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Sample records for amazon tree boa

  1. Predation of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) by an Amazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus): even small boids may be a potential threat to small-bodied platyrrhines.

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    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco Antônio; Ferrari, Stephen Francis; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; da Silva, Claudia Regina; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias

    2016-07-01

    Predation has been suggested to play a major role in the evolution of primate ecology, although reports of predation events are very rare. Mammalian carnivores, raptors, and snakes are known predators of Neotropical primates, and most reported attacks by snakes are attributed to Boa constrictor (terrestrial boas). Here, we document the predation of a squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) by an Amazon tree boa (Corallus hortulanus), the first record of the predation of a platyrrhine primate by this boid. The event was recorded during a nocturnal herpetological survey in the Piratuba Lake Biological Reserve, in the north-eastern Brazilian Amazon. The snake was encountered at 20:00 hours on the ground next to a stream, at the final stage of ingesting the monkey. The C. hortulanus specimen was 1620 mm in length (SVL) and weighed 650 g, while the S. sciureus was a young adult female weighing 600 g, 92 % of the body mass of the snake and the largest prey item known to have been ingested by a C. hortulanus. The evidence indicates that the predation event occurred at the end of the afternoon or early evening, and that, while capable of capturing an agile monkey like Saimiri, C. hortulanus may be limited to capturing small platyrrhines such as callitrichines.

  2. The proper name of the neotropical tree boa often referred to as Corallus enhydris (Serpentes: Boidae)

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    McDiarmid, Roy W.; Toure, T'Shaka; Savage, Jay M.

    1996-01-01

    Confusion regarding the application of the proper scientific name for the common Neotropical tree boa has existed since Linnaeus described Boa enydris and Boa hortulana in 1758. We review the nomenclatural history of the species and point out the misapplication of scientific names that have characterized this form. Our review indicates that the proper scientific name for this highly variable, wide-ranging arboreal boid is Corallus hortulanus, not Corallus enydris, as has been used so frequently in recent years.

  3. Methane emissions from floodplain trees of the Amazon basin

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    Pangala, Sunitha; Bastviken, David; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Gauci, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest source of methane to the atmosphere, but emission estimates are highly uncertain leading to large discrepancies between emission inventories and much larger estimates of the Amazon methane source derived at larger scales. We examined methane emissions from all emission pathways including aquatic surfaces, emergent soils and herbaceous vegetation and more than 2000 trees from 13 locations across the central Amazon floodplain in 2014. Our data are the first measurements of stem emission from emergent portions of inundated trees in the Amazon and they demonstrate that regionally, tree stems are the dominant means of emissions for soil produced methane to the atmosphere. Emissions via the range of egress pathways varied substantially between sample locations and water-table exerted some control over emissions from ~2m below the soil surface upto 0.5-1m of inundation. Higher water (upto ~10m of inundation) exerted no further control over emissions. Applying our measurements to models of whole tree emission and scaling to the entire Amazon lowland basin demonstrates the significant contribution of trees to regional emissions that can close the Amazon basin methane budget.

  4. Neogene origins and implied warmth tolerance of Amazon tree species.

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    Dick, Christopher W; Lewis, Simon L; Maslin, Mark; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rain forest has been a persistent feature in South America for at least 55 million years. The future of the contemporary Amazon forest is uncertain, however, as the region is entering conditions with no past analogue, combining rapidly increasing air temperatures, high atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, possible extreme droughts, and extensive removal and modification by humans. Given the long-term Cenozoic cooling trend, it is unknown whether Amazon forests can tolerate air temperature increases, with suggestions that lowland forests lack warm-adapted taxa, leading to inevitable species losses. In response to this uncertainty, we posit a simple hypothesis: the older the age of a species prior to the Pleistocene, the warmer the climate it has previously survived, with Pliocene (2.6-5 Ma) and late-Miocene (8-10 Ma) air temperature across Amazonia being similar to 2100 temperature projections under low and high carbon emission scenarios, respectively. Using comparative phylogeographic analyses, we show that 9 of 12 widespread Amazon tree species have Pliocene or earlier lineages (>2.6 Ma), with seven dating from the Miocene (>5.6 Ma) and three >8 Ma. The remarkably old age of these species suggest that Amazon forests passed through warmth similar to 2100 levels and that, in the absence of other major environmental changes, near-term high temperature-induced mass species extinction is unlikely.

  5. Evolutionary heritage influences Amazon tree ecology

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    Coelho de Souza, Fernanda; Dexter, Kyle G.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J. W.; Chave, Jerome; Galbraith, David R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Pennington, R. Toby; Poorter, Lourens; Alexiades, Miguel; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luis E. O. C.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard C, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jorcely G.; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene G. A.; Camargo, José L. C.; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; de Camargo, Plínio B.; Di Fiore, Anthony; Erwin, Terry L.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Ferreira, Leandro; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Gloor, Emanuel; Herault, Bruno; Herrera, Rafael; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Laurance, Susan; Lloyd, Jon; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben H.; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morandi, Paulo; Neill, David A.; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Oliveira, Edmar A.; Lenza, Eddie; Palacios, Walter A.; Peñuela-Mora, Maria C.; Pipoly, John J.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Salomão, Rafael P.; Silveira, Marcos; ter Steege, Hans; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; van der Hout, Peter; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; van der Meer, Peter J.; Vasquez, Rodolfo V.; Vieira, Simone A.; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Zagt, Roderick J.; Baker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation. We used trait data related to the major axes of life-history variation among tropical trees (e.g. growth and mortality rates) from 577 inventory plots in closed-canopy forest, mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis spanning more than 300 genera including all major angiosperm clades to test for evolutionary constraints on traits. We found significant phylogenetic signal (PS) for all traits, consistent with evolutionarily related genera having more similar characteristics than expected by chance. Although there is also evidence for repeated evolution of pioneer and shade tolerant life-history strategies within independent lineages, the existence of significant PS allows clearer predictions of the links between evolutionary diversity, ecosystem function and the response of tropical forests to global change. PMID:27974517

  6. PRODUCCIÓN PRIMARIA EN UN LAGO DE AGUAS CLARAS DE LA AMAZONÍA COLOMBIANA (LAGO BOA Primary Production In A Clear Water Lake Of Colombian Amazon (Lake Boa

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    GABRIEL ANTONIO PINILLA AGUDELO

    Full Text Available Dentro de los aspectos funcionales de un sistema acuático uno de los más determinantes es la producción fitoplanctónica. En este trabajo se midió la producción primaria del fitoplancton (método del 14C en un lago de aguas claras de la Amazonía colombiana, en diferentes momentos del ciclo hidrológico. La producción primaria osciló entre 0,6 y 2,3 g C m-2 d-1, valor este último medido durante la fase de aguas bajas. Estos resultados indican que la comunidad fitoplanctónica del lago Boa fluctúa desde condiciones de muy baja capacidad de asimilación de carbono inorgánico (aguas altas, hasta momentos en que este potencial se incrementa hasta cuatro veces (aguas bajas. Tales cambios drásticos obedecen a las fluctuaciones en la abundancia de microalgas, las que a su vez se presentan como respuesta a la variación trófica que tiene el lago durante el ciclo hidrológico. De esta manera, se pasa de condiciones oligotróficas en la época de inundación a un estado eutrófico cuando el sistema se desconecta del río en aguas bajas.Phytoplankton production is one of the most significant aspects in aquatic ecosystems. In this paper primary production of the phytoplankton community was measured (14C method in a clear water lake in the Colombian Amazon region in different periods of the hydrological cycle. Primary production varied between 0.6 and 2.3 g C m-2 d-1, the last recorded at low water phase. Results show that the phytoplankton community of Lake Boa fluctuates from very low capacity of carbon assimilation during high water but increased four times during low water. The strong change in productivity follows the variation in algal abundance, which in turn reflects changes in water quality conditions during the hydrologic cycle. Thus, the lake passes from oligotrophic conditions during the flooding period to eutrophic conditions when the lake is disconnected from the river at low water phase.

  7. Global Changes And Tree Growth Rate In The Amazon Forest

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    Camargo, P. B.; Vieira, S. A.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    A better understanding of the variations in the dynamics and structure of trees in tropical forests is necessary for predicting the potential for these ecosystems to lose or store carbon. In general, tropical forests have been treated as if all trees behaved similarly, and little is known about how forests vary across the large extent of the Amazon basin. Our data show large differences in forest structure, biomass, and tree growth rates among plots under study in three locations in Brazil: ZF-2 Bionte/Jacaranda plots \\(Manaus\\), Catuaba Reserve \\(Rio Branco\\), and Tapaj¢s National Forest \\(Santarém\\). These locations span an east-west transect of the Amazon basin with different dry-season lengths. The number of stems >10cm diameter and stocks of C in aboveground biomass are the highest in Manaus \\(626ha-1, 180.1Mg.C.ha-1\\), than Rio Branco \\(466ha-1, 122.1Mg.C.ha-1\\) or Santarém \\(460ha-1, 140.6Mg.C.ha-1\\). Estimates of mean annual accumulation of C ranged from 1.6 \\(Manaus\\) and 2.5 \\(Rio Branco\\) to 2.8Mg.C.ha-1.yr-1 \\(Santarém\\). Trees in the 10-30cm diameter-size showed the highest accumulation of C \\(38%, 55%, and 56% - Manaus, Rio Branco, and Santarém, respectively\\). Our results showed marked seasonal growth, with the highest growth rates in the wet-season and the lowest growth rates in the dry-season. This effect was most evident for trees with diameter >50cm. The comparison of the three areas investigated suggests that forests experiencing a longer dry-season have larger annual diameter growth increments for individual trees. Tree average age was larger in Manaus where the increment was smaller. In all the three areas it was found specimens with DBH smaller than 30cm, but with ages over 200 years. It was found a specimen of 17 cm of DBH and age of 920 years. The fact that small trees can reach old ages may alter the scope of the present forest management planning whose focus is tree species of economical interest and the time the

  8. Toward a Tree-of-Life for the boas and pythons: multilocus species-level phylogeny with unprecedented taxon sampling.

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    Graham Reynolds, R; Niemiller, Matthew L; Revell, Liam J

    2014-02-01

    Snakes in the families Boidae and Pythonidae constitute some of the most spectacular reptiles and comprise an enormous diversity of morphology, behavior, and ecology. While many species of boas and pythons are familiar, taxonomy and evolutionary relationships within these families remain contentious and fluid. A major effort in evolutionary and conservation biology is to assemble a comprehensive Tree-of-Life, or a macro-scale phylogenetic hypothesis, for all known life on Earth. No previously published study has produced a species-level molecular phylogeny for more than 61% of boa species or 65% of python species. Using both novel and previously published sequence data, we have produced a species-level phylogeny for 84.5% of boid species and 82.5% of pythonid species, contextualized within a larger phylogeny of henophidian snakes. We obtained new sequence data for three boid, one pythonid, and two tropidophiid taxa which have never previously been included in a molecular study, in addition to generating novel sequences for seven genes across an additional 12 taxa. We compiled an 11-gene dataset for 127 taxa, consisting of the mitochondrial genes CYTB, 12S, and 16S, and the nuclear genes bdnf, bmp2, c-mos, gpr35, rag1, ntf3, odc, and slc30a1, totaling up to 7561 base pairs per taxon. We analyzed this dataset using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference and recovered a well-supported phylogeny for these species. We found significant evidence of discordance between taxonomy and evolutionary relationships in the genera Tropidophis, Morelia, Liasis, and Leiopython, and we found support for elevating two previously suggested boid species. We suggest a revised taxonomy for the boas (13 genera, 58 species) and pythons (8 genera, 40 species), review relationships between our study and the many other molecular phylogenetic studies of henophidian snakes, and present a taxonomic database and alignment which may be easily used and built upon by other researchers.

  9. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees

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    Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Baker, T. R.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schwarz, M.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2012-02-01

    Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (ΦLS) obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species) located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax), seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA), foliar nutrients and δ13C, and branch xylem density (ρx). Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ΦLS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ΦLS and less negative δ13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies. Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ρx of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient concentrations and reductions in foliar [C]. Leaf and leaflet area and ΦLS were less responsive to the environment than ρx. Thus, although genetically determined foliar traits such as those associated with leaf

  10. Disturbance Level Determines the Regeneration of Commercial Tree Species in the Eastern Amazon

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    Schwartz, G.; Lopes, J.C.; Kanashiro, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Pena Claros, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reduced-impact logging (RIL) on the regeneration of commercial tree species were investigated, as long-term timber yields depend partly on the availability of seedlings in a managed forest. On four occasions during a 20-month period in the Tapajós National Forest (Eastern Amazon, Braz

  11. Árvores frutíferas nos quintais urbanos de Boa Vista, Roraima, Amazônia brasileira Fruit trees in urban home gardens of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazilian Amazonia

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    Rui Jorge da Conceição Gomes Semedo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estimar a riqueza e a diversidade das espécies de árvores frutíferas cultivadas nos quintais caseiros da cidade de Boa Vista, Roraima, bem como determinar quais são as espécies cultivadas preferencialmente pela população urbana local. Os levantamentos foram realizados em dois bairros surgidos com a expansão da cidade em 1982: (1 BEst - Bairro dos Estados (Zona Norte e (2 BAsa - Bairro Asa Branca (Zona Oeste. Foram observados 722 quintais no BEst (06 a 22.03.2004 e 339 no BAsa (07.04 a 01.07.2004. Trinta e seis espécies (19 famílias botânicas foram encontradas no BEst e 37 (20 famílias no BAsa, configurando um total de 43 espécies (20 famílias observadas. Deste total, 30 espécies (69,8% de 19 famílias (95% ocorreram em ambos os bairros, sugerindo preferências frutíferas comuns. Os três maiores índices de valor de preferência (IVP foram coincidentes e registrados para coco (Cocos nucifera L. - BEst: 19,4% e BAsa: 20,5%, manga (Mangifera indica L. - BEst: 14,9% e BAsa: 22,5% e jambo (Syzygium malaccence (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry - BEst: 10,5% e BAsa: 10,1%, todos de origem externa à Amazônia, mas que congregaram conjuntamente 44,9% (BEst e 53,0% (BAsa de IVP. Estes resultados sugerem que o cultivo de árvores frutíferas em quintais caseiros de Boa Vista segue um padrão que concentra a escolha em poucas espécies, não-originárias da Amazônia, mas tradicionalmente consagradas por seu êxito na produção de frutos.The objective of this study was to estimate the richness and the diversity of fruit tree species cultivated in Boa Vista's home gardens, as well as to determine what species the local urban population prefers. Two neighborhoods that originated during the city's expansion in 1982 were sampled: (1 BEst - Bairro dos Estados (North Zone and (2 BAsa - Bairro Asa Branca (West Zone. Seven hundred and twenty-two home gardens were surveyed in BEst (March 6 to 22, 2004, and 339 in BAsa (April 7 to

  12. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'.

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    Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Massi, Fernanda P; Fungaro, Maria Helena P; Frisvad, Jens C

    2015-01-01

    A new Penicillium species, P. excelsum, is described here using morphological characters, extrolite and partial sequence data from the ITS, β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. It was isolated repeatedly using samples of nut shells and flowers from the brazil nut tree, Bertolletia excelsa, as well as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived from the holotype.

  13. What drives interannual variation in tree ring oxygen isotopes in the Amazon?

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    Baker, J. C. A.; Gloor, M.; Spracklen, D. V.; Arnold, S. R.; Tindall, J. C.; Clerici, S. J.; Leng, M. J.; Brienen, R. J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios in tree rings (δ18OTR) from northern Bolivia record local precipitation δ18O and correlate strongly with Amazon basin-wide rainfall. While this is encouraging evidence that δ18OTR can be used for paleoclimate reconstructions, it remains unclear whether variation in δ18OTR is truly driven by within-basin processes, thus recording Amazon climate directly, or if the isotope signal may already be imprinted on incoming vapor, perhaps reflecting a pan-tropical climate signal. We use atmospheric back trajectories combined with satellite observations of precipitation, together with water vapor transport analysis to show that δ18OTR in Bolivia are indeed controlled by basin-intrinsic processes, with rainout over the basin the most important factor. Furthermore, interannual variation in basin-wide precipitation and atmospheric circulation are both shown to affect δ18OTR. These findings suggest δ18OTR can be reliably used to reconstruct Amazon precipitation and have implications for the interpretation of other paleoproxy records from the Amazon basin.

  14. Evaluación de la eficiencia fotosintética del fitoplancton en un lago amazónico (Lago Boa y en un lago andino (Lago Guatavita Evaluation of the phytoplanktonic photosynthetic efficiency in an Amazon Lake (Lake Boa and in an Andean Lake (Lake Guatavita

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    Gabriel A. Pinilla

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La relación entre la fluorescencia variable y la fluorescencia máxima (Fv/Fm de las comunidades de algas se ha utilizado comúnmente como una medida de la eficiencia fotosintética del fitoplancton. Dicha eficiencia puede estar afectada por la localización de los ambientes acuáticos en distintas provincias limnológicas. En este trabajo se quiso establecer la diferencia en la relación Fv/Fm entre el lago Boa (150 msnm, Amazonía colombiana y el lago Guatavita (3000 msnm, cordillera oriental de los Andes colombianos. Los promedios de las eficiencias medidas fueron en general bajos (0,212 a 0,367 y 0,089 a 0,32 en los lagos Boa y Guatavita, respectivamente, lo que señala estrés fisiológico para las algas. La eficiencia fue mayor en aguas intermedias y presentó cambios fuertes entre épocas de muestreo y entre ecosistemas. En aguas superficiales se presentó fotoinhibición, la cual fue más fuerte en Guatavita. La eficiencia fotosintética fue menor en el lago andino debido posiblemente a diferencias climáticas, de altura sobre el nivel del mar y de estratificación. Durante los ensayos de laboratorio se observó que la eficiencia disminuyó con el tiempo, lo cual pudo deberse a una aclimatación de las algas a la oscuridad. Los datos de laboratorio confirmaron que el fitoplancton epilimnético del lago Guatavita estuvo fotoinhibido en la época de estratificación.Commonly relation between variable fluorescence and maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm of the algae community has been utilized like a measure of the phytoplanktonic photosynthetic efficiency. Such efficiency can be affected by the water bodies' location in different limnological provinces. The goal of this work was to establish the differences in the Fv/Fm rate between Lake Boa (150 masl Colombian Amazon and Lake Guatavita (3000 masl, East Range in the Colombian Andes. In general, averages of the photosynthetic efficiencies were low (0.212 to 0.367 and 0.089 to 0.32 in lakes Boa and

  15. Widespread Amazon forest tree mortality from a single cross-basin squall line event

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    Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Guimaraes, Giuliano; Zeng, Hongcheng; Raupp, Carlos F. M.; Marra, Daniel M.; Ribeiro, Gabriel H. P. M.; Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce W.; Higuchi, Niro

    2010-08-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the intensity of extreme precipitation events in Amazonia that in turn might produce more forest blowdowns associated with convective storms. Yet quantitative tree mortality associated with convective storms has never been reported across Amazonia, representing an important additional source of carbon to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that a single squall line (aligned cluster of convective storm cells) propagating across Amazonia in January, 2005, caused widespread forest tree mortality and may have contributed to the elevated mortality observed that year. Forest plot data demonstrated that the same year represented the second highest mortality rate over a 15-year annual monitoring interval. Over the Manaus region, disturbed forest patches generated by the squall followed a power-law distribution (scaling exponent α = 1.48) and produced a mortality of 0.3-0.5 million trees, equivalent to 30% of the observed annual deforestation reported in 2005 over the same area. Basin-wide, potential tree mortality from this one event was estimated at 542 ± 121 million trees, equivalent to 23% of the mean annual biomass accumulation estimated for these forests. Our results highlight the vulnerability of Amazon trees to wind-driven mortality associated with convective storms. Storm intensity is expected to increase with a warming climate, which would result in additional tree mortality and carbon release to the atmosphere, with the potential to further warm the climate system.

  16. Functional and biological diversity of foliar spectra in tree canopies throughout the Andes to Amazon region.

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    Asner, Gregory P; Martin, Roberta E; Carranza-Jiménez, Loreli; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Martinez, Paola

    2014-10-01

    Spectral properties of foliage express fundamental chemical interactions of canopies with solar radiation. However, the degree to which leaf spectra track chemical traits across environmental gradients in tropical forests is unknown. We analyzed leaf reflectance and transmittance spectra in 2567 tropical canopy trees comprising 1449 species in 17 forests along a 3400-m elevation and soil fertility gradient from the Amazonian lowlands to the Andean treeline. We developed quantitative links between 21 leaf traits and 400-2500-nm spectra, and developed classifications of tree taxa based on spectral traits. Our results reveal enormous inter-specific variation in spectral and chemical traits among canopy trees of the western Amazon. Chemical traits mediating primary production were tightly linked to elevational changes in foliar spectral signatures. By contrast, defense compounds and rock-derived nutrients tracked foliar spectral variation with changing soil fertility in the lowlands. Despite the effects of abiotic filtering on mean foliar spectral properties of tree communities, the spectra were dominated by phylogeny within any given community, and spectroscopy accurately classified 85-93% of Amazonian tree species. Our findings quantify how tropical tree canopies interact with sunlight, and indicate how to measure the functional and biological diversity of forests with spectroscopy.

  17. Large-scale wind disturbances promote tree diversity in a Central Amazon forest.

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    Marra, Daniel Magnabosco; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Higuchi, Niro; Trumbore, Susan E; Ribeiro, Gabriel H P M; Dos Santos, Joaquim; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I; Reu, Björn; Wirth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Canopy gaps created by wind-throw events, or blowdowns, create a complex mosaic of forest patches varying in disturbance intensity and recovery in the Central Amazon. Using field and remote sensing data, we investigated the short-term (four-year) effects of large (>2000 m(2)) blowdown gaps created during a single storm event in January 2005 near Manaus, Brazil, to study (i) how forest structure and composition vary with disturbance gradients and (ii) whether tree diversity is promoted by niche differentiation related to wind-throw events at the landscape scale. In the forest area affected by the blowdown, tree mortality ranged from 0 to 70%, and was highest on plateaus and slopes. Less impacted areas in the region affected by the blowdown had overlapping characteristics with a nearby unaffected forest in tree density (583 ± 46 trees ha(-1)) (mean ± 99% Confidence Interval) and basal area (26.7 ± 2.4 m(2) ha(-1)). Highly impacted areas had tree density and basal area as low as 120 trees ha(-1) and 14.9 m(2) ha(-1), respectively. In general, these structural measures correlated negatively with an index of tree mortality intensity derived from satellite imagery. Four years after the blowdown event, differences in size-distribution, fraction of resprouters, floristic composition and species diversity still correlated with disturbance measures such as tree mortality and gap size. Our results suggest that the gradients of wind disturbance intensity encompassed in large blowdown gaps (>2000 m(2)) promote tree diversity. Specialists for particular disturbance intensities existed along the entire gradient. The existence of species or genera taking an intermediate position between undisturbed and gap specialists led to a peak of rarefied richness and diversity at intermediate disturbance levels. A diverse set of species differing widely in requirements and recruitment strategies forms the initial post-disturbance cohort, thus lending a high resilience towards wind

  18. Boa leitura!

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    Ana Lúcia Enne

    2011-01-01

    o articulista a modificá-lo e reenviá-lo para nós, caso concorde com o teor dos pareceres.
    Para nossa satisfação, tal prática tem se revelado muito positiva. Muitos dos autores nos escrevem agradecendo pelas observações e já temos recebido, também em número significativo, artigos reenviados, contendo os ajustes sugeridos, para publicação em nossas próximas edições. Tais respostas são, claramente, um indício de que nossa proposta está sendo bem compreendida e um incentivo fundamental para que continuemos com nossa política editorial. Obrigada a todos e boa leitura!
    Ana Lucia Enne - editora 

  19. Boa leitura!

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    Paula Sibilia e Maurício Bragança

    2010-12-01

    -family: ">Considerando esse instigante enfoque, a Estação Transmídia traz, mais uma vez, várias contribuições de autores convidados que apresentam suas perspectivas sobre a temática, através de uma experimentação de linguagens que dialoga de um modo mais ousado com a multiplicidade de materiais disponíveis na internet.

    Agradecemos a colaboração de todos os autores que participaram desta edição, desejamos uma boa leitura e aproveitamos, também, para agradecer o valioso trabalho da equipe editorial e dos pareceristas.

    Atenciosamente,

    Mauricio de Bragança e Paula Sibilia

  • Boa Leitura!

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    Paula Sibilia e Maurício Bragança Sibilia e Bragança

    2010-06-01

    despertando o interesse de muitos pesquisadores da área.

    Boa leitura!

    Atenciosamente,

     

    Paula Sibilia e Maurício de Bragança

    Coordenadores da Equipe Editorial

    1. A spatial model of tree α-diversity and tree density for the Amazon

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      ter Steege, H.; Pitman, N.C.A.; Sabatier, D.; Castellanos, H.; van der Hout, P.; Daly, D.C.; Silveira, M.; Phillips, O.; Vasquez, R.; van Andel, T.; Duivenvoorden, J.; de Oliveira, A.A.; Ek, R.; Lilwah, R.; Thomas, R.; van Essen, J.; Baider, C.; Maas, P.; Mori, S.; Terborgh, J.; Nuñez-Vargas, P.; Mogollón, H.; Morawetz, W.

      2003-01-01

      Large-scale patterns of Amazonian biodiversity have until now been obscured by a sparse and scattered inventory record. Here we present the first comprehensive spatial model of tree α-diversity and tree density in Amazonian rainforests, based on the largest-yet compilation of forest inventories and

    2. Penicillium excelsum sp. nov from the Brazil Nut Tree Ecosystem in the Amazon Basin'

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Taniwaki, Marta Hiromi; Pitt, John I; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

      2015-01-01

      as bees and ants from the tree ecosystem in the Amazon rainforest. The species produces andrastin A, curvulic acid, penicillic acid and xanthoepocin, and has unique partial β-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences. The holotype of P. excelsum is CCT 7772, while ITAL 7572 and IBT 31516 are cultures derived...

    3. Tree Regeneration Under Different Land-Use Mosaics in the Brazilian Amazon's "Arc of Deforestation".

      Science.gov (United States)

      Do Vale, Igor; Miranda, Izildinha Souza; Mitja, Danielle; Grimaldi, Michel; Nelson, Bruce Walker; Desjardins, Thierry; Costa, Luiz Gonzaga Silva

      2015-08-01

      We studied the tree-regeneration patterns in three distinct agricultural settlements in the Eastern Amazon to test the influence of land-use mosaics. The following questions are addressed: are the floristic structure and composition of regenerating trees affected by the various land-use types applied in the agricultural settlements? Do tree-regeneration patterns respond similarly to distinct land-use mosaics? Is there a relationship between tree regeneration and soil characteristics among the land-use types? The regeneration was inventoried at 45 sampling points in each settlement. At each sampling point, fourteen soil variables were analyzed. Nine different land-use types were considered. The floristic structure and composition of the settlements showed differences in the density of individuals and species and high species heterogeneity among the land-use types. The maximum Jaccard similarity coefficient found between land-use types was only 29%. Shade-tolerant species were the most diverse functional group in most land-use types, including pasture and annual crops, ranging from 91% of the number of species in the conserved and exploited forests of Travessão 338-S to 53% in the invaded pastures of Maçaranduba. The land-use types influenced significantly the floristic structure and composition of regenerating trees in two agricultural settlements, but not in third the settlement, which had greater forest cover. This finding demonstrates that the composition of each land-use mosaic, established by different management approaches, affects regeneration patterns. Tree regeneration was related to soil characteristics in all mosaics. Preparation of the area by burning was most likely the determining factor in the differences in soil characteristics between forests and agricultural areas.

    4. Revisiting mechanisms underlying tree mortality induced by drought in the Amazon: from observation to modeling

      Science.gov (United States)

      Joetzjer, E.; Poulter, B.; Ciais, P.; Sala, A.; Sack, L.; Bartlett, M.

      2015-12-01

      In the past decade, two extreme droughts experienced by the Amazon rainforest led to a perturbation of carbon cycle dynamics and forest structure, partly through an increase in tree mortality. While there is a relatively strong consensus in CMIP5 projections for an increase in both frequency and intensity of droughts across the Amazon, the potential for forest die-off constitutes a large uncertainty in projections of climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and carbon cycle feedbacks. Two long-term through fall exclusion experiments (TFE) provided novel observations of Amazonian ecosystem responses under drought. These experiments also provided a great opportunity to evaluate and improve models' behavior under drought by comparing simulations and observations. While current DGVM use a wide array of algorithms to represent mortality, most are associated with large uncertainty for representing drought-induced mortality, and require updating to include current information of physiological processes. During very strong droughts, the leaves desiccate and stems may undergo catastrophic embolism. However, even before that point, stomata close, to minimize excessive water loss and risk of hydraulic failure, which reduces carbon assimilation. To maintain respiration and other functions, plants may eventually deplete stored non-structural carbon compounds (NSC), which may have negative impacts on plant and eventually increase the probability of mortality.Here, we describe a new parameterization of the mortality process induced by drought using the ORCHIDEE-CAN dynamic vegetation model and test it using the two TFE results. We first updated and evaluated both the representation of hydraulic architecture and the NSC pool dynamics using in situ data. We implemented a direct climate effect on mortality through catastrophic stem embolism, based on hydraulic vulnerability curves. In addition, we explored the role of NSC on hydraulic failure and mortality by coupling in the model

    5. Palms versus trees: water use characteristics of native fruit-bearing plant species in the Central Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kunert, N.; Barros, P.; Higuchi, N.

      2012-12-01

      Native fruiting plants are widely cultivated in the Amazon but only little information on their water use characteristics can be found in the literature. Due to the growing local consumption and the increasing popularity for new "exotic" fruits all over Brazil and worldwide, additional new plantations cultivating such fruit-bearing species might be established in the Amazon in the future. These new plantations will affect the water table of the cultivated areas, however, the impact of these changes on the regional hydrology are not known. We, therefore, decided to study plant water use characteristics of two native fruit plants commonly occurring in the Amazon region, a tree species (Cupuaçu, Theobroma grandiflorum, (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum., Malvaceae) and a palm species (Açai, Euterpe oleraceae Mart., Arecaceae). This study was conducted in a fruit plantation close to the city of Manaus, in the Central Amazon, Brazil. The objectives of our study were 1) to compare variables controlling plant water use and 2) to identify differences in water use between woody monocot and dicot plant species. We chose three representative individuals with well-sun-exposed crowns for each species, which were equipped with Granier-type thermal dissipation probes to measure sap flux density continuously for six weeks from August 1st 2011 until September 6th 2011. We used a simple sap flux model with two environmental variables, photosynthetic photon flux density and vapor pressure deficit, to compare sap flux densities between species. We achieved a good model fit and modeled sap flux densities corresponded very well with the actual measured values. No significant differences among species in sap flux densities were indicated by the model. Overall, palms had a 3.5 fold higher water consumption compared to trees with similar diameter. Water use scaled independent from species with the size of the conductive xylem area (r2 = 0.85), so that the higher water use of the palms was

    6. Seeing REDD in the Amazon: a win for people, trees and climate

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Viana, Virgilio M.

      2009-03-15

      Tucked away in a tangle of Brazilian rainforest, a quiet revolution is unfolding. In Amazonas, the country's biggest state, people are using an approach called REDD to conserve their forests in return for credit. This project's success has huge implications for reducing deforestation, cutting emissions and eradicating poverty, and its time has definitely come. Between 1990 and 2005, over a million square kilometres of forest were lost in the tropics. Half that was in the Amazon. Deforestation accounts for over 17 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions, so a curb on felling is key to successfully mitigating climate change. But the Amazon is prey to unsustainable development, and the costs of inaction and laissez-faire are higher than those of stopping deforestation. REDD is the most promising solution yet for this volatile mix of issues.

    7. Using empirical measurements of tree branching architecture to scale whole-tree metabolism along a 4000 m elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bentley, L. P.; Shenkin, A.; Enquist, B.; Malhi, Y.

      2014-12-01

      Plant scaling models use measurements of architecture (i.e., length, width, and order of branch or xylem segments) to ultimately predict whole-plant metabolism via mass and water-use allometries. The application of plant scaling models is broad, and holds potential to simplify forest modelling efforts. However little is known regarding the influence of the environment (e.g., temperature, light, etc) on variation in branching architecture traits and how this variation affects scaling. Furthermore, scaling model assumptions of a self-similar and symmetric branching network have not been extensively tested, especially in tropical forests. As such, it is still unclear to what extent tree communities can be approximated by simple geometrical models, and where important functional divergences from theory exist. Here we analyse novel tree architecture data from diverse species along a 4000m elevational gradient spanning the Andes to the Amazon in Peru. Specifically, we calculate and compare inter- and intra-specific scaling exponents related to branch segment length and width within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Preliminary results indicate that branching architecture significantly varies among and within species especially with respect to light environments. As such, we explore the role of light in driving tree geometry by also analysing differences in light environment and crown shape. Then, we attempt to link branch architecture and crown shape. Using 6 branch-level and whole-tree traits (path length fraction, crown depth, crown width, crown volume, crown depth/width and crown width/depth) we are able to cluster 68 species of trees into 6 unique groups related to architecture and explain ~60% variability in these data. In the future, it will be important to relate these architectural groups to variation in leaf-level traits and physiology. Lastly, we discuss the implications of using these results to understand tropical forest responses to environmental change.

    8. Tree-fall gaps and carbon cycling in the Brazilian Amazon: results from two large forest plots

      Science.gov (United States)

      Espirito-Santo, F.; Keller, M.; Linder, E.; De Oliveira, R., Jr.; Pereira, C.; Oliveira, C. G.

      2013-12-01

      The dynamics of gaps play a role in the regimes of tree mortality and production of coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests. Few studies have attempted to map the distribution of gaps in tropical forest and the production of CWD, a large pool of ecosystem carbon. Here we linked gap formation with carbon cycling through analysis of the CWD inside of gaps. We surveyed two large forest inventory plots of 114 and 53 ha of the Tapajós National Forest (TNF) in the Brazilian Amazon during 2008 and 2009, respectively. We mapped all gaps and collected data on light availability, CWD stocks and tree mortality in the field. Gap location, canopy opening (CO) and leaf area index (LAI) estimated in the field were compared with two IKONOS-2 high-resolution satellite images acquired approximately at the time of the field measurements. We provide the first statistics of CWD production based on gap size in the tropical forest literature. In the two large plots (167 ha total area) we found 96 gaps. The gaps represented 1.42% of the total area and gaps TNF, the production of CWD in recent gaps was 0.76 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and the mean tree mortality was 2.38 stems ha-1 year 1. The area of gaps estimated by using thresholds of light intensity measured by remote sensing optical instruments was twice as large as the gap areas measured on the ground. We found no significant correlation between spectral remote sensing images and CO and LAI, likely because the high faction of shadow in high-resolution satellite images. We conclude that less than 30% of the annual tree mortality and CWD flux was associated with gaps and the detection of gaps with high resolution optical remote sensing remains a challenge because of the high proportion of shadow in the those images. These results highlight the need for permanent plots for long-term carbon studies.

    9. Mortality of large trees and lianas following experimental drought in an Amazon forest.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nepstad, Daniel C; Tohver, Ingrid Marisa; Ray, David; Moutinho, Paulo; Cardinot, Georgina

      2007-09-01

      Severe drought episodes such as those associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events influence large areas of tropical forest and may become more frequent in the future. One of the most important forest responses to severe drought is tree mortality, which alters forest structure, composition, carbon content, and flammability, and which varies widely. This study tests the hypothesis that tree mortality increases abruptly during drought episodes when plant-available soil water (PAW) declines below a critical minimum threshold. It also examines the effect of tree size, plant life form (palm, liana, tree) and potential canopy position (understory, midcanopy, overstory) on drought-induced plant mortality. A severe, four-year drought episode was simulated by excluding 60% of incoming throughfall during each wet season using plastic panels installed in the understory of a 1-ha forest treatment plot, while a 1-ha control plot received normal rainfall. After 3.2 years, the treatment resulted in a 38% increase in mortality rates across all stems >2 cm dbh. Mortality rates increased 4.5-fold among large trees (>30 cm dbh) and twofold among medium trees (10-30 cm dbh) in response to the treatment, whereas the smallest stems were less responsive. Recruitment rates did not compensate for the elevated mortality of larger-diameter stems in the treatment plot. Overall, lianas proved more susceptible to drought-induced mortality than trees or palms, and potential overstory tree species were more vulnerable than midcanopy and understory species. Large stems contributed to 90% of the pretreatment live aboveground biomass in both plots. Large-tree mortality resulting from the treatment generated 3.4 times more dead biomass than the control plot. The dramatic mortality response suggests significant, adverse impacts on the global carbon cycle if climatic changes follow current trends.

    10. Boa viagem !

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jean Marie Théodat

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Un temps maussade règne sur l’Europe du Nord tandis que le Sud frise la canicule. En ce mois de juillet, certains prendront leurs quartiers d’été au Portugal, sur les bords du Tage, ou de l’Atlantique. Boa viagem ! Vivement Lisbonne, le Chiado, Evora, etc. Il ne s’agit pas de refaire la publicité d’une destination archi connue, ni de vous allécher les papilles à l’évocation du Porto…, mais de rappeler la solennité de la tâche qui incombe, une fois de plus, à la patrie de Magellan, de Cabral e...

    11.   Bente Boa, Torm, Denmark

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Wagtmann, Maria Anne

      2009-01-01

      At the beginning of July 2009, Maria Anne Wagtmann (Associate Professor, PhD, University of Southern Denmark) had the opportunity to interview Ms Bente Boa, a senior marine HR manager in the Danish ship owning firm TORM A/S' ( http://www.torm.com/ ). Bente Boa is also chairwoman of the "The Sea...

    12. Hydrogen Isotope Biogeochemistry of Plant Biomarkers in Tropical Trees from the Andes to Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; West, A. J.; Malhi, Y.; Goldsmith, G.; Salinas, N.; Bentley, L. P.

      2014-12-01

      Plant leaf waxes are well known biomarkers for terrestrial vegetation. Generally, their hydrogen isotopic composition (D/H) records the isotopic composition of precipitation, modulated by leaf water processes and a large biosynthetic fractionation. In addition, the D/H of methoxyl groups on tree wood lignin is an emerging technique thought to record the D/H of source waters, without leaf water complications. Using each of these biomarkers as proxies requires understanding D/H fractionations in plant systems, but few studies have directly studied hydrogen isotope biogeochemistry in tropical plants. An approach that has proven helpful is the paired analysis of plant waters and plant biomarkers: in order that fractionations can be directly computed rather than assumed. This presents logistical challenges in remote tropical forest environments. We report on a unique dataset collected by tree-climbers from 6 well-studied vegetation plots across a 4km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and Amazonia. We have measured the D/H of stem water and leaf water, and we compare these to precipitation isotopes and stream waters. The goal of the plant water studies is to understand plant water uptake and stem-leaf water isotopic offsets which can vary due to both transpiration and foliar uptake of water in tropical montane forests. We are in the process of measuring the D/H of plant biomarkers (n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanes and lignin methoxyl) in order to assess how these water isotopic signals are encoded in plant biomarkers. We compare the species-specific modern plant insights to the plant leaf wax n-alkanoic acid D/H that we have recently reported from soils and river sediments from the same region, in order to understand how signals of plant biogeochemistry are integrated into geological sedimentary archives. Progress and open questions in tropical isotope biogeochemistry will be discussed at the meeting.

    13. Wettability and morphology of the leaf surface in cashew tree from the Amazon, Northern Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Glenda Quaresma Ramos

      2016-10-01

      Full Text Available Leaves surfaces, which represent an interface with plants and the environment, have several structures with specific functions. Some foliar properties, including wettability and mechanical containment, are inferred in terms of cellular adaptation and the presence or absence of cuticular wax. Various morphological parameters, ranging from macro- to nano scales, are analyzed and contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, and ecology of plants. The aim of this paper was to analyze the effect and influence of epicuticular wax granules on the hydrophobicity of Anacardium occidentale L. leaf surfaces. Leaf specimens were directly examined with an environmental scanning electron microscope without metal coating. Images revealed epidermis ornament, stomata type, was, and trichomes. Static contact angle between water and the surface was also measured on both sides. On the adaxial side, an angle of 104.09° ± 0.95° was found, suggesting that adaxial surface is hydrophobic. On the abaxial side, the angle was 62.20° ± 1.60°, which indicates a hydrophilic nature, probably because of the greater amount of epicuticular wax on the adaxial leaf surface. The present investigation provided an important contribution to morphological and ultrastructural characterization of leaves of cashew tree, which is a plant of great medicinal and economic importance.

    14. Correlation between populations of Rhodnius and presence of palm trees as risk factors for the emergence of Chagas disease in Amazon region, Brazil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ricardo-Silva, Alice Helena; Lopes, Catarina M; Ramos, Leandro B; Marques, William A; Mello, Cícero B; Duarte, Rosemere; de la Fuente, Ana Laura Carbajal; Toma, Helena K; Reboredo-Oliveira, Luciana; Kikuchi, Simone A; Baptista, Thaiana F; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Junqueira, Angela Cristina V; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina M

      2012-09-01

      Among the states that comprise the legally defined Amazon region of Brazil, Pará has presented the highest occurrences of acute cases of Chagas disease over the last two decades. These cases have been attributed to consumption of fruits from native palm trees. In surveys in rural and wild areas of the municipality of Oriximiná, Pará, triatomine fauna, their main ecotopes and the infection rate due to Trypanosoma cruzi were identified using active and passive search methods: manual capture and Noireau traps, respectively. A total of 582 ecotopes were surveyed using 1496 Noireau traps. Out of 442 specimens collected, 289 were identified as Rhodnius robustus and 153 as Rhodnius pictipes. The infection rate caused by T. cruzi was 17.4%. The food sources of the triatomines were found to be birds, hemolymph, horses, and rodents. The association between R. robustus and inajá palm trees (Attalea marita), which are abundant in rural areas, was confirmed. On the other hand, R. pictipes is found in several palm tree species, such as inajá (A. marita), mucajá (Acrocomia aculeata), murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru) and patauá (Oenocarpus bataua), and in bromeliads in wild areas. These occurrences of triatomine species in regions with or without T. cruzi infection, in the vicinity of the main settlement of the municipality, suggest that there is a need for entomological and epidemiological surveillance in this region.

    15. Seasonal variations in the stable oxygen isotope ratio of wood cellulose reveal annual rings of trees in a Central Amazon terra firme forest.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ohashi, Shinta; Durgante, Flávia M; Kagawa, Akira; Kajimoto, Takuya; Trumbore, Susan E; Xu, Xiaomei; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi; Higuchi, Niro

      2016-03-01

      In Amazonian non-flooded forests with a moderate dry season, many trees do not form anatomically definite annual rings. Alternative indicators of annual rings, such as the oxygen (δ(18)Owc) and carbon stable isotope ratios of wood cellulose (δ(13)Cwc), have been proposed; however, their applicability in Amazonian forests remains unclear. We examined seasonal variations in the δ(18)Owc and δ(13)Cwc of three common species (Eschweilera coriacea, Iryanthera coriacea, and Protium hebetatum) in Manaus, Brazil (Central Amazon). E. coriacea was also sampled in two other regions to determine the synchronicity of the isotopic signals among different regions. The annual cyclicity of δ(18)Owc variation was cross-checked by (14)C dating. The δ(18)Owc showed distinct seasonal variations that matched the amplitude observed in the δ(18)O of precipitation, whereas seasonal δ(13)Cwc variations were less distinct in most cases. The δ(18)Owc variation patterns were similar within and between some individual trees in Manaus. However, the δ(18)Owc patterns of E. coriacea differed by region. The ages of some samples estimated from the δ(18)Owc cycles were offset from the ages estimated by (14)C dating. In the case of E. coriacea, this phenomenon suggested that missing or wedging rings may occur frequently even in well-grown individuals. Successful cross-dating may be facilitated by establishing δ(18)Owc master chronologies at both seasonal and inter-annual scales for tree species with distinct annual rings in each region.

    16. Impact of Site Conditions Changes on the Tree Ring Records Suitability as Climate Proxies in the Brazilian Amazon

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Oliver Dünisch

      Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increment zones width in the xylem of Swietenia macrophylla King was investigated by dendrochronological methods in an undisturbed and a strongly disturbed tropical site near Aripuanã, Mato Grosso, Brazil (10°09’ S, 59°26’W. The study aimed to assess the impact of forest disturbance on the relationship between precipitation and the cambial growth of this species. Tree-ring width chronologies were developed for both sites from cross-dated increment curves. Simple correlations were computed between monthly precipitation records and the annual increment of Swietenia for the period between 1870 and 2000. Logging activities and altered land use caused a significant decrease of the water supply of the Swietenia trees grown in the disturbed area compared to trees grown in the undisturbed area. Consequently, the precipitation of almost the total growing season had a significant influence on the tree ring width of Swietenia grown in the disturbed area, while in the undisturbed forest area the significant correlation between monthly precipitation and the tree ring width of Swietenia was restricted to the beginning of the growing season (November to January. However, the reconstruction of monthly precipitation data from the tree ring width records was more precise using the chronology developed from tree ring width records of undisturbed trees compared to the chronology developed from tree ring widths from the disturbed area. It was concluded that the use of the tree ring widths of Swietenia as climate proxies is restricted to certain months of the year and requires tree ring width chronologies developed from trees grown in undisturbed or only slightly disturbed forest areas without severe anthropogenic changes in microclimate.

    17. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane’, Bolivian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J.; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

      2015-01-01

      Understanding how indigenous peoples’ management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples’ way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane’, and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane’ values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher’s Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane’ communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way. PMID:26097240

    18. Shifts in indigenous culture relate to forest tree diversity: a case study from the Tsimane', Bolivian Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana Catarina; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Macía, Manuel J; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Pino, Joan; Reyes-García, Victoria

      2015-06-01

      Understanding how indigenous peoples' management practices relate to biological diversity requires addressing contemporary changes in indigenous peoples' way of life. This study explores the association between cultural change among a Bolivian Amazonian indigenous group, the Tsimane', and tree diversity in forests surrounding their villages. We interviewed 86 informants in six villages about their level of attachment to traditional Tsimane' values, our proxy for cultural change. We estimated tree diversity (Fisher's Alpha index) by inventorying trees in 48 0.1-ha plots in old-growth forests distributed in the territory of the same villages. We used multivariate models to assess the relation between cultural change and alpha tree diversity. Cultural change was associated with alpha tree diversity and the relation showed an inverted U-shape, thus suggesting that tree alpha diversity peaked in villages undergoing intermediate cultural change. Although the results do not allow for testing the direction of the relation, we propose that cultural change relates to tree diversity through the changes in practices and behaviors that affect the traditional ecological knowledge of Tsimane' communities; further research is needed to determine the causality. Our results also find support in the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, and suggest that indigenous management can be seen as an intermediate form of anthropogenic disturbance affecting forest communities in a subtle, non-destructive way.

    19. Phenology of the multi-use tree species Carapa guianensis in a floodplain forest of the Amazon Estuary

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Adelson R. Dantas

      Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carapa guianensis is a multi-use tree species that is used for the production of timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs that are used and sold by rural Amazonian populations. Here we aimed to evaluate the phenophases of C. guianensis in várzea forest and relate them to climatic seasonality. Phenophases of flowering (flower buds and open flowers, fruiting (unripe and ripe fruits, and leaf flush and leaf fall were recorded for 30 individual trees during a 25 month period. Relationships between rainfall and the proportion of trees in each phenophase were tested using Generalised Linear Models with quasi-binomial errors. Flowering was found to peak in the driest months of the year (September to December, while fruiting peaked during the wettest months of the year when river levels are at their highest (January to May. Leaf flush and leaf fall occurred simultaneously throughout the year, regardless of seasonality. Strong seasonality in flowering and fruiting of C. guianensis likely represents a reproductive strategy that maximizes pollination and hydrochorous seed dispersal. This study has the potential to aid in planning the timing of seed collection and oil extraction activities, thus contributing to the sustainable exploitation of this tree.

    20. Seed size influence on germination responses to light and temperature of seven pioneer tree species from the Central Amazon

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      Fabiana F. Aud

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available In Amazon secondary forests are dominated by pioneer species that typically produce large amounts of small and dormant seeds that are able to form a persistent soil seed bank. Seed dormancy in this group of species is overcome by environmental conditions found in open areas, such as high irradiation or alternating temperatures. Nevertheless, a variety of germination responses to environmental factors is known among pioneers; some of them may germinate in diffuse light or in darkness condition at constant temperature. Seed mass can be considered as one of the factors that promotes this variety. Regarding species with very small seeds, it seems that the trigger for germination is light and for larger seeds temperature alternation may be a more important stimulus. In this study we established a relationship between seed mass and germination response to light and alternating temperature for a group of seven woody pioneer species from the Amazon forest. We found that an increase in seed mass was followed by a decrease in the need for light and an increase in the tolerance to alternating temperatures. Understanding germination strategies may contribute with the knowledge of species coexistence in high diverse environments and also may assist those involved in forest management and restoration.Na Amazônia as florestas secundárias são dominadas por espécies pioneiras que, normalmente, produzem grandes quantidades de sementes pequenas, dormentes e capazes de formar bancos de sementes no solo. A dormência neste grupo de espécies é superada pelas condições ambientais de áreas abertas, como alta irradiação ou alternância de temperaturas. No entanto, uma variedade de respostas de germinação aos fatores ambientais é conhecida entre as pioneiras; algumas germinam em luz difusa ou no escuro sob temperatura constante. Um dos fatores promotores desta variedade é a massa das sementes. Parece que para as espécies com sementes muito pequenas, o est

    1. New estimates of temperature response of leaf photosynthesis in Amazon forest trees, its acclimation to mean temperature change and consequences for modelling climate response to rain forests.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kruijt, B.; Jans, W.; Vasconcelos, S.; Tribuzy, E. S.; Felsemburgh, C.; Eliane, M.; Rowland, L.; da Costa, A. C. L.; Meir, P.

      2014-12-01

      In many dynamic vegetation models, degradation of the tropical forests is induced because they assume that productivity falls rapidly when temperatures rise in the region of 30-40°C. Apart plant respiration, this is due to the assumptions on the temperature optima of photosynthetic capacity, which are low and can differ widely between models, where in fact hardly any empirical information is available for tropical forests. Even less is known about the possibility that photosynthesis will acclimate to changing temperatures. The objective of this study to is to provide better estimates for optima, as well as to determine whether any acclimation to temperature change is to be expected. We present both new and hitherto unpublished data on the temperature response of photosynthesis of Amazon rainforest trees, encompassing three sites, several species and five field campaigns. Leaf photosynthesis and its parameters were determined at a range of temperatures. To study the long-term (seasonal) acclimation of this response, this was combined with an artificial, in situ, multi-season leaf heating experiment. The data show that, on average for all non-heated cases, the photosynthetic parameter Vcmax weakly peaks between 35 and 40 ˚C, while heating does not have a clearly significant effect. Results for Jmax are slightly different, with sharper peaks. Scatter was relatively high, which could indicate weak overall temperature dependence. The combined results were used to fit new parameters to the various temperature response curve functions in a range of DGVMs. The figure shows a typical example: while the default Jules model assumes a temperature optimum for Vcmax at around 33 ˚C, the data suggest that Vcmax keeps rising up to at least 40 ˚C. Of course, calculated photosynthesis, obtained by applying this Vcmax in the Farquhar model, peaks at lower temperature. Finally, the implication of these new model parameters for modelled climate change impact on modelled Amazon

    2. Trees

      Science.gov (United States)

      Al-Khaja, Nawal

      2007-01-01

      This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

    3. Seasonal variation of serum biochemical values of Amazonian snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor kept in captivity

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dennis José da Silva Lima

      2012-11-01

      Full Text Available In northern Brazil, the seasons are not well defined compared to the South and Southeast regions, due to a hot and humid equatorial climate with a rainy season, known as the Amazonian winter, and a period with less rain, known as the Amazonian summer. The goal of this study was to evaluate the biochemical variation of serum from the Amazon Boa constrictor by correlating the values with the seasons of the region. A biochemical analysis of the serum was performed (AST, ALT, LDH, ALP, calcium, uric acid, phosphorus, total protein, albumin and globulin using 31 individuals of Boa constrictor constrictor, which were kept in captivity. It was observed that eight of the ten parameters were higher in the winter compared to the summer (total protein, albumin, globulin, ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and calcium. The ALT, AST and calcium values had statistically significant differences for the summer and winter, while the other parameters appear to be influenced by seasonality. This was the first study of snakes kept in captivity that analyzed the serum chemistry profile of Boa constrictor constrictor from the state of Pará, Brazil.

