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Sample records for amaranthus dubius bledo

  1. PHYTO-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM AMARANTHUS DUBIUS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jannathul Firdhouse; Lalitha, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius was used for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution under various conditions. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by spectrophotometric, physical and theoretical methods. The size of silver nanoparticles ranged from 10-70nm. The present approach of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of A.dubius appears to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and an easy alternative to conventional chemical me...

  2. Eco-friendly synthesis of Graphene using the aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jannathul Firdhouse

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An eco-friendly process of reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius under refluxing method is herein reported. The colour change of the graphene oxide (GO solution from brown to black was noted during the reduction of graphene oxide. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of reduced graphene oxide (AKRGO. The crystallite size of nanographene was confirmed by XRD analysis and Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectral analysis revealed the reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius. The morphology of the synthesized graphene was examined by SEM analysis.

  3. Fabrication of Antimicrobial Perspiration Pads and Cotton Cloth Using Amaranthus dubius Mediated Silver Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jannathul Firdhouse; Lalitha, P.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles prepared through a simplistic method using the aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius were fabricated on perspiration pads and cotton cloth samples to obtain antibacterial textile materials by two different fabrication methods. The antibacterial activity was investigated against the bacteria Corynebacterium which is commonly present in sweat. Silver nanoparticles that serve as antibacterial agents, against pathogenic bacteria, have gained increased applications in medical d...

  4. Eco-friendly synthesis of Graphene using the aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jannathul Firdhouse; Lalitha, P.

    2013-01-01

    An eco-friendly process of reduction of graphene oxide using aqueous extract of Amaranthus dubius under refluxing method is herein reported. The colour change of the graphene oxide (GO) solution from brown to black was noted during the reduction of graphene oxide. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to monitor the formation of reduced graphene oxide (AKRGO). The crystallite size of nanographene was confirmed by XRD analysis and Scherrer’s formula. FTIR spectral analysis revealed the reducti...

  5. Effect of coal mine soil contamination on the elemental uptake and distribution in two edible Amaranthus species, Amaranthus dubius and Amaranthus hybridus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonnalagadda, S.B.; Kindness, A.; Chunilall, V. [University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry

    2006-07-01

    The impact of coal mine dump contaminated soil on the elemental uptake by two edible plants, namely, Amaranthus dubius (red herbs) and Amaranthus hybridus (green herbs), was studied by investigating their response and ability to tolerate and accumulate varying levels of elements in their roots and shoots. The vegetation was grown on varying amounts of contaminated soil, viz. 0%, 5%, 15%, 25% w/w using coal mine dump soil. The soil was analyzed for soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), moisture content, and selected heavy metals. The distribution of six metals, namely, Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Mn, and Fe, in roots, stem, and leaves of the plants was determined in two stages of growth after 5 weeks and 10 weeks. All soil and plant samples were microwave digested and subjected to heavy metal analysis using the ICP-OES, GFAAS, and CVAAS. The pH of the coal mine dump contaminated soil decreased with an increase in contamination. Both the SOM and CEC values decreased, which increases the availability of elements, by providing more binding sites in the soil. Relatively, the red herbs had higher elemental concentrations than the green herbs. Both plants recorded high manganese accumulation. No mercury was detected in the soils or plants.

  6. 假刺苋--中国大陆一新归化种%Amaranthus dubiusMart. ex Thell.-- A Newly Naturalized Plant of Mainland of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋实; 汪远; 闫小玲; 曾宪锋; 马金双; 李宏庆

    2015-01-01

    报道了广东省潮州市韩江沿岸发现的中国大陆一新归化种——假刺苋(Amaranthus dubiusMart. ex Thell.)。该种原产热带美洲及西印度群岛,已经引入并局部归化于欧洲、热带亚洲地区和非洲,在中国台湾已经归化。通过野外调查,获得该种的详细特征与生境等信息,并讨论了与其他苋属植物的区别及其潜在的入侵性。此外,还提供了用于检索中国苋属植物的分类检索表。%Amaranthus dubiusMart. ex Thell., native to tropical America and the West Indies, introduced and naturalized in Europe, tropical Asia and Africa as well as in Taiwan, has been found in mainland of China. The population ofA. dubiushas been discovered along the bank of Hanjiang River of Chaozhou, Guangdong Province, China. The biological characters and the potential invasive were discussed, and a taxonomic key for Chinese Amaranthusis provided.

  7. Effect of coal mine soil contamination on the elemental uptake and distribution in two edible Amaranthus species, A. dubius and A. hybridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B; Kindness, Andrew; Chunilall, Viren

    2006-01-01

    The impact of coal mine dump contaminated soil on the elemental uptake by two edible plants, namely, Amaranthus dubius (red herbs) and Amaranthus hybridus (green herbs), was studied by investigating their response and ability to tolerate and accumulate varying levels of elements in their roots and shoots. The vegetation was grown on varying amounts of contaminated soil, viz. 0%, 5%, 15%, 25% w/w using coal mine dump soil. The soil was analyzed for soil pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), moisture content, and selected heavy metals. The distribution of six metals, namely, Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Mn, and Fe, in roots, stem, and leaves of the plants was determined in two stages of growth after 5 weeks and 10 weeks. All soil and plant samples were microwave digested and subjected to heavy metal analysis using the ICP-OES, GFAAS, and CVAAS. The pH of the coal mine dump contaminated soil decreased with an increase in contamination. Both the SOM and CEC values decreased, which increases the availability of elements, by providing more binding sites in the soil. Relatively, the red herbs had higher elemental concentrations than the green herbs. Both plants recorded high manganese accumulation. No mercury was detected in the soils or plants. PMID:16785180

  8. Nutraceutical Assessment of Four Amaranthus Species from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo Ibrahim; Hilou Adama; Sombie Pierre Alexandre Eric Djifaby; Compaore Moussa; Millogo Jeanne; Nacoulma Odile Germaine

    2011-01-01

    The use of the amaranths as vegetables is developed in Burkina Faso. Most known are Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex. Thell, Amaranthus graecizans L., Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L. A. hybridus is most used and abundantly cultivated, however the others are more or less wild. Theaim of the present study was to investigate the nutraceutical potentialities of four Amaranthus species from Burkina Faso. The aqueous decoction extract of the four species contains the highest ofpolyphenol...

  9. Nutraceutical Assessment of Four Amaranthus Species from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouedraogo Ibrahim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the amaranths as vegetables is developed in Burkina Faso. Most known are Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex. Thell, Amaranthus graecizans L., Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L. A. hybridus is most used and abundantly cultivated, however the others are more or less wild. Theaim of the present study was to investigate the nutraceutical potentialities of four Amaranthus species from Burkina Faso. The aqueous decoction extract of the four species contains the highest ofpolyphenols, flavonoids,flavonols and proteins contents. The aqueous decoction extracts were used for the evaluation of the antioxidant activity and xanthine oxidase inhibitory potentiality. The A. dubius showed the most potent antioxidant activity with a CE50 of 1.26±0.46, mgm2 the β-carotene bleaching method. A. hybridus showed the most potent antioxidant activity (66.99±1.65 μmolAEAC/g in the DPPH radical scavengingmethod. The aqueous extracts of the four speciesshowed weak inhibition of the xanthine oxidaseat the concentration of 200 μg/mL.The four Amaranthus species are rich in microelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu and carotenoids compounds. The antinutritionals factors were also quantified. The oxalate amount in these species is fairly high. The highest minerals contents and the antioxidant activity of the amaranths could explain theirlarge use by all the socioeconomic strata of the population.These plants would constitute a source of dietetic antioxidants.

  10. Sinopsis del subgénero amaranthus (amaranthus, amaranthaceae en Venezuela

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    Wilmer Carmona Pinto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Amaranthus L. pertenece a la familia Amaranthaceae y posee unas 70 especies distribuidas en las zonas tropicales y subtropicales del planeta; en el continente americano existen cerca de 40 especies agrupadas en los subgéneros Acnida, Albersia y Amaranthus. Con el objetivo de iniciar el estudio sistemático del género Amaranthus en Venezuela se hace la sinopsis del subgénero Amaranthus, sobre la base de material de herbarios nacionales, revisión bibliográfica y colecciones propias. Se confirma la presencia de seis especies del subgénero: A. congestus, A. cruentus, A. dubius, A. hybridus subsp. quitensis, A. retroflexus y A. spinosus; adicionalmente, se reduce de 22 a 10 el número de especies del género. Se presentan claves para diferenciar los subgéneros y las especies del subgénero Amaranthus, así como descripciones morfológicas de las especies, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución en Venezuela.

  11. The effect of gamma irradiation on Nematospiroides dubius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice were infected with gamma irradiated larvae of Nematospiroides dubius and autopsied 5 weeks later for worm counts. It was found that male worms were more susceptible to irradiation than female worms. In both instances, however the survival curve on a semi logarithmic plot was characterised by a shoulder at low doses and an exponential component at the higher levels of exposure. No male worms were recovered from mice infected with larvae given more than 12 krad but some female worms were capable of surviving 20 krad. The fecundity of female worms was reduced by 61% at 4 krad and totally ablated at 8 krad. Further experiments demonstrated that the survival of irradiated N. dubius in vivo was related to the extent of the damage caused at the time of irradiation and was not dependent on additional host parameters. Thus neither the number of irradiated worms inoculated nor the sex of the host radically altered the sex ratio or proportion of the worms lost as a result of irradiating the larvae. Furthermore, treatment with cortisone or sublethal irradiation of the host did not increase the proportion of surviving worms. It was therefore, concluded that a host immune response was not involved. (author)

  12. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Osorio Salazar; Francisco Antonio Valverde; Carmen Rosa Bonilla Correa; Manuel Salvador Sánchez Orozco; Carmen Elena Mier Barona

    2009-01-01

    En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique), Cyperus rotundus L (coquito), Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo), y Ruta graveolens L (ruda) sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga) y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo) y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo co...

  13. Betalains from Amaranthus tricolor L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mousumi Biswas; Satyahari Dey; Ramkrishna Sen

    2013-01-01

    Betalains in Amaranthus tricolor leaf were identified by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In addition to the known compound red-violet amaranthin, two yellow pigments were detected in Amaranthus tricolor. A novel betaxanthin, methyl derivative of arginine betaxanthin was identified on the basis of UV-Vis spectra and mass spectrometric characteristics, as well as by comparison with literature data, which ...

  14. Pharmacological Characterization of the Edema Caused by Vitalius dubius (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae) Spider Venom in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-E-Silva, Thomaz A A; Linardi, Alessandra; Antunes, Edson; Hyslop, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Bites by tarantulas (Theraphosidae, Mygalomorphae) in humans can result in mild clinical manifestations such as local pain, erythema, and edema. Vitalius dubius is a medium-sized, nonaggressive theraphosid found in southeastern Brazil. In this work, we investigated the mediators involved in the plasma extravasation caused by V. dubius venom in rats. The venom caused dose-dependent (0.1-100 μg/site) edema in rat dorsal skin. This edema was significantly inhibited by ((S)1-{2-[3(3-4-dichlorophenyl)-1-(3-iso-propoxyphenylacetyl)piperidine-3-yl]ethyl}-4-phenyl-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octone, chloride) (SR140333, a neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist), indomethacin [a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor], cyproheptadine (a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine1/2 and histamine H1 receptor antagonist), and N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). In contrast, mepyramine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist), D-Arg-[Hyp(3),Thi(5),D-Tic(7),Oic(8)-]-BK (JE 049, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist), and ((S)-N-methyl-N-[4-(4-acetylamino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3,4-di-chlorophenyl)butyl]benzamide) (SR48968, a neurokinin NK2 receptor antagonist) had no effect on the venom-induced increase in vascular permeability. In rat hind paws, the venom-induced edema was attenuated by ketoprofen (a nonselective COX inhibitor) administered 15 minutes postvenom. Preincubation of venom with commercial antiarachnid antivenom attenuated the venom-induced edema. These results suggest that the enhanced vascular permeability evoked by V. dubius venom involves serotonin, COX products, neurokinin NK1 receptors, and nitric oxide formation. The attenuation of hind paw edema by ketoprofen suggests that COX inhibitors could be useful in treating the local inflammatory response to bites by these spiders. PMID:26607257

  15. Nomenclatural survey of the genus Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae). 4. Detailed questions arising around the name Amaranthus gracilis

    OpenAIRE

    Iamonico Duilio

    2016-01-01

    The present article represents the fourth contribution of a series whose final aim is to gain an understanding of the complicated nomenclature of the genus Amaranthus. The investigation deals with the need to establish the identity of Amaranthus gracilis and related names. On the basis of extensive analysis of the literature, examination of herbarium specimens and field surveys, light has been thrown on a number of complex nomenclatural questions. Amaranthus gracilis is published as a nomen n...

  16. Two New Tryptamine Derivatives, Leptoclinidamide and (--Leptoclinidamine B, from an Indonesian Ascidian Leptoclinides dubius

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    Michio Namikoshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new tryptamine-derived alkaloids, named as leptoclinidamide (1 and (--leptoclinidamine B (2, were isolated from an Indonesian ascidian Leptoclinides dubius together with C2-α-D-mannosylpyranosyl-L-tryptophan (3. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data for 1 and its N-acetyl derivative (4. Compound 1 was an amide of tryptamine with two β-alanine units. Although the planar structure of 2 is identical to that of the known compound (+-leptoclinidamine B (5, compound 2 was determined to be the enantiomer of 5 based on amino acid analysis using HPLC methods. Compounds 1 to 4 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, HCT-15 (colon and Jurkat (T-cell lymphoma cells, but none of the compounds showed activity.

  17. Cytogenetic studies in four cultivated Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) species

    OpenAIRE

    Bonasora, Marisa Graciela; Poggio, Lidia; Greizerstein, Eduardo José

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the present study, the chromosomes numbers were confirmed, 2n = 34 for Amaranthus cruentus Linnaeus, 1759, and 2n = 32 for Amaranthus hypochondriacus Linnaeus, 1753, Amaranthus mantegazzianus Passer, 1864, and Amaranthus caudatus Linnaeus, 1753. The distribution and variability of constitutive heterochromatin were detailed using DAPI-CMA3 banding technique. The position of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) was observed using Ag-NOR banding (active loci) and fluorescent in situ ...

  18. STUDIES ON GENETIC PARAMETERS IN GRAIN AMARANTHUS (AMARANTHUS HYPOCHONDRIACUS L.) AS INFLUENCED BY PLANT DENSITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh K. Selvan; Mohamed G. Yassin; R. Govindarasu

    2013-01-01

    Selection of genotypes with adequate combination of traits with high yield at the appropriate density level increased the productivity in amaranth. The study was therefore undertaken to estimate genetic attributes of different amaranth genotypes and to identify and select genotypes with adequate trait combination for improvement in yield. In grain amaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) ten genotypes were evaluated  for twelve characters under four plant density levels viz., very high (D1)...

  19. Lectotypification of seven names in Amaranthus Lectotipificación de siete nombres en Amaranthus

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor D. Bayón; Susana E. Freire

    2011-01-01

    Typification is provided for seven names of American and African species of Amaranthus as a nomenclatural contribution to a forthcoming taxonomic revision of this genus.Se tipifican siete nombres pertenecientes a especies de Amaranthus originarias de África y América como una contribución nomenclatural a una próxima revisión taxonómica del género.

  20. Avermectin B1, Isazofos, and Fenamiphos for Control of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus dubius Infesting Poa annua

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, K.; Alm, S. R.; Yeh, T. S.

    1996-01-01

    Avermectin B₁, isazofos, and fenamiphos were evaluated in greenhouse experiments for efficacy against two common turfgrass parasites, Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus dubius. Treatments in all experiments were arranged in a completely randomized design and replicated four times. In the first experiment, avermectin B₁ at rates of 0.2 and 0.4 kg a.i./ha and isazofos at rates of 2.3 and 23 kg a.i./ha significantly reduced populations of both species of parasitic nematodes compared to co...

  1. Phomopsis amaranthicola and Microsphaeropsis amaranthi symptoms on Amaranthus spp. under South Texas Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The candidate bioherbicides, Phomopsis amaranthicola and Microsphaeropsis amaranthi, were applied singly or in combination to Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri), smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Inoculation induced necrosis on 5 to 10% of leaves ...

  2. Uptake of 134Cs in the shoots of Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus cruentus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus cruentus responded differently to 134Cs and addition of (NH4)2SO4. - Amaranthus tricolor L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. were grown in pots containing 7.5 kg soils artificially contaminated with three levels of 134Cs activity: 5.55x105 Bq pot-1, 1.11x106 Bq pot-1, and 1.665x106 Bq pot-1, respectively. Forty-nine days after sowing and growth, plants were harvested. The plants growing in soils with increasing 134Cs concentrations showed increasing concentration of this radionuclide in shoots. There were significant differences in uptake of 134Cs applied to soils between and within the plant species, depending on the initial 134Cs concentrations. The plant species showed different responses to the addition of (NH4)2SO4 to soils. Biomass production of both species was reduced in pots treated with (NH4)2SO4. (NH4)2SO4 application decreased the uptake of 134Cs by A. tricolor but increased the accumulation of 134Cs by A. cruentus, showing that chemicals with the highest efficiency to enhance the desorption of 134Cs might play an unexpected role in transferring the radionuclide to shoots

  3. Uptake of {sup 134}Cs in the shoots of Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus cruentus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Shirong; Chen Ziyuan; Li Hongyan; Zheng Jiemin

    2003-10-01

    Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus cruentus responded differently to {sup 134}Cs and addition of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Amaranthus tricolor L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. were grown in pots containing 7.5 kg soils artificially contaminated with three levels of {sup 134}Cs activity: 5.55x10{sup 5} Bq pot{sup -1}, 1.11x10{sup 6} Bq pot{sup -1}, and 1.665x10{sup 6} Bq pot{sup -1}, respectively. Forty-nine days after sowing and growth, plants were harvested. The plants growing in soils with increasing {sup 134}Cs concentrations showed increasing concentration of this radionuclide in shoots. There were significant differences in uptake of {sup 134}Cs applied to soils between and within the plant species, depending on the initial {sup 134}Cs concentrations. The plant species showed different responses to the addition of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} to soils. Biomass production of both species was reduced in pots treated with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} application decreased the uptake of {sup 134}Cs by A. tricolor but increased the accumulation of {sup 134}Cs by A. cruentus, showing that chemicals with the highest efficiency to enhance the desorption of {sup 134}Cs might play an unexpected role in transferring the radionuclide to shoots.

  4. Nutritional study of raw and popped seed proteins of Amaranthus caudatus L and Amaranthus cruentus L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Alink, G.M.; Mossallem, A.S.; Shekib, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The nutritional value of raw and popped (similar to popcorn preparation) seed proteins of two amaranth species, Amaranthus caudatus L and A cruentus L, was investigated. After popping, the true protein content in A caudatus and A cruentus decreased by 9 and 13% respectively. Among the amino acids, t

  5. Interferência interespecífica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Interspecific interference between Amaranthus hybridus L. and Amaranthus viridis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a interferência interespecífica entre duas espécies de Amaranthus -- A. viridis e A. hybridus ¾, esta última com dois biótipos distintos (verde e roxo); ambas ocorriam associadas em dois locais. Nas populações de cada local foram feitos ensaios de substituição independentes, em vasos, nos quais observou-se que as populações que germinam mais prontamente são as que vencem em competição, ou seja, se estabelecem e produzem maior número de sementes. Houve ten...

  6. Effect of Amaranthus Pigments on Quality Characteristics of Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Cunliu; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Chen, Conggui

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the possibility of substituting Amaranthus pigments for nitrates in the of manufacture pork sausage. Five treatments of pork sausages (5% fat) with two levels of sodium nitrite (0 and 0.015%), or three levels (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) of pigments extracted from red Amaranthus were produced. The addition of Amaranthus pigments resulted in the significant increase of a* values, sensory color, flavor and overall acceptance scores, but the significa...

  7. Will the Amaranthus tuberculatus Resistance Mechanism to PPO-Inhibiting Herbicides Evolve in Other Amaranthus Species?

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick J Tranel; Riggins, Chance W.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to herbicides that inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) has been slow to evolve and, to date, is confirmed for only four weed species. Two of these species are members of the genus Amaranthus L. Previous research has demonstrated that PPO-inhibitor resistance in A. tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer, the first weed to have evolved this type of resistance, involves a unique codon deletion in the PPX2 gene. Our hypothesis is that A. tuberculatus may have been predisposed to evolving this ...

  8. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caud...

  9. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Millogo, Jeanne F.; Odile G. Nacoulma; Adama Hilou; Nana, Fernand W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus) and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus), two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE), methanolic (ME), and aqueous extracts (AE) from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, ...

  10. STUDIES ON GENETIC PARAMETERS IN GRAIN AMARANTHUS (AMARANTHUS HYPOCHONDRIACUS L. AS INFLUENCED BY PLANT DENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh K. Selvan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of genotypes with adequate combination of traits with high yield at the appropriate density level increased the productivity in amaranth. The study was therefore undertaken to estimate genetic attributes of different amaranth genotypes and to identify and select genotypes with adequate trait combination for improvement in yield. In grain amaranthus (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. ten genotypes were evaluated  for twelve characters under four plant density levels viz., very high (D1, high (D2, normal (D3 and low plant density (D4 to study the different selection parameters for grain yield and its eleven contributing morphological and quality traits. The study was conducted at College Orchard, Department of Horticulture, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru College of Agriculture and Research Institute, TNAU, Karaikal during rabi 2007. The results revealed that the GCV was maximum in high plant density when compared to very high, normal and low plant density levels for the characters viz., fresh weight of the inflorescence, length of the rachis per inflorescence, grain yield per plant and total carbohydrates. Leaf area at 50 per cent flowering, fresh weight of the inflorescence, number of secondary branches per inflorescence and total carbohydrates are recorded high magnitude of genetic variability in combination with high heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean in all the four plant density levels.

  11. Role of ethylene metabolism in Amaranthus retroflexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-Ethylene was metabolized by etiolated pigweed seedlings (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in the manner similar to that observed in other plants. The hormone was oxidized to 14CO2 and incorporated into 14-tissue components. Selected cyclic olefins with differing abilities to block ethylene action were used to determine if ethylene metabolism in pigweed is necessary for ethylene action. 2,5-Norbornadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene were effective inhibitors of ethylene action at 800 and 6400 μ1/1, respectively, in the gas phase, while 1,4-cyclohexadiene and cyclohexene were not. However, all four cyclic olefins inhibited the incorporation and conversion of 14C-ethylene to 14CO2 by 95% with I50 values below 100 μ1/1. The results indicate that total ethylene metabolism does not directly correlate with changes in ethylene action. Additionally, the fact that inhibition of ethylene metabolism by the cyclic olefins did not result in a corresponding increase in ethylene evolution, indicates that ethylene metabolism does not serve to significantly reduce endogenous ethylene levels

  12. Integral Chemical Analysis of the Amaranth (Amaranthus greggii S. Wats)

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo F. Covas; Gladis E. Scoles; Pattacini, Silvia H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain information on Amaranthus greggii S. Wats., related to its nutritional value, its agricultural application as leaf vegetable and for animal consumption. The following variables were analyzed: dampness, ashes, protein, mineral, ethereal extract (fat), brute fiber, oxalic acid, nitrates and carbohydrates.

  13. De nerfamarant (Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats.) in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, van, M.

    1982-01-01

    New data are given to amplify the tentative remarks on naturalization of Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats, in the Atlas of the Netherlands Flora (Van der Ham, 1980). Although merely of casual occurrence in some localities, the species is thought to be naturalized in the dunes, along the river Waal and in urban areas. It was first found in 1900.

  14. Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson, 1877 - laskavec žmindovitý

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil

    Praha : ČSOP, 2006 - (Mlíkovský, J.; Stýblo, P.), s. 43-43 ISBN 80-86770-17-6 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/6/37/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Amaranthus blitoides * distribution * invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. Amaranthus powellii S. Watson, 1875 - laskavec zelenoklasý

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil

    Praha : ČSOP, 2006 - (Mlíkovský, J.; Stýblo, P.), s. 44-45 ISBN 80-86770-17-6 Grant ostatní: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/6/37/04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Amaranthus powellii * distribution * invasibility Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Assessment of antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial activity of two vegetable species of Amaranthus in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mamun, M. Abdulla; Husna, Jamiatul; Khatun, Masuda; Hasan, Rubait; Kamruzzaman, M.; Hoque, K. M. F.; Reza, M. Abu; Ferdousi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) has previously been reported to possess different bioactive phytochemicals including phenols, tannins and flavonoids. The current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-proliferative and antimicrobial activity of stem and seed extracts of Amaranthus lividus (AL) and Amaranthus hybridus (AH), respectively. Methods Antioxidant activity of methanol extract was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay. Determination of lectin activity of Amaran...

  17. POTENSI BAYAM DURI (Amaranthus spinosus L.) SEBAGAI TANAMAN HIPERAKUMULATOR ION LOGAM TIMBAL (Pb2+)

    OpenAIRE

    Dwinata, Rina; La Nafie, Nursiah; Liong, Syarifuddin

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian potensi tanaman bayam duri (Amaranthus spinosus L.) sebagai tanaman akumulator ion logam timbal (Pb2+) telah dilakukan. Pada penelitian ini digunakan tanaman bayam duri (Amaranthus spinosus L.) untuk mengakumulasi ion logam berat Pb2+ dari tanah dengan menggunakan variasi waktu sehingga dapat diketahui pengaruh waktu terhadap penyerapan ion Pb2+. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan kemampuan tanaman bayam duri (Amaranthus spinosus L.) dalam mengakumulasi logam Pb da...

  18. Yield and Quality of Forage Sorghum and Different Amaranth Species (Amaranthus spp.) Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Pospišil; Milan Pospišil; Dubravko Maćešić; Zlatko Svečnjak

    2009-01-01

    The objective of investigations carried out on the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, in 2002, 2003 and 2004 was to compare green mass and dry matter yields of forage sorghum and amaranth, and the nutritional value of these two crops at several development stages. Investigations included two amaranth cultivars: ‘1008’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) and ‘Koniz’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. x Amaranthus hybridus L.), and forage sorghum, hybrid Grazer N (Sorghum bicolor...

  19. Nogmaals Amaranthus hybridus L. (Groene amarant) en A. bouchonii Thell. (Franse amarant)

    OpenAIRE

    Duistermaat, Leni (H.)

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 werd melding gemaakt van een nieuwe Amarant voor de Nederlandse flora: Amaranthus bouchonii (Franse amarant).¹ Vanwege de wijdere verspreiding van dit nummer van Gorteria naar alle actieve FLORON-waarnemers is het zinvol nog even in te gaan op de herkenning van deze nieuwe soort. Amaranthus bouchonii (Franse amarant) lijkt waarschijnlijk al vele jaren in Nederland aanwezig te zijn, maar is al die tijd onopgemerkt gebleven en waarschijnlijk voor Amaranthus hybridus (Groene amarant) aan...

  20. Neuroprotective effect of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor and their effects on gene expression of RAGE during oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornrit, W; Santiyanont, R

    2016-01-01

    Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used as food sources worldwide. Amaranthus leaves are rich in antioxidant compounds, which act as free radical scavengers. Oxidative stress caused by the aberrant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) represents an important mechanism for neuronal dysfunction and cell loss in different neurodegenerative disorders. The neuroprotective effects of antioxidant-containing plants have been extensively demonstrated in different models of neurotoxicity. However, few studies have investigated the antioxidant properties of Amaranthus extracts and their effect on the nervous system. In the present study, the leaves of Amaranthus lividus and Amaranthus tricolor were extracted using petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and methanol. Results indicated that antioxidant activities were the highest in methanol extracts from both kinds of Amaranthus leaves. In addition, oxidative stress was induced in human neuroblastoma cell lines (SH-SY5Y) by using H2O2. Intracellular oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and gene expression of RAGE were then determined. In vitro results demonstrated that pretreatment with A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts can significantly decrease cell toxicity and intracellular ROS production in SH-SY5Y cells. Interestingly, the extracts also significantly downregulated the expression of oxidative stress genes such as HMOX-1, RAGE, and RelA/ NF-κB. Our results suggested that Amaranthus leaves may be useful for reducing oxidative stress and may be beneficial for age-related diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27173239

  1. Will the Amaranthus tuberculatus Resistance Mechanism to PPO-Inhibiting Herbicides Evolve in Other Amaranthus Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chance W. Riggins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to herbicides that inhibit protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO has been slow to evolve and, to date, is confirmed for only four weed species. Two of these species are members of the genus Amaranthus L. Previous research has demonstrated that PPO-inhibitor resistance in A. tuberculatus (Moq. Sauer, the first weed to have evolved this type of resistance, involves a unique codon deletion in the PPX2 gene. Our hypothesis is that A. tuberculatus may have been predisposed to evolving this resistance mechanism due to the presence of a repetitive motif at the mutation site and that lack of this motif in other amaranth species is why PPO-inhibitor resistance has not become more common despite strong herbicide selection pressure. Here we investigate inter- and intraspecific variability of the PPX2 gene—specifically exon 9, which includes the mutation site—in ten amaranth species via sequencing and a PCR-RFLP assay. Few polymorphisms were observed in this region of the gene, and intraspecific variation was observed only in A. quitensis. However, sequencing revealed two distinct repeat patterns encompassing the mutation site. Most notably, A. palmeri S. Watson possesses the same repetitive motif found in A. tuberculatus. We thus predict that A. palmeri will evolve resistance to PPO inhibitors via the same PPX2 codon deletion that evolved in A. tuberculatus.

  2. Cytogenetic studies in four cultivated Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) species

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Bonasora; Lidia Poggio; Eduardo Greizerstein

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the chromosomes numbers were confirmed, 2n = 34 for Amaranthus cruentus Linnaeus, 1759, and 2n = 32 for A. hypochondriacus Linnaeus, 1753, A. mantegazzianus Passer, 1864, and A. caudatus Linnaeus, 1753. The distribution and variability of constitutive heterochromatin were detailed using DAPI-CMA3 banding technique. The position of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) was observed using Ag-NOR banding (active loci) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (rDNA-FISH) in the ...

  3. Comparison of Amaranthus cruentus and Zea mays L. stach characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljević Milica

    2006-01-01

    Starch is a very important, naturally renewable and relatively inexpensive raw material. Since the current industrial production establishes demands pertaining starch quality, a greater attention has been paid to development and improvement of existing technological procedures for starch isolated from different botanical sources. This paper describes the procedure for amaranth starch isolation. Starch was isolated from Amaranthus cruentus seeds by low alkaline steeping and protease treatments...

  4. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Antara

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins ...

  5. Rutin and total quercetin content in amaranth (Amaranthus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinova, Jana; Dadakova, Eva

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to confirm the presence of rutin, one of the most common quercetin glycosides, and other quercetin derivatives in plants of genus Amaranthus, to investigate the influence of the species and variety on rutin distribution in the plant and content changes during growing season. The rutin content was determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in individual plant parts at the beginning of the growth, at the flowering stage and at the maturity stage of five Amaranthus species. The total quercetin content was determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography too. The rutin content in amaranth ranged from 0.08 (in seeds) to 24.5 g/kg dry matter (in leaves). Comparison of the determined total quercetin content and the calculated content of quercetin released from rutin did not prove important presence of quercetin or other quercetin derivatives than rutin. Only amaranth leaves sampled at the maturity stage probably contained quercetin or quercetin derivatives. Significant differences in the rutin content were established among species and as well varieties. Amaranthus hybrid and A. cruentus were the best sources of rutin. PMID:19067170

  6. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caudatus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae .The Amaranthus plants are spread throughout the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and they are able to produce grains and leaves edible vegetables. Traditionally it has been used nutritionally for infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman, as it is comparable to the properties of milk; it was also used in countering heavy menstrual bleeding and vaginal discharge. It helps control dysentery and diarrhea. The roots were used to cure kidney stones, leaves used to cure cuts, leprosy, boils, burns, fever and decoction of the stem used in jaundice. The plant has cooling effect, laxative, diuretic, stomachic and antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic. The leaves, roots, bark, stem, seeds have medicinal value.

  7. Competição intra-específica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Intraspecific competition between Amaranthus hybridus L. and A. Viridis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-01-01

    Ensaios de competição intra-específica foram conduzidos sobre Amaranthus viridis L. e A. hybridus L., a última espécie com dois biótipos distintos, tipo verde e tipo roxo. Os três ensaios, conduzidos separadamente, utilizaram cinco densidades de sementes por vaso. Em termos gerais, as sementes germinadas prontamente foram a razão do surgimento da próxima geração, visto que estabeleceram plântulas rapidamente e estas venceram em competição. A partir de certo número de sementes semeadas (20 por...

  8. Assessing nitrogen supply potential and influence on growth of lettuce and amaranthus of different aged composts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the potential of different composts at different maturity stages to supply N and their effect on the vegetative growth of lettuce and Amaranthus. Five composts aged 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, were mixed with soil at the rate of 5%, 10% and 15% then seeded with lettuce and Amaranthus. Results showed that 1, 3 and 6 month aged composts had a negative effect on plant height of lettuce and Amaranthus as 1-15.78% and 4.78 to 29.45% decrease in plant height over control was recorded respectively. On the other hand 9 and 12 month aged composts had a significant positive effect on plant height of lettuce and Amaranthus where 43.48% and 34.8% increase over control was recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost respectively. A similar effect was observed on fresh biomass of both lettuce and Amaranthus where a 386% and 59.43% increase over control was recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost respectively. One and three month aged composts revealed a negative effect on N absorption by lettuce whereas 1, 3, 6 and 9 month aged composts had a negative effect on N absorption by Amaranthus. 30.39% and 21.48% increases over control in N absorption by lettuce and Amaranthus respectively were recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost. (author)

  9. Biological screening of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae) Abordagem biológica de Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jamileh Salar Amoli; Parisa Sadighara; Abbas Barin; Azam Yazdani; Saeed Satari

    2009-01-01

    Bioassays are required for the determination of the total toxicity of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae) or "redroot pigweed". Therefore, the plant extract has been tested for bioactivity in Artemia salina and cytotoxicity against bovine kidney cells. The LD50 values for Artemia salina were measured at 1700 ppm. The bovine kidney cells were exposed to various concentrations of the plant extracts (100 ppm-0.1 ppm). After treating with 100 and 0.1 ppm for 24 h, the cells viability were r...

  10. Genotypic Variations in Potassium Absorption and Utilization by Amaranthus spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The kinetics of K+ absorption and the utilization of both applied K and K in a calcareous alluvisol with low available K by different genotypes of grain amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), an ancient pseudo-cereal that produces a large biomass and a rich source of healthy nutrients and mineral elements, were studied by means of ion depletion technique and pot experiments. Grain amaranth had a high affinity for K+ uptake in comparison with corn and cotton. However, there were differences among Amaranthus spp. in K absorption and utilization. Some cultivars such as R104, CX-4, Du001, Hy015 and Hr029 which had a higher rate of K absorption and stronger affinity for K+ were typical varieties with high K-use efficiency (KUE). The results showed that high KUE cultivars grew quickly, possessed stronger ability to take up soil slowly available K and mineral K, and did not respond to K fertilization in the soil with low available K. Correspondingly, grain amaranth cultivars CX-77, Cr024, Vd001, Re003 and Sn003 were relatively low in KUE. Compared with high KUE cultivars, they took up more soil available K and both of their dry matter accumulation and K uptake responded to K applied significantly.

  11. EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Antara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physiochemical and phytochemical details about the plant Amaranthus spinosus. The physiochemical result obtained can be used for the identification of powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening, different types of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. Phytoconstituents like fixed oils, fats, carbohydrates, glycosides, gum and mucilage, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, amino acids and saponins showed positive tests in the extracts. Amaranthus spinosus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae. It is commonly known as Spiny amaranth or Pig weed and found throughout the world. In India it is found at roadsides, waste places and fields. The whole plant is used as a laxative. Traditionally it has been used as diuretic, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-snake venom, antileprotic, anti-gonorrheal, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic and immunomodulatory. The root paste of the plant is used to cure skin disease. A red pigment obtained from the plant is used for colouring foods and medicines.

  12. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  13. Final Critical Habitat for Amaranthus brownii from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Amaranthus brownii known historically from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands occur...

  14. Fingerprints for two grain amaranthus varieties KBGA1 and Suvarna using RAPD and legume based SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera N., Lohithaswa HC, Niranjana Murthy and Shailaja Hittalmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genotype specific fingerprints were detected in two grain amaranthus varieties KBGA1 and Suvarna using SSR and RAPD markers. In this study 41 Pigeon Pea SSR markers and 6 RAPD markers were used to generate DNA fingerprints for the two varieties of grain amaranthus. Analysis of polymorphic fragments generated from SSR and RAPD markers revealed the genetic variation between grain amaranthus varieties KBGA1 and Suvarna. The results indicate that DNA markers are appropriate tools for assessing genetic variation within and between the species of amaranthus and suggest that cultivated varieties of Amaranthus have significant genetic variation. The differences generated by the markers can be used as fingerprints for detecting the varieties. This is the first report of the utilization of legume microsatellite markers in Amaranthus.

  15. Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed): inability to cause renal toxicosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, G J; Misek, A R

    1985-01-01

    Rabbits fed Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed) did not develop lesions of renal toxicosis reported in other species fed this plant. In feeding trials using adult and weanling rabbits, A retroflexus did not produce indications of renal involvement in rabbits. In both trials, treated rabbits had increased weight loss when compared with controls; however, the weight loss was not attributed to a toxic effect, but to previously described decreased palatability of Amaranthus spp. PMID:3970436

  16. Interspecific hybridization transfers a previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism in Amaranthus species

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Todd A; Ward, Sarah M.; Bukun, Bekir; Preston, Christopher; Leach, Jan E.; Westra, Philip

    2011-01-01

    A previously unknown glyphosate resistance mechanism, amplification of the 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene, was recently reported in Amaranthus palmeri. This evolved mechanism could introgress to other weedy Amaranthus species through interspecific hybridization, representing an avenue for acquisition of a novel adaptive trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for this glyphosate resistance trait to transfer via pollen from A. palmeri to five other w...

  17. ANTI PEPTIC ULCER ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF Amaranthus spinosus L. IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    TANAYA GHOSH; PRASENJIT MITRA; DEBIPRASAD GHOSH; PRASANTA KUMAR MITRA

    2013-01-01

    Anti peptic ulcer activity of the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L., a plant of Eastern Himalaya, was studied in peptic ulcer models in rats. Gastric and duodenal ulcers were induced by ethanol and cysteamine respectively. Results were compared with omeprazole, a known drug for peptic ulcer. It was found out that the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L. exerted anti peptic ulcer activity against ethanol and cysteamine induced peptic ulcerations but the activity was less than that of omeprazole.

  18. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis leaves in experimental diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy Girija; Kuruba Lakshman; Nagaraj Pruthvi; Pulla Udaya Chandrika

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis (MEAV) in normal and Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. The anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Amaranthus viridis was evaluated by using normal and STZ induced diabetic rats at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by mouth per day for 21 days. Blood glucose levels and body weight was monitored at specific intervals, and differen...

  19. Competição intra-específica entre Amaranthus hybridus L. e Amaranthus viridis L. Intraspecific competition between Amaranthus hybridus L. and A. Viridis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios de competição intra-específica foram conduzidos sobre Amaranthus viridis L. e A. hybridus L., a última espécie com dois biótipos distintos, tipo verde e tipo roxo. Os três ensaios, conduzidos separadamente, utilizaram cinco densidades de sementes por vaso. Em termos gerais, as sementes germinadas prontamente foram a razão do surgimento da próxima geração, visto que estabeleceram plântulas rapidamente e estas venceram em competição. A partir de certo número de sementes semeadas (20 por vaso, o número de plantas adultas obtidas revelou-se independente do número de sementes semeadas, o que indica que a capacidade de suporte do ambiente, ao invés do tamanho do banco de sementes no solo, é a razão da regulação do tamanho populacional; a mesma observação aplica-se à produção de matéria seca. Sob condições de competição, as espécies A. hybridus - tipo verde e A. viridis produziram maior quantidade de biomassa para reprodução (22% a 34% do que A. hybridus - tipo roxo (15% a 18%. As primeiras, portanto, revelaram-se mais estrategistas-r que a última.Intraspecific competition trials were carried out for Amaranthus viridis L. and A. hybridus L., the latter species with two distinct biotypes, a green and a purple type. Three independent trials were made, with five different seed densities per pot for each species or biotype. In general terms, seeds that germinated promptly were responsible for the formation of the next generation, these early seedlings being more competitive. The carrying capacity was reached with 20 seeds per pot, no increase in the number of adult plants observed by increasing the seed density. This shows that the environmental suporting capacity, not the size of the seed bank in the soil, regulates the population size. A similar conclusion holds true for dry matter yield. Under competition, the species A. hybridus - green biotype and A. viridis produced larger biomass for reproductive

  20. Fingerprints for two grain amaranthus varieties KBGA1 and Suvarna using RAPD and legume based SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Meera N., Lohithaswa HC, Niranjana Murthy and Shailaja Hittalmani

    2014-01-01

    Genotype specific fingerprints were detected in two grain amaranthus varieties KBGA1 and Suvarna using SSR and RAPD markers. In this study 41 Pigeon Pea SSR markers and 6 RAPD markers were used to generate DNA fingerprints for the two varieties of grain amaranthus. Analysis of polymorphic fragments generated from SSR and RAPD markers revealed the genetic variation between grain amaranthus varieties KBGA1 and Suvarna. The results indicate that DNA markers are appropriate tools for assessing ge...

  1. Pengaruh Cahaya Matahari Terhadap Kadar Vitamin C Pada Tanaman Bayam (Amaranthus tricolor) Dengan Naungan Dan Tanpa Naungan

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Khairunnisyah

    2010-01-01

    Has conducted research on the effects of sunlight on vitamin C content in plants of spinach (Amaranthus tricolor). Vitamin C content determined by titration iodimetric method. From the research, the average levels of vitamin C in plants spinach (Amaranthus tricolor) are planted with shade is wearing 0.9944 mg/100 g of plant spinach and spinach (Amaranthus tricolor) are planted with no auspices of 0.7729 mg/100 g spinach green.

  2. Development and evaluation of mutant germplasm of Amaranthus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of Amaranthus tricolor were gamma irradiated and M1 seedlings planted in the field or in wooden boxes in greenhouses to screen for early drought tolerance. Drought tolerance was confirmed in similar subsequent screening steps, and seeds were collected from selected drought tolerant M2, M3, M4 and M5 plants. The mutation induction and selection procedure, constraints and characteristics of the mutated plants are described, with emphasis on selection for early drought tolerance. A. tricolor putative mutants showed strong drought avoidance and drought tolerance characteristics during severe moisture stress, and recovery after rewatering was within a few hours, with re-growth within a few days. This study is part of a project to develop tolerant genotypes of neglected vegetable crops that could contribute to food production in rural areas in Africa and the rest of the world. (author)

  3. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Fernand W; Hilou, Adama; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus) and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus), two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE), methanolic (ME), and aqueous extracts (AE) from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight) in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method) and iron reducing power (FRAP method) ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants. PMID:24281664

  4. Variation of Polyphenols and Betaines in Aerial Parts of Young, Field-Grown Amaranthus Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Stine Krogh; Pedersen, Hans Albert; Labouriau, Rodrigo;

    2011-01-01

    Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus mantegazzianus are commonly cultivated and the entire young fresh plants consumed as vegetables in regions of Africa and Asia. A. hybridus and A. mantegazzianus were cultivated at four sites in three climate regions of the world: Santa Rosa, Argentina; Lleida, S...

  5. Hematopoietic Effect of Amaranthus cruentus Extract on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Toxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Stuti; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Dubey, Nazneen

    2016-11-01

    Amaranthus cruentus (Amaranthaceae) is one of the popularly grown leafy vegetables in the Indian subcontinent. Leaves of the plant are rich in polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, and betalains. The plant also contains rich amounts of protein, calcium, iron, vitamins A, E, and C, and folic acid. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the antianemic effect of Amaranthus cruentus. Ethanol extract of Amaranthus cruentus was prepared. Acute oral toxicity of the extract was determined by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline 423. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were used in the present study. Phenylhydrazine (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection for three consecutive days) was used to induce anemia in rats. After anemia induction, animals were treated with standard preparation and extract. Amaranthus cruentus extract significantly aided in restoring the levels of red blood cells, white blood cells (WBCs), and hemoglobin. There was also an increase in hematocrit. Thus, it can be concluded that Amaranthus cruentus is a rich source of phytochemicals that are responsible for demonstrating hematopoietic effects. Isolation and structure elucidation of constituents, responsible for antianemic activity, is necessary to affirm the aforementioned effect. PMID:27027824

  6. Synthesis and quantitation of six phenolic amides in Amaranthus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hans A; Steffensen, Stine K; Christophersen, Carsten; Mortensen, Anne G; Jørgensen, Lise N; Niveyro, Selene; de Troiani, Rosa M; Rodríguez-Enríquez, Ricardo José; Barba-de la Rosa, Ana Paulina; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2010-05-26

    Cinnamoylphenethylamines are phenolic amides in which cinnamic acid provides the acid moiety and phenethylamine the amine moiety. Single ion monitoring (SIM) in LC-MS was performed on amaranth leaf extracts. Masses corresponding to sets of regioisomers, including previously reported compounds, were examined. Six peaks were detected and their corresponding standards synthesized for a quantitative LC-MS/MS investigation of cinnamoylphenethylamines in amaranth. Four cinnamoylphenethylamines (caffeoyltyramine, feruloyldopamine, sinapoyltyramine, and p-coumaroyltyramine) are reported in the Amaranthaceae for the first time; also, one rare compound, feruloyl-4-O-methyldopamine, appeared to be quite common in the genus Amaranthus. Feruloyldopamine showed moderate antifungal activity toward an isolate of Fusarium culmorum. Our LC-MS approach, in conjunction with the straightforward synthesis, provides a simple, reliable way of quantitatively investigating cinnamoylphenethylamines in plants. Concentrations of cinnamoylphenethylamines vary widely: feruloyltyramine was present in quantities of 5.26 to 114.31 microg/g and feruloyldopamine in quantities of 0.16 to 10.27 microg/g, depending on the plant sample. PMID:20438062

  7. Antithrombotic Effects of Amaranthus hypochondriacus Proteins in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbione, Ana Clara; Rinaldi, Gustavo; Añón, María Cristina; Scilingo, Adriana A

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of disability and premature death throughout the world. Diets with antithrombotic components offer a convenient and effective way of preventing and reducing CVD incidence. The aim of the present work was to assess in vivo and ex vivo effects of Amaranthus hypochondriacus proteins on platelet plug formation and coagulation cascade. Amaranth proteins were orally administrated to rats (AG, 8 animals) and bleeding time was determined showing no significant difference compared with control rats (CG, 7 animals). However, results show a strong tendency, suggesting that amaranth proteins are involved in the inhibition of thrombus formation. Non-anticoagulated blood extracted from animals was analyzed with the hemostatometer, where AG parameters obtained were twice the values showed by CG. The clotting tests, thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), presented a 17 and 14% clotting formation increase respectively when comparing AG with CG. The ex-vivo assays confirm the hypothesis inferring that amaranth proteins are a potential antithrombotic agent. PMID:26627100

  8. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg-1) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L-1) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations ≤ 90 mg kg-1 and ≤ 20 mg L-1 in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg-1 and 1006.95 μg pot-1 in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg-1 and 668.42 μg pot-1 in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  9. Antioxidant and antipyretic properties of methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosusleaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN; Devangam Sheshadri Shekar; Avalakondarayappa Arun Kumar; Bachappa Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Methanolic extract ofAmaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus) leaves was screened for antioxidant and antipyretic activities.Methods:Antioxidant activity was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile(DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging,2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS) radical scavenging assays and total phenolic content was also determined. Antipyretic activity of methanolic extract ofA. spinosus was measured by yeast induced pyrexia method at concentration of200 and400 mg/kg using paracetamol as standard drug.Results: Methanolic extract ofA. spinosusshowed potent antioxidant activity. The IC50 value was(87.50 ±3.52) μg/mL, (98.80±1.40) μg/mL,(106.25±0.20)μg/mL,(88.70±0.62) μg/mL and(147.50±2.61) μg/mL forDPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide andABTSradical scavenging activities. Methanolic extract ofA. spinosus showed significant(P<0.01)antipyretic activity.

  10. Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium in Amaranthus hybridus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xiaochuan [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Zhang Shirong, E-mail: rsz01@163.com [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Xu Xiaoxun; Li Ting [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China); Gong Guoshu [Agricultural College, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014 (China); Jia Yongxia; Li Yun; Deng Liangji [College of Resources and Environment, Sichuan Agricultural University, 46 Xinkang Road, Yaan 625014 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Because of its toxicity to animals and humans, cadmium (Cd) is an environmentally important heavy metal. Consequently, researchers are interested in using hyperaccumulator and accumulator plants to decontaminate Cd polluted soils. To investigate Cd tolerance, uptake and accumulation by Amaranthus hybridus L., Cd concentration gradients were applied to a soil (at rates of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 mg kg{sup -1}) and hydroponics solutions (at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 mg L{sup -1}) following a field survey. A. hybridus grew normally at added Cd concentrations {<=} 90 mg kg{sup -1} and {<=} 20 mg L{sup -1} in the soil culture and in the hydroponics solutions, respectively. In the hydroponics solutions, peroxidase activity showed a quadratic relationship and catalase activity changed irregularly with increasing Cd concentrations. The highest Cd concentration and accumulation in shoots were 241.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 1006.95 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the soil culture, and 354.56 mg kg{sup -1} and 668.42 {mu}g pot{sup -1} in the hydroponics experiment. Bioconcentration factors in soil culture and hydroponics solutions were 0.58-1.22 and 5.18-17.55, and translocation factors were 0.64-1.50 and 0.33-0.92, respectively. A. hybridus has potential phytoremediation capability in Cd polluted soils.

  11. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-li; ZHOU Wei

    2009-01-01

    The potential harm of soil cadmium pollution to ecological environment and human health has been increasingly widely concerned. Phytoremediation, as a kind of new and effective technology, has become an important method for cleaning up cadmium in contaminated sites. The amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) is widely distributed and has abundant varieties in China, its rapid growth and large biomass can be served as candidate for cadmium hyperaccumulators for phytoremediation. To obtain cadmium hyper-accumulator, Cd uptake in 23 amaranth euitivars from different ecological region was investigated under hydroponic culture condition. Meanwhile, pot experiment was established to probe phytoremediation potentiality of Cd contaminated soil by amaranth. Three treatment (Cd 5, 10, and 25 mg kg-1) were imposed to red soil, yellow brown soil, and vegetable soil. The results showed that under hydroponic culture with Cd 3 mg L-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 260 mg kg-1, and its total cadmium uptake was the highest among various cultivars. In the treatment Cd 25 mg kg-1, the cadmium concentration in the shoots of the cultivar Tianxingmi reached 212 mg kg-1, while bioaccumulation factor and shoot purification rate reached 8.50 and 3.8%, respectively. Further, the total biomass and shoot biomass were not decreased significantly under Cd exposure.These results suggested that eultivar Tianxingmi is a typical Cd hyperaccumulator, and can be expected to be used in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil.

  12. Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Małuszyńska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa Wild. and Amaranthus caudatus L., two plant species from South America, have small and numerous chromosomes. Looking for chromosome markers to distinguish pairs of homologous chromosomes double fluorescence staining, in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA and silver staining were applied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA has shown two sites of hybridization occurring on one pair of chromosomes in qunion genre (lines PQ-1, PQ-8. The number of RDA loci in Amaranth's caudate L. genre depends on the accession. Kiwicha 3 line has one pair of chromosomes with signals and Kiwicha Molinera cultivar two pairs. All observed rDNA loci were active. After chromomycin/DAPI staining in all cases, except Kiwicha Molinera cultivar, the CMA3 positive bands co-localized with signals of in situ hybridization with rDNA. In Kiwicha Molinera the number of CMA+ bands was higher than the number of 45S rDNA signals after FISH.

  13. Amaranthus bouchonii Thell. (Franse amarant) en A. hybridus L. (Groene amarant) in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Dirkse, Gerard M.; Barendse, Rutger; Abbink-Meijerink, Corry G.

    1998-01-01

    Amaranthus bouchonii Thell. was first recorded in the Netherlands in 1947. Since then it has been found in some ports and industrial areas, and in 1983 it naturalised along the river Waal. Its indehiscent fruits differ distinctly from those of A. hybridus L. which are dehiscent. Minor, but constant differences occur in the length of the tepals and the bracteoles. Amaranthus hybridus was first found in the Netherlands in 1829. Now it occurs in the southern part of the country as a rather commo...

  14. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

    OpenAIRE

    E.A Ferreira; S.O. Procópio; E.A.M. Silva; Silva, A. A.; R.J.N. Rufino

    2003-01-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de...

