01

    Environment influences the composition, distribution, and behavior of the vectors and mammalian hosts involved in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), affecting the epidemiology of the disease. In Brazil, the urbanization process and canine cases of VL are indicators for local health authorities. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of the canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Maranhão State, Brazil. Blood samples collected from 960 dogs from six municipalities and six different ecosystems (Baixada Maranhense, Mangue, Mata dos Cocais, Amazônia, Cerrado, and Restinga) to serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], indirect fluorescence antibody test [IFAT], and chromatographic immunoassay methods [Dual Path Platform technology, DPP(®)]) and parasitological diagnosis. From serological tests, 11.14% (107) of the dogs were positive for CVL, with 59.16% (568), 14.5% (148), and 131% (126) positives to ELISA, DPP, and IFAT tests, respectively. Only seven animals (0.73%) were positive in a parasitological test. We also performed parasite isolation and phylogenetic characterization. All isolates of dogs obtained from Maranhão were grouped in a single branch with Leishmania infantum chagasi from Brazil. The ecosystem Amazonia presented the highest positivity rates to CVL in serological and parasitological tests. Brazilian biomes/ecosystems suffer large degradation and may favor, depending on climatic conditions, the installation of new diseases. In the case of VL, dogs are reservoirs of parasites and sentinels for human infection.

  18. Cross-Sectional Serological Survey of Human Fascioliasis in Canutama Municipality in Western Amazon, Brazil

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    Marcel Gonçalves Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fascioliasis is an important parasitic disease. In the northern region of Brazil, a human parasite infection has been reported through a coprological survey. Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were found in fecal samples of 11 individuals. Knowledge of the infection in animals or the presence of snails is necessary to address the possibility of the parasite cycle occurrence in that region. The aim of this study was to describe the transmission of human fascioliasis in Canutama, Amazonas, in Western Amazonia, Brazil. Methods. Serological (ELISA and Western Blot, WB and parasitological analyses were carried out in humans. In addition, the presence of the intermediate snail host within the community was examined. Results. A total of 434 human samples were included in the study, of which 36 (8.3% were reactive by ELISA and 8 (1.8% were reactive by WB. Fasciola hepatica eggs were found in one human sample. The occurrence of the intermediated host was recorded and 31/43 specimens were identified as Lymnaea columella. Conclusion. Canutama constitutes a focus of transmission of human fascioliasis. This study describes the first serological survey for human fascioliasis, as well as its simultaneous occurrence in human hosts and possible intermediates performed in northern Brazil.

  19. Spatial and temporal characterization of some water quality physical parameters and their relationships with land-use in Água Fria watershed (Palmas – TO, Brazil

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    Harry Edmar Schulz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to a high population growth that has been occurring in Palmas and due to land use changes that are caused by this population growth and development, the goal of this paper was to study the behavior of four physical parameters of water quality of the Água Fria watershed. The parameters were turbidity, total suspended solids, settleable solids and total dissolved solids. Eight gauging stations were established and the water samples were monthly collected from February/1998 to February/1999. The water bodies of the watershed were generally in good condition concerning these four parameters. However, there were some cases of seasonal irregularity of some parameters, as well as no correlation among some of studied parameters. This might be an indicator of some impacts like accelerated erosion due to a misuse of the lands and misuse of local water resources.

  20. Teaching conceptions of the use of digital technologies as a teaching resource in physical education in public schools of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Paganotti, A.; Assis, A. M. M.

    2017-07-01

    Increasingly, digital technologies have been invading classrooms, providing more and more attractive teaching methods for both, students and teachers. The arrival of digital technologies in classrooms brings great advances, but also many uncertainties and insecurities to teachers. With current technologies, the school environment can transform into a meaningful learning ambience with a more active and interactive student. This research aimed to analyze the opinion of eleven teachers who teach in four public schools in the interior of Minas Gerais, about the challenges of using digital technologies at school everyday. The data were obtained from the application of a questionnaire with eight questions. One of those asked about the used of digital technologies in the classroom, ten professors claimed to use them, but in another question that inquired about their knowledge about simulation software for physics teaching, only six said they knew about this resource. When questioned about the lecture on the topic of technological development, only seven teachers stated that they use this technique, being a relatively small number. Out of the four surveyed schools, two had digital slates, but the teachers said they did not use them because they did not receive any training. It was concluded that teachers do not feel comfortable teaching physics using digital technological resources, apparently because they lack adequate training. In many schools either there is no equipment or the same exists, but the teachers did not undergo training to use them. It is noticed that in the XXI century teachers insist on the traditional teaching model, contrary to the current trends to which students are immersed in a digital and interactive technological world.

  1. High genetic diversity among and within bitter manioc varieties cultivated in different soil types in Central Amazonia

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    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although manioc is well adapted to nutrient-poor Oxisols of Amazonia, ethnobotanical observations show that bitter manioc is also frequently cultivated in the highly fertile soils of the floodplains and Amazonian dark earths (ADE along the middle Madeira River. Because different sets of varieties are grown in each soil type, and there are agronomic similarities between ADE and floodplain varieties, it was hypothesized that varieties grown in ADE and floodplain were more closely related to each other than either is to varieties grown in Oxisols. We tested this hypothesis evaluating the intra-varietal genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among manioc varieties commonly cultivated in Oxisols, ADE and floodplain soils. Genetic results did not agree with ethnobotanical expectation, since the relationships between varieties were variable and most individuals of varieties with the same vernacular name, but grown in ADE and floodplain, were distinct. Although the same vernacular name could not always be associated with genetic similarities, there is still a great amount of variation among the varieties. Many ecological and genetic processes may explain the high genetic diversity and differentiation found for bitter manioc varieties, but all contribute to the maintenance and amplification of genetic diversity within the manioc in Central Amazonia.

  2. Co-Evolution and Bio-Social Construction: The Kichwa Agroforestry Systems (Chakras in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

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    Daniel Coq-Huelva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycultured agrarian systems in Ecuadorian Amazonia (also called chakras or swollen gardens are characterised by a market-oriented crop for the generation of monetary income, for example, cocoa, other agricultural products (e.g., banana and cassava, and livestock for family farm consumption. Moreover, a chakra is an outstanding example of agroforestry production, in which ecological, social and economic elements co-evolve from a set of close and strong connections. In this context, the conservation and transformation of their biological subsystems can be understood as the result of complex interactions between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors. In turn, such interactions are essential to provide food and monetary income to the indigenous community. Relevant agency capabilities exist that could cause an agroforestry system to take a different path of co-evolution, that is, towards greater or lesser sustainability associated with different levels of complexity. In conclusion, chakras have key ecological features that can mitigate the impact of human population growth in Amazonia. Additionally, chakras have their own processes of social self-regulation which enhance the possibilities of adaptation of Kichwa communities to changing environmental conditions, being essential elements in local food sovereignty, equitable gender relations and the respect of ancestral wisdom.

  3. Brazil joins IPPOG as a member

    CERN Multimedia

    'marcelloni, claudia

    2018-01-01

    ignacio de Bediaga Hickman from the Rede Nacional de Física de Altas Energias (RENAFAE) has signed the IPPOG MoU on behalf of Brazilian Particle physics outreach community. Marcelo Munhoz from University of Sao Paulo will be the official representative of Brazil in IPPOG

  4. Conhecimento sobre atividade física dos estudantes de uma cidade do sul do Brasil Knowledge about physical activity of students in a city in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Fontoura Silveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o conhecimento dos escolares sobre atividade física (AF e sua associação com fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos, comportamental, nutricional e de saúde. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base escolar na cidade de Pelotas/RS com 1233 adolescentes, 54% do sexo feminino, com idades entre 13 e 19 anos. A coleta de dados foi feita através de questionário com questões fechadas. O desfecho foi analisado de forma contínua (0 a 22 e a média de acertos foi de 14.1. Mais de 60% dos adolescentes associaram corretamente AF como fator de prevenção de doenças como hipertensão, hipercolesterolemia, osteoporose e depressão. Classes sociais mais elevadas, cor da pele branca, maiores faixas etárias e anos de estudo associaram-se a maiores níveis de conhecimento. Com base nos achados, programas de educação para a saúde devem ser desenvolvidos aos jovens na tentativa de ajudar a minimizar o sedentarismo e suas morbidades associadas.This study evaluated the knowledge about physical activity and its relation to the prevention of chronic diseases and effect on the human body in adolescents who attend classes in high school in the urban area of Pelotas. It was conducted a cross-sectional, school-based survey was carried out among 1233 individuals aged 13 to 19 years. The questionnaire originated a score (range 0-22 points. Mean score for the sample was 14.1 (SD = 3.0. More than 60% of adolescents associated physical activity to the prevention of chronic diseases like high blood pressure, high cholesterol, osteoporosis and depression. The knowledge was positively associated to social strata, white color and age and grade. Among women, those who had a self-perceived health the good and excellent also had the knowledge. Education programs for health must be desenvolved to in for young people about the influence of the risk behavior in an attempt to minimize the sendentary behavior and possibly the number of obese in

  5. Tendências temporais de atividade física no Brasil (2006-2009 Time trends of physical activity in Brazil (2006-2009

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    Pedro C Hallal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as tendências temporais de atividade física (AF nas capitais brasileiras entre 2006 e 2009. MÉTODOS: A análise apresentada neste artigo é baseada nos dados do VIGITEL, totalizando uma amostra anual aproximada de 54.000 indivíduos. Foram analisados indicadores de AF no tempo livre, trabalho, em casa e no deslocamento, além do tempo assistindo à televisão e de inatividade considerando todos os domínios de AF. A variação dos indicadores no período foi aferida por meio de modelos de regressão de Poisson, tendo como variável explanatória o ano do inquérito. Foi considerada significativa a evolução correspondente a um coeficiente de regressão diferente de zero (pOBJECTIVE: To examine time trends in physical activity (PA in Brazilian state capitals from 2006 to 2009. METHODS: This analysis is based on data from the Telephone-based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL accounting for an annual sample of approximately 54,000 individuals. PA indicators were analyzed in free time (leisure, work, home and transportation, time spent in front of the television and inactivity considering all PA domains. Poisson regression models were used to measure the variation of indicators over time. We considered the changes corresponding to a regression coefficient different from zero as being statistically significant (p<0.05. RESULTS: The percentage of active commuters increased from 11.7 to 14.4% (p<0.001 whereas the proportion of physically inactive individuals in the four domains decreased from 11.7 to 8.7% (p<0.001. There were no significant changes in the other indicators. Women were less active than men in all indicators, except for household chores. However, in this indicator the percentage of active women decreased from 71.4 to 67.1% (p<0.001. Between 2006 and 2009, PA levels in the Brazilian population were stable during free time and household chores, but increased in transportation