    4. The changing Amazon forest.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Phillips, Oliver L; Lewis, Simon L; Baker, Timothy R; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Higuchi, Niro

      2008-05-27

      Long-term monitoring of distributed, multiple plots is the key to quantify macroecological patterns and changes. Here we examine the evidence for concerted changes in the structure, dynamics and composition of old-growth Amazonian forests in the late twentieth century. In the 1980s and 1990s, mature forests gained biomass and underwent accelerated growth and dynamics, all consistent with a widespread, long-acting stimulation of growth. Because growth on average exceeded mortality, intact Amazonian forests have been a carbon sink. In the late twentieth century, biomass of trees of more than 10cm diameter increased by 0.62+/-0.23tCha-1yr-1 averaged across the basin. This implies a carbon sink in Neotropical old-growth forest of at least 0.49+/-0.18PgCyr-1. If other biomass and necromass components are also increased proportionally, then the old-growth forest sink here has been 0.79+/-0.29PgCyr-1, even before allowing for any gains in soil carbon stocks. This is approximately equal to the carbon emissions to the atmosphere by Amazon deforestation. There is also evidence for recent changes in Amazon biodiversity. In the future, the growth response of remaining old-growth mature Amazon forests will saturate, and these ecosystems may switch from sink to source driven by higher respiration (temperature), higher mortality (as outputs equilibrate to the growth inputs and periodic drought) or compositional change (disturbances). Any switch from carbon sink to source would have profound implications for global climate, biodiversity and human welfare, while the documented acceleration of tree growth and mortality may already be affecting the interactions among millions of species.

    5. Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae) and Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Triatominae) infection focus by Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 (Trypanosomatidae) in Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng (Arecaceae) palm tree in the Brazilian Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Quartier, Marion; Romaña, Christine A; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Harry, Myriam

      2010-12-01

      A sylvatic infection focus of Trypanosoma rangeli, whose cycle involves the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine insect Rhodnius robustus was observed in a pasture-dominated landscape of the rural riparian community of São Tomé located along the Tapajós river in the municipal district of Aveiro (State of Pará, Brazil), the Brazilian Amazon region. During a field work campaign with the objective of Chagas disease diagnosis in the Tapajós region, an anteater and 31 triatomines were found inhabiting in the same Attalea phalerata palm tree crown. Collected triatomines were identified as R. robustus with morphological and molecular procedures. The analysis of infection by T. rangeli using the repetitive ARN nucleolar Cl1 (sno-RNA-Cl1) gene showed that 25 triatomines of all stages were infected by T. rangeli (total infection rate of 80.6%). Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi using mini-exon markers was not identified. Examination of the digestive content of the triatomines demonstrated that the only feeding source found was the anteater. These results demonstrate that T. tetradactyla can be an important reservoir for T. rangeli and a good vehicle of the parasite within the Brazilian Amazon region.

    6. Trees

      OpenAIRE

      Henri Epstein

      2016-01-01

      An algebraic formalism, developed with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large cate...

    7. Trees

      OpenAIRE

      Epstein, Henri

      2016-01-01

      An algebraic formalism, developped with V. Glaser and R. Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large cat...

    8. Trees

      CERN Document Server

      Epstein, Henri

      2016-01-01

      An algebraic formalism, developped with V.~Glaser and R.~Stora for the study of the generalized retarded functions of quantum field theory, is used to prove a factorization theorem which provides a complete description of the generalized retarded functions associated with any tree graph. Integrating over the variables associated to internal vertices to obtain the perturbative generalized retarded functions for interacting fields arising from such graphs is shown to be possible for a large category of space-times.

    9. Environmental inferences by stable isotopes ({sup 13} C and {sup 18} O) and ages of amazon forest natural trees; Inferencias ambientais a partir dos isotopos estaveis ({sup 13} C e {sup 18} O) e idades de arvores naturais da floresta amazonica

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Moreira, Marcelo Z.

      1988-09-01

      Qualitative interpretations of recent past climate ({+-} 500 years) in the Amazon basin - a region were no instrumental records for the main climate parameters exits over the last 70 years - were surveyed based on the isotopic variation of the C-13 and O-18 contents in cellulose isolated from natural trees. Trees from terra firme and low and flat land alongside water course environments had their ages estimated using radiocarbon method extrapolated from growth rates obtained from atmospheric CO{sub 2} activities. Tree ages from 60 to 600 years were found. Analysis of the cellulose material {sup 18} O content was performed by mass spectrometry. (author). 96 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

    10. Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Steege, ter H.; Pitman, C.A.; Sabatier, D.; Baraloto, C.; Salomão, R.P.; Guevara, J.E.; Phillips, O.L.; Castilho, C.V.; Magnusson, W.E.; Mollino, J.-F.; Stevenson Diaz, P.R.; Costa, F.; Emilio, T.; Levis, C.; Schietti, J.; Souza, P.; Alonso, A.; Dallmeier, F.; Duque Montoya, A.J.; Fernandez Piedade, M.T.; Maas, P.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; Arroyo, L.; Gribel, R.; Fine, P.V.A.; Peres, C.A.; Toledo, M.; Aymard, G.A.; Baker, T.R.; Cerón, C.; Engel, J.; Petronelli, P.; Henkel, T.W.; Stropp, J.; Zartman, C.E.; Daly, D.; Neill, D.; Silveira, M.; Ríos Paredes, M.; Chave, J.; de Andrade Lima Filho, D.; Hoffman, B.; Møller Jørgensen, P.; Fuentes, A.; Schöngart, J.; Cornejo Valverde, F.; Di Fiore, A.; Jimenez, E.M.; Peñuela Mora, M.C.; Phillips, J.F.; Rivas, G.; Andel, van T.R.; Zent, E.L.; Hildebrand, von P.; Malhi, Y.; Prieto, A.; Rudas, A.; Ruschell, A.; Silva, N.; Vos, V.; Zent, S.; Oliveira, A.A.; Wang, O.; Cano Schutz, A.; Gonzales, T.; Trindade Nascimento, M.; Ramirez-Angulo, H.; Sierra, R.; Tirado, M.; Umaña Medina, M.N.; Heijden, van der G.; Vela, C.I.A.; Vilanova Torre, E.; Young, K.R.; Vriesendorp, C.; Baider, C.; Balslev, H.; Ferreira, C.; Mesones, I.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Urrego Giraldo, L.E.; Zagt, R.; Alexiades, M.N.; Monteagudo, A.; Hernandez, L.; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, I.; Millikes, W.; Palacios Cuenca, W.; Pauletto, D.; Valderrama Sandoval, E.; Valenzuela Gamarra, L.; Dexter, K.G.; Feeley, K.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Núñez Vargas, P.; Silman, M.R.; Montero, J.C.; Feldpausch, T.R.; Honorio Coronado, E.N.; Killeen, T.J.; Mostacedo, B.; Vasquez, R.; Assis, R.L.; Terborgh, J.; Wittmann, F.; Andrade, A.; Laurance, W.F.; Laurance, S.G.W.; Marimon, B.S.; Marimon, B.-H. Jr.; Célia Guimarães Vieira, I.; Leão Amaral, I.; Brienen, R.; Castellanos, H.; Cárdenas López, D.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Mogollón, H.F.; Dionízia de Almeida Matos, F.; Dávila, N.; García-Villacorta, R.

      2013-01-01

      The vast extent of the Amazon Basin has historically restricted the study of its tree communities to the local and regional scales. Here, we provide empirical data on the commonness, rarity, and richness of lowland tree species across the entire Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield (Amazonia), collected i

    11. Demography of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Bolivian Amazon : impact of seed extraction on recruitment and population dynamics

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Zuidema, P.A.; Boot, R.G.A.

      2002-01-01

      A demographic study was carried out on Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazil nut tree, in two primary forest sites in Northern Bolivia where Brazil nuts have been harvested for several decades. In spite of the large proportion (93€of seeds that are harvested, reasonable densities of recently emerged seed

    12. iBOA: The Incremental Bayesian Optimization Algorithm

      CERN Document Server

      Pelikan, Martin; Goldberg, David E

      2008-01-01

      This paper proposes the incremental Bayesian optimization algorithm (iBOA), which modifies standard BOA by removing the population of solutions and using incremental updates of the Bayesian network. iBOA is shown to be able to learn and exploit unrestricted Bayesian networks using incremental techniques for updating both the structure as well as the parameters of the probabilistic model. This represents an important step toward the design of competent incremental estimation of distribution algorithms that can solve difficult nearly decomposable problems scalably and reliably.

    13. Leaf traits and gas exchange in saplings of native tree species in the Central Amazon Características foliares e trocas gasosas em arvoretas de espécies nativas da Amazônia Central

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Keila Rego Mendes

      2010-12-01

      Full Text Available Global climate models predict changes on the length of the dry season in the Amazon which may affect tree physiology. The aims of this work were to determine the effect of the rainfall regime and fraction of sky visible (FSV at the forest understory on leaf traits and gas exchange of ten rainforest tree species in the Central Amazon, Brazil. We also examined the relationship between specific leaf area (SLA, leaf thickness (LT, and leaf nitrogen content on photosynthetic parameters. Data were collected in January (rainy season and August (dry season of 2008. A diurnal pattern was observed for light saturated photosynthesis (Amax and stomatal conductance (g s, and irrespective of species, Amax was lower in the dry season. However, no effect of the rainfall regime was observed on g s nor on the photosynthetic capacity (Apot, measured at saturating [CO2]. Apot and leaf thickness increased with FSV, the converse was true for the FSV-SLA relationship. Also, a positive relationship was observed between Apot per unit leaf area and leaf nitrogen content, and between Apot per unit mass and SLA. Although the rainfall regime only slightly affects soil moisture, photosynthetic traits seem to be responsive to rainfall-related environmental factors, which eventually lead to an effect on Amax. Finally, we report that little variation in FSV seems to affect leaf physiology (Apot and leaf anatomy (leaf thickness.Os modelos climáticos globais prevêem mudanças na extensão da época seca na Amazônia, o que pode afetar a fisiologia das árvores. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar o efeito da sazonalidade da precipitação e fração de céu visível (FSV no sub-bosque da floresta nas características foliares e trocas gasosas de 10 espécies florestais da Amazônia Central. Também examinou-se a relação entre área foliar específica (SLA, espessura da folha (LT e nitrogênio foliar em parâmetros fotossintéticos. Os resultados foram coletados nos

    14. Osteopetrosis and osteonecrosis in snake Boa constrictor Osteopetrose e osteocondrose em serpente Boa constrictor

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      N.M. Ocarino

      2008-10-01

      Full Text Available Uma jibóia (Boa constrictor, de onze anos de cativeiro, apresentou à seis meses um histórico de aumento de volume ao longo da coluna vertebral e perda progressiva dos movimentos e de apetite. Exames radiológicos revelaram aumento da opacidade, áreas de excrescências ósseas e inúmeras fraturas ao longo da coluna. Devido o prognóstico desfavorável, a serpente foi eutanasiada. À necropsia, aumento de volume com estenose do canal vertebral e compressão da medula espinhal foram observados, juntamente com fraturas completas de corpos vertebrais. O diagnóstico de osteopetrose e osteonecrose foi firmado à histologia.

    15. Padrões de floração e frutificação de árvores da Amazônia Maranhense Flowering and Fruiting Patterns of the Maranhense Amazon Rainforest Trees

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Francisca Helena Muniz

      2008-12-01

      facilitate the understanding of species behavior as a result of ecosystem changes, further reflecting on the annual allotment of specific resources. The aim of the present study was to define the general patterns, flowering and fruiting seasonality from a community in two forest areas of the Maranhense Amazon Rainforest: a non-disturbed area and another submitted to selective logging. The vegetation is composed of Amazon forest lianas alternating between dense and open high biomass forest. Average annual temperature varies between 24.5O C and 26.0O C, with precipitation ranging from 1400 mm to 1800 mm, and a dry season between June and November. Flowering and fruiting of 89 species were analyzed from August 1994 to June 1996. The species were grouped as follows: sub-dossal, upper strata, and trees occurring in both strata. Comparison was made between groups (strata, types of forest and mechanisms for dispersal and possible correlations with rainfall were investigated. Fifteen studied species were solely from the lower strata, and 63 from the upper forest strata; 17 species were recorded only in native forest and 37 in managed forest. Most species (62.9 % is zoochorous. Flowering and fruiting take place throughout the year with flowering peak from October to December and fruiting peaks from March to July and from October to December. The results showed a great synchrony in flowering and fruiting of individuals, and confirm the relationship between these cases and the variation in rainfall throughout the year, and that plants of different environments exhibit phonological behavior different. The observed flowering and fruiting patterns were similar between the areas and comparable to other studies in the Amazon Rainforest.

    16. Programming Amazon EC2

      CERN Document Server

      Vliet, Jurg

      2011-01-01

      If you plan to use Amazon Web Services to run applications in the cloud, the end-to-end approach in this book will save you needless trial and error. You'll find practical guidelines for designing and building applications with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and a host of supporting AWS tools, with a focus on critical issues such as load balancing, monitoring, and automation. How do you move an existing application to AWS, or design your application so that it scales effectively? How much storage will you require? Programming Amazon EC2 not only helps you get started, it will also keep y

    17. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

    18. FREUD, JUNG AND BOAS: THE PSYCHOANALYTIC ENGAGEMENT WITH ANTHROPOLOGY REVISITED.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kenny, Robert

      2015-06-20

      Sigmund Freud's and C. G. Jung's turn to evolutionist anthropological material after 1909 is usually seen as a logical progression of their long-term interest in such material. It is also seen that they used this material ignorant of the significant challenges to the evolutionist paradigm underpinning such material, in particular the challenges led by Franz Boas. This paper argues otherwise: that both psychologists' turnings to such material was a new development, that neither had shown great interest in such material before 1909, and that their turnings to such material, far from being taken in ignorance of the challenges to evolutionist anthropology, were engagements with those challenges, because the evolutionist paradigm lay at the base of psychoanalysis. It argues that it is no coincidence that this engagement occurred after their return from America in 1909, where they had come into first-hand contact with the challenges of Franz Boas.

    19. BOA: Asbestos pipe insulation removal robot system. Phase 1

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

      1995-02-01

      The project described in this report targets the development of a mechanized system for safe, cost-efficient and automated abatement of asbestos containing materials used as pipe insulation. Based on several key design criteria and site visits, a proof-of-concept prototype robot system, dubbed BOA, was designed and built, which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure -- restrictions to be alleviated through continued development. BOA removed asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. The containment and vacuum system on BOA was able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/ 8-hr. shift. This program consists of two phases. The first phase was completed and a demonstration was given to a review panel, consisting of DOE headquarters and site representatives as well as commercial abatement industry representatives. Based on the technical and programmatic recommendations drafted, presented and discussed during the review meeting, a new plan for the Phase II effort of this project was developed. Phase 11 will consist of a 26-month effort, with an up-front 4-month site-, market-, cost/benefit and regulatory study before the next BOA robot (14 months) is built, and then deployed and demonstrated (3 months) at a DOE site (such as Fernald or Oak Ridge) by the beginning of FY`97.

    20. BOA, Beam Optics Analyzer A Particle-In-Cell Code

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Thuc Bui

      2007-12-06

      The program was tasked with implementing time dependent analysis of charges particles into an existing finite element code with adaptive meshing, called Beam Optics Analyzer (BOA). BOA was initially funded by a DOE Phase II program to use the finite element method with adaptive meshing to track particles in unstructured meshes. It uses modern programming techniques, state-of-the-art data structures, so that new methods, features and capabilities are easily added and maintained. This Phase II program was funded to implement plasma simulations in BOA and extend its capabilities to model thermal electrons, secondary emissions, self magnetic field and implement a more comprehensive post-processing and feature-rich GUI. The program was successful in implementing thermal electrons, secondary emissions, and self magnetic field calculations. The BOA GUI was also upgraded significantly, and CCR is receiving interest from the microwave tube and semiconductor equipment industry for the code. Implementation of PIC analysis was partially successful. Computational resource requirements for modeling more than 2000 particles begin to exceed the capability of most readily available computers. Modern plasma analysis typically requires modeling of approximately 2 million particles or more. The problem is that tracking many particles in an unstructured mesh that is adapting becomes inefficient. In particular memory requirements become excessive. This probably makes particle tracking in unstructured meshes currently unfeasible with commonly available computer resources. Consequently, Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. is exploring hybrid codes where the electromagnetic fields are solved on the unstructured, adaptive mesh while particles are tracked on a fixed mesh. Efficient interpolation routines should be able to transfer information between nodes of the two meshes. If successfully developed, this could provide high accuracy and reasonable computational efficiency.

    1. Detection of arenavirus in a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) with inclusion body disease.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hellebuyck, Tom; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Saey, Veronique; Martel, An

      2015-03-01

      A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), arenavirus was detected in the neoplastic tissue. Two years after surgical removal of the mass, recurrence of the neoplastic lesion was observed. Numerous large inclusion body disease inclusions were abundantly present in the neoplastic cells of the recurrent fibromyxoma. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few intracytoplasmic inclusions. The RT-PCR revealed the presence of arenavirus in blood, a liver biopsy, and neoplastic tissue. The present case describes the co-occurrence of an arenavirus infection and an odontogenic fibromyxoma in a red tail boa.

    2. Uptake and translocation of phytochemical 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) in radish seeds and seedlings.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chiapusio, Geneviève; Pellissier, François; Gallet, Christiane

      2004-07-01

      The molecular aspects of phytochemical interactions between plants, especially the process of phytochemical translocation by the target plant, remain challenging for those studying allelopathy. 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA) is a natural chemical produced by rye (Secale cereale) and is known to have phytotoxic effects on weed seeds and seedlings. The translocation of BOA into target plants has been poorly investigated. Therefore, the total absorption of [ring U 14C] BOA was estimated by oxidizing whole seedlings of Raphanus sativus cv. for 8 days and quantifying the radioactivity. Non-radiolabelled BOA in seedlings was also estimated by HPLC. BOA applied at 10(-3) M was readily taken up by germinated radish at a rate of 1556 nmol g(-1) FW. At these same concentrations, BOA reduced radish germination by 50% and caused a delay in radicle elongation. Exogenous BOA was responsible for the observed germination inhibition. At a concentration of 10(-5) M, BOA was taken up by germinated seeds (31 nmol g(-1) FW), but this quantity did not affect radish germination. Labelled BOA was not mineralized in the culture medium during seedling growth as no 14CO2 was recovered. Both 10(-3) and 10(-5) M BOA were translocated into radish organs, mainly into roots and cotyledons. These organs were then identified as potential physiological target sites. Cotyledons remained the target sink (44% of the total radioactivity). The kinetics of BOA uptake at 10(-3) and 10(-5) M in radish seedlings was identical: BOA accumulation was proportional to its initial concentration. A comparison between radioactivity and HPLC quantification for 10(-3) M BOA indicated that BOA (along with some metabolites) could effectively be recovered in radish organs using chromatography.

    3. Triatoma maculata colonises urban domicilies in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ricardo-Silva, Alice; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Luitgards-Moura, José Francisco; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; da Silva, Silvano Pedrosa; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Vargas, Nathalia Coelho; Freitas, Maria-Rosa Goreti

      2016-01-01

      During a medical entomology course in Boa Vista, Roraima, colonies of Triatoma maculata closely associated with pigeon nests were observed in concrete air-conditioner box located on the external plastered and cemented walls of a modern brick-built apartment block. In only one eight-hole ceramic brick, located inside one air-conditioner box, 127 specimens of T. maculata were collected. T. maculata is a recognised vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the surrounding area and its domiciliation increases the risk of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:27759767

    4. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

      1995-10-01

      The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.

    5. Resilience of Amazon forests emerges from plant trait diversity

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sakschewski, Boris; von Bloh, Werner; Boit, Alice; Poorter, Lourens; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Heinke, Jens; Joshi, Jasmin; Thonicke, Kirsten

      2016-11-01

      Climate change threatens ecosystems worldwide, yet their potential future resilience remains largely unquantified. In recent years many studies have shown that biodiversity, and in particular functional diversity, can enhance ecosystem resilience by providing a higher response diversity. So far these insights have been mostly neglected in large-scale projections of ecosystem responses to climate change. Here we show that plant trait diversity, as a key component of functional diversity, can have a strikingly positive effect on the Amazon forests' biomass under future climate change. Using a terrestrial biogeochemical model that simulates diverse forest communities on the basis of individual tree growth, we show that plant trait diversity may enable the Amazon forests to adjust to new climate conditions via a process of ecological sorting, protecting the Amazon's carbon sink function. Therefore, plant trait diversity, and biodiversity in general, should be considered in large-scale ecosystem projections and be included as an integral part of climate change research and policy.

    6. Ultrasound and computed tomography description of the liver the Boa constrictor; Descricao ultrassonografica e tomografica do figado de Boa constrictor

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Zulim, Rosalia Marina Infiesta; Geller, Felipe Foletto; Souza, Priscila Macedo de; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline, E-mail: rosaliamarina@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia . Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Cardoso, Guilherme Schiess; Teixeira, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia . Dept. de Cirurgia e Anestesiologia Veterinaria; Andrade, Rafael Souza [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia (UFRA), Belem, PA (Brazil); Rossetti, Diogo Pascoal; Comerlato, Alexandra Tiso [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (CEMPAS/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Centro de Medicina e Pesquisa de Animais Silvestres

      2012-07-01

      Ultrasound is a method for noninvasive diagnosis, their effectiveness in the diagnosis of liver disease has been described in snakes. The liver is the largest organ of the coelomic cavity of reptiles. Elongated and flattened. The caudal vena cava and portal vein divides the body into two lobes. The hepatic parenchyma is homogeneous hypoechoic echogenicity. The objective is to describe and to obtain reference images in the study of liver four snakes of Boa constrictor amarali, through an ultrasound and tomography. Physical restraint made for the ultrasound examination held in prone position, to compare the texture and mark the structures for the slices on CT. A linear multifrequency probe of 6-10 mHz was used. The anesthetic protocol for computed tomography consisted of isoflurane. In helical CT scanner, the animal was positioned in the prone position, and used continuous cross sections of 2 mm by 2. The ultrasound and CT examinations allowed the identification of liver contours as well as the definition and extension of the caudal vena cava and portal vein. Normal pattern recognition of CT aspect of the present study will be of help in the diagnosis of liver diseases in snakes (Boa constrictor amarali). (author)

    7. A robotic inspection experimental system (ARIES) and BOA

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      NONE

      1998-02-01

      ARIES consists of a 6-wheeled K3A mobile platform, a compact subturret, a sonar imaging system, a laser-based light detection and ranging (lidar) navigation beacon system, and a camera positioning system. It has a sonar imaging system used in navigation and collision avoidance and an automatic docking/charging system. Drum-referencing algorithms and camera-positioning algorithms have been included in the primitive instruction set for the robot. The robot`s navigation is based on Synchro-Drive, a patented design that utilizes concentric shafts to distribute drive and steering power to the six wheels simultaneously. ARIES uses a virtual path concept in which only a limited amount of information needs to be provided to the control computer in order to get the vehicle moving. The safety and health evaluation, during the human factors assessment, found several areas of concern including ergonomics, laser hazards, tripping hazards, fall-from-above and struck-by hazards, electrical hazards, and decontamination of the system. BOA is a self-propelled automated mini-enclosure, able to remove insulation from installed pipes, primarily of 4 inch nominal outside diameter. The system is designed for two operators: one oversees the abatement head operation from a distance of 10 or 15 feet using a pendant control and the other bags the debris at a cyclonic bagging station that is attached by a vacuum hose to the cutting head. Since the abatement head is its own enclosure, there may be no need for further enclosures to be built. The system wets and removes asbestos insulation automatically, cutting the debris into consistent chunks and moving the wave under a strong vacuum to a bagging machine. Prior to reaching the bagging operation, the material passes through a water separator which greatly reduces the weight of the debris and allows recirculation of water, after sufficient filtration. The safety and health evaluation, during the human factors assessment, focused on: noise, dust

    8. Consumidor Colecionador de Pratos da Boa Lembrança

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Isabele Oliveira de Almeida

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O artigo tem o objetivo de analisar a relação entre as principais proposições de colecionismo apresentadas por Belk (2001 e a experiência de colecionar, representada por entrevistados que colecionam pratos da Boa Lembrança de restaurantes. O método é baseado na abordagem qualitativa e a coleta de dados contou com entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os resultados mostram aderência às proposições de Belk (2001, quais sejam: as coleções raramente ocorrem de forma proposital; o vício e compulsão podem fazer parte do ato de colecionar; coleção legítima de itens como arte ou ciência; existe uma conversão do item colecionado do profano para sagrado; as coleções são extensão do self; imortalidade da coleção e do sujeito (herança familiar; e por fim, há simultaneidade do desejo e do temor de completar a coleção. Assim, a oferta do alimento no restaurante é fundamental, pois não é o prato em si que interessa, mas o que representa.  Consumer Collector Plates Boa Lembrança - The article aims to analyze the relationship between the main propositions of hoarding presented by Belk (2001 and the experience of collecting, represented by respondents who collect plates of Boa Lembrança in restaurants. The method is based on a qualitative approach and data collection included semi-structured interviews. The results show adherence to propositions Belk (2001, namely: the collections rarely occur on purpose; addiction and compulsion can be part of the act of collecting; legitimate collection of items such as art or science, there is a conversion of the collected item sacred to the profane; collections are extension of self; immortality of the collection and the subject (family heritage, and finally, there is simultaneity of desire and fear to complete the collection. Thus, the supply of food in the restaurant is fundamental, because it is not the dish itself that matters, but what it represents

    9. Perch size and structure have species-dependent effects on the arboreal locomotion of rat snakes and boa constrictors.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jayne, Bruce C; Herrmann, Michael P

      2011-07-01

      Arboreal habitats create diverse challenges for animal locomotion, but the numerical and phylogenetic diversity of snakes that climb trees suggest that their overall body plan is well suited for this task. Snakes have considerable diversity of axial anatomy, but the functional consequences of this diversity for arboreal locomotion are poorly understood because of the lack of comparative data. We simulated diverse arboreal surfaces to test whether environmental structure had different effects on the locomotion of snakes belonging to two distantly related species with differences in axial musculature and stoutness. On most cylindrical surfaces lacking pegs, both species used concertina locomotion, which always involved periodic stopping and gripping but was kinematically distinct in the two species. On horizontal cylinders that were a small fraction of body diameter, the boa constrictors used a balancing form of lateral undulation that was not observed for rat snakes. For all snakes the presence of pegs elicited lateral undulation and enhanced speed. For both species maximal speeds decreased with increased incline and were greatest on cylinders with intermediate diameters that approximated the diameter of the snakes. The frictional resistances that we studied had small effects compared with those of cylinder diameter, incline and the presence of pegs. The stouter and more muscular boa constrictors were usually faster than the rat snakes when using the gripping gait, whereas rat snakes were faster when using lateral undulation on the surfaces with pegs. Thus, variation in environmental structure had several highly significant effects on locomotor mode, performance and kinematics that were species dependent.

    10. PRODUCCIÓN PRIMARIA EN UN LAGO DE AGUAS CLARAS DE LA AMAZONÍA COLOMBIANA (LAGO BOA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      GABRIEL ANTONIO PINILLA AGUDELO

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Dentro de los aspectos funcionales de un sistema acuático uno de los más determinantes es la producción fitoplanctónica. En este trabajo se midió la producción primaria del fitoplancton (método del 14C en un lago de aguas claras de la Amazonía colombiana, en diferentes momentos del ciclo hidrológico. La producción primaria osciló entre 0,6 y 2,3 g C m-2 d-1, valor este último medido durante la fase de aguas bajas. Estos resultados indican que la comunidad fitoplanctónica del lago Boa fluctúa desde condiciones de muy baja capacidad de asimilación de carbono inorgánico (aguas altas, hasta momentos en que este potencial se incrementa hasta cuatro veces (aguas bajas. Tales cambios drásticos obedecen a las fluctuaciones en la abundancia de microalgas, las que a su vez se presentan como respuesta a la variación trófica que tiene el lago durante el ciclo hidrológico. De esta manera, se pasa de condiciones oligotróficas en la época de inundación a un estado eutrófico cuando el sistema se desconecta del río en aguas bajas.

    11. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Boekhout van Solinge, T.

      2015-01-01

      This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

    12. A volcanological and geochemical investigation of Boa Vistta, Cape Verde Islands

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin

      2009-01-01

      Boa Vista, the easternmost island in the Cape Verde archipelago, consists of volcanic products, minor intrusions and a thin partial sedimentary cover. The first 15 age results from 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analysis of groundmass separates from volcanic and plutonic rocks from Boa Vista...... lavas. The second stage, consisting of evolved lavas of phonolitic-trachytic compositions and nepheline syenites, makes up large central parts of the island. The large volume of evolved rocks and the extended eruption period of several Ma make stage 2 in Boa Vista unique to Cape Verde. Mainly basanites...... and with activity partly overlapping in time. The volcanic evolution of Boa Vista constrains the initiation of volcanic activity in the Cape Verde archipelago to the eastern islands. Major and trace element geochemistry of 160 volcanic and plutonic rocks representing the entire exposed chronological sequence on Boa...

    13. BOA detoxification of four summer weeds during germination and seedling growth.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schulz, Margot; Marocco, Adriano; Tabaglio, Vincenzo

      2012-07-01

      A recent greenhouse study revealed a significant reduction of germination and growth of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) by rye mulch, whereas velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) were not suppressed. Since BOA detoxification by metabolic alteration may influence the relation between the benzoxazinoid content of the soil mulch and weed suppression, we tested the dynamics in BOA detoxification in different plant organs of three and 10-day-old seedlings of four warm season weeds incubated with five BOA concentrations (4, 20, 40, 80, and 200 μmol g(-1) fresh weight). In addition, germination and length of 3-day-old seedlings were measured after exposure to 0, 0.3, 1.5, 3, 6, and 15 μmol BOA. Finally, we tested the influence of the MDR translocator inhibitors verapamil, nifedipine, and the GST inhibitor ethycrynic acid on BOA accumulation and detoxification activity. Due to BOA-detoxification, all weeds were able to grow in environments with low BOA contents. At higher contents, Abutilon theophrasti and Chenopodium album had a better chance to survive because of highly active mechanisms that avoided the uptake of BOA (A. theophrasti) and of efficient detoxification activities in youngest seedlings (C. album). The interpretation of all of the data gave the following sequence of increasing sensitivity: A. theophrasti weeds by rye mulches and their benzoxazinoid contents. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that the detoxification of BOA influences the survival of certain weeds in environments enriched with this allelochemical. Therefore, detoxification processes affect the potential for weed suppression by soil allelochemicals in sustainable weed management.

    14. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Brett DENNIS

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

    15. Ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Amazon basin. The main scenaries in the Brazilian Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Coura, J R; Junqueira, A C V

      2015-11-01

      The ecological diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region is directly interlinked with the parasite's extensive reservoir, composed of 33 species of wild mammals within the following orders: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Xenarthra, Carnivora and Primates; and of 16 species of wild triatomines, of which ten may be infected with T. cruzi. Four scenarios for the diversity of T. cruzi transmission in the Brazilian Amazon region are evident: (i) T. cruzi transmission between vectors and wild mammals, which is characterized as a wild enzooty encompassing the entire Amazon basin; (ii) accidental T. cruzi transmission from vectors and wild mammals to humans, when they invade the wild ecotope or when these vectors and wild mammals invade human homes; (iii) occupational Chagas disease among piassava (Leopoldinia piassaba) palm fiber gatherers, transmitted by the vector Rhodnius brethesi, for which these palm trees are the specific ecotope; (IV) oral T. cruzi transmission to humans through food contamination, particularly in juices from plants such as assai, which today is considered to be endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with more than 1500 cases notified.

    16. Proximate analysis for amazon biomass

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Oliveira, Antonio Geraldo de Paula; Feitosa Netto, Genesio Batista; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Coutinho, Hebert Willian Martins; Rendeiro, Goncalo [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Mecanica (LABGAS)], e-mail: ageraldo@ufpa.br, e-mail: mfmn@ufpa.br, e-mail: rendeiro@ufpa.br

      2006-07-01

      In order to asses the potentiality of Amazon biomass to generate power, either to supply electric energy to the grid or as fuel to plants supplying power for off-grid location, data for their proximate analysis must be available. A literature review on the subject indicated a lack of information and data concerning typical Amazon rain forest species. This work aimed to characterize (proximate analysis) 80 Amazon species in order to evaluate the energy resource from woody biomass wastes in Amazon region. Higher Heating Value, Carbon, Volatile and Ash contents were measured in a dry basis. The measurements were performed obeying the following Brazilian standards, NBR 6923, NBR 8112, NBR 8633, NBR 6922. (author)

    17. Cache-Oblivious Search Trees via Binary Trees of Small Height

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Jacob, R.

      2002-01-01

      We propose a version of cache oblivious search trees which is simpler than the previous proposal of Bender, Demaine and Farach-Colton and has the same complexity bounds. In particular, our data structure avoids the use of weight balanced B-trees, and can be implemented as just a single array......, and range queries in worst case O(logB n + k/B) memory transfers, where k is the size of the output.The basic idea of our data structure is to maintain a dynamic binary tree of height log n+O(1) using existing methods, embed this tree in a static binary tree, which in turn is embedded in an array in a cache...... oblivious fashion, using the van Emde Boas layout of Prokop.We also investigate the practicality of cache obliviousness in the area of search trees, by providing an empirical comparison of different methods for laying out a search tree in memory....

    18. FFRANZ BOAS E A INSTITUCIONALIZAÇÃO DA ANTROPOLOGIA NOS ESTADOS UNIDOS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Diogo da Silva Roiz

      2010-12-01

      Full Text Available RESENHA BOAS, Franz. A formação da antropologia americana, 1883-1911. Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto, 2004. 423p. ______. Antropologia cultural. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor, 2010. 109p.

    19. "Handbook of biomedical optics", edited by David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gramatikov Boris

      2012-02-01

      Full Text Available Abstract David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam, Eds.: Handbook of Biomedical Optics CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-4200-9036-9 (Hardback, 787 pages

    20. "Handbook of biomedical optics", edited by David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam

      OpenAIRE

      Gramatikov Boris

      2012-01-01

      Abstract David A. Boas, Constantinos Pitris, and Nimmi Ramanujam, Eds.: Handbook of Biomedical Optics CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2011 ISBN: 978-1-4200-9036-9 (Hardback), 787 pages

    1. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Santos, F.

      2014-01-01

      The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show th

    2. Synergistic effects of drought and deforestation on the resilience of the south-eastern Amazon rainforest

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Staal, Arie; Dekker, Stefan C.; Hirota, Marina; van Nes, Egbert H.

      2015-01-01

      The south-eastern Amazon rainforest is subject to ongoing deforestation and is expected to become drier due to climate change. Recent analyses of the distribution of tree cover in the tropics show three modes that have been interpreted as representing alternative stable states: forest, savanna and t

    3. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest

      OpenAIRE

      JARDINE, KOLBY J.; CHAMBERS, JEFFREY Q.; Jennifer Holm; Angela B. Jardine; Clarissa G. Fontes; Zorzanelli, Raquel F.; Kimberly T. Meyers; Vinicius Fernadez de Souza; Sabrina Garcia; Gimenez,Bruno O.; Luani R. de O. Piva; Niro Higuchi; Paulo Artaxo; Scot Martin; Manzi, Antônio O.

      2015-01-01

      Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxid...

    4. Uma "boa" educação A "good" education

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Monique de Saint Martin

      1999-04-01

      Full Text Available Uma educação ética 3/4 uma "boa" educação 3/4 de sua filhas sempre representou uma preocupação central para as camadas dominantes da burguesia e da aristocracia. A instrução, por outro lado, por visar essencialmente atividades intelectuais, sempre foi vista como secundária, assim como, no caso dessas moças, a transmissão do capital cultural e econômico. Mais do que uma exceção, a escola "Notre-Dame des Oiseaux" representa um caso-limite. Com algumas concessões à nova moralidade burguesa e na base de uma homogeneidade consistente, não apenas das alunas como das docentes e freiras, a educação das moças desse meio continua centrada no preparo para um papel específico - o de mãe "feliz", esposa culta, com um emprego (embora disposta a abandoná-lo, pia e envolvida em ações caridosas.For the dominant sections of the bourgeoisie and the aristocracy, an ethical education 3/4 a "good"education 3/4 for their daughters, is always a major preoccupation.Instruction, on the other hand, a training for intellectual activity, is considered of secundary importance, as though, in the case of theses girls, the transmission of the economic and cultural capital. The "Notre Dame des Oiseaux" school, is not so much an excepcional case as a bordeline case.With a few concessions to the new bourgeois morality, and thanks to the extreme homogeneity not only of its pupils, but also of its teaching staff and the sisters, the preparation for a specific role 3/4 "happy" mother, cultivated wife, with a job but quite prepared to give it up, pious, involved in some charitable activity 3/4 remains the most important aspect of the education of young girls of this milieu.

    5. Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Duffy, Philip B; Brando, Paulo; Asner, Gregory P; Field, Christopher B

      2015-10-27

      Future intensification of Amazon drought resulting from climate change may cause increased fire activity, tree mortality, and emissions of carbon to the atmosphere across large areas of Amazonia. To provide a basis for addressing these issues, we examine properties of recent and future meteorological droughts in the Amazon in 35 climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We find that the CMIP5 climate models, as a group, simulate important properties of historical meteorological droughts in the Amazon. In addition, this group of models reproduces observed relationships between Amazon precipitation and regional sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans. Assuming the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario for future drivers of climate change, the models project increases in the frequency and geographic extent of meteorological drought in the eastern Amazon, and the opposite in the West. For the region as a whole, the CMIP5 models suggest that the area affected by mild and severe meteorological drought will nearly double and triple, respectively, by 2100. Extremes of wetness are also projected to increase after 2040. Specifically, the frequency of periods of unusual wetness and the area affected by unusual wetness are projected to increase after 2040 in the Amazon as a whole, including in locations where annual mean precipitation is projected to decrease. Our analyses suggest that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will increase the likelihood of extreme events that have been shown to alter and degrade Amazonian forests.

    6. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

      OpenAIRE

      Baker, Timothy R.; Pennington, R. Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F.; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Roel J.W. Brienen

      2014-01-01

      The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits - short turnover times - are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rat...

    7. The Amazon basin in transition.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Davidson, Eric A; de Araújo, Alessandro C; Artaxo, Paulo; Balch, Jennifer K; Brown, I Foster; C Bustamante, Mercedes M; Coe, Michael T; DeFries, Ruth S; Keller, Michael; Longo, Marcos; Munger, J William; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Souza, Carlos M; Wofsy, Steven C

      2012-01-18

      Agricultural expansion and climate variability have become important agents of disturbance in the Amazon basin. Recent studies have demonstrated considerable resilience of Amazonian forests to moderate annual drought, but they also show that interactions between deforestation, fire and drought potentially lead to losses of carbon storage and changes in regional precipitation patterns and river discharge. Although the basin-wide impacts of land use and drought may not yet surpass the magnitude of natural variability of hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, there are some signs of a transition to a disturbance-dominated regime. These signs include changing energy and water cycles in the southern and eastern portions of the Amazon basin.

    8. Amblyomma dissimile (Acari: Ixodidae PARÁSITO DE Boa constrictor EN COLOMBIA

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ana Torres M

      2009-08-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir algunas garrapatas encontradas en dos ejemplares de Boa constrictor, llevados al Centro de Atención y Valoración de Fauna Silvestre en Montería, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron 37 garrapatas provenientes de dos individuos adultos de Boa constrictor, los parásitos fueron conservados en alcohol al 70% y posteriormente identificados mediante diversas claves taxonómicas. Resultados. Todas las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Amblyomma dissimile, de las cuales, 9 fueron hembras, 24 machos y 4 ninfas. Conclusiones. La identificación de ectoparásitos en especies de Boa c. constrictor contribuye a mantener adecuadamente esta especie en cautiverio y provee datos para establecer medidas profilácticas y tratamiento, igualmente, ayuda en el conocimiento de los agentes parasitarios de la fauna silvestre.

    9. GoAmazon – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Dubey, Manvendra Krishna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

      2016-09-06

      Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1) moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We will resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional scale high frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil as part of DOE's GoAmazon project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's CLM on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2 satellite (launch date July 2014).

    10. Amazon Fund: financing deforestation avoidance

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jacques Marcovitch

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available The Amazon Fund, created in 2008 by the Brazilian Federal Government, is managed by Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES. It is a pioneering initiative to fundraise and manage financial resources to cut back deforestation and support sustainable development for 30 million inhabitants in the Amazon Biome. The Amazon Fund has already received more than R$ 1.7 billion in grants (about USD 787 million. This essay analyzes the Amazon Fund's governance and management with focus on its operation and from its stakeholders' perspectives. A combination of research methods includes: documental research, in-depth interviews, and speech analysis. The study offers a comparative analysis of strengths and weaknesses related to its governance. Furthermore, it proposes ways to improve its management towards greater effectiveness. The essay also includes an assessment of the government of Norway, a major donor to the fund. The governments of Norway and Germany, in partnership with Brazil, reveal how important it is to experiment with new means of international cooperation to successfully reduce greenhouse gas emissions through rainforest preservation.

    11. Hidrocondicionamento de Parkia pendula [Benth ex Walp]: sementes com dormência física de árvore da Amazônia Hydropriming of Parkia pendula [Penth. ex Walp.]: seeds with physical dormancy from Amazon tree

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gina Janet Vargas Pinedo

      2008-02-01

      Full Text Available O visgueiro é uma árvore neotropical de importâncias econômica e ecológica. Este estudo objetivou determinar o tempo de embebição e o teor de água de sementes de Parkia pendula necessários para ativar o metabolismo e aumentar o desempenho pelo condicionamento. Sementes armazenadas (2 anos e não armazenadas (7 dias foram comparadas. Após o desponte as sementes foram submersas em água a 15 ºC, por períodos de 4 a 28 h, para atingir o grau de embebição desejado (20, 40, 60, 80 e 90%. Em seguida, foram diretamente semeadas em areia lavada no viveiro (4 x 25 sementes/tratamento ou dessecadas durante sete dias (24±2 °C e 68±3% UR antes da semeadura. Sementes não armazenadas e sem condicionamento (controle apresentaram 59±8,9% de emergência, valor inferior ao daquelas armazenadas e sem condicionamento (76±11,3%. Períodos de submersão superiores a 13 h reduziram o desempenho da germinação em relação às sementes não condicionadas. Porém, após 4 h (26-31% de teor de água das sementes ambas as sementes não armazenadas e armazenadas aumentaram o desempenho, sendo, ainda, maior quando houve dessecamento após a submersão. Portanto, os efeitos positivos do condicionamento ocorreram na fase I da curva de embebição. O hidrocondicionamento de 4 h a 15 ºC mostrou ser uma opção econômica e de fácil aplicação em sementes de P. pendula: aumentou a velocidade do desenvolvimento das plântulas, a porcentagem de germinação das sementes não armazenadas em níveis similares aos das armazenadas e a sincronização da germinação em sementes armazenadas.Visgueiro is a neo-tropical tree species with economic and ecologic importance. This work aimed to determine the imbibition time and moisture content of P. pendula seeds necessary to activate metabolism and improve their performance by priming. Stored seeds (2 years and unstored seeds (7 days were compared. After clipping, the seeds were kept in water at 15 ºC for periods of

    12. High resolution neutron imaging capabilities at BOA beamline at Paul Scherrer Institut

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Tremsin, A.S., E-mail: ast@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Morgano, M.; Panzner, T.; Lehmann, E.; Filgers, U. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Vallerga, J.V.; McPhate, J.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Feller, W.B. [NOVA Scientific, Inc., 10 Picker Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566 (United States)

      2015-06-01

      The cold neutron spectrum of the Beamline for neutron Optics and other Applications (BOA) at Paul Scherrer Institut enables high contrast neutron imaging because neutron cross sections for many materials increase with neutron wavelength. However, for many neutron imaging applications, spatial resolution can be as important as contrast. In this paper the neutron transmission imaging capabilities of an MCP/Timepix detector installed at the BOA beamline are presented, demonstrating the possibilities for studying sub-20 µm features in various samples. In addition to conventional neutron radiography and microtomography, the high degree of neutron polarization at the BOA beamline can be very attractive for imaging of magnetic fields, as demonstrated by our measurements. We also show that a collimated cold neutron beamline combined with a high resolution detector can produce image artifacts, (e.g. edge enhancements) due to neutron refraction and scattering. The results of our experiments indicate that the BOA beamline is a valuable addition to neutron imaging facilities, providing improved and sometimes unique capabilities for non-destructive studies with cold neutrons.

    13. Código de Boas Práticas de Higiene

      OpenAIRE

      Rocha,Ada

      2008-01-01

      Índice1.Código de boas práticas de higiene . âmbito e aplicação2. Causas da deterioração dos alimentos3. Manipuladores de alimentos4. Instalações5. Utensílios e equipamentos6. Produção7. Formação8. Bibliografia

    14. The 2010 Amazon drought.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lewis, Simon L; Brando, Paulo M; Phillips, Oliver L; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Nepstad, Daniel

      2011-02-04

      In 2010, dry-season rainfall was low across Amazonia, with apparent similarities to the major 2005 drought. We analyzed a decade of satellite-derived rainfall data to compare both events. Standardized anomalies of dry-season rainfall showed that 57% of Amazonia had low rainfall in 2010 as compared with 37% in 2005 (≤-1 standard deviation from long-term mean). By using relationships between drying and forest biomass responses measured for 2005, we predict the impact of the 2010 drought as 2.2 × 10(15) grams of carbon [95% confidence intervals (CIs) are 1.2 and 3.4], largely longer-term committed emissions from drought-induced tree deaths, compared with 1.6 × 10(15) grams of carbon (CIs 0.8 and 2.6) for the 2005 event.

    15. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

      Science.gov (United States)

      2007-11-02

      da Amazonia (Brazilian Regional Commander of Amazon), about Ŕ Exercito na Amazonia " ("The Army in the Amazon) . Manaus, AM, 1996. 3 Instituto...accessed 23 Dec 97. 6 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 205. 7 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 8 Comando Militär da Amazonia , lecture. 9...Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. 10 Editora Abril, Almanaque Abril 97, 98. 11 Gelio Fregapani, Amazonia 1996 - Soberania Ameacada (Amazon

    16. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

      2013-05-01

      The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

    17. Tree species diversity in a seasonally-dry forest: the case of the Pinkaití site, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area, Southeastern limits of the Amazon Diversidade de espécies arbóreas em uma floresta sazonalmente seca: o caso da base de pesquisas do Pinkaití (PA, na Terra Indígena Kayapó, limite sudoeste da Amazônia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rodolfo Salm

      2004-09-01

      Full Text Available This study investigates patterns of forest structure and tree species diversity in an anthropogenic palm grove and undisturbed areas at the seasonally-dry Pinkaití research station, in the Kayapó Indigenous Area. This site, managed by the Conservation International do Brasil, is the most southeastern site floristically surveyed in the Amazon until now. The secondary and a nearby undisturbed forest were sampled in a group of 52 floristic plots of 0.0625-ha (25x25-m where all trees with DBH > 10 cm were measured and identified. The analyses were complemented with other two floristic plots of 1-ha (10x1000-m. The present study has shown that the Pinkaití, like other seasonally-dry forests, have great heterogeneity in forest structure and composition, associated with biotic characteristics of the most important tree species, natural disturbance and history of land-use. The palm grove, moderately dominated by the arborescent palm Attalea maripa (Aubl. Mart., presented high tree species diversity and was floristically similar to undisturbed forests at the study site. It is discussed the importance of large arborescent palms for the seasonally-dry Amazon forests regeneration.Este estudo compara a florística e estrutura e a diversidade de espécies arbóreas de um palmeiral antropogênico e áreas não perturbadas na floresta sazonalmente seca da base de pesquisas ecológicas do Pinkaití, na Terra Indígena Kayapó. Esta base de estudos, administrada pela Conservation International do Brasil, é a área mais ao sudoeste até o momento floristicamente amostrada na Amazônia. Uma mancha de floresta secundária e uma floresta não perturbada adjacente foram amostradas com um grupo de 52 parcelas de 0,0625-ha (25x25-m onde todas as árvores com DAP > 10 cm foram medidas e identificadas. As análises foram complementadas com outras duas parcelas de 1-ha (10x1000-m. Este estudo mostrou que o Pinkaití, como outras florestas sazonalmente secas, tem grande

    18. Rethinking the strategy of Amazon.com

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Heng, Michael S.H.

      2001-01-01

      The strategic challenge facing Amazon.com is that it is not able to convincethe investment community that it is able to generate profits in the long run. The doubtof investors is well grounded. This paper argues that Amazon should make a strategicshift to operate as a provider of technical services

    19. Agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars in the Cerrado region of Boa Vista, Roraima = Desempenho agronômico de cultivares de melancia no cerrado de Boa Vista, Roraima

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ignácio Lund Gabriel da Silva Carmo

      2015-10-01

      Full Text Available Production of the watermelon is important in all regions of Brazil. However, productive and qualitative information for fruit of different cultivars grown in the same environment is still scarce, especially in the State of Roraima, a fact that makes it necessary to carry out studies in order to meet this need. As a result, this study aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance of watermelon cultivars produced in the Cerrado at Boa Vista, Roraima. The experiment was conducted at the Agua Boa Experimental Farm of Embrapa Roraima, from December 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was of randomised blocks (DBC, with six replications. The treatments comprised six watermelon cultivars: Verena, Explore, Elisa, Juliane, Crimson Sweet and Crimson Sweet Super, for which the productive, physical, chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit were evaluated. There was no difference between cultivars in yield, number of fruit ha-1 or the number of fruit with a weight of between 6 and 9 kg. The cultivars differed as to physical characteristics (weight, size and number of seeds per fruit. There were differences between cultivars for all the chemical and physicochemical characteristics of the fruit. The cultivar Elisa displayed the highest levels for total soluble solids (12.58 °Brix. Fruits of the cultivars Explore and Crimson Sweet Super showed the greatest ratio between total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The fruits of the cultivars Explore and Elisa had the highest pH. The conditions of soil and climate in the Cerrado at Boa Vista favour the productive and qualitative characteristics of the cultivars being analysed. = A produção de melancia é consolidada em todas as regiões do Brasil. Porém, as informações sobre produtividade e qualidade dos frutos, de diferentes cultivares no mesmo ambiente, ainda são tímidas, sobretudo em Roraima, tornando necessária a realização de estudos para suprir essa carência. Objetivou

    20. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jardine, Kolby J; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Holm, Jennifer; Jardine, Angela B; Fontes, Clarissa G; Zorzanelli, Raquel F; Meyers, Kimberly T; de Souza, Vinicius Fernadez; Garcia, Sabrina; Gimenez, Bruno O; Piva, Luani R de O; Higuchi, Niro; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot; Manzi, Antônio O

      2015-09-15

      Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C₅ and C₆ GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C₆ GLVs) were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress.

    1. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kolby J. Jardine

      2015-09-01

      Full Text Available Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C5 and C6 GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C6 GLVs were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress.

    2. BOA: Asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system. Phase I. Topical report, November 1993--December 1994

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Schempf, H.; Bares, J.E.

      1995-01-01

      Based on several key design criteria and site visits, we developed a Robot design and built a system which automatically strips the lagging and insulation from the pipes, and encapsulates them under complete vacuum operation. The system can operate on straight runs of piping in horizontal or vertical orientations. Currently we are limited to four-inch diameter piping without obstacles as well as a somewhat laborious emplacement and removal procedure. Experimental results indicated that the current robotic abatement process is sound yet needs to be further expanded and modified. One of the main discoveries was that a longitudinal cut to fully allow the paddles to dig in and compress the insulation off the pipe is essential. Furthermore, a different cutting method might be explored to alleviate the need for a deeper cut and to enable a combination of certain functions such as compression and cutting. Unfortunately due to a damaged mechanism caused by extensive testing, we were unable to perform vertical piping abatement experiments, but foresee no trouble in implementing them in the next proposed Phase. Other encouraging results have BOA removing asbestos at a rate of 4-5 ft./h compared to 3 ft./h for manual removal of asbestos with a 3-person crew. However, we feel confident that we can double the asbestos removal rate by improving cutting speed, and increasing the length of the BOA robot. The containment and vacuum system on BOA is able to achieve the regulatory requirement for airborne fiber emissions of 0.01 fibers/ccm/8-hr. shift. Currently, BOA weighs about 117 pounds which is more than a human is permitted to lift overhead under OSHA requirements (i.e., 25 pounds). We are considering designing the robot into two components (i.e., locomotor section and cutter/removal section) to aid human installation as well as incorporating composite materials. A more detailed list of all the technical modifications is given in this topical report.

    3. An Atlantic influence on Amazon rainfall

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Yoon, Jin-Ho [University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States); Zeng, Ning [University of Maryland, Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, College Park, MD (United States)

      2010-02-15

      Rainfall variability over the Amazon basin has often been linked to variations in Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), and in particular, to the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, only a fraction of Amazon rainfall variability can be explained by ENSO. Building upon the recent work of Zeng (Environ Res Lett 3:014002, 2008), here we provide further evidence for an influence on Amazon rainfall from the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The strength of the North Atlantic influence is found to be comparable to the better-known Pacific ENSO connection. The tropical South Atlantic Ocean also shows some influence during the wet-to-dry season transition period. The Atlantic influence is through changes in the north-south divergent circulation and the movement of the ITCZ following warm SST. Therefore, it is strongest in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the Amazon's dry season (July-October). In contrast, the ENSO related teleconnection is through anomalous east-west Walker circulation with largely concentrated in the eastern (lower) Amazon. This ENSO connection is seasonally locked to boreal winter. A complication due to the influence of ENSO on Atlantic SST causes an apparent North Atlantic SST lag of Amazon rainfall. Removing ENSO from North Atlantic SST via linear regression resolves this causality problem in that the residual Atlantic variability correlates well and is in phase with the Amazon rainfall. A strong Atlantic influence during boreal summer and autumn is particularly significant in terms of the impact on the hydro-ecosystem which is most vulnerable during the dry season, as highlighted by the severe 2005 Amazon drought. Such findings have implications for both seasonal-interannual climate prediction and understanding the longer-term changes of the Amazon rainforest. (orig.)