  15. Competition of Amaranthus species with dry bean plants Competição de espécies de Amaranthus com plantas de feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Weeds compete with field crops mainly for water, light and nutrients, and this competition is among other factors, a function of the occurrence of weed density, and the intrinsic competitive ability of each vegetal species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive ability of five weed species of the Amaranthus L. genus (A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus and A. viridis with dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. - 'Carioca Precoce' cultivar, using the replacement series design. A fixed total density equivalent to 80 plants m-2 was used in pots of 2.8 L capacity varying the proportions between the species in coexistence. To install the experiment, Amaranthus seedlings were transplanted to the pots at the phenological stage of completely expanded cotyledon leaves, while the crop was seeded. A factorial scheme (5 x 5 was used to carry out the experiment, consisting of five species of Amaranthus (pigweeds and five species proportions (beans:pigweeds: 4:0, 3:1, 2:2, 1:3 and 0:4. Randomized blocks with four replicates were installed and the experiment was repeated twice. Dry bean plants were more competitive than each one of the five Amaranthus species when the species proportion was equivalent. A. deflexus and A. viridis were the weed species which phenology were less affected by the competition with dry bean; the intraspecific competition was more damaging for dry bean plants, suggesting that the damages caused by the weeds are more related to high density of infestation than to the intrinsic competitive ability of the species.As plantas daninhas competem com as culturas por água, luz e nutrientes, sendo que esta competição é função da densidade de ocorrência das plantas daninhas, bem como da habilidade competitiva intrínseca de cada espécie. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a competitividade de cinco espécies de Amaranthus L. (A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus e A. viridis

  16. Mineral profile and variability in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sudhir; Bhargava, Atul; Chatterjee, A; Srivastava, J; Singh, N; Singh, S P

    2006-03-01

    Populations in North India depend on a number of vegetable crops of which Amaranthus spp. is the most important since it is the only crop available in the hot summer months when no other foliage crop grows in the field. However, reports on mineral composition of leaves are rare with absolutely no information on the qualitative improvement of foliage yield with special reference to minerals. Studies on correlation among the minerals as well as with yield and leaf attributes are also lacking. Hence, we report the proximate mineral composition in 30 strains of A. tricolor along with some suggestions for qualitative improvement of the foliage yield with reference to minerals. Our study showed that vegetable amaranth is a rich source of minerals like calcium (1.7 +/- 0.04 g/100 g), iron (1233.8 +/- 50.02 mg/kg), and zinc (791.7 +/- 28.98 mg/kg). The heritability estimates were high for most of the traits, with potassium and calcium showing high values, while comparatively lower values were recorded for magnesium and nickel. Nickel was the only mineral that showed positive correlation with all the minerals, as well as with leaf size and foliage yield. Zinc showed strong positive relationship with iron (0.66**) and manganese (0.74**), and was the only mineral exhibiting significant positive association with foliage yield. This study would be of use in enhancement of selected minerals in different regions according to local preferences and nutrient deficiency prevalent among the populations. PMID:16736385

  17. Competition of Amaranthus species with dry bean plants Competição de espécies de Amaranthus com plantas de feijoeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Saul Jorge Pinto de Carvalho; Pedro Jacob Christoffoleti

    2008-01-01

    Weeds compete with field crops mainly for water, light and nutrients, and this competition is among other factors, a function of the occurrence of weed density, and the intrinsic competitive ability of each vegetal species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the competitive ability of five weed species of the Amaranthus L. genus (A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus and A. viridis) with dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. - 'Carioca Precoce' cultivar), using th...

  18. Modulatory of effect of fresh Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus hybridus aqueous leaf extracts on detoxify enzymes and micronuclei formation after exposure to sodium arsenite

    OpenAIRE

    Adetutu Adewale; Awe Emmanuel Olorunju

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are the cheapest and most available sources of important proteins, minerals, vitamins, and essential amino protein. These vegetables are commonly used in Africa for the treatment of illness. This study evaluated the protective effects of Amaranthus caudatus and A. hybridus against sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in rats. The effects of sodium arsenite and/or the plant extracts were assessed using bone marrow micronucleus assay and by measuring the activities of tumour maker enzyme...

  19. A New Record for the Flora of Turkey Amaranthus spinosusL. (Amaranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    GÖNEN, Oya

    2000-01-01

    A new species, Amaranthus spinosus L. ( Amaranthaceae), is reported for the first time for the Flora of Turkey. The specimens were collected from a corn field around Kazıklıbucağı village of the Karataş district of Adana province (C5).

  20. Synthesis and quantitation of six phenolic amides in Amaranthus spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hans; Steffensen, Stine K; Christophersen, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    for the first time; also, one rare compound, feruloyl-4-O-methyldopamine, appeared to be quite common in the genus Amaranthus. Feruloyldopamine showed moderate antifungal activity toward an isolate of Fusarium culmorum. Our LC-MS approach, in conjunction with the straightforward synthesis, provides a...

  1. Comparative antipyretic activity of methanolic extracts of some species of Amaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar; Kuruba Lakshman; Jayaveera KN

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific validation for the antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis (Linn.), Amaranthus caudatus (Linn.) and Amaranthus spinosus (Linn.). Methods: The antipyretic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was investigated by yeast induced pyrexia in rats. Paracetamol (150 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug and control group received distilled water. Rectal temperatures of all the rats were recorded and compared at 19 h, immediately before extract or vehicle or paracetamol administration, and again at 1 h interval up to 24 h by thermal probe Eliab themistor thermometer. Results: At 400 mg/kg dose all the three methanolic extracts showed significant (P<0.01) reduction in yeast provoked elevated temperature as compared with that of standard drug paracetamol, whereas 200 mg/kg dose is less effective when compared with higher dose (P<0.05). Conclusions: The results show that methanol extract of three plants of Amaranthus possesses a significant antipyretic effect in maintaining reducing yeast-induced elevated body temperature in rats and their effects were comparable to that of the standard antipyretic drug paracetamol.

  2. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of methanol extracts of three plants of Amaranthus in triton-WR 1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K Girija; K Lakshman

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves of three plants of Amaranthus. Methods: In this study, the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of three plants of Amaranthus were evaluated by using normal and triton-WR 1339 induced rats at the dose of 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg p.o. The serum harvested was analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein. Results: It was found that all the three plants at 400 mg/kg dose showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic effect (P<0.01), whereas 300 mg/kg dose is less significant in the entire parameters used for evaluation of anti hyperlipidemic effect (P<0.05). Conclusions: Methanol extracts of Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus spinosus, Amaranthusviridis showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic effect and this study provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  3. Prosystemin identification in Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus x hybridus based on data mining and sequence alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Žiarovska Jana; Zahorsky Michal; Hricova Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Bioinformatic tool have became an inevitable part of molecular genetic research in many applications. In the present study, an in silico based approach was used to find conservative region of currently known prosystemin gene sequences and its PCR identification was performed in Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus x hybridus. Identification results were veryfied by direct sequencing of obtained amplicons. For both of analysed species, the pros...

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Anti Gastric Ulcer Activity of Root, Stem and Leaves of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanta Kumar Mitra

    2013-01-01

    Anti gastric ulcer activity of root, stem and leaves of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. was studied against ethanol, hydrochloric acid, indomethacin, stress and pyloric ligation induced gastric ulceration in albino rats. Omeprazole was used as standard anti gastric ulcer drug. Significant anti gastric ulcer activity was noted in root, stem and leaves of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. Root of the plant, however, showed highest activity which was comparable to that of omeprazole.

  5. Effect of Fertilizer Types on the Growth and Yield of Amaranthus caudatus in Ilorin, Southern Guinea, Savanna Zone of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olowoake Adebayo Abayomi; Ojo James Adebayo

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin, to evaluate the effect of compost, organomineral, and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of Amaranthus caudatus as well as its residual effects. Amaranthus was grown with compost Grade B (unamended compost), organomineral fertilizer Grade A (compost amended with mineral fertilizer), and NPK 15-15-15 and no fertilizer (control). All the treatments except control were applied...

  6. The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water

    OpenAIRE

    Chacha Joseph Sarima; Okong'o Eric Rang’ondi; Kimenyu Phylis Njeri; Oyaro Nathan Mayora

    2012-01-01

    Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize), Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew), Helianthus annuus (sunflower) and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus) for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. a...

  7. Anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of three species ofAmaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Girija K; Lakshman K; Udaya Chandrika; Sabhya Sachi Ghosh; Divya T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods:In this study, the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves of all three plants was evaluated by using normal andSTZ induced diabetic rats at a dose of200 mg/kg and400 mg/kg p.o.daily for21days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored at specific intervals, and different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were also assessed in the experimental animals. Histology of pancreas was performed.Results:It was found that all the three plants at 400 mg/kg dose showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity (P<0.01), while at200 mg/kg dose less significant anti-diabetic activity (P<0.05) was observed.Conclusions:Methanol extracts ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity, which provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  8. Amaranthus gengaticus : the suitable vegetable for radioactive nuclide absorption in soil (K-40 and Cs-137)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by vegetables in Khon Kaen Province. The suitable vegetable would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities (K-40 and Cs-137) in soil. Ten kinds of vegetables in the same market were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450οc. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect and analyze radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of vegetables. According to this study, amaranthus gengaticus, from ten vegetables, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The amaranthus gengaticus, aged 45-60 days, can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  9. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 μg/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 ± 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  10. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Sisodia, R.; Bhatia, A. I.

    2004-07-01

    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 {mu}g/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 {+-} 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  11. [STUDY OF LIPIDS IN SEEDS OF AMARANTHUS BLITOIDES S. WATS., GROWING IN GEORGIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B; Zurabashvili, D; Sulakvelidze, Ts; Malania, M; Turabelidze, D

    2015-06-01

    Lipid composition of the seeds of Amaranthus blitoides S. Wats. was analyzed. Identification of free fatty acids was carried out by HPLC analysis on the apparatus PTG-1 with the refractive detector R-401 and bondapak C18 reverse phase column. Eluent 1 - methanol-water (1:2); eluent 2 - tetrahydrofuran-acetonitrile-water (5:7:9)+0.1% acetic acid solution. The results were processed using the ОASIS-740 software. Free fatty acids: lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, arachidic, begenic and non-idenfied acid, presumably C24:0 were detected in the oil of Amaranthus seeds. Seven phospholipids: lisophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatilcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, N-acilisophosphatidylethanolamine, N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine and one non-identified compound were isolated and identified from the polar fraction. PMID:26087736

  12. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of Amaranthus viridis Linn. in different experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashok B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of the whole plant extract of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV was screened for antinociceptive activity using the acetic acid writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice and for antipyretic activity using the yeast-induced pyrexia method in rats, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Significant (p<0.01 dose-dependent antinociceptive and antipyretic properties were observed with 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  13. FLEA BEETLES (CHRYSOMELIDAE: ALTICINAE) SPECIES OCCURRING ON AMARANTHUS spp. IN SLOVAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cagán, L.; Vráblová, M; Tóth, P.

    2000-01-01

    ABSTRACT Occurrence and abundance of flea beetle species associated with Amaranthus spp. was studied in Slovakia with the aim to assess their potential as biological control agents. Insects were collected by sweeping/catching at 10 localities three times during the growing season. Together 13 species from the subfamily Alticinae were collected on A. retroflexus L. and A. caudatus L. plants by sweeping net. They were Altica oleracea (L.), Chaetocnema concinna (Marsh.), C. leavicolis Thoms., C....

  14. Antinociceptive and Antipyretic Activities of Amaranthus Viridis Linn in Different Experimental Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok; Lakshman, Kuruba; Jayaveera, Korala Konta Narsimha; Shekar, Devangam Sheshadri; Muragan, Chinna Swamy Vel; Manoj, Bachappa

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extract of whole plant of Amaranthus viridis L (MEAV), was screened for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid induced writhing test, hot plate test and tail immersion test in mice. In a similar way a screening exercise was carried out to determine the antipyretic potential of the extract using yeast induced pyrexia method in rats. Administration of the extracts was applied to both laboratory animals at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The results of th...

  15. Improvement of selected Amaranthus cultivars by means of mutation techniques and biotechnological approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pseudocereals like amaranth (Amaranthus ssp.), with high numbers of species exhibiting a high degree of variability, may enhance biodiversity within cereal food supply and deliver essential ingredients as grain and vegetable crops suitable for variable climatic conditions and also for people with allergies. Goals in improving cultivars of grain amaranth are similar to those in other grain crops - improvement and stabilization of the yield, increasing pest resistance, and improving harvestibility. The aim of this work was to combine radiation mutagenesis with biotechnology approaches to improve selected Amaranthus cultivars. For the experiments, two genotypes of Amaranthus sp. have been selected - Amaranthus cruentus 'Ficha' and hybrid 'K-433' which are characterized by a good seed quality and quantity, suitable for food production. The seeds were treated with 175 Gy. During the period of the project duration (10 December 1998-19 May 2003) the M1 - M5 generations were established. The phenological observations were performed during all vegetation periods and selection on desired traits was done. The negative plants were removed from the field. The weight of seeds per plant and weight of 1000 seeds (WTS) was recorded and statistically evaluated. Finally, as seed progeny of M4 generation, 48 samples of A. cruentus (irradiated) with WTS > 0.87g and 18 samples of K-433 (irradiated) with WTS > 0.75g were selected and used for establishment of M5 generation. In several samples of A. cruentus, the WTS reached 0.9-1.0g and in K-433 0.8-0.9g with an obvious tendency to stabilization of this trait when comparing them with the mother plants of the previous generation. (author)

  16. Analgesic activity of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaluddin Abu Taiab Md; Qais Nazmul; Howlader Md. Amran; Shams- Ud-Doha K. M; Sarker Apu Apurba; Ali Mirza Asif

    2011-01-01

    Successive petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were investigated for the analgesic activity. Experiments were carried out with these extracts for their peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick models in mice, respectively. In both the models, methanolic extract showed significant writhing inhibition as well as the elongation of tail-flick time at a dose of 500 ...

  17. Anatomical Response of Amaranthus hybridus Linn. as Influenced by Pharmaceutical Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Clement Oluseye OGUNKUNLE; Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN; Tinuola Abimbola ALUKO; Kolawole, Opeyemi Saheed; Paul Ojo FATOBA; Felix Ayotunde OLADELE

    2013-01-01

    Anatomical studies were carried out on the leaves, stems and roots of Amaranthus hybridus subjected to irrigation of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% concentrations of pharmaceutical effluents to identify the responses of this plant to the treatment. Leaf structures of A. hybridus showed no significant change due to the effect of the effluents. Significant reduction was observed in the trichome density and number of epidermal cells at the adaxial surface as from the 20% effluent concentration upward (p

  18. Anatomical and Histological Study of Stem, Root and Leaf of the Medicinal Plant Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Manik Baral*

    2013-01-01

    The transverse section of stem, root and leaf of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. was done with the help of sharp blade and double staining. The anatomy of stem and roots showed cellular differentiation. Both the stem and root showed secondary growth. In stem, the vascular bundle pattern is conjoint, collateral and endarch type; whereas root showed conjoint, collateral and exarch type of vascular bundle. Leaf anatomy showed kranz mesophyll. Endodermal wall is covered with casperian strips. The stoma...

  19. Yield and Quality of Forage Sorghum and Different Amaranth Species (Amaranthus spp. Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pospišil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigations carried out on the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, in 2002, 2003 and 2004 was to compare green mass and dry matter yields of forage sorghum and amaranth, and the nutritional value of these two crops at several development stages. Investigations included two amaranth cultivars: ‘1008’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and ‘Koniz’ (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. x Amaranthus hybridus L., and forage sorghum, hybrid Grazer N (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense. In all three trial years, forage sorghum gave the highest green mass and dry matter yield at the tasselling stage. In 2003, also amaranth, cultivar 1008, gave a high green mass yield at the flowering, which was in the same rank as forage sorghum. Decline of biomass quality was observed at later development stages due to a decrease in the concentration of crude and digestible proteins and an increase in NDF (neutral detergent fibre and ADF (acid detergent fibre concentrations. High quality of amaranth biomass was determined. Higher concentrations of crude and digestible proteins were found in amaranth aboveground biomass compared to forage sorghum while sorghum had a higher NDF concentration.

  20. Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  1. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mier Barona Carmen Elena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.

  2. Molecular characterization of Chilli leaf curl virus and satellite molecules associated with leaf curl disease of Amaranthus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, B; Kumar, R Vinoth; Chakraborty, S

    2014-04-01

    Amaranthus, collectively known as amaranth, is an annual or short-lived perennial plant used as leafy vegetables, cereals and for ornamental purposes in many countries including India. During 2011, leaf samples of Amaranthus plants displaying leaf curling, leaf distortion, leaf crinkling and yellow leaf margins were collected from Banswara district, Rajasthan in India. Full-length clones of a monopartite begomovirus, a betasatellite and an alphasatellite were characterized. The complete nucleotide sequence of the isolated begomovirus features as a typical 'Old World' begomovirus with the highest nucleotide per cent identity with Chilli leaf curl virus and hence, considered as an isolate of Chilli leaf curl virus. The complete nucleotide sequences of betasatellite and alphasatellite possess maximum nucleotide identity with Tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand betasatellite and Chilli leaf curl alphasatellite, respectively. This is the first report of the association of chilli-infecting begomovirus and satellite molecules infecting a new host, Amaranthus, causing leaf curl disease. PMID:24368759

  3. Partial Replacement of soybean cake with amaranthus spinosus leaf meal in the diet of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study, designed to assess the potentials of oven dried Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal as partial replacement for soybean cake in the diet of Nile Tilapia, revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) in feed and protein intake. Fish fed on Amaranthus spinosus leaf meal diets had significant (P<0.05) higher survival percentage, while that on soybean cake meal (control diet) recorded significant (P<0.05) better weight gain, average daily rate of growth, efficient feed and protein utilization as well as average final weight. (author)

  4. Modulatory of effect of fresh Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus hybridus aqueous leaf extracts on detoxify enzymes and micronuclei formation after exposure to sodium arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Adetutu; Olorunju, Awe Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    Vegetables are the cheapest and most available sources of important proteins, minerals, vitamins, and essential amino protein. These vegetables are commonly used in Africa for the treatment of illness. This study evaluated the protective effects of Amaranthus caudatus and A. hybridus against sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in rats. The effects of sodium arsenite and/or the plant extracts were assessed using bone marrow micronucleus assay and by measuring the activities of tumour maker enzymes such as gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in white albino Wister rats. The study showed that sodium arsenite significantly (P rats and were reverted back to near normal levels in rats pretreated with the plant extracts. A. caudatus and A. hybridus showed significant role in protecting the detoxifying enzymes; also, A. caudatus has a more protective effect on reducing the micronuclei formation when compared with A. hybridus. This study suggests that A. caudatus and A. hybridus possess anticarcinogenic effect. PMID:24174825

  5. Assessment of changes in photosystem II structure and function as affected by water deficit in Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, Retha M; Krüger, Gert H J

    2011-09-01

    The present study describes the behaviour of photosystem II (PSII) in Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Amaranthus hybridus under water stress conditions, assessed by the analyses of the polyphasic rise in chlorophyll a fluorescence (O-J-I-P). We determined the adaptive behaviour in relation to the regulation of the different functional and structural parameters of PSII, which was a direct and rapid response due to changes in soil water status indicated by a decrease in leaf water potential and relative water content. It allows for the identification of specific key or limiting chlorophyll fluorescence parameters which could be used to identify traits conveying tolerance. For the above partial processes of PSII function studied, it seems that A. hybridus remained the more stable upon water stress (after 17 days of withholding water), concerning the specific energy fluxes of absorption/reaction centre (ABS/RC) apparent (antenna size) and trapping/reaction centre (TR/RC) (maximum trapping flux), as well as the density of the reaction centres/cross section (RC/CS) and the phenomenological trapping flux/cross section (TR(o)/CS). It was clear that amaranth adjusts the non-photochemical (k(n)) deactivation constant of PSII and to a less extend also the photochemical (k(p)) deactivation constant by means of photoregulation, which forms the basis of the quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Although drought stress caused the deactivation of RCs leading to a decrease in the density of active RCs, the plants compensated by increasing the efficiency of the conversion of trapped excitation energy to electron transport beyond Q(A) (efficiency of exciton trapping/reaction centre: ET(o)/TR(o)). Subsequent damage to PSII might be the reason for the slow, or lack of recovery, for most of the parameters measured. PMID:21696974

  6. Effect of water-soluble oxalates in Amaranthus spp. leaves on the absorption of milk calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingle, U; Ramasastri, B V

    1978-11-01

    1. Amaranthus spp. leaves contain high amounts of oxalates which affect the calcium absorption. This study was done to determine whether removal of the water-soluble oxalates from the leaves by cooking would reduce this deleterious effect. 2. Experimental work done with two types of basal diets on six adult male subjects has shown that the milk Ca absorption was low when leaves cooked without draining away the water were included in the diet. However when the soluble oxalates were removed by throwing away the water after cooking the leaves, the absorption of milk Ca was unaffected. PMID:568935

  7. Analgesic activity of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Abu Taiab Md

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Successive petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were investigated for the analgesic activity. Experiments were carried out with these extracts for their peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick models in mice, respectively. In both the models, methanolic extract showed significant writhing inhibition as well as the elongation of tail-flick time at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. A linear dose response relationship was also observed.

  8. Comparative Analysis of the Anatomy of Two Populations of Red-Root Amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sava Vrbničanin; Lidija Stefanović; Dragana Božić; Marija Sarić; Radenko Radošević

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of stems and leaves of two populations of the weed species Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red-root amaranth) (pop. AMARE1 having green stems covered in sparse hairs and pop. AMARE2 with green but notably dense stem hairs) was analysed in order better to understand the uptake and translocation of herbicides that could be indicative of the species’ evolving resistance to herbicides. Samples of the two populations (AMARE1 and AMARE2) were collected from arable land of the Institute of Ma...

  9. Comparative analysis of the anatomy of two populations of red-root amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vrbničanin Sava; Stefanović Lidija; Božić Dragana; Sarić Marija; Radošević Radenko

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of stems and leaves of two populations of the weed species Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red-root amaranth) (pop. AMARE1 having green stems covered in sparse hairs and pop. AMARE2 with green but notably dense stem hairs) was analysed in order better to understand the uptake and translocation of herbicides that could be indicative of the species' evolving resistance to herbicides. Samples of the two populations (AMARE1 and AMARE2) were collected from arable land of the In...

  10. A Quarantine Harmful Plant: Amaranthus rudis%一种检疫性有害植物——西部苋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞赟; 于文涛; 郭琼霞; 沈建国; 李敏; 连德福

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented the geographical distribution, morphological characteristics, biological characteristics, harmful-ness , transmission route and prevention method of quarantine harmful plant Amaranthus rudis, and detailedly described the morphological differences between Amaranthus rudis and its close species Amaranthus viridis.%阐述了检疫性有害植物西部苋的地理分布、形态特征、生物学特性、危害性、传播途径及防治方法,详细描述了西部苋与其近似种糙果苋在形态特征上的区别.

  11. ANTI PEPTIC ULCER ACTTIVITY OF AN ISOLATED COMPOUND (AS–1) FROM THE LEAVES OF Amaranthus spinosus L.

    OpenAIRE

    DEBIPRASAD GHOSH; PRASENJIT MITRA; TANAYA GHOSH; PRASANTA KUMAR MITRA

    2013-01-01

    An active compound (AS-1) was isolated from the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L. and its antiulcer activity was studied against ethanol induced gastric ulcer and cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer in albino rats. Significant antiulcer activity of AS-1 was observed in all the models. AS-1 thus provides a scientific rationale for the use as antiulcer drug.

  12. FLEA BEETLES (CHRYSOMELIDAE: ALTICINAE SPECIES OCCURRING ON AMARANTHUS spp. IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cagán

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Occurrence and abundance of flea beetle species associated with Amaranthus spp. was studied in Slovakia with the aim to assess their potential as biological control agents. Insects were collected by sweeping/catching at 10 localities three times during the growing season. Together 13 species from the subfamily Alticinae were collected on A. retroflexus L. and A. caudatus L. plants by sweeping net. They were Altica oleracea (L., Chaetocnema concinna (Marsh., C. leavicolis Thoms., C. tibialis (Ill., Longitarsus longipennis Kutsch., L. melanocephalus Deg., L. nasturtii (F., L. pellucidus Foudras, Phyllotreta atra (F., P. cruciferae (Goeze, P. nigripes (F., P. vittula (Redt. and Psylliodes chrysocephala (L.. C. tibialis contained 41.17- 97.45 percent of all flea beetles population and it was found at all observed localities. It comprised 94.85-99.74 percent of flea beetles on cultivated A. caudatus. Another two Chaetocnema species, C. concinna and C. leavicollis did not overcome more than one percent of C. tibialis population. P. vittula was present at each locality. All the other species occurred on Amaranthus plants were probably concomitant. Species composition of subfamily Alticinae on cultivated species A. caudatus did not differ significantly from those on A. retroflexus.

  13. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

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    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  14. Detection of the genetic variability of amaranthus by rapd and issr markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAPD and ISSR markers were used to analyse intra and inter-specific variability of 16 A. caudatus, 18 A. cruentus and 21 A. hypochondriacus accessions. The potential of both approaches was evaluated using three random and three microsatellite primers amplifying in total of 1126 (RAPD), respectively 1013 (ISSR) scorable fragments. Similarity values among accessions of three Amaranthus species ranged from 0.00 to 1.00 in both types of markers. Based on the intra-specific variability the polymorphism percentage varied from 70 to 100% (RAPD) or from 90 to 100% (ISSR) respectively. Resolving power (Rp) of ISSR primers have been higher (5.28 in average) in comparison to RAPD primers (4.84 in average). Percentage of distinguished accessions by ISSR and RAPD primers ranged from 29 to 89% (based on primer's type) and from 19 to 72%, respectively. Cluster analysis based on RAPD and ISSR data has shown the individual species separation except of three accessions. Two of A. caudatus genotypes originated from India clustered with A. hypochondriacus accessions and one of A. hypochondriacus genotype originated from Nepal clustered with A. cruentus accessions. This study has demonstrated, that a single primer marker systems as RAPD and ISSR are able to generate a sufficient level of informative characters for intra and inter-specific analysis of Amaranthus genus. (author)

  15. Radical Scavenging Activities of Tannin Extracted from Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyeon-Ju; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Yoon, Jin A; Lee, Kwon-Jai; Song, Byeong Chun; An, Jeung Hee

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the bioactivity of tannin from amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) extracts. The antioxidant activities of the extracts from amaranth leaves, flowers, and seeds were evaluated. Tannin from leaves of amaranth has been evaluated for superoxide scavenging activity by using DPPH and ABTS(+) analysis, reducing power, protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in L-132 and BNL-CL2 cells, and inhibition of superoxide radical effects on HL-60 cells. At a concentration of 100 μg/ml, tannin showed protective effects and restored cell survival to 69.2% and 41.8% for L-132 and BNL-CL2 cells, respectively. Furthermore, at the same concentration, tannin inhibited 41% of the activity of the superoxide radical on HL-60 cells and 43.4% of the increase in nitric oxide levels in RAW 264.7 cells. The expression levels of the antioxidant-associated protein SOD-1 were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells treated with tannin from amaranth leaves. These results suggest that tannin from the leaves of Amaranthus caudatus L. is a promising source of antioxidant component that can be used as a food preservative or nutraceutical. PMID:25639718

  16. A novel antiproliferative and antifungal lectin from Amaranthus viridis Linn seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navjot; Dhuna, Vikram; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Agrewala, Javed N; Singh, Jatinder

    2006-01-01

    A lectin from the seeds of Amaranthus viridis Linn has been purified by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-linked amino activated silica. Amaranthus viridis lectin (AVL) has a native molecular mass of 67 kDa. It is a homodimer composed of two 36.6 kDa subunits. The lectin gave a single band in non-denaturing PAGE at pH 4.5 and pH 8.3 and a single peak on HPLC size exclusion and cation exchange columns. The purified lectin was specific for both T-antigen and N-acetyl-D-lactosamine, markers for various carcinomas, in addition to N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, asialofetuin and fetuin. This lectin reacted strongly with red blood cells (RBCs) from human ABO blood groups and rat. It also reacted with rabbit, sheep, goat and guinea pig RBCs. The lectin is a glycoprotein having no metal ion requirement for its activity. Denaturing agents such as urea, thiourea and guanidine-HCl had no effect on its activity when treated for 15 minutes. AVL showed significant antiproliferative activity towards HB98 and P388D1 murine cancer cell lines. It also exerted antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cincerea and Fusarium oxysporum but not against Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma reesei, Alternaria solani and Fusarium graminearum. PMID:17100645

  17. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  18. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  19. Modulatory of effect of fresh Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus hybridus aqueous leaf extracts on detoxify enzymes and micronuclei formation after exposure to sodium arsenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetutu Adewale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables are the cheapest and most available sources of important proteins, minerals, vitamins, and essential amino protein. These vegetables are commonly used in Africa for the treatment of illness. This study evaluated the protective effects of Amaranthus caudatus and A. hybridus against sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in rats. The effects of sodium arsenite and/or the plant extracts were assessed using bone marrow micronucleus assay and by measuring the activities of tumour maker enzymes such as gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in white albino Wister rats. The study showed that sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05 induced the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and the activities of ALP and GGT when compared with control. The levels of white blood cell, hemoglobin, and lymphocyte count were altered in sodium arsenite fed rats and were reverted back to near normal levels in rats pretreated with the plant extracts. A. caudatus and A. hybridus showed significant role in protecting the detoxifying enzymes; also, A. caudatus has a more protective effect on reducing the micronuclei formation when compared with A. hybridus. This study suggests that A. caudatus and A. hybridus possess anticarcinogenic effect.

  20. An outbreak of perirenal oedema syndrome in cattle associated with ingestion of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, R D; Hill, J H; Theron, G

    2007-09-01

    Forty seven of 150, 15-month-old long weaners died of an acute renal disease syndrome following introduction into an old maize field with a heavy stand of Amaranthus spp. The clinical syndrome was characterised by sudden onset neurological disease with ataxia and recumbency. Subcutaneous oedema, ascites and perirenal oedema with urine odour were the major gross necropsy findings. Renal histopathology revealed marked coagulative renal tubular necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules with intertubular haemorrhage. Acute renal failure and perirenal oedema has been described in cattle, pigs, horses and sheep associated with the ingestion of A. hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. This perirenal oedema syndrome has been widely reported in the Americas, while in South Africa intoxication with the amaranths has only previously been associated with nitrate and possibly oxalate poisoning in cattle. PMID:18237043

  1. Biochemical characterization of a trypanosomatid isolated from the plant Amaranthus retroflexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, C; Fernández-Ramos, C; Entrala, E; Quesada, J M; Sánchez-Moreno, M

    2000-01-01

    A protozoan flagelate has recently been isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus. This plant grows near economically important crops in southeastern Spain, which are known to be parasitized by Phytomonas spp. The present study focuses on the characterization of the energy metabolism of this new isolate. These flagellates utilize glucose efficiently as their primary energy source, although they are unable to completely degrade it. They excrete ethanol, acetate, glycine, and succinate in lower amount, as well as ammonium. The presence of glycosomes was indicated by the early enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, one enzyme of the glycerol pathway (glycerol kinase), and malate dehydrogenase. No evidence of a fully functional citric-acid cycle was found. In the absence of catalase activity, these flagellates showed significant superoxide dismutase activity located in the glycosomal and cytosolic fractions. These trypanosomes, despite being morphologically and metabolically similar to other Phytomonas isolated from the same area, showed significant differences, suggesting that they are phylogenetically different species. PMID:10998214

  2. Biochemical characterization of a trypanosomatid isolated from the plant Amaranthus retroflexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Marín

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A protozoan flagelate has recently been isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus. This plant grows near economically important crops in southeastern Spain, which are known to be parasitized by Phytomonas spp. The present study focuses on the characterization of the energy metabolism of this new isolate. These flagellates utilize glucose efficiently as their primary energy source, although they are unable to completely degrade it. They excrete ethanol, acetate, glycine, and succinate in lower amount, as well as ammonium. The presence of glycosomes was indicated by the early enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, one enzyme of the glycerol pathway (glycerol kinase, and malate dehydrogenase. No evidence of a fully functional citric-acid cycle was found. In the absence of catalase activity, these flagellates showed significant superoxide dismutase activity located in the glycosomal and cytosolic fractions. These trypanosomes, despite being morphologically and metabolically similar to other Phytomonas isolated from the same area, showed significant differences, suggesting that they are phylogenetically different species.

  3. Thermal properties of complexes of amaranthus starch with selected metal salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal cations (Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), and Ni(II)) are ligated by amaranthus starch as proven by EPR spectra and conductivity measurements. The hydroxyl groups of starch are the coordination sites. The acetate and nitrate anions of the metal salts behave as bidentate ligands and reside in the inner coordination sphere of resulting polycenter Werner complexes. There is only a weak degeneration of orbitals of central metal ions caused by a shift of unpaired spin from the central atom to the ligand. The ligation of the central metal atoms resulted in a variation of the thermal stability, pathway, and rate of thermal decomposition of starch as proven by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements

  4. Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) Extract in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective efficacy of aqueous extract of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaves against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. The oral administration of Rajgira extract at 800 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 consecutive days before whole body exposure to radiation was found to be effective with the LD50/30 values of 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for irradiation alone and Rajgira+irradiation group, respectively, giving a dose reduction factor of 1.36. This effect of Rajgira accompanied the increased endogenous spleen colonies and the spleen weight without any side effect or toxicity, as well as the modulation of the radiation-induced decrease of reduced glutathione and the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation assessed in the liver and the blood. (author)

  5. Characterization of the Amaranthus palmeri Physiological Response to Glyphosate in Susceptible and Resistant Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Escalada, Manuel; Gil-Monreal, Miriam; Zabalza, Ana; Royuela, Mercedes

    2016-01-13

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in the aromatic amino acid (AAA) biosynthetic pathway. The physiologies of an Amaranthus palmeri population exhibiting resistance to glyphosate by EPSPS gene amplification (NC-R) and a susceptible population (NC-S) were compared. The EPSPS copy number of NC-R plants was 47.5-fold the copy number of NC-S plants. Although the amounts of EPSPS protein and activity were higher in NC-R plants than in NC-S plants, the AAA concentrations were similar. The increases in total free amino acid and in AAA contents induced by glyphosate were more evident in NC-S plants. In both populations, the EPSPS protein increased after glyphosate exposure, suggesting regulation of gene expression. EPSPS activity seems tightly controlled in vivo. Carbohydrate accumulation and a slight induction of ethanol fermentation were detected in both populations. PMID:26652930

  6. Thermal properties of complexes of amaranthus starch with selected metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, Wojciech; Tomasik, Piotr

    2003-07-28

    Metal cations (Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), and Ni(II)) are ligated by amaranthus starch as proven by EPR spectra and conductivity measurements. The hydroxyl groups of starch are the coordination sites. The acetate and nitrate anions of the metal salts behave as bidentate ligands and reside in the inner coordination sphere of resulting polycenter Werner complexes. There is only a weak degeneration of orbitals of central metal ions caused by a shift of unpaired spin from the central atom to the ligand. The ligation of the central metal atoms resulted in a variation of the thermal stability, pathway, and rate of thermal decomposition of starch as proven by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements.

  7. Molecular basis of resistance to imazethapyr in redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) populations from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyi; Huang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Chaoxian; Huang, Hongjuan; Wei, Shouhui; Chen, Jingchao; Wang, Xu

    2015-10-01

    Three putative resistant Amaranthus retroflexus L. populations were collected in Heilongjiang province in China. Whole plant bioassays indicated high resistance (RI > 10) to imazethapyr in the three populations. In vitro acetolactate synthase (ALS) assays revealed that ALS from populations H3, H17 and H39 was less sensitive to imazethapyr inhibition compared to the susceptible population H76. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (I50) values for H3, H17 and H39 were 14.83, 15.27 and 268 times greater, respectively, than that of the susceptible population H76. Three nucleotide mutations resulted in three known resistance-endowing amino acid substitutions, Ala-205-Val, Trp-574-Leu and Ser-653-Thr in the three resistant populations respectively. Therefore, ALS target-site mutations in resistant A. retroflexus could be responsible for imazethapyr resistance. PMID:26453229

  8. Anatomical and Histological Study of Stem, Root and Leaf of the Medicinal Plant Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Manik Baral*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The transverse section of stem, root and leaf of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. was done with the help of sharp blade and double staining. The anatomy of stem and roots showed cellular differentiation. Both the stem and root showed secondary growth. In stem, the vascular bundle pattern is conjoint, collateral and endarch type; whereas root showed conjoint, collateral and exarch type of vascular bundle. Leaf anatomy showed kranz mesophyll. Endodermal wall is covered with casperian strips. The stomata (S occurred on both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. The stomata were found to be anomocytic type. Powdered drug, treated with different chemicals and its extracts with different solvent showed colour changes when illuminated with UV light.

  9. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras foliares potenciais à penetração de herbicidas observadas nas plantas daninhas A. deflexus e A. spinosus foram, respectivamente, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e da cutícula das duas faces. Já em relação a A. tenella, grande espessura da cutícula das duas faces, elevado teor de cera epicuticular e alta densidade tricomática foram os principais obstáculos potenciais detectados. E. heterophylla apresentou como possíveis principais barreiras foliares à penetração de agroquímicos o alto teor de cera epicuticular, a elevada densidade de laticíferos e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla, widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes to herbicide penetration, and to other substances used for leaf spraying. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples approximately 1cm², were removed from the medium portion of the leaves, from each

  10. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  11. Productivity and food value of Amaranthus cruentus under non-lethal salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, Bruce A.; MacElroy, Robert D.

    Stress effects from the accumulation of metal salts may pose a problem for plants in closed biological systems such as spacecraft. This work examined the effects of salinity on growth, photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the crop plant, Amaranthus. Plants were germinated and grown in modified Hoagland's solution with NaCl concentrations of 0 to 1.0%. Plants received salt treatments at various times in development to assess effects on particular life history phases. For Amaranthus cruentus, germination, vegetative growth, flowering, seed development and yield were normal at salinities from 0 to 0.2%. Inhibition of these phases increased from 0.2 to 0.4% salinity and was total above 0.5%. 1.0% salinity was lethal to all developmental phases. Onset of growth phases were not affected by salinity. Plants could not be adapted by gradually increasing salinity over days or weeks. Water uptake increased, while photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreased with increasing salinity on a dry weight basis during vegetative growth. Respiration was not affected by salinity. After flowering, respiration and photosynthesis decreased markedly, such that 1.0% NaCl inhibited photosynthesis completely. Protein levels were unchanged with increasing salinity. Leaf starch levels were lower at salinities of 0.5% and above, while stem starch levels were not affected by these salinities. The evidence supports salt inhibition arising from changes in primary biochemical processes rather than from effects on water relations. While not addressing the toxic effects of specific ions, it suggests that moderate salinity per se need not be a problem in space systems.

  12. Field evaluation of Amaranthus species for seed and biomass yields in southern Italy

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    Salvatore Pizza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a crop with a potentially increasing cultivation area. Little information is available on amaranth cultivation in Mediterranean environments and in southern Italy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic traits and assess the grain and biomass yield responses of 11 genotypes belonging to 5 Amaranthus species, provided from the USDA-ARS, National Plant Germplasm System. There was wide diversity in agronomic traits among Amaranthus species and among genotypes within the same species. The accessions belonging to A. cruentus had the shortest growing cycle followed by A. hybridus, A. hypochondriacus, A. caudatus and, finally, A. hybrid that had the longest growing season. The A. cruentus accessions reached maturity more quickly than the other species. The total above-ground dry matter ranged from 15 to 23 t ha-1 with A. cruentus, A. hypochondriacus, and A. hybridus being the most productive. The stem plus branches dry matter was well correlated to the plant height (r2 = 0.75**. The tested amaranth genotypes showed appreciable biomass production that can thus be regarded as an interesting secondary product after seed harvesting. Grain yield and components varied among species and accessions. A. hypochondriacus showed the highest yield per plant (55.4 g followed by five accessions belonging to A. cruentus and A. hybridus (26.4 g on average. Considering together their shorter growing season and their higher grain production, the five accessions belonging to A. cruentus species appear to be better adapted to Mediterranean environments and southern Italy as compared to the other species.

  13. The potential of Zea mays, Commelina bengelensis, Helianthus annuus and Amaranthus hybridus for phytoremediation of waste water

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    Chacha Joseph Sarima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Waste-water from domestic use and from industrial effluent burden the water systems with high levels of heavy metal hence there is need to remove these heavy metals so that the waste water can be recycled for use for household or irrigation. The present study has screened Zea mays (maize, Commelina bengelensis (wondering jew, Helianthus annuus (sunflower and Amaranthus hybridus (amaranthus for their ability to bioaccumulate Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn metals. The results obtained show that the H. annuus and C. bengelensis plant have promising potential for removal of Pb, Cu and Cd from wastewater though their ability to remove Zn from contaminated solutions is not much different from that of Z. mays and A. hybridus.

  14. Anti-Nutrient, Phytochemical and Antiradical Evaluation of 10 Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) Varieties Before and After Flowering

    OpenAIRE

    W. A. Nyonje; A. O. Makokha; M. O. Abukutsa-Onyango

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) vegetable is widely consumed in Kenya and contributes to the alleviation of food insecurity. It is reported to have bioactive components such as antioxidants that help in protecting the body from long-term degenerative diseases. However, amaranth vegetable has also been shown to contain some anti-nutrients such as tannins, phytic acid, oxalates and nitrates which may bind nutrients and reduce their bioavailability in the body. There are many amaranth varieties and t...

  15. Effects of selected pesticides and adjuvants on germination and vegetative growth of Phomopsis amaranthicola, a biocontrol agent for Amaranthus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyss, G. S.; Charudattan, R.; Rosskopf, E.; Littell, R.

    2004-01-01

    Summary: Phomopsis amaranthicola, a bioherbicide agent for Amaranthus spp., was tested in vitro for its compatibility with commercial formulations of 16 adjuvants, 24 herbicides, nine fungicides and four insecticides at 2X, 1X (highest labelled product dose rate), 0.75X, 0.5X and 0.25X concentrations. These chemicals were tested for their effects on spore germination. Selected herbicides and fungicides at 1X were also tested for their influence on colony growth and sporulation. All tested ...

  16. A rapid and reliable PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker for the identification of Amaranthus cruentus species

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young-Jun; Nishikawa, Tomotaro; Matsushima, Kenichi; Minami, Mineo; Nemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and reliable PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker was developed to identify the Amaranthus cruentus species by comparing sequences of the starch branching enzyme (SBE) locus among the three cultivated grain amaranths. We determined the partial SBE genomic sequence in 72 accessions collected from diverse locations around the world by direct sequence analysis. Then, we aligned the gene sequences and searched for restriction enzyme cleavage sites specific to each sp...

  17. Radioprotective effect of amaranthus paniculatus (Linn.) on the phosphatases activity in the liver of Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of Amaranthus, one of commonly used medicinal plants, which may be good sources of potent but non-toxic radioprotectors. The aim of present investigation is to develop promising rich source of antioxidant from the cost effective point of view being well within their reach, especially to the people in adverse and hazardous circumstances

  18. Interactions between Cs, Sr, and other nutrients and trace element accumulation in Amaranthus shoot in response to variety effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qingnan; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Sha, Zhimin; Osaki, Mitsuru; Shinano, Takuro

    2015-03-01

    Aiming at clarifying the interactions between Cs, Sr, and other mineral elements in the genus Amaranthus, this study adopted 33 different varieties of Amaranthus and investigated the concentrations of 23 mineral elements in shoots grown in the fields of Iino in Fukushima prefecture. Significant varietal effects were detected for all elements except Se, and degree of interspecies variation was highly element dependent. Among 23 elements, amaranths were less sensitive to the accumulation of Cs and Sr than most other mineral elements to the species level. There are six elements showing significant correlation with Cs, positive correlations between As, Rb, Al, Fe, Ni, and Cs, and negative correlation between Ba and Cs. Significant correlations between Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, B, Ba, Cd, and Sr were detected, and all of the coefficients were positive. Cs and Sr did not present significant correlation, but they were both significantly correlated with Ba. By principal component analysis (PCA), the first and second principal components (PC1 and PC2) accounted for 23.2 and 20.3% of the total variance and associated with Cs and Sr, respectively. Both of the two species took up more Cs by promoting the influx of elements positively correlated with Cs into shoot, but at the same time, Amaranthus hypochondriacus (L.) Mapes 847 decreased the K and Ba uptake and Amaranthus powellii (S. Wats) subsp. Powellii inhibited the accumulation of Rb, Sr, and significantly correlated elements of Sr in shoot. This study is the first to pave the way for comprehension on ionome in amaranth shoot at the variety level. The results of this research provide the ionomic basis for implementing countermeasures in the field against the translocation of Cs (and potentially Sr) toward crops and food. PMID:25660261

  19. Insect occurrence and losses due to phytophagous species in the amaranth Amaranthus hypocondriacus L. crop in Puebla, Mexico,

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón-García, A.; Pérez Torres, B. C.; Damián-Huato, M. A.; Huerta-Lara, M.; Sáenz de Cabezón, F. J.; Pérez-Moreno, I.; Marco, V; Lopez Olguín, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    A field survey for insects associated with amaranth Amaranthus hypocondriacus L. (Amaranthaceae) was conducted in the semiarid Region Mixteca of Puebla State in Mexico. Also, the losses to the crop caused by the phytophagous species were assessed. Samples were collected every fifteen days during one year in five plots to obtain a representation of the phytophagous and beneficial insects, and of the percentages of plants infested with the principal phytophagous insects. The species that were o...

  20. Allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) on germination & growth of cucumber, alfalfa, common bean and bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh BAKHSHAYESHAN-AGDAM; Seyed Yahya SALEHI-LISAR; Motafakkerazad, Rouhollah; Amirhosein TALEBPOUR; Nader FARSAD

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is one of the important interactions among plants. Weeds can reduce crops productions in farms by their allelopathic effects. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) is the most common weed in Iran with well-known allelopathic potential. In the presented experiment, the allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed on germination and growth of four important crop species including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), common bean (Phaseulus vulgaris L.) and br...

  1. Crescimento e desenvolvimento do amaranto (amaranthus spp. sob estresse salino e cobertura morta Growth and development of amaranth (amaranthus ssp under saline stress and mulch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeson Mateus Alves da Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigar cultivares tolerantes à salinidade da água de irrigação e do solo é uma necessidade nas áreas agrícolas abastecidas por água de qualidade insatisfatória. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a influência da salinidade da água de irrigação e da cobertura morta do solo no desenvolvimento vegetativo do amaranto (Amaranthus spp. cultivado em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi realizado entre março e maio de 2006, utilizando-se colunas de PVC com 30 kg de um solo de textura franco-siltosa. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos, sendo testado o uso ou não de cobertura morta e quatro níveis de salinidade na água de irrigação (0,147; 1,5; 3,0; e 4,5 dS m-1, a 25 °C. A cobertura morta antecipou o início da floração e aumentou a área foliar, a altura de planta, o diâmetro de caule e a produção de biomassa. O aumento na concentração salina não ocasionou redução nos teores de Ca e Mg, no tecido foliar. O aumento na concentração de sais na água de irrigação retardou a floração do amaranto, porém a espécie apresentou tolerância até o limite de 4,5 dS m-1, pois a produção de biomassa seca não foi afetada por esse aumento de salinidade.In agricultural areas irrigated with water of unsatisfactory quality, plants that are tolerant to the salinity in water and soil are needed. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the salinity of irrigation water and soil mulch on the vegetative development of amaranth (Amaranthus spp in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out from March to May 2006 in PVC columns with 30 kg of soil with silt loam texture. The non-use of mulch and four salinity levels of the irrigation water (0.147; 1.5; 3.0; 4.5 dS m-1, to 25 °C was evaluated in a completely randomized design with eight treatments and four replications. Mulch reduced the beginning of flowering and increased the leaf area, plant

  2. Intoxicação natural por Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae em ovinos no Sudeste do Brasil Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae poisoning in sheep in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available No Estado do Rio de Janeiro descreve-se um surto de intoxicação aguda por Amaranthus spinosus em 12 ovelhas, caracterizado clinicamente por hálito urêmico, ausência de movimentos ruminais, dispnéia e aborto. Os animais foram colocados em um pasto adubado e severamente invadido pela planta. A necropsia realizada em seis ovinos revelou rins pálidos, em geral, com estriações esbranquiçadas desde o córtex até a medula; em um animal verificaram-se diversos infartos sob forma de figuras geométricas no córtex. O fígado apresentava-se mais claro, por vezes com lobulação evidente. Em um animal verificaram-se áreas pálidas no miocárdio. Os pulmões congestos, algo mais pesados e consistentes, por vezes evidenciavam áreas de hepatização vermelha e cinzenta na porção cranial. Petéquias, equimoses e sufusões foram observadas em serosas, na mucosa do tubo digestório e em outros órgãos. Ao exame histológico verificaram-se acentuada nefrose tubular tóxica, focos aleatórios de necrose coagulativa no fígado, áreas de necrose coagulativa no miocárdio e pneumonia intersticial aguda incipiente acompanhada por áreas de broncopneumonia. Na literatura não foram encontradas referências à intoxicação natural por A. spinosus em ovinos. Tentativas de reprodução da intoxicação com a planta em ovinos, não foram bem sucedidas, provavelmente porque, nos experimentos, não se utilizou A. spinosus proveniente de áreas adubadas. A necrose do miocárdio encontrada, ao exame microscópico do coração de diversos animais foi atribuída a hipercalemia secundária à insuficiência renal, ao passo que a gênese dos infartos renais verificados em um ovino permanece obscura.An outbreak of acute poisoning caused by Amaranthus spinosus is described in ewes of southern Brazil. The clinical signs were characterized by uremic halitosis, loss of ruminal motility, dispnoea and abortion. Grossly in the kidneys there were pale red spots, white

  3. Cloning and Expression of Ama r 1, as a Novel Allergen of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Morakabati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitisation to Amaranthus retroflexus pollen is very common in tropical and subtropical countries. In this study we aimed to produce a recombinant allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this weed. To predict cross-reactivity of this allergen (Ama r 1 with other members of the Ole e 1-like protein family, the nucleotide sequence homology of the Ama r 1 was investigated. The expression of Ama r 1 in Escherichia coli was performed by using a pET-21b(+ vector. The IgE-binding potential of recombinant Ama r 1 (rAma r 1 was evaluated by immunodetection and inhibition assays using 26 patients’ sera sensitised to A. retroflexus pollen. The coding sequence of the Ama r 1 cDNA indicated an open reading frame of 507 bp encoding for 168 amino acid residues which belonged to the Ole e 1-like protein family. Of the 26 serum samples, 10 (38.46% had significant specific IgE levels for rAma r 1. Immunodetection and inhibition assays revealed that the purified rAma r 1 might be the same as that in the crude extract. Ama r 1, the second allergen from the A. retroflexus pollen, was identified as a member of the family of Ole e 1-like protein.

  4. Major peptides from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) protein inhibit HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  5. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) Improvement by Mutation Induction in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase food availability and household incomes of families in the Andean region of Peru, a mutation induction method was applied to improve barley (Hordeum vulgare) and kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) cultivars. Barley cultivar Buenavista was treated with 200 and 300Gy inducing different kinds of mutations. Twenty promising mutant lines were selected and have been evaluated at the national trials. From them Mbv-Earlier, from 300Gy dose was selected and released in 2006 as a new cultivar denominated Centenario. This cultivar has a high yield potential (5,552 kg/ha), resistance to stripe rust (P. striiformis f sp hordei) and better food quality than the parental cultivar. Kiwicha traditional cultivar Seleccion Ancash treated with 400Gy , identified a higher yield mutant denominated Centenario Cultivar. At farmer location in the coast the yield has a variation of 3,500 to 5,500 kg/ha and in the highland from 2,500 to 3,700 kg/ha. The better yield potential, tolerance to Sclerotinia sp, color and size of its grains have contributed in the preference of Centenario over other commercial cultivars. (author)

  6. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aparecida Manólio Soares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC, and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect.