  6. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  7. Small-scale tourism development in Brazilian Amazonia: The creation of a ‘tourist bubble’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Werneck, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    In Brazil, tourism is promoted as a means of generating employment, tax revenues, foreign exchange and investments in infrastructure. The Amazon region is thereby primarily marketed as a ‘green’ destination. One such a destination is the village of Alter do Chão in the municipality of Santarém in

  8. Anuran trypanosomes: phylogenetic evidence for new clades in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Ferreira, Juliana I G; da Costa, Andrea P; Ramirez, Diego; Roldan, Jairo A M; Saraiva, Danilo; da S Founier, Gislene F R; Sue, Ana; Zambelli, Erick R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Verdade, Vanessa K; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosomes of anurans and fish are grouped into the Aquatic Clade which includes species isolated from fish, amphibians, turtles and platypus, usually transmitted by leeches and phlebotomine sand flies. Trypanosomes from Brazilian frogs are grouped within the Aquatic Clade with other anuran trypanosome species, where there seems to be coevolutionary patterns with vertebrate hosts and association to Brazilian biomes (Atlantic Forest, Pantanal and Amazonia Rainforest). We characterised the anuran trypanosomes from two different areas of the Cerrado biome and examined their phylogenetic relationships based on the SSU rRNA gene. A total of 112 anurans of six species was analysed and trypanosome prevalence evaluated through haemoculture was found to be 7% (8 positive frogs). However, only three isolates (2.7%) from two anuran species were recovered and cryopreserved. Analysis including SSU rDNA sequences from previous studies segregated the anuran trypanosomes into six groups, the previously reported An01 to An04, and An05 and An06 reported herein. Clade An05 comprises the isolates from Leptodactylus latrans (Steffen) and Pristimantis sp. captured in the Cerrado biome and Trypanosoma chattoni Mathis & Leger, 1911. The inclusion of new isolates in the phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for a new group (An06) of parasites from phlebotomine hosts. Our results indicate that the diversity of trypanosome species is underestimated since studies conducted in Brazil and other regions of the world are still few.

  9. Study of the physical and physicochemical characteristics of fruits of the licuri palm (Syagrus coronata (Mart. Becc. found in the Atlantic Forest of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Galdino Xavier de Paula Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Atlantic Forest has species of native fruits, consumed fresh and processed, which have an important contribution to food sovereignty of families that consume it. This study examined the physical and physicochemical characteristics, proximate composition, concentration of carotenoids, vitamin C, vitamin E and minerals in the pulp and kernels of fruits of licuri (Syagrus coronata (Mart. Becc.. Titratable acidity was analyzed by volumetric neutralization, soluble solids by refractometry, proteins by the micro-Kjeldahl method, lipids by gravimetry using soxhlet, dietary fiber by non-enzymatic gravimetry, carotenoids and vitamin C by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E by HPLC-fluorescence, and minerals by ICP-AES. Pulp were a source of Zn (0.95 mg 100–1, a good source of fiber (6.15 g 100–1, excellent source of provitamin A (758.75 RAE 100–1, Cu (0.69 mg 100–1, Fe (3.81 mg 100–1, Mn (3.40 mg 100–1 and Mo (0.06 mg 100–1. The kernel were a source of Fe (3.36 mg 100–1 and excellent source of Mn (6.14 mg 100–1, Cu (0.97 mg 100–1 and Mo (0.07 mg 100–1. The nutritional value and wide availability of licuri fruit make it an important resource for reducing food insecurity and improving nutrition of the rural population and other individuals who have access to it.

  10. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a summary of condensed matter physics in Brazil. It discusses as well, the perspectives and financing evolved in this research area for the next decade. It is specially concerned with semiconductors, magnetic materials, superconductivity, polymers, glasses, crystals ceramics, statistical physics, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (A.C.A.S.)

  11. Media Monopoly in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Roberto; Guimaraes, Cesar

    1994-01-01

    Documents the process of broadcasting media development in Brazil, the failure of new technologies to produce democratization, and the barriers to democratization erected by monopolization and "metastasis." (SR)

  12. Progress in food irradiation: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, B.

    1978-01-01

    The initial work programme started with investigations on the use of irradiation for preserving beans, onions, rice, potato, wheat, and corn. These products constitute an important part of the average daily diet and, in spite of the large harvests, very heavy losses are incurred each year. Rather than adopt the research results obtained in other countries, the Brazilian authorities considered it essential to establish optimal dose levels for these products and to analyse for physical, chemical and organoleptic alterations under the conditions prevailing in Brazil. Similarly wholesomeness testing has been included as an integral part of the research programme in compliance with the requirements of the National Health Ministry. (orig.) [de

  13. A descriptive epidemiology of leisure-time physical activity in Brazil, 1996-­1997 Epidemiología descriptiva de la actividad física en horas libres en el Brasil, 1996­-1997

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    Carlos A. Monteiro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence, frequency, type, motivation for, and demographic and socioeconomic distribution of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA among adults in Brazil. METHODS: The data source for our study was the Brazilian Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS (Pesquisa sobre Padrões de Vida, which was conducted in 1996 and 1997. This survey studied a multistage stratified probabilistic sample of 4 893 households, which included 11 033 persons who were 20 years of age or older. The surveyed households were selected in the two most populous Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the Southeast, where in total 70% of all Brazilians live. The selected persons responded to a series of questions concerning their leisure-time physical activities. RESULTS: Only 13% of the Brazilians surveyed reported performing at least a minimum of 30 minutes of LTPA on one or more days of the week, and only 3.3% reported doing the recommended minimum of 30 minutes on 5 or more days of the week. In younger age groups, men were more active than were women. However, this difference sharply decreased with increasing age, and by the age range of 40 to 45 years the prevalence of LTPA was similarly low in both genders. Men reported engaging in more team sports, and women reported more walking/jogging activities, but walking/jogging was relatively more common in both genders when physical activity was performed on 5 or more days of the week. Recreation was by far the leading reason given by men to engage in LTPA, while recreation, health concerns, and even esthetic concerns were all relevant for women. In both genders, health concerns tended to be relatively more important for those exercising more days of the week. Also in both genders, increasing age was associated with more frequent LTPA, more walking/jogging than team sports, and more health concerns reasons than reasons related to recreation. Among both men and women there was a strong association

  14. Arquivo de Antropologia Física do Museu Nacional: fontes para a história da eugenia no Brasil The National Museum's physical anthropology archive: sources on the history of eugenics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta um conjunto de fontes documentais que integram o Arquivo de Antropologia Física, de responsabilidade do Setor de Antropologia Biológica do Museu Nacional/UFRJ. O arquivo contém importante documentação sobre o Primeiro Congresso Brasileiro de Eugenia, realizado em 1929, no Rio de Janeiro, em comemoração ao centenário da Academia Nacional de Medicina. Além de originais dos trabalhos apresentados no evento - alguns inéditos -, constam também nesse arquivo documentos reunidos pela secretaria do Congresso, como convocações para a sua realização, ficha dos inscritos, correspondências, recortes de jornais e revistas com artigos sobre eugenia, bem como moções, relatórios e atas finais, constituindo acervo fundamental para a compreensão da história da eugenia no Brasil.The article presents a set of documental sources that are part of the physical anthropology archive administered by the National Museum's biological anthropology sector (UFRJ. The archive holds important documentation on the first Brazilian congress of eugenics, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1929, in celebration of the National Academy of Medicine centennial. In addition to the originals of papers presented at the event (some unpublished, the archive also contains a series of documents compiled by the congress organizers, including announcements of the event, attendee registrations, correspondence, newspaper and magazine clippings of articles on eugenics, as well as motions, reports, and final minutes, all of which makes this collection invaluable in understanding the history of eugenics in Brazil.

  15. Anthropogenic Emissions Change the Amount and Composition of Organic PM1 in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, S. S.; Palm, B. B.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Hu, W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Yee, L.; Wernis, R. A.; Thalman, R.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Artaxo, P.; Goldstein, A. H.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Wang, J.; Alexander, M. L. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Martin, S. T.

    2017-12-01

    processes. Results suggest that polluted conditions are associated with higher organic mass concentrations, with certain pathways being favored to the detriment of others. This analysis and results represent a step toward the goal of improving the understanding of anthropogenic influences on the production of PM1 in Amazonia.

  16. Mayaro virus infection in amazonia: a multimodel inference approach to risk factor assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Abad-Franch

    in village-like areas. This suggests either a vector shift (synanthropic mosquitoes vectoring MAYV or a habitat/habits shift (classical MAYV vectors adapting to densely populated landscapes and nocturnal biting; any such ecological/adaptive novelty could increase the likelihood of MAYV emergence in Amazonia.

  17. Regional N2O fluxes in Amazonia derived from aircraft vertical profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, M. T. S.; Gatti, L. V.; Miller, J. B.; Tans, P.

