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Sample records for amanita

  1. Four Newly Recorded Amanita Species in Korea: Amanita sect. Amanita and sect. Vaginatae.

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    Kim, Chang Sun; Jo, Jong Won; Kwag, Young-Nam; Oh, Junsang; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2013-09-01

    We collected nearly 70 specimens of Amanita species during a diversity study of Korean mushrooms conducted in 2012. In this study, we primarily investigated 23 Amanita specimens belonging to sections Amanita and Vaginatae. Based on sequence data of the internal transcribed spacers and partial large subunit of ribosomal RNA and morphological characteristics, we identified the following 15 phylogenetic species: A. alboflavescens, A. ceciliae, A. farinosa, A. fulva, A. griseofolia, A. ibotengutake, A. melleiceps, A. orientifulva, A. pantherina, A. rubrovolvata, A. sinensis, A. subglobosa, A. vaginata, A. cf. vaginata f. alba, and an undescribed Amanita species. In this study, four of the identified Amanita species (A. griseofolia, A. ibotengutake, A. orientifulva, and A. sinensis) were reported for the first time in Korea.

  2. Amanita poisonings resulting in acute, reversible renal failure: new cases, new toxic Amanita mushrooms.

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    Kirchmair, Martin; Carrilho, Patrícia; Pfab, Rudi; Haberl, Bettina; Felgueiras, Joana; Carvalho, Fernanda; Cardoso, José; Melo, Ireneia; Vinhas, José; Neuhauser, Sigrid

    2012-04-01

    Renal failure as a consequence of eating mushrooms has been reported repeatedly after ingestion of webcaps of the Cortinarius orellanus group. But mushrooms of the genus Amanita can also cause renal failure: Amanita smithiana (North America) and Amanita proxima (Mediterranean area). Here, we discuss poisonings caused by other white amanitas. A German and--independently--two Portuguese patients reported the ingestion of completely white mushrooms with ring. Similar to intoxications with A. smithiana or A. proxima, the clinical picture was characterized by nausea and vomiting 10-12 h after ingestion, severe acute renal failure and mild hepatitis. Renal biopsy showed acute interstitial nephritis and tubular necrosis. Two patients were given temporary haemodialysis. All have fully recovered their renal function. Poisonings caused by mushrooms containing the toxin of A. smithiana were suspected. We tested 20 Amanita species for the presence of this toxin. Thin layer chromatography was applied to detect A. smithiana nephrotoxin in herbarium specimens using authentic material of A. smithiana as reference. A. smithiana toxin could be detected in Amanita boudieri, Amanita gracilior and in Amanita echinocephala. A. boudieri was collected by the Portuguese patients. A. echinocephala is the only nephrotoxic Amanita growing North of the Alps and is suspected to be the cause of renal failure in the German patient. No A. smithiana toxin was detectable in the nephrotoxic A. proxima. A. boudieri, A. gracilior and A. echinocephala are nephrotoxic. These intoxications are clinically similar to that of A. smithiana, with acute reversible renal failure and mild hepatitis but are different in their clinical picture from Orellanus syndrome characterized by a delayed onset of severe and often irreversible renal failure.

  3. Four New Species of Amanita in Inje County, Korea

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    Cho, Hae Jin; Park, Myung Soo; Lee, Hyun; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Jang, Yeongseon; Fong, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Amanita (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is one of the most well-known genera composed of poisonous mushrooms. This genus of almost 500 species is distributed worldwide. Approximately 240 macrofungi were collected through an ongoing survey of indigenous fungi of Mt. Jeombong in Inje County, Korea in 2014. Among these specimens, 25 were identified as members of Amanita using macroscopic features. Specimens were identified to the species level by microscopic features and molecular sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA. We molecularly identified 13 Amanita species, with seven species matching previously recorded species, four species (A. caesareoides, A. griseoturcosa, A. imazekii, and A. sepiacea) new to Korea, and two unknown species. PMID:26839500

  4. Diversity of macrofungal genus Russula and Amanita in Hirpora Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern Kashmir Himalayas