  7. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, M.Z.I. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Khan, Mubarak A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: makhan.inst@gmail.com; Khan, Ruhul A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2009-01-15

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by {gamma}-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 3} orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  8. Cloning and Expression of Ama r 1, as a Novel Allergen of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakabati, Payam; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Khosravi, Gholam Reza; Akbari, Bahareh; Dousti, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Sensitisation to Amaranthus retroflexus pollen is very common in tropical and subtropical countries. In this study we aimed to produce a recombinant allergenic Ole e 1-like protein from the pollen of this weed. To predict cross-reactivity of this allergen (Ama r 1) with other members of the Ole e 1-like protein family, the nucleotide sequence homology of the Ama r 1 was investigated. The expression of Ama r 1 in Escherichia coli was performed by using a pET-21b(+) vector. The IgE-binding potential of recombinant Ama r 1 (rAma r 1) was evaluated by immunodetection and inhibition assays using 26 patients' sera sensitised to A. retroflexus pollen. The coding sequence of the Ama r 1 cDNA indicated an open reading frame of 507 bp encoding for 168 amino acid residues which belonged to the Ole e 1-like protein family. Of the 26 serum samples, 10 (38.46%) had significant specific IgE levels for rAma r 1. Immunodetection and inhibition assays revealed that the purified rAma r 1 might be the same as that in the crude extract. Ama r 1, the second allergen from the A. retroflexus pollen, was identified as a member of the family of Ole e 1-like protein. PMID:26925110

  9. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by γ-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 104 to 103 orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production

  10. Carbon tetrachloride-induced kidney damage and protective effect of Amaranthus lividus L. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Ozden, Tugba; Can, Ayse; Karatug, Ayse; Pala-Kara, Zeliha; Okyar, Alper; Bolkent, Sehnaz

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of water extract of Amaranthus lividus L. (A. lividus) (Amaranthaceae) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced toxicity in kidneys of rats. For this purpose, male albino Wistar rats were pretreated with A. lividus (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) daily for 9 days and a single dose of CCl4 was applied intraperitoneally (50% in olive oil; 1.5 mL/kg b.w.) on the 10th day. All rats were killed 24 h after CCl4 administration, and kidneys were excised and used for determination of histopathological and biochemical parameters. CCl4 administration caused a remarkable increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione levels and glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity when compared to the control group. Pretreatment with A. lividus (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) significantly prevented the elevation in LPO level and MPO activity as well as protected the decrease in CAT activity but did not alter other biochemical parameters. The protective effect of A. lividus was further evident through the decreased histological alterations in kidneys. In conclusion, this study has indicated that A. lividus possesses protective and antioxidant effects against CCl4-induced oxidative kidney damage. PMID:25415872

  11. Target-site basis for resistance to imazethapyr in redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Jinyi; Zhang, Chaoxian; Huang, Hongjuan; Wei, Shouhui; Zhou, Xinxin; Chen, Jingchao; Wang, Xu

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to confirm imazethapyr resistance in redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and study the target-site based mechanism for the resistance. Whole-plant response experiments revealed that the resistant (R) population exhibited 19.16 fold resistance to imazethapyr compared with the susceptible (S) population. In vitro ALS activity assay demonstrated that the imazethapyr I50 value of the R population was 21.33 times greater than that of the S population. However, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that there is no difference in ALS gene expression between the R and S populations. Sequence analysis revealed an Asp-376-Glu substitution in ALS in the R population. In order to verify that the imazethapyr resistance was conferred by Asp-376-Glu mutation, the ALS-R and ALS-S genes were fused to the CaMV 35S promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis respectively. The expression of ALS-R in transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited 13.79 fold resistance to imazethapyr compared to ALS-S transgenic Arabidopsis. PMID:26969434

  12. The transfer parameter of environmental 85Sr radiostrontium trough soil - spinach plant (Amaranthus sp.) Pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide transfer from soil to crop is a pathway of the radionuclide to contaminate human body. Soil plant interaction can be examined by several parameter such as transfer factor (Ft) and transfer rate coefficient (k12). An experiment about radiostrontium transfer from soil to crop had been conducted to determine the plant ability in radiostrontium accumulation for human internal doses assessment. Crop represented by commonly consumed by people, spinach (Amaranthus sp.), was cultivated in soil contaminated with 85Sr for about 2 months. Every five days the soil and plants were sampled, dried, and the 85Sr activities were measured using gamma spectrometer. The measurement results showed that the spinach crop were able to absorb and accumulate 85Sr. The Ft value obtained from this experiment is about 3, whereas the k12 values are 9.99 x 10-3 day-1 and 9.98 x 10-3 day-1, for 041 days, respectively. The 85Sr soil - plant transfer parameter is expected to be used for radiological impact assessment in the case of Sr radionuclide contamination in soil. The obtained Ft and k12 can be use for predicting Sr radioactivities in edible parts of plants in certain period after soil contamination with radiostrontium. (author)

  13. Expression and properties of the glyoxysomal and cytosolic forms of isocitrate lyase in Amaranthus caudatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eprintsev, Alexander T; Fedorin, Dmitry N; Salnikov, Alexei V; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2015-06-01

    Isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) catalyzes the reversible conversion of d-isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. It is usually associated with the glyoxylate cycle in glyoxysomes, although the non-glyoxysomal form has been reported and its relation to interconversion of organic acids outside the glyoxylate cycle suggested. We investigated the expression of two isocitrate lyase genes and activities of the glyoxysomal (ICL1) and cytosolic (ICL2) forms of isocitrate lyase in amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) seedlings. Both forms were separated and purified. The cytosolic form had a low optimum pH (6.5) and was activated by Mn(2+) ions, while Mg(2+) was ineffective, and had a lower affinity to d, l-isocitrate (Km 63 μM) as compared to the glyoxysomal form (optimum pH 7.5, K(m) 45 μM), which was activated by Mg(2+). The highest ICL1 activity was observed on the 3rd day of germination; then the activity and expression of the corresponding gene decreased, while the activity of ICL2 and gene expression increased to the 7th day of germination and then remained at the same level. It is concluded that the function of ICL1 is related to the glyoxylate cycle while ICL2 functions independently from the glyoxylate cycle and interconverts organic acids in the cytosol. PMID:25955696

  14. Enhancement of cadmium uptake by Amaranthus caudatus, an ornamental plant, using tea saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Seydahmet

    2016-06-01

    In this study, tea saponin (TS) was extracted from tea camellia seed by microwave-assisted extraction. The potential of TS was compared with ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA), which is used as a common chemical agent to enhance uptake of cadmium (Cd) by Amaranthus caudatus, an ornamental plant in the natural vegetation of Turkey under pot conditions. The enrichment coefficient (EC) and translocation factor (TF) values were calculated to evaluate the removal efficiency of the TS and EDTA. The results showed that an increase in both TS and EDTA concentration significantly increased Cd uptake by A. caudatus, accumulating Cd in different parts of the plant. Higher EC and TF values obtained from stems, leaves, and inflorescences of A. caudatus showed that this plant might be cultivated and used as a hyperaccumulator in the uptake of Cd from the Cd contaminated soils. Thus, the present technique can efficiently reduce the metal load in the food chain; hence, it could be applied in catchment areas of urban cities where Cd contamination has become an unavoidable factor. PMID:27142816

  15. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth ( Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, M. Z. I.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Khan, Ruhul A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by γ-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10 4 to 10 3 orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  16. Variability, heritability and genetic association in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolorL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanta Sarker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty three vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. genotypes selected from different eco-geographic regions of Bangladesh were evaluated during 3 years (2012-2014 for genetic variability, heritability and genetic association among mineral elements and quality and agronomic traits in randomized complete block design (RCBD with five replications. The analysis showed that vegetable amaranth is a rich source of K, Ca, Mg, proteins and dietary fibre with average values among the 43 genotypes (1.014%, 2.476%, 2.984, 1.258% and 7.81%, respectively. Six genotypes (VA13, VA14, VA16, VA18, VA26, VA27 showed a biological yield >2000 g/m2 and high mineral, protein and dietary fibre contents; eleven genotypes had high amount of minerals, protein and dietary fibre with above average biological yield; nine genotypes had below average biological yield but were rich in minerals, protein and dietary fibre. Biological yield exhibited a strong positive correlation with leaf area, shoot weight, shoot/root weight and stem base diameter. Insignificant genotypic correlation was observed among mineral, quality and agronomic traits, except K vs. Mg, protein vs. dietary fibre and stem base diameter vs. Ca. Some of these genotypes can be used for improvement of vegetable amaranth regarding mineral, protein and dietary fibre content without compromising yield loss.

  17. Leaf cuticle variations in amaranthus spinousus as indicators of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation of the leaf epidermal characteristics of Amaranthus spinosus from polluted and non-polluted populations revealed that the stomatal pores of the leaves of the plants of the polluted areas were closed whereas those of the non-polluted areas were open. Mean length x mean width of stomatal pores on the upper leaf surface were 0.86 micro x 0.43 micro and 1.23 micro x 0.45 micro on the lower leaf surface of the non polluted microhabitats. Also, the leaves of the polluted population were smaller than those of the non-polluted population. The average leaf area of the plants of the Polluted population was 7.64 cm/sub -2/ against 12.13 cm/sub 2/ of the plants of the non-polluted areas. The results were attributed to the combined effects of air pollutant that predominated roadsides from where the samples were taken. Thus it is inferred that this plant could serve as bio-indicator of air pollution. (author)

  18. Anatomical Response of Amaranthus hybridus Linn. as Influenced by Pharmaceutical Effluents

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    Clement Oluseye OGUNKUNLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical studies were carried out on the leaves, stems and roots of Amaranthus hybridus subjected to irrigation of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% concentrations of pharmaceutical effluents to identify the responses of this plant to the treatment. Leaf structures of A. hybridus showed no significant change due to the effect of the effluents. Significant reduction was observed in the trichome density and number of epidermal cells at the adaxial surface as from the 20% effluent concentration upward (pA. hybridus with varied modifications from 20% effluent concentration upward at both leaf surfaces. Vessels and phloem cells in the stems and roots of A. hybridus were seriously affected by the effluent. Vessel walls were thickened and their width reduced significantly as from 20% effluent concentration upward while phloem cells experienced progressive loss of structural integrity from the same concentration (20% upward in both the stems and roots. This study showed that the pharmaceutical effluents have toxic effect on A. hybridus and the effects were more pronounced as from 20% concentration.

  19. Disease-tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants expressing Ah-AMP gene of Amaranthus hypochondriacus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An antimicrobial peptide gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Ah-AMP, was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis results revealed that this gene is 261 bp in length encoding a precursor polypeptide of 87 amino acid residues. Ah-AMP gene was inserted in the binary vector pBin438 to construct a plant expression vector pBinAH916. Leave explants of Nicotiana tabacum var. SR1 were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the above expression vector. Results from PCR, Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that the Ah-AMP gene had been integrated into the tobacco genome and was transcribed at mRNA level. Two bacterial-resistant transgenic plants were selected by inoculating the plants with Pseudomonas solanacearum and statistic analysis of two T1 lines showed that the resistance increased by 2.24 and 1.62 grade and the disease index decreased by 49.6% and 37.3% respectively when compared with the non-transformed control plants SR1. The results from challenging the plants with inoculums of Phytophthora parasitica showed that the symptom development was delayed and disease index was significantly reduced. These results suggest that Ah-AMP gene may be a potentially valuable gene for genetic engineering of plant for disease-resistance.

  20. Effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on lipid metabolism of patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nilda Chávez-Jáuregui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on plasma lipids in moderate hypercholesterolemic patients. Twenty-two subjects [30-65 years old, 11 males, with total cholesterol (TC > 240 mg.dL-1, low-density cholesterol (LDL-c 160-190 mg.dL-1 and plasma triglycerides (TG < 400 mg.dL-1] were randomized in a double blind clinical trial to receive an amaranth snack (50 g/day or equivalent corn snack (placebo for 2 months. There were no differences between amaranth and placebo on TC and LDL-c, and TG respectively: -8.4 and -5.7% (p = 0.17; -12.3 and -9.7% (p = 0.41 and -0.6 and -7.3% (p = 0.47. However, amaranth snacks significantly reduced high-density cholesterol (HDL-c: -15.2 vs. -4% (p = 0.03. In conclusion, the intake of 50 g of extruded amaranth daily during 60 days did not significantly reduce LDL-c in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects; furthermore there was a significant reduction in HDL-c. Studies with greater number of subjects and greater quantity of this food are necessary to test the effects of amaranth on lipid metabolism in humans.

  1. Sodium stimulates growth of Amaranthus tricolor L. plants through enhanced nitrate assimilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Na application on the capacity of No3- assimilation were studied in Na-deficient Amaranthus tricolor L. cv Tricolor plants. On day 30 after germination, Na-deficient A. tricolor plants received either 0.5 millimolar NaCl or KCl. The level of nitrate reductase activity doubled within 24 hours by the addition of Na and the enhanced level was maintained thereafter. When the plants were exposed to 2 millimolar 15NO3-, total 15N taken up by the plants was greater in the Na-treated plants than in the K-treated plants within 24 hours of the Na treatment. Incorporation of 15N into the 80% ethanol-insoluble nitrogen fraction of the Na-treated plants in the light period was about 260% of those of the K-treated plants indicating greater capacity of NO3- assimilation in the Na-treated plants. From these results, it was demonstrated that Na application to the Na-deficient A. tricolor plants promoted NO3- reduction and its subsequent assimilation into protein, resulting in growth enhancement

  2. An antimicrobial peptide Ar-AMP from amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Aleksey; Anisimova, Veronika; Nikonorova, Aleksandra; Babakov, Aleksey; Krause, Eberhardt; Bienert, Mikhael; Grishin, Eugene; Egorov, Tsezi

    2005-10-01

    A 30-residue antimicrobial peptide Ar-AMP was isolated from the seeds of amaranth Amaranthus retroflexus L. essentially by a single step procedure using reversed-phase HPLC, and its in vitro biological activities were studied. The complete amino acid sequence of Ar-AMP was determined by Edman degradation in combination with mass spectrometric methods. In addition, the cDNA encoding Ar-AMP was obtained and sequenced. The cDNA encodes a precursor protein consisting of the N-terminal putative signal sequence of 25 amino acids, a mature peptide of 30 amino acids and a 34-residue long C-terminal region cleaved during post-translational processing. According to sequence similarity the Ar-AMP belongs to the hevein-like family of antimicrobial peptides with six cysteine residues. In spite of the fact that seeds were collected in 1967 and lost their germination capacity, Ar-AMP retained its biological activities. It effectively inhibited the growth of different fungi tested: Fusarium culmorium (Smith) Sacc., Helminthosporium sativum Pammel., King et Bakke, Alternaria consortiale Fr., and Botrytis cinerea Pers., caused morphological changes in Rhizoctonia solani Kühn at micromolar concentrations and protected barley seedlings from H. sativum infection. PMID:16126239

  3. Growth and Yield Performance of Amaranthus cruentus Influenced by Planting Density and Poultry Manure Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolawole Edomwonyi LAW-OGBOMO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to determine the influence of planting density and poultry manure application on the growth and yield of Amaranthus cruentus (Linnaeus. This study was conducted at the teaching and research farms of Benson Idahosa University, Benin City using two planting densities (111111 and 62500 plants per hectare and three levels of poultry manure (0.0, 6.0 and 12.0 t ha-1 in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement fitted into randomized complete block design with three replicates. Results showed that planting density and poultry manure significantly (P = 0.05 affected the number of leaves, leaf area index, total dry matter and the crop growth rate positively in favour of increasing planting density and poultry manure application rate leading to higher herbage yield. The results showed that the combination of 62500 plants per hectare and application of poultry manure of 12 t ha-1 provided the highest yield (15.74 t ha-1.

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Anatomy of Two Populations of Red-Root Amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Vrbničanin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of stems and leaves of two populations of the weed species Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red-root amaranth (pop. AMARE1 having green stems covered in sparse hairs and pop. AMARE2 with green but notably dense stem hairs was analysed in order better to understand the uptake and translocation of herbicides that could be indicative of the species’ evolving resistance to herbicides. Samples of the two populations (AMARE1 and AMARE2 were collected from arable land of the Institute of Maize Research at Zemun Polje in 2006. Sampling was performed at the stage of full vegetative growth of plants.Permanent microscoping preparations were made to measure and analyze elements of the anatomy of stems (stem epidermis, cortex, collenchyma, central cylinder and diameter and leaves (leaf epidermis upper surface and underside, mesophyll, leaf thickness and bundle sheath thickness.Both analysed populations of A. retroflexus, morphologically characterized by different density of stem hairiness, were found to have a typical structure of herbaceous dicots. The stem had three distinctive zones: epidermis, cortex and central cylinder. Amaranth leaves have dorsoventral structure, i.e. their upper surface and underside can be differentiated. The results indicated high and very high significance of differences found in stem anatomy between the two analysed populations, while leaf anatomy was not found to display significant differences other than in mesophyll thickness.

  5. Distribución geográfica de las especies cultivadas de Amaranthus y de sus parientes silvestres en México Geographical distribution of cultivated species of Amaranthus and their wild relatives in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espitia-Rangel

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo obtener los patrones de distribución de Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus y sus parientes silvestres, mediante el uso de Sistemas de Información Geográfica, además de realizar un patrón de variación geográfica de las zonas donde se localizan. El género Amaranthus está distribuido a lo largo de México. A. cruentus y A. hypochondriacus se distribuyen en la parte centro sur del país, mientras que A. powellii está distribuido del centro al norte de México. Por otro lado, A. hybridus se puede cultivar prácticamente en todo México, por lo que fue la especie que presentó la mayor adaptación en comparación a las otras tres especies que mostraron una distribución más limitada. De acuerdo con la hipótesis que A. hybridus puede ser el ancestro más probable de A. cruentus y según los resultados obtenidos en este estudio, esta hipótesis podría ser cierta debido que en toda la distribución de A. cruentus está presente A. hybridus. Cabe mencionar, sobre la hipótesis que A. hypochondriacus puede ser un híbrido entre A. cruentus y A. powellii, se puede concluir que es cierta ya que A. hypochondriacus presentó un patrón de variación latitudinal parecido a A. powellii y un patrón de variación altitudinal similar a A. cruentus; además que todas ellas convergen en el Valle de México.The aim of this work was to obtain the distribution patterns of Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus hypochondriacus and its wild relatives using Gorgraphic Information Systems, as well as creating a geographic variation pattern of the areas in which they are found. The genus Amaranthus is distributed throughout Mexico. A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are distributed in the south-central area of the country, whereas A. powellii is found in the center and north of Mexico. On the other hand, A. hybridus can be cultivated in practically any part of the country, making it the species with the

  6. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados ao solo em relação ao controle de quatro espécies de Amaranthus Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus Species

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Raimondi; R.S. Oliveira Jr; Constantin, J; D.F. Biffe; J.G.Z Arantes; L.H. Franchini; F.A Rios; E. Blainski; J.B Osipe

    2010-01-01

    Herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência normalmente apresentam atividade residual no solo, controlando os primeiros fluxos germinativos das plantas daninhas e prevenindo a matocompetição inicial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o período de atividade residual proporcionado por doses de herbicidas suficientes para o controle pontual de 95% (C95) das espécies Amaranthus hybridus, A. lividus, A. spinosus e A. viridis, além de avaliar doses recomendadas desses herbicidas. O trabalho foi re...

  7. PRINOS I SADRŽAJ PROTEINA U SJEMENU SORATA ZRNATOG ŠĆIRA (Amaranthus spp.) U OVISNOSTI O ROKU SJETVE I GUSTOĆI SKLOPA

    OpenAIRE

    Pospišil, Ana; Pospišil, M.; KELAM, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja provedenih na pokušalištu Agronomskog fakulteta u Zagrebu tijekom 2002-2004. godine bio je utvrditi optimalni rok sjetve i gustoću sklopa za četiri sorte zrnatog šćira. U istraživanja su bile uključene četiri sorte koje pripadaju različitim vrstama zrnatog šćira: G6 (Amaranthus cruentus L.), Plainsman i 1008 (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. te Koniz (A. hypochondriacus L. x A. hybridus L.). Istraživana su dva roka sjetve (prva i druga dekada svibnja) i tri gustoće sklopa: 40, ...

  8. An Mien invasive weed : Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson%外来入侵杂草长芒苋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车晋滇

    2008-01-01

    长芒苋(Amaranthus palmeri S.Watson)是20世纪80年代中期传人我国的一种新植物,为中国苋属异株亚属一新归化物种.近年来长芒苋在北京市不断扩展蔓延.本文对长芒苋的形态特征、生物学特性、分布、危害及其防除作一简要介绍.

  9. Betacyanin biosynthetic genes and enzymes are differentially induced by (abiotic stress in Amaranthus hypochondriacus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Casique-Arroyo

    Full Text Available An analysis of key genes and enzymes of the betacyanin biosynthetic pathway in Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Ah was performed. Complete cDNA sequence of Ah genes coding for cyclo-DOPA 5-O glucosyltransferase (AhcDOPA5-GT, two 4, 5-DOPA-extradiol-dioxygenase isoforms (AhDODA-1 and AhDODA-2, respectively, and a betanidin 5-O-glucosyltransferase (AhB5-GT, plus the partial sequence of an orthologue of the cytochrome P-450 R gene (CYP76AD1 were obtained. With the exception AhDODA-2, which had a closer phylogenetic relationship to DODA-like genes in anthocyanin-synthesizing plants, all genes analyzed closely resembled those reported in related Caryophyllales species. The measurement of basal gene expression levels, in addition to the DOPA oxidase tyrosinase (DOT activity, in different tissues of three Ah genotypes having contrasting pigmentation levels (green to red-purple was determined. Additional analyses were performed in Ah plants subjected to salt and drought stress and to two different insect herbivory regimes. Basal pigmentation accumulation in leaves, stems and roots of betacyanic plants correlated with higher expression levels of AhDODA-1 and AhB5-GT, whereas DOT activity levels coincided with pigment accumulation in stems and roots and with the acyanic nature of green plants, respectively, but not with pigmentation in leaves. Although the abiotic stress treatments tested produced changes in pigment levels in different tissues, pigment accumulation was the highest in leaves and stems of drought stressed betacyanic plants, respectively. However, tissue pigment accumulation in stressed Ah plants did not always correlate with betacyanin biosynthetic gene expression levels and/or DOT activity. This effect was tissue- and genotype-dependent, and further suggested that other unexamined factors were influencing pigment content in stressed Ah. The results obtained from the insect herbivory assays, particularly in acyanic plants, also support the

  10. High residue cover crops alone or with strategic tillage to manage glyphosate-resistant palmer amaranth (amaranthus palmeri) in Southeastern cotton (gossypium hirsutum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats) is redefining row crop weed management in the Southeast due to its widespread distribution, high competitive ability, copious seed production, and resilience to standard weed management programs. Herbicides alone are failing to p...

  11. Metabolic profiling and enzyme analyses indicate a potential role of antioxidant systems in complementing glyphosate resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri biotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targeted metabolomic profiling and biochemical assays were employed to identify metabolite-level perturbations induced by glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. Plants were treated with 0.4 kg ae ha-1 glyphosate and tissues were harvested at 8 and 72 hours af...

  12. Interactions between glyphosate, fusarium infection of common waterhemp (amaranthus rudis), and soil microbial abundance and diversity in soil collections from Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted on waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) and soil collected from 131 soybean fields in Missouri that contained late-season waterhemp infestations that escaped weed control. The objectives of these experiments were to determine the effects of soil st...

  13. Schizonticidal effect of a combination of Amaranthus spinosus L. and Andrographis paniculata Burm. f./Nees extracts in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

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    Tiwuk Susantiningsih

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amaranthus spinosus and Andrographis paniculata are traditionally used as antimalarial herbs, but the combination of both has not yet been tested. The aim of this study was to determine the schizonticidal anti-malaria effect of a combination in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.Methods: Male mice (Balb/c strain weighing 28-30 g, 7-8 weeks old, were randomly devided into 5 groups of 4 animals each. Group A: controls (nil and 4 treatment groups (B, C, D, and E. Group B: Amarathus 10 mg/kgBW, group C: Andrographis 2 mg/kgBW, group D: combination of Amaranthus + Andrographis 10 mg + 2 mg/kgBW. All treatment with plant extracts was administered orally, once per day for 7 days. Group E was given chloroquine 10 mg/kgBW, once a day orally, for 3 days.Results: The body weigh increased only in group D, hemoglobin concentration increased significantly vs controls (p < 0.05 in treatment groups C, D, and E, and blood schizonticidal activity was seen in all treatment groups, highest at almost 90% in groups D and E. Survival rate was 100% in all groups.Conclusion: The combination of Amaranthus and Andrographis (10 mg + 2 mg/kgBW exerts the same blood schizonticidal activity as chloroquine 10 mg/kgBW. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:66-70Keywords: Amaranthus spinosus, Andrographis paniculata, Balb/c mice, Plasmodium berghei, schizonticidal effect

  14. Evaluación de extractos de fique, coquito, sorgo y ruda como posibles bio-herbicidas Evaluation of cuban hemp, nut sedge, johnson grass and herb of grace extracts in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Osorio Salazar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En experimentos completamente al azar en condiciones de laboratorio y campo, en Palmira, Valle del Cauca, se evaluó el efecto de extractos de Macrophylla furcraea Baker (fique, Cyperus rotundus L (coquito, Sorghum bicolor L (sorgo, y Ruta graveolens L (ruda sobre la germinación de semillas de las arvenses Bidens pilosa L (papunga y Amaranthus dubius Mart (bledo y del cilantro Coriandrum sativum L. Se obtuvieron los extractos por el método Soxhlet, utilizando agua, etanol y cloroformo como solventes. Los extractos obtenidos se evaluaron en tres diluciones (0, 5 y 10 % en pruebas de germinación de semillas de las arvenses y del cultivo. Se emplearon tres repeticiones de 50 semillas cada una y el testigo se regó con agua destilada. Los extractos etanólicos y clorofórmicos de coquito y fique en las diluciones al 5 y 10 % presentaron el mayor efecto inhibitorio en la germinación a los 21 días. El ensayo de campo demostró el efecto inhibitorio de los extractos etanólicos de fique y coquito en la emergencia de las semillas del cilantro. El análisis de metabolitos secundarios comprobó la presencia de compuestos reportados como altamente tóxicos en fique y en menor cantidad en coquito, aunque los extractos de éste fueron los que más inhibieron la germinación.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the extracts of the species Macrophylla furcraea Baker (cuban hemp, Cyperus rotundus L (nut sedge, Sorghum bicolor L (johnson grass and Ruta graveolens L (herb of grace on seed germination of two weeds and one crop. The extracts were obtained by the Soxhlet method, using water, ethanol and chloroform as solvents. Each extract was evaluated in three dilutions (0, 5 and 10 % v/v and was applied to Bidens pilosa L (spanish needle, Amaranthus dubius Mart (spleen amaranth and Coriandrum sativum L (coriander seeds. Three replications of 50 seeds each one were used and the control was watered only with destilled water. The results

  15. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Novel Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase from Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: an Intrinsically Disordered Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Morán, Gabriela M; Sampedro, José G; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Cervantes-González, Miguel A; Huerta-Ocampo, José Á; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2015-08-01

    A novel Cu/ZnSOD from Amaranthus hypochondriacus was cloned, expressed, and characterized. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed an open reading frame (ORF) of 456 bp, which was predicted to encode a 15.6-kDa molecular weight protein with a pI of 5.4. Structural analysis showed highly conserved amino acid residues involved in Cu/Zn binding. Recombinant amaranth superoxide dismutase (rAhSOD) displayed more than 50 % of catalytic activity after incubation at 100 °C for 30 min. In silico analysis of Amaranthus hypochondriacus SOD (AhSOD) amino acid sequence for globularity and disorder suggested that this protein is mainly disordered; this was confirmed by circular dichroism, which showed the lack of secondary structure. Intrinsic fluorescence studies showed that rAhSOD undergoes conformational changes in two steps by the presence of Cu/Zn, which indicates the presence of two binding sites displaying different affinities for metals ions. Our results show that AhSOD could be classified as an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that is folded when metals are bound and with high thermal stability. PMID:26129702

  16. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Chaudhary Mueen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn., whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM. When tested on K+ (80 mM-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM, caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml. The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to

  17. Effects of Copper on the Photosynthesis and Oxidative Metabolism of Amaranthus tricolor Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Shi-sheng

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to gain better insight into the physiological mechanisms on the effects of copper (Cu) on photosynthesis and active oxygen metabolism in three-colored amaranth plant (Amaranthus tricolor). Three-colored amaranth seedlings were subjected to different Cu levels in soils during the entire experimental period. The parameters of growth, photosynthesis, mineral elements contents, and active oxygen metabolism were investigated using plant physiological methods. The results showed that 2.0 and 4.0 mmol Cu kg-1 treatments decreased the whole plant biomass to 91 and 73% of the control, respectively. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and the stomatal conductance (gs) were similarly reduced in the third leaves of three-colored amaranth seedlings treated with 2.0 and 4.0 mmol Cu kg-1 soil,respectively. None of the investigated Cu levels decreased the internal CO2 concentration (Ci). The effect of Cu on the potential efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ (Fv/Fm) was negligible, whereas the effect of Cu on the PS Ⅱ quantum efficiency (φPS Ⅱ) after plant adaptation in actinic irradiation was more noticeable. On the other hand, decreases in water percentage, contents of photosynthetic pigments and mineral elements including Fe, K, and Mg, and significant increase in the Cu content were observed in the third leaves of Cu-treated plants. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD)activities as well as the proline (Pro) content significantly increased in the third leaves of the three-colored amaranth seedlings treated with 2.0 and 4.0 mmol Cu kg-1 soil, while catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities as well as the contents of carotenoid (Car), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid (AsA) decreased, and accompanied by the increases in the contents of hydrogen preoxide(H2O2),superoxide anion(O-·2),and malondialdehyde(MDA),and electrolyte leakage. As a result of the imbalance of active oxygen metabolism, Pn and φPSⅡ decreased, and

  18. Suscetibilidade diferencial de plantas daninhas do gênero Amaranthus aos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium e chlorimuron-ethyl Differential susceptibility of Amaranthus genus weed species to the herbicides trifloxysulfuron-sodium and chlorimuron-ethyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.P. Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a suscetibilidade de cinco espécies de plantas daninhas do gênero Amaranthus a herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. As espécies avaliadas foram: A. deflexus (caruru-rasteiro, A. hybridus (caruru-roxo, A. retroflexus (caruru-gigante, A. spinosus (caruru-de-espinho e A. viridis (caruru-de-mancha. O trabalho foi dividido em duas fases. Na primeira, as espécies de plantas daninhas foram submetidas à aplicação de 12 tratamentos herbicidas em pós-emergência. Na segunda, os herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium e chlorimuron-ethyl foram avaliados com a metodologia de curvas de dose-resposta, repetida duas vezes. Os herbicidas foram aplicados sobre plantas com 5-6 folhas e as doses utilizadas na segunda fase foram: 16D, 4D, D, 1/4D, 1/16D, 1/64D e ausência do produto, em que D é a dose recomendada de cada herbicida. As doses utilizadas (D foram de 3,75 e 7,5 g ha-1 para o herbicida trifloxysulfuron e 12,5 e 17,5 g ha-1 para chlorimuron, na primeira e na segunda condução, respectivamente. Na primeira fase, foram avaliados o controle percentual e a massa seca das parcelas aos 20 dias após a aplicação (DAA; na segunda, avaliou-se o controle percentual aos 20 DAA. As espécies de Amaranthus avaliadas neste trabalho apresentaram diferenças de suscetibilidade aos herbicidas aplicados em pósemergência, principalmente ao trifloxysulfuron e ao chlorimuron, em que A. deflexus foi a espécie menos suscetível, seguido por A. spinosus, A. viridis, A. hybridus e A. retroflexus.This work aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of five Amaranthus genus weed species to herbicides applied post-emergence. The species evaluated were: A. deflexus, A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. spinosus and A. viridis. The work was divided into two phases. In the first phase, weed species were submitted to post-emergence application of 12 herbicide treatments. In the second phase, the herbicides trifloxysulfuron-sodium and

  19. 富钾植物籽粒苋(Amaranthus spp.)对土壤矿物钾的吸收利用研究%UPTAKE OF POTASSIUM IN SOIL AND MINERAL BY GRAIN AMARANTH (Amaranthus spp. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明; 涂书新; 孙锦荷; 郭智芬

    2005-01-01

    运用土培、石英砂培、有机酸释钾实验及矿物X衍射分析研究了不同基因型籽粒苋(Amaranthus spp.)对土壤矿物钾的吸收利用及其机制.结果表明,籽粒苋能有效地利用土壤和云母(黑云母和金云母)中的钾;籽粒苋品种R104、CX-4对钾的吸收量高于一般型品种(CX-77);籽粒苋根系引起云母矿物向蛭石转化;籽粒苋根系分泌物中的草酸比一般有机酸具有更高的释放矿物中钾素的能力.

  20. Fracionamento do grão de Amaranthus cruentus brasileiro por moagem e suas características composicionais Fractionation by milling of the Brazilian grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus). Compositional characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Marcílio; Jaime Amaya-Farfan; César F. Ciacco; Spehar, Carlos R

    2003-01-01

    O grão de amaranto é geralmente consumido na sua forma integral. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da moagem do grão de amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus) brasileiro na composição química, nutricional, a estabilidade à oxidação e cor da farinha. Os grãos foram pré-condicionados para umidades entre 9,2 e 13,7% e fracionados em moinho para cereais. O aumento da umidade de 9,2 para 13,7% resultou na diminuição progressiva do rendimento da farinha, de 39 para 14%. A farinha refinada (qu...

  1. Concentrations of long-chain acyl-acyl carrier proteins during fatty acid synthesis by chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), safflower (Carthamus tinctoris), and amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatty acid synthesis from [1-14C]acetate by chloroplasts isolated from peas and amaranthus was linear for at least 15 min, whereas incorporation of the tracer into long-chain acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) did not increase after 2-3 min. When reactions were transferred to the dark after 3-5 min, long-chain acyl-ACPs lost about 90% of their radioactivity and total fatty acids retained all of theirs. Half-lives of the long-chain acyl-ACPs were estimated to be 10-15 s. Concentrations of palmitoyl-, stearoyl-, and oleoyl-ACP as indicated by equilibrium labeling during steady-state fatty acid synthesis, ranged from 0.6-1.1, 0.2-0.7, and 0.4-1.6 microM, respectively, for peas and from 1.6-1.9, 1.3-2.6, and 0.6-1.4 microM, respectively, for amaranthus. These values are based on a chloroplast volume of 47 microliters/mg chlorophyll and varied according to the mode of the incubation. A slow increase in activity of the fatty acid synthetase in safflower chloroplasts resulted in long-chain acyl-ACPs continuing to incorporate labeled acetate for 10 min. Upon re-illumination following a dark break, however, both fatty acid synthetase activity and acyl-ACP concentrations increased very rapidly. Palmitoyl-ACP was present at concentrations up to 2.5 microM in safflower chloroplasts, whereas those of stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACPs were in the lower ranges measured for peas. Acyl-ACPs were routinely separated from extracts of chloroplasts that had been synthesising long-chain fatty acids from labeled acetate by a minor modification of the method of Mancha et al. The results compared favorably with those obtained using alternative analytical methods such as adsorption to filter paper and partition chromatography on silicic acid columns

  2. An outbreak of perirenal oedema syndrome in cattle associated with ingestion of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L. : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Last

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty seven of 150, 15-month-old long weaners died of an acute renal disease syndrome following introduction into an old maize field with a heavy stand of Amaranthus spp. The clinical syndrome was characterised by sudden onset neurological disease with ataxia and recumbency. Subcutaneous oedema, ascites and perirenal oedema with urine odour were the major gross necropsy findings. Renal histopathology revealed marked coagulative renal tubular necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules with intertubular haemorrhage. Acute renal failure and perirenal oedema has been described in cattle, pigs, horses and sheep associated with the ingestion of A. hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. This perirenal oedema syndrome has been widely reported in the Americas, while in South Africa intoxication with the amaranths has only previously been associated with nitrate and possibly oxalate poisoning in cattle.

  3. Influence ofAmaranthus hybridus L. allelochemics on oviposition behavior ofSpodoptera exigua andS. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E R; Heath, R R

    1985-05-01

    Common pigweed,Amaranthus hybridus L., is a favorite host of the beet army worm (BAW),Spodoptera exigua L. Chemicals extracted from homogenized pigweed with distilled water, ethanol, or dichloromethane and sprayed back on pigweed deterred oviposition by the BAW. Similarly, water extracts of frass from conspecific larvae or southern armyworm (SAW) larvae,S. eridania (Cramer), fed pigweed leaves and sprayed back on pigweed plants also deterred BAW oviposition, thus confirming that deterrence was due to plant allelochemics rather than specific compounds associated with the metabolic or excretory products of the larvae. Confirmation of the presence of oviposition-deterring chemicals in pigweed was used to explain a previously observed seasonal displacement of BAW by SAW on pigweed in the field. PMID:24310126

  4. Isolation of a choline monooxygenase cDNA clone from Amaranthus tricolor and its expressions under stress conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Plants synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB) via choline→betaine aldehyde→glycine betaine[1]. Two enzymes are involved in the pathway, choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). A full length CMO cDNA (1,643bp) was cloned from Amaranthus tricolor. The open reading frame encoded a 442-amino acid polypeptide, which showed 69% identity with CMOs in Spinacia oleracea L. And Beta vulgaris L. DNA gel blot analysis indicated the presence of one copy of CMO gene in the A. Tricolor genome. The expressions of CMO and BADH proteins in A.tricolor leaves significantly increased under salinization, drought and heat stress (42℃), as determined by immunoblot analysis, but did not respond to cold stress (4℃), or exogenous ABA application. The increase of GB content in leaves was parallel to CMO and BADH contents.

  5. Preliminary pharmacological investigation of the ischuretic property and safety of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosis (Fam: Amaranthaceae

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    George A. Koffuor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischuria is a health and social problem, having a negative impact on sufferers. This study therefore was a preliminary investigation of the ischuretic property and safety for use of a hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus used traditionally in managing ischuria. Methods: Phytochemical screening, thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were performed on the extract to establish fingerprints for identification. Acetylcholine, Nicotine, and the extract were applied to an isolated rat urinary bladder to ascertain contractile response. The possible receptor site(s of action was also investigated using isolated rabbit jejunum, and guinea-pig ileum preparations. In-house observation, hematological analysis, and liver and kidney function tests were performed on Sprague-Dawley rats, in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies. Results: The extract had contractile effects on the rat urinary bladder (similar to acetylcholine and nicotine and rabbit jejunum. Its contractile effect of the guinea-pig ileum was significantly inhibited by hexamethonium (77.50 ± 8.50 %; P ≤ 0.001 and to a lesser extent by mepyramine (49.2 ± 6.80 %; P ≤ 0.001 and Atropine (22.45 ± 5.22 %; P ≤ 0.01. The extract (80-800 mg kg-1 was not lethal and a 160 and 240 mg kg-1 dose had no adverse effect on blood, liver, kidney metabolic function. Conclusions: The hydro-ethanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus has ischuretic activity possibly mediated via nicotinic, histaminic and muscarinic receptor stimulation and is safety to use in ischuria. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 517-527

  6. Control of photosynthesis by the carbohydrate level in leaves of the C4 plant Amaranthus edulis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechschmidt-Schneider, S; Ferrar, P; Osmond, C B

    1989-04-01

    Photosynthesis was studied in relation to the carbohydrate status in intact leaves of the C4 plant Amaranthus edulis. The rate of leaf net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance and intercellular partial pressure of CO2 remained constant or showed little decline towards the end of an 8-h period of illumination in ambient air (340 μbar CO2, 21% O2). When sucrose export from the leaf was inhibited by applying a 4-h cold-block treatment (1°C) to the petiole, the rate of photosynthesis rapidly decreased with time. After the removal of the cold block from the petiole, further reduction in photosynthetic rate occurred, and there was no recovery in the subsequent light period. Although stomatal conductance declined with time, intercellular CO2 partial pressure remained relatively constant, indicating that the inhibition of photosynthesis was not primarily caused by changes in stomatal aperture. Analysis of the leaf carbohydrate status showed a five- to sixfold increase in the soluble sugar fraction (mainly sucrose) in comparison with the untreated controls, whereas the starch content was the same. Leaf osmotic potential increased significantly with the accumulation of soluble sugars upon petiole chilling, and leaf water potential became slightly more negative. After 14 h recovery in the dark, photosynthesis returned to its initial maximum value within 1 h of illumination, and this was associated with a decline in leaf carbohydrate levels overnight. These data show that, in Amaranthus edulis, depression in photosynthesis when translocation is impaired is closely related to the accumulation of soluble sugars (sucrose) in source leaves, indicating feedback control of C4 photosynthesis. Possible mechanisms by which sucrose accumulation in the leaf may affect the rate of photosynthesis are discussed with regard to the leaf anatomy of C4 plants. PMID:24212494

  7. New Invasive Alien Plant Amaranthus polygonoides in Zhejiang%浙江新外来入侵植物--合被苋

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小伟; 谢文远; 张芬耀

    2015-01-01

    合被苋Amaranthus polygonoides L.原产加勒比海岛、美国、墨西哥等地,是新近传入浙江的外来植物。本文报道合被苋的植物学和生态学特性,介绍其在国内外分布和国内蔓延情况,为该种的早期控制提供基础资料。%Amaranthus polygonoides L., originated in the Caribbean island, American, Mexico etc, is a new alien plant found in Zhejiang. The article preliminarily introduced the biological and ecological characteristics, world distribution, its spread of the domestic, to provide basic data for preventing its spreading.

  8. Türkiye’de Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) Türlerine Karşı Biyolojik Mücadelede Böceklerin Kullanımı

    OpenAIRE

    TOZLU, Göksel; ÇORUH, İrfan; Gültekin, Levent

    2013-01-01

    ÖZET: Horoz ibiği türleri (Amaranthus spp.) dünyada ekonomik bakımdan oldukça önemli yabancı ot türleridir. Bu türlerden de özellikle Amaranthus retroflexus L. Avrupa ve Türkiye'de büyük öneme sahip 10 yabancı ot türünden birisidir. Çok değişik kültür bitkisi alanlarında önemli sorunlara neden olan bu cinse mensup türler ile mücadele edilmesi kaçınılmazdır. Bunu yaparken kimyasal m&u...

  9. An ABAGE-Like Metabolite of Botrytis cinerea Isolate BC4 Inhibited the Growth of Hypocotyls and Roots of Amaranthus retroflexus Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; DONG Jin-gao; SHANG Hong-sheng

    2005-01-01

    A metabolite, which had an inhibitory effect on plant growth, was isolated from cultural filtrate of Botrytis cinerea isolate BC4 by column chromatography on silica gel and preparative HPLC. Its structure was determined from HPLC-ESI MS, GC,IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data, as well as chemical hydrolysis. The results showed that this metabolite was quite similar to abscisic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester(ABAGE) in structure. The inhibitory effect of the ABAGE-like metabolite on plant growth was investigated using a weed Amaranthus retroflexus L. as a bioassay material. The results showed that it inhibited hypocotyls and roots growth of A. retroflexus (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seedlings when its concentration was over 0.5 μM. The concentrations for 50% inhibition of hypocotyls and roots growth of A. retroflexus seedlings were 2.8 and 1.4 μM, respectively.

  10. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) control in potato by pre- or post-emergence applied flumioxazin and sulfosulfuron

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Vasilakoglou; Kico Dhima; Konstantinos Paschalidis; Thomas Gatsis; Konstantinos Zacharis; Miltos Galanis

    2013-01-01

    Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) is one of the most serious weeds in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), but selective herbicides controlling this weed have not been reported. A field experiment was conducted in 2010 and repeated in 2011 in Greece to study the efficacy of herbicides flumioxazin and sulfosulfuron, applied pre- or post-emergence, on field bindweed and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), as well as their phytotoxicity on potato. Gas chromatography-mass spectrography ...

  11. Porovnání vybraných kulturních a plevelných druhů z rodu Amaranthus

    OpenAIRE

    Válek, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Amaranthus (L.) belongs to among old cultural crops. Cultural forms of some species were already grown by Aztecs and Incs in ancient times. High nutritive value of seeds redounded to rediscovery of the crops. Tested varieties of cultural amaranth get to the interaction whit wild species of amaranth. This work would had contribute to better knowledge of ecology in the hybrid of cultural variety and weed (A. x turicensis = A. cruentus x A. retroflexus) The aim of this work was to describe produ...

  12. AIR TEMPERATURE AND SUNLIGHT INTENSITY OF DIFFERENT GROWING PERIOD AFFECTS THE BIOMASS, LEAF COLOR AND BETACYANIN PIGMENT ACCUMULATIONS IN RED AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS TRICOLOR L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Laila KHANDAKER; A AKOND; OBA, Shinya

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of daily air temperature and sunlight intensity variations on biomass production, leaf color and betacyanin accumulations in red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.). For this purpose, two improved cultivars; BARI-1 and Altopati were grown in seven different period (from April to October, 2006) under vinyl house condition in the experimental facilities of Gifu University, Japan. The mean daily temperatures fluctuated from 18 (growing ...

  13. Immunochemical Characterization of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen Extract: Extensive Cross-reactive Allergenic Components among the Four Species of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The importance of Amaranthus retroflexus pollen in causing respiratory allergy has been well ascertained in many countries including Iran with a high positive rate (69%) among Iranian allergic patients. The aim of the present study is to identify the allergenic properties of A. retroflexus pollen. Sixteen patients with allergy to A. retroflexus pollen were selected for the study. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of the A. retroflexus pollen extract as well as pollen extracts from other s...

  14. Áreas prioritarias para colectar germoplasma de Amaranthus en México con base en la diversidad y riqueza de especies Priority areas to collect Amaranthus germplasm in Mexico based on diversity and species richness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espitia Rangel

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo utilizar el Sistema de Información Geográfico, para crear mapas de índices de diversidad y riqueza de especies del género Amaranthus en México, para proyectar las mejores áreas de colecta de germoplasma. La máxima riqueza de especies se encontró en el centro occidente del Estado de México incluyendo el Distrito Federal y la costa del Pacífico, entre Jalisco y Colima, así como en Sinaloa. El índice de biodiversidad de Brillouin mostró alta diversidad en la costa del Pacífico, Sinaloa, entre los estados de Jalisco y Colima, además el centro occidente de Nuevo León, la región de la Huasteca del sureste de Tamaulipas y noreste de Veracruz, así como la zona noroeste de la Península de Yucatán. Las áreas prioritarias que se proponen son: la costa central de Sinaloa, sur de la región biogeográfica de Sonora, parte centro occidente del Estado de México incluyendo el Distrito Federal, región biogeográfica del Eje Volcánico Transmexicano y la costa del pacífico centro entre los estados de Jalisco y Colima, finalmente en la región biogeográfica de la costa pacífica mexicana.This investigation had as objective to use the Geographical Information System, to create maps of indexes of diversity and wealth of species of genus Amaranthus in Mexico, to plan the best areas of germplasm collection. The maximum wealth of species was in west center of State of Mexico including Distrito Federal and the Pacific coast, between Jalisco and Colima, as well as in Sinaloa. The Brillouin index of biodiversity showed high diversity in the Pacific coast, Sinaloa, between the states of Jalisco and Colima, also the west center of Nuevo León, the region of Huasteca of southeast of Tamaulipas and northeast of Veracruz, as well as the northwest area of Yucatán Peninsula. The priority areas proposed are: the central coast of Sinaloa, south of biogeographic region of Sonora, west center section of State of Mexico

  15. Multielemental analysis and classification of amaranth seeds according to their botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Elba G; Cantarelli, Miguel A; Marchevsky, Eduardo J; Escudero, Nora L; Camiña, José M

    2011-09-14

    The characterization of amaranth seeds (Amaranthus spp.) was developed for Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus dubius. The elemental concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optic atomic spectroscopy. Pattern recognition methods were used for the characterization of seed samples: nonsupervised methods included principal components analysis and cluster analysis; supervised methods were linear discriminant analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Informed are the concentrations of the following elements: Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, S, Sr, V, Zn, and Zr. The lowest mineral content was found in A. hypochondriacus, and the highest one was found in A. dubius. For the classification, selected variables for all multivariate methods were Ba, Cr, Li, Mn, Ni, S, and Sr. Nonsupervised methods allowed us to distinguish between the three species of amaranth; however, PLS-DA supervised methods showed the best prediction ability. PMID:21797241

  16. The overexpression of an Amaranthus hypochondriacus NF-YC gene modifies growth and confers water deficit stress resistance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeros-Suárez, Paola A; Massange-Sánchez, Julio A; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A; Montero-Vargas, Josaphat M; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F; Délano-Frier, John P

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y), is a plant heterotrimeric transcription factor constituted by NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits. The function of many NF-Y subunits, mostly of the A and B type, has been studied in plants, but knowledge regarding the C subunit remains fragmentary. Here, a water stress-induced NF-YC gene from Amaranthus hypochondriacus (AhNF-YC) was further characterized by its overexpression in transgenic Arabidospis thaliana plants. A role in development was inferred from modified growth rates in root, rosettes and inflorescences recorded in AhNF-YC overexpressing Arabidopsis plants, in addition to a delayed onset of flowering. Also, the overexpression of AhNF-YC caused increased seedling sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA), and influenced the expression of several genes involved in secondary metabolism, development and ABA-related responses. An altered expression of the latter in water stressed and recovered transgenic plants, together with the observed increase in ABA sensitivity, suggested that their increased water stress resistance was partly ABA-dependent. An untargeted metabolomic analysis also revealed an altered metabolite pattern, both in normal and water stress/recovery conditions. These results suggest that AhNF-YC may play an important regulatory role in both development and stress, and represents a candidate gene for the engineering of abiotic stress resistance in commercial crops. PMID:26475185

  17. The tolerance of grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) to defoliation during vegetative growth is compromised during flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ortiz, Erandi; Délano-Frier, John Paul; Tiessen, Axel

    2015-06-01

    The biochemical processes underlying variations of tolerance are often accompanied by source-sink transitions affecting carbon (C) metabolism. We investigated the tolerance of Amaranthus cruentus L. to total mechanical defoliation through development and in different growing seasons. Defoliated A. cruentus recovered ∼80% of their above-ground biomass and ∼100% of grain yield compared to intact plants if defoliation occurred early during ontogeny, but could not compensate when defoliation occurred during flowering. Tolerance index was higher in the summer season (-0.3) than in the winter season (-0.7). Overall, defoliation tolerance was closely related to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity in leaves and the subsequent accumulation of starch (∼500 μmol/gDW) and sucrose (∼140 μmol/gDW) in stems and roots. Thus, A. cruentus accumulated sufficient C in roots and stem to allow branching and shoot re-growth after defoliation, but it only possessed sufficient C reserves to maintain <19% seed yield in the absence of new vegetative tissue. Seed size was larger during the warm season but it was not affected by foliar damage. Seed chemical composition was altered by defoliation at flowering. We conclude that A. cruentus defoliation tolerance depends on both, the re-allocation of starch from stem and roots, and the activation of dormant meristems before flowering to generate new photosynthetic capacity to sustain seed filling. PMID:25863889

  18. Effects of Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing ACA Gene from Amaranthus caudatus on the Population Development of Myzus persicae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOHong-Nian; JIAYan-Tao; ZHOUYong-Gang; ZHANGZhen-Shan; OUYANGQing; JIANGYing; TIANYing-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible function of the agglutinin from Amaranthus caudatus L. (ACA) in plant defending against insect pests, ACA cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and the 5' and 3' sequences were confirmed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The phloem-specific expression vector of ACA gene, pBCACAc, was constructed based on the plant binary vector pBC438 and transfered into tobacco plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Results from PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that AOA gene was integrated into the genomes of transformed plants and the transgene integration varied from one to four estimated copies per genome. Western blotting analysis indicated that ACA gene was transcribed and translated in the transgenic plants. The bioassay of Myzus persicae Sulzer on detached leaves demonstrated that the 78% transgenic tobacco plants displayed an average aphid-resistant rate of more than 75%. Some apterous progeny of M. persicae were found dead on the resistant plants. These results indicate that ACA gene should be an effective aphid-resistant gene and could be valuable for application in crop breeding for aphid resistance.

  19. Effect of fertilizers on Cd uptake of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a high biomass, fast growing and easily cultivated potential Cd hyperaccumulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning Yu; Fu, Qing Lin; Zhuang, Ping; Guo, Bing; Zou, Bi; Li, Zhi An

    2012-02-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of three amaranth cultivars (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Cvs. K112, R104, and K472) and the effect of application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizer on Cd uptake of the three cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg kg(-1) Cd. All three amaranth cultivars had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, which ranged from 95.1 to 179.1 mg kg(-1) in leaves, 58.9 to 95.4 mg kg(-1) in stems, and 62.4 to 107.2 mg kg(-1) in roots, resulting in average bioaccumulation factors ranging from 17.7 to 29.7. Application of N, NP, or NPK fertilizers usually increased Cd content in leaves but decreased Cd content in stem and root. Fertilizers of N or NP combined did not substantially increase dry biomass of the 3 cultivars, leading to a limited increment of Cd accumulation. NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 2.7-3.8, resulting in a large increment of Cd accumulation. Amaranth cultivars (K112, R104, and K472) have great potential in phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation and little effect on Cd uptake by fertilization. PMID:22567702

  20. Allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. on germination & growth of cucumber, alfalfa, common bean and bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh BAKHSHAYESHAN-AGDAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is one of the important interactions among plants. Weeds can reduce crops productions in farms by their allelopathic effects. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. is the most common weed in Iran with well-known allelopathic potential. In the presented experiment, the allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed on germination and growth of four important crop species including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., common bean (Phaseulus vulgaris L. and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied. The effect of different concentrations of redroot pigweed leachate on seed germination and seedlings growth parameters of tested plants was significant, but not same in all studied species. Bread wheat and cucumber were more resistance in seed germination stage in comparison to common bean and alfalfa. Except alfalfa, all plant species showed certain rate of resistance in the most measured parameters. According to the obtained results, bread wheat and common bean were the most resistant species, cucumber was resistant at low concentration but sensitive at high concentration, and alfalfa was the most sensitive species to the redroot pigweed leachate treatments. Therefore, the cultivation of resistant plant species (such as bread wheat and common bean plants in the regions with redroot pigweed’s invasion is appropriate way in management of the farms.

  1. Evaluating the efficacy of pre- and post-emergence herbicides for controlling Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Chenopodium album L. in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alebrahim, M. T.; Majd, R.; Rashed Mohassel, M. H.;

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the control of Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album and tolerance of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria) to ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, rimsulfuron, EPTC and oxadiargyl applied pre-emergence (PRE) and post-emergenc......Field studies were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate the control of Amaranthus retroflexus and Chenopodium album and tolerance of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Agria) to ethalfluralin, trifluralin, pendimethalin, rimsulfuron, EPTC and oxadiargyl applied pre-emergence (PRE) and post...

  2. 铅对繁穗苋幼苗生长的影响%Effect of Lead Stress on Seedling Growth of Amaranthus paniculatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史冬燕

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究重金属铅对繁穗苋幼苗生长的影响.[方法]以繁穗苋幼苗为材料,研究不同浓度的铅处理对其生长的影响.[结果]在50 mg/L Pb2+处理下,繁穗苋幼苗新生根数受到促进;随着Pb2+浓度的增加,繁穗苋的根长、苗长、苗重和叶缘素含量均降低;高浓度Pb2+对繁穗苋根生长的抑制作用大于其对茎轴的抑制作用.[结论]铅对繁穗苋幼苗的生长表现出抑制作用,而且该抑制作用而随着铅离子浓度的增大而加大.%[Objective] To study the effect of Pb2 + stress on seedling growth of Amaranthus pankulatus. [ Method ] Amaranthus pankulatus was used as material to study the effects of different Pb2+ concentrations on the growth of seedling. [ Result] When Pb2+ concentration was 50 mg/L, it could promote the new root number of seedling. With the increasing Pb2+ concentration,the root length, seedling length, fresh weight of seedling and the content of plant chlorophyll decreased obviously. There was stronger inhibition on the growth of root than on that of stem under high Pb2+ concentration. [Conclusion] Pb2+ had inhibition on seedling growth of Amaranthus pankulatus, and the inhibition became stronger with the increasing Pb2+ concentration.