    4. AMS Observations over Coastal California from the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bates, K. H.; Coggon, M. M.; Hodas, N.; Negron, A.; Ortega, A. M.; Crosbie, E.; Sorooshian, A.; Nenes, A.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J.

      2015-12-01

      In July 2015, fifteen research flights were conducted on a US Navy Twin Otter aircraft as part of the Biological and Oceanic Atmospheric Study (BOAS) campaign. The flights took place near the California coast at Monterey, to investigate the effects of sea surface temperature and algal blooms on oceanic particulate emissions, the diurnal mixing of urban pollution with other airmasses, and the impacts of biological aerosols on the California atmosphere. The aircraft's payload included an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), a differential mobility analyzer, a cloud condensation nuclei counter, a counterflow virtual impactor, a cloudwater collector, and two instruments designed to detect biological aerosols - a wideband integrated biological spectrometer and a SpinCon II - as well as a number of meteorology and aerosol probes, two condensation particle counters, and instruments to measure gas-phase CO, CO2, O3, and NOx. Here, we describe in depth the objectives and outcomes of BOAS and report preliminary results, primarily from the AMS. We detail the spatial characteristics and meteorological variability of speciated aerosol components over a strong and persistent bloom of Pseudo-Nitzschia, the harmful algae that cause 'red tide', and report newly identified AMS markers for biological particles. Finally, we compare these results with data collected during BOAS over urban, forested, and agricultural environments, and describe the mixing observed between oceanic and terrestrial airmasses.

    5. Conforto para uma boa morte: perspectiva de uma equipe de enfermagem intensivista

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rudval Souza da Silva

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available Objetivo: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que objetivou conhecer o significado do cuidar em enfermagem para uma boa morte na perspectiva de uma equipe de enfermagem intensivista. Métodos: Adotou-se o Interacionismo Simbólico como referencial teórico e a Análise de Conteúdo de Bardin como referencial metodológico para análise. Foram entrevistados 10 profissionais de enfermagem, que vivenciavam o cuidado à pessoa em processo de terminalidade, numa UTI de um hospital especializado em oncologia. Resultados: O significado do cuidar para uma boa morte centra-se na promoção do conforto como categoria central e três subcategorias: Alívio de desconfortos físicos, Suporte social e emocional e Manutenção da integridade e do posicionamento corporal. Conclusão: Cuidar para uma boa morte significa promover conforto como um resultado de intervenções terapêuticas que conciliem racionalidade e sensibilidade nas interações dos profissionais de saúde com o paciente e sua família assegurando a sua dignidade.

    6. Getting started With Amazon Redshift

      CERN Document Server

      Bauer, Stefan

      2013-01-01

      Getting Started With Amazon Redshift is a step-by-step, practical guide to the world of Redshift. Learn to load, manage, and query data on Redshift.This book is for CIOs, enterprise architects, developers, and anyone else who needs to get familiar with RedShift. The CIO will gain an understanding of what their technical staff is working on; the technical implementation personnel will get an in-depth view of the technology, and what it will take to implement their own solutions.

    7. Amazon SimpleDB LITE

      CERN Document Server

      Chaganti, Prabhakar

      2011-01-01

      This focused book is an extracted LITE version of Packt's full: Amazon SimpleDB Developer Guide. It concentrates on getting a grounding in the value of SimpleDB, and shows how to set up an AWS account, enable a SimpleDB service for the account, and install and set up libraries for Java, PHP, and Python. If you are a developer wanting to get to grips with a primer into SimpleDB, then this book is for you. You do not need to know anything about SimpleDB to read and learn from this book, and no basic knowledge is strictly necessary.

    8. Distribution of Aboveground Live Biomass in the Amazon Basin

      Science.gov (United States)

      Saatchi, S. S.; Houghton, R. A.; DosSantos Alvala, R. C.; Soares, J. V.; Yu, Y.

      2007-01-01

      The amount and spatial distribution of forest biomass in the Amazon basin is a major source of uncertainty in estimating the flux of carbon released from land-cover and land-use change. Direct measurements of aboveground live biomass (AGLB) are limited to small areas of forest inventory plots and site-specific allometric equations that cannot be readily generalized for the entire basin. Furthermore, there is no spaceborne remote sensing instrument that can measure tropical forest biomass directly. To determine the spatial distribution of forest biomass of the Amazon basin, we report a method based on remote sensing metrics representing various forest structural parameters and environmental variables, and more than 500 plot measurements of forest biomass distributed over the basin. A decision tree approach was used to develop the spatial distribution of AGLB for seven distinct biomass classes of lowland old-growth forests with more than 80% accuracy. AGLB for other vegetation types, such as the woody and herbaceous savanna and secondary forests, was directly estimated with a regression based on satellite data. Results show that AGLB is highest in Central Amazonia and in regions to the east and north, including the Guyanas. Biomass is generally above 300Mgha(sup 1) here except in areas of intense logging or open floodplains. In Western Amazonia, from the lowlands of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia to the Andean mountains, biomass ranges from 150 to 300Mgha(sup 1). Most transitional and seasonal forests at the southern and northwestern edges of the basin have biomass ranging from 100 to 200Mgha(sup 1). The AGLB distribution has a significant correlation with the length of the dry season. We estimate that the total carbon in forest biomass of the Amazon basin, including the dead and below ground biomass, is 86 PgC with +/- 20% uncertainty.

    9. Organic material decomposition and nutrient dynamics in a mulch system enriched with leguminous trees in the Amazon Decomposição de material orgânico e dinâmica de nutrientes em um sistema de cobertura morta enriquecido com árvores leguminosas na Amazônia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      José Henrique Cattanio

      2008-06-01

      Full Text Available The new techniques proposed for agriculture in the Amazon region include rotational fallow systems enriched with leguminous trees and the replacement of biomass burning by mulching. Decomposition and nutrient release from mulch were studied using fine-mesh litterbags with five different leguminous species and the natural fallow vegetation as control. Samples from each treatment were analyzed for total C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, lignin, cellulose content and soluble polyphenol at different sampling times over the course of one year. The decomposition rate constant varied with species and time. Weight loss from the decomposed litter bag material after 96 days was 30.1 % for Acacia angustissima, 32.7 % for Sclerolobium paniculatum, 33.9 % for Iinga edulis and the Fallow vegetation, 45.2 % for Acacia mangium and 63.6 % for Clitoria racemosa. Immobilization of N and P was observed in all studied treatments. Nitrogen mineralization was negatively correlated with phenol, C-to-N ratio, lignin + phenol/N ratio, and phenol/phosphorus ratios and with N content in the litterbag material. After 362 days of field incubation, an average (of all treatments, 3.3 % K, 32.2 % Ca and 22.4 % Mg remained in the mulch. Results confirm that low quality and high amount of organic C as mulch application are limiting for the quantity of energy available for microorganisms and increase the nutrient immobilization for biomass decomposition, which results in competition for nutrients with the crop plants.As novas técnicas propostas para a agricultura na Amazônia incluem sistema de rotação de capoeira enriquecido com árvores leguminosas e transformando a queima da biomassa em cobertura morta sobre o solo. A decomposição e a liberação de nutrientes da cobertura morta foram estudadas usando sacos de liteira com malha fina que continham cinco tratamentos com diferentes espécies de leguminosas em comparação a um tratamento-controle com vegetação natural. As amostras para

    10. Climatic conditions for grapevine cultivation in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil = Aptidão climática para o cultivo da videira em Boa Vista, Roraima

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marco Antônio Fonseca Conceição

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available Grapevine plants have been grown in different tropical regions of Brazil. In the state of Roraima, this culture was introduced commercially in 2005 in Boa Vista. Unlike temperate regions, tropical regions present thermal conditions for grape production throughout the year. To evaluate the climatic characteristics on different periods of the year, it can be used different indices. The objective of this study was to characterize climate suitability of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil, for grapevine cultivation at different months of the year. For climate classification it was used the Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (CCM, which is composed by three indices: Heliothermal (IH, Cool Night (IF, and Drought (IS. It was also used the Zuluaga Index (IZ, to assess the risk of incidence of fungal diseases on the vine, especially in relation to the incidence of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola, one of the main grapevine diseases in humid regions. Based on the evaluated indices, it was found that the most favorable period for grape production goes from October to March because of the lower values of rainfall. During the other months, it can be employed branch pruning without fruit production, as occurs in other tropical locations of Brazil. =A videira tem sido cultivada em diferentes regiões tropicais do Brasil. No estado de Roraima, ela foi implantada comercialmente em 2005 em Boa Vista. Ao contrário das regiões de clima temperado, as regiões tropicais apresentam condições térmicas para a produção de uvas durante o ano inteiro. Para se avaliar as características climáticas dos diferentes períodos do ano pode-se recorrer a diversos índices. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, avaliar a aptidão climática de Boa Vista, Roraima, para o cultivo da videira, considerando-se diferentes períodos de produção ao longo do ano. Na caracterização climática, foi utilizado o Sistema de Classificação Climática Multicrit

    11. Modelling basin-wide variations in Amazon forest photosynthesis

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mercado, Lina; Lloyd, Jon; Domingues, Tomas; Fyllas, Nikolaos; Patino, Sandra; Dolman, Han; Sitch, Stephen

      2010-05-01

      Given the importance of Amazon rainforest in the global carbon and hydrological cycles, there is a need to use parameterized and validated ecosystem gas exchange and vegetation models for this region in order to adequately simulate present and future carbon and water balances. Recent research has found major differences in above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP), above ground biomass and tree dynamics across Amazonia. West Amazonia is more dynamic, with younger trees, higher stem growth rates and lower biomass than central and eastern Amazon (Baker et al. 2004; Malhi et al. 2004; Phillips et al. 2004). A factor of three variation in above-ground net primary productivity has been estimated across Amazonia by Malhi et al. (2004). Different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed spatial variability in ANPP (Malhi et al. 2004). First, due to the proximity to the Andes, sites from western Amazonia tend to have richer soils than central and eastern Amazon and therefore soil fertility could possibly be highly related to the high wood productivity found in western sites. Second, if GPP does not vary across the Amazon basin then different patterns of carbon allocation to respiration could also explain the observed ANPP gradient. However since plant growth depends on the interaction between photosynthesis, transport of assimilates, plant respiration, water relations and mineral nutrition, variations in plant gross photosynthesis (GPP) could also explain the observed variations in ANPP. In this study we investigate whether Amazon GPP can explain variations of observed ANPP. We use a sun and shade canopy gas exchange model that has been calibrated and evaluated at five rainforest sites (Mercado et al. 2009) to simulate gross primary productivity of 50 sites across the Amazon basin during the period 1980-2001. Such simulation differs from the ones performed with global vegetation models (Cox et al. 1998; Sitch et al. 2003) where i) single plant functional

    12. Study of the radiological procedures used in odontologic clinics of Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil; Estudo dos procedimentos radiologicos nos consultorios odontologicos de Boa Vista, Roraima

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Costa, Jaberson Luiz Leitao

      2002-04-01

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological procedures used at the odontologic clinics of Boa Vista, Roraima-Brazil. The following parameters were recorded: field diameter, half value layer, total filtration, discrepancy between the preset and the applied kilovoltage and exposure time. Dose to the patient's skin from radiography of the upper molar tooth was also estimated. The results showed that 78% of the inspected units had field diameters larger than 6,0 cm, which is outside the limits recommended by the Brazilian Health Ministry. The results also showed that 14% of the equipment presented a discrepancy of more than 10% between preset and applied kilovoltage. On the other hand, the discrepancy between preset and applied exposure time is higher than 10% in 70% of the tested units. The total filtration of 77% units is lower than 1,5 mm of Al, a value recommended by the Brazilian Health Ministry for equipment that operates in the range of 50 kV to 70 kV. The survey also indicates that for 35% of the units the entrance dose in high than 3,5 mGy that is the reference value established by the Brazilian Health Ministry for dental radiography with film type. It was observed that the majority of the clinics use neither aprons nor collars for patients and that films are processed manually, without controlling temperature or processing time. Based on the results obtained it is strongly recommended that a quality control program be implemented in dental radiological clinics in Boa Vista, Roraima. (author)

    13. Boa leitura!

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Luís Carlos Lopes

      2011-01-01

      Full Text Available

      A Ciberlegenda está completando sete anos de vida. Neste período, o número de seusleitores cresceu enormemente, bem como sua difusão entre os rincões das diásporaslusófonas e hispanofônicas. Somos citados em inúmeros outros sítios e reconhecidoscomo de leitura obrigatória em diversos espaços físicos e virtuais. 

      Consultando-se, em novembro de 2004, o motor de busca Google encontramos 464 menções na WEB referentes à palavra Ciberlegenda. Destas, 311 estão em línguaportuguesa, 111 em espanhol, 31 em inglês e 7 em francês. Manejando o nossocontador, que funciona desde janeiro de 2001 e que já passou da contabilização de 40.000 acessos, verifica-se uma média de 30 acessos/dia ao periódico. Não temoscomo saber quantos destes são relativos a leitores reais.  

      Chegam ao endereço eletrônico do editor correios eletrônicos de várias partes domundo. Agradecemos, em nome do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação da Universidade Federal Fluminense, os elogios e as outras palavras de incentivo.Alguns, menos avisados, pedem cópias em papel ou desejam assinar o periódico.Quando possível, é esclarecido que a revista só existe no formato eletrônico e que o acesso é livre e sem ônus.

      Alguns leitores mandam contribuições que, infelizmente, não se podem publicar. Ésempre difícil conviver com o corte do material enviado, tanto do ponto de vista doautor, tal como o do editor. Este não tem o poder final sobre o que deve ou não ser publicado, sendo apenas um dos que trabalham na seleção dos textos. Usam-sesempre os pareceres dos membros do comitê e do conselho editoriais. Há problemas de espaço, de pertinência à linha editorial e de qualidade dos textos.

      Nem sempre se tem tempo hábil para responder a todas as solicitações de nossosleitores e colaboradores. Faz-se isto na medida do possível. A nossa revista nãopossui um esquema de produção comercial e nem funcionários para geri-la.Normalmente, ela é publicada a partir da casa e computador pessoal do editor. Desteespaço, ela é enviada aos computadores da Universidade Federal Fluminense, que a abrigam e a mantém Tenta-se manter o mais elevado nível de profissionalismo, dentrodas condições de trabalho  e possibilidades existentes. 

      Nunca é demais esclarecer que os pontos de vista dos autores, bem como a íntegrade seus textos, são de exclusiva responsabilidade dos mesmos. Não se faz censuraideológica ou controle de procedência. Não se introduz qualquer modificação nostextos enviados, a não ser as de caráter absolutamente formais.  Procura-seselecionar os artigos a partir de critérios de qualidade e adequação aos objetivosenunciados nas normas editoriais.  

      Tem sido muito prazeroso editar a Ciberlegenda, mesmo com as dificuldadesinerentes a esta tarefa. Ela já ocupou o seu lugar nas mídias eletrônicas e no universodas demais revistas acadêmicas que escolheram o ciberespaço como um lugarprivilegiado. Se os objetivos principais de revistas desta natureza consistem eminformar e fazer circular amplamente as idéias da comunidade dos pesquisadores, acredita-se que se está no caminho certo. Aliás, o julgamento que realmente importa é o do leitor.  

      A Ciberlegenda é feita para os seus leitores. Eles esperam e cobram insistentementepor cada novo número. Aproximadamente, são realizadas 10.000 consultas por ano. Este último número de 2004 é mais uma vez dedicado aos seus fiéis leitores. Espera-se que em 2005, a revista esteja ainda melhor e que seus leitores continuem sendoseus parceiros ativos, bem como os seus críticos mais construtivos. 

      Rio de Janeiro, 27 de novembro de 2004.

      Luís Carlos Lopes

      Editor

    14. Up-regulation of Amazon forest photosynthesis precedes elevated mortality under drought

      Science.gov (United States)

      Saleska, S. R.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Longo, M.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Alves, L. F.; Wiedemann, K. T.; Stark, S. C.; Hayek, M.; Wu, J.; Munger, J. W.; Meir, P.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; da Silva, R.; Camargo, P. B. D.

      2015-12-01

      Coupled climate-carbon cycle models indicate that Amazon forests may be vulnerable to drought, with some predicting drought-induced collapse of the Amazon forest and conversion to savanna, under future climate change. While much progress has been made in understanding tropical forest drought response, a holistic picture encompassing both short-term physiological (e.g., photosynthesis) and longer term demographic responses (e.g., mortality) remains elusive, mainly due to the rarity of coinciding relevant measurements and drought events. Here we address this knowledge gap by analyzing the response of an eastern Amazonian forest at both timescales to the El Nino-induced drought of late 2009 / early 2010 (distinct from the Atlantic SST-induced drought to hit Western Amazonia in mid/late 2010) using eddy flux measurements of carbon exchange and periodic tree demographic surveys. We partitioned the drought response of GPP into environmental (light, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), diffuse light) and biological responses. Based on environmental conditions alone (high VPD), we expected GPP to be 1-2 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 less than average during drought. In contrast, GPP was elevated by 2-4 umol CO2 m-2 s-1 above this expected negative response over a period of ~45 days, consistent with previously observed green-up from satelliltes during the 2005 Amazon drought. At the same time, drought significantly elevated 2009-2011 tree mortality, by ~50% above that during non-drought periods, consistent with a quantitative drought-mortality relationship reported for other Amazon forests. This work suggests that observations of "green-up" of forest canopies during drought may be consistent with subsequent drought-induced tree mortality, in contrast to expectation. More importantly, it highlights endogenous biological regulation of photosynthesis as an important mechanism, neglected by models, in mediating drought responses in tropical forests.

    15. Amazon forest response to repeated droughts

      Science.gov (United States)

      Feldpausch, T. R.; Phillips, O. L.; Brienen, R. J. W.; Gloor, E.; Lloyd, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Monteagudo-Mendoza, A.; Malhi, Y.; Alarcón, A.; Álvarez Dávila, E.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Andrade, A.; Aragao, L. E. O. C.; Arroyo, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Baker, T. R.; Baraloto, C.; Barroso, J.; Bonal, D.; Castro, W.; Chama, V.; Chave, J.; Domingues, T. F.; Fauset, S.; Groot, N.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Laurance, S.; Laurance, W. F.; Lewis, S. L.; Licona, J. C.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Mendoza Bautista, C.; Neill, D. A.; Oliveira, E. A.; Oliveira dos Santos, C.; Pallqui Camacho, N. C.; Pardo-Molina, G.; Prieto, A.; Quesada, C. A.; Ramírez, F.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Réjou-Méchain, M.; Rudas, A.; Saiz, G.; Salomão, R. P.; Silva-Espejo, J. E.; Silveira, M.; Steege, H.; Stropp, J.; Terborgh, J.; Thomas-Caesar, R.; Heijden, G. M. F.; Vásquez Martinez, R.; Vilanova, E.; Vos, V. A.

      2016-07-01

      The Amazon Basin has experienced more variable climate over the last decade, with a severe and widespread drought in 2005 causing large basin-wide losses of biomass. A drought of similar climatological magnitude occurred again in 2010; however, there has been no basin-wide ground-based evaluation of effects on vegetation. We examine to what extent the 2010 drought affected forest dynamics using ground-based observations of mortality and growth from an extensive forest plot network. We find that during the 2010 drought interval, forests did not gain biomass (net change: -0.43 Mg ha-1, confidence interval (CI): -1.11, 0.19, n = 97), regardless of whether forests experienced precipitation deficit anomalies. This contrasted with a long-term biomass sink during the baseline pre-2010 drought period (1998 to pre-2010) of 1.33 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI: 0.90, 1.74, p drought (i.e., reversal of the baseline net sink) was -1.95 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (CI:-2.77, -1.18; p drought history. Thus, there was no evidence that pre-2010 droughts compounded the effects of the 2010 drought. We detected a systematic basin-wide impact of the 2010 drought on tree growth rates across Amazonia, which was related to the strength of the moisture deficit. This impact differed from the drought event in 2005 which did not affect productivity. Based on these ground data, live biomass in trees and corresponding estimates of live biomass in lianas and roots, we estimate that intact forests in Amazonia were carbon neutral in 2010 (-0.07 Pg C yr-1 CI:-0.42, 0.23), consistent with results from an independent analysis of airborne estimates of land-atmospheric fluxes during 2010. Relative to the long-term mean, the 2010 drought resulted in a reduction in biomass carbon uptake of 1.1 Pg C, compared to 1.6 Pg C for the 2005 event.

    16. Enumerating Trees

      CERN Document Server

      Kucharczyk, Robert A

      2012-01-01

      In this note we discuss trees similar to the Calkin-Wilf tree, a binary tree that enumerates all positive rational numbers in a simple way. The original construction of Calkin and Wilf is reformulated in a more algebraic language, and an elementary application of methods from analytic number theory gives restrictions on possible analogues.

    17. Ocorrência de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritidae em mangueiras (Mangifera indica L. em Boa Vista, Roraima = The occurrence of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae in mango (Mangifera indica L. in Boa Vista, Roraima

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Adriana Bezerra Lima

      2012-08-01

      Full Text Available Um estudo foi conduzido no período de junho de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em pomares comerciais de manga das variedades: Tommy Atkins, Haden e Palmer sendo 3 ha de cada cultivar, localizado na região do Bom Intento no Município de Boa Vista. Os espécimes de moscas-das-frutas foram coletados, por meio de armadilhas, confeccionadas com garrafas pet, que foram penduradas na copa das árvores a 1,60 m de altura. Como atrativo alimentar foi utilizado 200 mL de suco de maracujá a 30%. Foram utilizadas nove armadilhas, sendo uma armadilha por hectare. Semanalmente as armadilhas eram examinadas, ocasião em que se substituía o atrativo e os insetos capturados retirados e colocados em frascos de vidro devidamente etiquetados e transportados ao Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Roraima. As identificações dos espécimes foram feitas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia - INPA. No período de oito meses foram coletados 24 espécimes adultos do gênero Anastrepha (nove fêmeas e 15 machos. Quatro espécies foram identificadas: A. serpentina, A. striata, A. obliqua e A. turpinae. A maior frequência foi A. serpentina (44,44%, seguida de A. striata e A. obliqua ambas com 22,22% e A. turpinae com 11,11%. Os meses de maior ocorrência de Anastrepha spp. foram junho, julho e agosto. Este é o primeiro registro da espécie Anastrepha turpinae Stone, 1942, em Roraima. The study was done during th period of June 2007 to January of 2008, in commercial mango orchards having: 3 ha of cv. Tommy Atkins, 3 ha of cv. Haden. and 3 ha of cv. Palmer, located at Bom Intento in the municipal district of Boa Vista - RR. The specimens of fruit flies were collected, by trapping, made with transparent bottles pet, which were hung in the cup of the trees at 1.60 m of height. 200 mL of passion fruit juice (30% was used as an attractant feed; 9 traps were used, being one trap for hectare. Weekly The traps were

    18. COS Imaging TA and Spectroscopic WCA-PSA/BOA offset verifications

      Science.gov (United States)

      Penton, Steven

      2013-10-01

      This program builds upon the monitoring and calibration of the FGSs (13616 - HST Cycle 21 Focal Plane Calibration (SI-FGS Alignment)). HST 13616 performs back-to-back PSA/MIRRORA & PSA/MIRRORB ACQ/IMAGES, from which all the results herein are bootstrapped.The list of proposals, cycles, and the order in which the alignment is checked is given below. 11878->12399->12781->13171->13616 C17->C18 ->C19->C20->C21 STIS->WFC3->ACS->COSThis program will be repeated every cycle and we will once again use it's COS exposures as the baseline for this program.This program performs a PSA/MIRRORA ACQ/IMAGE on a target that should already be centered in the aperture. This verifies the COS NUV PSA aperture position in the SIAF. After this PSA+MIRRORA ACQ/IMAGE, a PSA+MIRRORB ACQ/IMAGE is then performed. This exposure bootstraps the PSA+MIRRORB centering to the PSA+MIRROR SIAF verification. This allows us to monitor the properties of the PSA+MIRRORB image in a controlled way on a centered target. No spectra are taken in 13616 due to time constraints.This program extends the SIAF verification of 13616 to the other two ACQ/IMAGE combinations (BOA+MIRRORA & BOA+MIRRORB) by bootstraping from the PSA+MIRRORB verification of 13616.Visit 1 of this program begins with a PSA+MIRRORB NUV ACQ/IMAGE followed by a BOA+MIRRORA ACQ/IMAGE. Both observations are high S/N to get the most accurate centering information possible. The program then takes a PSA+MIRRORB IMAGE to ensure that we are still properly centered. We prefer that Visit 01 of this program executes within 45 days of Visit 02 of 13616, to ensure that no long term instrument or telescope focus changes impart our results.After the Imaging verification , Visit 1 of this program will obtain a S/N > 60 NUV spectrum using the most popular NUV grating (G230L, G185M, & G285M), and FUV Spectra using G130M/1309 and G140L/1280. This allows the direct verification of the NUV and FUV WCA-to-PSA cross-dispersion offsets used by ACQ/PEAKXD.Visit 02 of

    19. A pedagogia no combate ao trabalho infantil no município de Boa Vista

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lysne Nôzenir Camelo de Lima

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available O trabalho infantil expõe as crianças a vários riscos, prejudicando seu desenvolvimento e configura-se como violação de direito. O trabalho apresenta a pedagogia utilizada pelo PETI em Boa Vista; o procedimento foi aplicado através de entrevista semi-estruturada e questionários, aos gestores e as crianças do programa, com enfoque qualitativo e quantitativo, avaliando a participação e satisfação dos integrantes e seus familiares. O PETI tem a finalidade de erradicar as diversas formas de trabalho infantil, assim como retirar das ruas crianças e/ou adolescentes. Sendo o seu público alvo crianças e/ou adolescentes na faixa etária de 07 (sete a 15 (quinze anos de idade. Dentre as ações desenvolvidas estão a de caráter protetivo e sócioeducativo, que compreendem: atividades ludopedagógicas, palestras preventivas e educativas, esportes, artesanatos, músicas e etc. Nesse contexto, cabe ao PETI, como programa estratégico, contribuindo para erradicação do trabalho infantil no Município de Boa Vista. Oportunizando assim as crianças e adolescentes assim como suas famílias a terem uma vida melhor. No resultado final, constatou-se o compromisso em erradicar o trabalho infantil em Boa Vista, priorizando o atendimento as famílias, através da educação social.

    20. Amazon Forest Responses to Drought and Fire

      Science.gov (United States)

      Morton, D. C.

      2015-12-01

      Deforestation and agricultural land uses provide a consistent source of ignitions along the Amazon frontier during the dry season. The risk of understory fires in Amazon forests is amplified by drought conditions, when fires at the forest edge may spread for weeks before rains begin. Fire activity also impacts the regional response of intact forests to drought through diffuse light effects and nutrient redistribution, highlighting the complexity of feedbacks in this coupled human and natural system. This talk will focus on recent advances in our understanding of fire-climate feedbacks in the Amazon, building on research themes initiated under NASA's Large-scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). NASA's LBA program began in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Niño, a strong event that exposed the vulnerability of Amazon forests to drought and fire under current climate and projections of climate change. With forecasts of another strong El Niño event in 2015-2016, this talk will provide a multi-scale synthesis of Amazon forest responses to drought and fire based on field measurements, airborne lidar data, and satellite observations of fires, rainfall, and terrestrial water storage. These studies offer new insights into the mechanisms governing fire season severity in the southern Amazon and regional variability in carbon losses from understory fires. The contributions from remote sensing to our understanding of drought and fire in Amazon forests reflect the legacy of NASA's LBA program and the sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research across the Amazon region.

    1. Tree compression with top trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.;

      2015-01-01

      We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

    2. Tree compression with top trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

      2013-01-01

      We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast n...

    3. Tree compression with top trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

      2015-01-01

      We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast navig...

    4. O que é uma vida boa? What is a good life?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ronald Dworkin

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available A partir de seu novo livro, Justice for Hedgehogs¹, Ronald Dworkin estabelece uma diferente relação entre moral e ética, bem como fundamenta a necessidade de cumprir tais normas por meio da diferença entre vida boa e viver bem.According to his new book, Justice for Hedgehogs, Ronald Dworkin establishes a different relation between morality and ethics founding the need to obey these norms through the distinction between good life and living well.

    5. On Some Extensions of Szasz Operators Including Boas-Buck-Type Polynomials

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sezgin Sucu

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a new sequence of linear positive operators which generalize Szasz operators including Boas-Buck-type polynomials. We establish a convergence theorem for these operators and give the quantitative estimation of the approximation process by using a classical approach and the second modulus of continuity. Some explicit examples of our operators involving Laguerre polynomials, Charlier polynomials, and Gould-Hopper polynomials are given. Moreover, a Voronovskaya-type result is obtained for the operators containing Gould-Hopper polynomials.

    6. The Transplantation of BOA Based on Linux3.0.1 and S3C6410

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jianmin Wang

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available The web server is a tool of information queries and information dissemination based on hypertext. Special software didn’t need to be installed by the users, and can access the embedded devices by accessing the browser through a general-purpose PC. In this paper, the embedded Web Server BOA transplantation, in the latest ARM11 architecture S3C6410 processor and version of the Linux3.0.1 operating system and gave an example of how to access the browser to control the development Board as the instance for LED lights.

    7. STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ‘ANDIROBEIRAS’ (Carapa spp. IN FLOODPLAIN FOREST OF THE AMAZON ESTUARY

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jadson Coelho de Abreu

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the density of occurrence of andirobeiras is dependent of the Amazon River distance, analyzing their spatial distribution and diameter structure of the population in a floodplain forest in Amapá state, Brazilian Amazon. This work is part of ‘Florestam’ project (ecology and forest management for the multiple use of the floodplains of the Amazon estuary.This study was conducted in an environment protected area of 136.59 ha, located in Fazendinha district, city of Macapá, AP state (00º03'04, 24 "S and 51º 07'42, 72" W. Three transects perpendicular to the Amazon river were launched, apart from each other every 500 m, to guide the direction and location of trees. All andirobeiras with (CBH circumference at breast height ≥ 15 cm were inventoried and mapped. The number of diameter classes was defined according to Higushi. We tested the fit of andirobeira diameter distribution to the exponential model by Meyer. We calculated the ratio q of De Liocourt for the observed and for the estimated frequencies. We calculated Morisita index, variance/mean ratio, and aggregation to infer the spatial distribution. Six hundred and eighty productive and unproductive andirobeiras  were inventoried with a basal area of 55.84 m2, generating a density of 5 trees ha-1.The diameter distribution were generated with 9 classes of 11 cm diameter range and the determination coefficient for the exponential model was 0.93 and the quotient q = 2.03.The indices used showed that the spatial distribution of adult andirobeiras occurs in the aggregate form. The andirobeira diameter structure shows great number of young individuals and that the population is not senescent. The density of adult andirobeiras depends on the river distance, with the greatest concentration of trees in more remote areas of Amazon River.

    8. Biomass production and essential oil yield from leaves, fine stems and resprouts using pruning the crown of Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) (Lauraceae) in the Central Amazon

      OpenAIRE

      2012-01-01

      Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez. is a tree species from Amazon that produces essential oil. The oil extraction from its leaves and stems can be an alternative way to avoid the tree cutting for production of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analyse factors that may influence the essential oil production and the biomass of resprouts after pruning the leaves and stems of A. canelilla trees. The tree crowns were pruned in the wet season and after nine months the leaves and stems of the re...

    9. Comportamento de cultivares de alface tipo americana em Boa Esperança Performance of crisphead lettuce cultivars in Boa Esperança, Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jony E. Yuri

      2002-06-01

      Full Text Available Os experimentos foram conduzidos em estufas (túnel alto no município de Boa Esperança (MG, para avaliar cultivares de alface do grupo americana ("Crisphead lettuce", em duas épocas de plantio (outubro e março. As cultivares (Cassino; Legacy; Lucy Brown; Lorca; Lady e Raider foram plantadas em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Para a primeira época (outubro, a produção comercial variou de 29,3 t.ha-1 a 37,6 t.ha-1 e circunferência da cabeça de 40,07 a 42,95 cm, não apresentando diferenças significativas entre cultivares. Na segunda época de plantio (março, sobressaíram-se as cultivares Raider, Cassino, Lady, Legacy e Lorca com produção comercial de 42,6; 41,6; 39,3; 37,3 e 32,5 t.ha-1, respectivamente. Quanto à circunferência de cabeça comercial, as cultivares Lady, Raider, Lucy Brown e Cassino, foram superiores às demais cultivares, com 48,15; 46,69; 45,90 e 45,67 cm respectivamente, sem diferirem significativamente entre si.The experiment was carried out at green house, in Boa Esperança, Brazil, to evaluate lettuce cultivars (Cassino; Legacy; Lucy Brown; Lorca; Lady and Raider, crisphead group, in two planting seasons (October and March. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications. For the first season (October, the commercial yield, varied from 29.3 t.ha-1 to 37.6 t.ha-1 and head circumference from 40.07 to 42.95 cm, without significant difference among cultivars. At the second planting season (March, cvs. Raider, Cassino, Lady, Legacy and Lorca presented a commercial yield of 42.6; 41.6; 39.3; 37.3 and 32.5 t.ha-1. Cvs. Lady, Raider Lucy Brown and Cassino, were superior to the other cultivars, without significant differences among themselves, with 48.15; 46.69; 45.90; and 45.67 cm respectively.

    10. THE QUADRANTS METHOD TO ESTIMATE QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES IN MANAGEMENT PLANS IN THE AMAZON

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gabriel da Silva Oliveira

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the accuracy in estimates of abundance, basal area and commercial volume per hectare, by the quadrants method applied to an area of 1.000 hectares of rain forest in the Amazon. Samples were simulated by random and systematic process with different sample sizes, ranging from 100 to 200 sampling points. The amounts estimated by the samples were compared with the parametric values recorded in the census. In the analysis we considered as the population all trees with diameter at breast height equal to or greater than 40 cm. The quadrants method did not reach the desired level of accuracy for the variables basal area and commercial volume, overestimating the observed values recorded in the census. However, the accuracy of the estimates of abundance, basal area and commercial volume was satisfactory for applying the method in forest inventories for management plans in the Amazon.

    11. Study of the land degradation in the municipality of Boa Vista-Paraíba

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      João Miguel de Morais Neto

      2007-11-01

      Full Text Available The study area covers all the territory of the municipality of Boa Vista, located in the Microrregião Homogênea dos Cariris Velhos, semi-arid region of the State of Paraíba. The main objective of this study was to elaborate space-temporal thematic maps of the land degradation expansion in the municipality of Boa Vista for the period 1987/2004, based on TM/Landsat-5 image analysis and field work data. The Landsat images digital processing was carried on the SPRING, v.4.2 (CÂMARA et al., 1998. The results had shown that in the study area are presented degradation levels varying from low to the very serious. The degradation levels very low, low and moderate had their occurrence diminished in 4.72%, 9.64% and 0.98%, respectively during the period since 1987 to 2004. In opposing way, the areas of moderate serious, serious and very serious degradation levels had increased in the period, with increments of 2.90%; 6.66% and 5.72%, respectively. In the municipality the land degradation is resultant of a lack of conservation practical in the use of agricultural soils by the farmers, of a lack of an infrastructure for mitigating the drought effects and of a lack of public polices for a sustainable life in the semi-arid region.

    12. Increased Frequency of Large Blowdown Formation in Years With Hotter Dry Seasons in the Northwestern Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rifai, S. W.; Anderson, L. O.; Bohlman, S.

      2015-12-01

      Blowdowns, which are large tree mortality events caused by downbursts, create large pulses of carbon emissions in the short term and alter successional dynamics and species composition of forests, thus affecting long term biogeochemical cycling of tropical forests. Changing climate, especially increasing temperatures and frequency of extreme climate events, may cause changes in the frequency of blowdowns, but there has been little spatiotemporal analysis to associate the interannual variation in the frequency of blowdowns with annual climate parameters. We mapped blowdowns greater than 25 ha using a time series of Landsat images from 1984-2012 in the northwestern Amazon to estimate the annual size distribution of these blowdowns. The difference in forest area affected by blowdowns between the years with the highest and lowest blowdown activity were on the order of 10 - 30 times greater depending on location. Spatially, we found the probability of large blowdowns to be higher in regions with higher annual rainfall. Temporally, we found a positive correlation between the probability of large blowdown events and maximum dry season air temperature (R2 = 0.1-0.46). Mean and maximum blowdown size also increased with maximum dry season air temperature. The strength of these relationships varied between scene locations which may be related to cloud cover obscuring the land surface in the satellite images, or biophysical characteristics of the sites. Potentially, elevated dry season temperatures during the transition from the dry season to the wet season (October - December) may exacerbate atmospheric instabilities, which promote downburst occurrences. Most global circulation models predict dry season air temperatures to increase 2-5 ℃ in the northwestern Amazon by 2050. Should the blowdown disturbance regime continue increasing with elevated dry season temperatures, the northwestern Amazon is likely to experience more catastrophic tree mortality events which has direct

    13. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      S. Patiño

      2009-04-01

      Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

    14. Context trees

      OpenAIRE

      Ganzinger, Harald; Nieuwenhuis, Robert; Nivela, Pilar

      2001-01-01

      Indexing data structures are well-known to be crucial for the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art theorem provers. Examples are \\emph{discrimination trees}, which are like tries where terms are seen as strings and common prefixes are shared, and \\emph{substitution trees}, where terms keep their tree structure and all common \\emph{contexts} can be shared. Here we describe a new indexing data structure, \\emph{context trees}, where, by means of a limited kind of conte...

    15. Two Trees

      OpenAIRE

      Cochrane, John. H.; Longstaff, Francis A.; Santa-Clara, Pedro

      2004-01-01

      We solve a model with two “Lucas trees.†Each tree has i.i.d. dividend growth. The investor has log utility and consumes the sum of the two trees’ dividends. This model produces interesting asset-pricing dynamics, despite its simple ingredients. Investors want to rebalance their portfolios after any change in value. Since the size of the trees is fixed, however, prices must adjust to offset this desire. As a result, expected returns, excess returns, and return volatility all vary throug...

    16. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO in the remote Amazon Basin: overview of first results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M. O. Andreae

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available The Amazon Basin plays key roles in the carbon and water cycles, climate change, atmospheric chemistry, and biodiversity. It already has been changed significantly by human activities, and more pervasive change is expected to occur in the next decades. It is therefore essential to establish long-term measurement sites that provide a baseline record of present-day climatic, biogeochemical, and atmospheric conditions and that will be operated over coming decades to monitor change in the Amazon region as human perturbations increase in the future. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO has been set up in a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin, about 150 km northeast of the city of Manaus. An ecological survey including a biodiversity assessment has been conducted in the forest region surrounding the site. Two 80 m towers have been operated at the site since 2012, and a 325 m tower is nearing completion in mid-2015. Measurements of micrometeorological and atmospheric chemical variables were initiated in 2012, and their range has continued to broaden over the last few years. The meteorological and micrometeorological measurements include temperature and wind profiles, precipitation, water and energy fluxes, turbulence components, soil temperature profiles and soil heat fluxes, radiation fluxes, and visibility. A tree has been instrumented to measure stem profiles of temperature, light intensity, and water content in cryptogamic covers. The trace gas measurements comprise continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and ozone at 5 to 8 different heights, complemented by a variety of additional species measured during intensive campaigns (e.g., VOC, NO, NO2, and OH reactivity. Aerosol optical, microphysical, and chemical measurements are made above the canopy as well as in the canopy space. They include light scattering and absorption, aerosol fluorescence, number and volume size distributions, chemical

    17. Modelling sustainable international tourism demand to the Brazilian Amazon

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      J.A. Divino (Jose Angelo); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

      2008-01-01

      textabstractThe Amazon rainforest is one of the world’s greatest natural wonders and holds great importance and significance for the world’s environmental balance. Around 60% of the Amazon rainforest is located in the Brazilian territory. The two biggest states of the Amazon region are Amazonas (the

    18. Business as Usual: Amazon.com and the Academic Library

      Science.gov (United States)

      Van Ullen, Mary K.; Germain, Carol Anne

      2002-01-01

      In 1999, Steve Coffman proposed that libraries form a single interlibrary loan based entity patterned after Amazon.com. This study examined the suitability of Amazon.com's Web interface and record enhancements for academic libraries. Amazon.com could not deliver circulating monographs in the University at Albany Libraries' collection quickly…

    19. Talking Trees

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tolman, Marvin

      2005-01-01

      Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

    20. Amazon old-growth forest wind disturbance and the regional carbon balance

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Marra, D. M.; Roberts, D. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Lima, A.; Higuchi, N.

      2010-12-01

      Estimating the carbon balance of a landscape is challenging. A key problem is determining whether or not measurements made in plots are representative of the carbon state of a larger region. A key parameter for calculating landscape carbon balance is the return frequency of episodic disturbances. If disturbances are clustered and occur more frequently than the time required for biomass recovery, a spatial mixture of patches in different stages of recovery occurs. Under these shifting steady-state mosaic conditions, quantifying the mean state of ecosystem attributes such as carbon balance or tree species diversity is difficult. In this study, satellite remote sensing (Landsat) was coupled with field investigations to create ~25 year landscape-scale disturbance chronosequence for old-growth forest in the Central Amazon. The detected disturbances were caused by strong storms which resulted in tree mortality events ranging from small clusters of 7-10 downed trees, to large contiguous blowdowns larger than 30 ha in size. Using the chronosequence, a cumulative probability distribution function was developed, which followed a power law, and was used to parameterize a forest carbon balance model. Results demonstrate that for power law exponents less than about 2.0, the spatial scale at which forest carbon balance establishes is much larger than generally expected. Ultimately, an increase in wind disturbance frequency and/or intensity with a warming climate has the potential to cause a net loss of carbon from Amazon forests to the atmosphere.

    1. Que "boa família"?: assistência e solidariedade familiar em Cuba

      OpenAIRE

      Destremau, Blandine

      2014-01-01

      O reforço da assistência e da intervenção sociais em Cuba responde mais aos efeitos sociais da crise econômica e das transformações estruturais que a acompanham do que ao crescimento da pobreza. Este artigo examina as práticas de intervenção social à luz das normas familiares subjacentes: que "boa família" elas prometem? De que modo a assistência e a intervenção sociais abordam estruturas familiares fragilizadas quando se exacerba a contradição entre individualização e igualdade, de um lado, ...

    2. Phylogenetic trees

      OpenAIRE

      Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; WALKER, Robert

      2016-01-01

      We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

    3. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baker, Timothy R; Pennington, R Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J M M; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Brienen, Roel J W; Chave, Jerome; Dexter, Kyle G; Di Fiore, Anthony; Eler, Eduardo; Feldpausch, Ted R; Ferreira, Leandro; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; van der Heijden, Geertje; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio, Eurídice; Huamantupa, Isau; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, Susan; Leaño, Claudio; Lewis, Simon L; Malhi, Yadvinder; Marimon, Beatriz Schwantes; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Neill, David; Peñuela-Mora, Maria Cristina; Pitman, Nigel; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A; Ramírez, Fredy; Ramírez Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruschel, Ademir R; Salomão, Rafael P; de Andrade, Ana Segalin; Silva, J Natalino M; Silveira, Marcos; Simon, Marcelo F; Spironello, Wilson; ter Steege, Hans; Terborgh, John; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; Vasquez, Rodolfo; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Phillips, Oliver L; Wiens, John

      2014-01-01

      The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits – short turnover times – are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rates are either constant or decline over time, and occurs in a wide range of Neotropical tree lineages. This finding reveals the crucial role of intrinsic, ecological variation among clades for understanding the origin of the remarkable diversity of Amazonian trees and forests. PMID:24589190

    4. Game tree algorithms and solution trees

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie)

      1998-01-01

      textabstractIn this paper, a theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the concept of solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min trees. Every game tree algorithm tries to prune nodes as many as possible from the game tree. A cut-off criterion in

    5. Electron Tree

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

      2013-01-01

      The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

    6. Does the Amazon suffer from BSE prevention?

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Schoot Uiterkamp, A.J.M.

      2007-01-01

      In the last decade, large-scale production of soybeans has been a major driver of the enhanced deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. We show that these soybeans are mainly exported to the EU to substitute for the BSE related banned meat and bone meal in livestock feed. This strongly suggests a link

    7. Amazon Flooded Forest. Teacher Resource Guide.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Duvall, Todd

      This teacher's resource guide was created to accompany the Amazon Flooded Forest exhibit at the Oregon Zoo. The enclosed lessons and activities are designed to extend into several aspects of daily curriculum including science, math, reading, writing, speaking, and geography. The materials are intended for use in grades 3-6 although most activities…

    8. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hoerr, Thomas R.

      2015-01-01

      A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

    9. Deforestation crimes and conflicts in the Amazon

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Boekhout van Solinge, T.

      2010-01-01

      This article explores and explains deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. It primarily takes a green criminological perspective and looks at the harm that is inflicted on many of the Amazon’s inhabitants, including indigenous populations such as ‘uncontacted’ tribes of hunters-gatherers,

    10. Polycystic echinococcosis in Pacas, Amazon region, Peru.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mayor, Pedro; Baquedano, Laura E; Sanchez, Elisabeth; Aramburu, Javier; Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Mamani, Victor J; Gavidia, Cesar M

      2015-03-01

      In the Peruvian Amazon, paca meat is consumed by humans. To determine human risk for polycystic echinococcosis, we examined wild pacas from 2 villages; 15 (11.7%) of 128 were infected with Echinococcus vogeli tapeworms. High E. vogeli prevalence among pacas indicates potential risk for humans living in E. vogeli-contaminated areas.

    11. Effects of Amazonian Dark Earths on growth and leaf nutrient balance of tropical tree seedlings

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Quintero Vallejo, Estela; Pena Claros, M.; Bongers, F.; Toledo, M.; Poorter, L.

      2015-01-01

      Background and aims: Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are ancient anthropogenic soils distributed in the Amazon basin. They are characterized by high nutrients such as phosphorus, calcium, potassium and nitrogen. We studied the effect of ADE on growth, morphology and physiology of 17 tree species from a

    12. Interpreting Tree Ensembles with inTrees

      OpenAIRE

      Deng, Houtao

      2014-01-01

      Tree ensembles such as random forests and boosted trees are accurate but difficult to understand, debug and deploy. In this work, we provide the inTrees (interpretable trees) framework that extracts, measures, prunes and selects rules from a tree ensemble, and calculates frequent variable interactions. An rule-based learner, referred to as the simplified tree ensemble learner (STEL), can also be formed and used for future prediction. The inTrees framework can applied to both classification an...

    13. Environmental assessment do support the urban planning: Boa Esperança (MG case

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Larissa Gischewski Guimarães

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available The study area comprises the urban watersheds in Boa Esperança-MG, which have several social and environmental problems due to human action. Pollution, siltation and eutrophication of streams, along with the disorderly occupation of permanent preservation areas are the main problems observed. In the study area formed the Encantos lake, portion of the Furnas Hydroelectric Power Plant reservoir, widely used for recreation, sports and fishing activities. This study conducted environmental analysis of the mentioned river basins, through the analysis of qualitative aspects of stream, land use, environmental degradation and areas subject to flooding. The results show that urbanization affected the Areas of Permanent Preservation, damaging the environmental and health quality of these environments, resulting in issues that may directly affect public health. From this analysis it was recommended the establishment of corrective and preventive actions, such as the revitalization of the environment, the creation and expansion of municipal parks, creating bicycle paths and educational activities involving the community. For these actions to succeed, the review process of the master plan, should include guidelines related to environmental conservation. This initiative is essential for urban planning is integrated with environmental planning.

    14. Amazon forests green-up during 2005 drought.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Saleska, Scott R; Didan, Kamel; Huete, Alfredo R; da Rocha, Humberto R

      2007-10-26

      Coupled climate-carbon cycle models suggest that Amazon forests are vulnerable to both long- and short-term droughts, but satellite observations showed a large-scale photosynthetic green-up in intact evergreen forests of the Amazon in response to a short, intense drought in 2005. These findings suggest that Amazon forests, although threatened by human-caused deforestation and fire and possibly by more severe long-term droughts, may be more resilient to climate changes than ecosystem models assume.

    15. Biomass Change of the Landless Peasants' Settlements in Lower Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yoshikawa, S.; Ishimaru, K.

      2014-12-01

      Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in Legal Amazon due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. Around the same time, movements which poor peoples or landless peasants settle into abandoned land have been very active in Brazil. In many cases, these people lack agricultural experiences to yield sufficient production for livelihoods. Thus, it leads to abandon the land and repeat forest clearance. In recent year, education by NGOs to these people encourage spreading of agroforestry which is a land use management system in which trees are grown around or among crops or pasture land. In this study, we specifically aimed at clarifying changes in LULC and these biomass using ground observation data, remotely-sensed LANDSAT data and GIS techniques. We focus on four different settlements: old-established settlement (around 30 years), established settlement (around 20 years), productive settlement (7 year) and unproductive settlement (7 years). These four settelements were located at Santa Barbará province, about 40 km northeast from the center of Belém, the Pará state capital, in the northern part of Brazil. We clarify that the biomass change varied according to whether the settlement are productive or not.

    16. Nutrient retranslocation in forest species in the Brazilian Amazon

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Murilo Rezende Machado

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available Internal retranslocation is an important mechanism for nutrient conservation in plants, which depends on different factors. However, there are little data about this subject, especially on tropical forest species. This study aimed to evaluate the macronutrient retranslocation dynamic and the influence of ecological (P: pioneer x NP: non-pioneer and phenological (ND: non-deciduous x D: semideciduous / deciduous characteristics on the macronutrient content of leaves of five tree species on monospecific plantations in the Brazilian Amazon: Acacia mangium Willd., Parkia decussata Ducke, Dipteryx odorata (Aublet Willd., Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Don and Swietenia macrophylla King. Photosynthetically active green leaves and senescent leaves (leaf litter were collected. Retranslocation was estimated through an equation proposed by Attiwill, Guthrie and Leuning (1978. The pioneer species presented higher foliar contents of N; the non-pioneer species presented higher contents of K, Ca and S; and the results were inconclusive for P and Mg. The deciduous species presented higher foliar contents of K and of P, whereas the foliar contents of N, Ca, Mg and S were virtually identical between the phenological groups. The internal retranslocation of foliar nutrients in pioneer and non-deciduous species was higher than that of non-pioneer and deciduous species.

    17. Aspen Trees.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Canfield, Elaine

      2002-01-01

      Describes a fifth-grade art activity that offers a new approach to creating pictures of Aspen trees. Explains that the students learned about art concepts, such as line and balance, in this lesson. Discusses the process in detail for creating the pictures. (CMK)

    18. BOAS PRÁTICAS NA PRODUÇÃO DE MEL NA MICRORREGIÃO DE PAU DOS FERROS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pedro Henrique de Assis Silva

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available As Boas Práticas de Fabricação (BPF e as Boas Práticas Apícolas abrangem um conjunto de medidas que devem ser adotadas pelas unidades de extração do mel a fim de garantir a qualidade sanitária e aconformidade do produto. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar pesquisas na microrregião de Pau dos Ferros, sobre Processo do mel desde a colheita até seu envase. O levantamento foi feito em quatro cidades da região com visitas a apicultores, que foram submetidos a perguntas relacionadas ao modo de colheita do mel e seu processamento. As pesquisas mostram que, a apicultura na região esta evoluindo, mas precisa de melhorias. PALAVRAS CHAVES: Mel, BPF, BPA, pesquisa.

    19. [Folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Henrique, Márcio Couto

      2009-01-01

      This discussion of the relations between folklore and popular medicine in the Amazon takes Canuto Azevedo's story "Filhos do boto" (Children of the porpoise) as an analytical reference point. Replete with elements of cultural reality, folk tales can serve as historical testimonies expressing clashes between different traditions. Folk records are fruit of what is often a quarrelsome dialogue between folklorists, social scientists, physicians, and pajés and their followers, and their analysis should take into account the conditions under which they were produced. Based on the imaginary attached to the figure of the porpoise--a seductive creature with healing powers--the article explores how we might expand knowledge of popular medicine as practiced in the Amazon, where the shamanistic rite known as pajelança cabocla has a strong presence.

    20. Health Concerns in the Amazon Region

      Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

      2009-04-09

      Residents of the Amazon region of South America contend with a number of health threats - from mosquito-borne diseases to difficulty accessing doctors and healthcare facilities in such a vast area. This podcast helps explore some of the health issues in the region and what's being done to address them.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

    1. Drought Sensitivity of the Amazon Rainforest

      OpenAIRE

      Phillips, Oliver L.; Aragao, Luiz; Lewis, Simon L.; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, J.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; Malhi, Y; A. Monteagudo; J. Peacock; Quesada, C.A.; Van Der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, S; Amaral, Ieda; Arroyo, L.; Aymard, Gerardo

      2009-01-01

      Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed wh...