    2009-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Globally, the main sources of N2O are nitrification and denitrification in soils. About two thirds of the soil emissions occur in the tropics and approximately 20% originate in wet rainforest ecosystems, like the Amazon forest. The work presented here involves aircraft vertical profiles of N2O from the surface to 4 km over two sites in the Eastern and Central Amazon: Tapajós National Forest (SAN) and Cuieiras Biologic Reserve (MAN), and the estimation of N2O fluxes for regions upwind of these sites. To our knowledge, these regional scale N2O measurements in Amazonia are unique and represent a new approach to looking regional scale emissions. The fluxes upwind of MAN exhibited little seasonality, and the annual mean was 2.1±1.0 mg N2O m-2 day-1, higher than that for fluxes upwind of SAN, which averaged 1.5±1.6 mg N2O m-2 day-1. The higher rainfall around the MAN site could explain the higher N2O emissions, as a result of increased soil moisture accelerating microbial nitrification and denitrification processes. For fluxes from the coast to SAN seasonality is present for all years, with high fluxes in the months of March through May, and in November through December. The first peak of N2O flux is strongly associated with the wet season. The second peak of high N2O flux recorded at SAN occurs during the dry season and can not be easily explained. However, about half of the dry season profiles exhibit significant correlations with CO, indicating a larger than expected source of N2O from biomass burning. The average CO:N2O ratio for all profiles sampled during the dry season is 94±77 mol CO:mol N2O and suggests a larger biomass burning contribution to the global N2O budget than previously reported.

  18. Hair mercury (signature of fish consumption) and cardiovascular risk in Munduruku and Kayabi Indians of Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, José G; de Souza, Jurandir R; Rodrigues, Patricia; Ferrari, Iris; Barbosa, Antonio C

    2005-02-01

    Fish is an important natural resource in the diet of inhabitants of the Amazon rain forest and a marker of its consumption (hair Hg) was used to compare selected cardiovascular risk parameters between tribes of Eastern Amazonia. Three Munduruku (Terra Preta, Kaburua, Cururu) villages and one Kayabi village at the banks of head rivers (Tapajos, Tropas, Kabitutu, Cururu, Curuzinho, Teles Pires) of the Tapajos Basin were studied in relation to fish Hg concentrations, mercury in hair (fish consumption) and erythrocytes, body mass index (height/weight, kg/cm2), and blood pressure. The mean fish Hg concentrations were higher in predatory (578.6 ng/g) than in nonpredatory species (52.8 ng/g). Overall only 26% of fish Hg concentrations were above 500 ng/g, and only 11% were above 1000 ng/g. There was no systematic trend in fish Hg concentrations from rivers with a history of gold-mining activities. The biomarker of fish consumption (hair Hg) was significantly associated with erythrocyte-Hg (r=0.5181; P=0.0001) and was significantly higher in Kayabi (12.7 microg/g) than in the Munduruku (3.4 microg/g). Biomarker-assessed fish consumption rate was higher in the Kayabi (110 g/day) than in the Munduruku villages (30 g/day). Although no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) were observed between tribes, there was a trend of lower increase in blood pressure with age among the higher fish consumers (Kayabi). Summary clinical evaluation did not detect neurologic complaints compatible with Hg intoxication (paraparesis, numbness, tremor, balancing failure), but endemic tropical diseases such as clinical history of malaria showed a high prevalence (55.4%). Fish is an abundant natural resource, important in the Indian diet, that has been historically consumed without perceived problems and can easily be traced through hair Hg. The exposure to freshwater fish monomethyl mercury is less of an issue than endemic infectious diseases such as malaria and lack of basic medical

  19. Measuring local depletion of terrestrial game vertebrates by central-place hunters in rural Amazonia.

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    Mark I Abrahams

    Full Text Available The degree to which terrestrial vertebrate populations are depleted in tropical forests occupied by human communities has been the subject of an intense polarising debate that has important conservation implications. Conservation ecologists and practitioners are divided over the extent to which community-based subsistence offtake is compatible with ecologically functional populations of tropical forest game species. To quantify depletion envelopes of forest vertebrates around human communities, we deployed a total of 383 camera trap stations and 78 quantitative interviews to survey the peri-community areas controlled by 60 semi-subsistence communities over a combined area of over 3.2 million hectares in the Médio Juruá and Uatumã regions of Central-Western Brazilian Amazonia. Our results largely conform with prior evidence that hunting large-bodied vertebrates reduces wildlife populations near settlements, such that they are only found at a distance to settlements where they are hunted less frequently. Camera trap data suggest that a select few harvest-sensitive species, including lowland tapir, are either repelled or depleted by human communities. Nocturnal and cathemeral species were detected relatively more frequently in disturbed areas close to communities, but individual species did not necessarily shift their activity patterns. Group biomass of all species was depressed in the wider neighbourhood of urban areas rather than communities. Interview data suggest that species traits, especially group size and body mass, mediate these relationships. Large-bodied, large-group-living species are detected farther from communities as reported by experienced informants. Long-established communities in our study regions have not "emptied" the surrounding forest. Low human population density and low hunting offtake due to abundant sources of alternative aquatic protein, suggest that these communities represent a best-case scenario for sustainable

  20. Measuring local depletion of terrestrial game vertebrates by central-place hunters in rural Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A.; Costa, Hugo C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which terrestrial vertebrate populations are depleted in tropical forests occupied by human communities has been the subject of an intense polarising debate that has important conservation implications. Conservation ecologists and practitioners are divided over the extent to which community-based subsistence offtake is compatible with ecologically functional populations of tropical forest game species. To quantify depletion envelopes of forest vertebrates around human communities, we deployed a total of 383 camera trap stations and 78 quantitative interviews to survey the peri-community areas controlled by 60 semi-subsistence communities over a combined area of over 3.2 million hectares in the Médio Juruá and Uatumã regions of Central-Western Brazilian Amazonia. Our results largely conform with prior evidence that hunting large-bodied vertebrates reduces wildlife populations near settlements, such that they are only found at a distance to settlements where they are hunted less frequently. Camera trap data suggest that a select few harvest-sensitive species, including lowland tapir, are either repelled or depleted by human communities. Nocturnal and cathemeral species were detected relatively more frequently in disturbed areas close to communities, but individual species did not necessarily shift their activity patterns. Group biomass of all species was depressed in the wider neighbourhood of urban areas rather than communities. Interview data suggest that species traits, especially group size and body mass, mediate these relationships. Large-bodied, large-group-living species are detected farther from communities as reported by experienced informants. Long-established communities in our study regions have not “emptied” the surrounding forest. Low human population density and low hunting offtake due to abundant sources of alternative aquatic protein, suggest that these communities represent a best-case scenario for sustainable hunting of

  1. Trabajo y relaciones laborales en los enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia

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    Josep Pont Vidal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Labour and labour relations in the enclaves of metallurgical mining in the AmazonThis article is based upon an empirical study of  life and labour conditions in the metallurgical  mining enclaves of the eastern Amazon region.  From the perspective of civil society (associations  of workers, labour conditions are analysed according to interviews with workers and their  family members given outside the work sphere.  Using the method based on ‘grounded theory’, and specifically on the qualitative analysis of  theorization, a scheme of two levels has been  made: the ‘situational activity’ and the ‘subjectivization of the activity’. The first level, the ‘situational activity’, is centred in the sphere of the  organizations of workers and their perceptions  and strategies for action. The second level, the  ‘subjective of the activity’, addresses the subjective interpretations adopted by workers and their  families. Resumen:Este escrito se basa en un estudio empírico de las  condiciones de vida y relaciones laborales en los  enclaves minero-metalúrgicos de la Amazonia  oriental. En él se analizan las condiciones laborales desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil (asociaciones de trabajadores, recurriendo para ello a  entrevistas con trabajadores y sus familias fuera  del ambiente de trabajo. A partir del método basado en la teorización anclada, y específicamente  en el denominado análisis cualitativo de teorización, se ha confeccionado un esquema de dos  niveles: la ‘actividad situacional’, y la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’. El primer nivel -la ‘actividad situacional’- se centra en la esfera de las  organizaciones de trabajadores y sus ideas y estrategias de acción. El segundo nivel -la ‘subjetivización de la actividad’- trata las interpretaciones  subjetivas adoptadas por los trabajadores y sus  familias.

  2. Physical and Human Controls on the Carbon Composition of Organic Matter in Tropical Rivers: An Integrated Analysis of Landscape Properties and River Isotopic Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, M. V.R.; Victoria, R. L.; Krusche, A. V. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (Brazil); Bernardes, M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Neill, C.; Deegan, L. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Richey, J. E. [University of Washington, Seatle, WA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We applied an integrated analysis of landscape properties including soil properties, land cover and riverine isotopic composition. To evaluate physical and human controls on the carbon composition of organic matter in tropical rivers, we applied an integrated analysis of landscape properties including soil properties, land cover and riverine isotopic composition. Our main objective was to establish the relationship between basin attributes and forms, fluxes and composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter in river channels. A physical template was developed as a GIS-based comprehensive tool to support the understanding of the biogeochemistry of the surface waters of two tropical rivers: the Ji-Parana (Western Amazonia) and the Piracicaba (southeastern of Brazil). For each river we divided the basin into drainage units, organized according to river network morphology and degree of land use impact. Each sector corresponded to a sampling point where river isotopic composition was analysed. River sites and basin characteristics were calculated using datasets compiled as layers in ArcGis Geographical Information System and ERDAS-IMAGINE (Image Processing) software. Each delineated drainage area was individually characterized in terms of topography, soils, river network and land use. Carbon stable isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) was determined at several sites along the main tributaries and small streams. The effects of land use on fluvial carbon composition were quantified by a linear regression analysis, relating basin cover and river isotopic composition. The results showed that relatively recent land cover changes have already had an impact on the composition of the riverine DOM and POM, indicating that, as in natural ecosystems, vegetation plays a key role in the composition of riverine organic matter in agricultural ecosystems. (author)

  3. Physical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schulman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Protons, electrons, positrons, quarks, gluons, muons, shmuons! I should have paid better attention to my high scholl physics teacher. If I had, maybe I could have understood even a fration of what Israeli particle physicist Giora Mikenberg was talking about when explaining his work on the world's largest science experiment." (2 pages)

  4. El lugar y el papel de la Or ganización del Tratado de Cooperación Amazónica (OTCA en la geopolítica brasileña y sudamericana - The place and role of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO in the geopolitics of South America and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORBÉLY, Anikó

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The geopolitics is a teory evolved in the beginning of the 20th century, part of the political geography that examines the international relations and makes scientific investigations about relationships of the countries. South America is one of the most important geopolitical zones of the World. In its future it will be very important how the countries of the southern hemisphere can utilize and make the best forms of the regional integration of economy and trade. If Amazonia will become a ’true common interest and case’, it may be an example for the (subregional integration of the ’most recent and soft’ problems. Such as, protection of environment and forest, protection of the biodiversity, waterpolicy etc. In this process Brazil has a very important role in the case of Amazonia. The gradual destruction of this region has diverse consequences. On the basis of these Amazonia and the thinking about the South American territory is becoming even more important.