  3. Predacion de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. en un cultivo de soja: influencia del sistema de siembra Predation of Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. seeds in soybean crops: influence of the tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nisensohn

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar las pérdidas del banco superficial de semillas de Amaranthus quitensis H.B.K. (yuyo colorado debidas a la predación por insectos en un cultivo de soja y en el barbecho posterior, en dos sistemas de laboreo. Los experimentos se realizaron durante las campañas 94/95 y 95/96. Para calcular la tasa de predación se emplearon bandejas cubiertas con tejido para evitar el ingreso de roedores y con tela de tul en los tratamientos testigos; en cada una se sembraron 100 semillas de la maleza y cada 15 días se registró el número de semillas remanentes. Para determinar los insectos presentes y su abundancia se emplearon trampas "pitfall". Entre los insectos capturados se encontró el carábido Notiobia cupripennis, su mayor abundancia se registró en marzo (4,5 y 5,8 insectos/trampa en convencional y 2,7 y 3,3 insectos/trampa en siembra directa, coincidiendo con las tasas de predación más altas (5,6% y 8% en convencional y 2,7% y 3,8% en siembra directa; tanto en abundancia como en predación se observaron diferencias significativas entre ambos sistemas. A partir de este mes, las diferencias no fueron significativas, el número de insectos y la tasa de predación disminuyeron. En ambos años existió una correlación positiva entre estas variables.The objective was to evaluate the losses of the superficial bank of Amaranthus quitensis seeds, due to insect predation, in a soybean crop and in the subsequent fallow, in two tillage systems. Experiments were conducted during 1994/95 and 1995/96. To estimate predation rates, trays covered with wire meshes to prevent rodent predation, and with fine sheer net (tulle in the control treatment were used; 100 weed seeds were sown in each tray, and the number of remaining seeds was registered every 15 days. Pitfall traps were used to identify insects species occurring in the field and to estimate their abundance. The carabid Notiobia cupripennis was captured in pitfall traps, the higher

  4. Fracionamento do grão de Amaranthus cruentus brasileiro por moagem e suas características composicionais Fractionation by milling of the Brazilian grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus. Compositional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Marcílio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O grão de amaranto é geralmente consumido na sua forma integral. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da moagem do grão de amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus brasileiro na composição química, nutricional, a estabilidade à oxidação e cor da farinha. Os grãos foram pré-condicionados para umidades entre 9,2 e 13,7% e fracionados em moinho para cereais. O aumento da umidade de 9,2 para 13,7% resultou na diminuição progressiva do rendimento da farinha, de 39 para 14%. A farinha refinada (quebra + redução, com 9,2% de umidade, mostrou teores de proteína total de 13,9%, contra 16,2% da farinha integral. O teor de lipídeos totais no amaranto integral (9,2% de umidade variou de 6,78, para 6,11% na farinha refinada e o teor de fibra nos farelos diminuiu de 3,6 para 3,1%, ao passo que a cor da farinha se tornou mais atraente. Conclui-se que o fracionamento da farinha do grão de amaranto, apesar de produzir uma farinha com melhor aparência e alto teor protéico, apresenta rendimento baixo e não mostra diminuição substancial no teor de óleo da farinha refinada como para garantir uma maior estabilidade à autooxidação.Grain amaranth is normally consumed whole. The effect of milling on the chemical and nutritional composition, stability to oxidation and color of the flours of the Brazilian grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus has been assessed. Grains of the cv Japônica were pre-conditioned to moistures from 9.2 to 13.7% and fractionated in a cereal mill. Increasing the moisture resulted in a pronounced decrease of flour yield from 39 to 14%. The refined flour (break and reduction fractions combined of the 9.2% moisture grain showed a total protein content of 13.9%, against the 16.2% of the whole flour, whereas the total lipid content fell from 6.78 to 6.11% with no detectable change in oxidative stability after refining. The fiber content was reduced slightly, from 4.6 to 3.8% for the highest and the lowest moisture contents

  5. EFFECT OF AN ISOLATED COMPPOUND (AS-1 FROM THE LEAVES OF Amaranthus spinosus L. ON ASPIRIN INDUCED GASTRIC ULCER IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEBIPRASAD GHOSH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effect of AS-1, a compound isolated from the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L., was studied on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Method: Gastric ulcer was produced in rats by aspirin and effect of AS-1 was studied. Result: Result showed that the compound could decrease ulcer index in rats induced by aspirin. The compound produced gastric anti secretory effect by decreasing gastric volume and acidity. It further increased gastric mucin which showed gastric cytoprotective effect. Results were comparable to that of ranitidine, a standard anti ulcer drug. Conclusion: AS-1 thus provides a scientific rationale for the use as anti gastric ulcer drug.

  6. Analysis of Nutritional Components of Capsella bursa-pastoris L and Amaranthus spinosus L%荠菜、银荇菜营养成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张普庆; 王秀玉; 陈佃军; 吕玲红; 张新民; 殷树梅

    2001-01-01

    @@ 荠菜(Capsella bursa-pastoris L.)十字花科,一年生或二年生草本植物.银荇菜(Amaranthus spinosus L.)苋科,一年生草本植物.以上两种野菜广泛分布于华北各地,是人们普遍喜爱的野菜品种.本研究分析了生长于山东中部的荠菜、银荇菜的营养成分,旨在为野菜食用提供科学依据.

  7. EFFECT OF NACL SALINITY ON Β-CAROTENE, THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND ASCORBIC ACID CONTENTS IN THE LEAVES OF AMARANTHUS POLYGAMOUS L. VAR. PUSA KIRTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamins are considered as the accessory nutrients, required in minute quantities. Most of the vitamins are involved in enzyme systems. Vitamin contents of plants are also known to show altered metabolism under the influence of salinity. Not much of work has been done on the influence of salinity on the vitamin content in higher plants. Present study was carried out to study the influence of NaCl salinity on vitamin content in the leaves of Amaranthus polygamous. The β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid content were found to decrease gradually with increase in the concentrations of NaCl.

  8. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La) nor cadmium chloride (Cd) induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. PMID:27144562

  9. Effect of Amaranthus on Advanced Glycation End-Products Induced Cytotoxicity and Proinflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornrit, Warisa; Santiyanont, Rachana

    2015-01-01

    Amaranthus plants, or spinach, are used extensively as a vegetable and are known to possess medicinal properties. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) cause cell toxicity in the human neuronal cell line, SH-SY5Y, through an increase in oxidative stress, as shown by reducing cell viability and increasing cell toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. We found that preincubation of SH-SY5Y cells with either petroleum ether, dichloromethane or methanol extracts of A. lividus and A. tricolor dose-dependently attenuated the neuron toxicity caused by AGEs treatment. Moreover, the results showed that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts significantly downregulated the gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 genes in AGEs-induced cells. We concluded that A. lividus and A. tricolor extracts not only have a neuroprotective effect against AGEs toxicity, but also have anti-inflammatory activity by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression. This suggests that Amaranthus may be useful for treating chronic inflammation associated with neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26393562

  10. 霉苋菜梗同时蒸馏萃取液中挥发性香味成分分析%Analysis of Volatile Flavor Components in a Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction Extract of Fermented Amaranthus Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉平; 杨俊凯; 黄明泉; 陈海涛; 孙宝国

    2011-01-01

    以乙醚为溶剂,采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取市售和自制霉苋菜梗中的挥发性香味成分.采用单因素试验考察提取时间对精油中组分数的影响.提取6 h时,市售霉苋菜梗中挥发性成分最多达119种;提取9 h时,自制苋菜梗中挥发性成分最多达 187种.经GC-MS检测,从市售霉苋菜梗中鉴定出53种化合物,从自制霉苋菜梗中鉴定出98种化合物,其中两者共有的化合物49种.这些化合物中,苯及其同系物15种,酸类9种,酮类5种,酯类4种,醛类3种,酚类3种,硫醚类3种,烃类2种,醇类1种,含氮类化合物4种.其中特征性的香味成分是二甲基二硫、甲基乙基二硫、二乙基二硫、吲哚等.%Volatile flavor components in two kinds of fermented amaranthus stem (one is factory-made, the other is homemade) were extracted by using simultaneous distillation-extraction and ethyl ether. Single factor experiments were adopted to investigate the effects of extracting time on the number of the volatile components in the extract. When the factory-made fermented amaranthus stem was extracted for 6 h, there were 119 volatile constituents in the extraction; while the homemade fermented amaranthus stem was extracted for 9 h, there were 187 volatile constituents in the extraction. Fifty-three volatile flavor constituents were identified from the extract of factory-made fermented amaranthus stem by GC-MS, and ninety-eight volatile flavor constituents from homemade fermented amaranthus stem. All of the components identified in the two kinds of fermented amaranthus stem, forty-nine volatile constituents were same. They are 15 benzene and its homologue, 9 carboxylic acids, 5 ketones, 4 esters, 3 aldehydes, 3 phenols, 3 sulfides, 2 hydrocarbons,1 alcohol, 4 nitrogen-containing compounds. The characteristic flavor components in the fermented amaranthus stem are dimethyl disulfide, methyl ethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide, indole, and so on.

  11. Effect of fertilizers on cd uptake of two edible amaranthus herbs%施肥对两种苋菜吸收积累镉的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凝玉; 李志安; 庄萍; 傅庆林; 郭彬

    2012-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究了生长在5 mg/kg镉(Cd)污染土壤中的两种苋菜(红苋(Amaranthus Paniculatus L.)和绿苋(Amaranthus Paniculatus L.))在3种施肥处理下(N、NP和NPK)的生长状况和对Cd的吸收积累情况.结果表明,两种苋菜能够在污染土壤中正常生长,各器官中叶Cd含量最高,范围为124.1-225.9 mg/kg;根中次之,范围为57.1-100.6 mg/kg;茎中最低,范围为56.2-87.6 mg/kg;富集系数高达22.4-40.2.施加N,NP,NPK肥对两种苋菜器官中的Cd含量和生物量有显著影响.其中,施加NPK肥使红苋和绿苋的生物量分别达到不施肥(对照)处理的3.5和3.2倍,单株提取Cd的总量是对照3.2和5.0倍.综上表明,两种苋菜(红苋和绿苋)具有生物量大、易栽培、施加NPK肥能够大幅增加生物量的同时不减少器官对Cd的吸收等优点,作为Cd污染土壤的修复植物有巨大应用前景.%We assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd of two edible amaranthus herbs ( red amaranth: Amaranth Paniculatus L. and green amaranth: Amaranth Paniculatus L. ) and the effect of application of N, NP and NPK fertilizers on Cd uptake of the two cultivars from soil contaminated with 5 mg/kg Cd. Two edible amaranthus herbs had high levels of Cd concentration in their tissues, ranging from 124. 1 to 225.9 mg/kg in leaves, from 56.2 to 87.6 mg/kg in stems, and from 57. 1 to 100. 6 mg/kg in roots, resulting in average Bioaccumulation Factors (BCF) ranging from 22. 4 to 40. 2. Application of N, NP or NPK fertilizers had significantly influenced Cd content in leaves, stems and roots. Fertilizers of NPK fertilizer greatly increased dry biomass, by a factor of 3. 5 for red amaranth or 3. 2 for green amaranth, resulting in a large increment of Cd uptake per plant. Two edible amaranthus herbs have great potential in phytoremediation of Cd contaminated soil. They have the merits of high Cd content in tissues, high biomass, easy cultivation, and little effect on Cd uptake by

  12. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil A.Nirmal; Jayashri M.Ingale; Shashikant R.Pattan; Sanjay B.Bhawar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECITVE:The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski.(Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice.METHODS:Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n =6).Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg,intraperitoneally).Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A.roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg,per oral) and piperine (5 mg/kg,per oral).Ulcer index,colitis severity,myeloperoxidase (MPO),malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue.Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).RESULTS:Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration,hemorrhage,necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation.Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg,respectively.The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg,respectively (P < 0.05).Similarly,this combination significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue.Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS.CONCLUSION:The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A.roxburghianus and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone.4H-pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl,eugenol and benzene,and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic,anti-inflammatory,and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A.roxburghianus root.

  13. Amaranthus cruentus L. is suitable for cultivation in Central Italy: field evaluation and response to plant densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Casini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of amaranth cultivation in Central Italy and to determine the optimum plant density. Field trials were carried out in 2011 and 2012 under non-irrigated conditions in Tuscany (43° 18’ N, 11° 47’ E. Twelve accessions of two amaranth species (Amaranthus cruentus L. and A. hypochondriacus L. were utilised. Genotypes were evaluated over a two-year period using a RCB design with three replicates. The effects of plant density were investigated in 2012. A with a split-plot design was used, where the A. cruentus accessions (AMES 5148, PI 511719 and PI 643045 constituted the main plots. Plant densities (7.5, 15, 30 and 60 plants m–2 constituted the subplots. Plants were transplanted at the 3-4 true leaf stage. Morphological traits were determined using 5 plants selected from the two central rows of the sampling area. Plots were hand-harvested and cleaned with a mechanical grid with appropriate sieve diameters. A. cruentus was shown to be more suitable to the Central Italy agro-ecological conditions than A. hypochondriacus. The accessions derived from Mexico (PI 477913, PI 576481, PI 643045, PI 643053, and PI 6495079, Guatemala (PI 511719 and Puerto Rico (AMES 5148, had both higher grain yields and a greater stability over the two-year period, with a mean grain production ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 t ha–1. The severe climatic stress in 2012 (high temperatures and aridity, resulted in a 43-60% reduction in seed production compared to that of the previous year. Under these conditions, PI 511719, AMES 26015, AMES 5386, AMES 5148, PI 477913 yielded on average 1.9 t ha–1. Yields of A. hypochondriacus were negligible in both years, probably attributable to greater photoperiod sensitivity, resulting in reduced flowering and delayed maturity. By increasing density up to 60 and 30 plants m–2 for PI 511719 and AMES 5148, respectively, grain production was increased by 55%. As the plant population

  14. Atividade residual de herbicidas aplicados ao solo em relação ao controle de quatro espécies de Amaranthus Residual activity of herbicides applied to the soil in relation to control of four Amaranthus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Raimondi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência normalmente apresentam atividade residual no solo, controlando os primeiros fluxos germinativos das plantas daninhas e prevenindo a matocompetição inicial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o período de atividade residual proporcionado por doses de herbicidas suficientes para o controle pontual de 95% (C95 das espécies Amaranthus hybridus, A. lividus, A. spinosus e A. viridis, além de avaliar doses recomendadas desses herbicidas. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em solo de textura franco-argiloarenosa (20% de argila e 1,9 de matéria orgânica, e as doses dos herbicidas alachlor, diuron, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, prometryne, oxyfluorfen, S-metolachlor, trifluralin 450 e trifluralin 600 foram aplicadas aos 30, 20, 10 e 0 dias antes da semeadura das plantas daninhas. Avaliou-se o controle das plantas daninhas após a permanência dos herbicidas no solo por períodos de 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias depois da aplicação dos tratamentos (DAA. A atividade residual de alachlor e prometryne, na dose C95, não foi suficiente para o controle eficiente (>80% das espécies por períodos de até 30 DAA. Quanto ao alachlor, o emprego da dose recomendada não se refletiu em aumento considerável da atividade residual, exceto em relação a A. viridis. A dose recomendada de prometryne proporcionou controle eficiente das espécies até 30 DAA, exceto de A. hybridus. A dose recomendada de oxyfluorfen controlou eficientemente A. hybridus e A. spinosus até 30 DAA, espécies estas que não haviam sido eficientemente controladas pela dose C95. Trifluralin 450 promoveu controle residual eficiente de 30 DAA somente em relação a A. hybridus. Trifluralin 600 foi eficiente no controle de A. hybridus e A. viridis até os 30 DAA e até 29 e 28 DAA para A. lividus e A. spinosus, respectivamente. Clomazone não promoveu controle eficiente das espécies até 30 DAA, exceto de A. viridis. Diuron, pendimethalin e S

  15. Teores de água no solo e eficácia do herbicida fomesafen no controle de Amaranthus hybridus Soil water contents and fomesafen efficacy in controlling Amaranthus hybridus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Zanatta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de avaliar a eficácia do herbicida fomesafen no controle de plantas de Amaranthus hybridus se desenvolvendo em solo com diferentes teores de água e determinar qual o menor teor de água do solo que não prejudica a ação desse herbicida no controle dessa espécie, foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, envolvendo cinco intervalos entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida (0, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas e cinco doses de fomesafen (0,0, 62,5, 125,0, 250,0 e 375,0 g ha-1. Quando as plantas atingiram estádio de quatro pares de folhas, foram aplicados 10 mm de chuva simulada, conforme tratamento previsto. Ao término do período de simulação de chuva, aplicou-se o herbicida utilizando pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, com volume de calda de 120 L ha-1. Aos 5, 22, 29 e 43 dias após a aplicação (DAA do herbicida, foi avaliado o controle (por escala visual de A. hybridus e, aos 43 DAA, foram avaliadas também a massa seca das raízes e a da parte aérea. A aplicação de 375,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen proporcionou controle satisfatório de A. hybridus, independentemente do intervalo entre a última irrigação e a aplicação do herbicida ou do teor de umidade do solo, dentro da faixa avaliada. Pulverizações de 250,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen a intervalos menores que 24 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e/ou em solo com teor de água maior que 0,12 cm³ cm-3 não afetaram a eficácia do herbicida sobre A. hybridus. Aplicações de 125,0 g ha-1 de fomesafen a intervalos menores que 12 horas entre a última irrigação e sua aplicação e/ou em solo com teor de água maior que 0,15 cm³ cm-3 não afetaram a eficácia do herbicida sobre A. hybridus.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of fomesafen in controlling Amaranthus hybridus grown under different soil humidity levels

  16. 国产十四种苋属植物的染色体数目%Chromosome numbers of 14 species in Amaranthus from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋葆华; 张学杰; 李法曾; 万鹏

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, chromosome numbers of 14 species of the genus Amaranthus from China are reported: A. retroflexus 2n=34, A. caudatus 2n=32, A. hybridus 2n=32, A. spinosus 2n=34, A. cruentus 2n=34, A. hypochendriacus 2n=32, A. paniculatus 2n=32, A. roxburghianus 2n=34, A. blitoides 2n=32, A. polygonoides 2n=34, A. albus 2n=32, A. viridis 2n=34, A. lividus 2n=34, A. tricolor 2n=34. The number in A. roxburghianus is reported here for the first time. The basic chromosome numbers in this genus are x=16 and x=17 and both numbers are found in sect. Amaranthus and sect. Blitopsis. The chromosomes in this genus are very small in size, hampering a detailed karyotype analysis.%报道了国产14种苋属植物的染色体数目.部分种的染色体数目为2n=34,即反枝苋Amaranthus retroflexus,刺苋A. spinosus,红苋A. cruentus,腋花苋A. roxburghianus,合被苋A. polygonoides,皱果苋A. viridis,凹头苋A. lividus,苋A. tricolor. 其他种的染色体数目为2n=32,即尾穗苋A. caudatus,绿穗苋A. hybridus,千穗谷A. hypochendriacus,繁穗苋A. paniculatus,北美苋A. blitoides,白苋A. albus.其中腋花苋的染色体数目为首次报道.该属染色体基数为x=16,17.两种染色体基数在苋属2个组(sect. Amaranthus和 sect. Blitopsis)中均存在.由于苋属植物染色体大多为小型染色体,因此对苋属植物目前尚不能进行详尽的核型分析.

  17. Phytotoxical effect of Lepidium draba L. extracts on the germination and growth of monocot (Zea mays L.) and dicot (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yusuf; Aksakal, Ozkan; Sunar, Serap; Erturk, Filiz Aygun; Bozari, Sedat; Agar, Guleray; Erez, Mehmet Emre; Battal, Peyami

    2015-03-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine phytotoxic potentials of white top (Lepidium draba) methanol extracts (root, stem and leaf) on germination and early growth of corn (Zea mays) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Furthermore, the effects of different methanol extracts of L. draba on the phytohormone (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) and zeatin) levels of corn and redroot pigweed were investigated. It was observed that all concentrations of methanol extracts of root, stem and leaf of L. draba inhibited germination, radicle and plumule elongation when compared with the respective controls. Besides this, the degree of inhibition was increased in concert with increasing concentrations of extracts used. On the other hand, phytohormone levels changed with the application of different extract concentrations. Comparing with the control, the GA levels significantly decreased while the ABA levels increased in all the application groups. Zeatin and IAA levels showed changes depending upon the applied extracts and concentrations. PMID:23293131

  18. Extraction of Total Polyphenol from Amaranthus spinosus and Its Inoxidizability%刺苋总多酚提取工艺及其抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贤景春; 杨清; 郭香云

    2011-01-01

    为给刺苋的研究与开发提供理论基础,对刺苋总多酚提取工艺条件进行了优化,并考察了其对羟基自由基的清除效果.结果表明:刺苋中总多酚最佳提取工艺条件为:乙醇浓度60%,浸提时间1 h,料液比为1:10,提取温度40℃.在最佳工艺条件下,刺苋中总多酚提取量可达4.89mg/g.从刺苋中提取的总多酚对羟基自由基有很强的清除能力,当总多酚浓度为2.5μg/mL时,抑制率可达60%.%The extraction technology of total polyphenol in Amaranthus spinosus was optimized and the effect of scavenging hydroxyl radicals was studied to lay the foundation of theoretical basis for research and development of Arnaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the optimum extraction technological condition was 60% ethanol, I : 10 material-liquid ratio, 40℃ extraction temperatre and l h extraction time. The extraction rate of total polyphenol from Amaranthus spinosus can reach 4.89 mg/g under the optimum extraction technology. The rate of scavenging hydroxyl radicals can be up to 60% when total potyphenol concentration is 2.5/μg/mL

  19. Response of grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., to method and rate of cattle kraal manure application at Kadawa and Samaru in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Ahmed Manga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted between June and October 2010 wet season at two different locations. The first was at the Horticultural Research Garden of the Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR, Samaru in the Northern Guinea Savanna agro-ecological zone and the second experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of the Irrigation Research Sub-Station (IRS, Kadawa in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone also of the Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria to evaluate the response of grain amaranth growth and green edible vegetable yield components to three methods of cattle kraal manure application (broadcasting, side banding and spot placement incorporated and five rates of cattle kraal manure application (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1, using the variety ‘Pure branch’. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD and replicated three times. Cattle kraal manure application rates significantly (p > 0.05 increased growth of green edible vegetable yield characters of grain amaranth except stem girth at Samaru. Growth and green edible vegetable yield characters were generally not influenced by methods of cattle kraal manure application except for plant height, number of leaves per plant at 12 WAT at Samaru, and plant fresh weight at 12 WAT at Kadawa and dry weight at 4 and 12 WAT at Samaru and 12 WAT at Kadawa. Application of cattle kraal manure of 10 t ha-1 to Amaranthus cruenthus gave the highest mean values which were comparable to those of 15 and 20 t ha-1 rates for all the characters measured such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights. Thus, the finding suggests that 10 t ha-1 should be recommended to farmers growing Amaranthus in the Northern Guinea and Sudan Savanna of Nigerian agro-ecologies.

  20. Troponina C na detecção imuno-histoquímica de alterações regressivas precoces no miocárdio de ovinos naturalmente intoxicados por Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Samay Z.R. Costa; Paulo V. Peixoto; Luiz Armando C. Brust; Mariana S. d'Avila; André M. Santos; David Driemeier; Vivian A. Nogueira; Ticiana N. França

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: Amaranthus spp. são plantas nefrotóxicas popularmente conhecidas como "caruru". Em casos de intoxicação por estas plantas, a principal alteração histopatológica está presente no rim, sob forma de nefrose tubular tóxica, porém em alguns casos pode haver alterações cardíacas. Alterações no eletrocardiograma, compatíveis com quadros de hipercalemia, foram descritas em suínos intoxicados por Amaranthus retroflexus e lesões como degeneração e necrose de miócitos cardíacos descritas em suín...

  1. Effect of Light Stress on Germination and Growth Parameters of Corchorus olitorius, Celosia argentea,Amaranthus cruentus, Abelmoschus esculentus and Delonix regia

    OpenAIRE

    Akinbode Foluso OLOGUNDUDU; Adekunle Ajayi ADELUSI; Kehinde Peter ADEKOYA

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of Abelmoschus esculentus, Amaranthus cruentus, Celosia argentea, Corchorus olitorius and Delonix regia were germinated under light and dark conditions. The germination parameters revealed that germination was higher in seeds of A. cruentus and C. olitorus under light while the seeds of D. regia germinated more in the dark. However, no major difference was observed in the germination of C. argentea and A. esculentus in light and darkness. The above findings point out that germination is...

  2. 苋属4种外来有害杂草在中国的适生区预测%Prediction of potential distribution of four alien invasive Amaranthus weeds in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑卉; 何兴金

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Potential distribution of Amaranthus retrofiexus, A. lividus, A. spinosus and A. viridis in China were evaluated to provide the basis for working out the quarantine and control measures. [Method] Two ecological niche models, GARP and Maxent, were used to predict the four Amaranthus weeds' potential distribution areas in China. [Result] It showed that wet days, elevation, minimum temperature, water vapour pressure and slope are key environmental factors affecting their distribution. The model evaluation showed that both models made good prediction results, and Maxent performed better. Based on both models, we predicted that the suitable distribution areas of these Amaranthus spp. were eastern China, part of northern China, small parts of northwestern and northeastern China, southwestern China except Tibet and west of Sichuan Province, and most area of southern China. [Conclusion] It is suggested that prediction and control measures for the suitable distribution areas of these Amaranthus spp. should be taken.%[目的]明确反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus)、凹苋(A.lividus)、刺苋(A.spinosus),皱果苋(A.viridis)4种有害杂草在中国的适生区,为有效制定检疫措施和防治决策提供依据.[方法]基于4种苋属杂草已有的分布点数据,使用GARP和Maxent两个生态位模型对其在中国的适生区进行预测.[结果]对4种苋属植物适生区影响最大的环境因子主要为雨日频率、海拔、极端低温、水汽压、坡度.模型评价表明,Maxent和GARP两模型对4种杂草的分布均能较好地进行预测,Maxent的结果稍好于GARP.以Maxent为主,GARP作参考,得出苋属4个种在中国的适生区主要集中在华东地区、华北的部分地区、西北和东北的少数地区、除西藏和四川西部以外的西南地区以及中南的大部分地区.[结论]建议相关部门对4种杂草适生区域及其周边做好相应的预警和治理工作.

  3. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamala Salvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (NO, and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase.

  4. Amaranthus leucocarpus lectin recognizes a moesin-like O-glycoprotein and costimulates murine CD3-activated CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Del Ángel, Maria; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Garfias, Yonathan; Chávez, Raul; Zenteno, Edgar; Lascurain, Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    The Galβ1,3GalNAcα1,O-Ser/Thr specific lectin from Amaranthus leucocarpus (ALL) binds a ∼70 kDa glycoprotein on murine T cell surface. We show that in the absence of antigen presenting cells, murine CD4(+) T cells activated by an anti-CD3 antibody plus ALL enhanced cell proliferation similar to those cells activated via CD3/CD28 at 48 h of culture. Moreover, ALL induced the production of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta in CD3-activated cells. Proteomic assay using two-dimensional electrophoresis and far-Western blotting, ALL recognized two prominent proteins associated to the lipid raft microdomains in CD3/CD28-activated CD4(+) T cells. By mass spectrometry, the peptide fragments from ALL-recognized proteins showed sequences with 33% homology to matricin (gi|347839 NCBInr) and 41% identity to an unnamed protein related to moesin (gi|74186081 NCBInr). Confocal microscopy analysis of CD3/CD28-activated CD4(+) T cells confirmed that staining by ALL colocalized with anti-moesin FERM domain antibody along the plasma membrane and in the intercellular contact sites. Our findings suggest that a moesin-like O-glycoprotein is the ALL-recognized molecule in lipid rats, which induces costimulatory signals on CD4(+) T cells. PMID:26417436

  5. Metabolic Profiling and Enzyme Analyses Indicate a Potential Role of Antioxidant Systems in Complementing Glyphosate Resistance in an Amaranthus palmeri Biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Amith S; Nandula, Vijay K; Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O; Gerard, Patrick; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2015-10-21

    Metabolomics and biochemical assays were employed to identify physiological perturbations induced by a commercial formulation of glyphosate in susceptible (S) and resistant (R) biotypes of Amaranthus palmeri. At 8 h after treatment (HAT), compared to the respective water-treated control, cellular metabolism of both biotypes were similarly perturbed by glyphosate, resulting in abundance of most metabolites including shikimic acid, amino acids, organic acids and sugars. However, by 80 HAT the metabolite pool of glyphosate-treated R-biotype was similar to that of the control S- and R-biotypes, indicating a potential physiological recovery. Furthermore, the glyphosate-treated R-biotype had lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage, higher ROS scavenging activity, and higher levels of potential antioxidant compounds derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Thus, metabolomics, in conjunction with biochemical assays, indicate that glyphosate-induced metabolic perturbations are not limited to the shikimate pathway, and the oxidant quenching efficiency could potentially complement the glyphosate resistance in this R-biotype. PMID:26329798

  6. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood) and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed) were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:27051453

  7. 籽粒苋种子超干贮藏研究%Effects of ultradrying storage on vigor of Amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜义宝; 王成章; 李德锋; 王志灵

    2010-01-01

    通过控制超干处理时间获得8.09%、4.12%、2.03%3种不同含水量的籽粒苋(Amaranthus hypo-chondriacus)种子,在50℃恒温箱内进行人工老化处理10d,回水后测量种子发芽率等指标.结果显示,老化前超干种子与未超干种子各项指标无明显差异,老化后4.12%超干处理的籽粒苋种子发芽率、脱氢酶和过氧化物酶均高于对照组,电导率、丙二醛含量低于对照组,并且抗老化效果优于2.03%超干处理,表明适度含水量的超干处理可以使籽粒苋种子保持较高的活力,提高其耐贮藏性.

  8. Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. control in potato by pre- or post-emergence applied flumioxazin and sulfosulfuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Vasilakoglou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L. is one of the most serious weeds in potato (Solanum tuberosum L., but selective herbicides controlling this weed have not been reported. A field experiment was conducted in 2010 and repeated in 2011 in Greece to study the efficacy of herbicides flumioxazin and sulfosulfuron, applied pre- or post-emergence, on field bindweed and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., as well as their phytotoxicity on potato. Gas chromatography-mass spectrography (GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were conducted for possible herbicide residues in potato tubers. Also, the efficacy of these herbicides on field bindweed generated from root fragments was investigated in greenhouse pot experiments. In pots, both herbicides provided 78% to 100% control of field bindweed generated from root fragments. In field, both herbicides when applied pre-emergence at 72 to 144 g ai ha-1 provided 65% to 100% field bindweed control. However, the corresponding post-emergence applications did not provide satisfactory weed control. All treatments provided excellent control of redroot pigweed. Potato growth was not significantly affected by herbicide application in 2010. However, in 2011, post-emergence applications of flumioxazin caused significant crop injury and yield reduction. The results of this study indicate that satisfactory control of field bindweed and redroot pigweed, as well as high potato yield can be obtained by the pre-emergence application of flumioxazin or sulfosulfuron at 72 to 144 g ai ha-1, without herbicide residues on potato tubers.

  9. Characterization of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp. Germplasm in South West Nigeria Using Morphological, Nutritional, and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela E. Akin-Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient utilization of plant genetic resources for nutrition and crop improvement requires systematic understanding of the important traits. Amaranthus species are distributed worldwide with an interesting diversity of landraces and cultivars whose leaves and seeds are consumed. Despite their potential to enhance food security and economic livelihoods, grain amaranth breeding to improve nutritional quality and adoption by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty. This study assessed the variation among 29 grain amaranth accessions using 27 phenotypic (10 morphological and 17 nutritional characters and 16 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers. Multivariate analysis of phenotypic characters showed the first four principal components contributing 57.53% of observed variability, while cluster analysis yielded five groups at 87.5% similarity coefficient. RAPD primers generated a total of 193 amplicons with an average of 12.06 amplicons per primer, 81% of which were polymorphic. Genetic similarities based on Jaccard’s coefficient ranged from 0.61 to 0.88. The RAPD-based unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram grouped the accessions into nine clusters, with the same species clustering together. RAPD primers distinguished the accessions more effectively than phenotypic markers. Accessions in the different clusters as obtained can be exploited for heterotic gain in desired nutritional traits.

  10. Anti-HMG-CoA Reductase, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Amaranthus viridis Leaf Extract as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvamani, Shamala; Gunasekaran, Baskaran; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Shaharuddin, Noor Azmi; Sabullah, Mohd Khalizan

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are believed to contribute to the pathology of several chronic diseases including hypercholesterolemia (elevated levels of cholesterol in blood) and atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed as synthetic drugs, such as statins, which are known to cause adverse effects on the liver and muscles. Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) has been used from ancient times for its supposedly medically beneficial properties. In the current study, different parts of A. viridis (leaf, stem, and seed) were evaluated for potential anti-HMG-CoA reductase, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. The putative HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity of A. viridis extracts at different concentrations was determined spectrophotometrically by NADPH oxidation, using HMG-CoA as substrate. A. viridis leaf extract revealed the highest HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect at about 71%, with noncompetitive inhibition in Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis. The leaf extract showed good inhibition of hydroperoxides, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and ferric ion radicals in various concentrations. A. viridis leaf extract was proven to be an effective inhibitor of hyaluronidase, lipoxygenase, and xanthine oxidase enzymes. The experimental data suggest that A. viridis leaf extract is a source of potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and may modulate cholesterol metabolism by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:27051453

  11. Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae) leaf extract attenuates streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes and oxidative stress in albino rats:A histopathological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanti Bhushan Mishra; Amita Verma; Alok Mukerjee; Madhavan Vijayakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible antidiabetic effects of Amaranthus spinosus leaf extract (ASEt) against streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes &oxidative stress in albino rats.Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal way after the administration of nicotinamide (120mg/kg). The oxidative stress was measured by reduced glutathione (GSH) content and by enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver and kidney. Biochemical observations were further substantiated with histological examination of pancreas, kidney and liver. Results: The increase in blood glucose with the decrease in GSH content and in enzymatic activities were the salient features observed in diabetic rats. Administration of ASEt (250 & 500 mg/kg bw/day, i.p) for 21 days caused a significant reduction in blood glucose in STZ-nicotinamide treated rats when compared with diabetic rats. Furthermore, diabetic rats treated with ASEt leaf extract showed a significant increase in the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants when compared to those of diabetic rats. Degenerative changes of pancreatic cells in STZ treated rats were minimized to near normal morphology by administration of ASEt leaf extract as evidenced by histopathological examination.Conclusion: Results clearly indicate that Amaranthusspinosus treatment attenuate hyperglycemia by decreasing oxidative stress and pancreatic cells damage which may be attributed to its antioxidative potential.

  12. The Effects of Nitrogen Resource Fluctuation on Nitrate Reductases Activities of Redroot Pigweed ( Amaranthus retroflexus ) and Soybean ( Glycine max)%氮素资源波动对反枝苋与大豆硝酸还原酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧; 鲁萍; 吴岩; 曹迪; 王宏燕; 田秋阳; 周鸿章; 王帅

    2012-01-01

    为探讨外来杂草反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus)在入侵农田生态系统过程中对氮素资源波动的适应规律及与作物的竞争机制,采用人工模拟不同氮素波动条件的方法,比较研究了反枝苋和大豆(Glycine max)体内氮素同化关键酶-硝酸还原酶活性的变化情况.结果表明,大豆和反枝苋不同器官的硝酸还原酶活性均能对环境中的氮素添加作出快速的响应,这可能与硝酸还原酶是一种诱导酶有关;大豆硝酸还原反应主要在叶和根部进行,而反枝苋则主要在茎和繁殖器官中进行;无论是大豆还是反枝苋,在单栽其各器官的硝酸还原酶活性均大于混栽,说明种间竞争作用要明显大于种内竞争,种间竞争会显著降低植物体内氮代谢的水平.%In order to study the adapting mechanism of invasive weed,Amaranthus retroflexus response to nitrogen fluctuations, and the competition mechanism between Amaranthus retroflexus and crops in the invading agro-ecosystem, the nitrate reductase (one of the key enzymes of nitrogen assimilation) activities of Amaranthus retroflexus and Glycine max response to different nitrogen fluctuations were studied based on the method of imitating different nitrogen fluctuations. The results showed that the nitrate reductase activities in different organs of Glycine max and Amaranthus retroflexus could respond to nitrogen fluctuation rapidly, which may be due to nitrate reductase belong to a kind of inducible enzymes. Nitric acid reduction reaction of Glycine max carried out mainly in leaves and roots, while that of Amaranthus retroflexus mainly carried out in the stems and reproductive organs. Both the nitrate reductase activities of Glycine max and Amaranthus retroflexus were greater in mono-cropping than in mixed-cropping, implying that the interspecific competition was more severe than intraspecific competition, and interspecific competition would significantly reduce the level of nitrogen

  13. Schizonticidal effect of a combination of Amaranthus spinosus L. and Andrographis paniculata Burm. f./Nees extracts in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwuk Susantiningsih; Rahmawati Ridwan; Ani R. Prijanti; Mohamad Sadikin; Hans-Joachim Freisleben

    2012-01-01

    Background: Amaranthus spinosus and Andrographis paniculata are traditionally used as antimalarial herbs, but the combination of both has not yet been tested. The aim of this study was to determine the schizonticidal anti-malaria effect of a combination in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.Methods: Male mice (Balb/c strain) weighing 28-30 g, 7-8 weeks old, were randomly devided into 5 groups of 4 animals each. Group A: controls (nil) and 4 treatment groups (B, C, D, and E). Group B: Amarathus ...

  14. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L.), CANOLA (Brassica napus L.) Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez; C. Villanueva-Verduzco; García-Mateos, M.R.; M. T. Colinas-León

    2009-01-01

    Los germinados pueden ser considerados vegetales frescos, producidos a bajo costo en cualquier temporada y pueden contribuir con una dieta rica en nutrimentos. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la germinación en la composición nutricional y contenido total de saponinas en germinados de huauzontle (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L.), canola (Brassica napus L.) y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.). Se realizó un aná...

  15. Bemerkenswerte floristische Funde im Landkreis Emsland (1. Fortsetzung)

    OpenAIRE

    Feder, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Neue Fundorte seltener Gefäßpflanzen aus dem Emsland (Niedersachsen) werden aufgeführt als Ergänzung zur Flora vonWeber (1995). Siewurden vomAutor in den Jahren 1998 und 1999 ermittelt. Hierbei wurden 26 teilweise neuerdings eingeschleppte Arten erstmalig imEmsland gefunden, beispielsweise Allium vineale, Amaranthus powellii, Anthriscus caucalis, Bromus carinatus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Coronilla varia, Erucastrum gallicum, Papaver argemone, Sisymbrium loeselii und Tragopogon dubius. Davon s...

  16. Chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of Amaranthus tricolor L.under high temperature stress%高温胁迫下苋菜的叶绿素荧光特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅; 唐运来

    2013-01-01

    为了探明高温胁迫对苋菜(Amaranthus tricolor L.)光合过程的影响,用不同温度(25、30、35、40、45℃)处理苋菜植株1h后,随即测定了其叶绿素荧光动力学参数和快速光响应曲线特征参数的变化.结果表明:40℃以上高温胁迫下,苋菜叶片的光系统Ⅱ(PSⅡ)潜在光化学效率(Fv/Fo)、最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)下降;最大荧光(Fm)、光合电子传递速率(ETR)、PSⅡ实际光化学效率(Yield)、光化学淬灭系数(qP)也均有所下降;而初始荧光(F.)和非光化学淬灭系数(NPQ)在40℃以上高温胁迫下显著上升.叶绿素荧光快速光响应曲线测定结果表明,初始斜率α、最大相对电子传递速率ETRmax和半饱和光强Ik在40℃以上高温胁迫下有所下降.研究表明,40℃以上高温胁迫对苋菜的光能的吸收、转换、光合电子传递和强光耐受能力等均有一定的影响.%Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) plants were exposed to several temperature levels (25,30,35,40,and 45 ℃) for 1 h,and then,the characteristic parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence and the rapid light response curves of photosynthesis were measured,aimed to understand the effects of high temperature stress on the photosynthesis process of amaranth.High temperature stress (>40 ℃) decreased the maximum fluorescence (Fm),potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fo),and maximum photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm).Simultaneously,the electron transport rate (ETR),actual photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Yield),and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) also had some decrease.In contrast,the initial fluorescence (Fo) and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) were increased significantly.The initial slope rate (a),maximum apparent electron transport rates (ETRmax),and half-saturation light intensity (Ik) under high temperature stress also had some decline.These results indicated that the photosynthesis of A.tricolor plants was very sensitive to high

  17. Drought-tolerant Streptomyces pactum Act12 assist phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soil by Amaranthus hypochondriacus: great potential application in arid/semi-arid areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shumiao; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhoufeng; Yang, Shenke; Xue, Quanhong

    2016-08-01

    Microbe-assisted phytoremediation provides an effective approach to clean up heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, severe drought may affect the function of microbes in arid/semi-arid areas. Streptomyces pactum Act12 is a drought-tolerant soil actinomycete strain isolated from an extreme environment on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. In this study, pot experiments were conducted to assess the effect of Act12 on Cd tolerance, uptake, and accumulation in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) under water deficit. Inoculated plants had higher Cd concentrations (root 8.7-33.9 %; shoot 53.2-102.1 %) and uptake (root 19.9-95.3 %; shoot 110.6-170.1 %) than non-inoculated controls in Cd-treated soil. The translocation factor of Cd from roots to shoots was increased by 14.2-75 % in inoculated plants, while the bioconcentration factor of Cd in roots and shoots was increased by 10.2-64.4 and 53.9-114.8 %, respectively. Moreover, inoculation with Act12 increased plant height, root length, and shoot biomass of amaranth in Cd-treated soil compared to non-inoculated controls. Physiochemical analysis revealed that Act12 enhanced Cd tolerance in the plants by increasing glutathione, elevating superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, as well as reducing malondialdehyde content in the leaves. The drought-tolerant actinomycete strain Act12 can enhance the phytoremediation efficiency of amaranth for Cd-contaminated soils under water deficit, exhibiting potential for application in arid and semi-arid areas. PMID:27072036

  18. The novel and taxonomically restricted Ah24 gene from grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) has a dual role in development and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massange-Sanchez, Julio A.; Palmeros-Suarez, Paola A.; Martinez-Gallardo, Norma A.; Castrillon-Arbelaez, Paula A.; Avilés-Arnaut, Hamlet; Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Grain amaranths tolerate stress and produce highly nutritious seeds. We have identified several (a)biotic stress-responsive genes of unknown function in Amaranthus hypochondriacus, including the so-called Ah24 gene. Ah24 was expressed in young or developing tissues; it was also strongly induced by mechanical damage, insect herbivory and methyl jasmonate and in meristems and newly emerging leaves of severely defoliated plants. Interestingly, an in silico analysis of its 1304 bp promoter region showed a predominance of regulatory boxes involved in development, but not in defense. The Ah24 cDNA encodes a predicted cytosolic protein of 164 amino acids, the localization of which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Additional in silico analysis identified several other Ah24 homologs, present almost exclusively in plants belonging to the Caryophyllales. The possible function of this gene in planta was examined in transgenic Ah24 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Transformed Arabidopsis showed enhanced vegetative growth and increased leaf number with no penalty in one fitness component, such as seed yield, in experimental conditions. Transgenic tobacco plants, which grew and reproduced normally, had increased insect herbivory resistance. Modified vegetative growth in transgenic Arabidopsis coincided with significant changes in the expression of genes controlling phytohormone synthesis or signaling, whereas increased resistance to insect herbivory in transgenic tobacco coincided with higher jasmonic acid and proteinase inhibitor activity levels, plus the accumulation of nicotine and several other putative defense-related metabolites. It is proposed that the primary role of the Ah24 gene in A. hypochondriacus is to contribute to a rapid recovery post-wounding or defoliation, although its participation in defense against insect herbivory is also plausible. PMID:26300899

  19. Tissue Culture and Rapid Propagation of Amaranthus mangostanus L.%苋菜的组织培养与快速繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林碧英; 吴丹丹

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 植物名称 苋菜(Amaranthus mangostanus L.). 2 材料类别 带腋芽茎段、叶片、下胚轴,幼苗通过种子无菌萌发获得. 3 培养条件 无菌苗萌发培养基为MS.诱导培养基:(1)MS+6-BA 2.0 mg·L-1(单位下同)+NAA 0.1;(2)MS+6-BA 2.0+NAA 0.2;(3)MS+6-BA 2.0+NAA 0.5;(4)MS+6-BA 3.0+NAA 0.1.不定芽增殖培养基:(5)MS+6-BA 2.0+IAA 0.5;(6)MS+6-BA 2.0+IAA 1.0;(7)MS+6-BA 3.0+IAA 0.5.生根培养基:(8)1/2MS+IBA 0.2;(9)MS+IBA 0.2.以上所有培养基均附加7 g·L-1琼脂和30 g·L-1蔗糖,pH 5.8.培养温度为(25+2)℃,光照时间12~14 h·d-1,光照强度30~40 ìmol·m-2·s-1.

  20. Effects of the Dietary Addition of Amaranth (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) Protein Isolate on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Profiles and Blood Pressure of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, María B; Burini, Julieta; Rinaldi, Gustavo; Añón, María C; Tironi, Valeria A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the dietary addition of 2.5% (w/w) Amaranthus mantegazzianus protein isolate (AI) on blood pressure, lipid profiles and antioxidative status of Wistar rats were evaluated. Six diets were used to feed animals during 28 days: (base (AIN93G), Chol (cholesterol 1%, w/w), CE (α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CholE (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CAI (AI 2.5% w/w), CholAI (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + AI 2.5%, w/w). Lipid profiles of plasma and liver and faecal cholesterol content were analyzed. Antioxidant status was evaluated by the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP), the 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma and liver. Blood pressure was measured in the tail artery of rats. CholA group presented a significant (α < 0.05) reduction (16%) in the plasma total cholesterol. In liver, the intake of cholesterol (Chol group) induced a significant increment in cholesterol and triglycerides (2.5 and 2.3 times, respectively), which could be decreased (18% and 47%, respectively) by the addition of AI (CholA group). This last group also showed an increased faecal cholesterol excretion (20%). Increment (50%) in FRAP values, diminution of TBA value in plasma and liver (70% and 38%, respectively) and diminution of SOD activity (20%) in plasma of CholA group suggest an antioxidant effect because of the intake of AI. In addition, CA and CholA groups presented a diminution (18%) of blood pressure after 28 days. PMID:26497504

  1. Immunochemical Characterization of Amaranthus retroflexus Pollen Extract: Extensive Cross-reactive Allergenic Components among the Four Species of Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae

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    Mohsen Tehrani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Amaranthus retroflexus pollen in causing respiratory allergy has been well ascertained in many countries including Iran with a high positive rate (69% among Iranian allergic patients. The aim of the present study is to identify the allergenic properties of A. retroflexus pollen. Sixteen patients with allergy to A. retroflexus pollen were selected for the study. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of the A. retroflexus pollen extract as well as pollen extracts from other species of the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family, including Chenopodium album, Kochia scoparia, and Salsola kali, were evaluated by ELISA, immunoblotting, and immunoblot inhibition assays. The resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE ranged from 10-85 kDa. Several allergenic components (MW 85, 45, 39, 18, 15, and 10 kDa of the A. retroflexus pollen extract were recognized by using patients' sera by specific antibody of IgE class using ELISA and immunoblot assays. The IgE reactivity of the A. retroflexus pollen extract was partially inhibited by all three pollen extracts tested. the inhibition by the S. kali pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters by the A. retroflexus pollen extract were highly correlated with those by C. album, K. scoparia and S. kali pollen extracts. In conclusion, three proteins with apparent MWs of 39, 45, and 66 kDa are suggested as the common allergenic components among the four pollens from the Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. It appears that there are some common (similar epitopes among the four common allergenic pollens.

  2. The novel and taxonomically restricted Ah24 gene from grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus has a dual role in development and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Armando Massange-Sanchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranths tolerate stress and produce highly nutritious seeds. We have identified several (abiotic stress-responsive genes of unknown function in Amaranthus hypochondriacus, including the so-called Ah24 gene. Ah24 was expressed in young or developing tissues; it was also strongly induced by mechanical damage, insect herbivory and methyl jasmonate and in meristems and newly emerging leaves of severely defoliated plants. Interestingly, an in silico analysis of its 1304 bp promoter region showed a predominance of regulatory boxes involved in development, but not in defense. The Ah24 cDNA encodes a predicted cytosolic protein of 164 amino acids, the localization of which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Additional in silico analysis identified several other Ah24 homologs, present almost exclusively in plants belonging to the Caryophyllales. The possible function of this gene in planta was examined in transgenic Ah24 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum plants. Transformed Arabidopsis showed enhanced vegetative growth and increased leaf number with no penalty in one fitness component, such as seed yield, in experimental conditions. Transgenic tobacco plants, which grew and reproduced normally, had increased insect herbivory resistance. Modified vegetative growth in transgenic Arabidopsis coincided with significant changes in the expression of genes controlling phytohormone synthesis or signaling, whereas increased resistance to insect herbivory in transgenic tobacco coincided with higher jasmonic acid and proteinase inhibitor activity levels, plus the accumulation of nicotine and several other putative defense-related metabolites. It is proposed that the primary role of the Ah24 gene in A. hypochondriacus is to contribute to a rapid recovery post-wounding or defoliation, although its participation in defense against insect herbivory is also plausible.

  3. Metabolic and enzymatic changes associated with carbon mobilization, utilization and replenishment triggered in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus in response to partial defoliation by mechanical injury or insect herbivory

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    Castrillón-Arbeláez Paula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus are crop plants grown for grain production in subtropical countries. Recently, the generation of large-scale transcriptomic data opened the possibility to study representative genes of primary metabolism to gain a better understanding of the biochemical mechanisms underlying tolerance to defoliation in these species. A multi-level approach was followed involving gene expression analysis, enzyme activity and metabolite measurements. Results Defoliation by insect herbivory (HD or mechanical damage (MD led to a rapid and transient reduction of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC in all tissues examined. This correlated with a short-term induction of foliar sucrolytic activity, differential gene expression of a vacuolar invertase and its inhibitor, and induction of a sucrose transporter gene. Leaf starch in defoliated plants correlated negatively with amylolytic activity and expression of a β-amylase-1 gene and positively with a soluble starch synthase gene. Fatty-acid accumulation in roots coincided with a high expression of a phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate transporter gene. In all tissues there was a long-term replenishment of most metabolite pools, which allowed damaged plants to maintain unaltered growth and grain yield. Promoter analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and vacuolar invertase genes indicated the presence of cis-regulatory elements that supported their responsiveness to defoliation. HD and MD had differential effects on transcripts, enzyme activities and metabolites. However, the correlation between transcript abundance and enzymatic activities was very limited. A better correlation was found between enzymes, metabolite levels and growth and reproductive parameters. Conclusions It is concluded that a rapid reduction of NSC reserves in leaves, stems and roots followed by their long-term recovery underlies tolerance to defoliation in grain amaranth. This requires the

  4. Burkholderia ambifaria and B. caribensis promote growth and increase yield in grain amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus and A. hypochondriacus by improving plant nitrogen uptake.

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    Fannie I Parra-Cota

    Full Text Available Grain amaranth is an emerging crop that produces seeds having high quality protein with balanced amino-acid content. However, production is restricted by agronomic limitations that result in yields that are lower than those normally produced by cereals. In this work, the use of five different rhizobacteria were explored as a strategy to promote growth and yields in Amaranthus hypochondriacus cv. Nutrisol and A. cruentus cv. Candil, two commercially important grain amaranth cultivars. The plants were grown in a rich substrate, high in organic matter, nitrogen (N, and phosphorus (P and under greenhouse conditions. Burkholderia ambifaria Mex-5 and B. caribensis XV proved to be the most efficient strains and significantly promoted growth in both grain amaranth species tested. Increased grain yield and harvest index occurred in combination with chemical fertilization when tested in A. cruentus. Growth-promotion and improved yields correlated with increased N content in all tissues examined. Positive effects on growth also occurred in A. cruentus plants grown in a poor soil, even after N and P fertilization. No correlation between non-structural carbohydrate levels in roots of inoculated plants and growth promotion was observed. Conversely, gene expression assays performed at 3-, 5- and 7-weeks after seed inoculation in plants inoculated with B. caribensis XV identified a tissue-specific induction of several genes involved in photosynthesis, sugar- and N- metabolism and transport. It is concluded that strains of Burkholderia effectively promote growth and increase seed yields in grain amaranth. Growth promotion was particularly noticeable in plants grown in an infertile soil but also occurred in a well fertilized rich substrate. The positive effects observed may be attributed to a bio-fertilization effect that led to increased N levels in roots and shoots. The latter effect correlated with the differential induction of several genes involved in carbon

  5. AIR TEMPERATURE AND SUNLIGHT INTENSITY OF DIFFERENT GROWING PERIOD AFFECTS THE BIOMASS, LEAF COLOR AND BETACYANIN PIGMENT ACCUMULATIONS IN RED AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS TRICOLOR L.