    2. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Y. Fan

      2010-07-01

      Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations show enhanced growth in response to higher radiation under less cloudy skies, indicating an adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution. Here we assess the importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of water table depth from observations and groundwater modeling, and a map of potential capillary flux these water table depths can sustain. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be quite shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. The water table can potentially sustain a capillary flux of >2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites. Current models simulate a large-scale reduction in dry-season photosynthesis under today's climate and a possible dieback under projected future climate with a longer dry season, converting the Amazon from a net carbon sink to a source and accelerating warming. The inclusion of groundwater and capillary flux may modify the model results.

    3. Unimodular trees versus Einstein trees

      Science.gov (United States)

      Álvarez, Enrique; González-Martín, Sergio; Martín, Carmelo P.

      2016-10-01

      The maximally helicity violating tree-level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in the two theories.

    4. Unimodular Trees versus Einstein Trees

      CERN Document Server

      Alvarez, Enrique; Martin, Carmelo P

      2016-01-01

      The maximally helicity violating (MHV) tree level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in both theories.

    5. Unimodular trees versus Einstein trees

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Alvarez, Enrique; Gonzalez-Martin, Sergio [Universidad Autonoma, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Martin, Carmelo P. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Departamento de Fisica Teorica I Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain)

      2016-10-15

      The maximally helicity violating tree-level scattering amplitudes involving three, four or five gravitons are worked out in Unimodular Gravity. They are found to coincide with the corresponding amplitudes in General Relativity. This a remarkable result, insofar as both the propagators and the vertices are quite different in the two theories. (orig.)

    6. Co-infecting Reptarenaviruses Can Be Vertically Transmitted in Boa Constrictor

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Korzyukov, Yegor; Kipar, Anja

      2017-01-01

      Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is an often fatal disease affecting mainly constrictor snakes. BIBD has been associated with infection, and more recently with coinfection, by various reptarenavirus species (family Arenaviridae). Thus far BIBD has only been reported in captive snakes, and neither the incubation period nor the route of transmission are known. Herein we provide strong evidence that co-infecting reptarenavirus species can be vertically transmitted in Boa constrictor. In total we examined five B. constrictor clutches with offspring ranging in age from embryos over perinatal abortions to juveniles. The mother and/or father of each clutch were initially diagnosed with BIBD and/or reptarenavirus infection by detection of the pathognomonic inclusion bodies (IB) and/or reptarenaviral RNA. By applying next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly we determined the “reptarenavirome” of each clutch, yielding several nearly complete L and S segments of multiple reptarenaviruses. We further confirmed vertical transmission of the co-infecting reptarenaviruses by species-specific RT-PCR from samples of parental animals and offspring. Curiously, not all offspring obtained the full parental “reptarenavirome”. We extended our findings by an in vitro approach; cell cultures derived from embryonal samples rapidly developed IB and promoted replication of some or all parental viruses. In the tissues of embryos and perinatal abortions, viral antigen was sometimes detected, but IB were consistently seen only in the juvenile snakes from the age of 2 mo onwards. In addition to demonstrating vertical transmission of multiple species, our results also indicate that reptarenavirus infection induces BIBD over time in the offspring. PMID:28114434

    7. Relatório de estágio Creche Boa Infância

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Micheli Marcansoni

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available O estágio é fundamental para a formação profissional a fim de adequar essa formação às expectativas do mercado de trabalho onde o licenciado irá atuar. Assim o estágio dá oportunidade de aliar a teoria à prática. O estágio ocorreu na Creche Municipal Boa Infância, situada na Avenida Amanda da Penha, nº. 1.205, na cidade de Sinop; onde foi realizado o estágio de docência na sala do Maternal II A, no período Matutino, a docência se realizou nos dias 14/02/2011 a 02/05/2011, com carga horária de 60 horas. O seguinte relatório irá apresentar alguns dados coletados durante a docência em sala de aula e no ambiente externo, bem como também na parte administrativa. Durante a docência tivemos acesso ao Projeto Político Pedagógico da creche, onde podemos coletar alguns dados importantes, como sua missão, objetivo, entre outros. Está experiência proporcionada pelo estágio de docência amplia o significado da constituição de um profissional da área de educação e complementa a formação acadêmica. Também com a docência pude compreender algumas barreiras que temos que enfrentar dentro da educação e que realmente tenho que enfrentar para alcançar os objetivos de uma melhor educação. Palavras-chave: educação; estágio; qualidade.

    8. O Direito Comercial e a formação histórica do princípio da boa-fé objetiva

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fabio

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda o desenvolvimento histórico do princípio da boa-fé objetiva, tendo por cerne as relações jurídicas de natureza comercial. O tema é explorado a partir dos atuais contornos da boa-fé objetiva. A partir da aludida base conceitual, são traçados alguns cortes históricos, buscando demonstrar a influência do direito comercial no surgimento e desenvolvimento da boa-fé objetiva, notadamente, em decorrência do cosmopolitismo que caracteriza esse ramo jurídico. Verificou-se, assim, que os usos e costumes comerciais, os juramentos de honra e a jurisprudência comercial alemã são pontos de extrema importância para a atual compreensão de boa-fé objetiva.

    9. Introduction: Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Martin, S. T.; Artaxo, P.; Machado, L. A. T.; Manzi, A. O.; Souza, R. A. F.; Schumacher, C.; Wang, J.; Andreae, M. O.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Fan, J.; Fisch, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Guenther, A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Pöschl, U.; Silva Dias, M. A.; Smith, J. N.; Wendisch, M.

      2016-04-01

      The Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon2014/5) Experiment was carried out in the environs of Manaus, Brazil, in the central region of the Amazon basin for 2 years from 1 January 2014 through 31 December 2015. The experiment focused on the complex interactions among vegetation, atmospheric chemistry, and aerosol production on the one hand and their connections to aerosols, clouds, and precipitation on the other. The objective was to understand and quantify these linked processes, first under natural conditions to obtain a baseline and second when altered by the effects of human activities. To this end, the pollution plume from the Manaus metropolis, superimposed on the background conditions of the central Amazon basin, served as a natural laboratory. The present paper, as the introduction to the special issue of GoAmazon2014/5, presents the context and motivation of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The nine research sites, including the characteristics and instrumentation of each site, are presented. The sites range from time point zero (T0) upwind of the pollution, to T1 in the midst of the pollution, to T2 just downwind of the pollution, to T3 furthest downwind of the pollution (70 km). In addition to the ground sites, a low-altitude G-159 Gulfstream I (G-1) observed the atmospheric boundary layer and low clouds, and a high-altitude Gulfstream G550 (HALO) operated in the free troposphere. During the 2-year experiment, two Intensive Operating Periods (IOP1 and IOP2) also took place that included additional specialized research instrumentation at the ground sites as well as flights of the two aircraft. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP1 was carried out from 1 February to 31 March 2014 in the wet season. GoAmazon2014/5 IOP2 was conducted from 15 August to 15 October 2014 in the dry season. The G-1 aircraft flew during both IOP1 and IOP2, and the HALO aircraft flew during IOP2. In the context of the Amazon basin, the two IOPs also correspond to the clean and

    10. GoAmazon 2014/15. SRI-PTR-ToFMS Field Campaign Report

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Guenther, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

      2016-03-01

      Our science team, including Dr. Alex Guenther (previously at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and now at the University of California, Irvine) Dr. Saewung Kim and Dr. Roger Seco, and Dr. Jim Smith (previously at NCAR and now at UC Irvine), deployed a selected reagent ion – proton transfer reaction – time-of-flight mass spectrometer (SRI-PTR-TOFMS) to the T3 site during the GoAmazon study. One of the major uncertainties in climate model simulations is the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing, and a better understanding of the factors controlling aerosol distributions and life cycle is urgently needed. Aerosols contribute directly to the Earth’s radiation balance by scattering or absorbing light as a function of their physical properties and indirectly through particle-cloud interactions that lead to cloud formation and the modification of cloud properties. On a global scale, the dominant source of organic aerosol is biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emitted from terrestrial ecosystems. These organic aerosols are a major part of the total mass of all airborne particles and are currently not sufficiently represented in climate models. To incorporate quantitatively the effects of BVOCs and their oxidation products on biogenic organic aerosol (BOA) requires parameterization of their production in terrestrial ecosystems and their atmospheric transformations. This project was designed to reduce the gaps in our understanding of how these processes control BVOCs and BOAs, and their impact on climate. This was accomplished by wet and dry season measurements at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site along with a comprehensive suite of complementary measurements. The specific goals were to 1) measure and mechanistically understand the factors affecting aerosol distributions over a tropical rain forest, especially the effects of anthropogenic pollution as a perturbation to

    11. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa) and patawa (Oenocarpus bataua) fruit pulp from the amazon region

      OpenAIRE

      Sylvain Henri Darnet; Luiza Helena Meller da Silva; Antonio Manoel da Cruz Rodrigues; Roseana Telles Lins

      2011-01-01

      Buriti and patawa are two endemic palm trees from the Amazon region. Their pulps are traditionally consumed by the local population, but are underused and lesser known worldwide. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the two palm pulps were determined by modern analytical methods: Gas Chromatography (CG) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), based on the standards of AOCS (AMERICAN..., 2002) and AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1997), respectively. Buriti and patawa...

    12. Simulating Amazon forest carbon cycling using an individual- and trait-based model.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fauset, S.; Fyllas, N.; Galbraith, D.; Christoffersen, B. O.; Baker, T. R.; Johnson, M. O.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.; Gloor, E. U.

      2014-12-01

      The Amazon forest, a regional and global regulator of climate and store of enormous biodiversity, is an incredibly complex ecosystem. Just one ha of forest can contain 300 different species of tree, with an estimated 16,000 tree species present in the region. Different tree species, and even different individuals of a species, vary in their functional traits, influencing how they behave in response to the environment. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are commonly used to simulate the response of the Amazon forest to global environmental change. Yet, such DGVMs typically use a plant functional type (PFT) approach where variation between individuals and species are not represented, which inherently limits the range of outcomes for Amazonia under climate change. Here, we report on recent advances in an alternative approach to tropical forest modeling that represents the size structure and variation of traits within a community, which we term the Trait-based Forest Simulator (TFS). As originally proposed, TFS was strictly a steady-state model and here we present an extension of TFS which includes full forest dynamics, and has been evaluated with data collected from intensive carbon cycling inventory plots from the GEM (Global Ecosystems Monitoring) network. Specifically, we compare the model output to stand-level data on productivity and respiration of the canopy, stems and roots. The model development process has highlighted ecological tradeoffs that are necessary to integrate into trait-based models, such as a shorter leaf lifetime with a lower leaf mass per area. The adapted TFS model simulates carbon cycling in forest plots, including variation in productivity between sites. These results lend confidence to the ability of next-generation vegetation models to accurately simulate forest sensitivity to future changes.

    13. Changes in Amazon Forest Structure and Canopy Illumination from Multi-temporal Lidar Data

      Science.gov (United States)

      Leitold, V.; Morton, D. C.; Keller, M. M.; Cook, B.

      2015-12-01

      Lidar remote sensing of tropical forests provides unprecedented detail on 3D vegetation structure to support in-depth studies of ecosystem processes and carbon dynamics across large landscapes. Here, we used high-resolution, multi-temporal airborne lidar data from nine terra firme forest sites (total area = 3500 ha) in the Brazilian Amazon to estimate spatial and temporal patterns of forest disturbance and associated changes in canopy illumination. Across sites, we observed large variability in mean canopy height (15.7 m to 28.1 m) and the vertical distributions of forest vegetation and light penetration. At the site scale, lidar-derived canopy height models from repeat surveys showed minimal change in canopy structure over time intervals of 1 to 4 years, with nearly identical initial and final canopy height distributions. Annualized rates of total canopy turnover, based on losses in canopy height between lidar collections, ranged from 0.66 to 2.57% yr-1, with a mean value of 1.59% yr-1 across sites. Field estimates of tree crown sizes were used to classify canopy turnover into branch fall, tree fall and multiple tree fall events. Partial crown losses occurred most frequently across the landscape (40% of all events), but accounted for only a small fraction of the total turnover area (10%). Size-frequency distributions of canopy turnover followed a power-law distribution with a decline in the number of events with increasing size across all sites (range of λ between 1.26 - 1.35). The distributions of illumination conditions before and after disturbance events were inverted, as fully-illuminated crowns were replaced by low-light conditions within patches of canopy loss. Estimates of the spatial and temporal patterns of Amazon forest disturbance and recovery from multi-temporal lidar data complement information from plot-scale (≤ 1ha) studies to provide a more complete understanding of regional variability in ecosystem structure and function under current climate.

    14. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Sombroek, W.G.

      1966-01-01

      The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main types of har

    15. Disruption of hydroecological equilibrium in southwest Amazon mediated by drought

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Kim, Hyungjun; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Famiglietti, James S.; Oki, Taikan

      2015-09-01

      The impacts of droughts on the Amazon ecosystem have been broadly discussed in recent years, but a comprehensive understanding of the consequences is still missing. In this study, we show evidence of a fragile hydrological equilibrium in the western Amazon. While drainage systems located near the equator and the western Amazon do not show water deficit in years with average climate conditions, this equilibrium can be broken during drought events. More importantly, we show that this effect is persistent, taking years until the normal hydrological patterns are reestablished. We show clear links between persistent changes in forest canopy structure and changes in hydrological patterns, revealing physical evidence of hydrological mechanisms that may lead to permanent changes in parts of the Amazon ecosystem. If prospects of increasing drought frequency are confirmed, a change in the current hydroecological patterns in the western Amazon could take place in less than a decade.

    16. Finite Sholander Trees, Trees, and their Betweenness

      CERN Document Server

      Chvátal, Vašek; Schäfer, Philipp Matthias

      2011-01-01

      We provide a proof of Sholander's claim (Trees, lattices, order, and betweenness, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 3, 369-381 (1952)) concerning the representability of collections of so-called segments by trees, which yields a characterization of the interval function of a tree. Furthermore, we streamline Burigana's characterization (Tree representations of betweenness relations defined by intersection and inclusion, Mathematics and Social Sciences 185, 5-36 (2009)) of tree betweenness and provide a relatively short proof.

    17. A DESCRIÇÃO COMO FERRAMENTA FUNDAMENTAL PARA UMA BOA COMUNICAÇÃO

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sérgio Brasil Fernandes

      2012-07-01

      Full Text Available A descrição é um dos principais modos de organização do discurso, pois é por intermédio dela que se adquire a base fundamental para bem utilizar outras formas de organizar a redação de um texto. A descrição viabiliza a possibilidade de as pessoas terem a noção particular e individual sobre si mesmas e sobre tudo o que as envolve. Enfatiza-se que a construção das imagens que constituem o mundo em que vivemos ocorre através dos cinco sentidos (visão, audição, olfato, paladar e tato e da imaginação criadora do ser humano. Explicitar todos esses aspectos fomentou a elaboração deste estudo que tem por objetivo demonstrar a importância da descrição como ferramenta fundamental para uma boa comunicação. Para isso, utilizou-se a pesquisa bibliográfica de natureza qualitativa como metodologia neste trabalho que se caracteriza como um estudo exploratório. Do referencial teórico que embasou o trabalho, cabe ressaltar que a descrição é a forma mais natural no ser humano de produzir um texto porque os instrumentos do descrever, ou seja, os sentidos humanos, já estão em nós e constituem os elementos vitais da nossa sensibilidade (AMARAL; ANTÔNIO; PATROCÍNIO, 2001. Neste estudo, por meio da análise de diversos tipos de texto, são identificadas técnicas descritivas e formas de influência exercidas pela descrição nos modos de organização do discurso narrativo e argumentativo. Em síntese, é preciso priorizar o estudo da descrição como modo de organização do discurso essencial para a obtenção de conhecimento de mundo e para a realização de uma comunicação precisa e eficaz.

    18. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fortini, Lucas; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

      2015-01-01

      At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

    19. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Matt Finer

      Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

    20. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 – Scaling Amazon Carbon Water Couplings Field Campaign Report

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Dubey, Manvendra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parket, Harrison [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Katherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rahn, Thom [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Christoffersson, B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wunch, Debra [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Wennberg, Paul [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

      2016-08-01

      Forests soak up 25% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by anthropogenic fossil energy use (10 Gt C y-1), moderating its atmospheric accumulation. How this terrestrial CO2 uptake will evolve with climate change in the 21st Century is largely unknown. Rainforests are the most active ecosystems, with the Amazon basin storing 120 Gt C as biomass and exchanging 18 Gt C y-1 of CO2 via photosynthesis and respiration and fixing carbon at 2-3 kg C m-2 y-1. Furthermore, the intense hydrologic and carbon cycles are tightly coupled in the Amazon where about half of the water is recycled by evapotranspiration and the other half imported from the ocean by Northeasterly trade winds. Climate models predict a drying in the Amazon with reduced carbon uptake while observationally guided assessments indicate sustained uptake. We set out to resolve this huge discrepancy in the size and sign of the future Amazon carbon cycle by performing the first simultaneous regional-scale high-frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, H2O, HOD, CH4, N2O, and CO at the T3 site in Manacupuru, Brazil, as part of DOE's GoAmazon 2014/15 project. Our data will be used to inform and develop DOE's Community Land Model (CLM) on the tropical carbon-water couplings at the appropriate grid scale (10-50 km). Our measurements will also validate the CO2 data from Japan's Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)-2 satellite (launched in July, 2014). Our data addresses these science questions: 1. How does ecosystem heterogeneity and climate variability influence the rainforest carbon cycle? 2. How well do current tropical ecosystem models simulate the observed regional carbon cycle? 3. Does nitrogen deposition (from the Manaus, Brazil, plume) enhance rainforest carbon uptake?

    1. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      D. C. Morton

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available The complex three-dimensional (3-D structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART model to simulate leaf absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (lAPAR for an Amazon forest. The 3-D model scene was developed from airborne lidar data, and local measurements of leaf reflectance, aerosols, and PAR were used to model lAPAR under direct and diffuse illumination conditions. Simulated lAPAR under clear sky and cloudy conditions was corrected for light saturation effects to estimate light utilization, the fraction of lAPAR available for photosynthesis. Although the fraction of incoming PAR absorbed by leaves was consistent throughout the year (0.80–0.82, light utilization varied seasonally (0.67–0.74, with minimum values during the Amazon dry season. Shadowing and light saturation effects moderated potential gains in forest productivity from increasing PAR during dry season months when the diffuse fraction from clouds and aerosols was low. Comparisons between DART and other models highlighted the role of 3-D forest structure to account for seasonal changes in light utilization. Our findings highlight how directional illumination and forest 3-D structure combine to influence diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization, independent of further changes in leaf area, leaf age, or environmental controls on canopy photosynthesis. Changing illumination geometry constitutes an alternative biophysical explanation for observed seasonality in Amazon forest productivity without changes in canopy phenology.

    2. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

      Science.gov (United States)

      Morton, Douglas C.; Rubio, Jérémy; Cook, Bruce D.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Longo, Marcos; Choi, Hyeungu; Hunter, Maria; Keller, Michael

      2016-04-01

      The complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model to simulate leaf absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (lAPAR) for an Amazon forest. The 3-D model scene was developed from airborne lidar data, and local measurements of leaf reflectance, aerosols, and PAR were used to model lAPAR under direct and diffuse illumination conditions. Simulated lAPAR under clear-sky and cloudy conditions was corrected for light saturation effects to estimate light utilization, the fraction of lAPAR available for photosynthesis. Although the fraction of incoming PAR absorbed by leaves was consistent throughout the year (0.80-0.82), light utilization varied seasonally (0.67-0.74), with minimum values during the Amazon dry season. Shadowing and light saturation effects moderated potential gains in forest productivity from increasing PAR during dry-season months when the diffuse fraction from clouds and aerosols was low. Comparisons between DART and other models highlighted the role of 3-D forest structure to account for seasonal changes in light utilization. Our findings highlight how directional illumination and forest 3-D structure combine to influence diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization, independent of further changes in leaf area, leaf age, or environmental controls on canopy photosynthesis. Changing illumination geometry constitutes an alternative biophysical explanation for observed seasonality in Amazon forest productivity without changes in canopy phenology.

    3. A lição do nordeste. Severino e Boa-Morte : Cabras marcados para morrer

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ana Catarina Oliveira Marques

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available This article intends to develop an intertextual approach to João Cabral de Melo Neto’s Morte e Vida Severina (1956 and Ferreira Gullar’s João Boa-Morte, Cabra marcado para morrer (1962. Both texts are rooted in social protest and participation in the portrayal of the Brazilian Northeast Region. The condition of «severinidade» and «nordestinidade» as topological idiosyncrasy. Textual genres: the «auto de natal» and the «romance de cordel».

    4. BOA Application on Internet of Vehicle%面向车联网技术的BOA应用研究

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      崔建明

      2012-01-01

      Traffic informatization has significantly improved the transport efficiency and the internet of things (IoT) bring more new technology and new methods for the development of traffic informatization. The internet of vehicles (IoV) is subsequently generated and is now under developing. However, it has some technical problems in the application process, such as monitoring the detail component of vehicle. In this paper, a technology is proposed that is accessible the small parts of traffic equipment through BOA technology. If the hardware itself has embedded control interface, can the remote monitor be used to revise the components parameters through integration BOA with the interface. By this way, the whole or parts of the equipments can be monitored and optimized by integrating with the CAN bus. It can even reach a wide range of remoting access and monitoring parameters by setting up separated virtual IPv6 address for the BOA. Finally, the example of the controlled video surveillance with the BOA technology is used to demonstrate the feasibility of this technology.%交通信息化提高了交通效率,物联网技术为交通信息化的发展带来更多新技术、新方法,由此产生了“车联网技术”.物联网技术是一种在发展的新技术,故此车联网技术在应用过程中存在一些技术障碍,如车辆细部部件的监控等.本文提出一种通过BOA技术进行交通设备部件访问的服务技术,如果硬件本身具有嵌入式控制接口,通过BOA技术与这种接口集成可以远程对部件进行监控与参数修改.这样BOA通过CAN总线集成的操作可以对设备整体进行全部部件监控和更多的优化操作,甚至可以对BOA设置单独的虚拟IPv6地址,达到更大范围内的远程参数获取与监控.最后,通过具有BOA技术的可控视频监控实例证明,此种技术可行.

    5. Por uma semântica profunda: arte, cultura e história no pensamento de Franz Boas

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kátia Maria Pereira de Almeida

      1998-10-01

      Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a teoria de Franz Boas (1848-1952 sobre a arte primitiva e, assim, estabelecer um novo princípio de inteligibilidade para a análise de sua obra, tendo como pano de fundo a problematização da relação entre a(s perspectiva(s antropológica(s e o domínio específico da arte e da cultura material. Com tal escopo, dois aspectos são destacados: por um lado, a ênfase boasiana no elemento formal no que se refere à delimitação do fenômeno artístico, redimesionando o simbolismo primitivo; por outro, a ênfase na padronização estilística, como correlata dos mecanismos de processamento das sínteses histórico-culturais, o que redimensiona a questão da imaginação. A discussão deste tema revela alguns dos fundamentos epistemológicos e ontológicos implicados na proposta metodológica do autor, reavalia seu posicionamento crítico em relação às teorias antropológicas anteriores, especialmente o evolucionismo social, e demonstra a originalidade da articulação entre história e ciência, por um lado, e entre as perspectivas atomista e holista da cultura, por outro.Through a discussion of Franz Boas's theory of primitive art, this article aims to establish a new approach to understanding and analyzing his work, taking as its backdrop the problematic relation between anthropological perspective(s and the specific domain of art and material culture. With this objective in mind, two aspects are emphasized: first, Boas's accentuation of the formal element within which artistic phenomena are delimited, an emphasis which reshapes primitive symbolism; secondly, his emphasis on stylistic patterning as a correlate of processual mechanisms of historico-cultural syntheses, an approach which reformulates the question of imagination. Discussion of this theme reveals some of the epistemological and ontological foundations implicated in Boas's proposed methodology. It also re-evaluates his critical position in

    6. Modular tree automata

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bahr, Patrick

      2012-01-01

      Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

    7. Modular Tree Automata

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bahr, Patrick

      2012-01-01

      Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular r...

    8. Drought effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground carbon cycling in an Amazon forest: results of a throughfall reduction experiment.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brando, Paulo M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Davidson, Eric A; Trumbore, Susan E; Ray, David; Camargo, Plínio

      2008-05-27

      The Amazon Basin experiences severe droughts that may become more common in the future. Little is known of the effects of such droughts on Amazon forest productivity and carbon allocation. We tested the prediction that severe drought decreases litterfall and wood production but potentially has multiple cancelling effects on belowground production within a 7-year partial throughfall exclusion experiment. We simulated an approximately 35-41% reduction in effective rainfall from 2000 through 2004 in a 1ha plot and compared forest response with a similar control plot. Wood production was the most sensitive component of above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) to drought, declining by 13% the first year and up to 62% thereafter. Litterfall declined only in the third year of drought, with a maximum difference of 23% below the control plot. Soil CO2 efflux and its 14C signature showed no significant treatment response, suggesting similar amounts and sources of belowground production. ANPP was similar between plots in 2000 and declined to a low of 41% below the control plot during the subsequent treatment years, rebounding to only a 10% difference during the first post-treatment year. Live aboveground carbon declined by 32.5Mgha-1 through the effects of drought on ANPP and tree mortality. Results of this unreplicated, long-term, large-scale ecosystem manipulation experiment demonstrate that multi-year severe drought can substantially reduce Amazon forest carbon stocks.

    9. Can accelerometers detect mass variations in Amazonian trees?

      Science.gov (United States)

      van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Gentine, Pierre; Guerin, Marceau; Hut, Rolf; Oliveira, Rafael; van de Giesen, Nick

      2016-04-01

      The mass of trees is influenced by physiological processes within the tree (e.g. transpiration and root water uptake), as well as external loads (e.g. intercepted precipitation). Recent studies have found diurnal variations in radar backscatter over vegetated areas, which might be attributed to mass changes of the vegetation layer. Field measurements are required to study the driving processes. This study aims to use measured three-dimensional displacement and acceleration of trees, to detect and quantify their diurnal (bio)mass variations. Accelerometers and dendrometers were installed on seven different tree species in the Amazon rainforest. Trees were selected to cover a broad range of wood density. Using spectral analysis, the governing frequencies in the acceleration time series were found. The governing frequencies showed a diurnal pattern, as well as a change during precipitation events. Our results suggest that we can separate and potentially quantify tree mass changes due to (1) internal water redistribution and (2) intercepted precipitation. This will allow further investigation of the effect of precipitation and water stress on tree dynamics in forest canopies.

    10. Inferring Amazon leaf demography from satellite observations of leaf area index

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      S. Caldararu

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available Seasonal and year-to-year variations in leaf cover imprint significant spatial and temporal variability on biogeochemical cycles, and affect land-surface properties related to climate. We develop a demographic model of leaf phenology based on the hypothesis that trees seek an optimal leaf area index (LAI as a function of available light and soil water, and fit it to spaceborne observations of LAI over the Amazon basin, 2001–2005. We find the model reproduces the spatial and temporal LAI distribution whilst also predicting geographic variation in leaf age from the basin centre (2.1 ± 0.2 years, through to the lowest values over the deciduous eastern and southern Amazon (6 ± 2 months. The model explains the observed increase in LAI during the dry season as a net addition of leaves in response to increased solar radiation. We anticipate our work to be a starting point from which to develop better descriptions of leaf phenology to incorporate into more sophisticated earth system models.

    11. Light-driven growth in Amazon evergreen forests explained by seasonal variations of vertical canopy structure.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tang, Hao; Dubayah, Ralph

      2017-03-07

      Light-regime variability is an important limiting factor constraining tree growth in tropical forests. However, there is considerable debate about whether radiation-induced green-up during the dry season is real, or an apparent artifact of the remote-sensing techniques used to infer seasonal changes in canopy leaf area. Direct and widespread observations of vertical canopy structures that drive radiation regimes have been largely absent. Here we analyze seasonal dynamic patterns between the canopy and understory layers in Amazon evergreen forests using observations of vertical canopy structure from a spaceborne lidar. We discovered that net leaf flushing of the canopy layer mainly occurs in early dry season, and is followed by net abscission in late dry season that coincides with increasing leaf area of the understory layer. Our observations of understory development from lidar either weakly respond to or are not correlated to seasonal variations in precipitation or insolation, but are strongly related to the seasonal structural dynamics of the canopy layer. We hypothesize that understory growth is driven by increased light gaps caused by seasonal variations of the canopy. This light-regime variability that exists in both spatial and temporal domains can better reveal the drought-induced green-up phenomenon, which appears less obvious when treating the Amazon forests as a whole.

    12. Inferring Amazon leaf demography from satellite observations of leaf area index

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      S. Caldararu

      2011-10-01

      Full Text Available Seasonal and year-to-year variations in leaf cover imprint significant spatial and temporal variability on biogeochemical cycles, and affect land-surface properties related to climate. We develop a demographic model of leaf phenology based on the hypothesis that trees seek an optimal Leaf Area Index (LAI as a function of available light and soil water, and fitted it to spaceborne observations of LAI over the Amazon Basin, 2001–2005. We find the model reproduces the spatial and temporal LAI distribution whilst also predicting geographic variation in leaf age from the basin center (2.1 ± 0.2 yr, through to the lowest values over the deciduous Eastern Amazon (6 ± 2 months. The model explains the observed increase in LAI during the dry season as a net addition of leaves in response to increased solar radiation. We anticipate our work to be a starting point from which to develop better descriptions of leaf phenology to incorporate into more sophisticated earth system models.

    13. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Phillips, Oliver L; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Lewis, Simon L; Fisher, Joshua B; Lloyd, Jon; López-González, Gabriela; Malhi, Yadvinder; Monteagudo, Abel; Peacock, Julie; Quesada, Carlos A; van der Heijden, Geertje; Almeida, Samuel; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Baker, Tim R; Bánki, Olaf; Blanc, Lilian; Bonal, Damien; Brando, Paulo; Chave, Jerome; de Oliveira, Atila Cristina Alves; Cardozo, Nallaret Dávila; Czimczik, Claudia I; Feldpausch, Ted R; Freitas, Maria Aparecida; Gloor, Emanuel; Higuchi, Niro; Jiménez, Eliana; Lloyd, Gareth; Meir, Patrick; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morel, Alexandra; Neill, David A; Nepstad, Daniel; Patiño, Sandra; Peñuela, Maria Cristina; Prieto, Adriana; Ramírez, Fredy; Schwarz, Michael; Silva, Javier; Silveira, Marcos; Thomas, Anne Sota; Steege, Hans Ter; Stropp, Juliana; Vásquez, Rodolfo; Zelazowski, Przemyslaw; Alvarez Dávila, Esteban; Andelman, Sandy; Andrade, Ana; Chao, Kuo-Jung; Erwin, Terry; Di Fiore, Anthony; Honorio C, Eurídice; Keeling, Helen; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Peña Cruz, Antonio; Pitman, Nigel C A; Núñez Vargas, Percy; Ramírez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustín; Salamão, Rafael; Silva, Natalino; Terborgh, John; Torres-Lezama, Armando

      2009-03-06

      Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.

    14. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

      Science.gov (United States)

      Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Martin, Scot T.

      2016-05-01

      Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (rainforest.

    15. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Thatcher, Vernon E.

      1998-06-01

      The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

    16. Abrupt Increases in Amazonian Tree Mortality Due to Drought-Fire Interactions

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brando, Paulo Monteiro; Balch, Jennifer K.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Morton, Douglas C.; Putz, Francis E.; Coe, Michael T.; Silverio, Divino; Macedo, Marcia N.; Davidson, Eric A.; Nobrega, Caroline C.; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

      2014-01-01

      Interactions between climate and land-use change may drive widespread degradation of Amazonian forests. High-intensity fires associated with extreme weather events could accelerate this degradation by abruptly increasing tree mortality, but this process remains poorly understood. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first field-based evidence of a tipping point in Amazon forests due to altered fire regimes. Based on results of a large-scale, longterm experiment with annual and triennial burn regimes (B1yr and B3yr, respectively) in the Amazon, we found abrupt increases in fire-induced tree mortality (226 and 462%) during a severe drought event, when fuel loads and air temperatures were substantially higher and relative humidity was lower than long-term averages. This threshold mortality response had a cascading effect, causing sharp declines in canopy cover (23 and 31%) and aboveground live biomass (12 and 30%) and favoring widespread invasion by flammable grasses across the forest edge area (80 and 63%), where fires were most intense (e.g., 220 and 820 kW x m(exp -1)). During the droughts of 2007 and 2010, regional forest fires burned 12 and 5% of southeastern Amazon forests, respectively, compared with less than 1% in nondrought years. These results show that a few extreme drought events, coupled with forest fragmentation and anthropogenic ignition sources, are already causing widespread fire-induced tree mortality and forest degradation across southeastern Amazon forests. Future projections of vegetation responses to climate change across drier portions of the Amazon require more than simulation of global climate forcing alone and must also include interactions of extreme weather events, fire, and land-use change.

    17. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;

      2007-01-01

      Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

    18. Allometric Equations for Estimating Biomass of Euterpe precatoria, the Most Abundant Palm Species in the Amazon

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fernando Da Silva

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Allometric models to estimate biomass components such as stem mass Ms, foliage mass Ml, root mass Mr and aboveground mass Ma, were developed for the palm species Euterpe precatoria Mart., which is the most abundant tree species in the Amazon. We harvested twenty palms including above- and below-ground parts in an old growth Amazonian forest in Brazil. The diameter at breast height D ranged from 3.9–12.7 cm, and the stem height H ranged from 2.3–16.4 m. The D, diameter at ground basis D0, crown diameter CD, H, stem specific gravity ρ, and number of fronds Nf were considered as independent variables and incorporated into a power function model. The best predictors were D2Hρ for Ms and Ma, D2HNf for Ml, and D for Mr. Slender index (H/D ranged from 0.56–1.46 m·cm−1, and the D-H relationship suggested that the stem shape becomes more slender with increasing D. On the other hand, ρ increased with D implying a stiffening of stem tissue. The average root/shoot ratio was estimated as 0.29 which was higher than that reported for the non-palm tree species in the Amazon. Comparisons of several models to estimate Ma of different palm species, suggested that the variations of the D-H relationship and ρ should be considered to develop allometric models for estimating biomass in palm species. In particular the ρ largely varied depending on individual size, which should be important to consider, when developing the allometric models for palms.

    19. Current Characterization at the Amazon estuary

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bezerra, M. O.

      2009-04-01

      At the estuary there are several mechanisms that cause turbulence: influence of solid contours (estuary bottom and shores), speed vertical shearing (fluid inside), wind shearing stress (free surface) and surface and internal gravity waves. Turbulence intensity controls vertical distribution of estuary water mass property concentration. As flow into the estuary takes place during the transition or turbulent regimen, produced by small space and time scale movements, entrainment, turbulent scattering and advection are the processes responsible for fresh water mixing up with the sea and for local salinity variation, as well as for concentration of natural properties and man-made ones. According to this focus, we shall describe general circulation, conveyance and mixing characteristics of the Amazon low estuary waters. Amazon estuary shows unusual characteristics: it is of vast length and enormous outflow. It is extremely wide - 150 Km - and its discharge into the Atlantic amounts to 180,000 m3s-1 (Otman, 1968, Figueiredo et al, 1991), which means 18% of all water discharged by rivers into oceans; this is the largest punctual source of fresh water for oceans (Milliman and Meade, 1983). Maximum outflow is 2.5 x 105 m3s-1, and it happens at the end of May. Minimum outflow is 1.2 x 105 m3 s-1, and it takes place in November. At Amazon River, the Mixing Zone occurs where the Coastal Zone usually is. The reason for that is the extension of fresh water plume moves Northeast for over 1000 Km (Gibbs, 1970; Muller-Karger et al 1988). This is the most extensive estuarine plume ever found in the ocean. During low fluvial discharge (June-November) plume reaches 300 Km; however, on high discharge (November-May) plume reaches 500 Km. Plume already is 3 to 10 m thick and 80 to 300 Km wide (Lentz and Limeburner, 1995). From June to January plume moves towards Africa, from whence 70% of it goes east carried by North Brazil Current retroflection and 30% goes towards the Caribbean. From

    20. Potential groundwater contribution to Amazon evapotranspiration

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Y. Fan

      2010-10-01

      Full Text Available Climate and land ecosystem models simulate a dry-season vegetation stress in the Amazon forest, but observations do not support these results, indicating adequate water supply. Proposed mechanisms include larger soil water store and deeper roots in nature and the ability of roots to move water up and down (hydraulic redistribution, both absent in the models. Here we provide a first-order assessment of the potential importance of the upward soil water flux from the groundwater driven by capillarity. We present a map of equilibrium water table depth from available observations and a groundwater model simulation constrained by these observations. We then present a map of maximum capillary flux these water table depths, combined with the fine-textured soils in the Amazon, can potentially support. The maps show that the water table beneath the Amazon can be shallow in lowlands and river valleys (<5 m in 36% and <10 m in 60% of Amazonia. These water table depths can potentially accommodate a maximum capillary flux of 2.1 mm day−1 to the land surface averaged over Amazonia, but varies from 0.6 to 3.7 mm day−1 across nine study sites.

      We note that the results presented here are based on limited observations and simple equilibrium model calculations, and as such, have important limitations and must be interpreted accordingly. The potential capillary fluxes are not indicative of their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration, and they are only an assessment of the possible rate at which this flux can occur, to illustrate the power of soil capillary force acting on a shallow water table in fine textured soils. They may over-estimate the actual flux where the surface soils remain moist. Their contribution to the actual evapotranspiration can only be assessed through fully coupled model simulation of the dynamic feedbacks between soil water and groundwater with sub-daily climate forcing. The equilibrium water table

    1. Evidence of Apeu Virus Infection in Wild Monkeys, Brazilian Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Oliveira, Danilo B; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Fagundes, Alexandre; Pinto, Carla Amaral; Bonjardim, Cláudio A; Trindade, Giliane S; Kroon, Erna G; Abrahão, Jônatas S; Ferreira, Paulo C P

      2016-03-01

      Orthobunyaviruses are arboviruses in which at least 30 members are human pathogens. The members of group C orthobunyaviruses were first isolated in the Brazilian Amazon in 1950, since that time little information is accumulated about ecology and the medical impact of these virus groups in Brazil. Herein, we describe the evidence of Apeu virus (APEUV; an Orthobunyavirus member) infection in wild monkeys from the Brazilian Amazon forest. APEUV was detected by using a neutralizing antibody in serum and its RNA, suggesting past and acute infection of Amazonian monkeys by this virus. These results altogether represent an important contribution of orthobunyavirus ecology in the Amazon and an update about recent circulation and risk for humans with expansion of the cities to Amazon forest.

    2. Amazon's Profit Falls, but Beats Expectations,as Company Invests

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2011-01-01

      @@ Fpr Amazon.com, down is the new up.The Internet retailer said Tuesday that its second-quarter profit dropped by 8 percent, which might seem like bad news.But the decline was not nearly as much as Amazon, or analysts, had expected, and the profit was being sacrificed for what the company said was a good cause, new investments in technology and warehouses.Revenue continued to be strong, rising 51 percent.

    3. The Herodotean »Amazonic« Artemisia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Konstantinos N. Deligiorgis

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available A large part of the oeuvre written by Herodotus of Halicarnassus consists of narratives presenting female protagonists. The historian’s interest and curiosity are fascinated and attracted by mysterious queens with masculine attitudes. Perhaps the best-known heroine of that uncommon ‘elite’ is Artemisia, queen of Halicarnassus and compatriot of Herodotus. Describing her presence and action during the great Persian War against Greece, the paper attempts to investigate her role by comparing her with the Amazons of myth and legend and their influence on the barbaric Scythian tribe of the Sauromatae. Herodotus interweaves reality and mythology in order to portray an unusual type, a miraculous female figure who commands our admiration.

    4. Cartography of affections in the Bragantine Amazon

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ênio José da Costa Brito

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available This communication synthetically presents some elements of Jerônimo Silva e Silva’s ethnographic research. Actually it is the outlines of his doctoral thesis Cartography of affections in the encantaria: religious masters narratives from Bragantine Amazon. Silva lines out an ethnography via a cartographic flow having in mind to capture its live forces or movers. Using hermeneutics data from these narratives and living with some religious agents in situ – Pajé-Exorcista Cristino, Pajé Edvaldo, Mãe Terezinha, Mãe Lourdes, Rezadeira Luiza, Mãe Ana e Experiente Zé Maria – he unveils a plurality of relationships between people and incantation. Using some local technical concepts like corda (rope, linha (line, viração (breeze he discloses a rich social complexity in this religion of the incantation.

    5. 世界上最大的海洋工程施工船%Boa Deep C the world largest construction vessel

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      俞强

      2005-01-01

      Boa DeepC号是目前世界上最大的海洋工程船。从各方面来看,Boa Deep C号是一艘十分特别的船舶,它主要用来从事海底结构的施工、系统的安装、管线修理等,其独立工作的最大深度为2000米,适应于世界各水域。

    6. Smart home system based on BOA and nRF24L01%基于 BOA 和 nRF24L01的智能家居系统

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      窦慧晶; 侯荣全; 陈凤菊

      2015-01-01

      Aiming at the shortcomings of ZigBee and Z-Wave at present wireless communication technology in smart home,this paper presents a smart home system based on the BOA and nRF24L01.The home gateway is based on S3C2440 and Linux operation system.Within the family,nRF24L01 is used to communicate.Each wireless node is de-signed from environmental monitoring,home control,and home security three aspects.In order to fully understand the performance of the system,the system is tested in modular.Experimental results show that the system can achieve the desired result and bring convenience to people's family life.%针对目前智能家居方面比较流行的 ZigBee 和 Z-Wave 无线通信技术的一些不足,提出了一种基于 BOA 和 nRF24L01的智能家居系统,其家庭网关部分以 S3C2440为核心,Linux 为实时操作系统,家庭内部各个节点采用无线射频模块nRF24L01通信,各无线节点从环境监测、家电控制和家庭安防3个方面来设计。为了全面了解系统的性能,对系统进行了分模块的测试。实验结果表明,系统能够达到预期的结果,能够给人们的家庭生活带来方便。

    7. Healthy,Happy trees

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2000-01-01

      Healthy trees are important to us all. Trees provide shade, beauty, and homes for wildlife. Trees give us products like paper and wood. Trees can give us all this only if they are healthy.They must be well cared for to remain healthy.

    8. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

      2017-01-01

      The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households’ local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well. PMID:28235090

    9. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

      OpenAIRE

      P.S. Santos; ALBUQUERQUE, G. R.; da Silva, V. M. F.; Martin, A R; Marvulo,M.F.V.; S.L.P. Souza; Ragozo, A. M. A. [UNESP; Nascimento, C. C.; Gennari,S.M.; Dubey, J. P.; Silva, J. C. R.

      2011-01-01

      Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefe, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT >= 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with ...

    10. Classification and regression trees

      CERN Document Server

      Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

      1984-01-01

      The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

    11. Actividad de rastreo en Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae, un mecanismo de localización de la especie

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Silmara Cervantes, Raquel

      1999-01-01

      Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se experimentó sobre la habilidad de Boa constrictor occidentalis para discriminar y seguir olores feromonales conespecíficos y heteroespecíficos. Las hembras presentaron elevada frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua hacia los estímulos de olor de piel de macho, piel de hembra y glándula de hembra, mostrando un mayor desplazamiento hacia el estímulo piel de hembra. Los machos respondieron con un incremento en el número de lengüeteos y búsqueda activa de los rastros frente a las secreciones de macho. Ambos sexos manifestaron preferencia por los olores conespecíficos aumentando la intensidad del lengüeteo y el seguimiento activo de rastros, mientras que exhibieron una marcada disminución de la frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua y escaso desplazamiento frente al estímulo heteroespecífico. Los resultados sugieren la estrecha relación existente entre la identificación de un estímulo mediante el lengüeteo y la actividad de rastreo. The ability in adult Boa constrictor occidentalis to discriminate between species and sexes and follow pheromonal trails was tested. Females presented elevated tongue flick rate (T.F.R. to male skin odor, female skin odor and female cloacal secretion. Trailing activity was higher to female skin odor. Males answered with elevated T.F.R. and exhibited active movements and searching of trails to their own secretions —male skin and male cloacal musk—. Both sexes had preferences to conespecific stimuli showing higher T.F.R. and active trailing while they were not interested in heterospecific trails presenting lower T.F.R. and limited movements. Results suggest the relationship between stimuli recognition by tongue flicking and trailing activity.

    12. ASSENTADOS E NÃO ASSENTADOS NO POVOADO BOA VISTA, CAPELA/SE: Sustentabilidade e Pequena Propriedade

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio Eduardo Prado Ribeiro Junior

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Faced with the challenge of environmental sustainability of the planet, which requires, in addition to changes in the course of development, changes in the functioning of society and its various activities, it is important for this research to analyze the current situation of sugar cane in small farm settlers and not the village of Boa Vista, in the town of Capela. An activity that is linked to factors not always resulting in good outcomes, such as the subordination that small farmers suffer from the sugarcane industry where they are required to provide their small sugarcane production and the low prices that are not always reliable. The paper analyzes the effects of the constant growth of this activity and its infl uence on the environment and socio-economic aspect: trying to show the reality of a region Sergipe that has been marked by such activity, and which has stood out increasingly in recent years (re confi guration of the geographical area where this activity creates confl icts between environmental issues and the agrarian question. The aim is to analyze the various relationships between small farmers and settlers, not settlers. That is, to what extent the sugar cane interfere in the dynamics of relationships between small farmers, squatters, and not the settlers, and the power of cane sugar, still thinking of the similarities and differences of the relations of the settlers and not sitting in the relationship these two actors have with the environment in which they give. Small farms that once lived on subsistence agriculture are now also being infl uenced by this activity, whether it represents an alternative form of income for small farmers, or representing an activity which is unsustainable in the social and environmental. The various relationships presented in this study demonstrate the diffi culties faced by small farmers in the villages Boa Vista, to maintain their cultures, mainly from cane sugar, while many small farmers reported

    13. Análise de crescimento de açaizeiros em áreas de várzea do estuário amazônico Growth analysis of açaí palm trees (Euterpe oleracea Mart. in floodplain of Amazon estuary

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      OSCAR LAMEIRA NOGUEIRA

      2000-11-01

      Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar o crescimento de açaizeiros (Euterpe oleracea Mart. em áreas de várzea submetidas à exploração de palmito, visando ao manejo racional da espécie, foi realizado estudo no município de Igarapé-Miri, Pará. Foram amostrados todos os estipes e rebrotes de três plantas de cada idade após o corte (12, 24, 36 e 48 meses após a extração do palmito, e avaliada a matéria seca dos seguintes componentes: folíolos, ráquis + pecíolos, bainhas + palmitos, e estipes. As plantas selecionadas são representativas da população quanto à altura média dos estipes, número de perfilhos e número de folhas. A produção de matéria seca total foi de 2,68, 5,25, 9,23 e 42,91 kg por planta no 12º, 24º, 36º e 48º mês após a extração do palmito, respectivamente. Nos açaizais recém-explorados, os folíolos representaram cerca de 40% do peso total da parte aérea da planta, e os estipes, 10%. Após 48 meses, em açaizais recompostos, os estipes foram responsáveis por 73% do peso total da parte aérea da planta, e os folíolos, somente por 10%. Doze meses após o corte do palmito, os açaizeiros apresentavam altura média de 1 m, e atingiram mais de 3 m após 48 meses.With the objective of analyzing the palm heart tree growth, in lowland areas submitted to the palm heart exploration, aiming to subsidize the rational handling of the species, a study was accomplished in the county of Igarapé-Miri, PA, Brazil. All of the stems and new budding of three plants of different ages (12, 24, 36 and 48 months after heart extraction were sampled, and the following components were collected for dry matter evaluation: leaflets, rachis + petioles, sheath + palm hearts and trunks. Representative clumps of the population were selected based on the medium height of the trunks, and number of shoots and leaves. The total dry matter production was 2.68, 5.25, 9.23 and 42.91 kg per plant at 12, 24, 36 and 48 months after the palm heart

    14. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

      Science.gov (United States)

      2012-03-13

      ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Amazon ] Biotech, Inc. because...

    15. CASL L1 Milestone report : CASL.P4.01, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for CIPS with VIPRE-W and BOA.

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sung, Yixing (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA); Adams, Brian M.; Secker, Jeffrey R. (Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA)

      2011-12-01

      The CASL Level 1 Milestone CASL.P4.01, successfully completed in December 2011, aimed to 'conduct, using methodologies integrated into VERA, a detailed sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of a crud-relevant problem with baseline VERA capabilities (ANC/VIPRE-W/BOA).' The VUQ focus area led this effort, in partnership with AMA, and with support from VRI. DAKOTA was coupled to existing VIPRE-W thermal-hydraulics and BOA crud/boron deposit simulations representing a pressurized water reactor (PWR) that previously experienced crud-induced power shift (CIPS). This work supports understanding of CIPS by exploring the sensitivity and uncertainty in BOA outputs with respect to uncertain operating and model parameters. This report summarizes work coupling the software tools, characterizing uncertainties, and analyzing the results of iterative sensitivity and uncertainty studies. These studies focused on sensitivity and uncertainty of CIPS indicators calculated by the current version of the BOA code used in the industry. Challenges with this kind of analysis are identified to inform follow-on research goals and VERA development targeting crud-related challenge problems.

    16. Programming Amazon Web Services S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB

      CERN Document Server

      Murty, James

      2009-01-01

      With this book, you'll learn how companies can take advantage of Amazon Web Services (AWS) to rent" computing power, data storage and bandwidth on Amazon's vast network infrastructure. Programming Amazon Web Services gives developers the background and technical detail they need for using Amazon's subscription-based Simple Storage Service (S3), Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Simple Queue Service (SQS), Flexible Payments Service (FPS), and SimpleDB to build web-scale business applications. "

    17. Juvenile tree growth correlates with photosynthesis and leaf phosphorus content in central Amazonia

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ricardo Antonio Marenco

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available Light and soil water availability may limit carbon uptake of trees in tropical rainforests. The objective of this work was to determine how photosynthetic traits of juvenile trees respond to variations in rainfall seasonality, leaf nutrient content, and opening of the forest canopy. The correlation between leaf nutrient content and annual growth rate of saplings was also assessed. In a terra firme rainforest of the central Amazon, leaf nutrient content and gas exchange parameters were measured in five sapling tree species in the dry and rainy season of 2008. Sapling growth was measured in 2008 and 2009. Rainfall seasonality led to variations in soil water content, but it did not affect leaf gas exchange parameters. Subtle changes in the canopy opening affected CO2 saturated photosynthesis (A pot, p = 0.04. Although A pot was affected by leaf nutrient content (as follows: P > Mg > Ca > N > K, the relative growth rate of saplings correlated solely with leaf P content (r = 0.52, p = 0.003. At present, reduction in soil water content during the dry season does not seem to be strong enough to cause any effect on photosynthesis of saplings in central Amazonia. This study shows that leaf P content is positively correlated with sapling growth in the central Amazon. Therefore, the positive effect of atmospheric CO2 fertilization on long-term tree growth will depend on the ability of trees to absorb additional amount of P

    18. Fault-Tree Compiler

      Science.gov (United States)

      Butler, Ricky W.; Boerschlein, David P.

      1993-01-01

      Fault-Tree Compiler (FTC) program, is software tool used to calculate probability of top event in fault tree. Gates of five different types allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language easy to understand and use. In addition, program supports hierarchical fault-tree definition feature, which simplifies tree-description process and reduces execution time. Set of programs created forming basis for reliability-analysis workstation: SURE, ASSIST, PAWS/STEM, and FTC fault-tree tool (LAR-14586). Written in PASCAL, ANSI-compliant C language, and FORTRAN 77. Other versions available upon request.

    19. Carbon emissions from deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      V. Genovese

      2009-11-01

      Full Text Available A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000–2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; g C m−2 for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006 were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazônia project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C yr−1 (1 Pg=1015 g and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C yr−1 from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C yr−1 in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may

    20. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

      Science.gov (United States)

      Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

      2009-01-01

      A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

    1. Spatiotemporal variability of methane over the Amazon from satellite observations

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ribeiro, Igor Oliveira; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; Kayano, Mary Toshie; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos

      2016-07-01

      The spatiotemporal variability of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the atmosphere over the Amazon is studied using data from the space-borne measurements of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on board NASA's AQUA satellite for the period 2003-12. The results show a pronounced variability of this gas over the Amazon Basin lowlands region, where wetland areas occur. CH4 has a well-defined seasonal behavior, with a progressive increase of its concentration during the dry season, followed by a decrease during the wet season. Concerning this variability, the present study indicates the important role of ENSO in modulating the variability of CH4 emissions over the northern Amazon, where this association seems to be mostly linked to changes in flooded areas in response to ENSO-related precipitation changes. In this region, a CH4 decrease (increase) is due to the El Niño-related (La Niña-related) dryness (wetness). On the other hand, an increase (decrease) in the biomass burning over the southeastern Amazon during very dry (wet) years explains the increase (decrease) in CH4 emissions in this region. The present analysis identifies the two main areas of the Amazon, its northern and southeastern sectors, with remarkable interannual variations of CH4. This result might be useful for future monitoring of the variations in the concentration of CH4, the second-most important greenhouse gas, in this area.