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    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Mir RA. 2012. Diversity of macrofungal genus Russula and Amanita in Hirpora Wild Life Sancturary. Biodiversitas 13: 65-71. The Hirpora Wildlife Sanctuary that extends over an area of 114 km2 lies in the Pir Panjal range at a distance of 70 km in south-west of summer capital Srinagar. It is rich in biodiversity including macrofungal diversity. The Sanctuary has been subjected to high ecological and anthropogenic disturbance due to the construction of Mughal road which is major threat for its biodiversity. Since there is hardly any report of documentation of macrofungi from this sanctuary. In this back drop a survey was carried out during the year 2010 and 2011 to explore and invetorise macrofungal diversity of the sanctuary. During the survey a no of macrofungi were documented, among which Amanita and Russula were dominant genus represented by 7 species each. All the 14 species viz. Amanita ceciliae (Berk. & Broome Bas. Amanita flavoconia G.F. Atk., Amanita muscaria var. formosa Pers., Amanita pantherina (Fr. Krombh., Amanita phalloides (Fr. Link., Amanita vaginata (Bull. ex Fr. Vitt., Amanita virosa (Fr. Bertillon, Russula aeruginea Fr., Russula atropurpurea (Krombh. Britz., Russula aurea Pers., Russula cyanoxantha (Schaeff. Fr., Russula delica Fr. Russula emetica (Schaeff. ex Fr. Gray. and Russula nobilis Velen. are ectomycorrhizal in nature and among them Russula aeruginea Fr. is reported first time from the Kashmir.

  5. [Differentiation of Amanita hemibapha (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha and Amanita hemibapha var. ochracea Zhu L. Yang by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].

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    Shi, You-Ming; Liu, Gang; Zhou, Xiang-Ping; Zhou, Ji-Guo; Liu, Jian-Hong; Song, Ding-Shan

    2009-02-01

    In order to demonstrate the ability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the differentiation of macro-fungi at variety level, FTIR spectroscopy was used to obtain vibrational spectra of Amanita hemibapha (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha and Amanita hemibapha var. ochracea Zhu L. Yang. The results show that their spectra are very similar to each other, with a small difference in the relative intensity of absorbance. For the purpose of enhancing the spectral resolution and amplifying the differences, the first-derivative spectra and second-derivative spectra were selected for evaluating the correlation coefficients respectively. The results show that the second-derivative spectra of two fruit bodies of Amanita hemibapha (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha and one fruit body of Amanita hemibapha var. ochracea Zhu L. Yang have obvious differences, the correlation coefficients are only 0.245 and 0.356 respectively, the second-derivative spectra of two fruit bodies of Amanita hemibapha (Berk. &Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha are very similar, and the correlation coefficient is 0.865. The authors' results show that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with correlation analysis method can be used to identify Amanita hemibapha (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. subsp. hemibapha and Amanita hemibapha var. ochracea Zhu L. Yang rapidly and accurately.

  6. Amanita phalloides, a potentially lethal mushroom : Its clinical presentation and therapeutic options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Toorians, AWFT; Gietema, JA; Bronsveld, W; Haagsma, EB; Mulder, POM

    Mushroom poisoning with Amanita phalloides, a rare phenonemon in everyday clinical practice in the Netherlands, must be recognized early in view of its potential morbidity and mortality. In this article 2 cases of Amanita intoxication are presented and the pharmacological basis and clinical

  7. Transposable element dynamics among asymbiotic and ectomycorrhizal Amanita fungi.

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    Hess, Jaqueline; Skrede, Inger; Wolfe, Benjamin E; LaButti, Kurt; Ohm, Robin A; Grigoriev, Igor V; Pringle, Anne