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    Laila KHANDAKER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of daily air temperature and sunlight intensity variations on biomass production, leaf color and betacyanin accumulations in red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.. For this purpose, two improved cultivars; BARI-1 and Altopati were grown in seven different period (from April to October, 2006 under vinyl house condition in the experimental facilities of Gifu University, Japan. The mean daily temperatures fluctuated from 18 (growing month- April to 29ºC (August, while the mean sunlight intensities varied from 850 (October to 1257 μmol m-2 S-1 (August. The highest biomass yield and betacyanin accumulation was obtained in the warmer growing period (July and August at 28 to 29ºC mean air temperatures and 1240 to 1257 μmol m-2 S-1 sunlight intensity. At the warmer growing period red amaranth produced red leaves with high color index, which enhanced the betacyanin accumulations. The biomass yield and betacyanin accumulations were reduced significantly in the growing period/month April and October under low temperature regimes (mean air temperature 18 and 19ºC, respectively. However, growing period’s air temperature contributed more for biomass and betacyanin accumulations in red amaranth than sunlight intensity. Comparing two cultivars the biomass yield of BARI-1 was higher biomass yield than that of Altopati and Altopati highlighted with the higher betacyanin accumulations than that of BARI-1 in all growing period. Quantification of the effects of daily air temperature and sunlight intensity on biomass and betacyanin accumulation is important for growers producing these crops for fresh market and also optimize the best growing period. Therefore the influence of air temperatures and sunlight intensity should be considered while grown red amaranth for maximum yield with bioactive compounds like betacyanin and should be grown in between 28 to 29ºC air temperature and 1240 to 1257 μmol.m-2

  6. Determinación de microorganismos fúngicos en semillas de Amaranto (Amaranthus spp. mediante diferentes métodos de análisis

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    Maria C. Noelting

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La ausencia de una metodología destinada al análisis de la micoflora en semillas de amaranto (Amaranthus spp. ha motivado la realización del presente trabajo. A tal efecto, fueron sembradas semillas de dos cultivares (con y sin tratamiento de desinfección en forma previa a la siembra en papel «Blotter test» y en cinco medios agarizados: Agar Papa Glucosado al 2% (APG, Agar Extracto de Glucosa Cloramfenicol (CYG, Agar Czapek (CZ, Agar para conteo en placa (PCA y Agar Sabouraud (SAB. Los cajas fueron incubadas a 26 °C± 2 y 16 hs luz/8hs oscuridad de fotoperíodo durante siete días, a partir del cual se procedió a registrar el número máximo de géneros fúngicos desarrollados y el porcentaje de germinación de las semillas. Un total de catorce géneros fúngicos procedentes del campo y del almacenamiento fueron registrados, destacándose Alternaria por su mayor frecuencia de aislamiento. Al evaluar el número máximo de géneros fúngicos, se detectaron diferencias significativas entre los medios (p>0,001 resultando los medios APG, CZ y PCA los mas efectivos. Por otro lado, la desinfección aplicada a las semillas redujo en términos generales el desarrollo de hongos de crecimiento expansivo. El análisis de los datos correspondientes al porcentaje de germinación reveló la presencia de interacciones entre los cultivares y los niveles de desinfección significativas (p>0,001 en cuatro de los medios analizados; mientras que en el resto se registraron interacciones no significativas.

  7. 优化大孔树脂提取分离苋菜红色素的工艺%Optimization of Extraction and Separation of Red Pigment from Amaranthus Paniculatus with Macroporous Adsorption Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海珠; 张云玲; 胥秀英; 郑一敏; 乔源; 傅善权

    2013-01-01

    AB-8 resin was selected out to purify the red pigment of Amaranthus paniculatus by orthogonal design. The best conditions for isolation of the red pigment of Amaranthus paniculatus were determined as follows: pH 3, adsorption velocity 1.2 mL/min, solution adsorbent 15% ethanol and elution velocity 0.9 mL/min. After AB-8 macroporous resin purification, greatly enhance the pigment quality.%采用正交设计实验筛选AB-8大孔树脂纯化苋菜红色素的最佳工艺条件.其最佳工艺为:上样pH值为3、吸附流速1.2mL/min、洗脱剂浓度为15%乙醇溶液、洗脱流速0.9 mL/min.经过AB-8大孔树脂提纯后,提高了苋菜红色素的品质.

  8. Cloning a cDNA Encoding Ribosomal Protein S25 from Amaranthus cruentus L.%籽粒苋(Amaranthus cruentus L.)核糖体蛋白S25基因(cDNA)的克隆及其表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐芳秀; 江树业; 等

    2001-01-01

    @@ Ribosomes, the agents of protein synthesis, consist of roughly equal amounts of RNA (rRNA) and protein (r-protein). Knowledge of the ribosome and its function mainly comes from the extensive work on 70S bacterial ribosomes. There are 21 proteins in the small (30S) subunit and 30 in the large (50S) subunit in E. coil ri bosomes. The 80S eukaryotic ribosomes are more com plex than the bacterial ones and contain at least 30 pro teins in the small (40S) subunit and 40 in the large (60 S) subunit. These r-proteins are named S1 to S30 and L1 to L40 according to whether they arise from the small or large subunit, and to their mobility in gels. In plants, several ribosomal protein genes and/or cDNAs have been isolated, such as the small subunit proteins S 11, S13, S14, S16, and S19 and the large subunit proteins L2, L7, L17, and L27. Here we report the r-protein S25 cDNA, Arps25, from Amaranthus cruentus L.

  9. Interspecific Association of Dominant Species of Amaranthus retroflexus L.Community%反枝苋群落优势种的种间关联性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彩莉; 张峰; 庞春花; 王慧敏; 范晓

    2013-01-01

    根据野外95个样方的调查数据,运用2×2列联表的x2检验、Jaccard关联指数、Pearson相关系数和Spearman秩相关系数对山西省中南部地区反枝苋群落的25个优势种,共300个种对的种间关联性和相关性进行分析.研究结果表明:1)群落总体呈负相关趋势,优势种的分布相对独立,群落结构较为松散,显著和极显著关联的种对较少;2)x2检验与关联度指数有机结合才能更为准确的反映种间关系;3)Spearman秩相关系数灵敏度高,分析结果较x2检验与Pearson相关系数更为合理准确;4)根据25个优势种对环境的适应方式和主导生态因素结合PCA排序,将它们划分为4个生态种组,各生态种组内的种对具有相同的资源利用方式和生态要求.%Based on the data of 95 plots obtained from investigation,by using x2-test for 2 × 2 contingency table,Pearson coefficient and Spearman rank coefficient,the interspecific association and correlation among 300 species-pairs of 25 dominant plant species of Amaranthus retroflexus L.community in Shanxi were analyzed.The results indicated that:1)The plant community was negative association,the structure of the community was scattered,few species pairs showed significant or highly significant association.2)Only combine x2-test with correlation index can reflect the interspecific relationship more accurately.3)Spearman rank correlation coefficient was more sensitive.Compared with x2-test and Pearson correlation coefficient,the result of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was more reasonable.4)According to the adaptability to the environment and the relationships between plants and environment,25 species were divided into four ecological species groups,with the same resource utilization ways and ecological requirements of the species in each group.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus using 454 pyrosequencing: comparison with A. tuberculatus, expression profiling in stems and in response to biotic and abiotic stress

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    Vargas-Ortiz Erandi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a grain amaranth, is a C4 plant noted by its ability to tolerate stressful conditions and produce highly nutritious seeds. These possess an optimal amino acid balance and constitute a rich source of health-promoting peptides. Although several recent studies, mostly involving subtractive hybridization strategies, have contributed to increase the relatively low number of grain amaranth expressed sequence tags (ESTs, transcriptomic information of this species remains limited, particularly regarding tissue-specific and biotic stress-related genes. Thus, a large scale transcriptome analysis was performed to generate stem- and (abiotic stress-responsive gene expression profiles in grain amaranth. Results A total of 2,700,168 raw reads were obtained from six 454 pyrosequencing runs, which were assembled into 21,207 high quality sequences (20,408 isotigs + 799 contigs. The average sequence length was 1,064 bp and 930 bp for isotigs and contigs, respectively. Only 5,113 singletons were recovered after quality control. Contigs/isotigs were further incorporated into 15,667 isogroups. All unique sequences were queried against the nr, TAIR, UniRef100, UniRef50 and Amaranthaceae EST databases for annotation. Functional GO annotation was performed with all contigs/isotigs that produced significant hits with the TAIR database. Only 8,260 sequences were found to be homologous when the transcriptomes of A. tuberculatus and A. hypochondriacus were compared, most of which were associated with basic house-keeping processes. Digital expression analysis identified 1,971 differentially expressed genes in response to at least one of four stress treatments tested. These included several multiple-stress-inducible genes that could represent potential candidates for use in the engineering of stress-resistant plants. The transcriptomic data generated from pigmented stems shared similarity with findings reported in developing

  11. Effects of Moisture and Additives on Amaranthus retroflexus Silage%晾晒与添加剂对反枝苋青贮饲料品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁超; 吴兆海; 许庆方; 玉柱; 白春生; 石永红; 刘建宁; 乔羽

    2012-01-01

    The effects of moisture and formic acid or sucrose on Amaranthus retroflexus silage were studied. Fresh or wilted A. Retro flexus at flowering stages were packed and ensilaged for 360 d with sucrose (2%) or formic acid (6 mL ? Kg"1). Results showed that the pH and lactic acid content of wilted A. Retro flexus silage were similar to that of fresh A. Retro flexus silage, whereas acetic acid content was increased (P<0. 01) and ammonia nitrogen content was reduced (P<0. 05). Nitrate content was reduced significantly by ensiling. The quality of Amaranthus retro flexus silage was not improved significantly compared to control. The silage fermentation quality was improved by formic acid or sucrose which reduced the pH and ammonia nitrogen content significantly (PAmaranthus retro flexus)青贮饲料品质的影响,以开花期的反枝苋为原料,在鲜贮和晾晒2种条件下分别设置甲酸(6 mL· kg-1)和蔗糖(2%)处理,以不使用任何添加剂为对照,袋装青贮360 d.结果表明:晾晒处理与鲜贮的反枝苋青贮饲料pH值和乳酸含量均无显著差异,而乙酸含量极显著增加(P<0.01),氨态氮含量显著降低(P<0.05),通过青贮硝酸盐含量显著降低,青贮饲料品质无显著差异.添加甲酸和蔗糖能够改善反枝苋青贮饲料的发酵品质,极显著降低反枝苋青贮饲料的pH值和氨态氮含量并提高乳酸生成量(P<0.01).

  12. 铜胁迫对苋菜叶片叶绿素a荧光诱导动力学的影响%Effects of Copper Stress on the Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Induction Kinetics of Amaranthus mangostanus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林碧英; 谢秋梅; 林义章; 朱海生; 李永裕

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Cu-added nutrient fluid on the root of A rnaranthus mangostanus L. was investigated in this experiment. Also, the function changes of the photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ ) reaction center in A maranthus mangostanus L.,and the influences of copper in donor and acceptor sides of this system were investigated by the method of fluorescence induction kinetics. The results showed that copper stress inactivated the PS Ⅱ reaction center in the leaves of Amaranthus mangostanus L., decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (FV/FM), and damaged the acceptor side of PS Ⅱ seriously and inhibited the transfer of linear electrons, and also did harm to the oxygen evolving complexes (OEC) of the donor side of PS Ⅱ. It could be concluded that the damage of copper stress in Amaranthus mangostanus L. was begun from the donor and acceptor sides of PsⅡin leaves.%以苋菜(Amaranthus mangostanus L.)为材料,采用营养液中添加铜的培养方法,观测了根部生长变化:运用叶绿素荧光分析技术研究了铜胁迫下苋菜光系统Ⅱ(PSⅡ)反应中心结构和功能的变化以及PSⅡ反应中心供体侧和受体侧氧化还原状态的影响.结果表明:铜胁迫使苋菜根部生长受到抑制,叶片PSⅡ反应中心失活:最大光化学效率(FV/FM)下降;叶片PSⅡ受体侧产生严重的伤害,线性电子传递受阻;PSⅡ供体侧的放氧复合体(0EC)受损;铜胁迫对苋菜叶片PSⅡ的伤害从PSⅡ供体侧和受体侧开始.

  13. Diferenças morfológicas entre Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, e as plantas daninhas A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus Morphological differences between Amaranthus cruentus, cv. BRS Alegria, and the weed species A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis and A. spinosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O pseudocereal amaranto, com as espécies Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticado pelas populações indígenas antes que a América fosse descoberta, tem se adaptado aos sistemas produtivos dos cerrados. A planta apresenta panículas apicais, divididas em pequenos ramos com frutos do tipo pixídio, com uma semente cada. Estas germinam rapidamente em presença de umidade, após atingirem a maturação fisiológica. No início da fase vegetativa, o amaranto cultivado pode confundir-se com espécies de plantas daninhas do mesmo gênero (A. hybridus, A. retroflexus, A. viridis e A. spinosus, as quais estão associadas à expansão agrícola. As diferenças morfológicas tornam-se mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificações com flores axilares e terminais, em contraste com o amaranto, no qual a inflorescência (panícula é apical; as sementes claras das espécies cultivadas contrastam com as das invasoras, que são escuras. BRS Alegria (A. cruentus, cultivar pioneiro no Brasil, apresenta plantas com 180 cm, das quais a panícula ocupa 48 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 90 dias; resistência ao acamamento; e 0,68 g por 1.000 sementes, com produção de 2,3 t ha¹ (sementes e 5,6 t ha-1 (biomassa total. As sementes nas plantas daninhas são menores, germinam gradativamente e podem permanecer no solo por muitos anos, infestando as áreas. As diferenças morfológicas detectadas na experimentação demonstram que as espécies são distinguíveis; elas contribuem para orientar a produção de sementes e o cultivo comercial de amaranto, enfatizando as características de adaptação, em contraste com as das invasoras do mesmo gênero botânico.The pseudocereal grain amaranth, with the species Amaranthus caudatus, A. ruentus e A. hypochondriacus, domesticated by indigenous populations before America was discovered, has shown adaptability to production systems in the Brazilian savannah. The plants present apical

  14. 玉米田杂草反枝苋对莠去津的敏感性试验研究%Experimental Study on Sensibility of Amaranthus retroflexus L. To Atrazine in Maize Filed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙会杰; 纪明山; 刘郁; 方忠义; 王芳; 侯东艳; 盖芳

    2007-01-01

    用不同剂量的莠去津对采自东北地区的反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus L.)进行田间喷雾处理.试验结果表明:采自不同地区玉米田的反枝苋对莠去津表现了不同的敏感性,采自熊岳、沈阳、铁岭、昌图、丹东、鞍山等地区的相对抗药性倍数低于2,而采自兴城、大连两地的反枝苋与采自其他地区的比较相对抗性水平较高,相对抗药性倍数分别为3.49、2.56.

  15. Transcriptome analysis by Illumina high-throughout paired-end sequencing reveals the complexity of differential gene expression during in vitro plantlet growth and flowering in Amaranthus tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengcai Liu

    Full Text Available Amaranthus tricolor L. is a C4 plant, which is consumed as a major leafy vegetable in some tropical countries. Under conditions of high temperature and short daylight, Am. tricolor readily bolts and blooms, degrading leaf quality. A preliminary in vitro flowering study demonstrated that the flowering control pathway in Am. tricolor may differ from that of Arabidopsis. Nevertheless, no transcriptome analysis of the flowering process in Amaranthus has been conducted. To study Am. tricolor floral regulatory mechanisms, we conducted a large-scale transcriptome analysis--based on Illumina HiSeq sequencing of cDNA libraries generated from Am. tricolor at young seedling (YSS, adult seedling (ASS, flower bud (FBS, and flowering (FS stages. A total of 99,312 unigenes were obtained. Using BLASTX, 43,088 unigenes (43.39% were found to have significant similarity with accessions in Nr, Nt, and Swiss-Prot databases. Of these unigenes, 11,291 were mapped to 266 KEGG pathways. Further analysis of the four digital transcriptomes revealed that 735, 17,184, 274, and 206 unigenes were specifically expressed during YSS, ASS, FBS, and FS, respectively, with 59,517 unigenes expressed throughout the four stages. These unigenes were involved in many metabolic pathways related to in vitro flowering. Among these pathways, 259 unigenes were associated with ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, indicating its importance for in vitro flowering in Am. tricolor. Other pathways, such as circadian rhythm and cell cycle, also had important roles. Finally, 26 unigenes were validated by qRT-PCR in samples from Am. tricolor at YSS, ASS, FBS, and FS; their differential expressions at the various stages indicate their possible roles in Am. tricolor growth and development, but the results were somewhat similar to Arabidopsis. Because unigenes involved in many metabolic pathways or of unknown function were revealed to regulate in vitro plantlet growth and flowering in Am. tricolor, the

  16. 盐胁迫下三色苋甜菜碱及有关酶含量的变化%Changes in Glycine Betaine and Related Enzyme Contents in Amaranthus tricolor Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王羽梅; 孟玉玲; 新居直佑

    2004-01-01

    三色苋(Amaranthus tricolor)不同器官中的甜菜碱(GB)含量显著不同.除子叶外,根、茎和叶的GB含量和茎、叶中的胆碱单加氧酶(CMO)含量都因300 mmol/L的NaCl处理而增加.甜菜碱醛脱氢酶(BADH)的表达无论盐处理与否在所有器官中都能检测到,其含量变化不大.当种子发芽时,具备合成GB的能力,CMO含量增加;在此之前未能检测到CMO,也不能合成GB.研究结果表明三色苋响应盐胁迫而合成GB的关键酶是CMO.%The glycine betaine (GB) and related enzymes contents, i.e., choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), of seeds, roots, stems, cotyledons, leaves, and flowers in Amaranthus tricolor under salt stress were determined. GB content varied significantly among different organs. GB content in the leaves was higher at the beginning of unfolding stage and decreased during maturation and senescence. GB content in the roots was very low through the life of plant. GB content in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers increased by exposure to NaC1 300 mmol/L, except in the cotyledon where it was low and remained unchanged under salt stress. Induction of GB increase by salt stress was greater in mature and old leaves than in younger leaves.CMO protein content was low in the all organs, but that in stems and leaves was significantly increased by the addition of NaC1 300 mmol/L, and was concomitant with the accumulation of GB in their tissues. BADH protein was detected in all organs. But, the levels of BADH protein did not always vary among different organs as a result of salt stress. The effect of salt stress on BADH protein content was small and in consistent in mature and old leaves. Seeds after being soaked in water for 24 h were unable to synthesize GB. When the seeds started to germinate after being in water for 48 h, they showed an ability to synthesize GB under salt stress. This was accompanied with an increase in their CMO protein content, whereas their

  17. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO2 levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO2 and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO2 and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg−1) under two levels of CO2 (360 and 860 μL L−1, respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2 for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO2 than ambient CO2. For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg−1, the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO2 was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO2 than ambient CO2. The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2 with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO2 significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in promoting utilization of CO2

  18. Effects of long-acting fertilizer ENTEC on the culture of Amaranthus spinosus L.%长效肥料ENTEC对野生刺苋驯化栽培的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾; 符小琴; 韦带莲; 杨超

    2004-01-01

    探讨了含有硝化抑制剂DMPP(3,4-二甲基吡唑磷酸盐)的长效肥料ENTEC对剌苋(Amaranthus spinosus L.)干物质积累及其氮素利用的影响. 结果表明: 与尿素处理相比,ENTEC对提高剌苋干物质积累作用不明显,其最大生长速率出现时间较晚; 施用ENTEC,土壤含氮量较高,且下降速度较慢,说明其具有较强的防止氮素流失的作用.同时,ENTEC有利于提高氮素的利用率,ENTEC处理的植株氮素利用率比尿素处理提高了41.56%.另外,ENTEC能促进剌苋对磷、钾素的吸收.

  19. Effects of Salt Stress on Stomatal Differentiation and Movements of Amaranth(Amaranthus tricolor L.)Leaves%盐胁迫对三色苋叶片气孔分化及开闭的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任安祥; 王羽梅

    2010-01-01

    以三色苋(Amaranthus tricolor L.)为材料,研究了不同浓度(0、50、150、300、500 mmol·L~(-1))NaCl处理后气孔的应答反应和300 mmol·L~(-1)NaCl长时间处理后对不同叶序叶片气孔开闭和分化的影响.结果表明,盐处理后三色苋的气孔不同程度地迅速关闭,气孔开放率在处理3 h后达到最低,之后小幅回升.24 h后除50 mmol·L~(-1)NaCl处理外,仍有多数气孔处于关闭状态.长时间盐胁迫使基层的叶片气孔密度略有增加;上层新叶的气孔密度显著降低.长时间盐胁迫使气孔的开放率也降低,越是新分化的叶片盐胁迫对其气孔影响也越大.

  20. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on morphology, physiology and allometry of Amaranthus retroflexus%增强紫外-B对反枝苋的形态、生理及异速生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛慧君; 王勋陵; 岳明

    2003-01-01

    在田间条件下,模拟西安地区21.6%的臭氧层减薄,研究增强紫外-B辐射(280~320 nm,3.18 kJ*m-2*d-1)对双子叶阔叶杂草反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus)生理、形态及异速生长的影响.结果表明:(1)与对照相比,处理组的叶绿素、类胡萝卜素含量降低,但叶片紫外吸收物质的含量增加;(2)处理组的株高、叶数及单株重有明显降低;(3)株高与单株重的线性关系有较大的偏离,表现在同等株高下处理组的生物量低于对照.这些表明在补充的紫外-B条件下,反枝苋的形态有较大的可塑性,并进一步会影响该植物在群落中的竞争能力.

  1. 过氧化钙对苋菜常温活体保鲜效果的影响%Effects of CaO2 on in vitro Preservation of Amaranthus tricolor at Normal Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 李军生; 黄国霞; 阎柳娟

    2013-01-01

    向营养液中添加过氧化钙,考察其对苋菜(A maranthus tricolor L.)常温活体保鲜效果的影响.结果表明,与不添加过氧化钙的处理相比,0.025、0.100、0.250 g/L过氧化钙处理均能极显著延长苋菜的货架期,并延缓苋菜含水量、叶绿素、可溶性糖和维生素C含量的降低;其中以0.100 g/L过氧化钙的保鲜效果最佳.%The effect of CaO2 added in the nutrient solution on the preservation of Amaranthus tricolor at normal temperature was studied.The results showed that compared with the control without CaO2,shelf life of A.tricolor treated by 0.025,0.100,0.250 g/L CaO2 was significantly prolonged,and the decrease of the content of moisture,soluble sugar,chlorophyll,vitamin C were delayed.The preservation effect of 0.100 g/L CaO2 was the best.

  2. 刺苋总黄酮的超声提取工艺研究%Study on extracting total quantity of flavone from Amaranthus spinosus by ultrasonic wave and ethanol extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贤景春

    2012-01-01

    The method of extracting total quantity of flavone from Amaranthus spinosus and the effect of concentration,time,temperature,ratio of material to liquid was discussed.Meanwhile,the optimized conditions for extraction were determined by orthogonal analysis.The best parameters were 40% ethanol as extractant,temperature 60℃,extraction time 2h,ratio of material to liquid 1:20.In this case,the rate of extraction could reach up to 2.83mg/g.%采用超声法对刺苋药用成分进行了提取研究,探讨了溶剂浓度、提取时间、温度、料液比等因素对提取的影响。并通过正交法对刺苋总黄酮的超声提取进行了优化,确定了超声提取的最佳工艺参数为:乙醇浓度40%,温度60℃,提取时间2h,料液比1:20。按此优化条件提取总黄酮量为2.83mg/g。

  3. Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO2 or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Elevated CO2 and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly promoted growth of P. americana, and A. cruentus. ► Total tissue Cs in plants was significantly increased. ► A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana. ► The two plants had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. ► Combined effects of elevated CO2 and microbial inoculation can be explored for CO2- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology. - Abstract: Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO2 and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO2 (860 μL L−1) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0–1000 mg kg−1). Elevated CO2 and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO2 than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO2 concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO2 and microbial inoculation with regard to plant ability to grow and remove radionuclides from soil can be explored for CO2- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology.

  4. Bundle sheath diffusive resistance to CO(2) and effectiveness of C(4) photosynthesis and refixation of photorespired CO(2) in a C(4) cycle mutant and wild-type Amaranthus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiirats, Olavi; Lea, Peter J; Franceschi, Vincent R; Edwards, Gerald E

    2002-10-01

    A mutant of the NAD-malic enzyme-type C(4) plant, Amaranthus edulis, which lacks phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the mesophyll cells was studied. Analysis of CO(2) response curves of photosynthesis of the mutant, which has normal Kranz anatomy but lacks a functional C(4) cycle, provided a direct means of determining the liquid phase-diffusive resistance of atmospheric CO(2) to sites of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation inside bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts (r(bs)) within intact plants. Comparisons were made with excised shoots of wild-type plants fed 3,3-dichloro-2-(dihydroxyphosphinoyl-methyl)-propenoate, an inhibitor of PEPC. Values of r(bs) in A. edulis were 70 to 180 m(2) s(-1) mol(-1), increasing as the leaf matured. This is about 70-fold higher than the liquid phase resistance for diffusion of CO(2) to Rubisco in mesophyll cells of C(3) plants. The values of r(bs) in A. edulis are sufficient for C(4) photosynthesis to elevate CO(2) in BS cells and to minimize photorespiration. The calculated CO(2) concentration in BS cells, which is dependent on input of r(bs), was about 2,000 microbar under maximum rates of CO(2) fixation, which is about six times the ambient level of CO(2). High re-assimilation of photorespired CO(2) was demonstrated in both mutant and wild-type plants at limiting CO(2) concentrations, which can be explained by high r(bs). Increasing O(2) from near zero up to ambient levels under low CO(2), resulted in an increase in the gross rate of O(2) evolution measured by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in the PEPC mutant; this increase was simulated from a Rubisco kinetic model, which indicates effective refixation of photorespired CO(2) in BS cells. PMID:12376660

  5. Troponina C na detecção imuno-histoquímica de alterações regressivas precoces no miocárdio de ovinos naturalmente intoxicados por Amaranthus spinosus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samay Z.R. Costa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Amaranthus spp. são plantas nefrotóxicas popularmente conhecidas como "caruru". Em casos de intoxicação por estas plantas, a principal alteração histopatológica está presente no rim, sob forma de nefrose tubular tóxica, porém em alguns casos pode haver alterações cardíacas. Alterações no eletrocardiograma, compatíveis com quadros de hipercalemia, foram descritas em suínos intoxicados por Amaranthus retroflexus e lesões como degeneração e necrose de miócitos cardíacos descritas em suínos intoxicados por A. caudatus e ovinos intoxicados por A. spinosus. Há dúvidas com relação às alterações cardíacas, que, na maioria dos casos, são incipientes, o que pode levar a erros de interpretação. Para a realização do trabalho foram utilizados blocos parafinados oriundos de um surto natural de intoxicação por A. spinosus no sudeste do Brasil. Esse estudo teve como objetivo detectar a presença de alterações regressivas incipientes no miocárdio de ovinos intoxicados por A. spinosus, através da utilização imuno-histoquímica do anticorpo anti-troponina C. Foram utilizados fragmentos de coração de 8 ovinos adultos e 2 fetos, intoxicados naturalmente por A. spinosus. Estes fragmentos foram submetidos à técnica de imuno-histoquímica com a utilização do anticorpo anti-troponina C. Pela avaliação imuno-histoquímica do coração dos oito ovinos adultos observaram-se diversos grupos de miócitos com diminuição significativa ou ausência de imunorreatividade para o anticorpo anti-troponina C; essas áreas correspondiam, em grande parte, aos mesmos grupos de miócitos que apresentavam, pela coloração de Hematoxilina e Eosina (H.E. alterações que variavam de leve tumefação celular a aumento da eosinofilia, perda de estriação, lise celular e cariólise, ou mais raramente, acompanhadas de infiltrado inflamatório. Em quatro casos foi possível notar que diversos pequenos grupos de miócitos que tinham

  6. Growth and cesium uptake responses of Phytolacca americana Linn. and Amaranthus cruentus L. grown on cesium contaminated soil to elevated CO{sub 2} or inoculation with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium Burkholderia sp. D54, or in combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Shirong, E-mail: tangshir@hotmail.com [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Key Laboratory of Production Environment and Agro-product Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Liao, Shangqiang; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Wang, Ruigang [Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation, Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin 300191 (China); Key Laboratory of Production Environment and Agro-product Safety of Ministry of Agriculture, Tianjin (China); Zhou, Xiaomin [Plant Science Department, McGill University, Macdonald Campus, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec, Canada H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2011-12-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Elevated CO{sub 2} and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly promoted growth of P. americana, and A. cruentus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total tissue Cs in plants was significantly increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two plants had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and microbial inoculation can be explored for CO{sub 2}- and microbe-assisted phytoextraction technology. - Abstract: Growth and cesium uptake responses of plants to elevated CO{sub 2} and microbial inoculation, alone or in combination, can be explored for clean-up of contaminated soils, and this induced phytoextraction may be better than the natural process. The present study used open-top chambers to investigate combined effects of Burkholderia sp. D54 inoculation and elevated CO{sub 2} (860 {mu}L L{sup -1}) on growth and Cs uptake by Phytolacca americana and Amaranthus cruentus grown on soil spiked with various levels of Cs (0-1000 mg kg{sup -1}). Elevated CO{sub 2} and bacterial inoculation, alone or in combination, significantly increased biomass production with increased magnitude, ranging from 22% to 139% for P. americana, and 14% to 254% for A. cruentus. Total tissue Cs in both plants was significantly greater for bacterial inoculation treatment singly, and combined treatments of bacterial inoculation and elevated CO{sub 2} than for the control treatment in most cases. Regardless of CO{sub 2} concentrations and bacterial inoculation, A. cruentus had higher tissue Cs concentration, Cs transfer factors and concentration ratios than P. americana, but they had slightly different contents of antioxidant enzymes. It is concluded that combined effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and microbial inoculation with

  7. Кінетика екстрагування олії з насіння амаранту хвостатого (Amaranthus caudatus) та амаранту гібриду (Amaranthus hibrydus)

    OpenAIRE

    Стадник, Р. В.; Семенишин, Є. М.; Федорчук-Мороз, В. І.; Троцький, В. І.; Ятчишин, Ю. Й.

    2009-01-01

    Виконано дослідження кінетики екстракційного вилучення цільових компонентів з рослинної сировини – амаранту мітлистого, хвостатого, щириці загнутої та амаранту гібриду (Amaranthus hybridus), який одержано на кафедрі селекції Харківського аграрного університету ім. В. В. Докучаєва і який внесений до Реєстру сортів України в 1998 році. Вивчено кінетику екстрагування цільових компонентів, передусім олії різними розчинниками (н-гексан, хлористий метилен). Показано вплив температури...

  8. The Effects of Nitrogen Fluctuation on the Maximum Net Photosynthetic Rate and Photosynthetic Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)and Soybean (Glycine max)%氮素波动对反枝苋和大豆最大净光合速率和光合氮利用效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛雪; 吴岩; 鲁萍; 徐宁彤; 梁慧; 田秋阳; 王鹏; 张东旭

    2013-01-01

    为探讨外来杂草反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexus)在入侵农田生态系统过程中对氮素资源波动的适应规律及与作物的竞争机制,采用人工模拟不同氮素波动条件的方法研究了反枝苋和大豆(Glycine max)最大净光合速率(Pmax)和光合氮利用效率(PNUE)的变化情况.结果表明,无论在何种氮素波动条件下,苗期反枝苋的Pmax均显著高于大豆,而开花结荚期大豆的Pmax则略高于反枝苋;无论苗期还是开花结荚期,反枝苋的PNUE均高于大豆;说明在入侵初期,反枝苋能够保持高的光合能力,对氮素资源进行高效利用,这很可能是其迅速抢占生态位,从而成功入侵的原因之一.%In order to study the adapting mechanism of invasive weed, Amaranthus retroflexus response to the nitrogen fluctuations, the competition mechanism between Amaranthus retroflexus and crops in the process of invading agro-ecosystem , the maximum net photosynthetic rate (Pmax) and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency ( PNUE) of A. retroflexus and Glycine max response to nitrogen fluctuations were studied based on the method of imitating different nitrogen fluctuations. The results showed that the Pmax of A. retroflexus was significantly higher than that of G. max in the seedling stage regardless of N fluctuations types, whereas the Pmax of G. max was slightly higher than that of A. retroflexus in the flowering and podfill stage. The PNUE of A. retroflexus was higher than diat of G. max in the two stages. In the early period of invasion process,A. retroflexus had high Pmax and PNUE,which might be one of the reasons to explain why it could occupy the niche quickly,and successfully invaded the agro-ecosytsem.

  9. БИОХИМИЧЕСКОЕ И АНАТОМИЧЕСКОЕ ИЗУЧЕНИЕ AMARANTHUS HYPOCHONDRIACUS L

    OpenAIRE

    Молчанова, Анна; Бабаева, Елена

    2012-01-01

    Впервые проанализирована динамика накопления сухого вещества, водорастворимых антиоксидантов и каротиноидов в листьях Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. сорта Крепыш. Изучено анатомическое строение листа, стебля и соцветия. Выявлены анатомические диагностические признаки, позволяющие отличить Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. от A. tricolor L....

  10. 不同镉浓度下绿穗苋根际环境特征与镉形态分布%Characteristics and Cd fractions of rhizospheric soil of Amaranthus hybridus L. under different cadmium concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玉兰; 徐小逊; 张世熔; 蒲玉琳; 张驰强; 霍庆霖; 董袁媛

    2016-01-01

    为了解镉(Cd)富集植物根际环境对镉的活化和耐受作用,通过土壤盆栽试验,研究了Cd胁迫下绿穗苋根际环境特征变化和镉形态分布。研究表明:绿穗苋根际pH低于非根际,并随Cd浓度升高总体呈下降趋势;根际DOC含量高于非根际,且随着Cd浓度的增加呈逐渐上升趋势。随着Cd浓度的升高,绿穗苋根际土壤交换态Cd所占比例上升,铁锰氧化物结合态Cd所占比例先升高后降低,碳酸盐结合态Cd、有机结合态Cd和残渣态Cd所占比例均逐渐降低。各处理根际土壤过氧化氢酶、脲酶和磷酸酶活性均高于非根际,根际土壤脲酶和磷酸酶活性均随处理浓度升高呈先升高后降低的趋势,过氧化氢酶活性随处理浓度升高持续下降。结果表明,Cd胁迫下绿穗苋根际pH和DOC的变化对Cd活化具有重要作用,根际土壤酶活性特征表明其对Cd毒性有一定的缓解作用。%Amaranthus hybridus L. is Cd-tolerant plant. Here a pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of cadmium(Cd) stresses on the characteristics and Cd fractions of A . hybridus rhizospheric soil. Results showed that pH in the rhizospheric soil was lower than that in non-rhizospheric soil, while dissolved organic carbon(DOC)concentrations and catalase, urease and phosphatase activities were just opposite. Increasing Cd concentrations reduced pH and catalase activity, but increased DOC concentrations. With Cd concentra-tions increasing, exchangeable Cd fraction was increased, while iron and manganese oxides bound Cd fraction was decreased initially but in-creased later. Carbonates bound, organic matter bound and residual Cd fractions were all decreased. These results suggest that pH and DOC in rhizospheric soil of A . hybridus could be an important factor influencing the distribution of Cd fractions, and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheric soil could play a role in mitigating Cd toxicity.

  11. Analysis of Codon Bias of NAD-ME Gene in Amaranthus hypochondriacus%籽粒苋苹果酸酶(NAD-ME)基因密码子偏好性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 白云风; 冯瑞云; 王原媛; 张维锋

    2011-01-01

    遗传密码子是生命信息的基本遗传单位,每种氨基酸对应1~6个同义密码子.特定物种在长期进化中形成了适应自身基因组环境的密码子使用偏性.运用CHIPS、CUSP和CodonW程序分析自主克隆的籽粒苋NAD-ME基因的密码子偏好性,并与马铃薯等7种植物的ME基因密码子偏好性进行比较,以期为该基因在作物遗传改良中选择合适的受体植物提供依据.结果表明,籽粒苋NAD-ME基因偏好于以A或T结尾的密码子,其它几种被比较作物的ME基因也有同样的趋势,但双子叶植物的偏好性更强.基于NAD-ME基因的密码子使用偏性的系统聚类分析表明,籽粒苋与马铃薯、拟南芥、葡萄、蓖麻、毛果杨等双子叶植物聚为1类,玉米和高粱这2个单子叶植物聚为1类,预示籽粒苋NAD-ME基因更适合导入马铃薯等双子叶植物.对籽粒苋NAD-ME基因的密码子偏好性与大肠杆菌和酵母的基因组密码子偏好性进行比较,发现均存在差异,与大肠杆菌的差异高于酵母,表明酵母表达系统要优于大肠杆菌表达系统.若要进一步提高籽粒苋NAD-ME基因在大肠杆菌或酵母中的表达水平,尚需对其密码子进行优化.%Due to the degeneracy of genetic codon, most amino acids are coded by more than one codon (synonymous codons).Nucleotide coding sequences of many organisms exhibit significant codon bias, that is, unequal usage of synonymous codons.In this paper, coding sequence of NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) gene of Amaranthus hypochondriacus was analyzed by Codon W, CHIPS (Condon heterozygosity in a protein coding sequence) and CUSP (Create a codon usage table)programs for identifying codon bias and selecting appropriate expression systems.The results showed that NAD-ME gene of A.hypochondriacus was bias toward the synonymous codons with A and T at the third codon position.The phylogenic analysis suggested that NAD-ME gene of A.hypochondriacus was evolutionarily

  12. Cytokinin activity of disubstituted aminopurines in Amaranthus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garcia-Raso, A.; Cabot, C.; Fiol, J. J.; Spíchal, Lukáš; Nisler, Jaroslav; Tasada, A.; Luna, J. M.; Alberti, F. M.; Sibole, J. V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 14 (2009), s. 1529-1536. ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD522/08/H003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Benzylaminopurine * Betacyanin * CO2 assimilation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2009

  13. Assessment of lead, cadmium, and zinc contamination of roadside soils, surface films, and vegetables in Kampala City, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between traffic density and trace metal concentrations in roadside soils, surface films, and a selected vegetable weed, Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., was determined in 11 farming sites along major highways around Kampala City in Uganda. Surface soil, atmospherically deposited surface films on windows, and leaves of Amaranthus dubius were sampled at known distances from the roads and analyzed for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Atmospherically deposited trace metal particulates were sampled using window glass as an inert, passive collector. Total trace metal concentrations in soils ranged from 30.0±2.3 to 64.6±11.7 mg/kg Pb, 78.4±18.4 to 265.6±63.2 mg/kg Zn, and 0.8±0.13 to 1.40±0.16 mg/kg Cd. Total trace metal levels in soil decreased rapidly with distance from the road. Total Pb decreased with distance up to 30 m from the road, where it reached a background soil concentration of 28 mg/kg dry weight. The study found background values of 50 and 1.4 mg/kg for Zn and Cd in roadside soils, respectively. Similarly, Pb concentration in Amaranthus dubius leaves decreased with increasing distance from the road edge. The dominant pathway for Pb contamination was from atmospheric deposition, which was consistent with Pb concentrations in surface films. The mean Pb concentrations in leaves of roadside crops were higher than those in their respective roots, with the highest leaf-to-root ratio observed in the Brassica oleraceae acephala group. The lowest Pb and Zn concentrations were found in the fruit compared to the leaves of the same crops. Leaves of roadside vegetables were therefore considered a potential source of heavy metal contamination to farmers and consumers in urban areas. It is recommended that leafy vegetables should be grown 30 m from roads in high-traffic, urban areas

  14. Purification and Characterization of a Novel α-Amylase Inhibitor from Wild Amaranth(Amaranthus paniculatus)Weeds%野生苋属植物籽实中新型α淀粉酶抑制剂的分离纯化及其性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 周铁杨; 唐兴; 王贤纯; 梁宋平

    2004-01-01

    A novel proteinaceous inhibitor of α-amylase was purified from the wild amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus ) seeds. The inhibitor, named WAI-1, has a molecular weight of 986.5 determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. It is the smallest proteinaceous inhibitor of α-amylase found so far. Preliminary compositional and structural analysis indicated that WAI-1 is a nonapeptide with N-terminal pyroglutamate.Purified directly by reversed-phase HPLC, WAI-1 potently inhibited the α-amylase activity of the insect ( Periplaneta Americana) digestive duct in a noncompetitive manner and did not inhibit the human salivary α-amylase. WAI-1 inhibited α-amylase activity of Periplaneta Americana digestive duct evidently under mild acid conditions, with optimal inhibitory pH 6.0. WAI-1 exhibited the highest inhibitory activity after preincubation with the enzyme at 37 ℃ for about 30 min. When a fixed amount of α-amylase used, along with the increase of the inhibitory/enzyme ratio the inhibition percentages of the α-amylase activity were linearly increased up to about 50 %, and then increased slowly up to a maximum of about 65 %.%从野生苋属植物(Amaranthus paniculatus)籽实中分离纯化出α淀粉酶的一种新型蛋白质类抑制剂.该抑制剂被命名为WAI-1.MALDI-TOF质谱测得其分子量为986.5,是目前报道的α-淀粉酶的蛋白质类抑制剂中分子量最小的.初步的组成和结构分析结果表明,WAI-1由9个氨基酸残基组成,其N端为焦谷氨酸.直接用RP-HPLC纯化后,WAI-1能在弱酸性条件下,以非竞争性抑制作用方式有效抑制美洲蜚蠊消化道α淀粉酶的活性,最适抑制pH 6.0,但对人唾液淀粉酶活性无影响.WAI-1在37℃下与酶预温浴约30 min后显示最大抑制活性.当α淀粉酶用量一定时,α淀粉酶活性的抑制率在约50%的范围内随抑制剂/酶比例的增大而呈线性增加,超过50%后,抑制率随抑制剂/酶比例的增大而缓慢上升,最终达到最大值(约65%).

  15. Gastric antisecretory and cytoprotective effects of leaf extracts of Amaranthus tricolor Linn.in rats%苋科植物雁来红叶提取物对大鼠的胃细胞保护及抗分泌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkatapura C. Devaraj; Burdipad G. Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of Amaranthus tricolor Linn.(Amaranthaceae) in rats.Methods:The effects of A.tricolor leaves on gastric secretion and the effect of gastric cytoprotection were evaluated using five different models of gastric ulcers:acetic acid-induced,pylorus ligation-induced,ethanol-induced,indomethacin-induced and ischemia-reperfusion-induced gastric ulcers.The different extracts,namely,ethanolic extract (EAT),petroleum ether extract (PEAT),chloroform extract (CAT) and ethyl acetate extract (EAAT) of A.tricolor leaves were administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg per oral (p.o.).Results:The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2 000 mg/kg,p.o; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity.The EAT and EAAT (200 mg/kg,p.o.) showed gastric ulcer-healing effect in acetic acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers.The EAT and EAAT inhibited gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats and showed gastric cytoprotective effect in ethanol-induced and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers,while PEAT and CAT showed no significant antiulcer effect.Conclusion:The leaf extracts of A.tricolor are found to possess very good antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers which is consistent with the literature report in folk medicine.%目的:验证苋科植物雁来红(Amaranthus tricolor Linn.)叶的提取物对不同胃溃疡模型大鼠的抗溃疡作用.方法:通过5种不同的大鼠胃溃疡模型(乙酸、幽门结扎、乙醇、消炎痛及缺血再灌注模型)证实雁来红叶对大鼠胃分泌功能的影响及胃细胞的保护作用.不同的雁来红叶的提取物(乙醇、石油醚、三氯甲烷及乙酸乙酯)以200mg/kg的剂量给予大鼠服用以检测其功效.结果:急性口服毒性实验显示各种提取物的安全口服剂量可达2 000 mg/kg,故选取该剂量的十分之一即200mg/kg作为实验

  16. 可降解螯合剂对镉胁迫下籽粒苋根系形态及生理生化特征的影响%Effects of biodegradable chelants on the root morphology and physiological-biochemical characteristics of Amaranthus hybridus L.in cadmium contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 张世熔; 徐小逊; 贾永霞

    2014-01-01

    采用盆栽试验研究了可降解螯合剂EDDS和NTA对镉胁迫下籽粒苋(Amaranthus hybridusL.)根系形态及生理生化特征的影响.结果表明:当螯合剂施入10 mg/kg的镉污染土壤后,籽粒苋根系生物量和总长等根系形态指标与对照无显著差异,过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、谷胱甘肽(GSH)和可溶性蛋白含量显著上升.当螯合剂施入100 mg/kg的镉污染土壤后,籽粒苋根系生物量、总长、表面积、体积及侧根数比对照显著减少了12.30%-23.98%、17.01%-24.90%、41.87%-57.93%、16.46%-32.94%和23.48%-53.35%;EDDS的施入使籽粒苋根系POD、CAT活性、GSH和可溶性蛋白含量显著升高;而NTA施入后,根系中的POD活性比对照降低了4.12%-35.95%,并且CAT活性和可溶性蛋白含量在2 mmol/kg NTA处理下分别显著降低了14.66%-15.79%和26.81%-30.48%;EDDS和NTA施入后,GSH含量比对照显著升高了14.73%-65.65%和28.05%-84.10%.当镉处理浓度分别为10 mg/kg和100 mg/kg时,螯合剂的施入显著增强了籽粒苋根系对镉的吸收,比对照分别增加了40.76%-103.10%和15.03%-49.49%.因此,EDDS和NTA施入镉污染土壤后,通过影响籽粒苋根系形态和生理生化过程以响应重金属镉的胁迫.

  17. ФИЗИОЛОГО-БИОХИМИЧЕСКАЯ РЕГУЛЯЦИЯ ВЗАИМОДЕЙСТВИЯ РАСТЕНИЙ РОДА AMARANTHUS L. И ДИАЗОТРОФОВ

    OpenAIRE

    Чернов, Игорь; Дегтярева, Ирина

    2005-01-01

    В статье представлены результаты исследования эколого-физиологической регуляции взаимодействия в агроценозе растений рода Amaranthus L. и диазотрофов. Изучены пути интенсификации азотфиксации в корневой зоне этих растений.

  18. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review)

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves; Leonardo Bianco de Carvalho; Marcelo Claro de Souza; Paulo Roberto Fidelis Giancotti

    2011-01-01

    Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the mo...

  19. Efeito de cascas de café e de arroz dispostas nas camadas do solo sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial do caruru-de-mancha Allelopathic effect of coffee and rice husks arranged in soil layers on the germination and initial growth of Amaranthus viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.F. Santos

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos dos efeitos dos resíduos de plantas pela utilização de coberturas mortas no controle das plantas daninhas têm apresentado dificuldade de determinar a diferenciação entre alelopatia e competição. Atualmente, muitas pesquisas têm se referido a critérios que propõem evidência à alelopatia. Este trabalho em casa de vegetação visou determinar os efeitos alelopáticos proporcionados pelas cascas de café e de arroz sobre o caruru-de-mancha, por meio das disposições desses resíduos nas camadas do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos em quatro repetições e organizados num esquema fatorial (3x3, sendo cascas de café e de arroz e vermiculita expandida como um fator e suas disposições, com resíduos depositados no topo, incorporados na superfície e incorporados no fundo, como segundo fator. Como testemunha foi usado um tratamento adicional sem cobertura. De modo geral, resíduos de cascas proporcionaram inibição da germinação e estímulo ao crescimento do caruru-de-mancha. A casca de arroz proporcionou menor índice de velocidade de emergência e germinação de sementes do que a casca de café. A casca de café depositada no topo proporcionou maior crescimento e maior peso da matéria seca do caruru-de-mancha, seguido pela mesma casca incorporada na superfície do solo.Studies of plant residue effects involving mulches to control weeds in perennial crops are difficult to carry out due to the need to differentiate between allelopathy and competition. Many researches, nowadays, refer to criteria proving allelopathy. This work was established under greenhouse conditions to determine the allelopathic effects of coffee and rice husks on Amaranthus viridis through their arrangements in soil layers. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications, arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with coffee and rice husks and expanded vermiculite being one factor and

  20. АМАРАНТ (AMARANTHUS L.): ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ СОСТАВ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ (ОБЗОР)

    OpenAIRE

    Галина Ивановна Высочина

    2013-01-01

    Представленные в специальной литературе данные свидетельствуют о высокой эффективности применения электрохимически активированной воды (ЭХАВ) в сельском хозяйстве, но механизм ее влияния на биологические объекты практически не описан. Мы изучали влияние предпосевной обработки семян амаранта хвостатого Amaranthus caudatus L. ЭХАВ на активность дыхательных ферментов, содержание субстратов, энергию прорастания и силу роста. Установлено, что физико-химические изменения, происходящие в воде в резу...

  1. Efeitos da densidade e proporção de plantas de milho (Zea mays L. e caruru (Amaranhus retroflexus L. em competição Density and porportion effects among corn (Zea mays L. and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. under competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Christoffoleti

    1996-01-01

    plants in a mixture of species, nor the importance of intra and inter-specific competition and niche diferentiation. Therefore, this research was developed aiming to describe the competitive interaction and competitive indexes between corn (Zea mays L. and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. plants. The methodology was a replacement series experiment with a total density of 400 plants/m2 and 5 proportions, besides the monoculture that varied from 50 to 800 plants/m2, conducted in a randomized completely block desing, four replications. The results were analyzed through conventional replacement series analysis, using reciprocal total and per plant yield. Corn was the superior competitor and the intra-specific competition was more important than the inter-specific for this species. The reverse was true for pigweed. Both species were competing for the same natural resources since the niche diferentiation index was lower than 1,0. The influence of density and proportion of species in a competition study is very important in the understanding of competitive interactions.

  2. Allozyme variation and evolutionary relationships of grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptli, H; Jain, S

    1984-12-01

    Allozyme studies in amaranth provided useful assays of genetic variation in order to verify the patterns inferred from morphological traits, for elucidating the genetic structure of landraces, and for the studies of evolutionary relationships among wild, weedy and crop species. Thirty-four populations of cultivated New World amaranths were surveyed along with 21 weedy New World populations for allozyme variation at nine electrophoretic enzyme loci. Eleven populations of cultivated amaranths from the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh and six from Nepal were also surveyed for a comparison. In the New World populations, heterozygosity was low, and different populations ranged from 0 to 44% polymorphic loci. Adjacent populations were often fixed for different alleles or had very different allele frequencies at certain loci, with no apparent geographical patterns. Diversity index H' was partitioned into the intra- and interpopulation as well as the interspecific components of variability. The crop versus weed genetic distances were the largest, whereas the intra- and interpopulation components of H' were about equal. Genetic structure of all three species of the New World amaranths together can be described as a collection of distinct populations, each more or less a heterogeneous collection of highly homozygous individuals. The North Indian populations showed relatively less allozyme variability with the most common alleles same as those of Mexican landraces. Alleles at several loci proved to be diagnostic of the crop and weed groups, and of the three individual crop species. Genetic distances based on pooled gene frequencies showed the three crop species to be generally more closely related inter se than they were to their putative weedy progenitor species, respectively (with the exception of the weed-crop pair A. quitensis and A. caudatus). This implies a single domestication event involving A. hybridus as the common ancestor rather than three separate domestication events. Close similarity between A. caudatus and A. quitensis might have resulted from transdomestication based on a weedy or semi-domesticated species having migrated from Meso-America to South America. This preliminary report must now be expanded by further ecogeographical, cytogenetic and population studies on new extensive collections from the areas of early domestication. Some evidence of recent introgression and/or segregation of crop-weed hybrids between A. caudatus and A. retroflexus is available in the form of rare individuals in crop populations with crop allozyme genotypes except for a single homozygous weedy allele. PMID:24253706

  3. Determination and toxicity of saponins from Amaranthus cruentus seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszek, W; Junkuszew, M; Stochmal, A

    1999-09-01

    The concentrations of four triterpene saponins present in amaranth seeds were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. It was shown that the total concentration of saponins in seeds was 0. 09-0.1% of dry matter. In germinating seeds an increase in concentration to 0.18% was observed after 4 days of germination, which remained stable for the next 3 days and later dropped to 0.09%. Highly purified extracts from the seeds were tested for their toxicity against hamsters. The hydrophobic fraction obtained by the extraction of seeds with methylene chloride showed no toxicity; the behavior of tested animals was similar to that of the group given an equivalent dose of rapeseed oil. A crude saponin fraction, containing approximately 70% of pure saponins in the matrix, showed some toxicity; the approximate lethal dose was calculated as 1100 mg/kg of body weight. It is concluded that low contents of saponins in amaranth seeds and their relatively low toxicity guarantee that amaranth-derived products create no significant hazard for the consumer. PMID:10552705

  4. Herbicide tolerance and seed survival of grain amaranth (Amaranthus sp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Taberner, Andreu; de Troiani, Rosa M.;

    2012-01-01

    Amaranth is receiving increasing attention as an alternative crop to small grain cereals. From a weed control point of view cultivation of amaranth poses two problems. Firstly, amaranth grows slowly after emergence and hence is very susceptible to competition by weeds and secondly, seed losses at...

  5. Using Amaranthus palmeri pollen to mark captured tarnished plant bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild host plants play an important role for tarnished plant bug (TPB), Lygus lineolaris, populations during the early spring and during the fall when cultivated crops are not flowering. Determining TPB dispersal into and out of cotton fields and native habitats is important for managing this insect...

  6. Studies on Controlled Release Fertilizer on Roselle and Amaranthus Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.L.Nageswara Rao; , D.Kamalakar 2

    2014-01-01

    India needs to raise its food grains targets at a rate of more than 4 million tons per annum. Scope for increase in area under cultivation is negligible. Due to rapid increase of population as well as the drop in the average cultivable land required for farming. Plants require necessary nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium for their photosynthesis process the soil should have the capability of providing the essentials in abundant. In this study we are mainly conce...