    2. Markedly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mitchard, Edward T A; Feldpausch, Ted R; Brienen, Roel J W; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo, Abel; Baker, Timothy R; Lewis, Simon L; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Carlos A; Gloor, Manuel; ter Steege, Hans; Meir, Patrick; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Arroyo, Luzmila; Aymard, Gerardo; Banki, Olaf; Bonal, Damien; Brown, Sandra; Brown, Foster I; Cerón, Carlos E; Chama Moscoso, Victor; Chave, Jerome; Comiskey, James A; Cornejo, Fernando; Corrales Medina, Massiel; Da Costa, Lola; Costa, Flavia R C; Di Fiore, Anthony; Domingues, Tomas F; Erwin, Terry L; Frederickson, Todd; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio Coronado, Euridice N; Killeen, Tim J; Laurance, William F; Levis, Carolina; Magnusson, William E; Marimon, Beatriz S; Marimon Junior, Ben Hur; Mendoza Polo, Irina; Mishra, Piyush; Nascimento, Marcelo T; Neill, David; Núñez Vargas, Mario P; Palacios, Walter A; Parada, Alexander; Pardo Molina, Guido; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pitman, Nigel; Peres, Carlos A; Poorter, Lourens; Prieto, Adriana; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Restrepo Correa, Zorayda; Roopsind, Anand; Roucoux, Katherine H; Rudas, Agustin; Salomão, Rafael P; Schietti, Juliana; Silveira, Marcos; de Souza, Priscila F; Steininger, Marc K; Stropp, Juliana; Terborgh, John; Thomas, Raquel; Toledo, Marisol; Torres-Lezama, Armando; van Andel, Tinde R; van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Vieira, Ima C G; Vieira, Simone; Vilanova-Torre, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A; Wang, Ophelia; Zartman, Charles E; Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver L

      2014-01-01

      Aim The accurate mapping of forest carbon stocks is essential for understanding the global carbon cycle, for assessing emissions from deforestation, and for rational land-use planning. Remote sensing (RS) is currently the key tool for this purpose, but RS does not estimate vegetation biomass directly, and thus may miss significant spatial variations in forest structure. We test the stated accuracy of pantropical carbon maps using a large independent field dataset. Location Tropical forests of the Amazon basin. The permanent archive of the field plot data can be accessed at: http://dx.doi.org/10.5521/FORESTPLOTS.NET/2014_1 Methods Two recent pantropical RS maps of vegetation carbon are compared to a unique ground-plot dataset, involving tree measurements in 413 large inventory plots located in nine countries. The RS maps were compared directly to field plots, and kriging of the field data was used to allow area-based comparisons. Results The two RS carbon maps fail to capture the main gradient in Amazon forest carbon detected using 413 ground plots, from the densely wooded tall forests of the north-east, to the light-wooded, shorter forests of the south-west. The differences between plots and RS maps far exceed the uncertainties given in these studies, with whole regions over- or under-estimated by > 25%, whereas regional uncertainties for the maps were reported to be < 5%. Main conclusions Pantropical biomass maps are widely used by governments and by projects aiming to reduce deforestation using carbon offsets, but may have significant regional biases. Carbon-mapping techniques must be revised to account for the known ecological variation in tree wood density and allometry to create maps suitable for carbon accounting. The use of single relationships between tree canopy height and above-ground biomass inevitably yields large, spatially correlated errors. This presents a significant challenge to both the forest conservation and remote sensing communities

    3. Central Amazon Forest Enhanced Vegetation Index Seasonality Driven by Strongly Seasonal Leaf Flush

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wu, J.; Nelson, B. W.; Lopes, A. P.; Graca, P. M. L. D. A.; Tavares, J. V.; Prohaska, N.; Martins, G.; Saleska, S. R.

      2015-12-01

      We used an RGB camera mounted 50m above an upland forest canopy to quantify leaf phenology during 12 months for 267 upper canopy tree crowns at the Amazon Tall Tower site (59.0005ºW, 2.1433ºS). Daily images under overcast sky were selected and radiometrically intercalibrated to remove any seasonal bias from incoming radiant color balance. Seasonality of crown color was then recovered for each individual crown by plotting its greenness timeline (green chromatic coordinate). We detected rapid large-amplitude positive and negative changes in greenness. Rapid increase was attributed to leaf flush and occurred in 85% of all crowns, with 80% showing a single flush per year. The theory of photoperiod control of equatorial tropical forest leaf phenology predicts two annual peaks of leaf flush, so is not supported. Rapid negative change occurred in 42% of individuals and was caused by massive pre-flush leaf abscission (31% of all trees) or other non-green pre-flushing states (11%). Crown flushing was concentrated in the five driest months (55% of trees) compared to the five wettest months (10%). Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) for each of three crown phenostages was obtained from a single high spatial resolution QuickBird satellite image.These phenostages were identified using only the visible bands of QuickBird so they could be related to the same crown stages seen in the RGB tower camera images. Relative frequencies of the three crown level phenostages were monitored with the tower camera, allowing a monthly estimate of landscape-scale EVI. Free of the seasonal effects on orbital sensors from clouds, cloud shadows, aerosols or solar illumination angle and corrected for seasonal change in light quality, the camera- and QuickBird derived EVI served as an independent verification of MODIS EVI seasonality. Camera-based EVI was highly consistent with view- and solar-angle corrected MAIAC-EVI of a 3x3 km footprint centered on the tower (R = 0.95 between the two monthly curves

    4. Surface Soil Changes Following Selective Logging in an Eastern Amazon Forest

      Science.gov (United States)

      Olander, Lydia P.; Bustamante, Mercedes M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Telles, Everaldo; Prado, Zayra; Camargo, Plinio B.

      2005-01-01

      In the Brazilian Amazon, selective logging is second only to forest conversion in its extent. Conversion to pasture or agriculture tends to reduce soil nutrients and site productivity over time unless fertilizers are added. Logging removes nutrients in bole wood, enough that repeated logging could deplete essential nutrients over time. After a single logging event, nutrient losses are likely to be too small to observe in the large soil nutrient pools, but disturbances associated with logging also alter soil properties. Selective logging, particularly reduced-impact logging, results in consistent patterns of disturbance that may be associated with particular changes in soil properties. Soil bulk density, pH, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), delta(sup 3)C, delta(sup 15)N, and P fractionations were measured on the soils of four different types of loggingrelated disturbances: roads, decks, skids, and treefall gaps. Litter biomass and percent bare ground were also determined in these areas. To evaluate the importance of fresh foliage inputs from downed tree crowns in treefall gaps, foliar nutrients for mature forest trees were also determined and compared to that of fresh litterfall. The immediate impacts of logging on soil properties and how these might link to the longer-term estimated nutrient losses and the observed changes in soils were studied.

    5. Caracterização e quantificação de Benzoxazolinona (BOA em extratos de plantas de milho (Zea mays L. = Characterization and quantification of Benzoxazolinone (BOA in maize plant extract (Zea mays L.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Luis Wagner Rodrigues Alves

      2007-07-01

      Full Text Available Em função da interferência do milho em outras plantas, objetivou-se verificar a presença e a concentração de benzoxazolinona no milho por meio de extração aquosa obtida de material vegetal das cultivares AG-1051, C-333 e C-435. A massa fresca das amostras foi colocada em água destilada e deixada em repouso durante quatro horas. O extrato foi filtrado e particionado em solventes com diferentes polaridades. O extrato etéreo desidratado foi filtrado, concentrado em evaporador rotatório e levado à estufa. Este foi purificado por cromatografia de camada delgada. Recristalizou-se em hexano, e os cristais obtidos foram submetidos à análise em espectrometria no Infravermelho. As bandas presentes no produto padrão também foram caracterizadas nas amostras das cultivares de milho testadas. As amostras dos extratos foram qualificadas e quantificadas por espectrofotometria de ultravioleta. Pelos resultados, infere-se que a planta de milho possuiem seu metabolismo a benzoxazolinona, na seguinte ordem decrescente: AG-1051 29 mg g-1, C-333 24 mg g-1 e C-435 21 mg g-1 de BOA.Due to the interference of maize on other plants, the presence and concentration of benzoxazolinone in this particular plant (maize wasdetermined via the aqueous extract of three varieties of maize (AG-1051, C-333 and C-435. The fresh sample material was allowed to stand in distilled water for four hours. The extract was filtered and partitioned with solvents of varying polarities. The dried etherextract was filtered, concentrated on a rotary evaporator and dried in an oven. The residue was purified by thin layer chromatography and recrystallized from hexane. The crystals were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The bands present in the spectrum of the referencesubstance were also observed in the spectra of the samples obtained from the three varieties of maize studied. The extract samples were characterized and quantified by UV spectroscopy. The results indicated that the

    6. Lessons from forest FACE experiments provide guidance for Amazon-FACE science plan (Invited)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Norby, R. J.; Lapola, D. M.

      2013-12-01

      size and diversity of the forest) are substantial, preliminary evaluation and past experience from temperate forest FACE experiments have supported the feasibility of an experiment comprising replicated 30-m diameter FACE plots in primary forest. The proposed site is the ZF2 research area 60 km north of Manaus and administered by Brazil's National Institute for Amazonia Research (INPA). The vegetation is representative of a dominant fraction of the forests occurring in the Amazon basin: old-growth closed-canopy terra firme (non-flooded) forest with trees 30-35 m in height on well drained clay soils. The major science questions guiding the experiment are closely informed by results of past FACE experiment and involve carbon metabolism, water use, nutrient cycling, interactions with environmental stressors, and the relationship between plant functional traits and community composition. FACE experiments can define ecological processes and mechanisms of responses for predictive models of ecosystem response, and models of CO2 response can define critical uncertainties and testable hypotheses for experiments; hence, the Amazon FACE experiment will feature a close integration of modeling and experimental approaches.

    7. Physicochemical parameters of Amazon Melipona honey

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

      2007-06-01

      Full Text Available Stingless bees produce a honey that is different from the Apis honey in terms of composition. There aren't enough data to establish quality control parameters for this product, mainly due to lack of research results. The aim of this work is to evaluate some physicochemical parameters that can be used for the characterization and for the quality control of the Meliponinae honey. Four different samples were collected in the Amazon region of Brazil in 2004 (Melipona compressipes manaoense bee and Melipona seminigra merribae bee. Honey analyses were performed as described by the official methods. The mean results were: moisture (30.13%, pH (3.65, acidity (24.57 mEq/kg, water activity (0.75, fructose (31.91%, glucose (29.30% and sucrose (0.19%. These results reinforce the need for a specific regulation for stingless bee honey. This will only be feasible when enough data is available to establish upper and lower limits for the physicochemical parameters used for quality control.

    8. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

      2016-07-01

      Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites.

    9. GuiaTreeKey, a multi-access electronic key to identify tree genera in French Guiana

      Science.gov (United States)

      Engel, Julien; Brousseau, Louise; Baraloto, Christopher

      2016-01-01

      Abstract The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original multi-access electronic key for the identification of 389 tree genera occurring in French Guiana terra-firme forests, based on a set of 79 morphological characters related to vegetative, floral and fruit characters. Its purpose is to help Amazonian tree identification and to support the dissemination of botanical knowledge to non-specialists, including forest workers, students and researchers from other scientific disciplines. The electronic key is accessible with the free access software Xper², and the database is publicly available on figshare: https://figshare.com/s/75d890b7d707e0ffc9bf (doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.2682550). PMID:27698572

    10. Embeddings of Iteration Trees

      OpenAIRE

      Mitchell, William

      1992-01-01

      This paper, dating from May 1991, contains preliminary (and unpublishable) notes on investigations about iteration trees. They will be of interest only to the specialist. In the first two sections I define notions of support and embeddings for tree iterations, proving for example that every tree iteration is a direct limit of finite tree iterations. This is a generalization to models with extenders of basic ideas of iterated ultrapowers using only ultrapowers. In the final section (which is m...

    11. Making Tree Ensembles Interpretable

      OpenAIRE

      Hara, Satoshi; Hayashi, Kohei

      2016-01-01

      Tree ensembles, such as random forest and boosted trees, are renowned for their high prediction performance, whereas their interpretability is critically limited. In this paper, we propose a post processing method that improves the model interpretability of tree ensembles. After learning a complex tree ensembles in a standard way, we approximate it by a simpler model that is interpretable for human. To obtain the simpler model, we derive the EM algorithm minimizing the KL divergence from the ...

    12. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

      1988-01-01

      Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

    13. Biogeochemistry and biodiversity interact to govern N2 fixers (Fabaceae) across Amazon tropical forests

      Science.gov (United States)

      Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Lloyd, Jon; Quesada, Beto

      2015-04-01

      Dinitrogen (N2)-fixing trees in the Fabaceae fulfill a central role in tropical rainforests by supplying nitrogen from the atmosphere, yet whether they will support a forest CO2 sink in the future by alleviating nitrogen limitation may depend on whether and how they are controlled by local environmental conditions. Theory predicts that soil nutrients govern the function of N2 fixers, yet there have been no large-scale field-based tests of this idea. Moreover, recent findings indicate that N2-fixing species behave differently in biogeochemical cycles, suggesting that any environmental control may differ by species, and that the diversity of N2-fixing trees may be critical for ensuring tropical forest function. In this talk, we will use the RAINFOR dataset of 108 (~1.0 ha) lowland tropical rainforest plots from across the Amazon Basin to test whether the abundance and diversity of N2-fixing trees are controlled by soil nutrient availability (i.e., increasing with phosphorus and decreasing with nitrogen), or if fixer abundance and diversity simply follow the dynamics of all tree species. We also test an alternative - but not mutually exclusive - hypothesis that the governing factor for fixers is forest disturbance. Results show a surprising lack of control by local nutrients or disturbance on the abundance or diversity of N2 fixers. The dominant driver of fixer diversity was the total number of tree species, with fixers comprising 10% of all species in a forest plot (R2 = 0.75, linear regression). When considering the dominant taxa of N2 fixers (Inga, Swartzia, Tachigali) alone, environmental factors (nitrogen, phosphorus and disturbance) became important and clearly governed their abundance. These taxa, which contain >60% of N2-fixing trees in the data set, appear to have evolved to specialize in different local environmental conditions. The strong biogeochemistry-by-biodiversity interaction observed here points to a need to consider individual species or taxa of N2

    14. Seasonal and interannual variability of climate and vegetation indices across the Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brando, Paulo M; Goetz, Scott J; Baccini, Alessandro; Nepstad, Daniel C; Beck, Pieter S A; Christman, Mary C

      2010-08-17

      Drought exerts a strong influence on tropical forest metabolism, carbon stocks, and ultimately the flux of carbon to the atmosphere. Satellite-based studies have suggested that Amazon forests green up during droughts because of increased sunlight, whereas field studies have reported increased tree mortality during severe droughts. In an effort to reconcile these apparently conflicting findings, we conducted an analysis of climate data, field measurements, and improved satellite-based measures of forest photosynthetic activity. Wet-season precipitation and plant-available water (PAW) decreased over the Amazon Basin from 1996-2005, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and air dryness (expressed as vapor pressure deficit, VPD) increased from 2002-2005. Using improved enhanced vegetation index (EVI) measurements (2000-2008), we show that gross primary productivity (expressed as EVI) declined with VPD and PAW in regions of sparse canopy cover across a wide range of environments for each year of the study. In densely forested areas, no climatic variable adequately explained the Basin-wide interannual variability of EVI. Based on a site-specific study, we show that monthly EVI was relatively insensitive to leaf area index (LAI) but correlated positively with leaf flushing and PAR measured in the field. These findings suggest that production of new leaves, even when unaccompanied by associated changes in LAI, could play an important role in Basin-wide interannual EVI variability. Because EVI variability was greatest in regions of lower PAW, we hypothesize that drought could increase EVI by synchronizing leaf flushing via its effects on leaf bud development.

    15. Contribution of regional sources to atmospheric methane over the Amazon Basin in 2010 and 2011

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wilson, Chris; Gloor, Manuel; Gatti, Luciana V.; Miller, John B.; Monks, Sarah A.; McNorton, Joey; Bloom, A. Anthony; Basso, Luana S.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.

      2016-03-01

      We present an assessment of methane (CH4) atmospheric concentrations over the Amazon Basin for 2010 and 2011 using a 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model, two wetland emission models, and new observations made during biweekly flights made over four locations within the basin. We attempt to constrain basin-wide CH4 emissions using the observations, and since 2010 was an unusually dry year, we assess the effect of this drought on Amazonian methane emissions. We find that South American emissions contribute up to 150 ppb to concentrations at the sites, mainly originating from within the basin. Our atmospheric model simulations agree reasonably well with measurements at three of the locations (0.28 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.63, mean bias ≤ 9.5 ppb). Attempts to improve the simulated background CH4 concentration through analysis of simulated and observed sulphur hexafluoride concentrations do not improve the model performance, however. Through minimisation of seasonal biases between the simulated and observed atmospheric concentrations, we scale our prior emission inventories to derive total basin-wide methane emissions of 36.5-41.1 Tg(CH4)/yr in 2010 and 31.6-38.8 Tg(CH4)/yr in 2011. These totals suggest that the Amazon contributes significantly (up to 7%) to global CH4 emissions. Our analysis indicates that factors other than precipitation, such as temperature variations or tree mortality, may have affected microbial emission rates. However, given the uncertainty of our emission estimates, we cannot say definitively whether the noncombustion emissions from the region were different in 2010 and 2011, despite contrasting meteorological conditions between the two years.

    16. Covering tree with stars

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

      2013-01-01

      We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

    17. Covering tree with stars

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

      2015-01-01

      We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

    18. The Wish Tree Project

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brooks, Sarah DeWitt

      2010-01-01

      This article describes the author's experience in implementing a Wish Tree project in her school in an effort to bring the school community together with a positive art-making experience during a potentially stressful time. The concept of a wish tree is simple: plant a tree; provide tags and pencils for writing wishes; and encourage everyone to…

    19. Winter Birch Trees

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

      2011-01-01

      Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

    20. Total well dominated trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

      cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

    1. Macro tree transducers

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

      1985-01-01

      Macro tree transducers are a combination of top-down tree transducers and macro grammars. They serve as a model for syntax-directed semantics in which context information can be handled. In this paper the formal model of macro tree transducers is studied by investigating typical automata theoretical

    2. Merging plot and Landsata data to estimate the frequency distribution of Central Amazon mortality event size for landscape-scale ecosystem simulations

      Science.gov (United States)

      Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chambers, J. Q.

      2012-12-01

      Mitigation strategies and estimates of land use change emissions assume initial states of landscapes that respond to prescribed scenarios. The Amazon basin is a target for both mitigation (e.g. maintenance of old-growth forest) and land use change (e.g. agriculture), but the current states of its old-growth and secondary forest landscapes are uncertain with respect to carbon cycling. Contributing to this uncertainty in old-growth forest ecosystems is a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the areal fraction of any particular stage relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. Old-growth mosaics are generally created through ongoing effects of tree mortality, with the Central Amazon mosaic generated primarily by wind mortality. Unfortunately, estimation of generalizable frequency distributions of mortality event size has been hindered by limited spatial and temporal scales of observations. To overcome these limitations we merge field and remotely sensed tree mortality data and fit the top two candidate distributions (power law and exponential) to these data to determine the most appropriate statistical mortality model for use in landscape-scale ecosystem simulations. Our results show that the power law model better represents the distribution of mortality event size than the exponential model. We also use an individual-tree-based forest stand model to simulate a 100 ha landscape using the best fit of each candidate distribution to demonstrate the effects of different mortality regimes on above ground biomass in the Central Amazon forest mosaic. We conclude that the correct mortality distribution model is critical for robust simulation of patch succession dynamics and above ground biomass.

    3. Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js

      CERN Document Server

      Shackelford, Adam

      2015-01-01

      Beginning Amazon Web Services with Node.js teaches any novice Node.js developer to configure, deploy, and maintain scalable small to large scale Node.js applications in Amazon Web Services. Hosting a Node.js application in a production environment usually means turning to PaaS hosting, but this approach brings problems. Deploying Node.js directly to AWS solves the problems you encounter in these situations, enabling you to cut out the middle man. You will begin with a basic RESTful web service in Node.js, using the popular Express.js framework, pre-built and ready to run in your local env

    4. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

      2013-09-01

      Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

    5. Assessing the Amazon Cloud Suitability for CLARREO's Computational Needs

      Science.gov (United States)

      Goldin, Daniel; Vakhnin, Andrei A.; Currey, Jon C.

      2015-01-01

      In this document we compare the performance of the Amazon Web Services (AWS), also known as Amazon Cloud, with the CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) cluster and assess its suitability for computational needs of the CLARREO mission. A benchmark executable to process one month and one year of PARASOL (Polarization and Anistropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar) data was used. With the optimal AWS configuration, adequate data-processing times, comparable to the CLARREO cluster, were found. The assessment of alternatives to the CLARREO cluster continues and several options, such as a NASA-based cluster, are being considered.

    6. Estimates of forest height in the Amazon basin using radar altimeter data of SARIN mode onboard Cryosat-2

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yang, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Q.

      2013-12-01

      Forest height is an important parameter for global carbon cycle studies. New technologies are required since the end of the operation ofGeoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (IceSat) in 2009. CryoSat-2 is a European Space Agencyenvironmental research satellite which was launched in April 2010.The SIRAL (SAR Interferometer Radar Altimeter) on board CryoSat-2 provides three operational modes for different observational requirements. Before the launch of Icesat2 around July 2016, CryoSat data represents a unique source of information on regional-to-global scale forest canopy height.We propose to use radar altimetry waveforms from the synthetic aperture/interferometric (SARin) mode to estimate canopy height in the Amazon basin. To understand the relation between canopy structure and the SIRAL waveform in Ku band, a 3D model was developed and implemented based on a Lidar model by introducingthe scattering items from crown, trunk and ground surface at Ku band. The vertical distribution of tree crown volume within a SIRAL footprint was calculated from its 3-D stand model by summing the volumes of all tree crown cells at the same height from the ground. The preliminary comparisons between simulated and measured SIRAL waveforms show that the model captures the major characteristics of the SIRAL signature. Cryosat waveform data of SARin mode and from June, 2011 to June, 2012 (cycle 04) is used to retrieve canopy height at Amazon basin under Cryosat groundtrack. The canopy height is derived by extracting the key points of vegetation and ground returns after noise estimation. Because of lack of field tree height measurement in 2012 at Amazon, we validated the results using the field measurements at four areas (the km 67 camp, the km 77 camp, Ruropolis, the Taoajos river) of Tapajos National Forest, Brazil in November 1999, and compared the results with the canopy height estimation from previous studies using Laser

    7. Amazon Forests’ Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jian Bi

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth’s climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests’ response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS vegetation index (VI data to assess Amazon forests’ response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6 MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1 the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; (2 the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3 in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

    8. Amazon Forests Response to Droughts: A Perspective from the MAIAC Product

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bi, Jian; Myneni, Ranga; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Park, Taejin; Chi, Chen; Yan, Kai; Knyazikhin, Yuri

      2016-01-01

      Amazon forests experienced two severe droughts at the beginning of the 21st century: one in 2005 and the other in 2010. How Amazon forests responded to these droughts is critical for the future of the Earth's climate system. It is only possible to assess Amazon forests' response to the droughts in large areal extent through satellite remote sensing. Here, we used the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index (VI) data to assess Amazon forests' response to droughts, and compared the results with those from the standard (Collection 5 and Collection 6) MODIS VI data. Overall, the MAIAC data reveal more realistic Amazon forests inter-annual greenness dynamics than the standard MODIS data. Our results from the MAIAC data suggest that: (1) the droughts decreased the greenness (i.e., photosynthetic activity) of Amazon forests; (2) the Amazon wet season precipitation reduction induced by El Niño events could also lead to reduced photosynthetic activity of Amazon forests; and (3) in the subsequent year after the water stresses, the greenness of Amazon forests recovered from the preceding decreases. However, as previous research shows droughts cause Amazon forests to reduce investment in tissue maintenance and defense, it is not clear whether the photosynthesis of Amazon forests will continue to recover after future water stresses, because of the accumulated damages caused by the droughts.

    9. Trees in Lhasa

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Degyi

      2008-01-01

      Trees are flourishing in Lhasa wherever the history exists. There is such a man. He has already been through cus-toms after his annual trek to Lhasa, which he has been doing for over twenty years in succession to visit his tree.Although he has been making this journey for so long,it is neither to visit friends or family,nor is it his hometown.It is a tree that is tied so profoundly to his heart.When the wind blows fiercely on the bare tree and winter snow falls,he stands be-fore the tree with tears of jo...

    10. Distributed Contour Trees

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther H.

      2014-03-31

      Topological techniques provide robust tools for data analysis. They are used, for example, for feature extraction, for data de-noising, and for comparison of data sets. This chapter concerns contour trees, a topological descriptor that records the connectivity of the isosurfaces of scalar functions. These trees are fundamental to analysis and visualization of physical phenomena modeled by real-valued measurements. We study the parallel analysis of contour trees. After describing a particular representation of a contour tree, called local{global representation, we illustrate how di erent problems that rely on contour trees can be solved in parallel with minimal communication.

    11. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fusaro, Vincent A; Patil, Prasad; Gafni, Erik; Wall, Dennis P; Tonellato, Peter J

      2011-08-01

      In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster), provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/). More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

    12. Jotï ecogony, Venezuelan Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zent, Egleé L.

      2013-03-01

      The current environmental crisis permeates the discourse and concerns of people all over the world. Consideration of diverse environmental ethics showing the alternative ways in which people conceptualize and relate to nature and natural resources are critical for bringing about more sustainable human behaviors. After a brief review of Western historical notions of nature, this work explores the ecogony, or causal reasons, that trigger the behavior of the Jotï, an Amerindian people of the Venezuelan Amazon, with other entities and the forest that they inhabit. The analysis presented synthesizes 15 years of transdisciplinary ethno-ecological research comprising quantitative and qualitative methods (collection of herbarium voucher specimens, floristic inventories in forest plots, structured interviews focused on plot vegetation, semi-structured interviews of life-histories, participant observation, time allocation studies, food resource accounting, focal person following observations, garden crop inventories and censuses, mapping of wild resource harvest locations, among others). Jotï pragmatic and ideological tenets generate a distinctive environmental ethics based on ecogonic nodes. Notions of interdependence, humanity and person are articulated on a daily basis through several dynamics: (1) hyper-awareness of all living things’ dependence on each other and other elements of the biophysical environment at macroscales and microscales, (2) the construction of human spiritual, conscious, physical and agentive constituents from a variety of diverse botanical and zoological species and mineral components of their homeland, and (3) an understanding of the aggregate surroundings, including a significant portion of the biotic and abiotic components, as potential subjects with awareness, creativity and moral stances. This condition of interdependence confers rights and duties on all the parts. Jotï horizontal communications with and among life-forms sustain their

    13. Biomedical cloud computing with Amazon Web Services.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vincent A Fusaro

      2011-08-01

      Full Text Available In this overview to biomedical computing in the cloud, we discussed two primary ways to use the cloud (a single instance or cluster, provided a detailed example using NGS mapping, and highlighted the associated costs. While many users new to the cloud may assume that entry is as straightforward as uploading an application and selecting an instance type and storage options, we illustrated that there is substantial up-front effort required before an application can make full use of the cloud's vast resources. Our intention was to provide a set of best practices and to illustrate how those apply to a typical application pipeline for biomedical informatics, but also general enough for extrapolation to other types of computational problems. Our mapping example was intended to illustrate how to develop a scalable project and not to compare and contrast alignment algorithms for read mapping and genome assembly. Indeed, with a newer aligner such as Bowtie, it is possible to map the entire African genome using one m2.2xlarge instance in 48 hours for a total cost of approximately $48 in computation time. In our example, we were not concerned with data transfer rates, which are heavily influenced by the amount of available bandwidth, connection latency, and network availability. When transferring large amounts of data to the cloud, bandwidth limitations can be a major bottleneck, and in some cases it is more efficient to simply mail a storage device containing the data to AWS (http://aws.amazon.com/importexport/. More information about cloud computing, detailed cost analysis, and security can be found in references.

    14. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rafael Marques Almeida

      2015-03-01

      Full Text Available Because of the massive water volume of the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by hundreds of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River’s north margin. We correlated viral and bacterial abundances with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2, phytoplankton abundance and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and bacterial abundances, DOC, pCO2 and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that bacterial abundances increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased viral abundances. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in

    15. Tyzzeria boae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, a New Coccidium from the Kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ralph Lainson

      1994-12-01

      Full Text Available A new species of Tyzzeria is described from the kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor Linnaeus, from the State of Pará, north Brazil. Oocysts from the coacal contents matured in eight days, at approximately 24°C. They measured 19.0 x 18.0 (15.0 x 15.0 - 22.5 x 21.5 µm, shape-index (length/width 1.0 (1.0 - 1.1. The oocyst wall is of an extremely delicate single, colourless layer, with no micropyle. Division of the oocyst contents into the 8 naked sporozoites leaves a bulky, spherical oocyst residuum averaging 15.5 x 14.8 (13.5 x 13.5 - 18.5 x 17.5 µm; the sporozoites measure an average of 11.0 x 1.8 (8.5 x 1.25 - 12.5 x 2.0 µm, and possess both anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Tyzzeria boae n.sp. is unique among the recorded species of the genus by virtue of its development in the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules of the kidney: stages in the merogony and gametogony of the parasite are described and figured.

    16. Growth of a Pine Tree

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rollinson, Susan Wells

      2012-01-01

      The growth of a pine tree is examined by preparing "tree cookies" (cross-sectional disks) between whorls of branches. The use of Christmas trees allows the tree cookies to be obtained with inexpensive, commonly available tools. Students use the tree cookies to investigate the annual growth of the tree and how it corresponds to the number of whorls…

    17. Programming macro tree transducers

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bahr, Patrick; Day, Laurence E.

      2013-01-01

      A tree transducer is a set of mutually recursive functions transforming an input tree into an output tree. Macro tree transducers extend this recursion scheme by allowing each function to be defined in terms of an arbitrary number of accumulation parameters. In this paper, we show how macro tree...... transducers can be concisely represented in Haskell, and demonstrate the benefits of utilising such an approach with a number of examples. In particular, tree transducers afford a modular programming style as they can be easily composed and manipulated. Our Haskell representation generalises the original...... definition of (macro) tree transducers, abolishing a restriction on finite state spaces. However, as we demonstrate, this generalisation does not affect compositionality....

    18. Ecological carbon sequestration via wood harvest and storage (WHS): Can it be a viable climate mitigation and adaptation strategy for the Amazon?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zeng, N.

      2015-12-01

      A carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forests are sustainably managed to optimal carbon productivity, and a fraction of the wood is selectively harvested and stored to prevent decomposition under anaerobic, dry or cold conditions. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. The live trees serve as a 'carbon scrubber' or 'carbon remover' that provides continuous sequestration (negative emissions). The stored wood is a semi-permanent carbon sink, but also serves as a 'biomass/bioenergy reserve' that could be utilized in the future. We discuss the particular relevance of this strategy to the Amazon which is under the double threat of climate change and deforestation. As an alternative to REDD, we propose mixed-use of peripheral Amazon basin while keeping the core of the Amazon intact. We argue that this may be a more practical solution in light of the likely climate change impact and human activities.

    19. Quality assessment of fruit pulps industrialized and commercialized in the city of Boa Vista – RR = Avaliação da qualidade de polpas de frutos industrializadas e comercializadas no município de Boa Vista – RR

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Cássia Rejane Nascimento

      2012-12-01

      Full Text Available This work aimed to study the quality of frozen pulp, manufactured and marketed in Boa Vista - RR, through physico-chemical analysis. It were selected six Agroindustries that produce and market pulp in establishments located in Fair Passarão, supermarkets and home of juices, identified by the letters A, B, C, D, E and F. The variables studied were: soluble solids, titratable acidity and vitamin C, of the flavors: acerola, caja, cupuaçu, guava, soursop and passion fruit. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design, being analyzed six brands of fruits pulps and six different fruits, with three replicates. The observed results demonstrate that none of the companies processing fruit pulp detail their identification inaccordance with the legislation. In the variables studied, only the cupuaçu pulp brands C and D and soursop brands B, C, D and E were in accordance with the technical regulation for fixing the identity and quality standard. Considering the variables in question, it was found that variations in the levels encountered and not adequacy of these standards could be minimized by the standardization of raw materials and processes used. =Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho estudar a qualidade de polpas congeladas, fabricadas e comercializadas no município de Boa Vista – RR, por meio de análises físico-químicas. Foram selecionadas seis Agroindústrias que produzem polpa e comercializam em estabelecimentos próprios localizados na Feira do Passarão, supermercados e casa de sucos, sendo identificadas pelas letras A, B, C, D, E e F. As variáveis estudadas foram: sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e vitamina C, dos sabores: acerola, cajá, cupuaçu, goiaba, graviola e maracujá. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado, sendo analisadas seis marcas de polpas e seis frutos diferentes, com três repetições. Os resultados observadosdemonstram que nenhuma das empresas de processamento de polpa

    20. Spatial trends in leaf size of Amazonian rainforest trees

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      A. C. M. Malhado

      2009-02-01

      Full Text Available Leaf size influences many aspects of tree function such as rates of transpiration and photosynthesis and, consequently, often varies in a predictable way in response to environmental gradients. The recent development of pan-Amazonian databases based on permanent botanical plots (e.g. RAINFOR, ATDN has now made it possible to assess trends in leaf size across environmental gradients in Amazonia. Previous plot-based studies have shown that the community structure of Amazonian trees breaks down into at least two major ecological gradients corresponding with variations in soil fertility (decreasing south to northeast and length of the dry season (increasing from northwest to south and east. Here we describe the results of the geographic distribution of leaf size categories based on 121 plots distributed across eight South American countries. We find that, as predicted, the Amazon forest is predominantly populated by tree species and individuals in the mesophyll size class (20.25–182.25 cm2. The geographic distribution of species and individuals with large leaves (>20.25 cm2 is complex but is generally characterized by a higher proportion of such trees in the north-west of the region. Spatially corrected regressions reveal weak correlations between the proportion of large-leaved species and metrics of water availability. We also find a significant negative relationship between leaf size and wood density.

    1. Commons management and ecotourism: Ethnographic evidence from the Amazon

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Stronza, Amanda Lee

      2010-01-01

      TThe paper evaluates the relationship between ecotourism and commons management. Social and economic impacts of ecotourism in an indigenous village in the Peruvian Amazon are considered in relation to opportunities for collective action to manage common pool resources, including wildlife, forests, a

    2. Long-term decline of Amazon carbon the sink

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Brienen, R.J.W.; Phillips, O.L.; Feldpausch, T.; Gloor, E.; Baker, T.R.; Arets, E.J.M.M.; Pena Claros, M.; Poorter, L.

      2015-01-01

      Atmospheric carbon dioxide records indicate that the land surface has acted as a strong global carbon sink over recent decades1, 2, with a substantial fraction of this sink probably located in the tropics3, particularly in the Amazon4. Nevertheless, it is unclear how the terrestrial carbon sink will

    3. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

      2007-01-01

      A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched...

    4. Aerosol retrieval from OMI: Applications to the amazon bassin

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Curier, R.L.; Veefkind, J.P.; Veilhmann, B.; Braak, R.; Torres, O.; Leeuw, G.de

      2007-01-01

      We present the aerosol optical depth retrieved from OMI measurements using the multi-wavelengthm algorithm for two different environments: over Western Europe where the aerosols are weakly absorbing and over the Amazon basin where aerosol optical properties are governed by biomass burning. The resul

    5. Kindling: The Amazon e-Reader as an Educational Tool

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brezicki, Colin

      2011-01-01

      The revolutionary electronic reading device, Amazon's Kindle, is already obsolete. Such is the breakneck speed of technology that the machine touted to spell the death of printed books is already heading for the scrap heap, replaced by e-readers like the iPad that access the Internet, make phone calls, download movies, and connect users with all…

    6. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: A Classroom Project.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nijman, Jan; Hill, A. David

      1991-01-01

      Presents a classroom project dealing with tropical deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Addresses environmental consequences and economic, social, and political causes. Involves both lectures and individual research and reports by student groups on deforestation causes. Includes a note-playing activity in which students make recommendations for…

    7. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

      2014-02-01

      We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

    8. People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Peña Venegas, C.P.

      2015-01-01

      Abstract Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp. The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark   Ea

    9. Mayaro Virus Infection, Amazon Basin Region, Peru, 2010–2013

      OpenAIRE

      Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Erik J. Jhonston; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Ampuero, Julia S.

      2013-01-01

      During 2010–2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

    10. Mayaro virus infection, Amazon Basin region, Peru, 2010-2013.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Guevara, Carolina; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Jhonston, Erik J; Ramal, Cesar; Aguilar, Patricia V; Ampuero, Julia S

      2013-11-01

      During 2010-2013, we recruited 16 persons with confirmed Mayaro virus infection in the Peruvian Amazon to prospectively follow clinical symptoms and serologic response over a 12-month period. Mayaro virus infection caused long-term arthralgia in more than half, similar to reports of other arthritogenic alphaviruses.

    11. The Amazon region: tropical deforestation, biogeochemical cycles and the climate

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Kabat, P.; Andreae, M.O.; Silva-Dias, M.A.; Veraart, J.A.; Brink, N.J.

      2003-01-01

      The biogeochemical cycling of carbon, water, energy, aerosols, and trace gases in the Amazon Basin, and the interactions between deforestation, rainfall and climate were all investigated in this programme as a part of an integrated cluster of inter-linked and complementary research projects. These i

    12. Staphylococcus aureus causing tropical pyomyositis, Amazon Basin, Peru.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Garcia, C.; Hallin, M.; Deplano, A.; Denis, O.; Sihuincha, M.; Groot, R. de; Gotuzzo, E.; Jacobs, J.

      2013-01-01

      We studied 12 Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing tropical pyomyositis in the Amazon Basin of Peru. All isolates were methicillin-susceptible; 11 carried Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding genes, and 5 belonged to multilocus sequence type 25 and possessed an extensive set of enterotoxins. Our f

    13. Backwater effects in the Amazon River basin of Brazil

      Science.gov (United States)

      Meade, R.H.; Rayol, J.M.; Da Conceicao, S.C.; Natividade, J.R.G.

      1991-01-01

      The Amazon River mainstem of Brazil is so regulated by differences in the timing of tributary inputs and by seasonal storage of water on floodplains that maximum discharges exceed minimum discharges by a factor of only 3. Large tributaries that drain the southern Amazon River basin reach their peak discharges two months earlier than does the mainstem. The resulting backwater in the lowermost 800 km of two large southern tributaries, the Madeira and Puru??s rivers, causes falling river stages to be as much as 2-3 m higher than rising stages at any given discharge. Large tributaries that drain the northernmost Amazon River basin reach their annual minimum discharges three to four months later than does the mainstem. In the lowermost 300-400 km of the Negro River, the largest northern tributary and the fifth largest river in the world, the lowest stages of the year correspond to those of the Amazon River mainstem rather than to those in the upstream reaches of the Negro River. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

    14. Learning big data with Amazon Elastic MapReduce

      CERN Document Server

      Singh, Amarkant

      2014-01-01

      This book is aimed at developers and system administrators who want to learn about Big Data analysis using Amazon Elastic MapReduce. Basic Java programming knowledge is required. You should be comfortable with using command-line tools. Prior knowledge of AWS, API, and CLI tools is not assumed. Also, no exposure to Hadoop and MapReduce is expected.

    15. Reshaping institutions : bricolage processes in smallholder forestry in the Amazon

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Koning, de J.

      2011-01-01

      This thesis aims at identifying the different kinds of institutional influences on forest practices of small farmers in the Amazon region of Ecuador and Bolivia and how small farmers respond to them. It departs from the perspective that institutions affecting forest practices are subject to processe

    16. Modeling Amazon forest vegetation dynamics and community response to increased wind disturbance

      Science.gov (United States)

      Holm, J. A.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Chambers, J. Q.; Marra, D.; Rifai, S. W.; Knox, R. G.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.; McGroddy, M. E.; Urquiza-Muñoz, J. D.; Tello-Espinoza, R.; Ribeiro, G. H. P. M.; Higuchi, N.

      2015-12-01

      Determining the drivers of tree mortality in Amazonia is a complex task, yet essential to reliable prediction of carbon storage in a warmer climate. Past studies have shown an east-west gradient of forest disturbance and rainfall amount across Amazonia. This study uses remote sensing and dynamic vegetation modeling to take a deeper look at drivers of tree mortality and community composition shifts associated with varying mortality rates. Our analysis, using 20 years of Landsat 5 images, showed that ever-wet Amazonia (located in north-west Amazonia, i.e. NWA) was more susceptible to windthrows than the Central Amazon (i.e. CA), which has a a well-defined dry season. The higher frequency of windthrows in NWA forest correlates with higher frequency and intensity of deep convection events in this region, observed using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. While a combination of factors including: soil characteristics (and by proxy rooting depth) and community composition exacerbate the regional gradient of disturbance, wind was the mechanistic agent of disturbance. Using an individual-based gap model for tropical forests populated with the most representative NWA tree species and increased mortality rates, we found a decrease of biomass in this region and a slight increase in NPP compared to a control simulation, a pattern that is similar to observations. The model predicted which species had the largest response in basal area change due to elevated disturbance, but there was a non-significant shift in community composition in the NWA forests. However, analysis found strong differences in community composition between the modeled NWA and CA regions, consistent with observed results. When CA forests were subject to higher mortality rate similar to the current NWA region, dissimilarity in community composition continued to persist. In addition the model identified species-specific maximum tree height and maximum diameter as the most influential predictors of

    17. Tree growth rates in an Amazonian evergreen forest: seasonal patterns and correlations with leaf phenology

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wu, J.; Silva Campos, K.; Prohaska, N.; Ferreira, M. L.; Nelson, B. W.; Saleska, S. R.; da Silva, R.

      2014-12-01

      Metabolism and phenology of tropical forests significantly influence global dynamics of climate, carbon and water. However, there is still lack of mechanistic understanding of the controls on tropical forest metabolism, particularly at individual tree level. In this study, we are interested in investigating (1) what is the seasonal pattern of woody growth for tropical trees and (2) what is the mechanistic controls onwoody growth at individual level?To explore the above questions,we use two data sources from an evergreen tropical forest KM67 site (near Santarem, Brazil). They are: (1) image time series from a tower mounted RGB imaging system, with images recordedin10 minutes interval since October 2013.Images near local noon homogeneous diffuse lighting were selectedfor leaf phenologymonitoring; (2) ground based bi-weekly biometry survey (via dendrometry band technique) for 25 trees from random sampling since September 2013. 12 among 25 trees are within the tower mounted camera image view. Our preliminary resultsdemonstrate that 20 trees among 25 trees surveyed significantly increase woody growth (or "green up") in dry season. Our results also find thatamong those 20 trees, 12 trees reaches the maximum woody increment rate in late dry season with a mean DBH (Diameter at Breast Height) around 30 cm,while 8 trees reaching the maximum in the middle of wet season, with a mean DBH around 90 cm. This study,though limited in the sample size, mightprovide another line of evidence that Amazon rainforests "green up" in dry season. As for mechanistic controls on tropical tree woody control, we hypothesize both climate and leaf phenology control individual woody growth. We would like to link both camera based leaf phenology and climate data in the next to explorethe reason as to the pattern found in this study that bigger trees might have different seasonal growth pattern as smaller trees.

    18. Pattern Avoidance in Ternary Trees

      CERN Document Server

      Gabriel, Nathan; Pudwell, Lara; Tay, Samuel

      2011-01-01

      This paper considers the enumeration of ternary trees (i.e. rooted ordered trees in which each vertex has 0 or 3 children) avoiding a contiguous ternary tree pattern. We begin by finding recurrence relations for several simple tree patterns; then, for more complex trees, we compute generating functions by extending a known algorithm for pattern-avoiding binary trees. Next, we present an alternate one-dimensional notation for trees which we use to find bijections that explain why certain pairs of tree patterns yield the same avoidance generating function. Finally, we compare our bijections to known "replacement rules" for binary trees and generalize these bijections to a larger class of trees.

    19. Monitoring the Amazon plume northwestward transport along Lagrangian pathways

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fournier, Severine; Gaultier, Lucile; Vandemark, Douglas; Lee, Tong; Gierach, Michelle

      2016-04-01

      Large rivers are important to marine air-sea interactions and local biogeochemistry. By modifying the local and regional sea surface salinity (SSS), the freshwater inputs associated with major river plumes cause the formation of a layer near the surface with salinity stratification but near-uniform temperature, known as the barrier layer (BL). The BL prevent exchanges between the warm mixed layer and the cold ocean interior, and thus affect the vertical mixing of heat between the mixed layer and the thermocline. This can have an important impact on air-sea interactions such as hurricanes intensification. Our study focuses on the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, respectively the first and fourth world's largest rivers in terms of discharge. Amazon-Orinoco waters are carried northwestward by the North Brazilian Current (NBC) during the first part of the year and then eastward along the North Equatorial Counter Current. The hurricane season in the tropical Atlantic extends from June through November, the period of Amazon-Orinoco plume maximum northwestward extension, on a hurricane route. Being able to monitor the spatial and temporal dispersal of the Amazon and Orinoco river plumes is therefore important to better understand their impact on barrier layer thickness and SST variation at seasonal to interannual time scales. Variations from year to year in spatial extent of the plume may result from several processes including changes in Amazon discharge, ocean advection, turbulent mixing, and wind field. Satellite remote sensing data provide several means to visualize the surface dispersal of the Amazon plume, with ocean color data being the first to track it in the tropical Atlantic ocean further than 1000 km from shore. With the launches of the ESA Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and the NASA Aquarius/SAC-D missions, we are now able to use the SSS observations in combination with ocean color, altimetry and sea surface temperature observations to track surface plume

    20. Priority Areas for Establishing National Forests in the Brazilian Amazon

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Adalberto Veríssimo

      2002-06-01

      Full Text Available Brazil will benefit if it gains control of its vast Amazonian timber resources. Without immediate planning, the fate of much of the Amazon will be decided by predatory and largely unregulated timber interests. Logging in the Amazon is a transient process of natural resource mining. Older logging frontiers are being exhausted of timber resources and will face severe wood shortages within 5 yr. The Brazilian government can avoid the continued repetition of this process in frontier areas by establishing a network of National Forests (Florestas Nacionais or Flonas to stabilize the timber industry and simultaneously protect large tracts of forest. Flonas currently comprise less than 2% of the Brazilian Amazon (83,000 km2. If all these forests were used for sustainable logging, they would provide less than 10% of the demand for Amazonian timber. To sustainably supply the present and near-future demand for timber, approximately 700,000 km2 of the Amazon forest needs to be brought into well-managed production. Brazil's National Forest Program, launched in 2000, is designed to create at least 400,000 km2 of new Flonas. Objective decision-making tools are needed to site these new national forests. We present here a method for optimally locating the needed Flonas that incorporates information on existing protected areas, current vegetation cover, areas of human occupation, and timber stocks. The method combines these data in a spatial database that makes it possible to model the economic potential of the region's various forests as a function of their accessibility and timber values while constraining model solutions for existing areas of protection or human occupation. Our results indicate that 1.15 x 106 km2 of forests (23% of the Brazilian Amazon could be established as Flonas in a manner that will promote sustainable forest management; these Flonas would also serve as buffer zones for fully protected areas such as parks and reserves.

    1. Achieving zero deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon: What is missing?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Paulo Moutinho

      2016-09-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Amazon deforestation causes severe climatic and ecological disruptions, with negative consequences for the livelihood of forest-dependent peoples. To avoid further disruptions, Brazil will need to take bold steps to eliminate both illegal and legal Amazon deforestation over the short term. Amazon deforestation declined by 70% between 2005 and 2014 due to drops in commodity prices and interventions by federal and state governments, such as law enforcement campaigns and credit restrictions for landowners who deforest illegally. Despite these impressive achievements, Brazil still deforests 5,000 km2 of Amazonian forests each year. How then will Brazil eliminate Amazon deforestation altogether if the country is only committed to cut illegal deforestation by 2030—as stated in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (iNDC to the 2015 climate change treaty meeting in Paris? Here we provide an analysis of the major socio-economic-political threats that could constrain Brazil from achieving its current goals. We then propose six fundamental strategies to help Brazil achieve a more ambitious goal to eliminate all major legal and illegal Amazon deforestation. These strategies involve bringing social and environmental safeguards to the infrastructure plans in the region, consolidating and expanding positive incentives for the production of sustainable commodities, establishing a new policy to guarantee the social and environmental sustainability of rural settlements, fully implementing the national legislation protecting forests (the Forest Code, protecting the land rights of indigenous people and traditional communities, and expanding the existing network of protected areas, allocating the 80 million hectares of not designated public forests as protected areas or areas for sustainable use of timber and non-timber forest products. The implementation of these strategies however depends on the formulation of a new development paradigm that

    2. Bayesian Rose Trees

      CERN Document Server

      Blundell, Charles; Heller, Katherine A

      2012-01-01

      Hierarchical structure is ubiquitous in data across many domains. There are many hier- archical clustering methods, frequently used by domain experts, which strive to discover this structure. However, most of these meth- ods limit discoverable hierarchies to those with binary branching structure. This lim- itation, while computationally convenient, is often undesirable. In this paper we ex- plore a Bayesian hierarchical clustering algo- rithm that can produce trees with arbitrary branching structure at each node, known as rose trees. We interpret these trees as mixtures over partitions of a data set, and use a computationally efficient, greedy ag- glomerative algorithm to find the rose trees which have high marginal likelihood given the data. Lastly, we perform experiments which demonstrate that rose trees are better models of data than the typical binary trees returned by other hierarchical clustering algorithms.

    3. Basin-wide variations in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by both soils and climate

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      C. A. Quesada

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available Forest structure and dynamics vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient coincident with variations in soil fertility and geology. This has resulted in the hypothesis that soil fertility may play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates.

      Soil samples were collected in a total of 59 different forest plots across the Amazon Basin and analysed for exchangeable cations, carbon, nitrogen and pH, with several phosphorus fractions of likely different plant availability also quantified. Physical properties were additionally examined and an index of soil physical quality developed. Bivariate relationships of soil and climatic properties with above-ground wood productivity, stand-level tree turnover rates, above-ground wood biomass and wood density were first examined with multivariate regression models then applied. Both forms of analysis were undertaken with and without considerations regarding the underlying spatial structure of the dataset.

      Despite the presence of autocorrelated spatial structures complicating many analyses, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic as well as climatic conditions. Basin-wide differences in stand-level turnover rates are mostly influenced by soil physical properties with variations in rates of coarse wood production mostly related to soil phosphorus status. Total soil P was a better predictor of wood production rates than any of the fractionated organic- or inorganic-P pools. This suggests that it is not only the immediately available P forms, but probably the entire soil phosphorus pool that is interacting with forest growth on longer timescales.

      A role for soil potassium in modulating Amazon forest dynamics through its effects on stand-level wood density was also detected. Taking this into account, otherwise enigmatic variations in stand-level biomass across the

    4. Basin-wide variations in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by both soils and climate

      Science.gov (United States)

      Quesada, C. A.; Phillips, O. L.; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I.; Baker, T. R.; Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Hodnett, M. G.; Herrera, R.; Almeida, S.; Alvarez Dávila, E.; Arneth, A.; Arroyo, L.; Chao, K. J.; Dezzeo, N.; Erwin, T.; di Fiore, A.; Higuchi, N.; Honorio Coronado, E.; Jimenez, E. M.; Killeen, T.; Lezama, A. T.; Lloyd, G.; López-González, G.; Luizão, F. J.; Malhi, Y.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D. A.; Núñez Vargas, P.; Paiva, R.; Peacock, J.; Peñuela, M. C.; Peña Cruz, A.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Ramírez, H.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schmerler, J.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Vásquez, R.; Vieira, I.; Terborgh, J.; Lloyd, J.

      2012-06-01

      Forest structure and dynamics vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient coincident with variations in soil fertility and geology. This has resulted in the hypothesis that soil fertility may play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates. Soil samples were collected in a total of 59 different forest plots across the Amazon Basin and analysed for exchangeable cations, carbon, nitrogen and pH, with several phosphorus fractions of likely different plant availability also quantified. Physical properties were additionally examined and an index of soil physical quality developed. Bivariate relationships of soil and climatic properties with above-ground wood productivity, stand-level tree turnover rates, above-ground wood biomass and wood density were first examined with multivariate regression models then applied. Both forms of analysis were undertaken with and without considerations regarding the underlying spatial structure of the dataset. Despite the presence of autocorrelated spatial structures complicating many analyses, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic as well as climatic conditions. Basin-wide differences in stand-level turnover rates are mostly influenced by soil physical properties with variations in rates of coarse wood production mostly related to soil phosphorus status. Total soil P was a better predictor of wood production rates than any of the fractionated organic- or inorganic-P pools. This suggests that it is not only the immediately available P forms, but probably the entire soil phosphorus pool that is interacting with forest growth on longer timescales. A role for soil potassium in modulating Amazon forest dynamics through its effects on stand-level wood density was also detected. Taking this into account, otherwise enigmatic variations in stand-level biomass across the Basin were then accounted for through the

    5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil

      Science.gov (United States)

      Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 dolphins from free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from Sustainable Development Reserve Mamirauá (...