  5. Global warming in Amazonia: impacts and Mitigation Aquecimento Global na Amazônia: impactos e Mitigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Martin Fearnside

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has potentially catastrophic impacts in Amazonia, while at the same time maintenance of the Amazon forest offers one of the most valuable and cost-effective options for mitigating climate change. We know that the El Niño phenomenon, caused by temperature oscillations of surface water in the Pacific, has serious impacts in Amazonia, causing droughts and forest fires (as in 1997-1998. Temperature oscillations in the Atlantic also provoke severe droughts (as in 2005. We also know that Amazonian trees die both from fires and from water stress under hot, dry conditions. In addition, water recycled through the forest provides rainfall that maintains climatic conditions appropriate for tropical forest, especially in the dry season. What we need to know quickly, through intensified research, includes progress in representing El Niño and the Atlantic oscillations in climatic models, representation of biotic feedbacks in models used for decision-making about global warming, and narrowing the range of estimating climate sensitivity to reduce uncertainty about the probability of very severe impacts. Items that need to be negotiated include the definition of "dangerous" climate change, with the corresponding maximum levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Mitigation of global warming must include maintaining the Amazon forest, which has benefits for combating global warming from two separate roles: cutting the flow the emissions of carbon each year from the rapid pace of deforestation, and avoiding emission of the stock of carbon in the remaining forest that can be released by various ways, including climate change itself. Barriers to rewarding forest maintenance include the need for financial rewards for both of these roles. Other needs are for continued reduction of uncertainty regarding emissions and deforestation processes, as well as agreement on the basis of carbon accounting. As one of the countries most subject to impacts of

  6. Convergent Adaptations: Bitter Manioc Cultivation Systems in Fertile Anthropogenic Dark Earths and Floodplain Soils in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James Angus; Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Junqueira, André Braga; Peroni, Nivaldo; Clement, Charles Roland

    2012-01-01

    Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open up new avenues for

  7. Convergent adaptations: bitter manioc cultivation systems in fertile anthropogenic dark earths and floodplain soils in Central Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Fraser

    Full Text Available Shifting cultivation in the humid tropics is incredibly diverse, yet research tends to focus on one type: long-fallow shifting cultivation. While it is a typical adaptation to the highly-weathered nutrient-poor soils of the Amazonian terra firme, fertile environments in the region offer opportunities for agricultural intensification. We hypothesized that Amazonian people have developed divergent bitter manioc cultivation systems as adaptations to the properties of different soils. We compared bitter manioc cultivation in two nutrient-rich and two nutrient-poor soils, along the middle Madeira River in Central Amazonia. We interviewed 249 farmers in 6 localities, sampled their manioc fields, and carried out genetic analysis of bitter manioc landraces. While cultivation in the two richer soils at different localities was characterized by fast-maturing, low-starch manioc landraces, with shorter cropping periods and shorter fallows, the predominant manioc landraces in these soils were generally not genetically similar. Rather, predominant landraces in each of these two fertile soils have emerged from separate selective trajectories which produced landraces that converged for fast-maturing low-starch traits adapted to intensified swidden systems in fertile soils. This contrasts with the more extensive cultivation systems found in the two poorer soils at different localities, characterized by the prevalence of slow-maturing high-starch landraces, longer cropping periods and longer fallows, typical of previous studies. Farmers plant different assemblages of bitter manioc landraces in different soils and the most popular landraces were shown to exhibit significantly different yields when planted in different soils. Farmers have selected different sets of landraces with different perceived agronomic characteristics, along with different fallow lengths, as adaptations to the specific properties of each agroecological micro-environment. These findings open

  8. [Distribution patterns of canopy and understory tree species at local scale in a Tierra Firme forest, the Colombian Amazonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Silva, Juan Sebastian; López, Dairon Cárdenas; Montoya, Alvaro Javier Duque

    2014-03-01

    The effect of environmental variation on the structure of tree communities in tropical forests is still under debate. There is evidence that in landscapes like Tierra Firme forest, where the environmental gradient decreases at a local level, the effect of soil on the distribution patterns of plant species is minimal, happens to be random or is due to biological processes. In contrast, in studies with different kinds of plants from tropical forests, a greater effect on floristic composition of varying soil and topography has been reported. To assess this, the current study was carried out in a permanent plot of ten hectares in the Amacayacu National Park, Colombian Amazonia. To run the analysis, floristic and environmental variations were obtained according to tree species abundance categories and growth forms. In order to quantify the role played by both environmental filtering and dispersal limitation, the variation of the spatial configuration was included. We used Detrended Correspondence Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis, followed by a variation partitioning, to analyze the species distribution patterns. The spatial template was evaluated using the Principal Coordinates of Neighbor Matrix method. We recorded 14 074 individuals from 1 053 species and 80 families. The most abundant families were Myristicaceae, Moraceae, Meliaceae, Arecaceae and Lecythidaceae, coinciding with other studies from Northwest Amazonia. Beta diversity was relatively low within the plot. Soils were very poor, had high aluminum concentration and were predominantly clayey. The floristic differences explained along the ten hectares plot were mainly associated to biological processes, such as dispersal limitation. The largest proportion of community variation in our dataset was unexplained by either environmental or spatial data. In conclusion, these results support random processes as the major drivers of the spatial variation of tree species at a local scale on Tierra Firme

  9. Biodiversidad en espacios productivos y los aspectos sociales de las comunidades ribereñas de la Amazonia Occidental

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    Williane Maria de Oliveira Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas agrícolas ribereño representan una alternativa de producción sustentable para las comunidades tradicionales de la Amazonia, especialmente en cuanto a la diversidad de productos y la generación de ingresos. Por lo tanto, teniendo en cuenta las funciones ecológicas y sociales el propósito de este estudio fue analizar las áreas productivas y aspectos etnosociais de las comunidades ribereñas de la lejano Amazonia Occidental, Acre, Brasil. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de entrevistas participativas, formales e inductivo después de un cuestionario semi-estructurado. Toda la información recogida se transfiere a una base de datos electrónica, que sistematizado y procesado. Los sistemas agrícolas en estas comunidades son los cultivos y quintales. Los cultivos tienen una especie agrodiversidad en la misma zona, el producto principal es el cultivo de la yuca. Los quintales tienen arreglos espaciales de especies frutales, medicinales y sobre todo los cultivos de hortalizas. Así, tanto los astilleros como los claros son responsables de la sostenibilidad de las familias ribereñas de esta comunidad, sirviendo de subsistencia y asistencia económica.Por otra parte, se trata de ser una alternativa adaptada a las condiciones de los ecosistemas agrícolas llanura de inundación en la región.

  10. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

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    E. G. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene – 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv than the wet season (isoprene – 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m−2 h−1 and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m−2 h−1 were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m−2 h−1. These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf

  11. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eliane G.; Jardine, Kolby; Tota, Julio; Jardine, Angela; Yãnez-Serrano, Ana Maria; Karl, Thomas; Tavares, Julia; Nelson, Bruce; Gu, Dasa; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Martin, Scot; Artaxo, Paulo; Manzi, Antonio; Guenther, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene - 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv) than the wet season (isoprene - 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv) for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m-2 h-1) and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m-2 h-1) were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m-2 h-1). These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf phenology seemed to be an important driver of seasonal

  12. Vegetation and hydrology changes in Eastern Amazonia inferred from a pollen record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro B. de Toledo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen, charcoal, and C14 analyses were performed on a sediment core obtained from Lake Tapera (Amapá to provide the palaeoenvironmental history of this part of Amazonia. A multivariate analysis technique, Detrended Correspondence Analysis, was applied to the pollen data to improve visualization of sample distribution and similarity. A sedimentary hiatus lasting 5,500 years was identified in the Lake Tapera. Because the timing of the hiatus overlapped with the highest Holocene sea-level, which would have increased the local water table preventing the lake from drying out, it is clear that sea-level was not important in maintaining the lake level. Lake Tapera probably depended on riverine flood waters, and the sedimentary gap was caused by reduced Amazon River discharge, due to an extremely dry period in the Andes (8,000-5,000 years BP, when precipitation levels markedly decreased. The lack of Andean pollen (river transported in the record after this event supports this interpretation. The pollen analysis shows that when sedimentation resumed in 1,620 cal. years BP, the vegetation around the lake was changed from forest into savanna. This record demonstrates the need to improve our understanding of climate changes and their associated impacts on vegetation dynamics.Análises de pólen, carvões e datações C foram conduzidas em um testemunho coletado no lago Tapera (Amapá com o objetivo de interpretar a história paleoambiental desta parte da Amazônia. Uma das técnicas de análises multivariadas, Análise de Correspondência Destendenciada (DCA, foi utilizada a fim de melhor visualizar a distribuição e similaridade das amostras. Foi identificado um hiato sedimentar com duração de 5.500 anos no lago Tapera. Como o hiato ocorreu simultaneamente ao nível do mar mais alto do Holoceno, o que deveria ter aumentado o lençol freático, impedindo assim o lago de secar, é evidente que variações do nível do mar não foram importantes na

  13. Biologia floral e polinização artificial de pinhão-manso no norte de Minas Gerais Floral biology and artificial polinization in physic nut in the north of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Pinto Juhász