    2014-06-12

    Transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous inhabitants of eukaryotic genomes and their proliferation and dispersal shape genome architectures and diversity. Nevertheless, TE dynamics are often explored for one species at a time and are rarely considered in ecological contexts. Recent work with plant pathogens suggests a link between symbiosis and TE abundance. The genomes of pathogenic fungi appear to house an increased abundance of TEs, and TEs are frequently associated with the genes involved in symbiosis. To investigate whether this pattern is general, and relevant to mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses, we sequenced the genomes of related asymbiotic (AS) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Amanita fungi. Using methods developed to interrogate both assembled and unassembled sequences, we characterized and quantified TEs across three AS and three ECM species, including the AS outgroup Volvariella volvacea. The ECM genomes are characterized by abundant numbers of TEs, an especially prominent feature of unassembled sequencing libraries. Increased TE activity in ECM species is also supported by phylogenetic analysis of the three most abundant TE superfamilies; phylogenies revealed many radiations within contemporary ECM species. However, the AS species Amanita thiersii also houses extensive amplifications of elements, highlighting the influence of additional evolutionary parameters on TE abundance. Our analyses provide further evidence for a link between symbiotic associations among plants and fungi, and increased TE activity, while highlighting the importance individual species' natural histories may have in shaping genome architecture. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Biological activities and DNA interactions of Amanita ovoidea.

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    Doğan, Hasan Hüseyin; Arslan, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Amanita ovoidea (Bull.) Link (Amanitaceae) is a well-known species due to its pleasant aroma and flavor since ancient times in the worldwide. This species is also known in Turkey and people consume it extensively. To evaluate medicinal importance of A. ovoidea for human health, to explain the effect of mushroom extracts on bacterial DNA, and to find preventive role on bacterial disease. Chloroform, acetone, and methanol extracts of A. ovoidea were tested for the antimicrobial activities against four Gram-positive bacteria, five Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast using a micro-dilution method. In addition, DNA binding, DNA cleavage activity, and restriction enzyme digestion of the methanol extract of A. ovoidea were examined at different concentrations (40.000-78.125 µg/mL). The highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value observed against the test micro-organisms was with the chloroform extract (MIC 19.5 µg/mL concentration) against Candida albicans. Other highest antimicrobial effects observed against the test micro-organisms were with the methanol extracts against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella enteritidis (MICs, 78 µg/mL concentrations). All concentrations reduced the mobility of plasmid DNA. BamHI and HindIII targeted specially to supercoils and cut them. Amanita ovoidea extract prevented cutting with HindIII by binding especially to the AA region in open circular DNA. Present results demonstrated that A. ovoidea has excellent antimicrobial and antifungal activities by its DNA interaction activity on pBR322.

  9. Amanita lepiotoides Barla, primera cita para el País Vasco = Amanita lepiotoides Barla, first record to the Basque Country

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    P. Arrillaga, I. Mayoz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe Amanita lepiotoides Barla, que ha sido encontrada en el País Vasco, España y se aportan las observaciones macroscópicas y microscópicas realizadas sobre los ejemplares recolectados.

  10. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

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    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Amanita phalloides poisoning: A 5-year survey of the Czech Toxicological Information Centre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Křenová, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2007), s. 345-345 ISSN 0731-3810. [European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists International Congress /27./. 01.05.2007-04.05.2007, Athens] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Czech Toxicological Information Centre * amanita phalloides Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  12. Study of three interesting Amanita species from Thailand: Morphology, multiple-gene phylogeny and toxin analysis.

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    Benjarong Thongbai

    Full Text Available Amanita ballerina and A. brunneitoxicaria spp. nov. are introduced from Thailand. Amanita fuligineoides is also reported for the first time from Thailand, increasing the known distribution of this taxon. Together, those findings support our view that many taxa are yet to be discovered in the region. While both morphological characters and a multiple-gene phylogeny clearly place A. brunneitoxicaria and A. fuligineoides in sect. Phalloideae (Fr. Quél., the placement of A. ballerina is problematic. On the one hand, the morphology of A. ballerina shows clear affinities with stirps Limbatula of sect. Lepidella. On the other hand, in a multiple-gene phylogeny including taxa of all sections in subg. Lepidella, A. ballerina and two other species, including A. zangii, form a well-supported clade sister to the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969, which include the lethal "death caps" and "destroying angels". Together, the A. ballerina-A. zangii clade and the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969 also form a well-supported clade. We therefore screened for two of the most notorious toxins by HPLC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts from the basidiomata. Interestingly, neither α-amanitin nor phalloidin was found in A. ballerina, whereas Amanita fuligineoides was confirmed to contain both α-amanitin and phalloidin, and A. brunneitoxicaria contained only α-amanitin. Together with unique morphological characteristics, the position in the phylogeny indicates that A. ballerina is either an important link in the evolution of the deadly Amanita sect. Phalloideae species, or a member of a new section also including A. zangii.