    6. The valuative tree

      CERN Document Server

      Favre, Charles

      2004-01-01

      This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

    7. Comparison of galled trees.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cardona, Gabriel; Llabrés, Mercè; Rosselló, Francesc; Valiente, Gabriel

      2011-01-01

      Galled trees, directed acyclic graphs that model evolutionary histories with isolated hybridization events, have become very popular due to both their biological significance and the existence of polynomial-time algorithms for their reconstruction. In this paper, we establish to which extent several distance measures for the comparison of evolutionary networks are metrics for galled trees, and hence, when they can be safely used to evaluate galled tree reconstruction methods.

    8. Forest Fragmentation in the Lower Amazon Floodplain: Implications for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Provision to Riverine Populations

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vivian Renó

      2016-10-01

      Full Text Available This article analyzes the process of forest fragmentation of a floodplain landscape of the Lower Amazon over a 30-year period and its implications for the biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services to the riverine population. To this end, we created a multi-temporal forest cover map based on Landsat images, and then analyzed the fragmentation dynamics through landscape metrics. From the analyses of the landscape and bibliographic information, we made inferences regarding the potential impacts of fragmentation on the biodiversity of trees, birds, mammals and insects. Subsequently, we used data on the local populations’ environmental perception to assess whether the inferred impacts on biodiversity are perceived by these populations and whether the ecosystem services related to the biodiversity of the addressed groups are compromised. The results show a 70% reduction of the forest habitat as well as important changes in the landscape structure that constitute a high degree of forest fragmentation. The perceived landscape alterations indicate that there is great potential for compromise of the biodiversity of trees, birds, mammals and insects. The field interviews corroborate the inferred impacts on biodiversity and indicate that the ecosystem services of the local communities have been compromised. More than 95% of the communities report a decreased variety and/or abundance of animal and plant species, 46% report a decrease in agricultural productivity, and 19% confirm a higher incidence of pests during the last 30 years. The present study provides evidence of an accelerated process of degradation of the floodplain forests of the Lower Amazon and indicate substantial compromise of the ecosystem services provision to the riverine population in recent decades, including reductions of food resources (animals and plants, fire wood, raw material and medicine, as well as lower agricultural productivity due to probable lack of pollination

    9. Technical and Institutional Innovation in Agroforestry for Protected Areas Management in the Brazilian Amazon: Opportunities and Limitations

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schroth, Götz; da Mota, Maria do Socorro S.

      2013-08-01

      Tropical forest countries are struggling with the partially conflicting policy objectives of socioeconomic development, forest conservation, and safeguarding the livelihoods of local forest-dependent people. We worked with communities in the lower Tapajós region of the central Brazilian Amazon for over 10 years to understand their traditional and present land use practices, the constraints, and decision making processes imposed by their biophysical, socioeconomic, and political environment, and to facilitate development trajectories to improve the livelihoods of forest communities while conserving the forest on the farms and in the larger landscape. The work focused on riverine communities initially in the Tapajós National Forest and then in the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve. These communities have a century-old tradition of planting rubber agroforests which despite their abandonment during the 1990s still widely characterize the vegetation of the river banks, especially in the two protected areas where they are safe from the recent expansion of mechanized rice and soybean agriculture. The project evolved from the capacity-building of communities in techniques to increase the productivity of the rubber agroforests without breaking their low-input and low-risk logic, to the establishment of a community enterprise that allowed reserve inhabitants to reforest their own land with tree species of their choice and sell reforestation (not carbon) credits to local timber companies while retaining the ownership of the trees. By making land use practices economically more viable and ecologically more appropriate for protected areas, the project shows ways to strengthen the system of extractive and sustainable development reserves that protects millions of hectares of Amazon forest with the consent of the communities that inhabit them.

    10. A theory of game trees, based on solution trees

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); A. de Bruin (Arie); A. Plaat (Aske)

      1996-01-01

      textabstractIn this paper a complete theory of game tree algorithms is presented, entirely based upon the notion of a solution tree. Two types of solution trees are distinguished: max and min solution trees respectively. We show that most game tree algorithms construct a superposition of a max and a

    11. D2-tree

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas;

      2015-01-01

      We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers......-balancing scheme of elements into nodes is deterministic and general enough to be applied to other hierarchical tree-based overlays. This load-balancing mechanism is based on an innovative lazy weight-balancing mechanism, which is interesting in its own right....

    12. A parallel buffer tree

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

      2012-01-01

      We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...

    13. Symmetric M-tree

      CERN Document Server

      Sexton, Alan P

      2010-01-01

      The M-tree is a paged, dynamically balanced metric access method that responds gracefully to the insertion of new objects. To date, no algorithm has been published for the corresponding Delete operation. We believe this to be non-trivial because of the design of the M-tree's Insert algorithm. We propose a modification to Insert that overcomes this problem and give the corresponding Delete algorithm. The performance of the tree is comparable to the M-tree and offers additional benefits in terms of supported operations, which we briefly discuss.

    14. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.

      2009-01-01

      New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present sha

    15. The importance of tree size and fecundity for wind dispersal of big-leaf mahogany.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Norghauer, Julian M; Nock, Charles A; Grogan, James

      2011-03-07

      Seed dispersal by wind is a critical yet poorly understood process in tropical forest trees. How tree size and fecundity affect this process at the population level remains largely unknown because of insufficient replication across adults. We measured seed dispersal by the endangered neotropical timber species big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) in the Brazilian Amazon at 25 relatively isolated trees using multiple 1-m wide belt transects extended 100 m downwind. Tree diameter and fecundity correlated positively with increased seed shadow extent; but in combination large, high fecundity trees contributed disproportionately to longer-distance dispersal events (>60 m). Among three empirical models fitted to seed density vs. distance in one dimension, the Student-t (2Dt) generally fit best (compared to the negative exponential and inverse power). When seedfall downwind was modelled in two dimensions using a normalised sample, it peaked furthest downwind (c. 25 m) for large, high-fecundity trees; with the inverse Gaussian and Weibull functions providing comparable fits that were slightly better than the lognormal. Although most seeds fell within 30 m of parent trees, relatively few juveniles were found within this distance, resulting in juvenile-to-seed ratios peaking at c. 35-45 m. Using the 2Dt model fits to predict seed densities downwind, coupled with known fecundity data for 2000-2009, we evaluated potential Swietenia regeneration near adults (≤30 m dispersal) and beyond 30 m. Mean seed arrival into canopy gaps >30 m downwind was more than 3× greater for large, high fecundity trees than small, high-fecundity trees. Tree seed production did not necessarily scale up proportionately with diameter, and was not consistent across years, and this resulting intraspecific variation can have important consequences for local patterns of dispersal in forests. Our results have important implications for management and conservation of big-leaf mahogany

    16. The importance of tree size and fecundity for wind dispersal of big-leaf mahogany.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Julian M Norghauer

      Full Text Available Seed dispersal by wind is a critical yet poorly understood process in tropical forest trees. How tree size and fecundity affect this process at the population level remains largely unknown because of insufficient replication across adults. We measured seed dispersal by the endangered neotropical timber species big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae in the Brazilian Amazon at 25 relatively isolated trees using multiple 1-m wide belt transects extended 100 m downwind. Tree diameter and fecundity correlated positively with increased seed shadow extent; but in combination large, high fecundity trees contributed disproportionately to longer-distance dispersal events (>60 m. Among three empirical models fitted to seed density vs. distance in one dimension, the Student-t (2Dt generally fit best (compared to the negative exponential and inverse power. When seedfall downwind was modelled in two dimensions using a normalised sample, it peaked furthest downwind (c. 25 m for large, high-fecundity trees; with the inverse Gaussian and Weibull functions providing comparable fits that were slightly better than the lognormal. Although most seeds fell within 30 m of parent trees, relatively few juveniles were found within this distance, resulting in juvenile-to-seed ratios peaking at c. 35-45 m. Using the 2Dt model fits to predict seed densities downwind, coupled with known fecundity data for 2000-2009, we evaluated potential Swietenia regeneration near adults (≤30 m dispersal and beyond 30 m. Mean seed arrival into canopy gaps >30 m downwind was more than 3× greater for large, high fecundity trees than small, high-fecundity trees. Tree seed production did not necessarily scale up proportionately with diameter, and was not consistent across years, and this resulting intraspecific variation can have important consequences for local patterns of dispersal in forests. Our results have important implications for management and conservation of big

    17. BOA CALL NAME

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      凤梨味的Orange

      2013-01-01

      BoA主演的《期待恋爱》即将和大家见面,因为是她自己真正意义上的第一部电视剧,所以自然收获了很多期待与关注。除此之外,新单曲的发行时间也提上了日程。出道13年后,她依然忙碌。

    18. Matching Subsequences in Trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

      2009-01-01

      Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

    19. Structural Equation Model Trees

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

      2013-01-01

      In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

    20. Tree nut oils

      Science.gov (United States)

      The major tree nuts include almonds, Brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts. Tree nut oils are appreciated in food applications because of their flavors and are generally more expensive than other gourmet oils. Research during the last de...

    1. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

      2013-01-01

      This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

    2. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Daiva Domenech Tupinambá

      2016-01-01

      Full Text Available This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7% were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area. More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied.

    3. Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tupinambá, Daiva Domenech; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Costa, Ohana Yonara Assis; Bergmann, Jessica Carvalho; Kruger, Ricardo Henrique; Kyaw, Cynthia Maria; Barreto, Cristine Chaves; Quirino, Betania Ferraz

      2016-01-01

      This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7%) were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group. Several archaeal genera involved in nutrient cycling (e.g., methanogens and ammonia oxidizers) were identified in both areas, but significant differences were found in the relative abundances of Candidatus Nitrososphaera and unclassified Soil Crenarchaeotic Group (prevalent in the native forest) and Candidatus Nitrosotalea and unclassified Terrestrial Group (prevalent in the oil palm-cultivated area). More studies are needed to culture some of these Archaea in the laboratory so that their metabolism and physiology can be studied.

    4. Analysis of results of biomass forest inventory in northeastern Amazon for development of REDD+ carbon project

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      LEONEL N.C. MELLO

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, a significant reduction in deforestation rates occurred during the last decade. In spite of that fact, the average annual rates are still too high, approximately 400.000 ha/year (INPE/Prodes. The projects of emissions reduction through avoided deforestation (REED+ are an important tool to reduce deforestation rates in Brazil. Understanding the amazon forest structure, in terms of biomass stock is key to design avoided deforestation strategies. In this work, we analyze data results from aboveground biomass of 1,019.346,27 hectares in the state of Pará. It was collected data from 16,722 trees in 83 random independent plots. It was tested 4 allometric equations, for DBH > 10cm: Brown et al. (1989, Brown and Lugo (1999, Chambers et al. (2000, Higuchi et al. (1998. It revealed that the biggest carbon stock of above ground biomass is stocked on the interval at DBH between 30cm and 80cm. This biomass compartment stocks 75.70% of total biomass in Higuchi et al. (1998 equation, 75.56% of total biomass in Brown et al. (1989 equation, 78.83% of total biomass in Chambers et al. (2000 equation, and 73.22% in Brown and Lugo (1999 equation.

    5. Ecology and life history of an Amazon floodplain cichlid: the discus fish Symphysodon (Perciformes: Cichlidae

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      William G. R. Crampton

      Full Text Available The discus fishes of the genus Symphysodon are popular ornamental cichlids that occur in floodplain lakes and flooded forests of the lowland Amazon Basin. These habitats are characterized by extreme seasonal fluctuations in the availability of food, shelter and dissolved oxygen, and also the densities of predators and parasites. Most aspects of discus biology are influenced by these fluctuating conditions. This paper reports an autoecological study of the western Amazonian discus S. haraldi (until recently classified as S. aequifasciatus. This species feeds predominantly on algal periphyton, fine organic detritus, plant matter, and small aquatic invertebrates. At high water it forages alone or in small groups in flooded forests. At low water it forms large aggregations in fallen tree crowns along lake margins. Breeding occurs at the beginning of the flood season, ensuring that the progeny are well grown before the next low water period. Symphysodon haraldi is an iteroparous partial spawner, reaches reproductive maturity within a year, and undertakes parental care of its eggs and larvae. The timing of spawning events, and/or the rate of brood survival, may be influenced by fluctuations in the flood level, resulting in a non-unimodal distribution of size classes for the subsequent 1+ cohort.

    6. Positive and negative feedbacks among Amazon land uses, drought, and fire: the drought of 2005

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nepstad, D.; Brando, P.; Soares-Filho, B.; Balch, J.; Moutinho, P.

      2006-12-01

      Climate, rural economies, and ecosystems are connected in the Amazon basin through complex interactions with important implications for greenhouse gas fluxes, biodiversity, and the well-being of rural people. In the historically severe drought of 2005, drought-induced tree mortality and fire-dependent land uses (cattle ranching, swidden agriculture) favored forest fire as it increased the likelihood of further drought. Regions with fire-sensitive investments in the landscape, including improved cattle forage, agroforestry systems, and forest management, were also regions of high investments in the prevention of accidental fire, and experienced low levels of forest fire, in a negative feedback cycle. Some areas of agroindustrial production(cultivated soy) also experienced low forest fire occurrence because of the low flammability of crop fields. The combination of drought- and fire-induced carbon emissions can approach one billion tons in years of severe drought. The negative feedbacks between some types of land use and forest fire could substantially reduce these emissions in the short term.

    7. Aboveground Biomass Modeling from Field and LiDAR Data in Brazilian Amazon Tropical Rain Forest

      Science.gov (United States)

      Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Vierling, L. A.; Keller, M. M.; Klauberg Silva, C. K.

      2015-12-01

      Tropical forests are an important component of global carbon stocks, but tropical forest responses to climate change are not sufficiently studied or understood. Among remote sensing technologies, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) may be best suited for quantifying tropical forest carbon stocks. Our objective was to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) using airborne LiDAR and field plot data in Brazilian tropical rain forest. Forest attributes such as tree density, diameter at breast height, and heights were measured at a combination of square plots and linear transects (n=82) distributed across six different geographic zones in the Amazon. Using previously published allometric equations, tree AGB was computed and then summed to calculate total AGB at each sample plot. LiDAR-derived canopy structure metrics were also computed at each sample plot, and random forest regression modelling was applied to predict AGB from selected LiDAR metrics. The LiDAR-derived AGB model was assessed using the random forest explained variation, adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj. R²), root mean square error (RMSE, both absolute and relative) and BIAS (both absolute and relative). Our findings showed that the 99th percentile of height and height skewness were the best LiDAR metrics for AGB prediction. The AGB model using these two best predictors explained 59.59% of AGB variation, with an Adj. R² of 0.92, RMSE of 33.37 Mg/ha (20.28%), and bias of -0.69 (-0.42%). This study showed that LiDAR canopy structure metrics can be used to predict AGC stocks in Tropical Forest with acceptable precision and accuracy. Therefore, we conclude that there is good potential to monitor carbon sequestration in Brazilian Tropical Rain Forest using airborne LiDAR data, large field plots, and the random forest algorithm.

    8. Plantio de árvores de crescimento rápido para recuperação de áreas agrícolas na Amazônia Oriental brasileira: estudo de caso com produção de milho e mandioca Planting of fast-growing trees for recovery of agricultural areas in the Eastern of Brazilian Amazon: studying case of maize and cassava prdution

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Silvio Brienza Júnior

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available

      O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a sobrevivência de árvores leguminosas plantadas para recuperar áreas degradadas e as produtividades de milho e mandioca num sistema tradicional de agricultura de derruba-e-queima. Foram utilizados os espaçamentos 1 m x 1 m, 2 m x 1 m e 2 m x 2 m para plantio de Acacia angustissima, Clitoria racemosa, Inga edulis e Acacia mangium. A espécie Sclerolobium paniculatum foi plantada somente no espaçamento 2 m x 1 m. Na condução do experimento, o milho permaneceu no experimento nos primeiros quatro meses e considerado como monocultura, produziu 1.890 +/- 32 kg ha-1. A sobrevivência das árvores, plantadas junto com milho e na mesma época da mandioca, não sofreu interferência negativa das culturas agrícolas. Independente do espaçamento, as árvores não causaram impacto negativo no peso seco das raízes de mandioca. Quanto a densidade de árvores observou-se tendência de aumento do peso seco das raízes de mandioca com a diminuição do número de árvores plantadas por hectare. Os resultados evidenciam a possibilidade de se manter a produtividade agrícola associada ao plantio de árvores. Entretanto, a opção pelo espaçamento 1 m x 1 m deve ser cuidadosamente analisada quando o objetivo principal for a produção de alimentos.

      doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.68.347

       

      The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the survival of planted leguminous trees to restore degraded areas and yields of maize and cassava in traditional farming system. The trees species Acacia angustissima, Clitoria racemosa, Inga edulis, and Acacia mangium were planted at spacing of 1 m x 1 m, 2 m x 1 m and 2 m x 2 m. Sclerolobium paniculatum was planted only at spacing of 2 m x 1 m. The maize, remained in the cropping system during the first four months, and it was considered as monocropping phase and, yielded 1,890 +/- 32 kg ha-1. The survival of planted trees was not negatively

    9. Quem aprende na Educação Infantil? a escola ensinando a ser boa-mãe

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Letícia Prezzi Fernandes

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available Esta pesquisa se propôs a problematizar, através dos Estudos de Gênero e Culturais Pós-Estruturalistas, as relações entre professoras e mães de alunos na Educação Infantil. Entende-se que os discursos da pedagogia, da medicina e da psicologia do desenvolvimento, que fundamentam a formação docente, instituem não só posições de sujeito e identidades de professor/a e aluno/a mas, também, determinadas formas de exercício da maternidade. A partir da análise cultural se problematizam alguns ensinamentos sobre maternidade que tanto são produzidos nas relações escolares, como ao mesmo tempo são configurados. Foi observada uma turma de Educação Infantil, atentando para as práticas discursivas que permeiam as relações entre mães e professora, materializadas através dos bilhetes de agenda e dos contatos na entrada e saída da aula, bem como aquelas que delimitam e atravessam as práticas pedagógicas desenvolvidas, sobretudo na semana do dia das mães. Apesar da ênfase atualmente atribuída à participação da família-mãe na escola, estas são chamadas apenas em momentos definidos e delimitados pela escola e pela professora. De fato, a participação da instituição escolar na valoração e legitimação de determinadas formas de exercício da maternidade é bastante intensa, pois a representação de boa-mãe é definida em sutis falas do cotidiano escolar, onde cenas familiares são suscitadas. Entendendo que essas relações têm efeitos pedagógicos importantes pode se observar que, por um lado elas educam as mães das crianças para exercerem uma maternidade definida como aceitável pela instituição, ao mesmo tempo em que ensinam às crianças como suas mães devem ser. Palavras-chave: Produção de Maternidade. Escolas Infantis. Relação Mães/ Educadoras.

    10. Atmospheric turbulence within and above an Amazon forest

      CERN Document Server

      Ramos, F M; Sá, L D A; Rosa, R R; Ramos, Fernando M.; Bolzan, Mauricio J. A.; Sa, Leonardo D. A.; Rosa, Reinaldo R.

      2004-01-01

      In this paper, we discuss the impact of a rain forest canopy on the statistical characteristics of atmospheric turbulence. This issue is of particular interest for understanding on how the Amazon terrestrial biosphere interact with the atmosphere. For this, we used a probability density function model of velocity and temperature differences based on Tsallis' non-extensive thermostatistics. We compared theoretical results with experimental data measured in a 66 m micrometeorological tower, during the wet-season campaign of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). Particularly, we investigated how the value of the entropic parameter is affected when one moves into the canopy, or when one passes from day/unstable to night/stable conditions. We show that this new approach provides interesting insights on turbulence in a complex environment such as the Amazon forest.

    11. Remote tropical and sub-tropical responses to Amazon deforestation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Badger, Andrew M.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

      2016-05-01

      Replacing natural vegetation with realistic tropical crops over the Amazon region in a global Earth system model impacts vertical transport of heat and moisture, modifying the interaction between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free atmosphere. Vertical velocity is decreased over a majority of the Amazon region, shifting the ascending branch and modifying the seasonality of the Hadley circulation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Using a simple model that relates circulation changes to heating anomalies and generalizing the upper-atmosphere temperature response to deforestation, agreement is found between the response in the fully-coupled model and the simple solution. These changes to the large-scale dynamics significantly impact precipitation in several remote regions, namely sub-Saharan Africa, Mexico, the southwestern United States and extratropical South America, suggesting non-local climate repercussions for large-scale land use changes in the tropics are possible.

    12. International media spotlight on the Amazon roams, but rarely enlightens

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jeff Tollefson

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available Abstract The international media has played a powerful role by highlighting problems in the Brazilian Amazon, projecting the views of scientists and activists and projecting data from Brazil’s satellite monitoring program to throughout society. Journalists have also told powerful stories about violence and corruption and put pressure on both the Brazilian government and the agribusiness industry. But very few have attempted to explain the forces at work in the Brazilian Amazon today, despite the fact that the drop in deforestation, if sustained, would represent perhaps a singular environmental success story that could have repercussions across the world. If the goal of the media is to seek and promote understanding in the midst of confusion and debate, journalists must engage on a deeper level.

    13. ANALISIS E-BISNIS TERHADAP AMAZON DAN AQUARELLE

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Agustinna Yosanny

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available The internet and digital world is one thing that needs to be taken into account by the Company. Business through Internet, known as e-business, is another way to increase the relation between company and customers or prospective customers. Analysis from the view point of customers and the integration of technologies was conducted on 2 examples sites that well known in doing online business but have different history on how it started the e-commerce. They are Amazon and Aquarelle. By comparing the two sites, the characteristics of e-commerce sites could be studied. As a result, there are striking differences between these two sites, where Amazon is more oriented to sales, while Aquarelle more on customer-oriented impact to the design and implementation of their e-business.

    14. Reserves protect against deforestation fires in the Amazon.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      J Marion Adeney

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon.

    15. Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian Amazon

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Balslev, Henrik; Copete, Juan Carlos; Pedersen, Dennis

      2017-01-01

      We studied diversity and abundance of palms in the eastern Colombian Amazon in 71 transects, 61 measuring 5×500 m and 10 transects measuring 4×500 m, innventoring a total of 17.25 hectares. We found a total of 74 species in 21 genera. In terra firme we found 68 species in 20 genera and an average...... found in this study (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea butyracea, Iriartella setigera) coincide with dominant species in other Amazonian palm communities....

    16. Crowd Sourcing Data Collection through Amazon Mechanical Turk

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-09-01

      response (HR) file in compliance with a Broad Evaluation Plan ( BEP ) issued as part of the larger 7 project. Every response presented in the HR file...of variance API application programming interface ARL U.S. Army Research Laboratory BEP Broad Evaluation Plan DT:CS Description Task...truth data in the form of action labels for these videos as interpreted by human respondents. Amazon Mechanical Turk was identified as the service to

    17. Climate change, deforestation and the fate of Amazon

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alberti G

      2008-03-01

      Full Text Available Climate change, deforestation and the fate of Amazon. Understanding and mitigation the impact of the increasing population and global economic activities on tropical forests is one of the greatest challenges for scientists and policy makers. A summary of some of the latest findings and thinking on this topic has been reported by Malhi and colleagues in a recent paper published on Science. An overview and comments on this paper is herein proposed.

    18. Soybeans, Poverty and Inequality in the Brazilian Amazon

      OpenAIRE

      Weinhold, Diana; Killick, Evan; Reis, Eustaquio Jose

      2011-01-01

      The recent growth of soybean cultivation in the Brazilian Amazon has been unprecedented, even as the debate continues over its economic and environmental consequences. Based on contemporary datasets as well as our own field studies, this paper examines the social and economic costs and benefits of increases in soybean production for local populations. After presenting some background information on the rise of soybean cultivation in Brazil we examine the relationship between increases in soyb...

    19. Artisanal fisheries of the Xingu River basin in Brazilian Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Isaac, V J; Almeida, M C; Cruz, R E A; Nunes, L G

      2015-08-01

      The present study characterises the commercial fisheries of the basin of the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon River, between the towns of Gurupá (at the mouth of the Amazon) and São Félix do Xingu. Between April, 2012, and March, 2014, a total of 23,939 fishing trips were recorded, yielding a total production of 1,484 tons of fish, harvested by almost three thousand fishers. The analysis of the catches emphasizes the small-scale and artisanal nature of the region's fisheries, with emphasis on the contribution of the motorised canoes powered by "long-tail" outboard motors. Larger motorboats operate only at the mouth of the Xingu and on the Amazon. Peacock bass (Cichla spp.), croakers (Plagioscion spp.), pacu (a group containing numerous serrasalmid species), aracu (various anostomids), and curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans) together contributed more than 60% of the total catch. Mean catch per unit effort was 18 kg/fisher-1.day-1, which varied among fishing methods (type of vessel and fishing equipment used), river sections, and time of the year. In most cases, yields varied little between years (2012 and 2013). The technical database provided by this study constitutes an important resource for the regulation of the region's fisheries, as well as for the evaluation of future changes resulting from the construction of the Belo Monte dam on the Xingu River.

    20. Ballast water: a threat to the Amazon Basin.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pereira, Newton Narciso; Botter, Rui Carlos; Folena, Rafael Dompieri; Pereira, José Pinheiro Fragoso Neto; da Cunha, Alan Cavalcanti

      2014-07-15

      Ballast water exchange (BWE) is the most efficient measure to control the invasion of exotic species from ships. This procedure is being used for merchant ships in national and international voyages. The ballast water (BW) salinity is the main parameter to evaluate the efficacy of the mid-ocean ballast water exchange. The vessels must report to the Port State Control (PSC), via ballast water report (BWR), where and how the mid-ocean BWE was performed. This measure allows the PSC to analyze this information before the ship arrives at the port, and to decide whether or not it should berth. Ship BW reporting forms were collected from the Captaincy of Santana and some ships were visited near the Port of Santana, located in Macapá (Amazon River), to evaluate the BW quality onboard. We evaluated data submitted in these BWR forms and concluded that the BWE efficacy might be compromised, because data contained in these BWR indicate that some ships did not change their BW. We found mistakes in filling the BWR forms and lack of information. Moreover, these ships had discharged BW with high level of salinity, Escherichia coli and total coliforms into the Amazon River. We concluded that the authorities of the Amazon Region need to develop more efficient proceedings to evaluate the ballast water reporting forms and BW quality, as there is potential risk of future invasion of exotic species in Brazilian ports.

    1. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

      2008-01-01

      Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

    2. Skewed Binary Search Trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

      2006-01-01

      It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

    3. BOA技术在车辆感知网络中的应用研究%Applied research on BOA technology in the internet of vehicle

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      崔建明

      2012-01-01

      “车联网技术”的兴起,大量传感技术得到应用,受无线传输设备与传感器体积限制,信息只能单向传递,缺少与被感知设备间交互。提出一种通过BOA技术远程感知交通设备中部件访问的双向交互技术,配合虚拟独立地址技术可以达到部件分组独立控制。这样BOA通过CAN总线集成可以对设备整体进行全部部件监控和更多的优化操作.达到更大范围内的远程参数获取与监控。最后,通过具有BOA技术的实例证明,此种技术可行。%The rise of the internet of vehicle (IoV), a large number of sensor technology has been applied ,and because there are some limits that the wireless transmission device and the sensor size, information pass in only one-way, the lack of interaction with the be sensing equipment. It has been proposed that a two-way interactive technology for access the traffic equipment parts by the BOA remote sensing, the components grouping can be achieved independent control with the virtual independent address technology. In this way, BOA can monitor all parts in whole equipment and more optimization operating by integrated CAN-BUS, and reach for remote get 他 the parameter of the equipment and monitor it in a wider range. Finally, examples of the BOA technology show that the technical is feasible.

    4. LIMSUP DEVIATIONS ON TREES

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Fan Aihua

      2004-01-01

      The vertices of an infinite locally finite tree T are labelled by a collection of i.i.d. real random variables {Xσ}σ∈T which defines a tree indexed walk Sσ = ∑θ<r≤σXr. We introduce and study the oscillations of the walk:Exact Hausdorff dimension of the set of such ξ 's is calculated. An application is given to study the local variation of Brownian motion. A general limsup deviation problem on trees is also studied.

    5. The gravity apple tree

      Science.gov (United States)

      Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

      2015-04-01

      The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

    6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from central Amazon, Brazil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Santos, P S; Albuquerque, G R; da Silva, V M F; Martin, A R; Marvulo, M F V; Souza, S L P; Ragozo, A M A; Nascimento, C C; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Silva, J C R

      2011-12-29

      Toxoplasma gondii is an important pathogen in aquatic mammals and its presence in these animals may indicate the water contamination of aquatic environment by oocysts. Serum samples from 95 free-living Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) from the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSM), Tefé, Amazonas, Central Amazon, Brazil were tested for T. gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT ≥ 25) to T. gondii were found in 82 (86.3%) dolphins with titers of 1:25 in 24, 1:50 in 56, and 1:500 in 2. Results suggest a high level contamination of the aquatic environment of the home range of these animals.

    7. Ocorrência de Passalora bougainvilleae (Muntañola) Castañeda & Braun associado à Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. em Boa Vista, Roraima

      OpenAIRE

      Nechet, Kátia de Lima; Halfeld-Vieira,Bernardo A.

      2008-01-01

      O fungo Passalora bougainvilleae é relatado, pela primeira vez, na região de Boa Vista, Roraima, associado a manchas foliares na planta ornamental Bougainvillea spectabilis. As características do fungo são conidióforos agregados em fascículos, emergindo de um estroma subcuticular na face abaxial de lesões velhas. Os conidióforos são lisos, retos, de coloração marrom, não ramificados, maioria asseptados, medindo de 26-57µm x 4µm. Células conidiogênicas terminais de proliferação simpodial com c...

    8. Avaliação das boas práticas adotadas nas cozinhas hospitalares da cidade de Pelotas/RS

      OpenAIRE

      Gonçalves, Juliana Macedo; Buchweitz, Márcia Rúbia Duarte; Rodrigues,Kelly Lameiro; Almeida, Ângela Teresinha Santiago

      2012-01-01

      Em unidades hospitalares, vários critérios são estabelecidos com a finalidade de recuperar a saúde do paciente, entre elas o consumo da alimentação hospitalar, que deve estar adequada do ponto de vista higiênico e sanitário. A legislação sanitária brasileira exige dos estabelecimentos produtores e/ou manipuladores de alimentos a implantação das Boas Práticas, que são procedimentos padronizados que visam prevenir o surgimento de toxinfecções alimentares. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar...

    9. Avaliação das boas práticas adotadas nas cozinhas hospitalares da cidade de Pelotas/RS

      OpenAIRE

      Gonçalves, Juliana Macedo

      2012-01-01

      Em unidades hospitalares, vários critérios são estabelecidos com a finalidade de recuperar a saúde do paciente, entre elas o consumo da alimentação hospitalar, que deve estar adequada do ponto de vista higiênico e sanitário. A legislação sanitária brasileira exige dos estabelecimentos produtores e/ou manipuladores de alimentos a implantação das Boas Práticas, que são procedimentos padronizados que visam prevenir o surgimento de toxinfecções alimentares. O objetivo deste estudo foi reali...

    10. The importance of chemosensory clues in Aguaruna tree classification and identification

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jernigan Kevin A

      2008-05-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The ethnobotanical literature still contains few detailed descriptions of the sensory criteria people use for judging membership in taxonomic categories. Olfactory criteria in particular have been explored very little. This paper will describe the importance of odor for woody plant taxonomy and identification among the Aguaruna Jívaro of the northern Peruvian Amazon, focusing on the Aguaruna category númi (trees excluding palms. Aguaruna informants almost always place trees that they consider to have a similar odor together as kumpají – 'companions,' a metaphor they use to describe trees that they consider to be related. Methods The research took place in several Aguaruna communities in the upper Marañón region of the Peruvian Amazon. Structured interview data focus on informant criteria for membership in various folk taxa of trees. Informants were also asked to explain what members of each group of related companions had in common. This paper focuses on odor and taste criteria that came to light during these structured interviews. Botanical voucher specimens were collected, wherever possible. Results Of the 182 tree folk genera recorded in this study, 51 (28% were widely considered to possess a distinctive odor. Thirty nine of those (76% were said to have odors similar to some other tree, while the other 24% had unique odors. Aguaruna informants very rarely described tree odors in non-botanical terms. Taste was used mostly to describe trees with edible fruits. Trees judged to be related were nearly always in the same botanical family. Conclusion The results of this study illustrate that odor of bark, sap, flowers, fruit and leaves are important clues that help the Aguaruna to judge the relatedness of trees found in their local environment. In contrast, taste appears to play a more limited role. The results suggest a more general ethnobotanical hypothesis that could be tested in other cultural settings: people tend to

    11. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

      2012-01-01

      Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree specie

    12. Size Resolved measurements of aerosol hygroscopicity and mixing state during Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014

      Science.gov (United States)

      Thalman, R. M.; Artaxo, P.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Barbosa, H. M.; Day, D. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Hu, W.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kuang, C.; Palm, B. B.; Krüger, M. L.; Manzi, A. O.; Martin, S. T.; Poeschl, U.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Senum, G.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Springston, S. R.; Alexander, M. L.; Watson, T. B.; Wang, J.

      2014-12-01

      Measurements of size-resolved cloud condensation nucleai (CCN) spectra were performed at the T3 site of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) field project located near Manacapuru, Brazil during 2014. The T3 site is a receptor site for both polluted urban down-wind (Manaus, BR a city of several million 70 km up wind) and background (Amazon rainforest) air-masses and can provide a contrast between clean and polluted conditions. Particle hygroscopicity (kappa) and mixing state were calculated from the particle activation spectrum measured by size selecting aerosols and exposing them to a wide range of supersaturation in the CCN counter (Droplet Measurement Technologies Continuous-Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Chamber). The supersaturation was varied between 0.07 and 1.1% by changing a combination of both total flow rate and temperature gradient in the CCN counter. Measured spectra were examined for air masses with different level of influence from Manaus plume. Particle hygroscopicity generally peaked near noon local time which was broadly consistent with the trend in aerosol sulfate. The average kappa values during the first intensive operation period were 0.14±0.05, 0.14±0.04 and 0.16±0.06 for 75, 112 and 171 nm particles respectively. Evaluation of particle hygroscopicity and dispersion (mixing state) will be presented with respect to size and level of pollution.

    13. Tree-like tableaux

      CERN Document Server

      Aval, Jean-Christophe; Nadeau, Philippe

      2011-01-01

      In this work we introduce and study tree-like tableaux, which are certain fillings of Ferrers diagrams in simple bijection with permutation tableaux and alternative tableaux. We exhibit an elementary insertion procedure on our tableaux which gives a clear proof that tableaux of size n are counted by n!, and which moreover respects most of the well-known statistics studied originally on alternative and permutation tableaux. Our insertion procedure allows to define in particular two simple new bijections between tree-like tableaux and permutations: the first one is conceived specifically to respect the generalized pattern 2-31, while the second one respects the underlying tree of a tree-like tableau.

    14. Tea tree oil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

      2012-01-01

      Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

    15. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

      Data.gov (United States)

      Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

    16. Assessing the Amazon Basin Circulation with Stable Water Isotopes

      Science.gov (United States)

      McGuffie, K.; Henderson-Sellers, A.

      2004-05-01

      The isotopic abundances of Oxygen-18 (δ 18O) and Deuterium (δ D) over the Amazon are used to constrain simulations of the water cycle in this, the largest river basin in the world. Tracking the two stable but rare isotopes of water (1HD16O and 1H218O) makes it possible to trace Amazonian regional evaporative and condensation processes. This offers isotopic constraints on regional to global-scale atmospheric moisture budgets. Based on data in the Global Network on Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) database, we analyse the simulation of the land surface hydrology and water cycling. Temporal changes between 1965 and 2000 in stable water isotopic signatures in the Amazon have been used to evaluate global climate model (GCM) predictions revealing notable anomalies. For example, the differences in the wet season deuterium excess between Belem and Manaus are consistent with recent GCM simulations only if there has been a relative increase in evaporation from non-fractionating water sources over this period. Despite earlier predictions that land-use change signals would be found, late twentieth century data reveal no significant change in dry season isotopic characteristics. On the other hand, more recent isotopic data do show trends at stations in the Andes, where as much as 88% of the rainfall is thought to be derived from recycled moisture. At Izobamba the wet season depletions are enhanced (greater depletion) and the dry season ones decreased (less depletion). At Bogota only the wet months show statistically significant changes - also an enhancement. More depletion in the wet months is consistent with reductions in non-fractioning recycling such as through transpiration and in full re-evaporation of canopy-intercepted rainfall. These data might be linked to deforestation impacts. Results of GCM and simpler model simulations of the Amazon suggest that the recent stable isotope record is consistent with the predicted effects of forest removal, perhaps combined with

    17. Tree Improvement Glossary

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Schmidt, Lars Holger

      Forest tree improvement encompasses a number of scientific and technical areas like floral-, reproductive- and micro-biology, genetics breeding methods and strategies, propagation, gene conservation, data analysis and statistics, each area with a comprehensive terminology. The terms selected...... for definition here are those most frequently used in tree improvement literature. Clonal propagation is included in the view of the great expansion of that field as a means of mass multiplication of improved material....

    18. Type extension trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Jaeger, Manfred

      2006-01-01

      We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

    19. Fault Tree Handbook

      Science.gov (United States)

      1981-01-01

      to be Evaluated Manufacturer Location Seismic Susceptibility Flood Susceptibility Temperature Humidity Radiation Wear-out Susceptibility Test...For the category " Seismic Susceptibility," we might define several sensitivity levels ranging from no sensitivity to extreme sensitivity, and for more... Hanford Company, Richland, Wash- ington, ARH-ST-l 12, July 1975. 40. W.E. Vesely, "Analysis of Fault Trees by Kinetic Tree Theory," Idaho Nuclear

    20. Geometric Decision Tree

      CERN Document Server

      Manwani, Naresh

      2010-01-01

      In this paper we present a new algorithm for learning oblique decision trees. Most of the current decision tree algorithms rely on impurity measures to assess the goodness of hyperplanes at each node while learning a decision tree in a top-down fashion. These impurity measures do not properly capture the geometric structures in the data. Motivated by this, our algorithm uses a strategy to assess the hyperplanes in such a way that the geometric structure in the data is taken into account. At each node of the decision tree, we find the clustering hyperplanes for both the classes and use their angle bisectors as the split rule at that node. We show through empirical studies that this idea leads to small decision trees and better performance. We also present some analysis to show that the angle bisectors of clustering hyperplanes that we use as the split rules at each node, are solutions of an interesting optimization problem and hence argue that this is a principled method of learning a decision tree.

    1. Tree felling 2014

      CERN Multimedia

      2014-01-01

      With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

    2. 小型Web服务器Boa的移植与验证%Transplantation and Verification of Embedded Web Server Boa

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      管华庆

      2016-01-01

      With the development of computer technology and modern communication technology,the device is connected to the network which is available to the general requirements of modern mobile terminals. Compared with the Internet Web applications,the embedded Web server has the advantages of simple structure and low functional requirements. The embedded devices connected to the Internet makes operating state to be easily monitored in real-time through of the network. Then the data can be vividly and intuitively displayed on PC, PDA,Phone and other equipments. Users do not need special application software. This portable communication earth station monitoring system is porting embedded Linux operating system on ARM9 chip. The appropriate application layer Web server on this system is in-stalled,the system uses the Boa server,which is based on B/S structure mode,and user opens a browser on your terminal server to access Web pages stored in the satellite communication earth station,bringing real-time,portable monitor to the user.%现代通信技术和计算机技术都迎来了显著的发展,各个应用领域都要求将可移动设备接入网络。这就要求构建嵌入式Web服务器,让用户可以接入服务器进行数据共享和相互通信。嵌入式Web服务器具有许多优点,如:结构简单、功能低等。把嵌入式设备接入互联网可以实现方便、实时地通过网络监控设备的工作状态,再将数据以直观、形象的网页方式显示在PC、PDA、Phone等设备上,不需要专门的应用软件。文中便携式通信地球站监控系统使用的是ARM9系列芯片,在控制板硬件之上移植Linux操作系统,系统上移植合适的应用层Web服务器。系统采用的是Boa服务器。它是一种B/S(浏览器/服务器)的架构方式,用户在终端上打开浏览器输入网址访问已构建的嵌入式Web服务器,就可以对设备进行方便、实时、简便的监控。

    3. Composition, structure and floristic diversity in dense rain forest in the Eastern Amazon, Amapá, Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marcelo de Jesus Veiga Carim

      2015-10-01

      Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the phytosociology and floristic composition of tree species in the eastern Amazon, at the Iratapuru River Sustainable Development Reserve (RDS, State of Amapá. Fouteen quarters with dimensions of 100 m x 100 m were randomly inventoried, and 50 sub-plots of 10 m x 20 m were established. In each sub-plot all living individuals were sampled, being taken from the height data and DAP (breast height diameter for tree species ≥ 10 cm. A total of 5,233 individuals belonging to 33 families and 184 species were registered. The families with the largest number of species were Fabaceae (32, Lauraceae (17, Sapotaceae (12, Moraceae (10, Lecythidaceae (8 and Annonaceae (8. The six most abundant families (18.18% of total families in the present study were responsible for more than half (57.92% of the total number of species. The floristic structure of the area studied was diverse, with species of varied interests, including: medicinal, timber and oil-producing.

    4. Atmospheric correction analysis on LANDSAT data over the Amazon region. [Manaus, Brazil

      Science.gov (United States)

      Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dias, L. A. V.; Dossantos, J. R.; Formaggio, A. R.

      1983-01-01

      The Amazon Region natural resources were studied in two ways and compared. A LANDSAT scene and its attributes were selected, and a maximum likelihood classification was made. The scene was atmospherically corrected, taking into account Amazonic peculiarities revealed by (ground truth) of the same area, and the subsequent classification. Comparison shows that the classification improves with the atmospherically corrected images.

    5. Localised Voices in the globalised Amazon: challenges of civil society building in Ecuador

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Brian Wallis (Brian)

      2010-01-01

      textabstractCivil society building efforts in Ecuador have provided the Achuar and Kichwas of the Amazon with a voice. This is particularly relevant given the global significance of the Amazon, which makes it essential that local voices are empowered to have a say in the future of their local space.

    6. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Rodrigues-Filho, S.; Verburg, R.W.; Lindoso, D.; Debortoli, N.; Bursztyn, M.; Vilhena, A.M.G.

      2015-01-01

      Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied drive

    7. Election-driven weakening of deforestation control in the Brazilian Amazon.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Rodrigues-Filho, S; Verburg, R.W.; Bursztyn, M; Lindoso, D; Debortoli, N

      2015-01-01

      Commodity prices, exchange rate, infrastructural projects and migration patterns are known and important drivers of Amazon deforestation, but cannot solely explain the high rates observed in 1995 and 2003–2004 in six Brazilian Amazon states. Deforestation predictions using those widely applied drive

    8. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos F.

      2003-01-01

      Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000 case

    9. A Slippery Slope: Children's Perceptions of Their Role in Environmental Preservation in the Peruvian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Galeano, Rebecca

      2013-01-01

      Despite international attention and attempts to preserve the environmental diversity of the Amazon, it is an accepted fact that those who inhabit the forest must be the ones who preserve it. This article presents an analysis of how children in small rural riverine communities along the Amazon understand the importance of environmental preservation…

    10. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Walford, Antonia Caitlin

      This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

    11. Vibrio cholerae O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sá, L.L.C.; Vale, E.R.V.; Garza, D.R.; Vicente, A.C.P.

      2012-01-01

      Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized. PMID:24031874

    12. Grazing behavior and spatial distribution of feces of Young bulls in silvopastoral systems and Marandu monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ricardo Alves de Araújo

      2017-02-01

      Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the grazing behavior and the spatial distribution of feces of F1 young bulls from the cross between Nellore and Guzera on pastures of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu in silvopastoral systems composed of babassu palm (Attalea speciosa and Marandu monoculture in the Pre-Amazon region of the state of Maranhão. Animals were evaluated in four systems consisting of 0, 80, 131, 160 palms ha-1, characterizing monoculture (mono, low density of palm trees (LD, medium density of palm trees (MD and high density of palm trees (HD during the rainy (RE and dry (DE periods. Five animals (repetitions were used in each system, with 231-303 days of age and 180±15 kg body weight. Determinations of behavioral patterns were made by instant sampling, at 10 min intervals. In each system, we demarcated 50 squares of 100 m2, which served as useful area to evaluate the dispersion of feces. The grazing behavior was influenced by the sward structure, which, in turn, was influenced by densities of palm trees, due to shading. The distribution of feces was affected by both the presence of babassu plantations and periods. The silvopastoral systems made the environment more pleasant to animals, since activities considered more stressful and avoided during the daytime were performed by animals of these environments, unlike animals in the monoculture system.

    13. Biting Indices, Host-seeking Activity and Natural Infection Rates of Anopheline Species in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil from 1996 to 1998

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Silva-Vasconcelos Adenildo da

      2002-01-01

      Full Text Available The epidemiology of the transmission of malaria parasites varies ecologically. To observe some entomological aspects of the malaria transmission in an urban environment, a longitudinal survey of anopheline fauna was performed in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil. A total of 7,263 anophelines was collected in human bait at 13 de Setembro and Caranã districts: Anopheles albitarsis sensu lato (82.8%, An. darlingi (10.3%, An. braziliensis (5.5%, An. peryassui (0.9% and An. nuneztovari (0.5%. Nightly 12 h collections showed that An. albitarsis was actively biting throughout the night with peak activities at sunset and at midnight. An. darlingi bit during all night and did not demonstrate a defined biting peak. Highest biting indices, entomological inoculation rates and malaria cases were observed seasonally during the rainy season (April-November. Hourly collections showed host seek activity for all mosquitoes peaked during the first hour after sunset. An. darlingi showed the highest plasmodial malaria infection rate followed by An. albitarsis, An. braziliensis and An. nuneztovari (8.5%, 4.6%, 3% and 2.6%, respectively. An. albitarsis was the most frequently collected anopheline, presented the highest biting index and it was the second most frequently collected infected species infected with malaria parasites. An. albitarsis and An. darlingi respectively, are the primary vectors of malaria throughout Boa Vista.

    14. Personalidade materna e resultados de crianças no psicodiagnóstico interventivo: o que significa 'mãe suficientemente boa'?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Barbieri, Valéria

      2005-01-01

      Full Text Available A noção de 'mãe' suficientemente 'boa', essencial na indicação terapêutica e prognóstica da criança, é cercada por ambigüidades, por exemplo, a disparidade entre as características atribuidas a uma genitora nessas condições e os sucessos reportados por Winnicott na consulta terapêutica, de pacientes cujas mães eram deprimidas. A necessidade de definição desse conceito em bases empíricas justificou a execução desta pesquisa, em que seis mães cujos filhos apresentavam comportamentos anti-sociais foram avaliadas pelo teste de Rorschach, contrapondo-se seus resultados com o sucesso ou fracasso terapêutico deles no Psicodiagnóstico Interventivo. Uma vez que a "mãe suficientemente boa" é aquela que sustenta a melhora da criança, os resultados indicaram que as características maternas associadas ao sucesso do filho consistiram na ausência de prejuízos severos no controle pulsional e nos relacionamentos interpessoais. Assim, não é necessário que a mãe apresente um funcionamento e egóico na plenitude de suas condições para ser classificada dessa categoria

    15. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

      Science.gov (United States)

      da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; de Souza Rodrigues, Mayara; Raposo, Jorge Luiz; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires

      2015-07-01

      Water quality monitoring is used to determine the impact of human activities on the environment. We evaluated water quality in the Água Boa stream, located within the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by analyzing physico-chemical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, as well as chlorophyll concentrations. Five sets of water samples were collected between December 2012 and November 2013 from three locations within the stream. The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli and antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains and high concentrations of organic matter (total dissolved solids), inorganic species (Mg, Ca, and Fe), and agrochemical residues (thiamethoxam). The main stream water contaminants are derived from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities within the watershed. Given the presence of contaminants, it is important that such findings are disseminated in order to highlight the risks that contact with this water may pose to human health. To preserve the environment and improve site conditions, people would need to participate by demanding that normative national and international standards be respected and that the situation be supervised by the competent governmental agencies; this would make it possible to reverse or minimize contamination problems within the Água Boa stream.

    16. An explicit GIS-based river basin framework for aquatic ecosystem conservation in the Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Venticinque, Eduardo; Forsberg, Bruce; Barthem, Ronaldo; Petry, Paulo; Hess, Laura; Mercado, Armando; Cañas, Carlos; Montoya, Mariana; Durigan, Carlos; Goulding, Michael

      2016-11-01

      Despite large-scale infrastructure development, deforestation, mining and petroleum exploration in the Amazon Basin, relatively little attention has been paid to the management scale required for the protection of wetlands, fisheries and other aspects of aquatic ecosystems. This is due, in part, to the enormous size, multinational composition and interconnected nature of the Amazon River system, as well as to the absence of an adequate spatial model for integrating data across the entire Amazon Basin. In this data article we present a spatially uniform multi-scale GIS framework that was developed especially for the analysis, management and monitoring of various aspects of aquatic systems in the Amazon Basin. The Amazon GIS-Based River Basin Framework is accessible as an ESRI geodatabase at doi:10.5063/F1BG2KX8.

    17. Dampak Peningkatan Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Proses Bisnis E-Commerce pada Perusahaan Amazon.com

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      I Gusti Made Karmawan

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available The Purpose of writing is to describe the impact of increased customer satisfaction in the business process of e-commerce at Amazon.com and analyzed e-commerce strategies used in the company.The Benefits are to get an overview of the strategies in the Amazon.com for improving customer satisfaction and the impact of increased satisfaction. The method of writing is conducting reviews of existing sources to gain an overview strategy and business processes e-commerce at Amazon.com. The paper results are gaining knowledge of the number of visitors and Sales that accurred at Amazon.com. The Conclusions is about the impact of increasing customer Satisfaction in the business process e-commerce in the Amazone.com.

    18. What We Can Learn from Amazon for Clinical Decision Support Systems.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Abid, Sidra; Keshavjee, Karim; Karim, Arsalan; Guergachi, Aziz

      2017-01-01

      Health care continue to lag behind other industries, such as retail and financial services, in the use of decision-support-like tools. Amazon is particularly prolific in the use of advanced predictive and prescriptive analytics to assist its customers to purchase more, while increasing satisfaction, retention, repeat-purchases and loyalty. How can we do the same in health care? In this paper, we explore various elements of the Amazon website and Amazon's data science and big data practices to gather inspiration for re-designing clinical decision support in the health care sector. For each Amazon element we identified, we present one or more clinical applications to help us better understand where Amazon's.

    19. On the neighbourhoods of trees

      CERN Document Server

      Humphries, Peter J

      2012-01-01

      Tree rearrangement operations typically induce a metric on the space of phylogenetic trees. One important property of these metrics is the size of the neighbourhood, that is, the number of trees exactly one operation from a given tree. We present an expression for the size of the TBR (tree bisection and reconnection) neighbourhood, thus answering a question first posed in [Annals of Combinatorics, 5, 2001 1-15].

    20. The impact of rise of the Andes and Amazon landscape evolution on diversification of lowland terra-firme forest birds

      Science.gov (United States)

      Aleixo, A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

      2011-12-01

      Since the 19th Century, the unmatched biological diversity of Amazonia has stimulated a diverse set of hypotheses accounting for patterns of species diversity and distribution in mega-diverse tropical environments. Unfortunately, the evidence supporting particular hypotheses to date is at best described as ambiguous, and no generalizations have emerged yet, mostly due to the lack of comprehensive comparative phylogeographic studies with thorough trans-Amazonian sampling of lineages. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of diversification estimated from mitochondrial gene trees for 31 lineages of birds associated with upland terra-firme forest, the dominant habitat in modern lowland Amazonia. The results confirm the pervasive role of Amazonian rivers as primary barriers separating sister lineages of birds, and a protracted spatio-temporal pattern of diversification, with a gradual reduction of earlier (1st and 2nd) and older (> 2 mya) splits associated with each lineage in an eastward direction (the easternmost tributaries of the Amazon, the Xingu and Tocantins Rivers, are not associated with any splits older than > 2 mya). This "younging-eastward" pattern may have an abiotic explanation related to landscape evolution. Triggered by a new pulse of Andean uplift, it has been proposed that modern Amazon basin landscapes may have evolved successively eastward, away from the mountain chain, starting ~10 mya. This process was likely based on the deposition of vast fluvial sediment masses, known as megafans, which apparently extended in series progressively eastward from Andean sources. The effects on drainage patterns are apparent from the location of axial rivers such as the Negro / Orinoco and Madeira which lie at the distal ends of major megafan ramparts at cratonic margins furthest from the Andes. Megafan extension plausibly explains the progressive extinction of the original Pebas wetland of west-central Amazonia by the present fluvial landsurfaces where

    1. Climatic variability between SST and river discharge at Amazon region

      Science.gov (United States)

      Silva, M. E.; Silva, E. R. L.