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos da biologia floral e do sistema reprodutivo de Jatropha curcas, em Janaúba, MG. Foram registrados: o número de flores femininas e masculinas; o intervalo de abertura das flores femininas; e a formação de frutos por apomixia, autofecundação, geitonogamia e xenogamia. A proporção de flores masculinas para femininas foi de 20:1. O intervalo de abertura das flores femininas variou de um a sete dias, conforme o número delas na inflorescência. No teste de apomixia, houve formação de frutos em apenas 5% das flores avaliadas. A percentagem de frutificação variou de 79 a 88% na autofecundação manual, na geitonogamia e na xenogamia. Na autofecundação sem a polinização manual a frutificação foi de 20%, e os frutos formados foram significativamente menores, com número inferior de sementes por fruto e menor índice de velocidade de emergência. As sementes foram semelhantes às formadas por polinização natural. é possível a realização de cruzamentos controlados em pinhão-manso, e não há autoincompatibilidade nesta espécie.The aim of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the floral biology and of the reproductive system of Jatropha curcas, in Janaúba county, MG, Brazil. The number of female and male flowers, the interval between the opening of female flowers, and the formation of fruits by apomixis, self-pollination, geitonogamy and by xenogamy were registered. The ratio of male to female flowers was 20:1. The interval of opening of female flowers was of one to seven days, depending on the number of female flowers in the inflorescence. On the apomixy test, the formation of fruits occurred in only 5% of the evaluated flowers. The fruit set was between 79 and 88% through the manual self-pollination, and through the geitonogamy, and the xenogamy. In the self-pollination treatment, without the hand-pollination, the fruit set was of 20%, and the fruits formed were

  14. Cogeneration for Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Almost all the electric power in Brazil comes from large-scale hydroelectric plants: only about 3% comes from cogeneration. But, now that the barriers which discouraged cogeneration are being removed, there will be more and more investment in cogeneration and distributed generation. The circumstances which have brought about these changes are described. It is expected that cogeneration will be responsible for producing 10-15% of Brazil's electricity by 2010 and the demand for cogeneration will reach 11-17 GW. It is concluded that Brazil represents one of the world's most attractive market for cogeneration and distributed generation

  15. Prevalence and correlates of physical activity among adolescents from Southern Brazil Prevalencia de actividad física en adolescentes y factores asociados Prevalência de atividade física em adolescentes e fatores associados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C Dumith

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of physical activity among adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional study nested within a cohort of 4,325 subjects from the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, aged 14-15 years in 2008. Physical activity was analyzed using three different approaches: (1 prevalence of any leisure-time physical activity; (2 prevalence of any active commuting to school; and (3 prevalence of engaging in at least 300 minutes per week of both (1 and (2 combined. Independent variables included sociodemographic, behavioral, social, and biological characteristics, and number of different leisure-time physical activites practiced. Statistical analyses were carried out using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The proportion of adolescents involved in any type of leisure-time physical activity was 75.6%, while 73.4% displayed some form of active commuting to school. Prevalence of total physical activity score (> 300 min/week was 48.2%, being greater among boys (62.6% than among girls (34.5%. Furthermore, prevalence increased along with the number of physical activity modalities practiced (pOBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de actividad física entre adolescentes y identificar los factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal anidado en una cohorte con 4.325 individuos de 14-15 años en Pelota, Sur de Brasil, en 2008. La actividad física fue analizada por medio de tres diferentes abordajes: 1 prevalencia de alguna actividad física de ocio; 2 prevalencia de algún traslado activo para la escuela; 3 prevalencia de compromiso de por lo menos 300 minutos por semana en la combinación de ambos (1 y 2. Variables independientes incluyeron características demográficas, socioeconómicas, comportamentales, sociales y biológicas y número de actividades físicas practicadas en el tiempo de ocio. Los análisis estadísticos fueron hechos por la regresión de Poisson. RESULTADOS: La proporción de adolescentes envueltos en alguna

  16. Vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383, Rondônia, Brazil.

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    Luiz Carlos Batista Turci

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Roadkills are a serious threat to many species of wildlife worldwide. In Brazil, few studies are available about the importance of roadkills. Information about roadkills in Amazonia are even more scarce when compared to central and southern Brazil. Here we describe the vertebrate roadkills on State Highway 383 in Rondônia. From May 2004 – April 2005, thirty samples were taken the along 110km of the highway between Cacoal and Alta Floresta D’Oeste. Thirty-four vertebrate species were found in 259 specimens. In terms of absolute numbers, amphibians were the most frequent roadkills, with 68 individuals of two species. Birds followed, with 67 individuals of 12 species, then reptiles (67 indiv., 12 species and mammals (63 indiv.,13 species. Eight species (Leptodactylus gr. pentadactylus, Rhinella sp, Amphisbaena sp., Liophis reginae, Crotophaga ani, Didelphis marsupialis, Euphractus sexcinctus and Cerdocyon thous were the most frequent roadkills, accounting for 76% of the vertebrate roadkills. More than half of the roadkills occurred during the dry season.

  17. Reptiles from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivanildo Miranda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a list of the reptile species from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (LMNP, Maranhão, Brazil, obtained during 235 days of field work. The study area is located in the contact zone between three major Neotropical ecosystems: Amazonia, Caatinga, and Cerrado. The PNLM encompasses the largest dune fields in Brazil, wide shrubby areas (restingas, lakes, mangroves, and many freshwater lagoons. We have recorded 42 species of reptiles in the area: 24 snakes, 12 lizards, two worm lizards, three turtles, and one alligator. About 81 % of the recorded species occurred only in restinga areas. Our data highlights the uniqueness of the PNLM in the context of the biomes that surround it and shows the importance of efforts to improve the conservation of reptiles living in the restinga, which currently comprise only about 20 % of the total area protected by the park, but which are the mesohabitat containing most of the reptile species in the Lençóis Maranhenses complex of habitats.

  18. Reptiles from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jivanildo Pinheiro; Costa, João Carlos Lopes; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D

    2012-01-01

    We are presenting a list of the reptile species from Lençóis Maranhenses National Park (LMNP), Maranhão, Brazil, obtained during 235 days of field work. The study area is located in the contact zone between three major Neotropical ecosystems: Amazonia, Caatinga, and Cerrado. The PNLM encompasses the largest dune fields in Brazil, wide shrubby areas (restingas), lakes, mangroves, and many freshwater lagoons. We have recorded 42 species of reptiles in the area: 24 snakes, 12 lizards, two worm lizards, three turtles, and one alligator. About 81 % of the recorded species occurred only in restinga areas. Our data highlights the uniqueness of the PNLM in the context of the biomes that surround it and shows the importance of efforts to improve the conservation of reptiles living in the restinga, which currently comprise only about 20 % of the total area protected by the park, but which are the mesohabitat containing most of the reptile species in the Lençóis Maranhenses complex of habitats.

  19. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos Alonso; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, E. F.; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2012), s. 484-497 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PARANA RIVER FLOODPLAIN * DEMIDOSPERMUS DACTYLOGYRIDAE * NEOTROPICAL MONOGENEA * ALINEMA-AMAZONICUM * TAPEWORMS CESTODA * GEN N * ANCYROCEPHALINAE * FISHES * BRAZIL * GILLS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1645/GE-2941.1

  20. CCN activity and organic hygroscopicity of aerosols downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia: seasonal and diel variations and impact of anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalman, Ryan; de Sá, Suzane S.; Palm, Brett B.; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Brito, Joel; Carbone, Samara; Castillo, Paulo; Day, Douglas A.; Kuang, Chongai; Manzi, Antonio; Ng, Nga Lee; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III; Souza, Rodrigo; Springston, Stephen; Watson, Thomas; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Jimenez, Jose L.; Martin, Scot T.; Wang, Jian

    2017-10-01

    During the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) campaign, size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra were characterized at a research site (T3) 60 km downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil, in central Amazonia for 1 year (12 March 2014 to 3 March 2015). Particle hygroscopicity (κCCN) and mixing state were derived from the size-resolved CCN spectra, and the hygroscopicity of the organic component of the aerosol (κorg) was then calculated from κCCN and concurrent chemical composition measurements. The annual average κCCN increased from 0.13 at 75 nm to 0.17 at 171 nm, and the increase was largely due to an increase in sulfate volume fraction. During both wet and dry seasons, κCCN, κorg, and particle composition under background conditions exhibited essentially no diel variations. The constant κorg of ˜ 0. 15 is consistent with the largely uniform and high O : C value (˜ 0. 8), indicating that the aerosols under background conditions are dominated by the aged regional aerosol particles consisting of highly oxygenated organic compounds. For air masses strongly influenced by urban pollution and/or local biomass burning, lower values of κorg and organic O : C atomic ratio were observed during night, due to accumulation of freshly emitted particles, dominated by primary organic aerosol (POA) with low hygroscopicity, within a shallow nocturnal boundary layer. The O : C, κorg, and κCCN increased from the early morning hours and peaked around noon, driven by the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and dilution of POA emissions into a deeper boundary layer, while the development of the boundary layer, which leads to mixing with aged particles from the residual layer aloft, likely also contributed to the increases. The hygroscopicities associated with individual organic factors, derived from PMF (positive matrix factorization) analysis of AMS (aerosol mass spectrometry) spectra, were estimated through

  1. CCN activity and organic hygroscopicity of aerosols downwind of an urban region in central Amazonia: seasonal and diel variations and impact of anthropogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thalman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5 campaign, size-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN spectra were characterized at a research site (T3 60 km downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil, in central Amazonia for 1 year (12 March 2014 to 3 March 2015. Particle hygroscopicity (κCCN and mixing state were derived from the size-resolved CCN spectra, and the hygroscopicity of the organic component of the aerosol (κorg was then calculated from κCCN and concurrent chemical composition measurements. The annual average κCCN increased from 0.13 at 75 nm to 0.17 at 171 nm, and the increase was largely due to an increase in sulfate volume fraction. During both wet and dry seasons, κCCN, κorg, and particle composition under background conditions exhibited essentially no diel variations. The constant κorg of ∼ 0. 15 is consistent with the largely uniform and high O : C value (∼ 0. 8, indicating that the aerosols under background conditions are dominated by the aged regional aerosol particles consisting of highly oxygenated organic compounds. For air masses strongly influenced by urban pollution and/or local biomass burning, lower values of κorg and organic O : C atomic ratio were observed during night, due to accumulation of freshly emitted particles, dominated by primary organic aerosol (POA with low hygroscopicity, within a shallow nocturnal boundary layer. The O : C, κorg, and κCCN increased from the early morning hours and peaked around noon, driven by the formation and aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA and dilution of POA emissions into a deeper boundary layer, while the development of the boundary layer, which leads to mixing with aged particles from the residual layer aloft, likely also contributed to the increases. The hygroscopicities associated with individual organic factors, derived from PMF (positive matrix factorization analysis of AMS (aerosol mass