  13. Taxonomic studies of Amanita muscaria (L. Lam (Amanitaceae, Agaricomycetes and its infraspecific taxa in Brazil

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    Felipe Wartchow

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed specimens identified as Amanita muscaria, some recently collected and others already deposited in herbaria, in Brazil. We concluded that two subspecies of A. muscaria occur in Brazil: A. muscaria var. muscaria; and A.muscaria var. flavivolvata. The first taxon was found in association with Castanea sativa, and the second (one specimen only was found in association with Pinus and Eucalyptus spp. Morphologically, A. muscaria var. flavivolvata is distinguished by a shallower subhymenium and by basidiospores that are more elongated than are those of A. muscaria var. muscaria, which is the more widely known subspecies. We present descriptions, discussions, illustrations and a dichotomous key for these two subspecies.

  14. Trypsin-specific Inhibitors from the Macrolepiota procera, Armillaria mellea and Amanita phalloides wild mushrooms.

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    Lukanc, Tjaša; Brzin, Jože; Kos, Janko; Sabotič, Jerica

    2017-01-01

    Wild growing mushrooms are a rich source of novel proteins with unique features. We have isolated and characterized trypsin inhibitors from two edible mushrooms, the honey fungus (Armillaria mellea) and the parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), and from the poisonous death cap (Amanita phalloides). The trypsin inhibitors isolated: armespin, macrospin and amphaspin, have similar molecular masses, acidic isoelectric points and are not N-glycosylated. They are very strong trypsin inhibitors and weak chymotrypsin inhibitors. They are resistant to exposure to high temperatures and withstand extreme pH values. These exceptional characteristics are advantageous for their potential use in biotechnology, agriculture and medicine.

  15. Prognosis for children with acute liver failure due to Amanita phalloides poisoning

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    Wachulski, Marcin F.; Kamińska-Gocał, Diana; Dądalski, Maciej; Socha, Piotr; Mulawka, Jan J.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this article is to find new effective methods of diagnosis of urgent liver transplantation after Amanita phalloides intoxication amongst pediatric patients. The research was carried out using a medical database of pediatric patients who suffered from acute liver failure after amatoxin consumption. After data preprocessing and attribute selection steps, a two-phase experiment was conducted, which incorporated a wide variety of data mining algorithms. The results deliver two equivalent classification models with simple decision structure and reasonable quality of surgery prediction.

  16. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms

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    Cátia Salvador

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura. Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.

  17. A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms

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    Salvador, Cátia; Martins, M. Rosário

    2018-01-01

    Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura). Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data. PMID:29623092

  18. Larvicidal efficiency of the fungus Amanita muscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae

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    Luiz Paiva Carapeto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the larvicidal action of two formulations of Amanita muscaria against Musca domestica. Two methods of extraction were tested: an aqueous extract from dried, powdered basidiomes (DPB; and an extract from fresh basidiomes liquefied in water (FLB. The mortality caused by the DPB extract varied from 14.67% to 100%. The efficiency of the FLB extract varied from 10.67% to 89.33%. The mean lethal concentration (LC50 of the DPB extract was approximately 1,931.02 ppm, whereas the LC50 for the FLB extract was about 30%. The extracted substances from these methods did not interfere with the development period of immatures and did not influence pupal weight. These results show the potential of A. muscaria extracts for controlling M. domestica.