  7. Studies on Controlled Release Fertilizer on Roselle and Amaranthus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.L.Nageswara Rao *

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available India needs to raise its food grains targets at a rate of more than 4 million tons per annum. Scope for increase in area under cultivation is negligible. Due to rapid increase of population as well as the drop in the average cultivable land required for farming. Plants require necessary nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium for their photosynthesis process the soil should have the capability of providing the essentials in abundant. In this study we are mainly concentrated on the growth of plant, pH, and salinity, amount of nitrogen percent, amount of potassium percent, amount of phosphorous percent present in the soil and how they are helpful to the plant growth and to study the type of effects of these parameters on plant growth.

  8. ВЛИЯНИЕ МИКРОЭЛЕМЕНТА ЦИНКА НА РОСТ И АМИНОКИСЛОТНЫЙ СОСТАВ РАСТЕНИЙ РОДА AMARANTHUS

    OpenAIRE

    Муравьёва, А.; Барсуков, П.; Куликов, Ю.

    2010-01-01

    Изучена роль микроэлемента цинка в повышении стрессустойчивости растений рода AMARANTHUS L. в экстремальных условиях роста: гипотермии, переувлажнения и атмосферной засухи. Установлено, что цинк обладает ростостимулирующей активностью в условиях гипотермии и переувлажнения. В результате предпосевной обработки семян цинком в листьях синтезируется больше стрессовых аминокислот: глицина, пролина, аланина и глутаминовой кислоты. Накопление гидрофильных аминокислот (осмотически активных веществ) с...

  9. Исследование сигнальной роли ионов кальция в цитокинин-зависимых реакциях Amaranthus caudatus L

    OpenAIRE

    Маркова, И.; Румянцева, Е.; Гетман, И.; Романов, Г.; Медведев, С.

    2003-01-01

    В процессе цитокининовой сигнализации участвует ряд вторичных посредников, среди которых одно из центральных мест занимает ионизированный кальций. Цель работы заключалась'в выяснении механизмов функционирования ионов Са 2+ в процессе цитокининовой сигнализации у растений Amaranthus caudatus, а также участия Са-транспортирующих систем в трансдукции гормонального сигнала. На основании полученных результатов можно предположить, что в процессе передачи гормонального сигнала необходимо функциониро...

  10. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R., E-mail: colin.black@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ{sub M}), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  11. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQM), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  12. Resistencia de Amaranthus quitensis a imazetapir y clorimurón-etil Resistance of Amaranthus quitensis to imazethapyr and clhorimuron-ethyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tuesca

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la existencia de biotipos de A. quitensis H.B.K. resistentes a imazetapir y clorimurón-etil. Se utilizaron semillas recolectadas en las localidades de Zavalla, General Baldissera, Marcos Juárez y Las Rosas. Las dosis de herbicidas utilizadas fueron 1/8x, 1/4x, 1/2x, 1x, 5x, 10x y 20x de la dosis de uso recomendada. Se determinó la mortalidad y biomasa de las plantas tratadas. Se calcularon las dosis de herbicidas requeridas para reducir en un 50% la biomasa de las plantas de la maleza (GR50 y se estimó la relación entre GR50 del biotipo resistente y GR50 del susceptible (factor de resistencia. El biotipo Zavalla resultó muy susceptible; con la mitad de la dosis de uso de ambos herbicidas la mortalidad fue 95%. El biotipo General Baldissera presentó resistencia cruzada; con dosis 20 veces superiores a las recomendadas, la mortalidad fue 57,5% y 20% para imazetapir y clorimurón-etil, respectivamente. El factor de resistencia de este biotipo respecto a Zavalla fue 165 y 246 para imazetapir y clorimurón-etil, respectivamente. Los biotipos Las Rosas y Marcos Juárez fueron resistentes a imazetapir y sin embargo resultaron muy susceptibles a clorimurón-etil. Las diferencias en los patrones de resistencia estarían asociadas con distintos niveles de presión de selección en las poblaciones analizadas.The objective was to determine the magnitude of resistance of A. quitensis H.B.K. biotypes to imazethapyr and chlorimuron-ethyl. Weed biotypes were collected at Zavalla, General Baldissera, Marcos Juárez y Las Rosas. The herbicides were applied at 1/8x, 1/4x, 1/2x, 1x, 5x, 10x and 20x the suggested rate. Weed mortality and reduction of biomass related with untreated plants were evaluated. Herbicides concentrations required to reduce growth by 50% (GR50 were determined. Resistance ratio (GR50 resistant/GR50 susceptible was calculated to indicate the degree of resistance. Zavalla showed high susceptibility, with 1/2 of the suggested rate of both herbicides mortality reached 95%. General Baldissera was cross-resistant; with rates 20 times superior to the recommended field use rate mortality was 57.5% and 20% for imazethapyr and clhorimuron-ethyl, respectively. Resistance ratios of this biotype compared with Zavalla were 165 and 246 for imazethapyr and chlorimuron-ethyl, respectively. Las Rosas y Marcos Juárez were resistant to imazethapyr but showed high susceptibility to chlorimuron-ethyl. The resistance patterns showed by the biotypes could be associated with differences in the selection pressure at each location.

  13. AUMENTO DEL CONTENIDO PROTEICO DE UNA BEBIDA A BASE DE AMARANTO (Amaranthus hypochondriacus INCREASING THE PROTEIN CONTENT OF AN AMARANTH (Amaranthus hypochondriacus DRINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Contreras L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue aumentar el contenido proteico de una bebida a base de amaranto (Amaranto-le mediante la adición de diferentes fuentes proteicas (garbanzo, alverja, lactosuero, leche en polvo, leche de soya. Se prepararon mezclas de Amarantole-fuente proteica en cuatro proporciones distintas (80:20, 75:25, 70:30 y 60:40. Las mejores mezclas fueron seleccionadas en base a su aumento en el contenido proteico y sus características organolépticas detectadas mediante pruebas de grado de satisfacción, de preferencia y de ordenamiento. La composición química y mineral de las mezclas seleccionadas fue determinada mediante técnicas del AOAC. La calidad proteica se determinó a través de la prueba de Relación de Eficiencia Proteica (REP y la digestibilidad in vivo. Amarantole-lactosuero alcanzó el porcentaje de proteína más elevado (22.66%. Los minerales más abundantes en todas las mezclas fueron: Ca, K, Mg y Na. En general, todas las mezclas, presentaron valores de REP (2.61 a 3.26 superiores a la dieta de referencia (caseína REP=2.5. Las mezclas adicionadas de lactosuero y leche en polvo-lactosuero (88.19 y 86.0% presentaron una digestibilidad similar a la dieta de caseína (91.28%. En conclusión, la muestra Amarantole-lactosuero fue la mezcla que presentó las mejores características en cuanto a contenido de proteína, digestibilidad y valor de REP.The aim of this work was to increase the protein content ofan amaranth drink (Amarantole with different proteins sources (chickpea, pea, lacto serum, powdered milk and soybean milk. Different mixtures of Amarantole-protein mix were prepared in four proportions (80:20,75:25,70:30 and 60:40. The best mixtures were selected according to the increase in the protein content and its sensory characteristics assayed by using degree of liking, preference and ranking test. Chemical and mineral composition was determined according to the AOAC techniques. Protein quality was determined by the Protein Efficiency Ratio test (PER and in vivo digestibility. Amarantole-lacto serum show the highest % cent in protein content (22.66%. The minerals more abundant in all the mixtures were Ca, K, Mg and Na. In general, all the mixtures presented highest values of PER (2.61 a 3.26 than the reference (casein PER=2.5 diet. Mixtures added of lactoserum and milk-lactoserum (88.19 y 86.0% presented a similar digestibility to the casein diet (91.28%. In conclusion, Amarantole-lactoserum mixture showed the best characteristics concerning protein content, digestibility and PER value.

  14. The effect of different levels and stages of low irrigation on some morphological traits of amaranth cv. Koniz (Amaranthus hypochindriacus L.× Amaranthus hybridus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Elnaz Farajzadeh; Mehrdad Yarnia; Mohammad Bagher Khorshidi Benam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most stressful environmental factors that strongly influence the growth and yield of crops. However, the plant’s response to this stress differs depending on the stage of its growth. The present study set out to investigate the effect of different levels of low irrigation regimes (irrigation after 50, 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from pan A) in different growth stages (plant establishment, branching, flowering and grain filling). The results of the study showed th...

  15. The effect of different levels and stages of low irrigation on some morphological traits of amaranth cv. Koniz (Amaranthus hypochindriacus L.× Amaranthus hybridus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Farajzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most stressful environmental factors that strongly influence the growth and yield of crops. However, the plant’s response to this stress differs depending on the stage of its growth. The present study set out to investigate the effect of different levels of low irrigation regimes (irrigation after 50, 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from pan A in different growth stages (plant establishment, branching, flowering and grain filling. The results of the study showed that irrigation after 170 mm evaporation of pan following the plant establishment, branching, flowering and grain filling, caused biomass reduction by 8%, 27%, 43% and 53%, respectively. Irrigation levels after 80, 110, 140 and 170 mm evaporation from pan led to the reduction of yield by 12%, 22%, 33% and 45% compared to the irrigation after 50 mm evaporation from the pan. In case of stress per delay time of irrigation based on evaporation from the evaporation pan, the grain yield decreased by 3.03 units. Results showed that applying low levels of irrigation before pollination leads to further reduction of the yield; so that the stress in the stages of plant establishment, branching, and flowering reduced the yield by 34, 27 and 22% compared to the irrigation after 50 mm evaporation from pan.

  16. Screening of Amaranth Cultivars(Amaranthus mangostanus L.)for Cadmium Hyperaccumulation%镉超富集苋菜品种(Amaranthus mangostanus L.)的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范洪黎; 周卫

    2009-01-01

    [目的] 苋菜在中国的分布很广,品种资源丰富,通过筛选耐镉苋菜品种,发掘镉污染土壤植物修复资源.[方法]采用溶液培养方法,从来自不同生态区域的23个苋菜品种(Arearanthus mangostanus L.)中筛选出具有镉超富集能力的品种;采用赤红壤、黄棕壤、菜园土进行盆栽试验,研究苋菜在土壤Cd浓度分别为5、10、25 mg·kg-1时,对镉污染土壤的修复潜力.[结果]在溶液Cd浓度3 mg·L-1条件下培养,苋菜品种天星米地上部镉含量高达260 mg·kg-1.在土壤Cd浓度25 mg·kg-1条件下,苋菜天星米地上部镉浓度高达212 mg·kg-1,富集系数达到8.5,地上部净化率达3.8%,各镉处理水平总生物量以及地上部生物量均未显著降低.[结论]苋菜天星米基本具备了镉超富集植物的特征,可用于镉污染土壤的生物修复.

  17. Allelopathy in pigweed (a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis da Costa Aguiar Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus spp. are plants with proven allelopathic potential. The release of allelochemicals from Amaranthus spp. in the environment can influence seed germination, photosynthesis rate, reduce growth and, consequently, the productivity of various plant species. Among the species with allelopathic potential are Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus gracilis, Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus retroflexus, Amaranthus spinosus and Amaranthus viridis, with A. retroflexus being the most studied species and A. spinosus being the species with the greatest allelopathic potential. Due to the large quantities of allelochemicals produced by Amaranthus spp. these plants stand out as future suppliers of chemical molecules for bioherbicides and semisynthetic herbicides.

  18. An evidence-based systematic review of amaranth (Amaranthus spp.) by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Catherine; Abrams, Tracee; Conquer, Julie; Costa, Dawn; Serrano, Jill M Grimes; Taylor, Sarah; Varghese, Minney

    2009-01-01

    An evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. PMID:22435521

  19. Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Spreads in the Southern United States (U.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is an exceptionally broad-spectrum herbicide that was first registered for use in 1974. Glyphosate is used mainly in conjunction with transgenic, glyphosate-resistant soybean, canola (Brassica napus), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and corn (Zea mays) cultivars, ...

  20. Inheritance of Evolved Glyphosate Resistance in a North Carolina Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri Biotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Chandi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in a Palmer amaranth biotype from North Carolina was studied. Glyphosate rates for 50% survival of glyphosate-resistant (GR and glyphosate-susceptible (GS biotypes were 1288 and 58 g ha−1, respectively. These values for F1 progenies obtained from reciprocal crosses (GR×GS and GS×GR were 794 and 501 g ha−1, respectively. Dose response of F1 progenies indicated that resistance was not fully dominant over susceptibility. Lack of significant differences between dose responses for reciprocal F1 families suggested that genetic control of glyphosate resistance was governed by nuclear genome. Analysis of F1 backcross (BC1F1 families showed that 10 and 8 BC1F1 families out of 15 fitted monogenic inheritance at 2000 and 3000 g ha−1 glyphosate, respectively. These results indicate that inheritance of glyphosate resistance in this biotype is incompletely dominant, nuclear inherited, and might not be consistent with a single gene mechanism of inheritance. Relative 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS copy number varied from 22 to 63 across 10 individuals from resistant biotype. This suggested that variable EPSPS copy number in the parents might be influential in determining if inheritance of glyphosate resistance is monogenic or polygenic in this biotype.

  1. Inheritance of Evolved Glyphosate Resistance in a North Carolina Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Biotype

    OpenAIRE

    Aman Chandi; Susana R. Milla-Lewis; Darci Giacomini; Philip Westra; Christopher Preston; Jordan, David L.; Alan C. York; James D. Burton; Jared R. Whitaker

    2012-01-01

    Inheritance of glyphosate resistance in a Palmer amaranth biotype from North Carolina was studied. Glyphosate rates for 50% survival of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotypes were 1288 and 58 g ha−1, respectively. These values for F1 progenies obtained from reciprocal crosses (GR×GS and GS×GR were 794 and 501 g ha−1, respectively. Dose response of F1 progenies indicated that resistance was not fully dominant over susceptibility. Lack of significant differences betw...

  2. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) morphology, growth, and seed production in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has become the most economically detrimental weed of cotton in the Southeast US. With the continual marginalization of potential herbicide tools, research has expanded to include alternative means of affecting future Palmer amaranth populations by altering safe s...

  3. Cotton yeild loss potential in response to length of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmer.) interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted near Ideal, GA in 2006 and 2007 to determine the influence of simulated delayed emergence of Palmer amaranth at several densities on cotton yield and weed growth. Five densities of Palmer amaranth (ranging from 0 to 10 plants row-1) were transplanted at four time interv...

  4. Cs-137 Transfer Study From Latosol Soil To Spinach (Amaranthus sp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been conducted Cs-137 transfer study from Latosol soil to spinach plant by using pot treatment system. The aim of the research is to know the transfer factor of Cs-137 from latosol soil to spinach plant. Pot experiment was carried out by using the complete random design to evaluate two treatment, namely soil with Cs-137 and without Cs-137 (as a control). Cs-137 concentration was with 7,5287 kBq/pot. Tested plant and control plant to 12 pots. Each pot contains 1 kg of soil. After harvest, it was determined the weight of dry plant and conducted measurement with Spectrometer Gamma to Cs-137 concentration in dry plant and dry soil. Transfer factor was found between 0,0806 and 0,4789 and the average is 0.1701 and the control plant Cs-137 transfer factor from soil to spinach plant was not found because the concentration of Cs-137 all control plant was not detected

  5. Variability and factor analysis of morphological and productive characteristics of species of the genus Amaranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten genotypes of amaranth were being studied for three years. Morphological and productive characteristics - plant height, foliage per plant, average foliage length, average foliage width, mass per plant, and seed mass per plant were the subject of this research. Variability of these traits was analyzed and classification of the genotypes by the method of major components was conducted. Variability within a specific trait was significant. In case of the plant height it ranged between 93.18 cm (genotype 9 - A. cruentus and 160.78 cm (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus; foliage per plant raged between 12.89 (genotype 10 - A cruentus and 23.46 (genotype I - A mantegazzianus; average foliage length varied from 14.77 cm (genotype 9 - A cruentus to 26.72 cm (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus; average foliage width ranged between 6.30 cm (genotype 9 - A cruentus and 14.46 cm (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus; foliage mass per plant ranged between 94.05 g (genotype 3 - A molleros and 246.81 g (genotype 1 - A mantegazzianus. Seed mass per plant varied from 45.56 g (genotype 3 - A molleros to 67.55 g (genotype I - A mantegazzianus. The major components method, i.e. factor analysis indicated that the characteristics such as: plant height, average foliage length and average foliage width, had a significant factor loading with the first factor. These traits are of a crucial importance for genotype variability. Foliage number and foliage mass were significantly correlated with the second factor, meaning that they were of a minor importance for the genotype variability. Such results offer guidance with respect to the plant modeling, i.e. indicate how to proceed with the breeding program of this species.

  6. Do common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis) seedling emergence patterns meet criteria for herbicide resistance simulation modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to quantify the magnitude of, and sources of variation in, common waterhemp temporal patterns of emergence over 1 yr. In 2008 and 2010, emergence patterns in the absence of soil disturbance were determined for replicated samples of maternal families (progeny from one individua...

  7. Characterization of peptides found in unprocessed and extruded amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) pepsin/pancreatin hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH) and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH) and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM) (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da) of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da), 120 min (802 Da) and 180 min (567 Da) in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da) and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da). Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases. PMID:25894223

  8. AVALIAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO AGRÍCOLA DO AMARANTO (Amaranthus hypochondriacus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeson Mateus Alves da Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetiva descrever um relato histórico sobre a produção, o uso e a condução de pesquisas com o amaranto como fonte alternativa de alimentos, em todo o mundo, desde os áureos tempos da civilização asteca até os dias atuais. Tem por finalidade, também, relatar as características agronômicas exigidas durante o plantio, o desenvolvimento e a colheita dessa cultura e avaliar sua importância e adaptabilidade de cultivo no semi-árido do nordeste brasileiro, durante o período de estiagem. É propósito, ainda, mostrar e expor, qualitativa e quantitativamente, a grande potencialidade nutricional e medicinal que os grãos e folhas do amaranto, quando utilizados na alimentação humana e animal, representam como fonte de energia e medicamento, respectivamente. Os dados informativos foram obtidos por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica. Palavras-chave: Amaranto, dieta, nutricional, medicinal e alimento.

  9. Radioprotective role of amaranthus paniculatus: a study on the learning of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present investigation has been undertaken to search common nutritional plants, which may prove efficient antioxidants and could be recommended in dietary course for the population residing in areas where they are continuously exposed to background radiation

  10. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m(-1) of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m(-1) of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m(-1) of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m(-1) of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m(-2). Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha(-1) tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m(-1) of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management. PMID:26057386

  11. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Growth Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wu, Hanwen; Jiang, Weili; Ma, Yajie; Ma, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m-1 of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotto...

  12. Interference between Redroot Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.: Growth Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Ma

    Full Text Available Redroot pigweed is one of the injurious agricultural weeds on a worldwide basis. Understanding of its interference impact in crop field will provide useful information for weed control programs. The effects of redroot pigweed on cotton at densities of 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m(-1 of row were evaluated in field experiments conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Institute of Cotton Research, CAAS in China. Redroot pigweed remained taller and thicker than cotton and heavily shaded cotton throughout the growing season. Both cotton height and stem diameter reduced with increasing redroot pigweed density. Moreover, the interference of redroot pigweed resulted in a delay in cotton maturity especially at the densities of 1 to 8 weed plants m(-1 of row, and cotton boll weight and seed numbers per boll were reduced. The relationship between redroot pigweed density and seed cotton yield was described by the hyperbolic decay regression model, which estimated that a density of 0.20-0.33 weed plant m(-1 of row would result in a 50% seed cotton yield loss from the maximum yield. Redroot pigweed seed production per plant or per square meter was indicated by logarithmic response. At a density of 1 plant m(-1 of cotton row, redroot pigweed produced about 626,000 seeds m(-2. Intraspecific competition resulted in density-dependent effects on weed biomass per plant, a range of 430-2,250 g dry weight by harvest. Redroot pigweed biomass ha(-1 tended to increase with increasing weed density as indicated by a logarithmic response. Fiber quality was not significantly influenced by weed density when analyzed over two years; however, the fiber length uniformity and micronaire were adversely affected at density of 1 weed plant m(-1 of row in 2014. The adverse impact of redroot pigweed on cotton growth and development identified in this study has indicated the need of effective redroot pigweed management.

  13. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food insec

  14. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food insecurity. Widespread poverty persists, contributing to severe malnutrition. This intolerable situation can be remedied in great measure by increasing production and consumption of traditional leafy vege...

  15. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  16. Non-target-site resistance to ALS inhibitors in waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A waterhemp population (MCR) previously characterized as resistant to 4-hyroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) and photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors was found to have two different resistance responses to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors. Plants from the MCR population exhibiting high resistan...

  17. Mechanism Of Resistance Of Evolved Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus Palmeri L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolved glyphosate resistance in weedy species represents a challenge for the continued success and utility of glyphosate-resistant crops. The first case of evolved glyphosate resistance in Palmer amaranth was a population from the U.S. state of Georgia, which was previously reported to have amplif...

  18. Population genetic structure of the noxious weed Amaranthus retroflexus in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil; Zákravský, Petr; Dostál, Petr; Plačková, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 206, č. 8 (2011), s. 697-703. ISSN 0367-2530 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : allozyme * inbreeding * invasion Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

  19. Sequential sampling and biorational chemistries for management of lepidopteran pests of vegetable amaranth in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Harris, Dionne; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2003-06-01

    Although vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus viridis L. and A. dubius Mart. ex Thell., production and economic importance is increasing in diversified peri-urban farms in Jamaica, lepidopteran herbivory is common even during weekly pyrethroid applications. We developed and validated a sampling plan, and investigated insecticides with new modes of action, for a complex of five species (Pyralidae: Spoladea recurvalis (F.), Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.), Noctuidae: Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and S. eridania Stoll). Significant within-plant variation occurred with H. bipunctalis, and a six-leaf sample unit including leaves from the inner and outer whorl was selected to sample all species. Larval counts best fit a negative binomial distribution. We developed a sequential sampling plan using a threshold of one larva per sample unit and the fitted distribution with a k(c) of 0.645. When compared with a fixed plan of 25 plants, sequential sampling recommended the same management decision on 87.5%, additional samples on 9.4%, and gave inaccurate recommendations on 3.1% of 32 farms, while reducing sample size by 46%. Insecticide frequency was reduced 33-60% when management decisions were based on sampled data compared with grower-standards, with no effect on crop damage. Damage remained high or variable (10-46%) with pyrethroid applications. Lepidopteran control was dramatically improved with ecdysone agonists (tebufenozide) or microbial metabolites (spinosyns and emamectin benzoate). This work facilitates resistance management efforts concurrent with the introduction of newer modes of action for lepidopteran control in leafy vegetable production in the Caribbean. PMID:12852619

  20. Estudio entomofaunístico del cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. en Puebla México Entomofaunistic study in of the cultivation of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. in Puebla Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betzabeth Cecilia Pérez Torres

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El amaranto es un cultivo de gran importancia para la asociación de productores agrícolas de los alrededores del Popocatépetl, Puebla; por su alto contenido de nutrientes y por la elaboración de diferentes productos que enriquecen su alimentación; pero las pérdidas por daños que ocasionan los insectos plaga, hacen que los rendimientos no sean satisfactorios para los agricultores. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar taxonómicamente a los insectos asociados al cultivo de amaranto y describir el rol de cada una de las especies en el agrosistema. Para la captura de insectos, durante el ciclo agrícola 2008 se realizaron muestreos en tres parcelas donde se efectuaron colectas con aspirador, red y de forma manual, revisando tallos, nudos, entre nudos, hojas (haz y envés, panoja y raíz. Los organismos colectados en etapa larval fueron conservados en alcohol al 70%, mientras que los adultos fueron montados en alfileres entomológicos; todo el material fue identificado y depositado en la colección entomológica del Instituto de Ciencias de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP. Se obtuvo un total de 1 883 morfoespecies de las cuales se identificaron 20 géneros y 18 especies que fueron las más abundantes durante el ciclo agrícola; ocho especies fueron las causantes de los daños que presenta el cultivo: Sphenarium purpurascens, Epicauta cinerea, Spodoptera exigua, Pholisora catullus, Ligys lineolaris, Herpetogramma bipunctalis, Amauromyza abnormalis y Phyllophaga ilhuicaminai.Amaranth is a very important crop for the agricultural producers association around the Popocatepetl, Puebla, for its high nutrients content and for the preparation of various enriched food products. But losses from damage caused by insect pests, make not satisfactory yields for farmers. The aim of this study was to taxonomically determinate the amaranth cultivation related insects and to describe each species role in the agrosystem. To catch insects during the 2008 agricultural cycle, surveys were conducted at three plots where collections were made with vacuum, netting and manually; looking at the stems, knots, between knots, leaves (beam and back, panicle and roots. The larval stage organisms collected were preserved in 70% alcohol, while adults were mounted on entomological pins, all the material was identified and deposited in the entomological collection of the Institute of Sciences of the Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP. Obtaining 1 883 morphospecies out of which 20 genera and 18 species were identified as the most abundant during the crop cycle, the next eight species were the cause of crop damage: Sphenarium purpurascens, Epicauta cinerea, Spodoptera exigua, Pholisora catullus, Ligys lineolaris, Herpetogramma bipunctalis, Amauromyza abnormalis and Phyllophaga ilhuicaminai.

  1. Estudio entomofaunístico del cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) en Puebla México Entomofaunistic study in of the cultivation of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) in Puebla Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Betzabeth Cecilia Pérez Torres; Agustín Aragón García; Ricardo Pérez Avilés; Luis Ricardo Hernández; Jesús Francisco López Olguín

    2011-01-01

    El amaranto es un cultivo de gran importancia para la asociación de productores agrícolas de los alrededores del Popocatépetl, Puebla; por su alto contenido de nutrientes y por la elaboración de diferentes productos que enriquecen su alimentación; pero las pérdidas por daños que ocasionan los insectos plaga, hacen que los rendimientos no sean satisfactorios para los agricultores. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar taxonómicamente a los insectos asociados al cultivo de amaranto y ...

  2. Influence of Priming Duration on the Performance of Amaranths (Amaranthus cruentus L. in Sokoto Semiarid Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Musa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted during the 2012 cropping season at the Fruits and Vegetable Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Usman Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (located on latitude 14∘N-15∘N and longitude 4∘-5∘, to evaluate the effect of priming duration on the growth and yield of amaranth. Treatments consisted of four priming durations (2, 4, 6, and 8 hours and control (where no priming was applied. The treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD replicated three times for the germination test and randomized complete block design (RCBD for the field trial. Data were collected on days to 50% germination, percentage germination, days to 50% emergence, and percentage emergence. Results revealed significant effect of priming duration on days to 50% germination, percentage germination, and days to 50% emergence. Soaking seeds for 2 hours reduced the number of days to 50% germination and emergence and also recorded higher germination. Thus, from the findings of this study, it could be concluded that priming amaranth seeds for 2 hours could be applied to enhance amaranth production.

  3. La rentabilidad del cultivo de amaranto (Amaranthus spp. en la región centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Velia Ayala Garay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estima la rentabilidad de la producción de amaranto para grano en Morelos, Puebla y Tlaxcala. Se aplicó una encuesta a 193 productores de noviembre de 2011 a marzo de 2012. Los resultados encontrados indican que Puebla tiene mayor rentabilidad por tonelada ($5 895.6 t ha-1, a pesar de que no existe una gran variación de los costos respecto a Morelos ($4 764.4 t ha-1, consecuencia del mayor rendimiento (1.52 t ha-1 en Puebla y 1.4 t ha-1 en Morelos, y la de menor fue en Tlaxcala ($330.8, el costo y el rendimiento fueron menores (1.02 t ha-1. El cultivo es rentable y es una opción para zonas de temporal, pues se adapta a condiciones ambientales adversas.

  4. Physiology of Glyphosate-Resistant and Glyphosate-Susceptible Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Biotypes Collected from North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Jared R. Whitaker; James D. Burton; Alan C. York; Jordan, David L.; Aman Chandi

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes of Palmer amaranth are now commonly found across the southern United States. Experiments were conducted to characterize physiological differences between a GR biotype and a glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotype from North Carolina. The GR biotype had an 18-fold level of resistance based upon rates necessary to reduce shoot fresh weight 50%. Shikimate accumulated in both biotypes following glyphosate application, but greater concentrations were found in GS plan...

  5. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallization of amaranth 11S proglobulin seed storage protein from Amaranthus hypochondriacus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level expression of soluble amaranth 11S proglobulin in Escherichia coli and its purification are described. Crystallization of the recombinant protein and crystal data collection are also presented. 11S globulin is one of the major seed storage proteins in amaranth. Recombinant protein was produced as up to ∼80% of the total bacterial protein using Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (DE3) containing pET21d with amaranth 11S globulin cDNA. The best expression condition was at 302 K for 20 h using LB medium containing 0.5 M NaCl. The recombinant protein was easily separated from most of the Escherichia coli proteins by precipitation with 0–40% ammonium sulfate solution. It formed aggregates at low temperature and at low salt concentrations. This behaviour may imply that it has a more hydrophobic nature than other 11S seed globulins. The crystals diffracted to 6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P63, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 97.6, c = 74.8 Å, γ = 120.0°. One subunit of a trimer was estimated to be present in the asymmetric unit, assuming a Vsol of 41%. To obtain the complete structure solution, experiments to improve crystallization and flash-cooling conditions are in progress

  6. The effect of winter cover crop planting date on Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) suppression in cotton and peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth (PA) has rapidly become the dominant weed management issue in agronomic crops of the Southeast U.S. The small size of PA seeds relative to other common weeds may provide an opportunity for physical weed control through cover crop mulches. Field studies were condu...

  7. An estimation of pollen flight time and dispersal distance for glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is a common and competitive weed of cotton in the southeastern United States. The recent discovery of glyphosate-resistant biotypes is of particular concern as 98% of the cotton acreage is devoted to the production of glyphosate-tolerant varieties. Herbicide resistance can be acquire...

  8. Multiple resistance to glyphosate and pyrithiobac in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) from Mississippi and response to flumiclorac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm and quantify glyphosate resistance, to investigate interactions between flumiclorac and glyphosate mixtures on weed control, to determine patterns of absorption and translocation of glyphosate applied alone and in combination with flumiclor...

  9. Effect of cover crop and premergence herbicides on the control of ALS-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) in peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome species across most of the southeastern United States. Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides has made control of Palmer amaranth even more difficult for peanut producers. Field studies were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to determine the impac...

  10. Modification of radiation induced morpho metrical and biochemical changes in testis of Swiss albino mice by amaranthus paniculatas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing use of nuclear radiations for human welfare necessitates a new, safe and cost, effective radioprotector, not only for personnels charged with responsibility of testing and working in the vicinity of nuclear reactors or with radiations in laboratories, but also for the general public. Keeping this in view, the study has been undertaken to find out the possible radioprotective potential of the extracts prepared from various plants rich in (β-carotene and other antioxidant constituents which, could be easily available and affordable to common men

  11. EFFECT OF FEEDING AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS ON AQUACULTURAL AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGE-2 CARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palamarchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodology. The study was conducted at Lviv Experimental Station of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS according to generally accepted aquacultural rules of experiments and repeats. The object of the study were age-2 carp. The weight part of protein was determined acc. to Kjeldahl method, fat content acc. to S. Rushkovsky method. Hemoglobin content in fish blood was determined using hemoglobin-cyanide method (with atsetonninhidryn. The number of red blood cells was counted in a Goryaev chamber. The obtained data were processed statistically using standard statistical package of Microsoft EXCEL. Findings. The use of amaranth in the feeding of age-2 carp has positive effect on their growth and survival, nutritional value of fish flesh, and results in an increase of hemoglobin in blood. It was found that the addition of 10% ground amaranth seeds and 5% amaranth oil during the entire growing season resulted in an increase of mean weight of carp by 4.2 and 5.2% and in an increase of fish productivity by 5.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Feeding of carp with a feed supplemented by amaranth contributed to an increase in protein content in fish muscles by 2.07% (P <0.01 and 1.30% (P <0.05, respectively. The number of red blood cells in the blood of carp fed with ground amaranth seeds increased by 10.2%, while in those fed by amaranth oil - by 3.7% compared to the control group of fish. Hemoglobin content after feeding of fish with amaranth oil increased by 6.79%. Amaranth is added to the fish feed mixture to replace cereal component after heat treatment. Originality. Despite high nutritional, food and medicinal properties, amaranth is not used in fish farming as a feed additive. According to the obtained results, we developed the norms and methods of supplementing the basic diet of age-2 carp with this additive. Practical value. Implementation of the obtained results will provide an opportunity to increase fish productivity in ponds through feeding of fish with artificial feeds of improved composition. This will allow reducing the cost of artificial feeds, obtaining higher growth rate, and improving physiological parameters of cultured carp.

  12. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. PMID:25149016

  13. Differences among five amaranth varieties (Amaranthus spp.) regarding secondary metabolites and foliar herbivory by chewing insects in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niveyro, Selene L.; Mortensen, Anne G.; Fomsgaard, Inge S.;

    2013-01-01

    and isoquercitin), nine phenolic compounds (coumaric, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, ferulic, sinapic, protocatechuic, salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) and three betalains (amaranthine, iso-amaranthine and betanin) were found to be present in amaranth leaves. Flavonoids appeared in of all varieties analyzed......, with rutin being the most important. Betalains occurred only in some varieties and at different proportions, and nine phenolic acids were observed in all the varieties, with the exception of sinapic acid. Significant differences in the chemical composition of the varieties were noted. A total of 17 species...

  14. Presencia de Diferentes Virus de Pimiento (Capsicum annuum L. en Especies de Malezas Asociadas al Cultivo Presence of Different Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Viruses on Associated Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ormeño N

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En prospecciones de malezas realizadas durante dos temporadas agrícolas, 30 especies anuales y 13 perennes fueron determinadas en cultivos de pimientos (Capsicum annuum L. de los Valles de Elqui y Limarí, Región de Coquimbo (29° a 30º lat. Sur. Los muestreos fueron aleatorios dentro y fuera de los potreros, con y sin cultivo presente, en invierno y primavera. Se recolectaron 676 plantas de malezas, analizándose un total de 379 muestras. Utilizando la prueba DAS-ELISA se determinó Virus del mosaico del pepino (CMV, Virus del bronceado del tomate (TSWV, Virus del mosaico de la alfalfa (AMV, Virus Y de la papa (PVY y Virus INSV (Impatients necrotic spot virus. Un 17% (64 de las muestras fueron positivas al menos a un virus, de las cuales 7,4% (28 provinieron de plantas con síntomas y 9,4% (36 fueron hospederos asintomáticos. Chamico (Datura spp. hospedó a CMV y PVY; nicandra (Nicandra physalodes a AMV, CMV y PVY; tomatillo (Solanum nigrum a CMV y PVY; ñilhue (Sonchus spp. a AMV y TSWV; pacoyuyo (Galinsoga parviflora a AMV, CMV, TSWV y INSV; quingüilla (Chenopodium spp. a AMV, CMV, TSWV, PVY e INSV, entre las principales. Usando un índice potencial de infección relativa (IPIR, los mayores valores se obtuvieron con pacoyuyo (74,7, nicandra (11,2, tomatillo (6,3 y quingüilla (6,0. Especies como ñilhue, chamico, pila-pila (Modiola caroliniana, quilloi-quilloi (Stellaria media y bledo (Amaranthus spp., tuvieron índices inferiores a 1,0. Nicandra y pacoyuyo portaron más de un virus y estas infecciones múltiples prevalecieron sobre las simples. Controlar malezas portadoras tanto dentro como en las inmediaciones de los potreros, resulta imperioso para poder minimizar la incidencia y dispersión de las enfermedades virales en pimientos.In a two growth-cycle survey, 30 annual and 13 perennial weed species were determined in different sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. growing areas of the Limari and Elqui valleys of Coquimbo Region of Chile

  15. Portanus Ball: descrição de uma espécie nova (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenomar Neves de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Portanus dubius sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada a partir de espécimens que foram coletados com armadilha Malaise durante um levantamento entomológico no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (PROFAUPAR.Portanus Ball: description of a new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae. Portanus dubius sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected with Malaise trap during an entomological inventory in Paraná State, Brazil (PROFAUPAR.

  16. Long-term fungal inhibitory activity of water-soluble extract from Amaranthus spp. seeds during storage of gluten-free and wheat flour breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppe Rizzello, Carlo; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Carnevali, Paola; Gobbetti, Marco

    2009-05-31

    This study aimed at investigating the use of the water-soluble extract of amaranth seeds for extending the shelf-life of gluten-free and wheat flour breads. The antifungal activity of the amaranth water-soluble extract was shown by agar diffusion, conidia germination and dry biomass assays, using Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1 as the indicator fungus. The crude water-soluble extract had minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5 mg of peptides/ml and showed inhibition towards a large number of fungal species isolated from bakeries. Four novel antifungal peptides, encrypted in amaranth agglutinin sequences, were identified from the water-soluble extract by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). The water-soluble extract of amaranth was used as an ingredient for the manufacture of gluten-free and wheat flour breads and the inhibitory activity was confirmed during long-term shelf-life under pilot plant conditions. The effect of the water-soluble extract on gluten-free bread rheology and sensory properties was also shown. PMID:19328576

  17. Glyphosate resistance in tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) from Mississippi is due to both altered target-site and nontarget-site mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tall waterhemp population in a glyphosate-resistant soybean field, Washington County, Missisippi, was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in growth of treated plants) values of 1.28 and 0....

  18. Herbicidal activity of Brassicaceae seed meal on wild oat (Avena fatua), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is an on-going need for the development of sustainable methods of weed control in crop production systems. Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different Brassicaceae seed meals and application rates on the emergence of several weed species including wild oat, Italian rye grass, ...

  19. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanon, A.; Beguiristain, T.; Sylla, S.; Berthelin, J.; Duponnois, R.

    2009-07-01

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  20. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities and surfactant properties of protein hydrolysates as obtained of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Santos, J; Escalona-Buendía, H

    2015-04-01

    Even though some research has been carried out on surfactant properties of amaranth protein hydrolysates, their bio-functionality has not been studied yet. In this work amaranth grain Alb 1 and Glob were hydrolyzed (Alb 1H, Glob H) and foams and emulsions at optimal conditions (t, E/S, pH5) were prepared in order to assess techno-functional properties such as foaming (F) and emulsifying (E) (capacity (C) and stability (S)). FC and EC were much better for Glob H than for Alb H. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity was higher for Alb 1H (roughly 50 %) than that of Glob H (roughly 30 %). Scavenging of radicals activity (DPPH· or ABTS· (+) ) of Alb 1H and Glob H, at 2 mg/mL, was similar (approx. 40 %), but lower than Alb 1 (approx. 70 %), which was the best antioxidant. The low reducing power showed that hydrolysates barely donate an electron or hydrogen. Chelating activity on Cu(2+) was lower than that exhibited by Fe(2+,) which was remarkable, approx. 80 % as long as DH% > 10 %, where hydrolysates displayed high solubility (Alb 1H = 85 %, Glob H = 70 %) because of occurrence of 1-10 kDa peptides. Amaranth foams and emulsions prepared with protein hydrolysates have a potential as a nutraceutical food. PMID:25829587

  1. Phytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L) and the role of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► MWNTs are selected for study of the systemic toxicity and the potential influence on red spinach. ► Microscopic observation revealed some adverse effects on root and leaf. ► Cell damage were detected on 15 days after the exposure to MWNTs. ► ROS increase ceased once ascorbic acid was added into media. ► Oxidative stress seems to be the key element responsible for causing the toxicity. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a novel nanomaterial with wide potential applications; however the adverse effects of CNTs following environmental exposure have recently received significant attention. Herein, we explore the systemic toxicity and potential influence of 0–1000 mg L−1 the multi-walled CNTs on red spinach. The multi-walled CNTs exposed plants exhibited growth inhibition and cell death after 15 days of hydroponic culture. The multi-walled CNTs had adverse effects on root and leaf morphology, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy detected the multi-walled CNTs in leaves. Biomarkers of nanoparticle toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell damage in the red spinach were greatly increased 15 days post-exposure to the multi-walled CNTs. These effects were reversed when the multi-walled CNTs were supplemented with ascorbic acid (AsA), suggesting a role of ROS in the multl-walled CNT-induced toxicity and that the primary mechanism of the multi-walled CNTs’ toxicity is oxidative stress.

  2. The exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis, suppresses the growth of native acacia by altering soil microbial communities structure and functionalities in a sahelian ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The functioning and stability of terrestrial ecosystems are mainly determined by plant specific richness and composition, which in turn, are closely interlinked with soil organisms development, in particular, soil microorganisms. One of the main success ways of invasive plants was these exogenous organisms-mediated modifications in soil microbial communities composition and diversity as well as their functioning, thus compromising native plant survival. (Author)

  3. Effect of drying and cooking on nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of morogo (Amaranthus hybridus) a traditional leafy vegetable grown in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoua, Gabriel Nama; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2014-04-01

    Morogo (vegetables in Tswana) is a green leafy vegetable from the Amaranthaceae family that can be harvested from wild growing or cultivated. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value, the total antioxidant capacity and selected bioactive compounds present in morogo leaves, and evaluate the effect of drying and cooking. Results showed that morogo contained a significant amount of protein (3.6 ± 0.1 g/100 g FW) and minerals which the level exceed 1% of fresh weight. The total antioxidant capacity (μmole TE/ 100 g FW) determined by DPPH and FRAP assays were 118.3 ± 15.3 and 128.4 ± 11.9 respectively. Total polyphenols (109.4 ± 7.5 mg GAE/100 g FW), vitamin C (36.6 ± 1.0 mg /100 g FW) and carotenoids represented by β carotene (25.3 ± 1.3 mg /100 g FW) and xanthophylls (7.48 ± 0.31 mg /100 g FW) formed a significant part of bioactive compounds content of morogo leaves. Since the boiling can cause significant losses of compounds in the boiling water, it can be recommended to avoid cooking methods that can include a boiling step with discard of boiling water. PMID:24741168

  4. Phytotoxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on red spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L) and the role of ascorbic acid as an antioxidant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Parvin [Laboratory of Environmental Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Fugetsu, Bunshi, E-mail: hu@ees.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Environmental Medical Chemistry, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MWNTs are selected for study of the systemic toxicity and the potential influence on red spinach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microscopic observation revealed some adverse effects on root and leaf. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell damage were detected on 15 days after the exposure to MWNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ROS increase ceased once ascorbic acid was added into media. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress seems to be the key element responsible for causing the toxicity. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a novel nanomaterial with wide potential applications; however the adverse effects of CNTs following environmental exposure have recently received significant attention. Herein, we explore the systemic toxicity and potential influence of 0-1000 mg L{sup -1} the multi-walled CNTs on red spinach. The multi-walled CNTs exposed plants exhibited growth inhibition and cell death after 15 days of hydroponic culture. The multi-walled CNTs had adverse effects on root and leaf morphology, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman spectroscopy detected the multi-walled CNTs in leaves. Biomarkers of nanoparticle toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell damage in the red spinach were greatly increased 15 days post-exposure to the multi-walled CNTs. These effects were reversed when the multi-walled CNTs were supplemented with ascorbic acid (AsA), suggesting a role of ROS in the multl-walled CNT-induced toxicity and that the primary mechanism of the multi-walled CNTs' toxicity is oxidative stress.

  5. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters. PMID:24262578

  6. Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. MAKINDE

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol and Lagos state university LASU Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1 control (no fertilizer, (2 pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB 100%, (3 PGB + NPK (75:25, (4 PGB + NPK (50:50, (5 Kola Pod Husk (KPH 100%, (6 KPH + NPK(75:25, (7 KPH + NPK(50:50 and (8 NPK(100% were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were assessed in the second and third planting periods. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in four replications. Data were analyzed using ANOVA Test. Due to the high N status of the soil in Ikorodu (sandy clay loam its uptake was significantly (p<0.05 higher (87.1% than that of LASU. The KPH and PGB had the highest potential in A. cruentus production. At Ikorodu site, KPH + NPK (75:25 had the nutrient uptake while at LASU, PGB + NPK (75:25 was optimum. KPH + NPK (75:25 gave highest N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake in A. cruentus

  7. Effects of Organic, Organomineral and NPK Fertilizer Treatments on The Nutrient Uptake of Amaranthus Cruentus (L) on Two Soil Types in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    MAKINDE, E.A.; AYENI, L.S.; OJENIYI, S.O.

    2011-01-01

    The macronutrient uptake of A. cruentus under two soil types: Ikorodu (orthic Luvisol) and Lagos state university LASU) Ojo campus, (Dystric Fluvisol) were investigated under field conditions. Eight fertilizer treatments (1) control (no fertilizer), (2) pacesetter’s Grade B (PGB) 100%, (3) PGB + NPK (75:25), (4) PGB + NPK (50:50), (5) Kola Pod Husk (KPH) 100%, (6) KPH + NPK(75:25), (7) KPH + NPK(50:50) and (8) NPK(100%) were tested at first planting. Residual effects of the fertilizers were a...

  8. Anticomplement activity of organic solvent extracts from Korea local Amarantaceae spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seil; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Young-Choon; Moon, Hyung-In

    2012-04-01

    The study evaluated the anticomplement activity from various solvent extracts of nine Amarantaceae plants (Achyranthes japonica (Miq.) Nakai, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Amaranthus spinosus L., Celosia argentea var. spicata., Amaranthus lividus L., Celosia cristata L., Amaranthus viridis L., Gomphrena globosa L.) from South Korea on the classical pathway. We have evaluated various organic solvent extract from nine Amarantaceae plants with regard to its anticomplement activity on the classical pathway. Achyranthes japonica chloroform extracts showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) value of 73.1μg/ml. This is the first report of anticomplement activity from Amarantaceae plants. PMID:21736535

  9. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L.) [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Thahir2); Asep Sopian; Tien R. Muchtadi 2)

    2005-01-01

    Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer) on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanchi...

  10. Korte mededelingen

    OpenAIRE

    Florusse, P.; Visser, K.; Farjon, Aljos; Braams, Mirjam; Veldkamp, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    De nerfamarant (Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson) in Rotterdam. In september 1984 trof ik op twee plaatsen in Rotterdam tientallen exemplaren aan van de nerfamarant (Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson). Op het spoorwegterrein van de Merwehavens (IVON-hok 37.36.44) stonden ze op open, zandige grond, samen met de witte amarant (Amaranthus albus L.). Op het voormalige veilingterrein (IVON-hok 37.37.14) stonden ze op open, recentelijk gestoorde zandgrond, samen met zwarte nachtschade (Solanum nigrum L....

  11. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Oyedeji; David Adedayo Animasaun; Abdullahi Ajibola Bello; Oludare Oladipo Agboola

    2014-01-01

    The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot) into unfertilized soil (control) and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM) at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four repli...

  12. Bioaccumulation and associated dietary risks of Pb, Cd, and Zn in amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) and jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius) grown on soil irrigated using polluted water from Asa River, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkunle, Clement Oluseye; Ziyath, Abdul M; Adewumi, Faderera Esther; Fatoba, Paul Ojo

    2015-05-01

    Dietary uptake of heavy metals through the consumption of vegetables grown on polluted soil can have serious human health implications. Thus, the study presented in this paper investigated the bioaccumulation and associated dietary risks of Pb, Zn, and Cd present in vegetables widely consumed in Nigeria, namely amaranth and jute mallow, grown on soil irrigated with polluted water from Asa River. The study found that the soil was polluted with Zn, Pb, and Cd with Pb and Cd being contributed by polluted river, while Zn was from geogenic sources. The metal concentration in amaranth and jute mallow varied in the order of Zn > Pb > Cd and Zn > Pb ≈ Cd, respectively. Jute mallow acts as an excluder plant for Pb, Cd, and Zn. Consequently, the metal concentrations in jute mallow were below the toxic threshold levels. Furthermore, non-cancer human health risk of consuming jute mallow from the study site was not significant. In contrast, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in amaranth were found to be above the recommended safe levels and to be posing human health risks. Therefore, further investigation was undertaken to identify the pathways of heavy metals to amaranth. The study found that the primary uptake pathway of Pb and Cd by amaranth is foliar route, while root uptake is the predominant pathway of Zn in amaranth. PMID:25899541

  13. Effects of Lead Stress on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Amaranthus hybridus%铅对绿穗苋种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史冬燕

    2012-01-01

    研究了不同浓度的铅对绿穗苋种子萌发及幼苗生长的影响.结果表明:低浓度pb2+在一定程度上促进绿穗苋种子的萌发;随着Pb2+浓度的增加,绿穗苋种子的活力指数、根长、苗长和叶绿素含量皆降低,但丙二醛(MDA)含量升高;高浓度pb2+对绿穗苋根生长的抑制作用大于茎轴的.铅对绿穗苋种子萌发的影响不显著,但对绿穗苋幼苗的抑制程度随铅浓度的增大呈递增趋势.

  14. Separation of the Pigment of an Amaranth

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Federico Covas; Silvia Haydeé Pattacini; Gladis Ester Scoles

    2000-01-01

    It is known that current quality requirements require the utilization of natural colorants in the foods. The objective of the present work is to extract the pigment amaranthus from fresh leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. cv Don Pedro to characterize it through spectroscopic techniques, to be used as natural colorants.

  15. EFFECT OF MANURES ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION AND PHARMACOBIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOME GREENS

    OpenAIRE

    Banu, S. Naseer; Sivakumar, A.; Subramanian, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper deals with the study of biomass production of manures in the greens such as Amaranthus polygamus and Amaranthus viridis of the family Amaranthaceae and Spinacea oleracea of the family Chenopodiaceae. The medicinal uses and pharmaco – phytochemical analysis were also carried out for the plant species which are widely used as greens.

  16. Separation of the Pigment of an Amaranth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Federico Covas

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that current quality requirements require the utilization of natural colorants in the foods. The objective of the present work is to extract the pigment amaranthus from fresh leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. cv Don Pedro to characterize it through spectroscopic techniques, to be used as natural colorants.

  17. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Ilić; Jasenka Ćosić; Draženka Jurković; Karolina Vrandečić

    2013-01-01

    Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency ...

  18. Influence of Six Vegetable Cultivars on Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafokuzara, N D

    1983-10-01

    Replicated field and greenhouse experiments were used to evaluate the effect of tomato, cabbage, cucumber, carrot, Amaranthus hybridus, and pepper on growth and fecundity of Meloidogyne spp., particularly M. javanica. In the field tests, tomato, cucumber, and carrot favored population increases of Meloidogyne spp., while Amaranthus, pepper, and cabbage limited them. Some cropping sequences that included crops from the latter group had a suppressive effect on population growth. Thus, of the 36 cropping sequences that were investigated, the following kept the pests in check: tomato-pepper; tomato-Amaranthus; cabbage-pepper; Amaranthus-pepper; carrot-cabbage; pepper-pepper; pepper-Amaranthus; and Amaranthus-pepper. In the greenhouse tests, tomato, cucumber, and carrot had a high number of galls per 50 cm of root, large, conspicuous galls and egg masses, and a high number of larvae per egg mass. Thus, they were highly susceptible. Cabbage and Amaranthus were unsuitable hosts as reflected in the absence of galls or a low number per 50 cm of root. small size of galls and egg masses, and few progeny on the subsequent crop of pepper. The length of time required for eggs to hatch on different hosts varied considerably and is thought to be a significant factor in infection of hosts. PMID:19295847

  19. The Algae of Hirfanlı Dam Lake

    OpenAIRE

    BAYKAL, Tülay; AÇIKGÖZ, İlkay

    2004-01-01

    The phytoplankton and littoral algal flora of Hirfanlı Dam Lake were studied between October 1998 and June 2000. In phytoplankton Cyclostephanos dubius was dominant and seasonal distribution rathercomplex.From epipelic organisms, Navicula cryptocephala, N. pupula, Nitzschia palea, N. fonticola, Oscillatoria tenuis were conspicuous in terms of algal blooms and species compositions. A total of 308species were identified with 208 belonging to Bacillariophyta, 65 to Chlorophyta, 39 Cyanophyta, 10...

  20. Rapid Concerted Evolution of Nuclear Ribosomal DNA in Two Tragopogon Allopolyploids of Recent and Recurrent Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Kovarik, A; Pires, J. C.; Leitch, A. R.; Lim, K. Y.; Sherwood, A M; Matyasek, R.; Rocca, J.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P S

    2005-01-01

    We investigated concerted evolution of rRNA genes in multiple populations of Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus, two allotetraploids that formed recurrently within the last 80 years following the introduction of three diploids (T. dubius, T. pratensis, and T. porrifolius) from Europe to North America. Using the earliest herbarium specimens of the allotetraploids (1949 and 1953) to represent the genomic condition near the time of polyploidization, we found that the parental rDNA repeats were in...

  1. Salida de campo a Valdestillas (Valladolid) el 19 de agosto de 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Valdestillas (Valladolid) el 19 de agosto de 1954, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Actitis hypoleucos (Andarríos chico, llamado, Actynioides hypoleucus por el autor), Aegithalos caudatus (Mito), Alectoris sp. (Perdiz), Burhinus oedicnemus (Alcaraván común), Certhia sp. (Agateador, también conocido como Chapin), Charadrius dubius (Chorlitejo chico), Ciconia ciconia (Cigüeña blanca), Columba oenas (Paloma zurita), Columba palumbus (Paloma torcaz)...

  2. Influence of environmental and spatial factors on the distribution of surface sediment diatoms in Chaohu Lake, southeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xu; YANG, XIANGDONG; Dong, Xuhui; Enfeng LIU

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of surface sediment diatoms in Chaohu Lake (southeast China), and their relationships with environmental and spatial variables were analyzed in this study. The diatom assemblages were dominated by planktonic species. Three dominant species Cyclostephanos dubius, Aulacoseira granulata and Aulacoseira alpigenaare unevenly distributed across the lake. The distribution of surface sediment diatoms must be subject to trophic status, hydrodynamics and other spatial variables...