  2. Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle from south-western Amazonia Infecção por Anaplasma marginale em bovinos na Amazônia Sul Ocidental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gatto Brito

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides the first epidemiological data regarding infection by Anaplasma marginale in cattle reared in south-western Brazilian Amazonia. One simple procedure was adapted for the extraction of DNA from blood clots collected in seven microregions of Rondônia State and two mesoregions of Acre State. PCR method was used to asses the frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to12-month-old cattle. The cattle infection was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using the specific primer "msp5" for A. marginale. The DNA amplifications revealed that the mean frequency of A. marginale infection was 98.6% (1,627/1,650 in samples from Rondonia, and 92.87% (208/225 in samples from Acre. The high frequency of A. marginale infections in 4 to 12-month-old cattle indicate a situation of enzootic stability in the studied areas and are comparable to those detected by immunodiagnosis in different endemic regions in Brazil. The DNA extraction of clotted blood method described here can be used for epidemiological studies on anaplasmosis and other bovine hemoparasites.O presente estudo fornece os primeiros dados epidemiológicos relativos a infecção por Anaplasma marginale em bovinos criados na Amazônia Sul Ocidental brasileira. Foi adaptado um procedimento simples para a extração de DNA a partir de coágulos sanguíneos coletados em sete microrregiões do estado de Rondônia e duas mesoregiões do estado do Acre. A técnica da reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR foi aplicada para avaliar a freqüência da infecção por A. marginale em bovinos com idade entre 4 e 12 meses. Após a extração do DNA de cada amostra, a infecção nos bovinos foi investigada pela amplificação do gene "msp5" de A. marginale. As técnicas de amplificação do DNA revelaram que a freqüência de infecção por A. marginale foi de 98,6% (1.627/1.650 nas amostras provenientes de Rondônia e de 92,87% (208/225 nas amostras do Acre. A alta freqüência da

  3. An Epidemiological Profile of CrossFit Athletes in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sprey, Jan W.C.; Ferreira, Thiago; de Lima, Marcos V.; Duarte, Aires; Jorge, Pedro B.; Santili, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background: CrossFit is a conditioning and training program that has been gaining recognition and interest among the physically active population. Approximately 440 certified and registered CrossFit fitness centers and gyms exist in Brazil, with approximately 40,000 athletes. To date, there have been no epidemiological studies about the CrossFit athlete in Brazil. Purpose: To evaluate the profile, sports history, training routine, and presence of injuries among athletes of CrossFit. Study Des...

  4. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Salazar, Juan Carlos; Ngo Bieng, Marie Ange; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Casanoves, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use. We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development. We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees. Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in Colombia.

  5. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Salazar, Juan Carlos; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Di Rienzo, Julio A.; Casanoves, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Aim and background We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use. Material and methods We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development. Main results We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees. Main conclusions and prospects Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of

  6. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar

    Full Text Available We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use.We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development.We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees.Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in

  7. Energy Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Rosemary; de Paiva, Terezhina Villela O'Grady

    1980-01-01

    Compares energy education in Brazil and the United States. Topics discussed include the Brazilian setting, government initiatives, dependence on foreign fuel sources, public reaction, schools and energy education, and mass media involvement. (DB)

  8. Mutual cooperation with Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orstein, Roberto M.

    1998-01-01

    The history of the nuclear cooperation between Brazil and Argentina is outlined in the framework of the changing political circumstances. Reference is made to the agreements between both countries and to its implementation

  9. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    local farmers — particularly women — ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. FL. IC ... the roots of violence ... Wage inequalities in Brazil and India ... foreign policy efforts, IDRC supports research in developing countries.

  10. Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: The effect of population and land tenure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnside, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    LANDSAT data for 1978 and 1988-1991 indicate that by 1991 the area of forest cleared had reached 426 000 km 2 (10.5% of the 4 million km 2 originally forested portion of Brazil's 5 million km 2 Legal Amazon Region). Over the 1978-1988 period, forest was lost at a rate of 22 000 km 2 /yr (including hydroelectric flooding), while the rate was 19 000 km 2 /yr for 1988-1989, 14 000 km 2 /yr for 1989-1990 and 11 000 km 2 /yr for 1990-1991. The reduction in the rate since 1987 has mostly been due to Brazil's economic recession rather than to any policy changes. The number of properties censused in each size class explains 74% of the variation in deforestation rate among the 9 Amazonian states. Multiple regressions indicate that 30% of the clearing in 1991 can be attributed to small farmers (properties <100 ha in area), and the remaining 70% to either medium or large ranchers. The social cost of reducing deforestation rates would therefore be much less than is implied by frequent pronouncements that blame 'poverty' for environmental problems in the region. 46 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Eucalyptus plantations and the steel industry in Amazonia - A contribution from the 3-PG model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, Maurel; Piketty, Marie Gabrielle; Morello, Thiago Fonseca; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Mesquita Neto, Franscisco

    2011-01-01

    The Carajas steel industry sector in the Brazilian Amazon has aroused protest on environmental grounds because of its heavy reliance on charcoal. The charcoal is mainly produced from natural forest biomass, with direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forest ecosystem degradation. Establishing eucalyptus plantations for fuel on degraded pastures could be a workable alternative. Few such plantations exist as yet, and because there are no validated assessments of their production potential, a study was conducted to provide consolidated estimations of the growth and productivity of the Carajas eucalyptus plantations. The estimations were obtained with the 3-PG model (Physiological Principles in Predicting Growth). The model parameters are based on growth data for the eucalyptus plantations established by a company in Breu Branco municipality in Brazil's Para State. Calibrating the model with local data proved to be far more effective than using the parameters set for eucalyptus plantations in other areas in Brazil, South Africa or Australia. The simulations made show that the current annual average growth rate, over a six-year period, of about 20 m"3 per hectare could increase to 30 m"3 with appropriate fertilisation and effective underbrush control. They also suggest that production could be higher without water deficit. Plantation zones shall be selected as a priority in areas where the dry season is the least severe around Carajas. These 3-PG model settings have made it a more effective management tool for industrial plantations in Amazonian conditions. (authors)

  12. A new species of the genus Kingsleya from Amazonia, with a modified key for the Brazilian Pseudothelphusidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhaes, C.

    1990-01-01

    Abstract: A new species of Pseudothelphusid crab, Kingsleya besti spec. nov., is described from Serra do Curicuriari, northwest of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. A modified dey for identification of the Pseudothelphusid crabs occurring in Brazil is given. Resumo: É descrita uma nova espécie de

  13. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morato de Andrade, C.

    2003-05-01

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  14. Aptidão física relacionada à saúde em escolares de Jequié, BA, Brasil Health-related physical fitness in students from Jequié, BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valfredo Dórea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a aptidão física relacionada à saúde (AFRS em escolares de Jequié, BA, Brasil. Para tanto, a AFRS de 182 meninos e 160 meninas (sete a 12 anos, escolares da rede pública de ensino, foi avaliada mediante a aplicação dos testes motores corrida/caminhada de nove minutos (indicador de resistência cardiorrespiratória, abdominal modificado em um minuto (indicador de força e resistência abdominal, sentar-e-alcançar (indicador de flexibilidade. O somatório das espessuras das dobras cutâneas tricipital e subescapular foi utilizado como indicador de gordura corporal. Os resultados encontrados indicaram maior prevalência de meninos e meninas abaixo (19% e 49%, respectivamente do que acima (3% e 1%, respectivamente dos critérios estabelecidos pela AAHPERD (1988 para indicadores de gordura corporal. Por outro lado, somente 51% dos meninos e 58% das meninas no sentar-e-alcançar; 11% e 7%, respectivamente, no abdominal modificado em um minuto, e 15% e 14%, respectivamente, na corrida/caminhada de nove minutos alcançaram os critérios estabelecidos. Portanto, os resultados sugerem que programas efetivos de intervenção parecem necessários para a promoção de mudanças no estado nutricional e na atividade física habitual de escolares de Jequié.The aim of this study was to analyze the health-related physical fitness (HRPF in students from Jequié, BA, Brazil. Therefore, the HRPF of 182 boys and 160 girls aged 7-12 years, students from public schools, was assessed by the application of 9-minute-run/walk (indicator of cardiorespiratory capacity, modified in one minute abdominal (indicator of abdominal strength and endurance, sit-and-reach (indicator of flexibility motor tests. The sum of the triciptal and subscapular skinfolds thickness was used as indicator of body fat. The results found indicated higher prevalence of boys and girls below (19% and 49%, respectively than above (3% and 1%, respectively the

  15. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Valdivia, Jheyson; Alcázar Caicedo, Carolina; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Wadt, Lucia Helena O; Corvera, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis

  16. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Thomas

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an

  17. Social Environmental Eeterminants and Health: Rural Brazil versus Brazil Urban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rackynelly Alves SARMENTO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural population lives in socioeconomic inequality conditions motivated by several problems, including an insufficient sewage systems and water supply, these, sometimes, most responsibles by the appearance of waterborne diseases that contribute to the rise of child mortality and other problems. Rural areas in Brazil are defined by opposition and exclusion in urban areas. This definition is arbitrary and physical-geographic, not considering the social and economic processes involving the territories. This study purposed to verify, by means of sociodemographic aspects, environmental sanitation and main grievances/diseases importance for public health of the population from forest field and water, if the most rural municipalities (MMR are more precarious than the more urban (MMU. To this end, was carried out a descriptive study based on secondary sources (Atlas of Human Development in Brazil, IBGE census, PNAD and Sinan. Among the results, it follows that the rural population identified by IBGE boils down to 15.6% of Brazil’s population. In 29% of the municipalities, the population living in rural areas exceeds the city. The higher frequencies from IDMH very low are for MMR, while the higher frequency from IDMH very high and high are for MMU. In health, the MMR also exhibit deficiency. It was observed high incidence rates of diseases related to poor conditions of sanitation. From these results, it was identified a more precarious health profile in MMR when compared to MMU.