  19. Treatment of Amanita phalloides intoxication by fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus®).

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    Bergis, Dominik; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Zeuzem, Stefan; Betz, Cristoph; Sarrazin, Christoph; Bojunga, Joerg

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness and safety of extracorporeal detoxification using the fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system (FPSA, Prometheus® 4008H, Fresenius Medical Care, Germany) in patients suffering from acute liver failure due to intoxication with Amanita phalloides (AP) toxin. The study population consisted of 20 patients with proven AP intoxication (FPSA treatment group n=9, control group n=11). Urinary amanitin toxin concentration was measured by the Amanitin ELISA Kit (Bühlmann Laboratories, Germany, cut off level 1.5 ng/ml). All patients received standard medical treatment with activated charcoal, i.v. crystalloid fluids, silibinine and N-acetylcysteine. Additionally 9 patients underwent treatment with FPSA until undetectable amanitin levels. Mean urinary amanitin levels were significantly reduced by FPSA with 42.5 +/- 21.9 ng/ml before and 1.2 +/- 0.31 ng/ml after treatment (p=0.04). No hemodynamic, respiratory or hematological complications were observed. None of the patients had to undergo liver transplantation. All patients in the treatment group survived and were discharged fully recovered. One patient in the control group died due to shock and lactic acidosis; one patient remained dialysis dependent. Mean duration of hospital stay was 7.1 days in the treatment group and 11.7 days in the control group (p=0.30). Use of liver support therapy by fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus®) offers a safe way for elimination of Amanita toxin with the potential to avoid the need for liver transplantation.

  20. Especies tóxicas de Agaricales halladas en la Argentina: nueva cita de Amanita pantherina y reevaluación de la comestibilidad de Tricholoma equestre Poisonous species of Agaricales found in Argentina: new record of Amanita pantherina and revaluation of the edibility of Tricholoma equestre

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    Bernardo E. Lechner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los hongos comestibles en la Argentina no constituyen una parte importante de la dieta, algunas personas colectan y consumen especies silvestres. Esto ha ocasionado en los últimos años la intoxicación de un número importante de adultos y niños. En el presente trabajo se cita por primera vez para la Argentina el hongo tóxico Amanita pantherina, se describen las colecciones halladas y se provee una clave para la determinación de las especies de Amanita Secc. Amanita. A su vez se describe y se reevalúa la comestibilidad de Tricholoma equestre causante de un nuevo síndrome de intoxicación, por lo cual fue recientemente prohibido en varios países de la comunidad Europea.Mushrooms are not usually included in the traditional eating habits of the Argentinean population. Nevertheless, there are some people that consume wild species. This practice has caused poisoning to important number of adults and children over the last years. In the present paper we describe the poisonous mushroom Amanita pantherina as a new record for Argentina and we provide a key for the identification of the species of Amanita belonging to Secc. Amanita found in our country. We also describe and explain a new poisoning syndrome caused by Tricholoma equestre. This species was recently prohibited in some countries of Europe.

  1. Antamanide, a derivative of Amanita phalloides, is a novel inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

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    Luca Azzolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antamanide is a cyclic decapeptide derived from the fungus Amanita phalloides. Here we show that antamanide inhibits the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, a central effector of cell death induction, by targeting the pore regulator cyclophilin D. Indeed, (i permeability transition pore inhibition by antamanide is not additive with the cyclophilin D-binding drug cyclosporin A, (ii the inhibitory action of antamanide on the pore requires phosphate, as previously shown for cyclosporin A; (iii antamanide is ineffective in mitochondria or cells derived from cyclophilin D null animals, and (iv abolishes CyP-D peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Permeability transition pore inhibition by antamanide needs two critical residues in the peptide ring, Phe6 and Phe9, and is additive with ubiquinone 0, which acts on the pore in a cyclophilin D-independent fashion. Antamanide also abrogates mitochondrial depolarization and the ensuing cell death caused by two well-characterized pore inducers, clotrimazole and a hexokinase II N-terminal peptide. Our findings have implications for the comprehension of cyclophilin D activity on the permeability transition pore and for the development of novel pore-targeting drugs exploitable as cell death inhibitors.