  3. Loss of foundation species increases population growth of exotic forbs in sagebrush steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevéy, Janet S; Germino, Matthew J; Huntly, Nancy J

    2010-10-01

    The invasion and spread of exotic plants following land disturbance threatens semiarid ecosystems. In sagebrush steppe, soil water is scarce and is partitioned between deep-rooted perennial shrubs and shallower-rooted native forbs and grasses. Disturbances commonly remove shrubs, leaving grass-dominated communities, and may allow for the exploitation of water resources by the many species of invasive, tap-rooted forbs that are increasingly successful in this habitat. We hypothesized that exotic forb populations would benefit from increased soil water made available by removal of sagebrush, a foundation species capable of deep-rooting, in semiarid shrub-steppe ecosystems. To test this hypothesis, we used periodic matrix models to examine effects of experimental manipulations of soil water on population growth of two exotic forb species, Tragopogon dubius and Lactuca serriola, in sagebrush steppe of southern Idaho, USA. We used elasticity analyses to examine which stages in the life cycle of T. dubius and L. serriola had the largest relative influence on population growth. We studied the demography of T. dubius and L. serriola in three treatments: (1) control, in which vegetation was not disturbed, (2) shrubs removed, or (3) shrubs removed but winter-spring recharge of deep-soil water blocked by rainout shelters. The short-term population growth rate (Lambda) of T. dubius in the shrub-removal treatment was more than double that of T. dubius in either sheltered or control treatments, both of which had limited soil water. All L. serriola individuals that emerged in undisturbed sagebrush plots died, whereas Lambda of L. serriola was high (Lambda > 2.5) in all shrub-removal plots, whether they had rainout shelters or not. Population growth of both forbs in all treatments was most responsive to flowering and seed production, which are life stages that should be particularly reliant on deep-soil water, as well as seedling establishment, which is important to most plant

  4. A record production from an integrated farming system utilising sewage enriched water

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, S.P.; A. K. Roy; Datta, A K; Das, C R; Ghosh, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    The results of experiments conducted on a pond dyke (655m²) in the Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, during 1992-93 for maximising production through optimum utilisation of resources are communicated. Round the year intensive cultivation of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus and A. viridus), water-bind weed (Ipomea aquatica), Indian spinach (Basella rubra), radish (Raphanus sativum), amaranth (Amaranthus vi...

  5. Integrated Resource Recovery at East Calcutta Wetland: How Safe is These?

    OpenAIRE

    Shaon Raychaudhuri; Sayali Salodkar; M. Sudarshan; Ashoke R. Thakur

    2007-01-01

    East Calcutta Wetland (ECW) is an example of wise use of cities solid and liquid waste through integrated resource recovery, mainly for pisciculture, vegetable as well as paddy cultivation and manure production. Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus blithum and Spinacia oleracea grown at ECW were analyzed for their accumulation of elements using Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and compared to those grown in south eastern parts of West Bengal (Midnapur). The obj...

  6. Influence of Six Vegetable Cultivars on Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Bafokuzara, N. D.

    1983-01-01

    Replicated field and greenhouse experiments were used to evaluate the effect of tomato, cabbage, cucumber, carrot, Amaranthus hybridus, and pepper on growth and fecundity of Meloidogyne spp., particularly M. javanica. In the field tests, tomato, cucumber, and carrot favored population increases of Meloidogyne spp., while Amaranthus, pepper, and cabbage limited them. Some cropping sequences that included crops from the latter group had a suppressive effect on population growth. Thus, of the 36...

  7. VEGETATIVNA KOMPATIBILNOST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM IZOLIRANOGA S KOROVA U ISTOČNOJ HRVATSKOJ

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić, Jelena; Ćosić, Jasenka; Jurković, Draženka; Vrandečić, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Različite formae speciales Fusarium oxysporum glavni su uzročnik fuzarijskih venuća. U 2008. i 2009. godini prikupili smo F. oxysporum uzorke sa sljedećih korova bez simptoma bolesti: Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense i Hibiscus trionum. Izolirali smo nit mutante za 16 od 41 izolata F. oxysporum...

  8. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Tedford, E. C.; Fortnum, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P < 0.05) among weed species. Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, and Vicia villosa were good hosts of M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca...

  9. Integrated Resource Recovery at East Calcutta Wetland: How Safe is These?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaon Raychaudhuri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available East Calcutta Wetland (ECW is an example of wise use of cities solid and liquid waste through integrated resource recovery, mainly for pisciculture, vegetable as well as paddy cultivation and manure production. Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus blithum and Spinacia oleracea grown at ECW were analyzed for their accumulation of elements using Energy Dispersive X Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF and compared to those grown in south eastern parts of West Bengal (Midnapur. The objective was to analyze the health hazard, if any, underlying the use of wastewater and solid waste for cultivation of green leafy vegetables at ECW. The following results were obtained upon comparing the data collected from the two different sites: (a higher accumulation in ECW grown plants of elements like Ca, Cu and Pb in Amaranthus caudatus; of Ca in Amaranthus blithum; of Cl and Cu in Spinacia oleracea, (b for the same species grown in non-ECW site, higher concentration of elements like Mn and Fe in Amaranthus caudatus; of Cl, Mn and Br in Amaranthus blithum; of Ca, Mn, Fe and Br in Spinacia oleracea. The net consumption of the aforementioned elements per person per day was calculated and found to be much below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA levels in all cases. Thus the vegetables grown out of integrated resource recovery mechanism at East Calcutta Wetland appear to be safe for human consumption. This further corroborated by the healthy appearance of these vegetables. This result has profound implications of far reaching significance for environmental management and health economics.

  10. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  11. Efeitos da densidade e proporção de plantas de milho (Zea mays L.) e caruru (Amaranhus retroflexus L.) em competição Density and porportion effects among corn (Zea mays L.) and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) under competition

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro J. Christoffoleti; Ricardo Victoria Filho

    1996-01-01

    A maioria dos estudos de competição, entre plantas daninhas e cultivadas, conduzidos nos últimos anos, procuram quantificar a interferência que as plantas daninhas causam sobre as culturas; no entanto, poucos destes trabalhos estudam mecanisticamente os efeitos da densidade e da proporção de plantas em uma mistura de espécies, a importância da competição intra e interespecífica e a diferenciação de nicho ecológico. Desta forma, foi desenvolvida a presente pesquisa com o objetivo principal de ...

  12. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, L B; Sandler, R; Momo, F; Di Ciocco, C; Saravia, L; Coviella, C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea, showed different

  13. Earthworm assemblages in different intensity of agricultural uses and their relation to edaphic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LB Falco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to relate earthworm assemblage structure with three different soil use intensities, and to indentify the physical, chemical, and microbiological soil variables that are associated to the observed differences. Three soil uses were evaluated: 1-Fifty year old naturalized grasslands, low use intensity; 2-Recent agricultural fields, intermediate use intensity, and 3-Fifty year old intensive agricultural fields, high use intensity. Three different sites for each soil use were evaluated from winter 2008 through summer 2011. Nine earthworm species were identified across all sampling sites. The sites shared five species: the native Microscolex dubius, and the introduced Aporrectodea caliginosa, A. rosea, Octalasion cyaneum, and O. lacteum, but they differed in relative abundance by soil use. The results show that the earthworm community structure is linked to and modulated by soil properties. Both species abundance and diversity showed significant differences depending on soil use intensity. A principal component analysis showed that species composition is closely related to the environmental variability. The ratio of native to exotic species was significantly lower in the intensive agricultural system when compared to the other two, lower disturbance systems. Microscolex dubius abundance was related to naturalized grasslands along with soil Ca, pH, mechanical resistance, and microbial respiration. Aporrectodea caliginosa abundance was related to high K levels, low enzymatic activity, slightly low pH, low Ca, and appeared related to the highly disturbed environment. Eukerria stagnalis and Aporrectodea rosea, commonly found in the recent agricultural system, were related to high soil moisture condition, low pH, low Ca and low enzymatic activity. These results show that earthworm assemblages can be good indicators of soil use intensities. In particular, Microscolex dubius, Aporrectodea caliginosa, and Aporrectodea rosea

  14. Salida de campo a Santovenia de Pisuerga (Valladolid) el 19 de junio de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Santovenia de Pisuerga (Valladolid) durante la mañana del 19 de junio de 1951, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves (que el autor clasifica en sus escritos por hábitats): Acrocephalus sp. (Carricerín), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamada Acanthis cannabina por el autor), Carduelis chloris (Verderón común), Charadrius dubius (Chorlitejo chico), Columba livia (Paloma bravía), Coturnix coturnix (Codorniz común), Fringilla coelebs (Pinzón vulga...

  15. Excursión Corcos - Aguilarejo (Valladolid) el 31 de mayo de 1951

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Excursión de Corcos a Aguilarejo, en la provincia de Valladolid, pasando por Peña Caída y el Cueto, el 31 de mayo de 1951, en la que se observaron Liebres (Lepus sp.) y Ratas de agua (Arvicola sapidus), y se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Acrocephalus sp. (Carricero), Ardea sp. (Garza), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamada Acanthis cannabina por el autor), Caprimulgus sp. (Chotacabras), Cettia cetti (Ruiseñor bastardo), Charadrius dubius (Chorlitejo chico), Clamator...

  16. Salida de campo a Zaratán (Valladolid) el 24 y 26 de mayo de 1953

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Zaratán, Valladolid, los días 24 y 26 de mayo de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre el parto de un Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), y las siguientes aves: Actitis hypoleucos (Andarríos chico, llamado Actynioides hypoleucus por el autor), Anas platyrhynchos (Ánade azulón, también llamado Pato bravío por el autor), Charadrius dubius (Chorlitejo chico), Corvus monedula (Grajilla, llamada Coloeus por el autor), Falco peregrinus (Halcón pe...

  17. Salida de campo a Valdestillas (Valladolid) el 13 de agosto de 1955

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Salida de campo a Valdestillas (Valladolid) el 13 de agosto de 1955, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Actitis hypoleucos (Andarríos chico, llamado Actynioides hypoleucus por el autor), Alectoris rufa (Perdiz roja), Anas platyrhynchos (Ánade azulón, también llamado Pato bravío por el autor), Ardea cinerea (Garza real), Athene noctua (Mochuelo europeo), Burhinus oedicnemus (Alcaraván común), Charadrius dubius (Chorlitejo chico), Ciconia ciconia (Cigüeña blanca), Cl...

  18. A new species of earth snake (Dipsadidae, Geophis) from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luis CANSECO-MÁRQUEZ; Pavón-Vázquez, Carlos J.; Lòpez-Luna,Marco Antonio; Nieto-Montes de Oca, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the Geophis dubius group is described from the mountains of the Sierra Zongolica in west-central Veracruz and the Sierra de Quimixtlán in central-east Puebla. The new species is most similar to G. duellmani and G. turbidus, which are endemic to the mountains of northern Oaxaca and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Puebla and Hidalgo, respectively. However, the new species differs from G. duellmani by the presence of postocular and supraocular scales and from G. turbidus by having ...

  19. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of the grain protein of new amaranths varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Elba Graciela; Albarracín, Graciela de Jesús; Uñates, María Angelina; Piola, Hugo Daniel; Camiña, José Manuel; Escudero, Nora Lilian

    2015-03-01

    The efforts for promoting the consumption of food of plant origin are increasingly growing. The amaranth grain is an important vegetable protein source, superior in content and quality to traditional cereals. In the central-west region of Argentina, new amaranth varieties have been obtained to optimize its agronomic traits and promote its use. In this work, the analysis of the wholemeal flour protein from seeds of two new varieties of Amaranthus cruentus var. Candil (CC) and Amaranthus hypochondriacus var. Dorado (HD), as well as from advanced lines of Amaranthus hypochondriacus x Amaranthus cruentus H17a (H17) and Amaranthus cruentus G6/17a (CG6), was carried out in order to elucidate their nutritional contribution to human diet. The amino acids profile and the chemical score (CS) were determined, and the protein quality was evaluated in-vivo through the following indexes: net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (tD), biological value (BV) and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). In general, the amino acids values of the different varieties exceeded the requirements established by the WHO/FAO/UNU; however, valine was the limiting amino acid in all cases. The values obtained (%) were within the following ranges: NPU, 33.56-46.04%; tD, 68.80-75.40%; BV, 44.53-64.28%; and PDCAAS, 23.69-36.19%. These results suggest that the new amaranth flours varieties can be adequate for human consumption and as complementary protein source. PMID:25501792

  20. Nomenclatural notes about the names in Amaranthaceae published by Roberto de Visiani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamonico Duilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The names in Amaranthaceae published by R. de Visiani are investigated. Amaranthus gangeticus var. cuspidatus is a nomen nudum and thus invalid according to Art. 38.1a of the ICN. Amaranthus hierichuntinus, Atriplex patula var. hastifolia, and Chenopodium album var. oblongum are lectotypified, respectively, on a specimen preserved at PAD, and illustrations by Scopoli and Vahl. We here propose to synonymyze the three names (new synonymies respectively with Amaranthus graecizans subsp. graecizans, Atriplex patula subsp. patula, and the type subspecies of C. album. For nomenclatural purposes, also the name C. lanceolatum Willd. (heterotypic synonym of C. album subsp. album is investigated and lectotypified, on a specimen preserved at B.

  1. Pain management in mice using methanol extracts of three plants belongs to family Amaranthaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok Kumar BS; Lakshman K; Jayaveera KN; Vel Murgan C; Arun Kumar PA; Vinod Kumar R; Meghda Hegade; Sridhar SM

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the analgesic activity of methanolic extract of Amaranthus viridis(A. viridis), Amaranthus caudatus (A. caudatus) and Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus). Methods:In this study, the analgesic activity of methanol extracts of all three plants at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were investigated by acetic acid-induced writhings test, hot plate test and tail immersion test for mice. Results:It was found that all the three plants showed significant pain management effect(P<0.01) at a dose of 400 mg/kg, but showed a less significant effect at a dose of 20 mg/kg in the entire tests used for evaluation of analgesic activities (P<0.05). Conclusions:Methanol extracts of A. viridis, A. caudatus and A. spinosus show potent analgesic activities, and this study provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  2. CHANGES IN AMARANTH POLYPHENOL CONTENT DURING THE DIFFERENT VEGETATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Vollmannová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Total content of polyphenols was investigated in different anatomical parts of amaranth during different growth periods. Five amaranth cultivars were included in the experiment (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: cultivars Annapurna and Koniz, Amaranthus caudatus L.: cultivar Oscar Blanco, Amaranthus cruentus L.: cultivars Golden Giant and Rawa. Analysis were done in 4 growth phases: phase I. – intensive stem growth, phase II. – formation of the flowers and pollination, phase III. – milky ripeness, phase IV. – full ripeness. Based on the determined total polyphenol content in amaranth it is possible to create this anatomical part order: leaves > flowers > seeds > stems. No statistically significant differences were confirmed between phases I., III. and IV. On the other hand the total polyphenol content in amaranth determined in growth phase II. was significantly different in comparison to other growth phases. Statistically significant differences in polyphenolic content were confirmed between all investigated anatomical parts of amaranth.

  3. On the road to diploidization? Homoeolog loss in independently formed populations of the allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltis Pamela S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy (whole-genome duplication is an important speciation mechanism, particularly in plants. Gene loss, silencing, and the formation of novel gene complexes are some of the consequences that the new polyploid genome may experience. Despite the recurrent nature of polyploidy, little is known about the genomic outcome of independent polyploidization events. Here, we analyze the fate of genes duplicated by polyploidy (homoeologs in multiple individuals from ten natural populations of Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae, all of which formed independently from T. dubius and T. pratensis less than 80 years ago. Results Of the 13 loci analyzed in 84 T. miscellus individuals, 11 showed loss of at least one parental homoeolog in the young allopolyploids. Two loci were retained in duplicate for all polyploid individuals included in this study. Nearly half (48% of the individuals examined lost a homoeolog of at least one locus, with several individuals showing loss at more than one locus. Patterns of loss were stochastic among individuals from the independently formed populations, except that the T. dubius copy was lost twice as often as T. pratensis. Conclusion This study represents the most extensive survey of the fate of genes duplicated by allopolyploidy in individuals from natural populations. Our results indicate that the road to genome downsizing and ultimate genetic diploidization may occur quickly through homoeolog loss, but with some genes consistently maintained as duplicates. Other genes consistently show evidence of homoeolog loss, suggesting repetitive aspects to polyploid genome evolution.

  4. Synthetic polyploids of Tragopogon miscellus and T. mirus (Asteraceae): 60 Years after Ownbey's discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jennifer A; Symonds, V Vaughan; Doust, Andrew N; Buggs, Richard J A; Mavrodiev, Evgeny; Majure, Lucas C; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2009-05-01

    In plants, polyploidy has been a significant evolutionary force on both recent and ancient time scales. In 1950, Ownbey reported two newly formed Tragopogon allopolyploids in the northwestern United States. We have made the first synthetic lines of T. mirus and T. miscellus using T. dubius, T. porrifolius, and T. pratensis as parents and colchicine treatment of F(1) hybrids. We also produced allotetraploids between T. porrifolius and T. pratensis, which are not known from nature. We report on the crossability between the diploids, as well as the inflorescence morphology, pollen size, meiotic behavior, and fertility of the synthetic polyploids. Morphologically, the synthetics resemble the natural polyploids with short- and long-liguled forms of T. miscellus resulting when T. pratensis and T. dubius are reciprocally crossed. Synthetic T. mirus was also formed reciprocally, but without any obvious morphological differences resulting from the direction of the cross. Of the 27 original crosses that yielded 171 hybrid individuals, 18 of these lineages have persisted to produce 386 S(1) progeny; each of these lineages has produced S(2) seed that are viable. The successful generation of these synthetic polyploids offers the opportunity for detailed comparative studies of natural and synthetic polyploids within a nonmodel system. PMID:21628250

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01559-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mo... 50 0.14 1 ( EU094599 ) Amaranthus hypochondriacus clone AHAAT148 microsa...597 ) Genomic sequence for Oryza sativa, Nipponbare str... 38 1.3 4 ( EY292117 ) CAWX10374.rev CAWX Helobdella ro...5222xp19r1.ab1 CHO_OF5 Nicotiana tabacum ge... 38 0.033 2 ( CU019655 ) Zebrafish DNA sequence from clone DKE...94577 ) Amaranthus hypochondriacus clone AHAAT110 microsa... 48 0.56 1 ( AM488688 ) Vitis vinifera, whole ge...CE9901... 74 6e-12 CP001328_260( CP001328 |pid:none) Micromonas sp. RCC299 chromo

  6. Neutron Activation Analysis for investigation of elemental composition of Amarantus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied for the characterization of the elemental composition of Amaranthus seeds, known in the prehistorical period, a tropical plant with promising nutritional and economic value. The characterization is enriched by the results of radiochemical neutron activation analysis for cobalt, molybdenum and uranium content. The comparison of the results, for three sorts of edible flour, commercially available: Soya Flour, Corn Bean Flour and Amaranthus Flour, is presented. The validation of the analytical methods used was carried out on the basis of participation in the interlaboratory comparison organized by the INCT (INCT-TL-1, INCT-MPH-2) and by NIST (SRM 1575a). (author)

  7. Actividad biológica de proteínas y péptidos de amaranto : Efectos inmunomodulatorios

    OpenAIRE

    Moronta, Julián

    2015-01-01

    La hipótesis de trabajo sobre la cual se han formulado los objetivos específicos es la siguiente: péptidos provenientes de proteínas de la semilla de Amaranthus hypochondriacus presentan propiedades anti-inflamatorias capaces de modular la respuesta inmune innata, mediante la inhibición de la vía NF-κB y la respuesta inflamatoria. Objetivos específicos: - Obtener, caracterizar y aislar péptidos a partir de hidrolizados de proteínas, provenientes de semillas de Amaranthus hypochondriacus...

  8. Influence of maize and pigweed on tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations infesting cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of maize, lea mays L., and pigweed, Amaranthus spp., on populations of tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), adults infesting cotton, Gossypium hirsucum L., in the Mississippi Delta was studied using stable isotope analyses. Cotton fields adjacent to maize and th...

  9. Quality of Vegetable Seeds Collected from Mymensingh Region in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain; Dey, P; K. Dilruba

    2014-01-01

    Seed quality and health status of 11 vegetable crop seeds of viz. Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata), Indian cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. indica), Indian spinach (Basella alba), Spinach (Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis), Red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor), Bitter gourd (Momordic acharantia), Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), Sweet gourd (Cucurbita moschata), Carrot (Daucuscarrota var. sativa), Radish (Raphanus sativus), and Turnip (Brassica rapa) collected from the greater Mymen...

  10. Weed Control and Peanut Tolerance with Ethalfluralin-Based Herbicide Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Grichar, W. J.; Dotray, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were conducted from 2007 through 2009 to determine weed efficacy and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) response to herbicide systems that included ethalfluralin applied preplant incorporated. Control of devil's claw (Proboscidea louisianica (Mill.) Thellung), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.), and puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.) was most consistent with ethalfluralin followed by either imazapic or imazethapyr applied postemer...

  11. Some Newly Recorded Species from Hainan%海南植物新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仕顺; 王洪

    2005-01-01

    报道海南新记录植物4种和1变钟:腋花苋(Amaranthus roxburghianus),细辛锦香草(Phyllagathis asarifolia),三瓣锦香草(Phyllagathis ternata),狭萼扁担杆(Grewia angustisepala)和毛使君子(Qutsqualis indica L.var.villosa).

  12. Expression of a foreign Rubisco small subunit in tobacco with reduced levels of the native protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cDNA, ArRbcS3, for the small subunit of Rubisco from Amaranthus retroflexus (pigweed) was expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) under the control of a strong leaf-specific Lhcb promoter. The coding region of the ArRbcS3 was fused to the plastid targeting sequence of the native tobacco rbcS to...

  13. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition of two amaranth species: oil, sugars, fibres, minerals and vitamins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallam, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of seed treatments, including cooking, popping, germination and flour air classification on several components of Amaranthus caudatus and A. cruentus seeds, including oil, sugars, fibre, minerals and vitamins were studied. The lipid, crude and dietary fibre, ash, and sugar contents were

  14. Interactions between glyphosate, Fusarium infection of waterhemp, and soil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted on waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) and soil collected from 144 soybean fields in Missouri that contained late-season waterhemp escapes. The objectives of these experiments were to: 1) determine the frequency and distribution of glyphosate res...

  15. Literaturberichte

    OpenAIRE

    Buttler, Karl Peter

    1988-01-01

    Die Literaturberichte betreffen aktuelle Publikationen zu folgenden Themen: Amaranthus, Aphanes-microcarpa-Aggregat, Callitriche, Ceratophyllum, Echinops, Eragrostis cilianensis, Fumarioideae, Odontites, Poaceae, Populus, Ranunculus tuberosus/nemorosus, Senecio ovatus, Vaccinium oxycoccus, Veronica chamaedrys-Gruppe, Viola-tricalor-Gruppe, Nomenklatur, Werra-Meißner-Kreis, Nordhessen, Symposien.

  16. Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Juan José; Ferrer, Luis Miguel; García, Laura; Fernández, Antonio; Loste, Araceli

    2005-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte transketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures.

  17. Influence of carrier volume and nozzle selection on Palmer amaranth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S Wats.) is largely viewed as one of the most troublesome weeds in the southeast. Effective control is essential in order to avoid reductions of crop yield. Due to wide-spread resistance to the ALS chemistry, postemergence contact herbicides are often the only i...

  18. Identification of traditional foods with public health potential for complementary feeding in Western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyuru, John N,; Konyole, Silvenus O.; Kenji, Glaston M.;

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of traditional foods in Kisumu West District of Western Kenya was assessed with an aim to identify the foods with a potential for complementary feeding. Leaves were the most consumed plant part amongst vegetables, while a few fruits were consumed together with their seeds. Amaranthus...

  19. Phylogeography of the Vermilion Flycatcher species complex: Multiple speciation events, shifts in migratory behavior, and an apparent extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Ore; Witt, Christopher C; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Dumbacher, John P

    2016-09-01

    The Vermilion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus) is a widespread species found in North and South America and the Galápagos. Its 12 recognized subspecies vary in degree of geographic isolation, phenotypic distinctness, and migratory status. Some authors suggest that Galápagos subspecies nanus and dubius constitute one or more separate species. Observational reports of distinct differences in song also suggest separate species status for the austral migrant subspecies rubinus. To evaluate geographical patterns of diversification and taxonomic limits within this species complex, we carried out a molecular phylogenetic analysis encompassing 10 subspecies and three outgroup taxa using mitochondrial (ND2, Cyt b) and nuclear loci (ODC introns 6 through 7, FGB intron 5). We used samples of preserved tissues from museum collections as well as toe pad samples from museum skins. Galápagos and continental clades were recovered as sister groups, with initial divergence at ∼1mya. Within the continental clade, North and South American populations were sister groups. Three geographically distinct clades were recovered within South America. We detected no genetic differences between two broadly intergrading North American subspecies, mexicanus and flammeus, suggesting they should not be recognized as separate taxa. Four western South American subspecies were also indistinguishable on the basis of loci that we sampled, but occur in a region with patchy habitat, and may represent recently isolated populations. The austral migrant subspecies, rubinus, comprised a monophyletic mitochondrial clade and had many unique nuclear DNA alleles. In combination with its distinct song, exclusive song recognition behavior, different phenology, and an isolated breeding range, our data suggests that this taxon represents a separate species from other continental populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic data, morphology, and behavior suggest that Galápagos forms should be elevated to two

  20. The Algae of Hirfanlı Dam Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay BAYKAL

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton and littoral algal flora of Hirfanlı Dam Lake were studied between October 1998 and June 2000. In phytoplankton Cyclostephanos dubius was dominant and seasonal distribution rathercomplex.From epipelic organisms, Navicula cryptocephala, N. pupula, Nitzschia palea, N. fonticola, Oscillatoria tenuis were conspicuous in terms of algal blooms and species compositions. A total of 308species were identified with 208 belonging to Bacillariophyta, 65 to Chlorophyta, 39 Cyanophyta, 10 Euglenophyta, 5 Dinophyta and 2 to Chrysophyta.The lake water is alkali in nature with sufficient oxidation at the pelajic region. In addition, at where there was algal bloom at the littoral region, odour was percewed from time to time.

  1. Two New and Four Unrecorded Species of Chironomidae (Diptera in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Il Ree

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid adults attracted to the light were collected at Dangsan-ri, Muju-eup, Muju-gun, Jeollabuk-do in 2008-2009. Two new species, Lymnophyes parakitanaides sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella mujuensis sp. nov., and four unrecorded species, Cardiolcladius capusinus, Thienemanniella vittata, Conchapelopia pallidula, and Nilotanypus dubius were found and are described with illustrations. The genera Thienemanniella and Nilotanypus have not been previously reported in Korea. The genus Thienemanniella which belongs to Orthocladiinae is characterized by the radial sector retracted and apically fused with the costa, and the genus Nilotanypus which belongs to Tanypodinae is characterized by the absence of R2+3, pubescent eyes and lack of the gonocoxal lobes.

  2. Using Food Grade Lye “omushelekha” in the Formulation of Health Products from Commonly Consumed African Indigenous Vegetables and Vegetable Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence O Habwe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lye, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide has been used over the years in food preparation including the preparation of vegetables and dried meat products, washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, cocoa processing, caramel production, poultry scalding and cooking among others. Lye is believed to improve the organoleptic properties and also enhances the nutritional value to the products.Objective: To assess the effect of food grade lye on the levels of copper and iron in the raw, boiled and boiled-fried single vegetables and vegetable combinations treated with and without food grade lye.Methods: Single vegetables, Crotalaria occroleuca, Solanum scabrum, Vigna unguiculata and Amaranthus blitum and their combinations were cooled and kept in the fridge at 4oCs. Elemental analysis was done for the raw, boiled and boiled-fried samples using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS under standard conditions using wavelengths of 248.3nm for iron and 324.2nm for copper. Paired t-test was used to compare the iron and copper levels of the boiled and boiled-fried vegetables while the independent t-test was done to assess the levels of iron and copper in the raw, boiled and boiled fried samples.Results: Boiled-fried samples recorded higher content of iron and copper than the boiled ones. A combination of Amaranthus blitum-Crotolaria occloreuca boiled without lye boiled-fried with lye, and boiled-fried without lye had the highest copper contents of 1.66mg/100gram, 4.56mg/100gram, and 4.56mg/100gram respectively, compared to Amaranthus blitum aloneFunctional Foods in Heals and Disease 2011; 5:189-197(3.48mg/100gram and Crotolaria occloreuca (0.42mg/100gram. A combination of Amaranthus blitum-Crotolaria occloreuca boiled in non-lye water, and those boiled-fried with and without lye had the highest extractable iron of 557mg/100g, 859.2mg/100g, and 859.2mg/100g respectively. Iron content was high in the Solanum scabrum (281.1mg/100g

  3. WHITE BLISTER SPECIES (Albuginaceae ON WEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate fungi inside the family Albuginaceae are widespread world wide and cause white rust or white blister disease. Mycopopulation of weeds has been researched within the project „The role of weeds in epidemiology of row-crop diseases“. The aim of this research was to identify white blister species occurring on weeds in Eastern Croatia. Weed plants with disease symptoms characteristic for white blister species have been collected since 2001 on location Slavonia and Baranja country. Determination of white blister species was based on morphological characters of pathogen and the host. Wilsoniana bliti was determined on Amaranthus retroflexus and Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Capsella bursa pastoris is a host for Albugo candida. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a host for Pustula sp. and Cirsium arvense was found to be host for Pustula spinulosa. Wilsoniana portulaceae was determined on Portulaca oleracea.

  4. Antiulcer activity of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) from Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.C.Devaraj; B.Gopala Krishna

    2013-01-01

    AIM:The present study was aimed at evaluating the antiulcer activity of the polyherbal formulation (PHF) containing the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera,Raphinus sativus,and Amaranthus tricolor in rats.METHODS:The antiulcer activity of the polyherbal formulation (PHF) was evaluated using different models of gastric ulcers:ethanol-induced,indomethacin-induced and ischemia reperfusion-induced gastric ulcers.Efficacy was assessed by determining the ulcer index.RESULTS:Administration of the polyherbal formulation (150 mg·kg-1,p.o.) offered significant protection against indomethacin-induced,ethanol-induced,and ischemic reperfusion-induced ulcer models when compared to the control group.CONCLUSION:PHF,containing leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera,Raphinus sativus,and Amaranthus tricolor,was found to possess antiulcer properties in three experimental animal models of gastric ulcers,and these findings suggest that the significant gastroprotective activity could be mediated by its antioxidant activity.

  5. AcEST: DK946014 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available inhibitor 1 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana Align length 33 Score (bit) 35.8 E-value 0.068 Repo...N PE=2 SV=2 29 8.3 sp|Q22695|CD5R1_CAEEL Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activator 1 OS=C... 29 8.4 >sp|Q945Q1|CYT...) OS=Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens Align length 46 Score (bit) 41.6 E-value 0.02 Repo...nhibitor OS=Populus to... 39 0.17 tr|Q0GPA4|Q0GPA4_AMAHP Cystatin OS=Amaranthus hypoc... L+ FK ++ S+D+ Sbjct: 92 LEATDAGNNKMYEVKVWVKPWMNFKQLQEFKHVEGGTSSDL 132 >tr|Q0GPA4|Q0GPA4_AMAHP Cystatin OS=Amaranthus hypoc

  6. VEGETATIVE COMPATIBILITY OF Fusarium oxysporum ISOLATED FROM WEEDS IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum are the main causal agent of Fusarium wilts. In 2008 and 2009 we collected F. oxysporum samples from symptomless Abutilon theophrasti, Xanthium strumarium, Chenopodium album, Matricaria perforata, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Polygonum lapathifolium, Sonchus arvensis, Amaranthus blitoides, Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Sorghum halepense and Hibiscus trionum. Only 16 out of 41 isolates of F. oxysporum yielded nit mutants. The frequency of nit3 mutants was higher (43% than the frequency of nit1 (35% and NitM (22% mutants. Two vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. oxysporum were determined in the complementation tests. These results stress out the problem with isolation of nit mutants and show a high genetic diversity of F. oxysporum isolated from weeds.

  7. EFFECT OF CYANAZINE AND LINURON ON WEEDS AND PRODUCTIVITY IN ONION CROP (Allium cepa L. EFEITO DE CYNAZINE E LINURON NO CONTROLE DE PLANTAS DANINHAS E NA PRODUTIVIDADE DA CEBOLA (Allium cepa L.d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Perino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This work presents the results of a field experiment carried out in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil, to estimate the efficiency of herbicides in controlling weeds in onion crop of Texas Early Grano 502. Cyanazine controlled Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus spp. till 45 days, and Commelina virginica. Eleusine indica and Brachiaria plantaginea till 30 days after application. Linuron controlled P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. and B. plantaginea during 45 days. Both herbicides showed phytotoxicity decreasing the onion productivity.

    Foi realizado um experimento com cebola (Allium cepa L. cv . Texas Early Grano - 502, transplantada em Goiânia, Goiás, no período de junho a novembro de 1988, visando ao controle de plantas daninhas com cyanazine e linuron aplicados após o transplante da cultura. Nas condições em que o ensaio foi realizado, concluiu-se que cyanazine e linuron provocaram fitotoxicidade na cultura da cebola, causando redução na produção em relação à testemunha. Cyanazine controlou Portulaca oleracea e Amaranthus spp. até 45 dias e Commelina virginica, Eleusine indica e Brachiaria plantaginea até 30 dias após a aplicação. Linuron controlou P. oleracea, Amaranthus spp. e B. plantaginea até 45 dias após a aplicação, mas não controlou eficientemente C. virginica, E. indica e Digitaria horizontalis.

  8. Large animal hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, L A; Case, A A

    1979-10-01

    The hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic plants of large domestic animals have been reviewed. The most important ones are those widely distributed as weeds over pastures, negelcted forests and grasslands, those used as ornamentals, the nitrate concentrating forage crops, and the cyanophoric plants. Crotolaria spp, the ragwort (Senecia jacobaea), the lantana spp. and heliotopum are common hepatoxic plants. Amaranthus retroflexus, Datura stramonium, Solanum rostratum, and the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) are nephrotoxic plants. PMID:516370

  9. Is growing buckwheat allelopathic?

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, Judith; Gfeller, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    The growth repressive effect of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) was studied by separating resource competition from root interactions between the two plant species in a pot trial in the phytotron. In order to verify this result in situ field trials were performed. A strong repression of redroot pigweed growth by buckwheat could be observed independently of shading. However, soil both from the field and phytotron trials in which buckwheat had...

  10. Effect of Processing on the Vitamin C Content of Seven Nigerian Green Leafy Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Olubukola Babalola; O .S. Tugbobo and A.S. Daramola

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of processing on the Vitamin C content of seven Nigerian green leafy vegetables, Telfaria occidentalis (ugu), Talinum triangulare (waterleaf), Basella alba (indian spinach), Celosia argentea (soko), Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf), Amaranthus hybridus (tete) and Crassephalum crepidioees (rorowo). Processing methods employed are, blanching, boiling, sundrying, squeezewashing, squeeze-washing with salt and squeeze-washing with boiling. Raw ugu h...

  11. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN)

    OpenAIRE

    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-01-01

    A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus commu...

  12. Weed management in conventional, no-till, and transgenic corn with mesotrione combinations and other herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Armel, Gregory Russell

    2002-01-01

    Weed management programs in corn typically include herbicides applied both preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) for season-long weed control. Mesotrione is a new triketone herbicide registered for PRE and POST control of broadleaf weeds in corn. Triketone herbicides function through inhibition of the enzyme p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase. Mesotrione applied PRE did not adequately control common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.), commo...

  13. Ion-exchange chromatography separates activities synthesizing and degrading fructose 2,6-bisphosphate from C3 and C4 leaves but not from rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, F. D.; Chou, Q.; Buchanan, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Fructose-6-phosphate,2-kinase and fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase were separated on the basis of charge from leaves of C3 (spinach, lettuce, and pea) and C4 (sorghum and amaranthus) plants but not from rat liver--a tissue known to contain a bifunctional enzyme with both activities. [2-32P]Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate binding experiments also suggest that the major forms of these activities reside on different proteins in leaves.

  14. Phytoremediation of a radiocesium-contaminated soil: Field evaluation of {sup 137}Cs bioaccumulation in the shoots of three plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasat, M.M.; Ebbs, S.D.; Kochian, L.V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). US Plant, Soil and Nutrition Lab.; Fuhrman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Environmental and Waste Technology Center; Cornish, J. [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., Butte, MT (United States)

    1997-08-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the potential of three plant species for phytoremediation of a {sup 137}Cs-contaminated site. From the contaminated soil, approximately 40-fold more radiocesium was removed in shoots of red root pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) compared with those of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern) and tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray). The greater potential for {sup 137}Cs removal from the soil by Amaranthus was associated with both high concentration of radiocesium in shoots and high shoot biomass production. Approximately 3% of the total {sup 137}Cs was removed from the top 15 cm of the soil in shoots of three-month-old Amaranthus plants. Soil leaching tests conducted with 0.1 and 0.5 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solutions eluted as much as 15 and 19%, respectively, of the soil {sup 137}Cs. Addition of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} to the soil, however, had no positive effect on {sup 137}Cs accumulation in shoots in any of the species investigated. It is proposed that either NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} solution quickly percolated through the soil before interacting at specific {sup 137}Cs binding sites or radiocesium mobilized by NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} application moved below the rhizosphere becoming unavailable for root uptake. Further research is required to enhance the phytotransfer of the NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-mobilized {sup 137}Cs. With two croppings of Amaranthus per year and a sustained rate of extraction, phytoremediation of this {sup 137}Cs-contaminated soil appears feasible in less than 15 years.

  15. Effects of CO2 and temperature on growth and resource use of co-occurring C3 and C4 annuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examined how CO2 concentrations and temperature interacted to affect growth, resource acquisition, and resource allocation of two annual plants that were supplied with a single pulse of nutrients. Physiological and growth measurements were made on individuals of Abutilon throphrasti (C3) and Amaranthus retroflexus (C4) grown in environments with atmospheric CO2 levels of 400 or 700 μL/L and with light/dark temperatures of 28 degree/22 degree or 38 degree/31 degree C. Elevated CO2 and temperature treatments had significant independent and interactive effects on plant growth, resource allocation, and resource acquisition, and the strength and direction of these effects were often dependent on plant species. For example, final biomass of Amaranthus was enhanced by elevated CO2 at 28 degree but was depressed at 38 degree. For Abutilon, elevated CO2 increased initial plant relative growth rates at 28 degree but not at 38 degree, and had no significant effects on final biomass at either temperature. These results are interpreted in light of the interactive effects of CO2 and temperature on the rates of net leaf area production and loss, and on net whole-plant nitrogen retention. At 28 degree C, elevated CO2 stimulated the initial production of leaf area in both species, which led to an initial stimulation of biomass accumulation at the higher CO2 level. However, in elevated CO2 at 28 degree, the rate of net leaf area loss for Abutilon increased while that of Amaranthus decreased. Furthermore, high CO2 apparently enhanced the ability of Amaranthus to retain nitrogen at this temperature, which may have helped to enhance photosynthesis, whereas nitrogen retention was unaffected in Abutilon

  16. 野生蔬菜苋菜及其栽培利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岚萍; 韩晓弟

    2004-01-01

    苋菜(Amaranthus spp.)。隶属苋科苋属,1年生草本植物。以幼嫩的植株或嫩稍供食,山东各地广泛分布,山东有12种,常见7种,如反枝苋(A.retroflexus L.)、绿穗苋(A.hy-

  17. 75 FR 17947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 69 Species in Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Alsinidendron obovatum. E U.S.A. (HI) 56 FR 55770; 10/29/1991. No common name Amaranthus brownii..... E U.S.A..., Drosophila aglaia...... E U.S.A. (HI) 71 FR 26835; 5/9/2006. Pomace fly, Drosophila differens... E U.S.A. (HI) 71 FR 26835; 5/9/2006. Pomace fly, Drosophila hemipeza.... E U.S.A. (HI) 71 FR 26835;...

  18. Nomenclatural corrections to the taxonomic revision of The Old World species of Boehmeria (Urticaceae, tribus Boehmeriae) by Wilmot-Dear and Friis (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmot-Dear, Christine Melanie; Friis, Ib; Govaerts, R. H. A.

    2014-01-01

    This nomenclatural note, a sequel to a recently published taxonomic revision of the Old World species of the genus Boehmeria (Urticaceae), establishes: (1) a holotype of B. maugeretii, synonym of taxon no. 8b in the revision (B. clidemioides var. diffusa), (2) B. 15 zollingeriana Wedd. var. blini......: Boehmeria amaranthus H. Lév., B. bodinieri H. Lév., B. cavaleriei H. Lév., B. martini H. Lév. and B. vanioitii H. Lév....

  19. Distribution et extension de la résistance chloroplatique aux atrazines chez les adventices annuelles en France

    OpenAIRE

    GASQUEZ, Jacques; BARRALIS, Gilbert; Aigle, N.

    1982-01-01

    La résistance chloroplastique aux triazines a été observée en France chez 13 espèces, dont les auteurs précisent l’importance agronomique et la distribution géographique ; les 3 espèces qui présentent la plus grande dispersion sont Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L. et Solanum nigrum L.

  20. Phytotoxic Effects and a Phytotoxin from the Invasive Plant Xanthium italicum Moretti

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Shao; Xiaoli Huang; Chi Zhang; Xiaoyi Wei

    2012-01-01

    The allelopathic effects of different parts of the plant Xanthium italicum Moretti were evaluated by conducting bioassays against two dicot plants, amaranth (Amaranthus mangostanus L.) and lettuce (Lectuca sativa L.), and two monocot plants, wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn) and ryegrass (Lolium multiforum). Leaf and fruit extract possessed the strongest biological activity, killing all seeds of four test species at 0.05 g/mL concentration. Fruits were chosen for further investigation because of...

  1. Utilization of Super BAC Pools and Fluidigm Access Array Platform for High-Throughput BAC Clone Identification: Proof of Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Peter J Maughan; Smith, Scott M.; Joshua A. Raney

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are critical for identifying full-length genomic sequences, correlating genetic and physical maps, and comparative genomics. Here we describe the utilization of the Fluidigm access array genotyping system in conjunction with KASPar genotyping technology to identify individual BAC clones corresponding to specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from an Amplicon Express seven-plate super pooled Amaranthus hypochondriacus BAC library. Ninety...

  2. Interação de glyphosate com carfentrazone-ethyl Glyphosate - carfentrazone-ethyl interaction

    OpenAIRE

    R.C. Werlang; Silva, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Foi conduzido um experimento em condições controladas para determinar a interação do carfentrazone-ethyl em mistura no tanque com o herbicida glyphosate, no controle de seis espécies de plantas daninhas. Glyphosate aplicado isoladamente na dose de 720 g ha-1 foi eficaz no controle de Amaranthus hybridus (100%), Desmodium tortuosum (100%), Bidens pilosa (99%), Eleusine indica (96%), Digitaria horizontalis (100%) e Commelina benghalensis (93%) aos 21 DAA. Carfentrazone-ethyl aplicado isoladamen...

  3. Can Soil Seed Banks Serve as Genetic Memory? A Study of Three Species with Contrasting Life History Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    MANDÁK, BOHUMIL; Zákravský, Petr; Mahelka, Václav; PLAČKOVÁ, IVANA

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to confirm that seed banks can be viewed as an important genetic reservoir by testing the hypothesis that standing (aboveground) plants represent a nonrandom sample of the seed bank. We sampled multilocus allozyme genotypes from three species with different life history strategies: Amaranthus retroflexus, Carduus acanthoides, Pastinaca sativa. In four populations of each species we analysed the extent to which allele and genotype frequencies vary in consecutive life history stage...

  4. Oxygen requirement and inhibition of C4 photosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Maroco, João; Ku, Maurice S. B.; Peter J. Lea; Dever, Louisa V.; Leegood, Richard C.; Furbank, Robert T.; Edwards, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    The basis for O2 sensitivity of C4 photosynthesis was evaluated using a C4-cycle-limited mutant of Amaranthus edulis (a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-deficient mutant), and a C3-cyclelimited transformant of Flaveria bidentis (an antisense ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase [Rubisco] small subunit transformant). Data obtained with the C4-cycle-limited mutant showed that atmospheric levels of O2 (20 kPa) caused increased inhibition of photosynthesis as a res...

  5. PRIMJENA KEMIJSKIH MJERA U SUZBIJANJU KOROVA U ULJNOJ BUNDEVI (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Besek, Zdenko; Renata BALIČEVIĆ; IVEZIĆ, Marija; Raspudić, Emilija; Ravlić, Marija

    2012-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja provedenog tijekom dvije godine (2002. i 2003.) na dva lokaliteta (Vranjevo i Poljanice) bio je utvrditi učinak herbicida na suzbijanje korova u usjevu uljne bundeve (Cucurbita pepo L. var. oleifera) te usporediti njihovu učinkovitost u odnosu na mehanike mjere suzbijanja korova. Dominantne korovne vrste bile su: Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis i Echinochloa crus-galli. Sve istraživane herbicidne varijante, osim kombinacije prometrin + fluazifop-p butil, u 2002. godi...

  6. PATHOGENICITY OF FUSARIUM SPP. ISOLATED FROM WEEDS AND PLANT DEBRIS IN EASTERN CROATIA TO WHEAT AND MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Ilić; Jasenka Ćosić; Draženka Jurković; Karolina Vrandečić

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenicity of thirty isolates representing 14 Fusarium species isolated from weeds and plant debris in eastern Croatia was investigated in the laboratory. Pathogenicity tests were performed on wheat and maize seedlings. The most pathogenic Fusarium spp. was F. graminearum isolated from Amaranthus retroflexus, Abutilon mtheophrasti and Chenopodium album. There was a noticeable inter- and intraspecies variability in pathogenicity towards wheat and maize. Isolates of F. solani from Sonchus ar...

  7. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN OIL PUMPKIN (CUCURBITA PEPO L. VAR. OLEIFERA PIETSCH)

    OpenAIRE

    Zdenko Besek; Renata Baličević; Marija Ivezić; Emilija Raspudić; Marija Ravlić

    2012-01-01

    A two-year experiment (2002 – 2003) was conducted in oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. oleifera) at two localities (Vranjevo and Poljanice) to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical weed control through application of herbicides, and to compare it with mechanical weed control. Main weeds were Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria viridis and Echinochloa crus-galli. All herbicide treatments, except combination of prometrine + fluazifop-p butyl36, in 2002 appeared to be acceptable to high efficacy in ...

  8. Assessment of Trace Metal Levels in Commonly Edible Vegetables from Selected Markets in Lagos State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adu, A.A; Aderinola, O.J; Kusemiju, V

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of food contaminated with heavy metals is a major source of health problems for man and animals. Three commonly edible Leafy vegetables (Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea ,Cochorus olitoris) from Agboju and Iba markets , Lagos Nigeria were sampled, identified, digested and analyzed with the aid of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) as directed by APHA (American Public Health Association) to determine heavy metals concentration in them with the aim of ascertaining their...

  9. Organic Grain Amaranth Production in Kamuli District, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, M W; Delate, K.; Burras, C.L.; Mazur, R.E.; Brenner, D.M.; M. M. Tenywa; Nakimbugwe, D.N.; Kabahuma, M.; Abili, A.

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) are high protein content and protein quality pseudo-cereal crops whose favorable nutritional profile belies their potential to alleviate nutrition and food insecurity in developing countries. Grain amaranth was introduced as a nutrient dense food into the Kamuli District, eastern Uganda, in 2006. However, initial analysis of protein content of amaranth grain pooled from farms in the Kamuli District indicated that protein levels ranged ...

  10. Effect of Aqueous Extracts from Weed Species on Germination and Initial Growth in Raphanus sativus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Anisoara STRATU; Olteanu, Zenovia; Andrei LOBIUC

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents the results of a study on the effects of aqueous extracts from five weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Echinochloa crus-galii, Setaria verticillata) on germination and initial growth in Raphanus sativus L. The following indicators have been analyzed: indices of germination (the germination percentage; the speed of germination; the speed of accumulated germination and the coefficient of germination rate), the length of the ro...

  11. Grapevine Yellows in the Republic of Macedonia: Molecular Identification of Stolbur Phytoplasma Strains in Grapevine and Weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa; Karov, Ilija; Kostadinovska, Emilija

    2011-01-01

    During the period from 2006 to 2010, a survey for presence of Bois noir (BN) phytoplasmas of Vitis vinifera L., and wild spontaneous vegetation (Clematis vitalba L., Solanum nigrum L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., and Convolvulus arvensis L., was conducted. The aims of this study were: i)to check the presence of BN phytoplasmas on grapevines and wild vegetation in investigated vineyards in Eastern part of Macedonia, and II) to molecularly characterize and compare the isolates from grapevine wit...

  12. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Vemana, K.; Jain, R K

    2010-01-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula off...

  13. Effect of a biofield treatment on plant growth and adaptation (Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantum mechanics was developed when human energies of consciousness were found to influence observations at the scale of elementary particles, here referred as non-contact biofield treatment or biofield energies . Quantum mechanics has also proved efficacious in biological processes. The present experiments found an enhanced and significant impact of the biofield treatment on adaptive micropropagation response and callus induction of two plant species, Withania somnifera and Amaranthus dubiu...

  14. Genotoxicity study of an experimental beverage made with quinua, kiwicha and kañiwa

    OpenAIRE

    Francia D.P. Huaman; Emily M. Toscano; Oscar Acosta; Diana E. Rojas; Miguel A. Inocente; Diana P. Garrido; María L. Guevara-Fujita

    2014-01-01

    Genotoxic evaluation is an important step for a product that is aimed for human consumption. A beverage composed of pseudocereals with highly nutritious elements like quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L.) and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) was prepared to reduce lipid contents in a group of volunteers. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the genotoxic potential of an experimental beverage using two in vitro tests that have been validated ...

  15. Peri-urban Dry Season Vegetable Production in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kintomo, AA.; Ogunkeyede, OO.; Ogungbaigbe, LO.

    1997-01-01

    Peri-urban dry season vegetable production in Ibadan is increasingly becoming important, due to its relatively recent importance as a means of producing food in the city. Information on : (1) management practices ; (2) cropping systems ; and (3) economies of production, was hardly available. A diagnostic study organised in the dry season of 1994/95 addresses these issues. Its results indicate that the major crops in the system are Corchorus, Amaranthus and Celosia and are grown in intercroppi...

  16. Phytotoxic Potential and Biological Activity of Three Synthetic Coumarin Derivatives as New Natural-Like Herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Araniti; Raffaella Mancuso; Antonio Lupini; Salvatore V. Giofrè; Francesco Sunseri; Bartolo Gabriele; Maria Rosa Abenavoli

    2015-01-01

    Coumarin is a natural compound well known for its phytotoxic potential. In the search for new herbicidal compounds to manage weeds, three synthetic derivatives bearing the coumarin scaffold (1–3), synthesized by a carbonylative organometallic approach, were in vitro assayed on germination and root growth of two noxious weeds, Amaranthus retroflexus and Echinochloa crus-galli. Moreover, the synthetic coumarins 1–3 were also in vitro assayed on seedlings growth of the model species Arabidopsis ...

  17. Optimalizace podmínek a postupů při získávání bylinných extraktů.

    OpenAIRE

    SMUTNÍKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the content of selected phenolic compounds in some species of the genus Amaranthus, in black elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.). Phenolic compounds are a group of natural compounds exclusively vegetable character. Flavonoids represent only one group of phenolic compounds. Flavonoids show many positive biological effects, in particular act as antioxidants. Natural flavonoids may cause to prevent from coronary- heard diseases and other d...

  18. Immunochemical characterization of prosopis juliflora pollen allergens and evaluation of cross-reactivity pattern with the most allergenic pollens in tropical areas.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Allergy to Prosopis juliflora (mesquite) pollen is one of the common causes of respiratory allergy in tropical countries. Mesquite is widely used as street trees in towns and ornamental shade trees in parks and gardens throughout arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The inhalation of mesquite pollen and several species of Amaranthus/Chenopodiaceae family is the most important cause of allergic respiratory symptoms in Khuzestan province. This study was designed to evaluate IgE banding proteins o...

  19. Germination traits of three weed species in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmeti, A.; A. Demaj; Waldhardt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli and Datura stramonium are the most important weed species in Kosovo. They cause severe yield depression, contaminate fodder and negatively affect growth and reproduction of other weed species. To counteract these problems, specific strategies need to be developed. Such strategies should consider information on species germination traits. In this context, our study provides information on te...

  20. Allelopathic potential of Petiveria alliacea L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Leal, R.; García-Mateos, M.R.; Vásquez-Rojas, T.R.; M.T. Colinas-León,

    2005-01-01

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccacea) is a herbaceous plant of great importance in traditional medicine. It has been reported to be effective as an insecticide and acaricide; however, its allelopathic activity is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate its allelopathic activity in seeds of Triticum aestivum, Oriza sativa, Lactuca sativa and Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Tests were performed with different concentrations of the aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethanic leaf extracts. To...

  1. Weed Control and Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Tolerance to Pyrasulfotole plus Bromoxynil

    OpenAIRE

    Dan D. Fromme; Peter A. Dotray; W. James Grichar; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2012-01-01

    Field studies were conducted during the 2008 and 2009 growing seasons at five locations in the Texas grain sorghum producing regions to evaluate pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations for weed control and grain sorghum response. All pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations controlled Amaranthus palmeri, Cucumis melo, and Proboscidea louisianica at least 94% while control of Urochloa texana was never better than 69%. Pyrasulfotole plus bromoxynil combinations did result in early season c...

  2. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinović Branko I.; Meseldžija Maja U.

    2006-01-01

    Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L) Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., R...