  18. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  19. Preliminary Compositional Evidence of Provenance of Ceramics from Hatahara Archaeological Site, Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred twenty four ceramic fragments and six clay samples from the Hatahara archaeological site in Amazonas state, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, to determine the concentration of twenty chemical elements: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, and Zn. The dataset was submitted to multivariate statistical analysis. The classification was done by cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. The results demonstrated the occurrence of four different groups of ceramics, which represent three archaeological phases: Paredão, Manacapuru, and Guarita. This data is consistent with previous traditional petrographic examination of the ceramic samples. Based on probability measures, the great majority of the ceramics are considered to be local in origin.

  20. On Munduruku, a new Theraphosid genus from Oriental Amazonia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura T. Miglio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Munduruku gen. nov. is proposed for the type species Munduruku bicoloratum sp. nov., from Juruti and Santarém, Pará, Brazil. The main diagnostic character of Munduruku gen. nov. is the presence of a subapical, lanceolate keel on the male palpal bulb, which is unique among the basal taxa of Theraphosinae with type III-IV urticating setae. The female spermathecae consist of two spheroid receptacles with funnel-shaped necks, each of which bears a sclerotized area. In both sexes, the abdomen is remarkably patterned, an uncommon feature in adults of New World theraphosids. Both the bulbus lanceolate keel and the abdominal color pattern are hypothesized as synapomorphies of the genus.

  1. Oligarchic forests of economic plants in amazonia: utilization and conservation of an important tropical resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C M; Balick, M J; Kahn, F; Anderson, A B

    1989-12-01

    Tropical forests dominated by only one or two tree species occupy tens of millions of hectares in Ammonia In many cases, the dominant species produce fruits, seeds, or oils of economic importance. Oligarchic (Gr. oligo = few, archic = dominated or ruled by) forests of six economic species, i. e., Euterpe oleracea, Grias peruviana, Jessenia bataua, Mauritia flexuosa, Myrciaria dubia, and Orbignya phalerata, were studied in Brazil and Peru Natural populations of these species contain from 100 to 3,000 conspecific adult trees/ha and produce up to 11.1 metric tons of fruit/hd/yr. These plant populations are utilized and occasionally managed, by rural inhabitants in the region. Periodic fruit harvests, if properly controlled have only a minimal impact on forest structure and function, yet can generate substantial economic returns Market-oriented extraction of the fruits produced by oligarchic forests appears to represent a promising alternative for reconciling the development and conservation of Amazonian forests.

  2. Reactive Case Detection for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Elimination in Rural Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo S Fontoura

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria burden in Brazil has reached its lowest levels in 35 years and Plasmodium vivax now accounts for 84% of cases countrywide. Targeting residual malaria transmission entrenched in the Amazon is the next major challenge for ongoing elimination efforts. Better strategies are urgently needed to address the vast reservoir of asymptomatic P. vivax carriers in this and other areas approaching malaria elimination.We evaluated a reactive case detection (RCD strategy tailored for P. vivax transmission in farming settlements in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. Over six months, 41 cases detected by passive surveillance triggered four rounds of RCD (0, 30, 60, and 180 days after index case enrollment, using microscopy- and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR-based diagnosis, comprising subjects sharing the household (HH with the index case (n = 163, those living in the 5 nearest HHs within 3 km (n = 878, and individuals from 5 randomly chosen control HHs located > 5 km away from index cases (n = 841. Correlates of infection were identified with mixed-effects logistic regression models. Molecular genotyping was used to infer local parasite transmission networks.Subjects in index and neighbor HHs were significantly more likely to be parasitemic than control HH members, after adjusting for potential confounders, and together harbored > 90% of the P. vivax biomass in study subjects. Clustering patterns were temporally stable. Four rounds of microscopy-based RCD would identify only 49.5% of the infections diagnosed by qPCR, but 76.8% of the total parasite biomass circulating in the proximity of index HHs. However, control HHs accounted for 27.6% of qPCR-positive samples, 92.6% of them from asymptomatic carriers beyond the reach of RCD. Molecular genotyping revealed high P. vivax diversity, consistent with complex transmission networks and multiple sources of infection within clusters, potentially complicating malaria elimination efforts.

  3. Science for the Poor: How One Woman Challenged Researchers, Ranchers, and Loggers in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Shanley

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the lower Tocantins region of Brazil, one Amazonian woman questioned why scientists publish principally for elite audiences. Her experience suggests that the impact may be enhanced by also sharing data with people who depend upon forest goods. Having defended her family homestead near the city of Cameta against loggers in the late 1980s, Glória Gaia became interested in strengthening the information base of other villagers so that they would not lose their forests for meager sums. She challenged scientists to defy norms such as extracting data without giving back to rural villagers and publishing primarily for the privileged. Working with researchers, she helped them to publish an illustrated manual of the ecology, economics, management, and cultural importance of key Amazonian forest species. With and without funds or a formal project, she traveled by foot and boat to remote villages to disseminate the book. Using data, stories, and song, she brought cautionary messages to villages about the impacts of logging on livelihoods. She also brought locally useful processing techniques regarding medicinal plants, fruit, and tree oils. Her holistic teachings challenged traditional forestry to include the management of fruits, fibers, and medicines. A new version of the book, requested by the government of Brazil, contains the contributions of 90 leading Brazilian and international scientists and local people. Glória Gaia's story raises the questions: Who is science for and how can science reach disenfranchised populations? Lessons for scientists and practitioners from Glória's story include: broadening the range of products from research to reach local people, complementing local ecological knowledge with scientific data, sharing precautionary data demonstrating trends, and involving women and marginalized people in the research and outreach process.

  4. Elementary particles physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    It is discussed the physics in Brazil in the next decade with regard to elementary particles and field theories. The situation of brazilian research institutes as well as its personnel is also presented. Some recommendations and financing of new projects are also considered. (A.C.A.S.)

  5. Neotropics provide insights into the emergence of New World monkeys: New dental evidence from the late Oligocene of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Boivin, Myriam; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-08-01

    Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have resulted in the discovery of a late Oligocene (ca. 26.5 Ma; Chambira Formation) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-61). In this paper, we analyze the primate material consisting of two isolated upper molars, the peculiar morphology of which allows us to describe a new medium-sized platyrrhine monkey: Canaanimico amazonensis gen. et sp. nov. In addition to the recent discovery of Perupithecus ucayaliensis, a primitive anthropoid taxon of African affinities from the alleged latest Eocene Santa Rosa locality (Peruvian Amazonia), the discovery of Canaanimico adds to the evidence that primates were well-established in the Amazonian Basin during the Paleogene. Our phylogenetic results based on dental evidence show that none of the early Miocene Patagonian taxa (Homunculus, Carlocebus, Soriacebus, Mazzonicebus, Dolichocebus, Tremacebus, and Chilecebus), the late Oligocene Bolivian Branisella, or the Peruvian Canaanimico, is nested within a crown platyrrhine clade. All these early taxa are closely related and considered here as stem Platyrrhini. Canaanimico is nested within the Patagonian Soriacebinae, and closely related to Soriacebus, thereby extending back the soriacebine lineage to 26.5 Ma. Given the limited dental evidence, it is difficult to assess if Canaanimico was engaged in a form of pitheciine-like seed predation as is observed in Soriacebus and Mazzonicebus, but dental microwear patterns recorded on one upper molar indicate that Canaanimico was possibly a fruit and hard-object eater. If Panamacebus, a recently discovered stem cebine from the early Miocene of Panama, indicates that the crown platyrrhine radiation was already well underway by the earliest Miocene, Canaanimico indicates in turn that the "homunculid" radiation (as a part of the stem radiation) was well underway by the late Oligocene. These new data suggest that the stem radiation likely occurred in the Neotropics

  6. CRECIMIENTO DEL MAÍZ EN VERTISOLES CON ALTO ALUMINIO EN LA BAIXADA MARANHENSE PRE-AMAZONIA, BRASIL

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    Alessandro Costa da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crecimiento del maíz en vertisoles con alto aluminio en la Baixada Maranhense pre-Amazonia, Brasil. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el crecimiento del maíz en suelos con alto contenido de aluminio. Se midió el efecto del Al3+ en raíces y la cantidad de materia seca (raíz, hoja y tallo de maíz. Se efectuó la caracterización físico-química de cuatro muestras de suelo con alto aluminio colectadas del horizonte Ap, en tres municipios de la región conocida como Baixada Maranhense (Pre-Amazonia, Brasil: Santa Rita (SR, Arari (AR y Vitoria do Mearim (VM y un testigo colectado en el municipio de São Luís, Área del Núcleo de Tecnología Rural (T. El estudio, ejecutado en 2009, se llevó a cabo en invernadero y se utilizó 2 dm3 de suelo por maceta. Asimismo las muestras fueron divididas en muestras con y sin fertilización. La variación en la longitud de la raíz y de materia seca de las hojas difirió significativamente entre tratados con y sin fertilizante, excepto en la muestra de la localidad T. La producción de materia seca de raíz, tallo y hoja fue mayor en todos los suelos cuando se fertilizó. El suelo testigo también superó a todos los demás en cuanto a producción de materia seca en la raíz, posiblemente como resultado de una menor cantidad de Al3+ (1,2 cmolc/dm3 en comparación con los suelos SR, AR y VM (6,8; 8,0 y 7,0 cmolc/dm3 respectivamente. Se concluye la fertilización reduce el efecto detrimental del aluminio en la producción de maíz en la Baixada Maranhense.