      2012-04-01

      Climatic variability, related both to precipitation and river discharge, has been associated to ocean variability. Authors commonly relate Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variation to South America (SA) precipitation. Zonal displacement of Walker cell, with intensified subsidence over northern portion of SA, Subtropical Jet strengthening/weakening over extratropical latitudes of SA are, respectively, dynamical reasons scientifically accepted for increasing and depletion of precipitation at the respective areas. Many studies point out the influence of tropical Atlantic SST anomalies in relation to precipitation/river discharge variability over northeast of Brazil. Aliseos variability at tropical Atlantic is also a physic process that contributes to explain precipitation and river flow variability over SA, mainly over the north portion. In this study, we aim to investigate the temporal correlation between SST, mainly from Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and rivers discharge at the Amazon region. Ji-Parana, Madeira and Tapajós river discharge in monthly and annual scale, between 1968 and 2008, were the time series selected to reach the purpose. Time series for river discharge were obtained from Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA, in Portuguese) and, SST data were obtained from CDC/NOAA. Before linear correlation computations between river discharge and SST have been made, seasonal cycle and linear tendency were removed from all original time series. Areas better correlated to river discharge at Amazon region show oceanic patterns apparently associated to PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation) and ENSO (El Niño-South Oscillation) variability, with absolute values greater than 0.3 and reaching 0.5 or 0.6. The spatial pattern observed at Pacific basin is similar to that showed by the first mode of PCA (Principal Component Analysis), such seen in many studies (the "horse shoe" pattern). In general, negative correlation values appear far more to the west of Pacific basin

    2. The inference of gene trees with species trees.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Szöllősi, Gergely J; Tannier, Eric; Daubin, Vincent; Boussau, Bastien

      2015-01-01

      This article reviews the various models that have been used to describe the relationships between gene trees and species trees. Molecular phylogeny has focused mainly on improving models for the reconstruction of gene trees based on sequence alignments. Yet, most phylogeneticists seek to reveal the history of species. Although the histories of genes and species are tightly linked, they are seldom identical, because genes duplicate, are lost or horizontally transferred, and because alleles can coexist in populations for periods that may span several speciation events. Building models describing the relationship between gene and species trees can thus improve the reconstruction of gene trees when a species tree is known, and vice versa. Several approaches have been proposed to solve the problem in one direction or the other, but in general neither gene trees nor species trees are known. Only a few studies have attempted to jointly infer gene trees and species trees. These models account for gene duplication and loss, transfer or incomplete lineage sorting. Some of them consider several types of events together, but none exists currently that considers the full repertoire of processes that generate gene trees along the species tree. Simulations as well as empirical studies on genomic data show that combining gene tree-species tree models with models of sequence evolution improves gene tree reconstruction. In turn, these better gene trees provide a more reliable basis for studying genome evolution or reconstructing ancestral chromosomes and ancestral gene sequences. We predict that gene tree-species tree methods that can deal with genomic data sets will be instrumental to advancing our understanding of genomic evolution.

    3. Covering R-trees

      CERN Document Server

      Berestovskii, V N

      2007-01-01

      We show that every inner metric space X is the metric quotient of a complete R-tree via a free isometric action, which we call the covering R-tree of X. The quotient mapping is a weak submetry (hence, open) and light. In the case of compact 1-dimensional geodesic space X, the free isometric action is via a subgroup of the fundamental group of X. In particular, the Sierpin'ski gasket and carpet, and the Menger sponge all have the same covering R-tree, which is complete and has at each point valency equal to the continuum. This latter R-tree is of particular interest because it is "universal" in at least two senses: First, every R-tree of valency at most the continuum can be isometrically embedded in it. Second, every Peano continuum is the image of it via an open light mapping. We provide a sketch of our previous construction of the uniform universal cover in the special case of inner metric spaces, the properties of which are used in the proof.

    4. Reinforcement Learning Trees.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhu, Ruoqing; Zeng, Donglin; Kosorok, Michael R

      In this paper, we introduce a new type of tree-based method, reinforcement learning trees (RLT), which exhibits significantly improved performance over traditional methods such as random forests (Breiman, 2001) under high-dimensional settings. The innovations are three-fold. First, the new method implements reinforcement learning at each selection of a splitting variable during the tree construction processes. By splitting on the variable that brings the greatest future improvement in later splits, rather than choosing the one with largest marginal effect from the immediate split, the constructed tree utilizes the available samples in a more efficient way. Moreover, such an approach enables linear combination cuts at little extra computational cost. Second, we propose a variable muting procedure that progressively eliminates noise variables during the construction of each individual tree. The muting procedure also takes advantage of reinforcement learning and prevents noise variables from being considered in the search for splitting rules, so that towards terminal nodes, where the sample size is small, the splitting rules are still constructed from only strong variables. Last, we investigate asymptotic properties of the proposed method under basic assumptions and discuss rationale in general settings.

    5. Steiner trees in industry

      CERN Document Server

      Du, Ding-Zhu

      2001-01-01

      This book is a collection of articles studying various Steiner tree prob­ lems with applications in industries, such as the design of electronic cir­ cuits, computer networking, telecommunication, and perfect phylogeny. The Steiner tree problem was initiated in the Euclidean plane. Given a set of points in the Euclidean plane, the shortest network interconnect­ ing the points in the set is called the Steiner minimum tree. The Steiner minimum tree may contain some vertices which are not the given points. Those vertices are called Steiner points while the given points are called terminals. The shortest network for three terminals was first studied by Fermat (1601-1665). Fermat proposed the problem of finding a point to minimize the total distance from it to three terminals in the Euclidean plane. The direct generalization is to find a point to minimize the total distance from it to n terminals, which is still called the Fermat problem today. The Steiner minimum tree problem is an indirect generalization. Sch...

    6. Odds-On Trees

      CERN Document Server

      Bose, Prosenjit; Douieb, Karim; Dujmovic, Vida; King, James; Morin, Pat

      2010-01-01

      Let R^d -> A be a query problem over R^d for which there exists a data structure S that can compute P(q) in O(log n) time for any query point q in R^d. Let D be a probability measure over R^d representing a distribution of queries. We describe a data structure called the odds-on tree, of size O(n^\\epsilon) that can be used as a filter that quickly computes P(q) for some query values q in R^d and relies on S for the remaining queries. With an odds-on tree, the expected query time for a point drawn according to D is O(H*+1), where H* is a lower-bound on the expected cost of any linear decision tree that solves P. Odds-on trees have a number of applications, including distribution-sensitive data structures for point location in 2-d, point-in-polytope testing in d dimensions, ray shooting in simple polygons, ray shooting in polytopes, nearest-neighbour queries in R^d, point-location in arrangements of hyperplanes in R^d, and many other geometric searching problems that can be solved in the linear-decision tree mo...

    7. Consistency of vegetation index seasonality across the Amazon rainforest

      Science.gov (United States)

      Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jérôme; Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

      2016-10-01

      Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

    8. The Amazon River reversal explained by tectonic and surface processes

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sacek, V.

      2014-12-01

      The drainage pattern in Amazonia was expressively modified during the mountain building of central and northern Andes. In Early Miocene, the fluvial systems in western Amazonia flowed to the foreland basins and northward to the Caribbean. By Late Miocene the drainage reversal occurred and formed the transcontinental Amazon River, connecting the Andes and the equatorial Atlantic margin. This event is recorded in the stratigraphic evolution of the Foz do Amazonas Basin by the onset of Andean-derived sedimentation. Additionally, an abrupt increase in sedimentation rate after the reversal occurred in the Foz do Amazonas Basin. Based on three-dimensional numerical models that couple surface processes, flexural isostasy and crustal thickening due to orogeny, I concluded that the Miocene drainage reversal can be explained by the flexural and surface processes response to the Andes formation with no need to invoke dynamic topography induced by mantle convection, as previously proposed. I observed that the instant of drainage reversal is directly linked to the rate of crustal thickening in the orogeny, the rate of erosion and, mainly, the efficiency of sediment transport. Moreover, the numerical experiments were able to predict the increase in sedimentation rate in the Amazon fan after the drainage reversal of the Amazon River as observed in the Late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary record. However, the present numerical model fails to fully reproduce the evolution of the Pebas system, a megawetland in western Amazonia that preceded the drainage reversal. Therefore, further investigation is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms that generated and sustained the Pebas system.

    9. Assessing Mammal Exposure to Climate Change in the Brazilian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ribeiro, Bruno R.; Sales, Lilian P.; De Marco, Paulo; Loyola, Rafael

      2016-01-01

      Human-induced climate change is considered a conspicuous threat to biodiversity in the 21st century. Species’ response to climate change depends on their exposition, sensitivity and ability to adapt to novel climates. Exposure to climate change is however uneven within species’ range, so that some populations may be more at risk than others. Identifying the regions most exposed to climate change is therefore a first and pivotal step on determining species’ vulnerability across their geographic ranges. Here, we aimed at quantifying mammal local exposure to climate change across species’ ranges. We identified areas in the Brazilian Amazon where mammals will be critically exposed to non-analogue climates in the future with different variables predicted by 15 global circulation climate forecasts. We also built a null model to assess the effectiveness of the Amazon protected areas in buffering the effects of climate change on mammals, using an innovative and more realistic approach. We found that 85% of species are likely to be exposed to non-analogue climatic conditions in more than 80% of their ranges by 2070. That percentage is even higher for endemic mammals; almost all endemic species are predicted to be exposed in more than 80% of their range. Exposure patterns also varied with different climatic variables and seem to be geographically structured. Western and northern Amazon species are more likely to experience temperature anomalies while northeastern species will be more affected by rainfall abnormality. We also observed an increase in the number of critically-exposed species from 2050 to 2070. Overall, our results indicate that mammals might face high exposure to climate change and that protected areas will probably not be efficient enough to avert those impacts. PMID:27829036

    10. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

      Science.gov (United States)

      Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

      2016-01-01

      Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

    11. PALEOCLIMATE: The Amazon Reveals Its Secrets--Partly.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Betancourt, J L

      2000-12-22

      The role of the tropics in global climate change during glacial cycles is hotly debated in paleoclimate cycles today. Records from South America have not provided a clear picture of tropical climate change. In his Perspective, Betancourt highlights the study by Maslin and Burns, who have deduced the outflow of the Amazon over the past 14,000 years. This may serve as a proxy that integrates hydrology over the entire South American tropics, although the record must be interpreted cautiously because factors other than rainfall may contribute to the variability in outflow.

    12. Creating A Galactic Plane Atlas With Amazon Web Services

      CERN Document Server

      Berriman, G Bruce; Good, John; Juve, Gideon; Kinney, Jamie; Merrihew, Ann; Rynge, Mats

      2013-01-01

      This paper describes by example how astronomers can use cloud-computing resources offered by Amazon Web Services (AWS) to create new datasets at scale. We have created from existing surveys an atlas of the Galactic Plane at 16 wavelengths from 1 {\\mu}m to 24 {\\mu}m with pixels co-registered at spatial sampling of 1 arcsec. We explain how open source tools support management and operation of a virtual cluster on AWS platforms to process data at scale, and describe the technical issues that users will need to consider, such as optimization of resources, resource costs, and management of virtual machine instances.

    13. 运动奖:木雕Amazon Kindle

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2009-01-01

      入围理由:当然这玩意不能真正的翻页,不过他比真正Kindle2高级的是,可以当作柴烧。Amazon Kindle是Amazone出品的一款电子阅读器。Google之。而图中看到的这个则是eBay用户stylograph制作的工艺品。呃,当然这玩意不能真正的翻页,不过他比真正Kindle2高级的是,可以当作柴烧。

    14. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

      2007-01-01

      Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

    15. Visualization of Uncertain Contour Trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Kraus, Martin

      2010-01-01

      Contour trees can represent the topology of large volume data sets in a relatively compact, discrete data structure. However, the resulting trees often contain many thousands of nodes; thus, many graph drawing techniques fail to produce satisfactory results. Therefore, several visualization methods...... were proposed recently for the visualization of contour trees. Unfortunately, none of these techniques is able to handle uncertain contour trees although any uncertainty of the volume data inevitably results in partially uncertain contour trees. In this work, we visualize uncertain contour trees...... by combining the contour trees of two morphologically filtered versions of a volume data set, which represent the range of uncertainty. These two contour trees are combined and visualized within a single image such that a range of potential contour trees is represented by the resulting visualization. Thus...

    16. Active flows on trees

      CERN Document Server

      Forrow, Aden; Dunkel, Jörn

      2016-01-01

      Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection interacts with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages $\\sim 1/4$ the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macrosco...

    17. Tree nut allergens.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Roux, Kenneth H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K

      2003-08-01

      Allergic reactions to tree nuts can be serious and life threatening. Considerable research has been conducted in recent years in an attempt to characterize those allergens that are most responsible for allergy sensitization and triggering. Both native and recombinant nut allergens have been identified and characterized and, for some, the IgE-reactive epitopes described. Some allergens, such as lipid transfer proteins, profilins, and members of the Bet v 1-related family, represent minor constituents in tree nuts. These allergens are frequently cross-reactive with other food and pollen homologues, and are considered panallergens. Others, such as legumins, vicilins, and 2S albumins, represent major seed storage protein constituents of the nuts. The allergenic tree nuts discussed in this review include those most commonly responsible for allergic reactions such as hazelnut, walnut, cashew, and almond as well as those less frequently associated with allergies including pecan, chestnut, Brazil nut, pine nut, macadamia nut, pistachio, coconut, Nangai nut, and acorn.

    18. Generic Ising trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

      2012-01-01

      The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

    19. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

      2012-04-01

      The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

    20. The gene tree delusion.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

      2016-01-01

      Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

    1. There's no place like home: seedling mortality contributes to the habitat specialisation of tree species across Amazonia.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fortunel, Claire; Paine, C E Timothy; Fine, Paul V A; Mesones, Italo; Goret, Jean-Yves; Burban, Benoit; Cazal, Jocelyn; Baraloto, Christopher

      2016-10-01

      Understanding the mechanisms generating species distributions remains a challenge, especially in hyperdiverse tropical forests. We evaluated the role of rainfall variation, soil gradients and herbivory on seedling mortality, and how variation in seedling performance along these gradients contributes to habitat specialisation. In a 4-year experiment, replicated at the two extremes of the Amazon basin, we reciprocally transplanted 4638 tree seedlings of 41 habitat-specialist species from seven phylogenetic lineages among the three most important forest habitats of lowland Amazonia. Rainfall variation, flooding and soil gradients strongly influenced seedling mortality, whereas herbivory had negligible impact. Seedling mortality varied strongly among habitats, consistent with predictions for habitat specialists in most lineages. This suggests that seedling performance is a primary determinant of the habitat associations of adult trees across Amazonia. It further suggests that tree diversity, currently mostly harboured in terra firme forests, may be strongly impacted by the predicted climate changes in Amazonia.

    2. A Percepção dos Visitantes quanto as Informações Turísticas na Rodoviária Internacional de Boa Vista, RR

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rita Michelin

      2014-04-01

      Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false PT-BR JA X-NONE Considerando o Turismo como um fenômeno social de grande importância, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo principal analisar a percepção dos visitantes acerca da hospitalidade pública de recepção na Rodoviária Internacional de Boa Vista (RBV, em Roraima, através da disponibilização de informações turísticas. Atualmente, a Rodoviária recebe um grande fluxo de visitantes, no entanto, não existe ali um local que preste as informações básicas quanto ao Turismo e aos serviços locais, para quem chega a cidade. Tendo por premissa que o viés da hospitalidade deve ser considerado desde o primeiro momento em que o visitante chega a um destino turístico, a hospitalidade pública representada pelas informações turística faz-se de fundamental importância para bem receber o turista e, consequentemente, levá-lo a perceber o município como um destino turístico hospitaleiro.Perception of visitors on the Tourist Office at the International Bus Station Boa Vista, RR - Considering tourism as a social phenomenon of great importance, the research objective was to analyze the perception of the visitors about public hospitality on International Bus Station of Boa Vista (RBV through the availability of tourist information. Currently the bus station receives a large number of visitors; however, there isn’t a place that provides basic information about the tourism and local services. Having premised that the hospitality must be considered from the first moment the visitor arrives at a destination, the public hospitality represented by the tourist information make it crucial for welcoming tourists and charm you aiming your satisfaction.

    3. Giant Constrictors: Biological and Management Profiles and an Establishment Risk Assessment for Nine Large Species of Pythons, Anacondas, and the Boa Constrictor

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reed, Robert N.; Rodda, Gordon H.

      2009-01-01

      Giant Constrictors: Biological and Management Profiles and an Establishment Risk Assessment for Nine Large Species of Pythons, Anacondas, and the Boa Constrictor, estimates the ecological risks associated with colonization of the United States by nine large constrictors. The nine include the world's four largest snake species (Green Anaconda, Eunectes murinus; Indian or Burmese Python, Python molurus; Northern African Python, Python sebae; and Reticulated Python, Broghammerus reticulatus), the Boa Constrictor (Boa constrictor), and four species that are ecologically or visually similar to one of the above (Southern African Python, Python natalensis; Yellow Anaconda, Eunectes notaeus; DeSchauensee's Anaconda, Eunectes deschauenseei; and Beni Anaconda, Eunectes beniensis). At present, the only probable pathway by which these species would become established in the United States is the pet trade. Although importation for the pet trade involves some risk that these animals could become established as exotic or invasive species, it does not guarantee such establishment. Federal regulators have the task of appraising the importation risks and balancing those risks against economic, social, and ecological benefits associated with the importation. The risk assessment quantifies only the ecological risks, recognizing that ecosystem processes are complex and only poorly understood. The risk assessment enumerates the types of economic impacts that may be experienced, but leaves quantification of economic costs to subsequent studies. Primary factors considered in judging the risk of establishment were: (1) history of establishment in other countries, (2) number of each species in commerce, (3) suitability of U.S. climates for each species, and (4) natural history traits, such as reproductive rate and dispersal ability, that influence the probability of establishment, spread, and impact. In addition, the risk assessment reviews all management tools for control of invasive giant

    4. AVALIAÇÃO DAS CONDIÇÕES FÍSICO-FUNCIONAIS DE RESTAURANTES COMERCIAIS PARA IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DAS BOAS PRÁTICAS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Michelle Pereira FONSECA

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available

      Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a edificação, instalações e montagem de restaurantes comerciais de uma cidade da zona da mata mineira e verificar se estes oferecem condições adequadas para implementação das boas práticas. Aplicou-se um check list baseado na Lista de Verificação das Boas Práticas de Fabricação em Estabelecimentos Produtores / Industrializadores de Alimentos (Anexo II da RDC 275/2002 para avaliar os itens edificação e instalações, equipamentos, móveis e utensílios, em 13 restaurantes comerciais (30% situados na área central da cidade. A Lista de Verificação foi aplicada de duas formas: a como proposta pela RDC 275/2002, onde as respostas sobre a adequação incluíram sim, não e não se aplica; b RDC 275/2002 modificada, onde as respostas incluíram as seguintes faixas de adequação: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% e não se aplica. Vários itens referentes à edificação mostraram-se inadequados em relação à legislação, especialmente os relacionados com os setores de armazenamento, preparação do alimento e distribuição/salão de refeições. Verificou-se, pela RDC 275/2002, que 92 a 100% dos restaurantes apresentaram diversos itens inadequados; já a RDC modificada se mostrou mais flexível deixando evidente que a inadequação máxima foi referente apenas ao item manejo de resíduos. De maneira geral, os restaurantes comerciais avaliados, no que diz respeito à edificação, instalações e montagem, não oferecem condições adequadas para implementação das boas práticas, o que pode comprometer a segurança das refeições servidas aos clientes. Assim, existe necessidade de reparos diversos e reformas para atender a legislação vigente, sendo alguns não onerosos e acessíveis aos estabelecimentos.

    5. Error-tolerant Tree Matching

      CERN Document Server

      Oflazer, K

      1996-01-01

      This paper presents an efficient algorithm for retrieving from a database of trees, all trees that match a given query tree approximately, that is, within a certain error tolerance. It has natural language processing applications in searching for matches in example-based translation systems, and retrieval from lexical databases containing entries of complex feature structures. The algorithm has been implemented on SparcStations, and for large randomly generated synthetic tree databases (some having tens of thousands of trees) it can associatively search for trees with a small error, in a matter of tenths of a second to few seconds.

    6. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

      2015-01-01

      In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S, in part......In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S...

    7. Evolutionary patterns of range size, abundance and species richness in Amazonian angiosperm trees

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chave, Jérôme

      2016-01-01

      Amazonian tree species vary enormously in their total abundance and range size, while Amazonian tree genera vary greatly in species richness. The drivers of this variation are not well understood. Here, we construct a phylogenetic hypothesis that represents half of Amazonian tree genera in order to contribute to explaining the variation. We find several clear, broad-scale patterns. Firstly, there is significant phylogenetic signal for all three characteristics; closely related genera tend to have similar numbers of species and similar mean range size and abundance. Additionally, the species richness of genera shows a significant, negative relationship with the mean range size and abundance of their constituent species. Our results suggest that phylogenetically correlated intrinsic factors, namely traits of the genera themselves, shape among lineage variation in range size, abundance and species richness. We postulate that tree stature may be one particularly relevant trait. However, other traits may also be relevant, and our study reinforces the need for ambitious compilations of trait data for Amazonian trees. In the meantime, our study shows how large-scale phylogenies can help to elucidate, and contribute to explaining, macroecological and macroevolutionary patterns in hyperdiverse, yet poorly understood regions like the Amazon Basin. PMID:27651991

    8. Regional and large-scale patterns in Amazon forest structure and function are mediated by variations in soil physical and chemical properties

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      C. A. Quesada

      2009-04-01

      Full Text Available Forest structure and dynamics have been noted to vary across the Amazon Basin in an east-west gradient in a pattern which coincides with variations in soil fertility and geology. This has resulted in the hypothesis that soil fertility may play an important role in explaining Basin-wide variations in forest biomass, growth and stem turnover rates.

      To test this hypothesis and assess the importance of edaphic properties in affect forest structure and dynamics, soil and plant samples were collected in a total of 59 different forest plots across the Amazon Basin. Samples were analysed for exchangeable cations, C, N, pH with various P fractions also determined. Physical properties were also examined and an index of soil physical quality developed.

      Overall, forest structure and dynamics were found to be strongly and quantitatively related to edaphic conditions. Tree turnover rates emerged to be mostly influenced by soil physical properties whereas forest growth rates were mainly related to a measure of available soil phosphorus, although also dependent on rainfall amount and distribution. On the other hand, large scale variations in forest biomass could not be explained by any of the edaphic properties measured, nor by variation in climate.

      A new hypothesis of self-maintaining forest dynamic feedback mechanisms initiated by edaphic conditions is proposed. It is further suggested that this is a major factor determining forest disturbance levels, species composition and forest productivity on a Basin wide scale.

    9. Predicting the response of the Amazon rainforest to persistent drought conditions under current and future climates: a major challenge for global land surface models

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      E. Joetzjer

      2014-08-01

      Full Text Available While a majority of Global Climate Models project dryer and longer dry seasons over the Amazon under higher CO2 levels, large uncertainties surround the response of vegetation to persistent droughts in both present-day and future climates. We propose a detailed evaluation of the ability of the ISBACC Land Surface Model to capture drought effects on both water and carbon budgets, comparing fluxes and stocks at two recent ThroughFall Exclusion (TFE experiments performed in the Amazon. We also explore the model sensitivity to different Water Stress Function (WSF and to an idealized increase in CO2 concentration and/or temperature. In spite of a reasonable soil moisture simulation, ISBACC struggles to correctly simulate the vegetation response to TFE whose amplitude and timing is highly sensitive to the WSF. Under higher CO2 concentration, the increased Water Use Efficiency (WUE mitigates the ISBACC's sensitivity to drought. While one of the proposed WSF formulation improves the response of most ISBACC fluxes, except respiration, a parameterization of drought-induced tree mortality is missing for an accurate estimate of the vegetation response. Also, a better mechanistic understanding of the forest responses to drought under a warmer climate and higher CO2 concentration is clearly needed.

    10. Riverside Population in Amazon: Culture, Environment and Construction Technique

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Célia Regina Moretti Meirelles

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available This article´s objective is to study the construction techniques of the riverside dwellers in the Amazon rainforest. The studied communities are located in the banks of the Solimões River, and suffer with the constant floods and physical phenomena related to the region environment. An ecosystem of thunderous natural forces, which makes it harder the importation of approaches from other regions as alternatives to the Amazon rainforest. As a method of research and understanding of the problematics, an assessment of the riverside communities in the city of Manacapuru and in two rural communities was carried out, surveying the cultural, social, and environmental characteristics of each community, and surveying the local constructive characteristics, materials and vernacular techniques. In the conclusion, we observed that: the relevance of a joint action to understand the wood and the housing durability, expanding the life cycle of the river buildings and reducing the impact on the rainforest. Regarding thermic comfort, it is important to redeem the bioclimatic techniques of crossed ventilation and to highlight the relevancy of sustainable techniques that work with local materials, such as natural fibers

    11. Simulating hydrologic and hydraulic processes throughout the Amazon River Basin

      Science.gov (United States)

      Beighley, R.E.; Eggert, K.G.; Dunne, T.; He, Y.; Gummadi, V.; Verdin, K.L.

      2009-01-01

      Presented here is a model framework based on a land surface topography that can be represented with various degrees of resolution and capable of providing representative channel/floodplain hydraulic characteristics on a daily to hourly scale. The framework integrates two models: (1) a water balance model (WBM) for the vertical fluxes and stores of water in and through the canopy and soil layers based on the conservation of mass and energy, and (2) a routing model for the horizontal routing of surface and subsurface runoff and channel and floodplain waters based on kinematic and diffusion wave methodologies. The WBM is driven by satellite-derived precipitation (TRMM_3B42) and air temperature (MOD08_M3). The model's use of an irregular computational grid is intended to facilitate parallel processing for applications to continental and global scales. Results are presented for the Amazon Basin over the period Jan 2001 through Dec 2005. The model is shown to capture annual runoff totals, annual peaks, seasonal patterns, and daily fluctuations over a range of spatial scales (>1, 000 to Amazon vary by approximately +/-5 to 10 cm, and the fractional components accounting for these changes are: root zone soil moisture (20%), subsurface water being routed laterally to channels (40%) and channel/floodplain discharge (40%). Annual variability in monthly water storage changes by +/-2.5 cm is likely due to 0D5 to 1 month variability in the arrival of significant rainfall periods throughout the basin. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

    12. Vegetation Dynamics and Rainfall Sensitivity of the Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Tucker, Compton J.; Hall, Forrest G.; Myneni, Ranga B.; Wang, Yujie; Bi, Jian; Mendes de Moura, Yhasmin; Sellers, Piers J.

      2014-01-01

      We show that the vegetation canopy of the Amazon rainforest is highly sensitive to changes in precipitation patterns and that reduction in rainfall since 2000 has diminished vegetation greenness across large parts of Amazonia. Large-scale directional declines in vegetation greenness may indicate decreases in carbon uptake and substantial changes in the energy balance of the Amazon. We use improved estimates of surface reflectance from satellite data to show a close link between reductions in annual precipitation, El Nino southern oscillation events, and photosynthetic activity across tropical and subtropical Amazonia. We report that, since the year 2000, precipitation has declined across 69% of the tropical evergreen forest (5.4 million sq km) and across 80% of the subtropical grasslands (3.3 million sq km). These reductions, which coincided with a decline in terrestrial water storage, account for about 55% of a satellite-observed widespread decline in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). During El Nino events, NDVI was reduced about 16.6% across an area of up to 1.6 million sq km compared with average conditions. Several global circulation models suggest that a rise in equatorial sea surface temperature and related displacement of the intertropical convergence zone could lead to considerable drying of tropical forests in the 21st century. Our results provide evidence that persistent drying could degrade Amazonian forest canopies, which would have cascading effects on global carbon and climate dynamics.

    13. Cloudiness over the Amazon rainforest: Meteorology and thermodynamics

      Science.gov (United States)

      Collow, Allison B. Marquardt; Miller, Mark A.; Trabachino, Lynne C.

      2016-07-01

      Comprehensive meteorological observations collected during GOAmazon2014/15 using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility no. 1 and assimilated observations from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 are used to document the seasonal cycle of cloudiness, thermodynamics, and precipitation above the Amazon rainforest. The reversal of synoptic-scale vertical motions modulates the transition between the wet and dry seasons. Ascending moist air during the wet season originates near the surface of the Atlantic Ocean and is advected into the Amazon rainforest, where it experiences convergence and, ultimately, precipitates. The dry season is characterized by weaker winds and synoptic-scale subsidence with little or no moisture convergence accompanying moisture advection. This combination results in the drying of the midtroposphere during June through October as indicated by a decrease in liquid water path, integrated water, and the vertical profile of water vapor mixing ratio. The vertical profile of cloud fraction exhibits a relatively consistent decline in cloud fraction from the lifting condensation level (LCL) to the freezing level where a minimum is observed, unlike many other tropical regions. Coefficients of determination between the LCL and cloud fractional coverage suggest a relatively robust relationship between the LCL and cloudiness beneath 5 km during the dry season (R2 = 0.42) but a weak relationship during the wet season (0.12).

    14. Web quality control for lectures: Supercourse and Amazon.com.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Linkov, Faina; LaPorte, Ronald; Lovalekar, Mita; Dodani, Sunita

      2005-12-01

      Peer review has been at the corner stone of quality control of the biomedical journals in the past 300 years. With the emergency of the Internet, new models of quality control and peer review are emerging. However, such models are poorly investigated. We would argue that the popular system of quality control used in Amazon.com offers a way to ensure continuous quality improvement in the area of research communications on the Internet. Such system is providing an interesting alternative to the traditional peer review approaches used in the biomedical journals and challenges the traditional paradigms of scientific publishing. This idea is being explored in the context of Supercourse, a library of 2,350 prevention lectures, shared for free by faculty members from over 150 countries. Supercourse is successfully utilizing quality control approaches that are similar to Amazon.com model. Clearly, the existing approaches and emerging alternatives for quality control in scientific communications needs to be assessed scientifically. Rapid explosion of internet technologies could be leveraged to produce better, more cost effective systems for quality control in the biomedical publications and across all sciences.

    15. Cloning Ancient Trees

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2009-01-01

      west of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in Zhongshan Park, there stand several ancient cypress trees, each more than 1,000 years old. Their leafy crowns are all more than 20 meters high, while four have trunks that are 6 meters in circumference. The most unique of these

    16. Certified Kruskal's Tree Theorem

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Christian Sternagel

      2014-07-01

      Full Text Available This article presents the first formalization of Kurskal's tree theorem in aproof assistant. The Isabelle/HOL development is along the lines of Nash-Williams' original minimal bad sequence argument for proving the treetheorem. Along the way, proofs of Dickson's lemma and Higman's lemma, as well as some technical details of the formalization are discussed.

    17. Multiscale singularity trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

      2007-01-01

      We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...

    18. Portraits of Tree Families

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Balgooy, van M.M.J.

      1998-01-01

      With the publication of the second volume of the series ‘Malesian Seed Plants’, entitled ‘Portraits of Tree Families’, I would like to refer to the Introduction of the first volume, ‘Spot-characters’ for a historical background and an explanation of the aims of this series. The present book treats 1

    19. The TS-Tree

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Assent, Ira; Krieger, Ralph; Afschari, Farzad;

      2008-01-01

      Continuous growth in sensor data and other temporal data increases the importance of retrieval and similarity search in time series data. Efficient time series query processing is crucial for interactive applications. Existing multidimensional indexes like the R-tree provide efficient querying fo...

    20. The Fdb3 transcription factor of the Fusarium Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone gene cluster is required for MBOA but not BOA degradation in Fusarium pseudograminearum.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kettle, Andrew J; Carere, Jason; Batley, Jacqueline; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal; Gardiner, Donald M

      2016-03-01

      A number of cereals produce the benzoxazolinone class of phytoalexins. Fusarium species pathogenic towards these hosts can typically degrade these compounds via an aminophenol intermediate, and the ability to do so is encoded by a group of genes found in the Fusarium Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone (FDB) cluster. A zinc finger transcription factor encoded by one of the FDB cluster genes (FDB3) has been proposed to regulate the expression of other genes in the cluster and hence is potentially involved in benzoxazolinone degradation. Herein we show that Fdb3 is essential for the ability of Fusarium pseudograminearum to efficiently detoxify the predominant wheat benzoxazolinone, 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), but not benzoxazoline-2-one (BOA). Furthermore, additional genes thought to be part of the FDB gene cluster, based upon transcriptional response to benzoxazolinones, are regulated by Fdb3. However, deletion mutants for these latter genes remain capable of benzoxazolinone degradation, suggesting that they are not essential for this process.

    1. 嵌入式Linux Webserver软件BOA实现与应用%The Application and Realization of Embedded Linux WebServer BOA

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      骆懿; 章坚武

      2004-01-01

      介绍了一种嵌入式Webserver软件BOA在摩托罗拉公司生产的嵌入式CPU MPC823e上的应用.在嵌入式MPC823e平台上成功移植了Linux和BOA webserver.并实现了在串口与嵌入式网页之间交换数据的CGI网关程序.这种嵌入式WebSever方案可以广泛应用在许多实际的应用领域,如自动化设备的远程监控,嵌入式GSM短消息平台,远程家庭医疗等.

    2. 嵌入式Web服务器Boa的移植及其应用%Transplant of Embedded Web Server Boa and Its Application

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      陆永健; 王萍; 吴佳; 张永力

      2005-01-01

      鉴于目前监控系统对实时性和多连接处理能力的要求,介绍一款单任务的嵌入式Web服务器Boa.对将Boa移植到运行uClinux操作系统的ARM微处理器平台上的过程进行了讨论,在此基础上构建了嵌入式Web服务器,为用户提供基于HTTP协议的网络接入方式,最后给出一个基于B/S模式的网络视频监控系统的实例.

    3. Dampak Peningkatan Kepuasan Pelanggan dalam Proses Bisnis E-Commerce pada Perusahaan Amazon.com

      OpenAIRE

      I Gusti Made Karmawan

      2014-01-01

      The Purpose of writing is to describe the impact of increased customer satisfaction in the business process of e-commerce at Amazon.com and analyzed e-commerce strategies used in the company.The Benefits are to get an overview of the strategies in the Amazon.com for improving customer satisfaction and the impact of increased satisfaction. The method of writing is conducting reviews of existing sources to gain an overview strategy and business processes e-commerce at Amazon.com. The paper resu...

    4. Tree Formation Using Coordinate Method

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Monika Choudhary

      2015-06-01

      Full Text Available In this paper we are introducing a new method of tree formation, we propose a coordinate based method by which we can store and access tree structures. As we know in NLP, parsing is the most important module. The output of this module is generally parsed trees. Currently, TAG (Tree Adjoining Grammar is widely used grammar due to its linguistic and formal nature. It is simply tree generating system. The unit structure used in TAG is structured trees. So we used our new method to store trees where we worked on English to Hindi language. We worked on different sentences from English to Hindi, our method is the easiest way to manipulate tree. We have implemented within small corpus and for finite number of structures and further can be extended in future.

    5. Visual perception of tree forms

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Muederrisoglu, Haldun; Eroglu, Engin; OEzkan, Suekran; Ak, Kivanc [Department of Landscape Architecture, Faculty of Forestry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 81000, Duzce (Turkey)

      2006-06-15

      This study, made in the cities of Adapazari, Duzce, and Bolu, has three fundamental goals. The first one is the evaluation of visual quality and strength of each tree form, second is the determination of visual quality and strength of different tree forms next to each other, and the third goal of this study is determining the effects of personal characteristics to the perception of tree forms. To reach these three goals the semantic differential method was used to evaluate graphical visions of tree forms. According to the findings, trees with pyramid forms have the most effective visual quality and strength. Pyramid-formed tree combinations have higher visual quality and strength than mixed combinations do. At the same time personal characteristics are effective on the visual perception of tree forms. A strong relationship between the amount of area per person in the cities the participants live in and their visual perception of tree forms has been found. (author)

    6. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Austin Matthews

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

    7. Adjustable chain trees for proteins

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Winter, Pawel; Fonseca, Rasmus

      2012-01-01

      A chain tree is a data structure for changing protein conformations. It enables very fast detection of clashes and free energy potential calculations. A modified version of chain trees that adjust themselves to the changing conformations of folding proteins is introduced. This results in much...... tighter bounding volume hierarchies and therefore fewer intersection checks. Computational results indicate that the efficiency of the adjustable chain trees is significantly improved compared to the traditional chain trees....

    8. Ocorrência de Passalora bougainvilleae (Muntañola) Castañeda & Braun associado à Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. em Boa Vista, Roraima Repot of Passalora bougainvilleae (Muntañola) Castañeda & Braun associated with Bougainvillea spectablis Willd. in Boa Vista, Roraima

      OpenAIRE

      Kátia de Lima Nechet; Halfeld-Vieira,Bernardo A.

      2008-01-01

      O fungo Passalora bougainvilleae é relatado, pela primeira vez, na região de Boa Vista, Roraima, associado a manchas foliares na planta ornamental Bougainvillea spectabilis. As características do fungo são conidióforos agregados em fascículos, emergindo de um estroma subcuticular na face abaxial de lesões velhas. Os conidióforos são lisos, retos, de coloração marrom, não ramificados, maioria asseptados, medindo de 26-57µm x 4µm. Células conidiogênicas terminais de proliferação simpodial com c...

    9. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa and patawa (Oenocarpus bataua fruit pulp from the amazon region

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sylvain Henri Darnet

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Buriti and patawa are two endemic palm trees from the Amazon region. Their pulps are traditionally consumed by the local population, but are underused and lesser known worldwide. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the two palm pulps were determined by modern analytical methods: Gas Chromatography (CG and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, based on the standards of AOCS (AMERICAN..., 2002 and AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1997, respectively. Buriti and patawa fruit pulps are highly nutritive, with respectively, high fat content (38.4% and 29.1% of dry matter (DM, protein content (7.6% and 7.4% of DM and dietary fibers (46% and 44.7% of DM. Buriti pulp can be considered healthy food due its high content of vitamin E (1169 µg.g-1 DM. Patawa pulp is highly oleaginous and its fatty acid composition is very similar to the ones of healthy oils, such as olive oil.

    10. Spanning trees crossing few barriers

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Asano, T.; Berg, M. de; Cheong, O.; Guibas, L.J.; Snoeyink, J.; Tamaki, H.

      2002-01-01

      We consider the problem of finding low-cost spanning trees for sets of n points in the plane, where the cost of a spanning tree is defined as the total number of intersections of tree edges with a given set of m barriers. We obtain the following results: (i) if the barriers are possibly intersecting

    11. Rectilinear Full Steiner Tree Generation

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Zachariasen, Martin

      1999-01-01

      The fastest exact algorithm (in practice) for the rectilinear Steiner tree problem in the plane uses a two-phase scheme: First, a small but sufficient set of full Steiner trees (FSTs) is generated and then a Steiner minimum tree is constructed from this set by using simple backtrack search, dynamic...

    12. A Class of Graceful Trees

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      孟凡洪; 苏耕; 杨继

      2000-01-01

      The present paper shows the coordinates of a tree and its vertices, defines a kind of Trees with Odd-Number Radiant Type (TONRT), deals with the gracefulness of TONRT by using the edge-moving theorem, and uses graceful TONRT to construct another class of graceful trees.

    13. Generalising tree traversals to DAGs

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

      2015-01-01

      We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resulting graph traversals avoid...

    14. Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees

      OpenAIRE

      Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

      2009-01-01

      This publication helps the reader to select wisely among the many species and varieties of flowering trees available. The following are considerations that should be taken into account when choosing flowering trees for the home landscape: selections factors, environmental responses, availability and adaptability, and flowering tree descriptions.

    15. Junction trees of general graphs

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Xiaofei WANG; Jianhua GUO

      2008-01-01

      In this paper,we study the maximal prime subgraphs and their corresponding structure for any undirected graph.We introduce the notion of junction trees and investigate their structural characteristics,including junction properties,induced-subtree properties,running-intersection properties and maximum-weight spanning tree properties.Furthermore,the characters of leaves and edges on junction trees are discussed.

    16. The Hopi Fruit Tree Book.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nyhuis, Jane

      Referring as often as possible to traditional Hopi practices and to materials readily available on the reservation, the illustrated booklet provides information on the care and maintenance of young fruit trees. An introduction to fruit trees explains the special characteristics of new trees, e.g., grafting, planting pits, and watering. The…

    17. Protecting Trees Means Protecting Ourselves

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      刘国虹; 张超

      2016-01-01

      As everyone knows,spring is a planting season.Every year people all over China go out to plant trees.Trees can make our environment more beautifully~①.Trees can stop wind from blowing the earth and sand away.They can also prevent soil from being washed away by wa-

    18. Distance labeling schemes for trees

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben;

      2016-01-01

      We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

    19. A suffix tree or not a suffix tree?

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

      2015-01-01

      In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree τ on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is τ a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as τ? We place no restrictions on S, in part......In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree τ on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is τ a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as τ? We place no restrictions on S......, in particular we do not require that S ends with a unique symbol. This corresponds to considering the more general definition of implicit or extended suffix trees. Such general suffix trees have many applications and are for example needed to allow efficient updates when suffix trees are built online. Deciding...

    20. TREE SELECTING AND TREE RING MEASURING IN DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sefa Akbulut

      2004-04-01

      Full Text Available Dendrochronology is a method of dating which makes use of the annual nature of tree growth. Dendrochronology may be divided into a number of subfields, each of which covers one or more aspects of the use of tree ring data: dendroclimatology, dendrogeomorphology, dendrohydrology, dendroecology, dendroarchaelogy, and dendrogylaciology. Basic of all form the analysis of the tree rings. The wood or tree rings can aid to dating past events about climatology, ecology, geology, hydrology. Dendrochronological studies are conducted either on increment cores or on discs. It may be seen abnormalities on tree rings during the measurement like that false rings, missing rings, reaction wood. Like that situation, increment cores must be extracted from four different sides of each tree and be studied as more as on tree.

    1. PoInTree: A Polar and Interactive Phylogenetic Tree

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Carreras Marco; Gianti Eleonora; Sartori Luca; Plyte Simon Edward; Isacchi Antonella; Bosotti Roberta

      2005-01-01

      PoInTree (Polar and Innteractive Tree) is an application that allows to build, visualize, and customize phylogenetic trees in a polar, interactive, and highly flexible view. It takes as input a FASTA file or multiple alignment formats. Phylogenetic tree calculation is based on a sequence distance method and utilizes the Neighbor Joining (NJ) algorithm. It also allows displaying precalculated trees of the major protein families based on Pfam classification. In PoInTree, nodes can be dynamically opened and closed and distances between genes are graphically represented.Tree root can be centered on a selected leaf. Text search mechanism, color-coding and labeling display are integrated. The visualizer can be connected to an Oracle database containing information on sequences and other biological data, helping to guide their interpretation within a given protein family across multiple species.The application is written in Borland Delphi and based on VCL Teechart Pro 6 graphical component (Steema software).

    2. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region - Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal

      Science.gov (United States)

      Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela CV

      2015-01-01

      We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care. PMID:26560976

    3. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

      2015-11-01

      We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

    4. Fringe trees, Crump-Mode-Jagers branching processes and $m$-ary search trees

      OpenAIRE

      Holmgren, Cecilia; Janson, Svante

      2016-01-01

      This survey studies asymptotics of random fringe trees and extended fringe trees in random trees that can be constructed as family trees of a Crump-Mode-Jagers branching process, stopped at a suitable time. This includes random recursive trees, preferential attachment trees, fragmentation trees, binary search trees and (more generally) $m$-ary search trees, as well as some other classes of random trees. We begin with general results, mainly due to Aldous (1991) and Jagers and Nerman (1984). T...

    5. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

      2014-03-06

      Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

    6. Fault-Tree Compiler Program

      Science.gov (United States)

      Butler, Ricky W.; Martensen, Anna L.

      1992-01-01

      FTC, Fault-Tree Compiler program, is reliability-analysis software tool used to calculate probability of top event of fault tree. Five different types of gates allowed in fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N. High-level input language of FTC easy to understand and use. Program supports hierarchical fault-tree-definition feature simplifying process of description of tree and reduces execution time. Solution technique implemented in FORTRAN, and user interface in Pascal. Written to run on DEC VAX computer operating under VMS operating system.

    7. From landless to forestless? : settlers, livelihoods and forest dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Homero Diniz, F.

      2013-01-01

        Keywords: deforestation; remote sensing; mental models; stakeholders’ perceptions; agrarian reform   Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in projects in the Brazilian Amazon within the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP) framework, the rationale being

    8. Lophopidae of the amazon basin with keys to new world genera and species (HOMOPTERA: FULGOROIDEA).

      OpenAIRE

      1986-01-01

      The two especies of Lophopidae found in the lowland Amazon Basin, Hesticus rufimanus, (walker) and H. sanguinifrons Muir, are redescribed and their geographical distributions given. Keys are provided to genera of New World lophopidae, and to species of Hesticus .

    9. From conflict to cooperation : international policies to protect the Brazilian Amazon

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      A. Kolk

      1998-01-01

      When environmental degradation in a particular country has international consequences, a dilemma arises: how to find effective policies which address the causes and take domestic sensitivities into account? This article analyzes the Brazilian Amazon, where international concern over deforestation le

    10. Wood for the trees

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rob Garbutt

      2013-10-01

      Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the materiality, cultural history and cultural relations of selected artworks in the exhibition Wood for the trees (Lismore Regional Gallery, New South Wales, Australia, 10 June – 17 July 2011. The title of the exhibition, intentionally misreading the aphorism “Can’t see the wood for the trees”, by reading the wood for the resource rather than the collective wood[s], implies conservation, preservation, and the need for sustaining the originating resource. These ideas have particular resonance on the NSW far north coast, a region once rich in rainforest. While the Indigenous population had sustainable practices of forest and land management, the colonists deployed felling and harvesting in order to convert the value of the local, abundant rainforest trees into high-value timber. By the late twentieth century, however, a new wave of settlers launched a protest movements against the proposed logging of remnant rainforest at Terania Creek and elsewhere in the region. Wood for the trees, curated by Gallery Director Brett Adlington, plays on this dynamic relationship between wood, trees and people. We discuss the way selected artworks give expression to the themes or concepts of productive labour, nature and culture, conservation and sustainability, and memory. The artworks include Watjinbuy Marrawilil’s (1980 Carved ancestral figure ceremonial pole, Elizabeth Stops’ (2009/10 Explorations into colonisation, Hossein Valamanesh’s (2008 Memory stick, and AñA Wojak’s (2008 Unread book (in a forgotten language. Our art writing on the works, a practice informed by Bal (2002, Muecke (2008 and Papastergiadis (2004, becomes a conversation between the works and the themes or concepts. As a form of material excess of the most productive kind (Grosz, 2008, p. 7, art seeds a response to that which is in the air waiting to be said of the past, present and future.

    11. Source tree composition

      OpenAIRE

      Jonge, de, H.J.

      2002-01-01

      Dividing software systems in components improves software reusability as well as software maintainability. Components live at several levels, we concentrate on the implementation level where components are formed by source files, divided over directory structures. Such source code components are usually strongly coupled in the directory structure of a software system. Their compilation is usually controlled by a single global build process. This entangling of source trees and build processes ...

    12. Pushdown machines for the macro tree transducer

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Engelfriet, Joost; Vogler, Heiko

      1986-01-01

      The macro tree transducer can be considered as a system of recursive function procedures with parameters, where the recursion is on a tree (e.g., the syntax tree of a program). We investigate characterizations of the class of tree (tree-to-string) translations which is induced by macro tree transduc

    13. Tree Rings: Timekeepers of the Past.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Phipps, R. L.; McGowan, J.

      One of a series of general interest publications on science issues, this booklet describes the uses of tree rings in historical and biological recordkeeping. Separate sections cover the following topics: dating of tree rings, dating with tree rings, tree ring formation, tree ring identification, sample collections, tree ring cross dating, tree…

    14. Active flows on trees

      Science.gov (United States)

      Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

      2016-11-01

      Coherent, large scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. We introduce and explore a generic model for compressible active flows on tree networks. In contrast to thermally-driven systems, active friction selects discrete states with only a small number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. This state selection can interact with graph topology to produce different localized dynamical time scales in separate regions of large networks. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks. Our analytical predictions agree well with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data on binary trees. While the number of stable states per tree scales exponentially with the number of edges, the mean number of activated modes in each state averages 1 / 4 the number of edges. More broadly, these results suggest that the macroscopic response of active networks, from actin-myosin networks in cells to flow networks in Physarum polycephalum, can be dominated by a few select modes.

    15. Slim Sets of Binary Trees

      CERN Document Server

      Grünewald, Stefan

      2010-01-01

      A classical problem in phylogenetic tree analysis is to decide whether there is a phylogenetic tree $T$ that contains all information of a given collection $\\cP$ of phylogenetic trees. If the answer is "yes" we say that $\\cP$ is compatible and $T$ displays $\\cP$. This decision problem is NP-complete even if all input trees are quartets, that is binary trees with exactly four leaves. In this paper, we prove a sufficient condition for a set of binary phylogenetic trees to be compatible. That result is used to give a short and self-contained proof of the known characterization of quartet sets of minimal cardinality which are displayed by a unique phylogenetic tree.

    16. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

      2005-01-01

      Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

    17. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin

      OpenAIRE

      Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez,Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

      2015-01-01

      A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of thi...

    18. Amazon vegetation greenness as measured by satellite sensors over the last decade

      OpenAIRE

      Atkinson, P.M.; Dash, J.; Jeganathan, C.

      2011-01-01

      [1] During the last decade two major drought events, one in 2005 and another in 2010, occurred in the Amazon basin. Several studies have claimed the ability to detect the effect of these droughts on Amazon vegetation response, measured through satellite sensor vegetation indices (VIs). Such monitoring capability is important as it potentially links climate changes (increasing frequency and severity of drought), vegetation response as observed through vegetation greenness, and land-atmosphere ...

    19. Hallux amputation after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Oliveira, Sâmella Silva de; Sachett, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves; Silva, Iran Mendonça da; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

      2016-01-01

      Freshwater stingray injuries are a common problem in the Brazilian Amazon, affecting mostly riverine and indigenous populations. These injuries cause severe local and regional pain, swelling and erythema, as well as complications, such as local necrosis and bacterial infection. Herein, we report a case of bacterial infection and hallux necrosis, after a freshwater stingray injury in the Brazilian Amazon, which eventually required amputation. Different antimicrobial regimens were administered at different stages of the disease; however, avoiding amputation through effective treatment was not achieved.

    20. Deforestation, Development, and Government Policy in the Brazilian Amazon: an Econometric Analysis

      OpenAIRE

      Andersen, Lykke E.; Eustáquio J. Reis

      2015-01-01

      This paper develops a model of deforestation and economic development in the Amazon. It is based on the determinants of demand for agricultural land, i.e. on the interactions between population dynamics, urbanization and the growth of local markets, land prices, and government policies. The model is estimated using a panel data set covering 316 municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon during the period 1970/85. The model is used to evaluate the effects of different policy instruments. The trade...

    1. The academic formation and the scientific production of physiotherapist researchers from Amazon region

      OpenAIRE

      Warken, Gianne de La-Rocque Barros; Freitas,Jofre Jacob da Silva; Domingues, Robson José de Souza; Kietzer, Katia Simone

      2016-01-01

      This article correlates educational data from 66 Amazonian physiotherapist researchers with their scientific production. The data show that only 24.2% are doctors, 50% had studied at the graduate level in the Amazon region, and 13% had graduate study in the physiotherapy area, in all cases outside of the Amazon region. It was found that the scientific production is concentrated in journals Qualis B. We believe that the way for the physiotherapist of the region to produce knowledge oriented to...

    2. Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Letícia Barros de Alencar

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available Richardia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Tephritoidea, Richardiidae from Central Amazon, Brazil. There are 11 species of Richardia known to Brazil. Of these, only four are known to occur in the Brazilian Amazon Region, where the diversity of Richardia is underestimated. Herein we describe and illustrate Richardia intemperata sp. nov. and Richardia parispina sp. nov. from Amazonas, Brazil. An illustrated key to males from this region is also provided.

    3. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010

      OpenAIRE

      Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F.; De Los Santos, Maxy; Lucas, Carmen M.; Núñez, Jorge; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, G, Andres M.; Baldeviano, Christian; Arrasco, Juan C.; Paul C F Graf; Lescano, Andres G.

      2015-01-01

      Article Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2–36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time ...

    4. Does the disturbance hypothesis explain the biomass increase in basin-wide Amazon forest plot data?

      OpenAIRE

      Gloor, M.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Lloyd, J.; Lewis, Simon L.; Malhi, Y; Baker, T. R.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; J. Peacock; Almeida, S; Alves de Oliveira, Atila Cristina; Alvarez, E; Amaral, Ieda; Arroyo, L.; Aymard, Gerardo; Banki, Olaf

      2009-01-01

      Positive aboveground biomass trends have been reported from old-growth forests across the Amazon basin and hypothesized to reflect a large-scale response to exterior forcing. The result could, however, be an artefact due to a sampling bias induced by the nature of forest growth dynamics. Here, we characterize statistically the disturbance process in Amazon old-growth forests as recorded in 135 forest plots of the RAINFOR network up to 2006, and other independent research programmes, and explo...