  3. Dosadašnje stanje rasprostranjenosti nekih neofita u Hrvatskoj

    OpenAIRE

    Pandža, M.; Franjić, J.; Trinajstić, I.; Škvorc, Ž.; Stančić, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Istraživanjem rasprostranjenosti neofita u Hrvatskoj ukupno je otkriveno 332 novih nalazišta za 21 neofitsku vrstu. Najviše novih nalazišta ima vrsta Bidens subalternans (52), zatim slijede Impatiens glandulifera (49), Aster squamatus (43), Impatiens balfourii (29), Datura inoxia (25), Euphorbia prostrata (11), Galinsoga parviflora (17), Amaranthus albus (14), Galinsoga quadriradiata (15), Diplotaxis erucoides (11), Xanthium strumarium ssp. italicum (9), Phytolacca americana (12), Artemisia v...

  4. Prilog neofitskoj flori područja rijeke Cetine (Dalmacija, Hrvatska)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandža, Marija; Tafra, Damira

    2008-01-01

    U radu se navode nalazišta 22 neofita uz rijeku Cetinu. Neofiti – Acer negundo L., Amaranthus albus L., A. blitoides S. Watson, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Artemisia verlotiorum Lamotte, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq., C. canadensis (L.) Cronq., Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner, Euphorbia maculata L., E. prostrata Aiton, Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Paspalum paspalodes (Michx.) Scribn., Tagetes minuta L., Xanthium spinosum L., X. strumarium L. subsp. italicum (Moretti) D. Löve prvi put se navode z...

  5. First record of damage by an insect pest in a commercial amaranth crop in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Martins de Oliveira; Walter Quadros Ribeiro Júnior; Amabilio José Aires de Camargo; Marina Regina Frizzas

    2012-01-01

    Insect pests have not been recorded for amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) in Brazil. Generalized plant lodging was observed after the grain-filling period in an irrigated commercial amaranth crop (7 ha), located in Cristalina, state of Goiás (Brazil), which was cultivated between Aug. and Dec. 2009. Almost all sampled plants presented internal galleries bored by lepidopteran larvae. The larvae were reared, and the adults were identified as Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.) (Crambidae). This is t...

  6. Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne., new species for slovenian flora, and contribution to the knowledge of the neophytic flora of Primorska region

    OpenAIRE

    Fišer Pečnikar, Živa; Glasnović, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses Akebia quinata, a new alien species for the Slovenian flora. The authors provide a description of the species and its locality, and discuss its invasive potential, as in 2008, the species was recognized by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization as emerging invader in Europe. The authors also discuss the occurrence of several other neophytes in the Primorska region (Slovenia): Amaranthus deflexus, Artemisia annua, Aster squamatus, Bidens pilosa, Bide...

  7. Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne., nova vrsta v slovenski flori, ter prispevek k poznavanju neofitske flore Primorske: Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne., new species for slovenian flora, and contribution to the knowledge of the neophytic flora of Primorska region:

    OpenAIRE

    Fišer Pečnikar, Živa; Glasnović, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses Akebia quinata, a new alien species for the Slovenian flora. The authors provide a description of the species and its locality, and discuss its invasive potential, as in 2008, the species was recognized by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization as emerging invader in Europe. The authors also discuss the occurrence of several other neophytes in the Primorska region (Slovenia): Amaranthus deflexus, Artemisia annua, Aster squamatus, Bidens pilosa, Bide...

  8. CO2 and temperature effects on leaf area production in two annual plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied leaf area production in two annual plant species, Abutilon theophrasti and Amaranthus retroflexus, under three day/night temperature regimes and two concentrations of carbon dioxide. The production of whole-plant leaf area during the first 30 d of growth was analyzed in terms of the leaf initiation rate, leaf expansion, individual leaf area, and, in Amaranthus, production of branch leaves. Temperature and CO2 influenced leaf area production through effects on the rate of development, determined by the production of nodes on the main stem, and through shifts in the relationship between whole-plant leaf area and the number of main stem nodes. In Abutilon, leaf initiation rate was highest at 38 degree, but area of individual leaves was greatest at 28 degree. Total leaf area was greatly reduced at 18 degree due to slow leaf initiation rates. Elevated CO2 concentration increased leaf initiation rate at 28 degree, resulting in an increase in whole-part leaf area. In Amaranthus, leaf initiation rate increased with temperature, and was increased by elevated CO2 at 28 degree. Individual leaf area was greatest at 28 degree, and was increased by elevated CO2 at 28 degree but decreased at 38 degree. Branch leaf area displayed a similar response to CO2, butt was greater at 38 degree. Overall, wholeplant leaf area was slightly increased at 38 degree relative to 28 degree, and elevated CO2 levels resulted in increased leaf area at 28 degree but decreased leaf area at 38 degree

  9. The root exudation of grain amaranth and its role in release of mineral potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain amaranth is a pseudo-cereal with big biomass and abundant mineral elements. The genotypic variations of Amaranthus spp. with different K-use efficiency (KUE) were studied in root exudation and the role of root exudate in solubilizing mineral K by use of hydroponics and 14C tracing technique. The results showed that high KUE varieties had strong ability of both CO2 assimilation and exudation of photosynthate. Predominate low-molecular-weight organic acids (IMWOAs) in root exudate of grain amaranth was oxalic acid, accounting for more than 95% of the total LMWOAs tested. Amaranthus spp. differed in the intensity of root exudation with an order as. A. dubis>A. retroflexus>A. cruentus. In the same species, then, high KUE varieties usually had higher power of excretion. K-free treatment promoted excretion of photosynthate, but oxalic acid increased only in high KUE varieties. The root exudate could solubilize K-minerals significantly, and the amount of oxalic acid and its K release were closely correlated, which indicated that oxalic acid exudation is one of the key mechanism for Amaranthus spp. to enrich and take up K from K-minerals

  10. [Allelopathic effects of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Lingxiao; Chen, Xin; Tang, Jianjun

    2005-12-01

    With growth chamber method, this paper studied the allelopathic potential of invasive weed Solidago canadensis on native plant species. Different concentration S. canadensis root and rhizome extracts were examined, and the test plants were Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense, Medicago lupulina, Lolium perenne, Suaeda glauca, Plantago virginica, Kummerowia stipulacea, Festuca arundinacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea, and Amaranthus spinosus. The results showed that the allelopathic inhibitory effect of the extracts from both S. canadensis root and rhizome was enhanced with increasing concentration, and rhizome extracts had a higher effect than root extracts. At the lowest concentration (1:60), root extract had little effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of T. repens, but rhizome extract could inhibit the germination of all test plants though the inhibitory effect varied with different species. The inhibition was the greatest for grass, followed by forb and legume. 1:60 (m:m) rhizome extract had similar effects on seed germination and radicel growth, but for outgrowth, the extract could inhibit Kummerowia stipulacea, Amaranthus spinosus and Festuca arundinacea, had no significant impact on Lolium perenne, Plantago virginica, Ageratum conyzoides, Portulaca oleracea and Amaranthus spinosus, and stimulated Trifolium repens, Trifolium pretense and Medicago lupulina. PMID:16515192

  11. Selenium Accumulating Leafy Vegetables Are a Potential Source of Functional Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabeyo, Petro E; Manoko, Mkabwa L K; Gruhonjic, Amra; Fitzpatrick, Paul A; Landberg, Göran; Erdélyi, Máté; Nyandoro, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Selenium deficiency in humans has been associated with various diseases, the risks of which can be reduced through dietary supplementation. Selenium accumulating plants may provide a beneficial nutrient for avoiding such illnesses. Thus, leafy vegetables such as Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus sp., Cucurbita maxima, Ipomoea batatas, Solanum villosum, Solanum scabrum, and Vigna unguiculata were explored for their capabilities to accumulate selenium when grown on selenium enriched soil and for use as a potential source of selenium enriched functional foods. Their selenium contents were determined by spectrophotometry using the complex of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine hydrochloride (DABH) as a chromogen. The mean concentrations in the leaves were found to range from 7.90 ± 0.40 to 1.95 ± 0.12 μg/g dry weight (DW), with C. maxima accumulating the most selenium. In stems, the accumulated selenium content ranged from 1.12 ± 0.10 μg/g in Amaranthus sp. to 5.35 ± 0.78 μg/g DW in C. maxima and was hence significantly different (P < 0.01). The cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was used in cytotoxicity assays to determine the anticancer potential of these extracts. With exception of S. scabrum and S. villosum, no cytotoxicity was detected for the selenium enriched vegetable extracts up to 100 μg/mL concentration. Hence, following careful evaluation the studied vegetables may be considered as selenium enriched functional foods. PMID:26955635

  12. Some Weeds Community Percent in Response to Pumice Application on Soil under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Zarehaghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A factorial experiment (using RCBD design with three replications was conducted in 2014 at the University of Tabriz-Iran, in order to determine the effects of pumice application (P1, P2, P3 and P4: control, 30, 60 and 90 tons per ha on soil and water stress (I1, I2 and I3: 100%, 70% and 50% water requirement calculated from class A pan, respectively on dominante weeds community percent. Results showed that community percent of weed species changed as a result of water stress and pumice application on soil. Distributions of Chenopodium album and Malva sylvestris were sensitive to water stress but, Amaranthus retroflexus and Solanum nigrum were neutral to water stress. In contrast, Amaranthus retroflexus, Cardaria draba, Setaria viridis, Sisymbrium irio, Xanthium strumarium, Convolvulus arvensis and Salsola rigida distribution were resistant to water stress. Community percent of Chenopodium album as sensitive species to water stress and Salsola rigida as resistance species to water stress positively affected by pumice application especially under water stress condition. Amaranthus retroflexus, Xanthium strumarium and Convolvulus arvensis were positively affected by pumice application under well and limited water supply conditions. In contrast, Cardaria draba, Sisymbrium irio and Solanum nigrum negatively affected by pumice under water stress and it had positive effect on community of these species under well watering conditions. Thus, application of pumice and water stress are two factors which change weed community precent.

  13. THE AGE AND ENVIRONMENT STUDY OF Gigantopithecus FAUNA OF PA'ERYAN, BIJIE, GUIZHOU, BASED ON THE CARNIVORE FOSSILS%贵州毕节扒耳岩巨猿动物群的年代与环境——来自食肉类化石的分析和研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金毅; 赵凌霞; 陈津; 王新金; 蔡回阳; 张忠文

    2011-01-01

    Pa'eryan, a cave or fissure deposit at Bijie, Guizhou Province ( 27°22'12"N, 105°15'16"E, Fig. 1 ) , was identified as a Gigantopithecus site with of fossil mammals accumulation. Most carnivores, although small in number with only 19 pieces unearthed, are in good conditions; some of them can even be classified to species level. The carnivores unearthed from Pa'eryan include: hyaena ( Pachycrocuta licenti), black bear ( Ursus thibetanus primitinus) ,giant panda(Ailuropoda microta) ,jackal( Cuon dubius)and leopard(Panthera sp. ) ,namely 4 families, 5 genera and 5 species.The present fossil record indicates that Pachycrocuta licenti, Ailuropoda microta, Cuon dubius and Ursus thibetanus primitinus were endemic elements of the Early Pleistocene fauna in South China. The time period of these animals was short and only in the Early Pleistocene. Those of Ailuropoda microta and Cuon dubius were even shorter and possibly limited to the early Early Pleistocene. It can definitely be confirmed that Pa'eryan fauna is in Early Pleistocene according to its carnivore guild.All species mentioned above, except Panthera sp., are extinct species or subspecieces, which is a typical feature of mammalian assemblage of Early Pleistocene. The indexes for the extinct species and genera of Pa'eryan's carnivore guild are 80% and 20% respectively, which are similar to those of Juyuandong ( Liucheng) and Mehuidong ( Tiandong) , but somewhat lower than those from Longgupo ( Wushan) and higher than those from Longgudong( Jianshi) (Table 4). Moreove,the carnivore guild of Pa'eryan has 5 common or similar members with Juyuandong and Mehuidong, 4 with Longgupo ( Wushan ) , and only 3 with Longgudong ( Jianshi). The carnivore guild of Pa'eryan differs from that of Longgupo in hyaena fossils. The hyaenas from Longgupo are more primitive in morphology than those from Pa'eryan,and even identified as a different species,namely Pachycrocuta perrieri. The major differences between Pa'eryan and Longgudong

  14. 河西灌区3种主要农田杂草间的化感拮抗作用对小麦苗期生长发育的影响%The Susceptible Effect of the Allelopathy among Three Main Farmland Weeds in West Irrigated Area of Gansu on Growth and Development of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶春雷; 崔文娟; 罗俊杰; 欧巧明

    2013-01-01

    The effects of antagonism among three kinds of weed (Artemisia annua,Datura stramonium,and Amaranthus retroflexus) on growth of wheat seedlings were studied.The results showed that:with the treatment times of weed extracts to wheat from one to three,the cumulative effect of the antagonism effect of weeds extracts on wheat growth was significantly inhibited.When the concentration of water extract of Artemisia annua was 0.3g/mL,the antagonism between Datura stramonium extract and Amaranthus retroflexus extract were strong,showing that effect promote wheat growth;When the concentration of Datura stramonium extract 0.1 ~ 0.3g/mL,the antagonistic effect between Artemisia annua extract and Amaranthus retroflexus extract was weak,showing weak effects on wheat growth promotion;When the concentration of Amaranthus retroflexus 0.5g/mL the antagonism between Artemisia annua extract and Datura stramonium was weak,the performance of growth-promoting role for wheat is weak.%比较研究了3种麦田杂草黄花蒿(Artemisia annuaL.)、曼陀罗(Datura stramonium L.)和反枝苋(Amaranthus retroflexusL.)彼此间的 拮抗作用对小麦幼苗生长的影响,结果表明:随杂草浸提液对小麦处理1次到3次的过程,杂草浸提液间的拮抗作用对小麦生长抑制作用累积效应明显;当黄花蒿浸提液浓度为0.3g/mL时,曼陀罗浸提液与反枝苋浸提液之间存在较强的拮抗作用,表现为对小麦生长促进作用明显;当曼陀罗浸提液浓度为0.1~0.3g/mL时,黄花蒿浸提液与反枝苋浸提液之间存在较弱的拮抗作用,表现为对小麦生长促进作用较弱;当反枝苋浸提液浓度为0.5g/mL时,黄花蒿与曼陀罗之间存在较弱的拮抗作用,表现为对小麦生长促进作用较弱.

  15. Levantamento de plantas infestantes em lavouras de milho 'safrinha'no estado de São Paulo Weed survey in autumn corn crops in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aildson P. Duarte

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Fez-se o levantamento da flora infestante na lavoura do milho "safrinha" nas duas principais regiões de plantio no Estado de São Paulo, em 1995. Foram visitadas 85 lavouras na Região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema e 29 na Região Norte. Nesta, em quatro lavouras fez-se a semeadura na palha e em 25, em solo com preparo de gradagem simples, todos sem herbicida. Naquela, a semeadura na palha foi em 68 lavouras, em 11 fez-se gradagem simples e, em seis, gradagem dupla, havendo aplicação de herbicidas de POS em algumas áreas. As espécies que ocorreram, segundo a sua freqüência, foram, na Região Norte: Glycine max> Amaranthus retroflexus> Acanthospermum hispidum = Bidens pilosa = Alternanthera tenella > Cenchrus echinatus > Euphorbia heterophylla > Ipomoea spp. > Commelina benghalensis > Sida spp. = Eleusine indica; e, na Região do Médio Vale do Paranapanema: Euphorbia heterophylla = Glycine max = Commelina benghalensis > Bidens pilosa = Raphanus sativus > Cenchrus echinatus = Acanthospermum hispidum > Brachiaria plantaginea > Sida spp. = Coronopus didymus > Eleusine indica > Digitaria horizontalis > Amaranthus retroflexus. O preparo do solo com gradagem dupla, resultou em menor índice de ocorrência de alta infestação, seguida da gradagem simples. O uso de herbicidas, de modo geral, também reduziu esse índice. As espécies Commelina benghalensis, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spp., Eleusine indica e Amaranthus hibridus ocorreram apenas com a semeadura direta na Região do Paranapanema. Na Região Norte, Ipomoea spp. e Euphorbia heterophylla só ocorreram nas áreas com gradagem simples.A weed infestation survey was carried out in the two main cultivation regions of autumn corn crops in the State of São Paulo. In the Médio Vale do Paranapanema 85 plantations were visited and in the Região Norte 29 plantations. In this region four crops were sowed directly and 25 after soil preparation with a single harrowing, all without herbicides

  16. Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powles, Stephen B

    2008-04-01

    Glyphosate is the world's most important herbicide, with many uses that deliver effective and sustained control of a wide spectrum of unwanted (weedy) plant species. Until recently there were relatively few reports of weedy plant species evolving resistance to glyphosate. Since 1996, the advent and subsequent high adoption of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in the Americas has meant unprecedented and often exclusive use of glyphosate for weed control over very large areas. Consequently, in regions of the USA where transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops dominate, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of the economically damaging weed species Ambrosia artemissifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Amaranthus palmeri S Watson, Amaranthus rudis JD Sauer, Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) JD Sauer and various Conyza and Lolium spp. Likewise, in areas of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in Argentina and Brazil, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers and Euphorbia heterophylla L. respectively. As transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops will remain very popular with producers, it is anticipated that glyphosate-resistant biotypes of other prominent weed species will evolve over the next few years. Therefore, evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds are a major risk for the continued success of glyphosate and transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops. However, glyphosate-resistant weeds are not yet a problem in many parts of the world, and lessons can be learnt and actions taken to achieve glyphosate sustainability. A major lesson is that maintenance of diversity in weed management systems is crucial for glyphosate to be sustainable. Glyphosate is essential for present and future world food production, and action to secure its sustainability for future generations is a global imperative. PMID:18273881

  17. 干藏和淹水对三峡库区21种草本植物种子萌发的影响%Effects of Dry Storage and Water Submersion on Seed Germination of 21 Herbaceous Species Indigenous to the Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李连发; 廖建雄; 江明喜; 黄汉东; 何东

    2010-01-01

    研究了三峡库区河岸带21种常见草本植物种子在干藏以及不同淹水深度(0.5、1.0和2.0 m)处理下的萌发特性.结果表明:以新采集种子的萌发率作为对照,干藏后8个物种的萌发率增加(占总数的38.1%),1种萌发率不变(4.8%),12种萌发率降低(57.1%).与对照相比,淹水后3个物种的萌发率增加(占总数的14.3%),2个物种的萌发率不变(9.5%),16个物种的萌发率下降(76.2%).水淹处理后,占总数76.2%的物种的萌发率下降,其中11种显著下降;但淹水深度对种子的萌发没有显著影响.干藏后的繁穗苋(Amaranthus paniculatus)、皱果苋(Amaranthus vindis)和红刺果苋(Amaranthus sp.)以及水淹后的鳢肠(Eclipta prostrata)萌发率>50%,而且能够利用库区退水期完成生活史形成种子,表明这些植物可作为三峡库区消落带植被恢复时优先考虑的物种源.

  18. Synthesis and herbicidal activity evaluation of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian-yi; Xu, Xiao-yun; Tang, Zi-long; Gu, Yu-cheng; Shi, De-qing

    2016-02-15

    A series of novel α-amino phosphonate derivatives containing a uracil moiety 3a-3l were designed and synthesized by a Lewis acid (magnesium perchlorate) catalyzed the Kabachnik-Fields reaction. The bioassays {in vitro, in vivo [Glass House 1 (GH1) and Glass House 2 (GH2)]} showed that most of compounds 3 exhibited excellent and selective herbicidal activities; for example, in GH1 test, compounds 3b, 3d, 3f, 3h and 3j showed excellent and wide spectrum herbicidal activities at the dose of 1000 g/ha, and compounds 3b and 3j exhibited 100% inhibition activities against the four plants in both post- and pre-emergence treatments. Moreover, most of compounds 3 showed higher inhibition against Amaranthus retroflexus and Digitaria sanguinalis than Glyphosate did in pre-emergence treatment. In GH2 test, the four compounds (3b, 3d, 3h and 3j) exhibited 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus and Ipomoea hederacea in post-emergence treatment and displayed 100% inhibition against Solanum nigrum, Amaranthus retroflexus in pre-emergence treatment at the rate of 250 g/ha, and compound 3b showed the best and broad spectrum herbicidal activities against the six test plants. However, the four compounds displayed weaker herbicidal activities against Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli than the other four plants at the rate of 250 g/ha in both pre- and post-emergence treatments. So, compounds 3 can be used as a lead compound for further structure optimization for developing potential selective herbicidal agent. Their preliminary structure-activity relationships were also investigated. PMID:26786699

  19. Is acetylcarnitine a substrate for fatty acid synthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roughan, G. (Horticulture Research Inst., Auckland (New Zealand)); Post-Beittenmiller, D.; Ohlrogge, J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Browse, J. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Long-chain fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine by chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), pea (Pisum sativum), amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus), or maize (Zea mays) occurred at less than 2% of the rate of fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetate irrespective of the maturity of the leaves or whether the plastids were purified using sucrose or Percoll medium. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was not significantly utilized by highly active chloroplasts rapidly prepared from pea and spinach using methods not involving density gradient centrifugation. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was recovered quantitatively from chloroplast incubations following 10 min in the light. Unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine (0.4 mM) did not compete with [1-[sup 14]C]acetate (0.2 mM) as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by any of the more than 70 chloroplast preparations tested in this study. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity was not detected in any chloroplast preparation and was present in whole leaf homogenates at about 0.1% of the level of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity. When supplied to detached pea shoots and detached spinach, amaranthus, and maize leaves via the transpiration stream, 1 to 4% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine and 47 to 57% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetate taken up was incorporated into lipids. Most (78--82%) of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine taken up was recovered intact. It is concluded that acetylcarnitine is not a major precursor for fatty acid synthesis in plants. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. The Effect of Edaphic Factors on the Similarity of Parasitic Nematodes in the Soil Sampled in Nurseries of Ornamental Trees and Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chałańska Aneta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The largest faunistic similarity of nematodes was found in soils sampled in coniferous nurseries where arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis - Cupressaceae, spruces (Picea spp. - Pinaceae and pines (Pinus spp. - Pi-naceae were grown. In soil sampled from deciduous tree and shrub nurseries, similar species composition of parasitic nematodes was found in stands of oaks (Quercus spp. - Fagaceae, black locusts (Robiniapseudo-acacia - Fabaceae and maples (Acer spp. - Sapindaceae. In soils, especially the light and medium, from stands of coniferous and deciduous trees and shrubs, Aphelenchus avenae was often isolated. Bitylenchus dubius occurred in both types of nurseries, particularly in light soils. The largest faunistic similarities between nematodes isolated from places of growth of coniferous and deciduous plants were recorded in soils of loamy sand and sandy loam. The most abundant nematode species and the greatest similarity in species of plant parasitic nematodes were observed in soils with neutral pH or slightly acidic. Aphelenchus avenae was found in soil samples collected from both coniferous and deciduous plants, with no relation to soil acidity.

  1. Direct versus indirect climate controls on Holocene diatom assemblages in a sub-tropical deep, alpine lake (Lugu Hu, Yunnan, SW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Xiangdong; Anderson, Nicholas John; Dong, Xuhui

    2016-07-01

    The reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in lakes on the plateau region of southwest China provides an understanding of how these ecosystems may respond to climate change. Fossil diatom assemblages were investigated from an 11,000-year lake sediment core from a deep, alpine lake (Lugu Hu) in southwest China, an area strongly influenced by the southwest (or the Indian) summer monsoon. Changes in diatom assemblage composition, notably the abundance of the two dominant planktonic species, Cyclotella rhomboideo-elliptica and Cyclostephanos dubius, reflect the effects of climate variability on nutrient dynamics, mediated via thermal stratification (internal nutrient cycling) and catchment-vegetation processes. Statistical analyses of the climate-diatom interactions highlight the strong effect of changing orbitally-induced solar radiation during the Holocene, presumably via its effect on the lake's thermal budget. In a partial redundancy analysis, climate (solar insolation) and proxies reflecting catchment process (pollen percentages, C/N ratio) were the most important drivers of diatom ecological change, showing the strong effects of climate-catchment-vegetation interactions on lake functioning. This diatom record reflects long-term ontogeny of the lake-catchment ecosystem and suggests that climatic changes (both temperature and precipitation) impact lake ecology indirectly through shifts in thermal stratification and catchment nutrient exports.

  2. Can Biochar and Phytoextractors Be Jointly Used for Cadmium Remediation?

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Huanping; Li, Zhian; Fu, Shenglei; Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with cadmium was tested after liming (CaO) or biochar addition, using red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) as test plant species. Two biochars with contrasting characteristics were prepared from two feedstocks and added to the soil at a rate of 3% (w:w): Eucalyptus pyrolysed at 600°C (EB) and poultry litter at 400°C (PLB). Liming was carried out in two treatments (CaO1) and (CaO2) to the same pH as the treatments EB and PLB respectively. Total plant mas...

  3. CHANGES OF PROTEIN PROFILES IN AMARANTH MUTANT LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hricová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The avalaibility of simple and efficient techniques for inducing genetic variation, such as use of radiation for inducing of mutation and selection for desired traits is an essential component of any plant breeding programme. The goal of the mutation breeding in selected Amaranthus spp. was to enhance quality and quantity of amaranth grain. We have found some promising mutant lines with high coefficient of nutritional quality. Considering overall nutrition values, the lines C15/3, C27/5 and C82/1 are most promising genotypes, which could be possibly used in a future breeding programme.

  4. Comparison of Nitrogen Fertilizers, Induce and Zinc Addition on Glyphosate Efficacy on Three Different Weed Species.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein F. Abouziena; Ibraheem M. El-Metwally; H.M. El-Saeid; Megh Singh

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides are often tank-mixed with fertilizers to save time, labour, energy, and equipment costs. However addition of some additives with glyphosate may result in reducing glyphosate efficacy. Therefore we evaluated the potential of three nitrogen sources (ammonium sulphate (AMS) at 2 or 4% w/v, ammonium nitrate (AN) at 1 or 2% w/v, urea at 1 or 2 % w/v), nonionic adjuvant (Induce at 0.05% v/v) and Zn at 250 g Zn/ha (1321 ppm) to enhance glyphosate efficacy on pig weed (Amaranthus retroflex...

  5. ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ ГУМИНОВЫХ ПРЕПАРАТОВ ПРИ ВОЗДЕЛЫВАНИИ ИНТРОДУЦЕНТОВ

    OpenAIRE

    Гасимова, Г.; Барсуков, П.; Врачев, А.; Павлова, И.

    2013-01-01

    В работе изучалось влияние гуминовых препаратов на качественные и количественные признаки растений рода Amaranthus L.

  6. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Turkey: description of five new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed. PMID:27395550

  7. Producción de amaranto en un predio orgánico en la zona de Luján, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Introcaso, Rafael Mario; Wasinger, Elba Graciela; Iodice, Romina Anabel

    2015-01-01

    El amaranto (Amaranthus spp) es uno de los cultivos más antiguos de América, su siembra se ha incrementado por sus cualidades alimenticias (17% de proteínas, carbohidratos asimilables, vitaminas y minerales) y su capacidad de adaptabilidad a diversas condiciones climáticas. La planta y sus hojas pueden ser utilizadas como verduras; la planta madura y sus semillas pueden utilizarse como alimento para ganado. La realización de la experiencia surge a partir de la necesidad de los pequeños produc...

  8. Study on the Herbicide Activities of N-Nitro-Diphenyl Urea Derivatives%N-硝基二苯基脲衍生物的除草活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李水清; 谢九皋

    2002-01-01

    测定了6个N-硝基二苯基脲衍生物(Ⅰ)在500 mg/L浓度下对稗草Echinochloa crusgalli和绿苋Amaranthus viridis的除草活性,从中筛选出两个化合物Ⅰ b、Ⅰ e做系列浓度试验.结果表明,它们对稗草、绿苋均表现出一定的抑制活性,且随着浓度增加,抑制活性增强.

  9. 江苏省云台山白粉菌研究Ⅴ.白粉菌的一新变种和一新记录种%STUDIES ON THE POWDERY MILDEWS IN YUNTAISHAN, JIANGSU PROVINCE OF CHINA Ⅴ.A NEW VARIETY AND A NEW RECORD SPECIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铁志; 于守荣

    2005-01-01

    报道了白粉菌目的一个新变种和一个中国新记录种.新变种:苋生蒙加拉白粉菌Erysiphemunjalii var.amaranthicola,寄生在苋科皱果苋Amaranthus viridis上;新记录种:山田叉丝壳Microsphaera yamadai,寄生在鼠李科拐枣Hovenia dulcis上.新变种有中文和拉丁文描述.研究标本保存在中国科学院微生物研究所菌物标本馆(HMAS).

  10. Description of a nomen nudum species of Liriomyza Mik and the first record of Liriomyza blechi Spencer from Brazil (Insecta: Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Filho, Fernando Da Silva; Almeida, Flávio Roberto De Albuquerque; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The nomen nudum Liriomyza flagellae is formerly described in this paper as Liriomyza valladaresae sp. nov., based on male and female specimens collected in the Brazilian Amazon and reared from leaves of Alternanthera tenella and Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae). Information on the puparium and the biology of this new species are provided. The species Liriomyza blechi, previously recorded from the U.S.A., Guadeloupe and Dominican Republic, is newly recorded from Brazil, reared from leaves of Blechum pyramidatum (Acanthaceae) and Spigelia anthelmia (Loganiaceae). PMID:27394352

  11. Protease obtention using Bacillus subtilis 3411 and amaranth seed meal medium at different aeration rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Maria Delia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of Amaranthus cruenthus seed meal to the medium, as nutrient and growth factor, on protease production by Bacillus subtilis 3411 was studied. Tests were carried out in a rotary shaker and in mechanically stirred fermenters. The influence of aeration was also evaluated. The addition of amaranth in a concentration of 20 g/L resulted in 400% increase in protease production. Aeration up to 750 r.p.m. and 1 L/L.min had a favorable effect.

  12. Herbicide-induced changes in 14CO2 uptake of leaves of some crop and weed species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of diuron or atrazine on the rate of photosynthetic 14CO2 uptake of two each crop (Pisum Sativum and Pennisetum typhoides) and weed species (Amaranthus viridis and Cyperus rotundus) was studied. The results indicated a marked inhibition of 14CO2 fixation of leaves within two hours after diuron or atrazine treatment. However the resistant plants were able to exhibit a recovery of the net photosynthetic rate subsequently while the susceptible plants failed to recover. The results suggested that even with fully open stomata and available NADPH, the normal CO2 fixation was not restored by herbicide treated leaves. (author)

  13. 籽粒苋栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗万波; 戴续红

    2009-01-01

    籽粒苋(Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.,),苋科苋属,又名西番谷、西粘谷,原产中美洲和东南亚地区,种植历史悠久。自从1982年我国从美国引入后,籽粒苋迅速传遍到全国各地。目前已成为我国重要的粮食、蔬菜、饲料兼用作物。

  14. Hospedeiros alternativos de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola Alternative hosts of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rosa Peixoto; Rosa L.R. Mariano; José Osmã T. Moreira; Ivanise O. Viana

    2007-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv), que causa o cancro bacteriano da videira, sobrevive em plantas infectadas, epifiticamente em órgãos da parte aérea e pode ser veiculada em mudas e/ou bacelos infectados. O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar possíveis hospedeiros alternativos do patógeno, visando fornecer subsídios para o manejo da doença. A partir das plantas invasoras Alternanthera tenella, Amaranthus sp., Glycine sp. e Senna obtusifolia com sintomas similares aos do cancro bact...

  15. Alelopatsko djelovanje nekih biljnih vrsta na rast i razvoj usjeva i korova

    OpenAIRE

    Ravlić, Marija

    2016-01-01

    Cilj rada bio je utvrditi alelopatski utjecaj korovnih vrsta na rast i razvoj usjeva te mogućnost primjene aromatičnih i ljekovitih biljaka u suzbijanju korova. Ispitan je utjecaj biljne mase i sjemena korovnih vrsta: poljski osjak (Cirsium arvense), poljski mak (Papaver rhoeas), bezmirisna kamilica (Tripleurospermum inodorum), oštrodlakavi šćir (Amaranthus retroflexus), crna pomoćnica (Solanum nigrum) i divlji sirak (Sorghum halepense) na pšenicu, ječam, mrkvu, soju i uljnu bundevu. Djelovan...

  16. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins. PMID:11676424

  17. Hospedeiros alternativos de Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola Alternative hosts of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Peixoto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv, que causa o cancro bacteriano da videira, sobrevive em plantas infectadas, epifiticamente em órgãos da parte aérea e pode ser veiculada em mudas e/ou bacelos infectados. O trabalho teve como objetivo investigar possíveis hospedeiros alternativos do patógeno, visando fornecer subsídios para o manejo da doença. A partir das plantas invasoras Alternanthera tenella, Amaranthus sp., Glycine sp. e Senna obtusifolia com sintomas similares aos do cancro bacteriano da videira, coletadas em parreirais de Juazeiro e Petrolina, no Submédio São Francisco, foram isoladas bactérias semelhantes a Xcv. No entanto, nenhuma bactéria foi isolada de plantas de Commelina benghalensis e Azadirachta indica com sintomas semelhantes. A patogenicidade dos isolados bacterianos obtidos foi confirmada em plantas de A. tenella, Amaranthus sp., Glycine sp., S. obtusifolia e em mudas de videira cv. Red Globe, em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas invasoras Chamaesyce hirta, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Eragrostis pilosa e Pilea sp., inoculadas artificialmente com os isolados Xcv1 e UnB1216, também desenvolveram sintomas típicos do cancro bacteriano.Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola (Xcv, which causes the bacterial canker of grapevine, survives in infected plants as an epiphyte on aerial plant parts and may be carried in infected transplants and/or cuttings. This study was performed to investigate putative alternative hosts of the pathogen, aiming to find support for disease management. Bacteria similar to Xcv were isolated from the weeds Alternanthera tenella, Amaranthus sp., Glycine sp. and Senna obtusifolia showing canker-like symptoms and collected in vineyards of Juazeiro and Petrolina at the Submédio São Francisco. No bacteria were isolated from Commelina benghalensis and Azadirachta indica showing similar symptoms. The pathogenicity of the isolates was confirmed in plants of A. tenella, Amaranthus sp

  18. CONTENIDO DE NITRATOS Y PROTEÍNA EN LECHUGA CRESPA Y AMARANTO HORTÍCOLA PRODUCIDOS CON ENMIENDA Y UREA

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Margarita Sánchez; Oscar Alberto Siliquini; Adriana Anahí Gili; Estela Maris Baudino; Germán Carlos Morazzo

    2012-01-01

    La lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) es la hortaliza más utilizada en ensaladas en Argentina. El amaranto (Amaranthus mantegazzianus Pass.) se caracteriza por su gran producción de materia verde y buen contenido proteínico y mineral. Ambas especies son consideradas acumuladoras de nitratos. Para evitar problemas de salud del consumidor, la Comisión Europea regula la cantidad de nitratos en lechuga. Con el objetivo de evaluar la acumulación de nitratos en ambas especies así como el contenido de prot...

  19. Oxygen Requirement and Inhibition of C4 Photosynthesis . An Analysis of C4 Plants Deficient in the C3 and C4 Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Maroco, J.P.; Ku, M.S.B.; Lea, P J; Dever, L.V.; Leegood, R C; Furbank, R.T.; Edwards, G. E.

    1998-01-01

    The basis for O2 sensitivity of C4 photosynthesis was evaluated using a C4-cycle-limited mutant of Amaranthus edulis (a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase-deficient mutant), and a C3-cycle-limited transformant of Flaveria bidentis (an antisense ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase [Rubisco] small subunit transformant). Data obtained with the C4-cycle-limited mutant showed that atmospheric levels of O2 (20 kPa) caused increased inhibition of photosynthesis as a result of higher levels ...

  20. Nematodos Agalladores Afectando Hortalizas y otros Cultivos en el Norte Centro de México

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Velásquez Valle

    2001-01-01

    Se reporta la diseminación de los nematodos Nacobbus aberrans en frijol, Meloidogyne incognita y Meloidogyne spp. en cultivos de frijol, chile, calabaza, cebolla, girasol, alfalfa y durazno, así como una maleza (Amaranthus graecizans) en áreas irrigadas y de temporal de los Estados de Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosí y Zacatecas durante 1998-2000. Abstract. This is a report of the spread of nematodes Nacobbus aberrans on beans, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne spp. on bean, pepper, zuchi...

  1. PATOGENOST FUSARIUM SPP. IZOLIRANIH S KOROVA I BILJNIH OSTATAKA U ISTOČNOJ HRVATSKOJ ZA PŠENICU I KUKURUZ

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić, Jelena; Ćosić, Jasenka; Jurković, Draženka; Vrandečić, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    U laboratoriju je ispitana patogenost trideset izolata 14 Fusarium vrsta izoliranih s korova i biljnih ostataka u istočnoj Hrvatskoj. Testovi patogenosti provedeni su na klijancima pšenice i kukuruza. Najpatogenija Fusarium vrsta bila je F. graminearum izolirana s Amaranthus retroflexus, Abutilon theophrasti i Chenopodium album. Primijetili smo značajnu varijabilnost u patogenosti za pšenicu i kukuruz između i unutar vrsta. Izolati F. solani s Sonchus arvensis i F. verticillioides s Chenopodi...

  2. Dicty_cDB: SSK676 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me B: ---ve*niwvlrvthkvsmvkreqlvvflleqakqsllafmmiksnqdqlhlllks*vit *eimvikilisc*nqldlilrikknnnnnki*msllk*ink...n-6; AltName: Full=Pollen allergen... 74 2e-12 (Q9STB6) RecName: Full=Profili...n II; &... 76 4e-13 FJ899746_1( FJ899746 |pid:none) Amaranthus retroflexus Ama r 2 pol... 75 5e-13 (Q9LEI8) RecName: Full=Profili...ence ---GGVKYMGIKGDPQSIYGKKGATGCVLVRTGQAIIVGIYDDKVQPGSAALIVEKLGDY LRDNGY*dinillkp...DPQSIYGKKGATGCVLVRTGQAIIVGIYDDKVQPGSAALIVEKLGDY LRDNGY*dinillkpirfnfkn*kk*****nlnvttkink*kkkt*ivnp*kkkkk Fra

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSH782 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available kpirfnfkn*kk*****nlnvttkink*kkkt*ivnp*ksikk Frame C: ---vsmvkreqlvvflleqakqsllafmmiksnqdqlhlllks*vit*eimvikilisc* nqldlil... FJ899746 |pid:none) Amaranthus retroflexus Ama r 2 pol... 63 4e-09 (Q9XG85) RecName: Full=Profilin-1; AltName: Full=Pollen alle... 6e-09 (Q64LH0) RecName: Full=Profilin-3; AltName: Full=Pollen allergen... 62 8e-...n*i*f*elkkiiiiikfkchy*nk*ikkknlnskplein*kk Frame B: ---SIYGKKGATGCVLVRTGQAIIVGIYDDKVQPGSAALIVEKLGDYLRDNGY*dinill...QPGSAALIVEKLGDYLRDNGY*dinill kpirfnfkn*kk*****nlnvttkink*kkkt*ivnp*ksikk Translat

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11305-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 0.015 CP000583_469( CP000583 |pid:none) Ostreococcus lucimarinus CCE9901... 44 ...240-130J22, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46 3.9 1 ( ER915386 ) AH_PBa0037B17.g1 AH_PBa Amaranthus hypochondriacu......from Patent WO0134809. 38 8.8 3 ( AR485378 ) Sequence 3464 from patent US 6703492. 38 8.8 3 ( AF269422 ) Staphylococc...B25), the sdha gene for succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp), the gene for a novel ...p included Contig length 1496 Chromosome number (1..6, M) - Chromosome length - Start point - End point - St

  5. Allelopathic effects of Medicago sativa L. and Vicia cracca L. leaf and root extracts on weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koloren, Onur

    2007-05-15

    In this study, the allelopathic potential of different concentration (5, 25 and 50%) of M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root extracts were evaluated on germination and radicle length of four weed species (Amaranthus retroflexus L., Lolium perenne L., Ipomoea hederacea L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) in laboratory condition. As a result, germination and radicle length of all species were reduced by the extract from M. sativa and V. cracca leaf and root at different percentage. Increasing the water extract concentrations from 5 to 50% of test plants parts significantly increased the inhibition of all weed species germination and radicle length. PMID:19086510

  6. Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Novel Sulfonylureas Containing 1,2,4-Triazolinone Moiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuo; PAN Li; LI Yong-hong; WANG Su-hua; LI Zheng-ming

    2013-01-01

    A series of new sulfonylureas incorporating 1,2,4-triazolinone moiety was synthesized,which were further bio-assayed for the herbicidal activity against four herbs,representative of monocotyledons and dicotyledons.Some of them exhibited high potency to inhibit the growth of dicotyledons(Bassica napus and Amaranthus retroflexus) in the pot experiment.Compounds 9a and 9b also displayed an excellent herbicidal activity against Bassica napus at a concentration of 15 g/hectare,which were comparable with commercial triasulfuron.

  7. EFECTO DE LA GERMINACIÓN SOBRE EL CONTENIDO Y DIGESTIBILIDAD DE PROTEÍNA EN SEMILLAS DE AMARANTO, QUINUA, SOYA Y GUANDUL EFEITO DA GERMINAÇÃO SOBRE O CONTEÚDO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DE PROTEÍNAS EM SEMENTES DE AMARANTO, QUINUA, SOJA E GUANDUL EFFECT OF THE GERMINATION ON THE PROTEIN CONTENT AND DIGESTIBILITY IN AMARANTH, QUINUA, SOY BEAN AND GUANDUL SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. CHAPARRO ROJAS; R.Y. PISMAG PORTILLA; A. ELIZALDE CORREA; N.J. VIVAS QUILA; C.A. ERAZO CAICEDO

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron los cambios en la concentración y digestibilidad de proteína durante la germinación en semillas de amaranto (Amaranthus sp), quinua (Chenopodium quinoa w.), soya (Glycine max) y guandul (Cajanus cajan). Las semillas utilizadas fueron suministradas por agricultores del Departamento del Cauca, seleccionadas asegurando calidad grado uno y porcentaje de germinación mayor al 90 %. Se estandarizó el método para la obtención de semillas germinadas, mediante la definición de variables co...

  8. EFECTO DE LA GERMINACIÓN SOBRE EL CONTENIDO DE HIERRO Y CALCIO EN AMARANTO, QUINUA, GUANDUL Y SOYA EFEITO DA GERMINAÇÃO SOBRE CONTEUDO DA FERRO E CÁLCIO PRESENTES EM QUINOA, AMARANTO, GUANDU E SOJA GERMINATION EFFECT ON IRON AND CALCIUM CONTENT IN AMARANTH, QUINOA, PIGEON PEA AND SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    DIANA C CHAPARRO; REMIGIO Y PISMAG; ANA DE DIOS ELIZALDE C

    2011-01-01

    Se evaluaron los cambios en la cantidad de hierro y calcio durante el proceso germinativo en semillas de amaranto (Amaranthus sp), quinua (Chenopodium quinoa), guandul (Cajanus cajan) y soya (Glycine maxy). Se utilizaron semillas producidas por agricultores del departamento del Cauca; las cuatro especies fueron seleccionadas para asegurar un grado óptimo en su calidad física y un porcentaje de germinación mayor al 90%. Inicialmente se estandarizó el método para la obtención de semillas ge...

  9. Eficiência do herbicida oxyfluorfen, quando veiculado ao papel, no controle de algumas espécies daninhas Effect of the herbicide oxyfluorfen using paper as a vehicle on the weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre J. Bezutte; Fabio Calegare; Pedro L. C. A. Alves; Robinson A. Pitelli

    1995-01-01

    Com o objetivo de encontrar um método alternativo de aplicação de herbicidas, estudou-se a eficiência do oxyfluorfen aplicado em três doses (0, 480 e 960g/ha) sob duas formas (pulverizado e veiculado em folha de papel) no controle em pré-emergência de Bidens pilosa, Desmodium tortuosum, Eleusine indica, Sida rhombifolia Amaranthus retroflexus, Acanthospermum hispidum e Digitaria horizontalis. A pulverização do oxyfluorfen foi realizada com o auxílio de um pulverizador, e sua veiculação foi fe...

  10. Amarant jako netradiční potravina ve výživě člověka

    OpenAIRE

    Šestáková, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the Bachelor thesis is amaranth as an innovative component in human nutrition. Genus Amaranthus L. belongs to the family of Amaranthaceae. Amaranth is an annual dicotyledonous C4 plant. The seeds are smooth, lenticular and in cultural species are pink or yellow up to cream-colored. In the Czech Republic the weight of thousands of seeds circles around 0.6 to 0.8 grams. The whole aboveground part of the plant is edible. Usually people consume only seeds and leaves. Plant species ...

  11. Vineyard weed flora in the Jastrebarsko area (NW Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović Purgar, D.; Hulina, N.

    2004-01-01

    Vineyard weed flora was surveyed over the wider Jastrebarsko area (a part of Ple{ivica Mountain, north-west part of Croatia), a well known wine-growing area. The survey was carried out in the years 2001 and 2002, in ten vineyards at six different localities. Ahundred and nine (109) weed species were noted. The presence of segetal weeds such as Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Stellaria media (L.)Vill. was recorded in well cultivated vineyards. In addition, ruderal weed species...

  12. Exsudação de ácidos orgânicos em rizosfera de plantas daninhas Organic acid exudation in the rizosphere of weeds

    OpenAIRE

    F.A.M. Silva; F.D. Nogueira; L.L. Ribeiro; Godinho, A; P. T. G. Guimarães

    2001-01-01

    Com o objetivo de identificar e quantificar os ácidos orgânicos na rizosfera de plantas daninhas encontradas em lavouras cafeeiras, foram coletadas amostras de rizosfera de Bidens pilosa (picão-preto), Alternanthera ficoidea (apaga-fogo), Taraxacum officinale (dente-de-leão) Amaranthus deflexus (caruru), na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG (Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais), em Lavras-MG, as quais foram submetidas à extração e analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiên...

  13. Phosphorus correlation with relative Yield of Vegetable Grown in the Ultisol-Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, J.G.; Susila, Anas D.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) correlation experiment has been done in Ultisol soil in Nanggung District, Bogor, Indonesia from 2006-2007 to find the best P extraction method which is suitable for vegetables i.e Amaranth (Amaranthus sp), Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L), Eggplant (Solanum melongena L), Chili (Capsicum annuum L), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L), and Yard Long Bean (Vigna unguilata L). Treatments were P rate : 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg P2O5ha-1 or equal t...

  14. Phosphor rate for vegetable grown in the ultisol: Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Susila, Anas D.; Kartika, J.G.; Palada, Manuel C.

    2008-01-01

    Amaranth (Amaranthus sp), Kangkung (Ipomoea aquatica L), Eggplant (Solanum melongena L), Chili (Capsicum annuum L), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L), and Yard Long Bean (Vigna unguilata L) were grown on Ultisol Nanggung soil with low pH (5.2), low C-Organic (1.70%), very low N-total (0.21 %), low K content (0.33 me/100 g), but high soil P2O5 concentration (10.8 ppm) to optimize P rate application. Treatments were P rate : 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 kg P2O5...

  15. Phosphorus correlation study for vegetables grown in the ultisol: Nanggung, Bogor, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kartika, J.G.; Susila, Anas D.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) correlation experiment has been done in Ultisol soil in Nanggung District, Bogor, Indonesia from 2006-2007 to find the best P extraction method which suitable for vegetables i.e Amaranth (Amaranthus sp), Kangkong (Ipomoea aquatica L), Eggplant (Solanum melongena L), Chili (Capsicum annuum L), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), Green Bean (Pahaseolus vulgaris L), and Yard Long Bean (Vigna unguilata L). Treatments were P rate : 0, 45, 90, 135 dan 180 kg P2O5ha-1 or equal to 0...

  16. Some Quality Traits of Different Wild Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa AVCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine quality properties of some pasture plant species. In this research, 10 different pasture plant species were used as materials which were collected from Diyarbakir pasture areas of Turkey. At the end of research, quality properties of pasture plants were ranged from lowest to highest for average dry matter 11.5-30.9%, average crude protein 12.6-26.6%, crude ash 5.5-21.2%, acid detergent fiber 22.0-43.0%, neutral detergent fiber 20.5-56.1%, digestible dry matter 55.4-71.8%, dry matter intake 2.1-5.9% and relative feed value 90.2-327.0. Among the pasture plants studied, higher crude protein level than averages of species following plants may have importance, respectively: Centaurea iberica, Sinapsis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Crambe orientalis, Amaranthus retroflexus, Polygonum aviculare, Anchusa strigosa and Malva neglecta. For relative feed value has been remarked: Sinapsis arvensis, Rumex conglomeratus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Crambe orientalis, Centaurea iberica and Hypecoum imberbe.

  17. Influence of type and amount of straw cover on weed emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Núbia Maria; Durigan, Julio Cezar; Klink, Urubatan Palhares

    2005-01-01

    This research was undertaken during 2003-2004 growing season to evaluate the effects of type [forage sorghum "hybrid Cober Exp" (Sorghum bicolor x Sorghum sudanense), forage millet (Pennisetum americanum "var. BN2"), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), and St Lucia grass (Brachiaria brizantha)] and amount of straw cover (5.5 and 3.0 t ha(-1)) upon the emergence of Bidens pilosa, Chamaesyce spp., Amaranthus spp., and Commelina benghalensis, under field conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado, in the region of Uberlândia--MG. The control consisted additional treatment lacking the straw cover. Emergence of weed depended on the type and amount of straw cover, as well as the weed species. The lowest number of B. pilosa seedlings was found in the presence of forage sorghum straw; Chamaesyce spp. in the lack of straw; Amaranthus spp. in the presence of higher amount of forage sorghum and forage millet, and lower amounts of forage millet and Finger Millet. All the types and amounts of straw reduced the emergency of C. benghalensis, except at the lowest level of St Lucia grass and the lack of straw. PMID:15656176

  18. Insecticidal plant cyclotides and related cystine knot toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Christian W; Cemazar, Masa; Anderson, Marilyn A; Craik, David J

    2007-03-15

    Cyclotides are small disulphide-rich peptides found in plants from the violet (Violaceae), coffee (Rubiaceae) and cucurbit (Cucurbitaceae) families. They have the distinguishing structural features of a macrocyclic peptide backbone and a cystine knot made up of six conserved cysteine residues, which makes cyclotides exceptionally stable. Individual plants express a suite of cyclotides in a wide range of tissue types, including leaves, flowers, stems and roots and it is thought that their natural function in plants is as defence agents. This proposal is supported by their high expression levels in plants and their toxic and growth retardant activity in feeding trials against Helicoverpa spp. insect pests. This review describes the structures and activities of cyclotides with specific reference to their insecticidal activity and compares them with structurally similar cystine knot proteins from peas (Pisum sativum) and an amaranthus crop plant (Amaranthus hypocondriancus). More broadly, cystine knot proteins are common in a wide range of organisms from fungi to mammals, and it appears that this interesting structural motif has evolved independently in different organisms as a stable protein framework that has a variety of biological functions. PMID:17224167

  19. Taxonomic and Functional Structure of Phytophagous Insect Communities Associated with Grain Amaranth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niveyro, S; Salvo, A

    2014-12-01

    Amaranthus are worldwide attacked mainly by leaf chewers and sucker insects. Stem borers and leaf miners follow in importance, while minor herbivores are leaf rollers, folders, and rasping-sucking insects. The herbivorous community observed on Amaranthus spp. in Argentina was consistent with the information reported worldwide both in guild composition and order proportion. Amaranth plants had a higher number of phytophagous species in their native rather than in its introduced range. Occurrence of insect guilds differed in space and time. The highest density of leaf chewers was observed shortly after the emergence of plants, while higher density of borer and sucker insects coincided with reproductive stages of the crop. The sucking guild was observed mainly at panicles, while the insects within the leaf chewer group were registered in both leaves (92.6%, n = 746 adults) and inflorescences (7.4%). The borer guild was also recorded in stems and inflorescences; however, the density of larvae in stems was about four times as high as the density observed in panicles (n = 137 larvae). PMID:27194061

  20. Monitoring and assessment of mercury pollution in the vicinity of a chloralkali plant. IV. Bioconcentration of mercury in in situ aquatic and terrestrial plants at Ganjam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenka, M; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1992-02-01

    In situ aquatic and terrestrial plants including a few vegetable and crop plants growing in and around a chloralkali plant at Ganjam, India were analyzed for concentrations of root and shoot mercury. The aquatic plants found to bioconcentrate mercury to different degrees included Marsilea spp., Spirodela polyrhiza, Jussiea repens, Paspalum scrobiculatam, Pistia stratiotes, Eichhornia crassipes, Hygrophila schulli, Monochoria hastata and Bacopa monniera. Among wild terrestrial plants Chloris barbata, Cynodon dactylon, Cyperus rotundus and Croton bonplandianum were found growing on heavily contaminated soil containing mercury as high as 557 mg/kg. Analysis of mercury in root and shoot of these plants in relation to the mercury levels in soil indicated a significant correlation between soil and plant mercury with the exception of C. bonplandianum. Furthermore, the tolerance to mercury toxicity was highest with C. barbata followed by C. dactylon and C. rotundus, in that order. The rice plants analyzed from the surrounding agricultural fields did not show any significant levels of bioconcentrated mercury. Of the different vegetables grown in a contaminated kitchen garden with mercury level at 8.91 mg/kg, the two leafy vegetables, namely cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and amaranthus (Amaranthus oleraceous), were found to bioconcentrate mercury at statistically significant levels. The overall study indicates that the mercury pollution is very much localized to the specific sites in the vicinity of the chloralkali plant. PMID:1536599