  7. Caracterização física e tecnológica de seis cultivares de soja plantadas no Brasil Physical and technological caracterization of six soybean cultivars grown in Brazil

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    C.R. VIEIRA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a avaliação física e tecnológica de seis cultivares de soja dentre as mais plantadas no Brasil: IAS-5, IGUAÇU, DAVIS, BR-16, IAS-4 e EMBRAPA-4, visando identificar a mais adequada para utilização na alimentação humana. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: densidade aparente, volume do grão, peso de 100 sementes, percentagem das partes do grão, cor da casca e do hilo, tempo de maceração, quantidade de água absorvida e tempo de cozimento. A densidade aparente variou de 1,1592 a 1,1992 g/cm³, o volume do grão de 0,1262 a 0,1711 cm³, o peso de 100 sementes de 15,31 a 19,76 g, as porcentagens de casca, hipocótilo e cotilédone de 6,94 a 8,40%, 2,29 a 3,05% e 88,77 a 90,77%, respectivamente. Nas condições do experimento constatou-se que a cor da casca e do hilo das seis cultivares foram muito semelhantes. O tempo mínimo necessário de maceração variou entre 6 e 9 horas, e o tempo de absorção máxima, de 12 a 15 horas. A absorção de água no tempo mínimo variou entre 108,05 e 124,60 g H2O/100 g de soja, e no tempo de absorção máxima de 125,67 a 132,54 g H2O/100 g de soja. Para o tempo de cozimento, a variação foi de 155 a 219 minutos.In the present work, six soybean cultivars commonly grown in Brazil (IAS-5, IGUAÇU, DAVIS, BR-16, IAS-4 and EMBRAPA-4 were physically and technologically evaluated, viith the aim of identifying the most adequate one for human consumption. The following determinations were carried out: grain apparent density and volume, weight of one hundred seeds, percentage of hull, cotyledon and germ, seed coat and hilum colour, soaking time, water absorption and finally, cooking time. The apparent density varied from 1.1592 to 1.1992 g/cm³ and the grain volume from 0.1262 to 0.1711 cm³, the weight of one hundred seeds from 15.31 to 19.76 ghull, germ and cotyledon percentages from 6.94 to 8.40%,2.29 to 3.05% and 88.77 to 90.77%, respectively. For the

  8. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

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    Mary Marcondes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is among the most important vector-borne diseases that occur in Brazil, mainly due to its zoonotic nature. It is currently present in almost all Brazilian territory, and its control is a challenge both for veterinarians and for public health officials. The etiologic agent is Leishmania infantum (syn chagasi, and the main vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Of all animals identified as reservoirs of VL, the dog is considered the most important domestic reservoir. Although the disease has already been identified in cats, the epidemiological role of this animal species is still unclear. This article presents a brief review of the epidemiological situation of the disease, its mode of transmission, clinical features in dogs and cats as well as possible risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease in Brazil.

  9. [Bromatological characteristics of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis Koch) cultivated in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, V D

    1975-01-01

    The A. studied pecan nuts cultivated in Brazil: two samples represented North American varieties and three others Brazilian hybrids. The comparison between physical classification and chemical composition, specially amino acid contents pointed to non significant differences, all beeing useful for commercial purposes. The A. stresses the importance of the culture of pecan nuts in Brazil.

  10. the Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To face the forecasted increase of 4 % of the Gross Domestic Product, it is necessary to increase the energy capacity installed in Brazil. The action at first planned on 10 to 20 years, is oriented today on a shorter period from 2001 to 2004. The program proposes investment of 43 milliards or Reals from which 32 will come from the private sector. This report takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the actions in favor of the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  11. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  12. Alluvial plain dynamics and human occupation in SW Amazonia during the Holocene: A paleosol-based reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Umberto; Rodrigues, Leonor; Veit, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    The present study reconstructs Holocene fluvial dynamics in the southern Amazonian foreland basin through the analysis of 36 stratigraphic profiles taken along a 300 km long transect across the Llanos de Moxos (LM), in the Bolivian Amazon. Based on 50 radiocarbon ages from paleosols intercalated with fluvial sediments, the most important changes in floodplain dynamics on a millennial scale are reconstructed and the links between pre-Columbian cultural processes and environmental change in the region explored. Results show that the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses, as inferred from the number and age of the cored paleosols, is stable from 8k cal. yrs BP to 4k cal. yrs BP and increases significantly from 4k to 2k cal. yrs BP, following the strengthening of el Niño/la Niña cycle and an increase in average precipitation. Fluvial activity then decreases and reaches its minimum after 2k cal BP. A comparison between the stratigraphic record and the archaeological record shows a match between periods of landscape stability in SW Amazonia (low river activity) and periods of pre-Columbian human occupation. The first Amazonians lived in the LM until 4k yrs. BP, when an abrupt increase in the frequency of river avulsions and crevasses forced the abandonment of the region. After two thousand years of archaeological hiatus, which matches the period of highest river activity in the region, agriculturists reoccupied the Bolivian Amazon.

  13. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200–300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads. PMID:27010739

  14. Diversity and abundance of primates and their threats in the interfluvium of the Napo and Putumayo rivers, Peruvian Amazonia

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    Rolando Aquino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the northeastern Peruvian Amazonia remain areas with scarce information on primates, one of them being the interfluvium between the Napo and Putumayo rivers. This lack of information motivated us to conduct a study to determine the diversity and abundance of primates within the area, as well as to identify the threats, which inhibit these primate species populations. For this purpose, we conducted transect censuses in three sampling sites in October 2007, September 2013 and November 2014. In 1040 km of transect walks we observed 308 groups of nine primate species, the most common being Leontocebus nigricollis (109 groups and the rarest being Alouatta seniculus (16 groups. Smaller groups of Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha (8-11 individuals and A. seniculus (3-5 individuals were observed in Tamboryacu, a majorly disturbed sampling site. Likewise, the lowest population densities estimated for L. l. lagothricha and A. seniculus corresponded to this same sampling site with 3.8 indiv. /km2 and 1.6 indiv. /km2, respectively, while for the remaining species there were no major differences among the sampling sites. Among the activities, hunting and logging are the predominant threats responsible for the scarce populations of A. seniculus and l. l. lagothricha, mainly in the Napo River Basin.

  15. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Arima

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  16. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

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    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  17. Territorio y Poder: La reivindicación territorial de los indígenas de la amazonia boliviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Canedo Vásquez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo pretende mostrar la centralidad que tiene el territorio y la demanda territorial para los grupos indígenas de la amazonia boliviana. El territorio tiene un papel importante en la reproducción cultural y en la organización política. La investigación se llevó a cabo en la provincia Mojos del departamento del Beni, y muestra que el manejo territorial itinerante y la percepción del territorio que tenían los grupos indígenas se ha transformado a partir del marco estatal –concretamente desde la ley INRA–. Hoy en día los indígenas demandan títulos de propiedad de los espacios ocupados, ante el avasallamiento de los blancos/karayanas. Es así que aquella concepción ilimitada del territorio, propio de los pueblos panindios, se ha transformado, pues en la actualidad los indígenas perciben un territorio limitado, cercado por propiedades privadas. Sin embargo, el territorio al convertirse en una de las demandas centrales de la organización indígena, es el elemento que les permite posicionarse políticamente en un escenario local y nacional.

  18. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, E Y

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  19. Atividade física no deslocamento em adultos e idosos do Brasil: prevalências e fatores associados Actividad física en el desplazamiento de adultos y ancianos en Brasil: prevalencias y factores asociados Physical activity during commuting by adults and elderly in Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cordeiro Madeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidências na literatura mostram que a atividade física no deslocamento pode contribuir positivamente à saúde. O presente trabalho descreve a atividade física no deslocamento e alguns fatores associados. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra de 12.402 adultos e 6.624 idosos em 100 municípios de 23 estados brasileiros. O desfecho foi operacionalizado pela seção de deslocamento da versão longa do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (IPAQ. A prevalência de atividade física insuficiente no deslocamento (Evidencias en la literatura muestran que la actividad física en el desplazamiento puede contribuir positivamente a la salud. El presente trabajo describe la actividad física en el desplazamiento y algunos factores asociados a ella. Se realizó un estudio transversal de base poblacional con una muestra de 12.402 adultos y 6.624 ancianos en 100 municipios de 23 estados brasileños. Las conclusiones se extrajeron mediante la operacionalización de la sección de desplazamiento de la versión larga del Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física (IPAQ. La prevalencia de actividad física insuficiente en el desplazamiento (Evidence in the literature shows that physical activity associated with commuting (routine coming and going can have a positive impact on health. The current study describes physical activity during commuting and some associated factors. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 12,402 adults and 6,624 elderly in 100 municipalities (counties from 23 States of Brazil. The outcome was based on the commuting section from the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Prevalence of insufficient physical activity during commuting (< 150 minutes per week was 66.6% in adults and 73.9% in the elderly. Among the elderly, the very old showed 25 times higher odds of being insufficiently active as compared to younger elders. Individuals with

  20. Fauna de coleópteros aquáticos (insect: coleoptera na Amazônia central, Brasil Aquatic Beetlefauna (insecta: coleoptera in Central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Cesar João Benetti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletados 888 exemplares de Coleoptera aquáticos nos municípios de Manaus, Manacapuru e Presidente Figueiredo (AM, de fevereiro de 2000 a agosto de 2002, distribuídos em 12 famílias, 50 gêneros e 88 espécies ou morfoespécies. Novas ocorrências para o Brasil, incluem as seguintes espécies de Dytiscidae: Hydrodessus robinae, H. surinamensis, Hypodessus frustrator, Neobidessus confusus, N. spangleri e N. woodruffi. Os gêneros Agaporomorphus (Dytiscidae e Pronoterus (Noteridae são registrados pela primeira vez para o estado do Amazonas, assim como as espécies: P. punctipennis e Suphisellus nigrinus (Noteridae; Agaporomorphus grandisinuatus, Bidessonotus tibialis, Derovatellus lentus,Desmopachria nitida, Hydaticus xanthomelas, Laccophilus tarsalis, Liodessus affinis e Megadytes la