    5. Conservation Efforts and Malaria in the Brazilian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hahn, Micah B.; Olson, Sarah H.; Vittor, Amy Y.; Barcellos, Christovam; Patz, Jonathan A.; Pan, William

      2014-01-01

      We respond to Valle and Clark,1 who assert that “conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon,” because the relationship between forest cover and malaria incidence was stronger than the effect of the deforestation rate.1 We contend that their conclusion is flawed because of limitations in their methodology that we discuss in detail. Most important are the exclusion of one-half the original data without a discussion of selection bias, the lack of model adjustment for either population growth or migration, and the crude classifications of land cover and protected areas that lead to aggregation bias.1 Of greater significance, we stress the need for caution in the interpretation of data that could have profound effects on regional land use decisions. PMID:24277787

    6. Smoke Invigoration Versus Inhibition of Clouds over the Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Koren, Ilan; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Lorraine, A. Remer; Afargan, Hila

      2008-01-01

      The effect of anthropogenic aerosols on clouds is one of the most important and least understood aspects of human-induced climate change. Small changes in the amount of cloud coverage can produce a climate forcing equivalent in magnitude and opposite in sign to that caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and changes in cloud height can shift the effect of clouds from cooling to warming. Focusing on the Amazon, we show a smooth transition between two opposing effects of aerosols on clouds: the microphysical and the radiative. We show how a feedback between the optical properties of aerosols and the cloud fraction can modify the aerosol forcing, changing the total radiative energy and redistributing it over the atmospheric column.

    7. Amazon acai: chemistry and biological activities: a review.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yamaguchi, Klenicy Kazumy de Lima; Pereira, Luiz Felipe Ravazi; Lamarão, Carlos Victor; Lima, Emerson Silva; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio

      2015-07-15

      Acai (acai or assai) is one of the Amazon's most popular functional foods and widely used in the world. There are many benefits to its alleged use in the growing market for nutraceuticals. The acai extracts have a range of polyphenolic components with antioxidant properties, some of those present in greater quantity are orientin, isoorientin and vanillic acid, as well as anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. The presence of these substances is linked mainly to the antioxidant, anti- inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cardioprotective activities. Importantly, there are two main species of the Euterpe genus which produce acai. There are several differences between them but they are still quite unknown, from literature to producers and consumers. In this review are highlighted the chemical composition, botanical aspects, pharmacological, marketing and nutrition of these species based on studies published in the last five years in order to unify the current knowledge and dissimilarities between them.

    8. Brazilian Amazon Roads and Parks: Temporal & Spatial Deforestation Dynamics

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pfaff, A.; Robalino, J.

      2011-12-01

      Heterogeneous Forest Impacts of Transport Infrastructure: spatial frontier dynamics & impacts of Brazilian Amazon road changes Prior research on road impacts has almost completely ignored heterogeneity of impacts and as a result both empirically understated potential impact and missed policy potential. We note von Thunen's model suggests not only heterogeneity with distance from market but also specifically road impacts rising then falling with distance ('non-monoThunicity') Endogenous development and partial adjustment dynamics support this for the short run. Causal effects result from studying Brazilian Amazon deforestation (1976-87, 2000-04) using matching for short-run responses to lagged new roads changes (1968-75, 1985-00). We show the critical role of prior development, proxied by 1968 and 1985 road distances, for which exact matching addresses development trends and transforms impact estimates. Splitting the sample on this measure finds confirmation of the nonmonotonic predictions: new road impacts are relatively low if a prior road was close, such that prior transport access and endogenous development dynamics compete with the new road for influence, but also if a prior road was far, since first-decade adjustment in pristine areas is limited; yet in between these bounds, investments immediately raise deforestation significantly. This pattern helps to explain lower estimates within research on a single average impact. It suggests potential for REDD if a country chooses to shift its spatial transport networks. Protected Areas & Brazilian Amazon Deforestation: modeling and testing the impacts of varied PA strategies We model and then estimate the impacts of multiple types of protected areas upon 2000 - 2004 deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Our modeling starts with federal versus state objectives and predicts differences in both choice and implementation of each PA strategy that we examine. Our empirical examination brings not only breakdowns sufficient

    9. Morphological and molecular characteristics do not confirm popular classification of the Brazil nut tree in Acre, Brazil.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sujii, P S; Fernandes, E T M B; Azevedo, V C R; Ciampi, A Y; Martins, K; de O Wadt, L H

      2013-01-01

      In the State of Acre, the Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae), is classified by the local population into two types according to morphological characteristics, including color and quality of wood, shape of the trunk and crown, and fruit production. We examined the reliability of this classification by comparing morphological and molecular data of four populations of Brazil nut trees from Vale do Rio Acre in the Brazilian Amazon. For the morphological analysis, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative information of the trees, fruits, and seeds. The molecular analysis was performed using RAPD and ISSR markers, with cluster analysis. Significant differences were found between the two types of Brazil nut trees for the characters diameter at breast height, fruit yield, fruit size, and number of seeds per fruit. Despite the significant correlation between the morphological characteristics and the popular classification, we observed all possible combinations of morphological characteristics in both types of Brazil nut trees. In some individuals, the classification did not correspond to any of the characteristics. The results obtained with molecular markers showed that the two locally classified types of Brazil nut trees did not differ genetically, indicating that there is no consistent separation between them.

    10. Gene tree correction for reconciliation and species tree inference

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Swenson Krister M

      2012-11-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Reconciliation is the commonly used method for inferring the evolutionary scenario for a gene family. It consists in “embedding” inferred gene trees into a known species tree, revealing the evolution of the gene family by duplications and losses. When a species tree is not known, a natural algorithmic problem is to infer a species tree from a set of gene trees, such that the corresponding reconciliation minimizes the number of duplications and/or losses. The main drawback of reconciliation is that the inferred evolutionary scenario is strongly dependent on the considered gene trees, as few misplaced leaves may lead to a completely different history, with significantly more duplications and losses. Results In this paper, we take advantage of certain gene trees’ properties in order to preprocess them for reconciliation or species tree inference. We flag certain duplication vertices of a gene tree, the “non-apparent duplication” (NAD vertices, as resulting from the misplacement of leaves. In the case of species tree inference, we develop a polynomial-time heuristic for removing the minimum number of species leading to a set of gene trees that exhibit no NAD vertices with respect to at least one species tree. In the case of reconciliation, we consider the optimization problem of removing the minimum number of leaves or species leading to a tree without any NAD vertex. We develop a polynomial-time algorithm that is exact for two special classes of gene trees, and show a good performance on simulated data sets in the general case.

    11. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

      Science.gov (United States)

      Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

      2014-01-01

      Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

    12. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto and Understanding the Origin of the Modern Amazon Basin with Imaging Radar:

      Science.gov (United States)

      Islam, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Campbell, K.; Cracraft, J.; Carnaval, A. C.

      2015-12-01

      The Amazon basin is a biodiversity biome and plays a significant role into shaping the earth's climate, ocean and atmospheric gases. Understanding the history of the formation of the basin is essential to our understanding of the region's biodiversity loss and response to climate change. Ancient River channels in lowland Amazonia exhibit right angle branching structures as well as intricately intertwined channels. Past research has attributed these characteristic as a result of subsurface faults but makes it difficult to validate this augment due to dense vegetation and sedimentation. We seek to employ remote sensing techniques for examining geomorphological features and the relationship to evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in the modern Amazon River Basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery gathered from the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar over the Planalto, in the Madre de Dios region of Southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian Planalto is variously described as either erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collection to assess (1) the utility of these radar data for use in identifying associated geomorphologic features, and (2) UAVSAR's utility in aiding interpretation of ALOS PALSAR and STRM datasets to support a basin-wide characterization. We derive maps of river networks using a canny based edge detection method applied on the UAVSAR backscatter images. We develop an algorithm, which separates the river networks into various catchments based on connected component and then calculates angles at each branch point. We then assess distribution of right angle branching structure throughout the entire region. The results of the analysis will have a major impact on

    13. Anthropogenic Effects on the Mixing State of Aerosols over Manaus during the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) Campaign

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fraund, M. W.; Pham, D.; Harder, T.; O'Brien, R.; Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Moffet, R.

      2015-12-01

      The role that anthropogenic aerosols play in cloud formation is uncertain and contributes largely to the uncertainty in predicting future climate. One region of particular importance is the Amazon rainforest, which accounts for over half of the world's rainforest. During GoAmazon2014/15 IOP2, aerosol samples were collected at multiple sites in and around the rapidly growing industrial city of Manaus in the Amazon basin. Manaus is of scientific interest due to the pristine nature of the surrounding rainforest and the high levels of pollution coming from the city in the form of SO2, NOx, and soot. Some sites, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science center (TES, also designated ZF2) located to the north of Manaus, represent air masses which have not interacted with emissions from the city. The comparison of pristine atmosphere with heavy pollution allows both for the determination of a natural baseline level of pollutants, as well as the study of pollutant's impact on the conversion of biogenic volatile organic compounds to secondary organic aerosols. Towards this goal, samples from ZF2 and other unpolluted sites will be compared to samples from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) climate research facility in Manacapuru (T3), which is southwest (downwind) of Manaus. Spatially resolved spectra were recorded at the sub-particle level using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen K-absorption edges. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) was also performed on to characterize higher Z elements. These two techniques together will allow for the mass fraction of atmospherically relevant elements to be determined on a per-particle basis. We will apply established procedures to determine the mixing state index for samples collected at ZF2 and T3 using elemental mass fractions. Preliminary results will be presented which focus on investigating the difference between mixing

    14. Exploring the Geomorphology of the Amazon's Planalto with Imaging Radar: Understanding the Origins of the Modern Amazon Basin

      Science.gov (United States)

      McDonald, K. C.; Campbell, K.; Islam, R.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Cracraft, J.

      2013-12-01

      Amazonia is Earth's most iconic center of biological diversity and endemism and, owing to its contributions to global systems ecology, is arguably Earth's most important terrestrial biome . Amazonia includes a vast landscape of mostly lowland rainforest found in Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Venezuela. It harbors the world's highest species diversity, the largest fresh-water ecosystem in the world, and contributes substantially to shaping the Earth's atmospheric gasses and oceans and consequently its climate. Despite this global importance, we still have an incomplete understanding of how this biodiversity-rich biome developed over time. Knowing its history is crucially important for understanding how the short and long-term effects of biodiversity loss and climate change will impact the region, and the globe, in the future. Hence, we seek to understand the evolutionary and environmental-ecological history of Amazonia over the past 10 million years through a comparative approach that integrates across the disciplines of systematic biology, population biology, ecosystem structure and function, geology, Earth systems modeling and remote sensing, and paleoenvironmental history. During springtime 2013, the NASA/JPL airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over many regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We utilize UAVSAR imagery acquired over the Madre de Dios region of southeastern Peru in an assessment of the underlying geomorphology of the Amazon's planalto, its relationship to the current distribution of vegetation, and its relationship to geologic processes through deep time. In the late Neogene, the Amazonian lowlands comprised either a series of independent basins or a single sedimentary basin. The Amazonian planalto is variously described as either an erosional surface or a surface of deposition. We employ UAVSAR data collections to assess (1) the utility of these high quality imaging radar

    15. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Isabel M D Rosa

      Full Text Available Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1 it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2 the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3 deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia"-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy, annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is

    16. Sources of optically active aerosol particles over the Amazon forest

      Science.gov (United States)

      Guyon, Pascal; Graham, Bim; Roberts, Gregory C.; Mayol-Bracero, Olga L.; Maenhaut, Willy; Artaxo, Paulo; Andreae, Meinrat O.

      Size-fractionated ambient aerosol samples were collected at a pasture site and a primary rainforest site in the Brazilian Amazon Basin during two field campaigns (April-May and September-October 1999), as part of the European contribution to the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA-EUSTACH). The samples were analyzed for up to 19 trace elements by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), for equivalent black carbon (BC e) by a light reflectance technique and for mass concentration by gravimetric analysis. Additionally, we made continuous measurements of absorption and light scattering by aerosol particles. The vertical chemical composition gradients at the forest site have been discussed in a companion article (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 108 (D18), 4591 (doi:4510.1029/2003JD003465)). In this article, we present the results of a source identification and quantitative apportionment study of the wet and dry season aerosols, including an apportionment of the measured scattering and absorption properties of the total aerosol in terms of the identified aerosol sources. Source apportionments (obtained from absolute principal component analysis) revealed that the wet and dry season aerosols contained the same three main components, but in different (absolute and relative) amounts: the wet season aerosol consisted mainly of a natural biogenic component, whereas pyrogenic aerosols dominated the dry season aerosol mass. The third component identified was soil dust, which was often internally mixed with the biomass-burning aerosol. All three components contributed significantly to light extinction during both seasons. At the pasture site, up to 47% of the light absorption was attributed to biogenic particles during the wet season, and up to 35% at the tower site during the wet-to-dry transition period. The results from the present study suggest that, in addition to pyrogenic particles, biogenic and soil dust aerosols must be

    17. Effect of fatty Amazon fish consumption on lipid metabolism

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin on lipid metabolism. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group treated with commercial chow; Mapará group was fed diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; Matrinxã group was fed diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and, Tambaqui group was fed diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. Rats with approximately 240g±0.60 of body weight were fed ad libitum for 30 days, and then were sacrificed for collection of whole blood and tissues. RESULTS: The groups treated with enriched diets showed a significant reduction in body mass and lipogenesis in the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues and carcass when compared with the control group. However, lipogenesis in the liver showed an increase in Matrinxã group compared with the others groups. The levels of serum triglycerides in the treated groups with Amazonian fish were significantly lower than those of the control group. Moreover, total cholesterol concentration only decreased in the group Matrinxã. High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased significantly in the Mapará and Tambaqui compared with control group and Matrinxã group. The insulin and leptin levels increased significantly in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon basin changed the lipid metabolism by reducing serum triglycerides and increasing high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in rats fed with diets enriched with Mapará, Matrinxã, and Tambaqui.

    18. Two Preliminary SRTM DEMs Within the Amazon Basin

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alsdorf, D.; Hess, L.; Melack, J.; Dunne, T.; Mertes, L.; Ballantine, A.; Biggs, T.; Holmes, K.; Sheng, Y.; Hendricks, G.

      2002-12-01

      Digital topography provides important measures, such as hillslope lengths and flow path networks, for understanding hydrologic and geomorphic processes (e.g., runoff response to land use change and floodplain inundation volume). Two preliminary Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation models of Manaus (1S to 5S and 59W to 63W) and Rondonia (9S to 12S and 61W to 64W) were received from NASA JPL in August 2002. The "PI Processor" produced these initial DEM segments and we are using them to assess the initial accuracy of the interferometrically derived heights and for hydrologic research. The preliminary SRTM derived absolute elevations across the Amazon floodplain in the Cabaliana region generally range from 5 to 15 m with reported errors of 1 to 3 m. This region also includes some preliminary elevations that are erroneously negative. However, topographic contours on 1:100,000 scale quadrangles of 1978 to 1980 vintage indicate elevations of 20 to 30 m. Because double-bounce travel paths are possible over the sparsely vegetated and very-flat 2400 sq-km water surface of the Balbina reservoir near Manaus, it serves to identify the relative accuracy of the SRTM heights. Here, cell-to-cell height changes are generally 0 to 1 m and changes across a ~100 km transect rarely exceed 3 m. Reported errors throughout the transect range from 1 to 2 m with some errors up to 5 m. Deforestation in Rondonia is remarkably clear in the C-band DEM where elevations are recorded from the canopy rather than bare earth. Here, elevation changes are ~30 m (with reported 1 to 2 m errors) across clear-cut areas. Field derived canopy heights are in agreement with this change. Presently, we are deriving stream networks in the Amazon floodplain for comparison with our previous network extraction from JERS-1 SAR mosaics and for hydrologic modeling.

    19. Predictive modelling of contagious deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rosa, Isabel M D; Purves, Drew; Souza, Carlos; Ewers, Robert M

      2013-01-01

      Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforestation. Our model differs from previous models in three ways: (1) it is probabilistic and quantifies uncertainty around predictions and parameters; (2) the overall deforestation rate emerges "bottom up", as the sum of local-scale deforestation driven by local processes; and (3) deforestation is contagious, such that local deforestation rate increases through time if adjacent locations are deforested. For the scenarios evaluated-pre- and post-PPCDAM ("Plano de Ação para Proteção e Controle do Desmatamento na Amazônia")-the parameter estimates confirmed that forests near roads and already deforested areas are significantly more likely to be deforested in the near future and less likely in protected areas. Validation tests showed that our model correctly predicted the magnitude and spatial pattern of deforestation that accumulates over time, but that there is very high uncertainty surrounding the exact sequence in which pixels are deforested. The model predicts that under pre-PPCDAM (assuming no change in parameter values due to, for example, changes in government policy), annual deforestation rates would halve between 2050 compared to 2002, although this partly reflects reliance on a static map of the road network. Consistent with other models, under the pre-PPCDAM scenario, states in the south and east of the Brazilian Amazon have a high predicted probability of losing nearly all forest outside of protected areas by 2050. This pattern is less strong in the post-PPCDAM scenario. Contagious spread along roads and through areas lacking formal protection could allow deforestation to reach the core, which is currently

    20. The geological record preserved by Amazon shelf sedimentation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nittrouer, Charles A.; Kuehl, Steven A.; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Allison, Mead A.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.; Rine, James M.; Faria, L. Ercilio C.; Silveira, Odete M.

      A recent study of the subaqueous delta and coastal plain near the mouth of the Amazon River provides insight to the geological record created there and elsewhere. A compound clinoform structure is forming across the Amazon shelf. The uppermost portion is the shoreline, whose aggradation brings the modern sedimentary deposit to sea level and produces a deposit 5-10 m thick. It contains sediments accumulating primarily in shallow subtidal areas, intertidal mudflats and mangrove forests, and progradation occurs by overlapping of northward-extending mudcapes. Through these processes, the coastal plain has been widened by 10-100 km during the Holocene. The shoreline deposits are prograding across topset strata of the modern subaqueous delta, which is the lowermost and dominant portion of the compound clinoform structure. The subaqueous delta extends to a water depth of 70 m, with a depositional break between topset and foreset strata at 30-40 m. Advective sediment input to the foreset region causes high accumulation rates, which control the geometry and progradation of the clinoform structure. On time scales of 10 2-10 3 y, physical processes (e.g. waves, currents) have changed and the upper portions of the coastal plain and subaqueous delta have been eroded. One expression of this is a widespread unconformity recorded within late Holocene strata on the inner shelf. Over longer time scales (10 3-10 4 y) sea-level changes have led to more extensive erosion and only the lower 20 m of the compound clinoform structure is preserved, overlain by a transgressive sand layer. On other continental margins with different regional characteristics (e.g. more rapid subsidence) larger fractions of the clinoform structures could be preserved.

    1. Chemodiversity of dissolved organic matter in the Amazon Basin

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gonsior, Michael; Valle, Juliana; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Hertkorn, Norbert; Bastviken, David; Luek, Jenna; Harir, Mourad; Bastos, Wanderley; Enrich-Prast, Alex

      2016-07-01

      Regions in the Amazon Basin have been associated with specific biogeochemical processes, but a detailed chemical classification of the abundant and ubiquitous dissolved organic matter (DOM), beyond specific indicator compounds and bulk measurements, has not yet been established. We sampled water from different locations in the Negro, Madeira/Jamari and Tapajós River areas to characterize the molecular DOM composition and distribution. Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) combined with excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed a large proportion of ubiquitous DOM but also unique area-specific molecular signatures. Unique to the DOM of the Rio Negro area was the large abundance of high molecular weight, diverse hydrogen-deficient and highly oxidized molecular ions deviating from known lignin or tannin compositions, indicating substantial oxidative processing of these ultimately plant-derived polyphenols indicative of these black waters. In contrast, unique signatures in the Madeira/Jamari area were defined by presumably labile sulfur- and nitrogen-containing molecules in this white water river system. Waters from the Tapajós main stem did not show any substantial unique molecular signatures relative to those present in the Rio Madeira and Rio Negro, which implied a lower organic molecular complexity in this clear water tributary, even after mixing with the main stem of the Amazon River. Beside ubiquitous DOM at average H / C and O / C elemental ratios, a distinct and significant unique DOM pool prevailed in the black, white and clear water areas that were also highly correlated with EEM-PARAFAC components and define the frameworks for primary production and other aspects of aquatic life.

    2. Modelling the interplay between global and regional drivers on Amazon deforestation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dalla-Nora, E. L.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Montenegro Lapola, D.; Woltjer, G.

      2014-12-01

      Since mid-2000s, several measures have been taken to curb Amazon deforestation in Brazil, which dropped 84% up to 2012. However, this process raise concerns owed of the unintended effects of such interventions, like land use displacements. Here we explore an innovative modeling approach for the Amazon in order to simulate how the global demand for agricultural commodities and different regional land use policies could affect future deforestation trends inside and outside the Amazon, paying special attention to leakage effects over the Cerrado. A global economic model was taken to integrate supply and demand factors at both global and regional scales, coupled with a spatially explicitly land use model. Leakage effects are simulated in two different ways, regarding land demand and land allocation, based on the relative land rents of different land use types and spatial regression. Six contrasting multi-scale scenarios are explored focusing on deforestation rates and spatial pattern analysis. Our results unveil that Amazon conservation might not be the end of deforestation in Brazil once it can lead to 70% increase over the Cerrado cleared area up to 2050. Biofuels targets compliance can further press land cover changes over these regions revealing that productivity gains will be decisive for both Amazon and Cerrado conservation. In summary, closing the agricultural frontier in the Amazon cannot ensure biodiversity conservation or carbon savings in absence of complementary measures committed with land use efficiency, controlled land use expansion and new economic alternatives.

    3. Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zemp, Delphine Clara; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Hirota, Marina; Montade, Vincent; Sampaio, Gilvan; Staal, Arie; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Rammig, Anja

      2017-03-01

      Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complex-network approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10-13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.

    4. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gibbs, Holly

      2012-03-01

      Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high

    5. Comunidades locales, conservación de la avifauna y de la biodiversidad en la Amazonía peruana

      OpenAIRE

      José Álvarez

      2013-01-01

      La Amazonía peruana ha sido vista por la mayoría de los gobiernos como una región rica en recursos, subutilizada y abierta para ser explotada. La visión de la Amazonía ha estado (y en cierto modo todavía está) deformada por lo que algunos han dado en llamar “los mitos sobre la Amazonía” (CADMA, 1992).

    6. Comunidades locales, conservación de la avifauna y de la biodiversidad en la Amazonía peruana

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      José Álvarez

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available La Amazonía peruana ha sido vista por la mayoría de los gobiernos como una región rica en recursos, subutilizada y abierta para ser explotada. La visión de la Amazonía ha estado (y en cierto modo todavía está deformada por lo que algunos han dado en llamar “los mitos sobre la Amazonía” (CADMA, 1992.

    7. Amazon Web Services(AWS)云平台可靠性技术研究%Research on Reliability Technology of Amazon Web Services(AWS) Cloud Platform

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      刘义颖

      2014-01-01

      目前软件应用广泛,对软件可靠性要求越来越高。近几年云计算技术的研究逐渐增多,对于云平台的可靠性技术也有了新的要求。Amazon Web Services(AWS)提供了一整套云计算服务,用户能够构建复杂、可扩展的应用程序。AWS在最小成本情况下,为用户提供了一套构建容错的软件系统平台。在技术和性能等多方面的优势,被业界广泛认可和接受。该文主要研究Amazon Web Services云平台中的核心组件是如何提供可靠性技术的,分别对核心组件Amazon EC2, Amazon Simple Storage (S3),Elastic Storage Block (EBS),Elastic Load Balancing,Auto Scaling进行研究分析,为以后云计算平台的搭建和可靠性技术的研究提供依据。%At present, the software is widely used, the requirement of reliability of software is more and more high necessary. In recent years, the research about cloud computing has gradually increased, the reliability technology of cloud platform also has new requirements. Amazon Web Services (AWS) provides a set of cloud computing services, users can build complex and scalable ap⁃plications. In the minimum cost situation, AWS provides a set of building fault-tolerant software platform for the users. Because of the advantages of technology and performance, it was widely recognized and accepted. This paper mainly studies that how the core component of Amazon Web Services cloud platform can provide reliability technology, research on the core components of Amazon were EC2, Amazon Simple Storage (S3), Elastic Storage Block (EBS), Elastic Load Balancing, Auto Scaling, to provide the basis theory for building a cloud computing platform or research on reliability technology.

    8. A Comparative Study of Landsat TM and SPOT HRG Images for Vegetation Classification in the Brazilian Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lu, Dengsheng; Batistella, Mateus; de Miranda, Evaristo E; Moran, Emilio

      2008-01-01

      Complex forest structure and abundant tree species in the moist tropical regions often cause difficulties in classifying vegetation classes with remotely sensed data. This paper explores improvement in vegetation classification accuracies through a comparative study of different image combinations based on the integration of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT High Resolution Geometric (HRG) instrument data, as well as the combination of spectral signatures and textures. A maximum likelihood classifier was used to classify the different image combinations into thematic maps. This research indicated that data fusion based on HRG multispectral and panchromatic data slightly improved vegetation classification accuracies: a 3.1 to 4.6 percent increase in the kappa coefficient compared with the classification results based on original HRG or TM multispectral images. A combination of HRG spectral signatures and two textural images improved the kappa coefficient by 6.3 percent compared with pure HRG multispectral images. The textural images based on entropy or second-moment texture measures with a window size of 9 pixels × 9 pixels played an important role in improving vegetation classification accuracy. Overall, optical remote-sensing data are still insufficient for accurate vegetation classifications in the Amazon basin.

    9. Effects of partial throughfall exclusion on the phenology of Coussarea racemosa (Rubiaceae) in an east-central Amazon rainforest.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brando, Paulo; Ray, David; Nepstad, Daniel; Cardinot, Gina; Curran, Lisa M; Oliveira, Rafael

      2006-11-01

      Severe droughts may alter the reproductive phenology of tropical tree species, but our understanding of these effects has been hampered by confounded variation in drought, light and other factors during natural drought events. We used a large-scale experimental reduction of throughfall in an eastern-central Amazon forest to study the phenological response to drought of an abundant subcanopy tree, Coussarea racemosa. We hypothesized that drought would alter the production and the timing of reproduction, as well as the number of viable fruits. The study system comprised two 1-ha plots in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil: a dry plot where 50% of incoming precipitation (80% throughfall) was diverted from the soil during the six-month wet season beginning in January 2000, and a wet plot that received natural rainfall inputs. Fruit production of C. racemosa was quantified every 15 days using 100 litter traps (0.5 m(2)) in each plot. The production of new leaves and flowers was recorded monthly for C. racemosa individuals. Soil water, pre-dawn leaf water potential and solar radiation were measured to help interpret phenological patterns. Over the approximately 3.5-year period (April 2000 through December 2003), total fruit production remained similar between plots, declining by 12%. In 2003, production was four times higher in both plots than in previous years. In the dry plot, fruit fall shifted 40 and 60 days later into the dry season in 2002 and 2003, respectively. Total fruit fall dry mass production was variable across the study period. Foliage and flower production coincided with peak irradiance early in the dry season until delays in flowering appeared in the dry plot in 2002 and 2003. Plant water stress, through its influence on leaf developmental processes and, perhaps, inhibition of photosynthesis, appears to have altered both the timing of fruit fall and the quality and number of seeds produced.

    10. Challenges to managing ecosystems sustainably for poverty alleviation: Securing well-being in the Andes/Amazon

      OpenAIRE

      ESPA-AA (Ecosystem Services and Poverty Alleviation Program)

      2008-01-01

      This report focuses on the Amazon basin and the eastern Andean slopes (herein referred to as the Andes/Amazon ecosystem or region). The Amazon is the largest fresh water system and tropical forest in the world. Large portions of the region are still covered by relatively intact primary forests that provide substantial locally and globally valuable ecosystem services (ES). Rural population densities in the region are among the lowest in the world. As such, the Andes/Amazon is a contrast to oth...

    11. Tree plastic bark

      OpenAIRE

      Casado Arroyo, Carlos

      2016-01-01

      Tree plastic bark" consiste en la realización de una intervención artística en un entorno natural concreto, generando de esta manera un Site Specific(1). Como hace alusión Rosalind Krauss en sus reflexiones “La escultura en el campo expandido”(2), comenta que su origen esta claramente ligado con el concepto de monumentalidad. La escultura es un monumento, se crea para conmemorar algún hecho o personaje relevante y está realizada para una ubicación concreta. La investigación parte de la id...

    12. Save a Tree

      Science.gov (United States)

      Williams, Kathryn R.

      1999-10-01

      Starting in September 1925, JCE reproduced pictures of famous chemists or chemistry-related works of art as frontispieces. Often, the Journal included a biography or other article about the picture. The August 1945 frontispiece featured the largest cork oak in the United States. An accompanying article described the goals of the Cork Project to plant cork trees in suitable locations in the U.S., to compensate for uncertain European and African sources during World War II. The final frontispiece appeared in December 1956. To view supplementary material, please refer to JCE Online's supplementary links.

    13. The fault-tree compiler

      Science.gov (United States)

      Martensen, Anna L.; Butler, Ricky W.

      1987-01-01

      The Fault Tree Compiler Program is a new reliability tool used to predict the top event probability for a fault tree. Five different gate types are allowed in the fault tree: AND, OR, EXCLUSIVE OR, INVERT, and M OF N gates. The high level input language is easy to understand and use when describing the system tree. In addition, the use of the hierarchical fault tree capability can simplify the tree description and decrease program execution time. The current solution technique provides an answer precise (within the limits of double precision floating point arithmetic) to the five digits in the answer. The user may vary one failure rate or failure probability over a range of values and plot the results for sensitivity analyses. The solution technique is implemented in FORTRAN; the remaining program code is implemented in Pascal. The program is written to run on a Digital Corporation VAX with the VMS operation system.

    14. New Explorations for Decision Trees

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2001-01-01

      Traditionally, the decision tree method is defined and used for finding the optimal solution of a Bayesian decision problem. And it is difficult to use the decision tree method to find the sub-optimal solution, not to mention to rank alternatives. This paper discusses how to use the decision tree method for the alternative selecting and ranking.A practical case study is given to illustrate the applicability.

    15. The Hill and the Trees

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      王燕文

      2007-01-01

      Once there was a well-known hill here. There were many lush trees, beautiful flowers and green grasses on it. One day, the hill said to the trees proudly, “Look, how beautiful I am! But you look so ugly on my back. It must be better if I could drive you away.” One of the trees said, “You won't have beautiful and green clothing without us trees? If you leave us, you will die away.” The hill laughed and said again,”I feel very ashamed for I am staying with you together. Sooner or later I will drive you all...

    16. Tree wavelet approximations with applications

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      XU Yuesheng; ZOU Qingsong

      2005-01-01

      We construct a tree wavelet approximation by using a constructive greedy scheme(CGS). We define a function class which contains the functions whose piecewise polynomial approximations generated by the CGS have a prescribed global convergence rate and establish embedding properties of this class. We provide sufficient conditions on a tree index set and on bi-orthogonal wavelet bases which ensure optimal order of convergence for the wavelet approximations encoded on the tree index set using the bi-orthogonal wavelet bases. We then show that if we use the tree index set associated with the partition generated by the CGS to encode a wavelet approximation, it gives optimal order of convergence.

    17. Phylogenetic trees and Euclidean embeddings.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Layer, Mark; Rhodes, John A

      2017-01-01

      It was recently observed by de Vienne et al. (Syst Biol 60(6):826-832, 2011) that a simple square root transformation of distances between taxa on a phylogenetic tree allowed for an embedding of the taxa into Euclidean space. While the justification for this was based on a diffusion model of continuous character evolution along the tree, here we give a direct and elementary explanation for it that provides substantial additional insight. We use this embedding to reinterpret the differences between the NJ and BIONJ tree building algorithms, providing one illustration of how this embedding reflects tree structures in data.

    18. Tree felling: a necessary evil

      CERN Multimedia

      CERN Bulletin

      2013-01-01

      CERN started a campaign of tree felling in 2010 for safety reasons, and it will continue this year in various parts of the Meyrin site. As in previous years, the trees cut down in 2013 will be recycled and some will be replaced.   Diseased tree that had to be cut down on the Meyrin site. In association with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP), CERN commissioned the Geneva school of landscaping, engineering and architecture (Haute école du paysage, d’ingénierie et d’architecture, HEPIA) to compile an inventory of the trees on the Meyrin site. In total, 1285 trees (excluding poplars) were recorded. 75.5% of these trees were declared to be in a good state of health (i.e. 971 trees), 21.5% in a moderate state of health (276 trees) and 3% in a poor state of health (38 trees). As for the poplars, the 236 specimens recorded on the Meyrin site were judged to be too old, to...

    19. The Steiner tree problem

      CERN Document Server

      Hwang, FK; Winter, P

      1992-01-01

      The Steiner problem asks for a shortest network which spans a given set of points. Minimum spanning networks have been well-studied when all connections are required to be between the given points. The novelty of the Steiner tree problem is that new auxiliary points can be introduced between the original points so that a spanning network of all the points will be shorter than otherwise possible. These new points are called Steiner points - locating them has proved problematic and research has diverged along many different avenues. This volume is devoted to the assimilation of the rich field of intriguing analyses and the consolidation of the fragments. A section has been given to each of the three major areas of interest which have emerged. The first concerns the Euclidean Steiner Problem, historically the original Steiner tree problem proposed by Jarník and Kössler in 1934. The second deals with the Steiner Problem in Networks, which was propounded independently by Hakimi and Levin and has enjoyed the most...

    20. Genealogy and gene trees.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rasmuson, Marianne

      2008-02-01

      Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

    1. Occurrence of leguminous trees

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kirkbride, J.H.; Arkcoll, D.B.A.; Turnbull, J.W.; Magalhaes, L.M.S.; Fernandes, N.P.

      1984-01-01

      Five papers from the symposium are presented. Kirkbride, J.H. Jr.; Legumes of the cerrado. pp 23-46 (Refs. 55) A review is given. Some 548 legume species in 59 genera are listed that have been reported from cerrado vegetation. Felker, P.; Legume trees in semi-arid and arid areas. pp 47-59 (Refs. 41) A review is given of worldwide research activities. Arkcoll, D.B.; A comparison of some fast growing species suitable for woodlots in the wet tropics. pp 61-68 (Refs. 9) Studies are described near Manaus on intensive silviculture (for fuelwood production) of Eucalyptus deglupta, Cedrelinga catanaeformis (catenaeformis), Jacaranda copaia, and Inga edulis. Turnbull, J.W.; Six phyllodinous Acacia species for planting in the humid tropical lowlands. pp 69-73 (Refs. 14) Distribution, ecology, growth, and utilization are described for A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa, A. cincinnata, and A. polystachya. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Fernandes, N.P.; Experimental stands of leguminous trees in the Manaus region. pp 75-79 (Refs. 8) Performance up to age 20 yr of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Dalbergia nigra, Dinizia excelsa, Dipteryx odorata, Dipteryx sp., Diplotropis sp., Eperua bijuga, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, and Hymenaea sp. is described.

    2. Distributed Merge Trees

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

      2013-01-08

      Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

    3. Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous peoples.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Matt Finer

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The western Amazon is the most biologically rich part of the Amazon basin and is home to a great diversity of indigenous ethnic groups, including some of the world's last uncontacted peoples living in voluntary isolation. Unlike the eastern Brazilian Amazon, it is still a largely intact ecosystem. Underlying this landscape are large reserves of oil and gas, many yet untapped. The growing global demand is leading to unprecedented exploration and development in the region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We synthesized information from government sources to quantify the status of oil development in the western Amazon. National governments delimit specific geographic areas or "blocks" that are zoned for hydrocarbon activities, which they may lease to state and multinational energy companies for exploration and production. About 180 oil and gas blocks now cover approximately 688,000 km(2 of the western Amazon. These blocks overlap the most species-rich part of the Amazon. We also found that many of the blocks overlap indigenous territories, both titled lands and areas utilized by peoples in voluntary isolation. In Ecuador and Peru, oil and gas blocks now cover more than two-thirds of the Amazon. In Bolivia and western Brazil, major exploration activities are set to increase rapidly. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Without improved policies, the increasing scope and magnitude of planned extraction means that environmental and social impacts are likely to intensify. We review the most pressing oil- and gas-related conservation policy issues confronting the region. These include the need for regional Strategic Environmental Impact Assessments and the adoption of roadless extraction techniques. We also consider the conflicts where the blocks overlap indigenous peoples' territories.

    4. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

      2016-01-01

      The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

    5. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      María Celeste Salinero

      Full Text Available The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international. The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%. Over half of the research study sites (52.91% were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for

    6. Implications of Scientific Collaboration Networks on Studies of Aquatic Vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Salinero, María Celeste; Michalski, Fernanda

      2016-01-01

      The quantity of wildlife extracted from the Amazon has increased in the past decades as a consequence of an increase in human population density and income growth. To evaluate the spatial distribution of studies on subsistence and/or commercial hunting conducted in the Brazilian Amazon, we selected eight mid-sized and large-bodied aquatic vertebrate species with a history of human exploitation in the region. We used a combination of searches in the gray and scientific literature from the past 24 years to provide an updated distributional map of studies on the target species. We calculated the distances between the study sites and the locations of the research institutes/universities that the first and last authors of the same study were affiliated to. For the period of 1990 to 2014, we found 105 studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of aquatic vertebrates in the Brazilian Amazon in 271 locations that involved 43 institutions (37 Brazilian and 6 international). The spatial distribution of the studies across the Brazilian Amazon varied, but over 80% took place in the northeast and central Amazon, encompassing three States of the Legal Brazilian Amazon (Amazonas, 51.42%; Pará, 19.05%; and Amapá, 16.19%). Over half of the research study sites (52.91%) were within 500 km of the research institute/university of the first or last authors. Some research institutes/universities did not have any inter-institutional collaborations, while others collaborated with eight or more institutes. Some research institutes/universities conducted many studies, had an extensive collaboration network, and contributed greatly to the network of studies on Amazonian aquatic vertebrates. Our research contributes to the knowledge of studies on the subsistence and/or commercial hunting of the most exploited aquatic vertebrates of the Brazilian Amazon, illustrates the impact that collaboration networks have on research, and highlights potential areas for improvement and the

    7. Estimating babassu palm density using automatic palm tree detection with very high spatial resolution satellite images.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dos Santos, Alessio Moreira; Mitja, Danielle; Delaître, Eric; Demagistri, Laurent; de Souza Miranda, Izildinha; Libourel, Thérèse; Petit, Michel

      2017-05-15

      High spatial resolution images as well as image processing and object detection algorithms are recent technologies that aid the study of biodiversity and commercial plantations of forest species. This paper seeks to contribute knowledge regarding the use of these technologies by studying randomly dispersed native palm tree. Here, we analyze the automatic detection of large circular crown (LCC) palm tree using a high spatial resolution panchromatic GeoEye image (0.50 m) taken on the area of a community of small agricultural farms in the Brazilian Amazon. We also propose auxiliary methods to estimate the density of the LCC palm tree Attalea speciosa (babassu) based on the detection results. We used the "Compt-palm" algorithm based on the detection of palm tree shadows in open areas via mathematical morphology techniques and the spatial information was validated using field methods (i.e. structural census and georeferencing). The algorithm recognized individuals in life stages 5 and 6, and the extraction percentage, branching factor and quality percentage factors were used to evaluate its performance. A principal components analysis showed that the structure of the studied species differs from other species. Approximately 96% of the babassu individuals in stage 6 were detected. These individuals had significantly smaller stipes than the undetected ones. In turn, 60% of the stage 5 babassu individuals were detected, showing significantly a different total height and a different number of leaves from the undetected ones. Our calculations regarding resource availability indicate that 6870 ha contained 25,015 adult babassu palm tree, with an annual potential productivity of 27.4 t of almond oil. The detection of LCC palm tree and the implementation of auxiliary field methods to estimate babassu density is an important first step to monitor this industry resource that is extremely important to the Brazilian economy and thousands of families over a large scale.

    8. Computed tomography of the lung of healthy snakes of the species Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pees, Michael; Kiefer, Ingmar; Thielebein, Jens; Oechtering, Gerhard; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

      2009-01-01

      Thirty-nine healthy boid snakes representing six different species (Python regius, Boa constrictor, Python reticulatus, Morelia viridis, Epicrates cenchria, and Morelia spilota) were examined using computed tomography (CT) to characterize the normal appearance of the respiratory tissue. Assessment was done subjectively and densitometry was performed using a defined protocol. The length of the right lung was calculated to be 11.1% of the body length, without a significant difference between species. The length of the left lung in proportion to the right was dependent on the species examined. The most developed left lung was in P. regius (81.2%), whereas in B. constrictor, the left lung was vestigial or absent (24.7%). A median attenuation of -814.6 HU and a variability of 45.9 HU were calculated for all species with no significant difference between species. Within the species, a significantly higher attenuation was found for P. regius in the dorsal and cranial aspect of the lung compared with the ventral and caudal part. In B. constrictor, the reduced left lung was significantly hyperattenuating compared with the right lung. Results of this study emphasize the value of CT and provide basic reference data for assessment of the snake lung in these species. Veterinary Radiology &

    9. Boas práticas e hábitos de líderes na gestão de projetos na era da conectividade

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Antonio Mendes Silva Filho

      2014-11-01

      Full Text Available Gestão de projetos é essencial às organizações. Uma significativa quantidade das atividades atuais é orientada a equipes, envolvendo múltiplas organizações, instituições parceiras, e estas características devem ser consideradas nas atividades de projetos. Lidar e liderar equipes em ambiente corporativo diverso, visando desenvolvimento de (novos produtos, serviços ou sistemas, requer habilidade que combina arte e ciência. Quais (boas práticas e hábitos deveria possuir um gestor (líder de modo a influenciar positiva e afetivamente seus colaboradores a fim de ter conduzir um projeto com maior chance de sucesso? Este artigo não tem a intenção de ser completo ao tentar responder esta questão, mas explora e discute práticas e hábitos que podem contribuir para realização de projetos

    10. Sex allocation and secondary sex ratio in Cuban boa ( Chilabothrus angulifer): mother's body size affects the ratio between sons and daughters

      Science.gov (United States)

      Frynta, Daniel; Vejvodová, Tereza; Šimková, Olga

      2016-06-01

      Secondary sex ratios of animals with genetically determined sex may considerably deviate from equality. These deviations may be attributed to several proximate and ultimate factors. Sex ratio theory explains some of them as strategic decisions of mothers improving their fitness by selective investment in sons or daughters, e.g. local resource competition hypothesis (LRC) suggests that philopatric females tend to produce litters with male-biased sex ratios to avoid future competition with their daughters. Until now, only little attention has been paid to examine predictions of sex ratio theory in snakes possessing genetic sex determination and exhibiting large variance in allocation of maternal investment. Cuban boa is an endemic viviparous snake producing large-bodied newborns (˜200 g). Extremely high maternal investment in each offspring increases importance of sex allocation. In a captive colony, we collected breeding records of 42 mothers, 62 litters and 306 newborns and examined secondary sex ratios (SR) and sexual size dimorphism (SSD) of newborns. None of the examined morphometric traits of neonates appeared sexually dimorphic. The sex ratio was slightly male biased (174 males versus 132 females) and litter sex ratio significantly decreased with female snout-vent length. We interpret this relationship as an additional support for LRC as competition between mothers and daughters increases with similarity of body sizes between competing snakes.

    11. 基于BOA网络与GPRS的智能家居监控系统%Smart Home Monitoring System Based on BOA Network and GPRS

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      王聪; 王鹏

      2011-01-01

      In this paper, a method for smart home control GPRS module through BOA web server is proposed, then system based on ARM 9 core S3C2440 and SIM300 the design method of the system hardware platform and the system software based on CGI is also represented, this system has feature of having higher HTTP request processing speed, it can realize high-speed and high-efficient home monitoring, it is valuable to other system's development based on embedded system and network.%提出了一种基于ARM9核心的S3C2440 CPU、SIM300 GPRS无线传输模块及BOA网络服务器的智能家居监控系统设计方案,给出了系统硬件平台的设计方案,搭建了BOA网络服务器,并编制了基于CGI规范集的系统软件.此设计方案具有较高的HTTP请求处理速度,可以实现高速、高效的家居监控,同时在其它基于嵌入式及网络平台的相关设计中也具有一定的参考价值.

    12. Late Quaternary Vegetation and Climate Change in the Amazon Basin Based on a 50,000 Year Pollen Record from the Amazon Fan, ODP Site 932

      Science.gov (United States)

      Haberle, Simon G.; Maslin, Mark A.

      1999-01-01

      Hemipelagic sediments from the Amazon deep-sea fan, ODP Site 932 (5° 12.7‧N, 47° 1.8‧W), and continental shelf provide a 50,000-yr-long pollen record of Amazon Basin vegetation. The age model for Hole 932A is constrained by eight magnetic remanence intensity features, one paleomagnetic excursion, and three AMS14C dates.Alchornea,Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, and Moraceae/Urticaceae are dominant taxa in the pollen record between 40,200 and 19,800 cal yr B.P. Andean taxa, such asPodocarpusandHedyosmum,increase in abundance between 19,800 and 11,000 cal yr B.P. and prior to 40,200 cal yr B.P. The Holocene pollen assemblage, derived from Amazon River and continental shelf sediments, is dominated by secondary growth taxa, such asCecropia.Climatic factors influencing the development of glacial and interglacial tropical vegetation are considered by comparing marine with terrestrial records of vegetation change. This comparison shows that the Amazon Basin forests were not extensively replaced by savanna vegetation during the glacial period, contradicting the refugia hypothesis.

    13. Sussing Merger Trees: A proposed Merger Tree data format

      CERN Document Server

      Thomas, Peter A; Tweed, Dylan; Benson, Andrew J; Croton, Darren; Elahi, Pascal; Henriques, Bruno; Iliev, Ilian T; Knebe, Alexander; Lux, Hanni; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Neyrinck, Mark; Pearce, Frazer R; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Schneider, Aurel; Srisawat, Chaichalit

      2015-01-01

      We propose a common terminology for use in describing both temporal merger trees and spatial structure trees for dark-matter halos. We specify a unified data format in HDF5 and provide example I/O routines in C, FORTRAN and PYTHON.

    14. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

      2010-01-01

      A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

    15. Tree Decomposition based Steiner Tree Computation over Large Graphs

      OpenAIRE

      2013-01-01

      In this paper, we present an exact algorithm for the Steiner tree problem. The algorithm is based on certain pre-computed index structures. Our algorithm offers a practical solution for the Steiner tree problems on graphs of large size and bounded number of terminals.

    16. Investigating Landsat-derived forest evapotranspiration in the Amazon

      Science.gov (United States)

      Khand, K. B.; Numata, I.; Kjaersgaard, J.; Cochrane, M. A.

      2015-12-01

      Nearly half of annual rainfall in the Amazon rainforest region is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration (ET). However, this land-atmosphere water vapor feedback in Amazonia has been continuously disturbed by anthropogenic influence and climate change such as severe drought events. While forest ET dynamics in the Amazon have been studied from both point estimates (or in-situ measurements) and regional land-surface models as well as coarse-spatial satellite data, finer spatial data is required to address the spatial variability of forest ET associated with both forest disturbances and extreme climate events. We use Landsat-based METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration) model to generate high-resolution (30 m) ET products and investigate its potential to characterize local and regional ET behavior by comparison to ET calculated from flux tower data. METRIC estimates actual ET as residual of the surface energy balance and is applied to capture the spatial variability of forest ET. The flux tower data were collected at two sites with different forest types: Para with wet equatorial forest and Rondônia with seasonally dry tropical forest. Our study was conducted on the dry season of the years 2003 and 2005 for Para, and 2000 through 2002 for Rondônia as a function of data availability of both cloud-free Landsat images and meteorological data for METRIC processing. Daily gridded actual ET estimates from METRIC during the dry season were obtained using a cubic spline interpolation of ETrF (fraction of reference ET) values between the satellite image dates and multiplying by daily reference ET. Across the all study years, differences between the daily ET estimates for the selected image dates from METRIC and the flux towers were less than 1.2 mm/day, while on monthly basis, these averaged daily ET differences were much lower (< 0.5 mm). At Para, the correlation (R2) between the daily ET rates from METRIC and the

    17. Trees and Shrubs for Overhead Utility Easements

      OpenAIRE

      Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; French, Sue (Sue C.); Johnson-Asnicar, Brenda; Relf, Diane; Day, Susan D.; Nunnally, Richard, 1947-; Vest, John

      2009-01-01

      Trees are one of the major causes of power outages in areas of overhead utility lines due to direct tree contact with lines, or to trees or tree limbs falling on the lines. This publication covers conflict resolution options and tree selection and planting when dealing with landscaping around power lines.

    18. Impact of seasonal hydrological variation on the distributions of tetraether lipids along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin: implications for the MBT/CBT paleothermometer and the BIT index

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Zell, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Abril, G.; Lima Sobrinho, R.; Dorhout, D.; Moreiro-Turcq, P.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

      2013-01-01

      Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected along the Amazon River in the central Amazon basin and in three tributaries during the rising water (RW), high water (HW), falling water (FW) and low water (LW) season. Changes in the concentration and the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl gly

    19. Ocorrência de Passalora bougainvilleae (Muntañola Castañeda & Braun associado à Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. em Boa Vista, Roraima Repot of Passalora bougainvilleae (Muntañola Castañeda & Braun associated with Bougainvillea spectablis Willd. in Boa Vista, Roraima

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Kátia de Lima Nechet

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available O fungo Passalora bougainvilleae é relatado, pela primeira vez, na região de Boa Vista, Roraima, associado a manchas foliares na planta ornamental Bougainvillea spectabilis. As características do fungo são conidióforos agregados em fascículos, emergindo de um estroma subcuticular na face abaxial de lesões velhas. Os conidióforos são lisos, retos, de coloração marrom, não ramificados, maioria asseptados, medindo de 26-57µm x 4µm. Células conidiogênicas terminais de proliferação simpodial com cicatrizes escuras e pouco espessas. Os conídios são solitários, marrom claro, obclavados, retos a ligeiramente curvos, medindo de 32-70 µm x 4-5 µm, maioria com 3 septos, apresentando um hilo truncado e ápice obtuso.The fungi Passalora bougainvilleae is reported, for the first time, Boa Vista, Roraima state, causing leaf spots on ornamental specie Bougainvillea spectabilis. The fungi characteristics are conidiophores hypophyllous in fascicles arising from the upper cells of a stroma subcuticular at old spots. The conidiphores are smooth, straight, pale brown, non-branched, mostly aseptate, 26-57µm x 4µm. Conidiogenous cells terminal, sympodial with black and thin scars. Conidia solitary, pale brown, obclavate, straight to slightly flexuous, 32-70 µm x 4-5 µm, 3 septate, rounded at apex, truncate at base, with a conspicuous hilum.

    20. The AmazonFACE research program: assessing the effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 on the ecology and resilience of the Amazon forest

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lapola, David; Quesada, Carlos; Norby, Richard; Araújo, Alessandro; Domingues, Tomas; Hartley, Iain; Kruijt, Bart; Lewin, Keith; Meir, Patrick; Ometto, Jean; Rammig, Anja

      2016-04-01

      The existence, magnitude and duration of a supposed "CO2 fertilization" effect in tropical forests remains largely undetermined, despite being suggested for nearly 20 years as a key knowledge gap for understanding the future resilience of Amazonian forests and its impact on the global carbon cycle. Reducing this uncertainty is critical for assessing the future of the Amazon region as well as its vulnerability to climate change. The AmazonFACE (Free-Air CO2 Enrichment) research program is an integrated model-experiment initiative of unprecedented scope in an old-growth Amazon forest near Manaus, Brazil - the first of its kind in tropical forest. The experimental treatment will simulate an atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of the future in order to address the question: "How will rising atmospheric CO2 affect the resilience of the Amazon forest, the biodiversity it harbors, and the ecosystem services it provides, in light of projected climatic changes?" AmazonFACE is divided into three phases: (I) pre-experimental ecological characterization of the research site; (II) pilot experiment comprised of two 30-m diameter plots, with one treatment plot maintained at elevated [CO2] (ambient +200 ppmv), and the other control plot at ambient [CO2]; and (III) a fully-replicated long-term experiment comprised of four pairs of control/treatment FACE plots maintained for 10 years. A team of scientists from Brazil, USA, Australia and Europe will employ state-of-the-art methods to study the forest inside these plots in terms of carbon metabolism and cycling, water use, nutrient cycling, forest community composition, and interactions with environmental stressors. All project phases also encompass ecosystem-modeling activities in a way such that models provide hypothesis to be verified in the experiment, which in turn will feed models to ultimately produce more accurate projections of the environment. Resulting datasets and analyses will be a valuable resource for a broad community