  2. Theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria)

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    Kupka, Teobald; Wieczorek, Piotr P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report results of combined theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol, the bioactive alkaloid from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria). The assignment of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of muscimol in DMSO-d6 was supported by additional two-dimensional heteronuclear correlated spectra (2D NMR) and gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The effect of solvent in theoretical calculations was included via polarized continuum model (PCM) and the hybrid three-parameter B3LYP density functional in combination with 6-311++G(3df,2pd) basis set enabled calculation of reliable structures of non-ionized (neutral) molecule and its NH and zwitterionic forms in the gas phase, chloroform, DMSO and water. GIAO NMR calculations, using equilibrium and rovibrationally averaged geometry, at B3LYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ-J levels of theory provided muscimol nuclear magnetic shieldings. The theoretical proton and carbon chemical shifts were critically compared with experimental NMR spectra measured in DMSO. Our results provide useful information on its structure in solution. We believe that such data could improve the understanding of basic features of muscimol at atomistic level and provide another tool in studies related to GABA analogs.

  3. Characterization of three distinct metallothionein genes of the Ag-hyperaccumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita strobiliformis.

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    Hložková, Kateřina; Matěnová, Michaela; Žáčková, Petra; Strnad, Hynek; Hršelová, Hana; Hroudová, Miluše; Kotrba, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms evolved in eukaryotes to handle heavy metals involve cytosolic, metal-binding metallothioneins (MTs). We have previously documented that the sequestration of silver (Ag) in the Ag-hyperaccumulating Amanita strobiliformis is dominated by 34-amino-acid (AA) AsMT1a, 1b, and 1c isoforms. Here we show that in addition to AsMT1a, 1b, and 1c isogenes, the fungus has two other MT genes: AsMT2 encoding a 34-AA AsMT2 similar to MTs known from other species, but unrelated to AsMT1s; AsMT3 coding for a 62-AA AsMT3 that shares substantial identity with as-yet-uncharacterized conserved peptides predicted in agaricomycetes. Transcription of AsMT1s and AsMT3 in the A. strobiliformis mycelium was specifically inducible by treatments with Ag or copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) or cadmium (Cd), respectively; AsMT2 showed a moderate upregulation in the presence of Cd. Expression of AsMTs in the metal-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that all AsMTs confer increased Cd tolerance (AsMT3 proved the most effective) and that, unlike AsMT1 and AsMT2, AsMT3 can protect the yeasts against Zn toxicity. The highest level of Cu tolerance was observed with yeasts expressing AsMT1a. Our data indicate that A. strobiliformis can specifically employ different MT genes for functions in the cellular handling of Ag and Cu (AsMT1s) and Zn (AsMT3). Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detección de compuestos presentes en una especie de Amanita micoparasitada, colectada en el corregimiento de Santa Elena (Antioquia, Colombia)

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    Aura Helena Corredor Q.; Liliana Londoño

    2005-01-01

    Para este trabajo se seleccionó una especie de Amanita, parasitada probablemente por un Hyphomycete, que presenta un crecimiento anormal y sobre la cual no existen trabajos previos. Inicialmente se hicieron extracciones etanólicas del material fresco en frío y con soxhlet. Se realizó una marcha fotoquímica preliminar del extracto obtenido y se detectaron coumarinas, alcaloides, fenoles y glicósidos cardiotónicos. Posteriormente se estandarizó que la cromatografía de capa fina con el sistem...

  5. Silver release from decomposed hyperaccumulating Amanita solitaria fruit-body biomass strongly affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Soukupová, Lucie; Borovička, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2012), s. 987-993 ISSN 0966-0844 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0484 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : soil fungi * bacteria * microbiota * heavy metals * toxicity * T-RFLP Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M); DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S) Impact factor: 3.284, year: 2012

  6. Silver relase from decomposed hyperaccumulating Amanita solitaria fruit-body biomass strongly affects soil microbial community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, M.; Hršelová, H.; Soukupová, L.; Borovička, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2012), s. 987-993 ISSN 0966-0844 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : soil fungi * bacteria * microbiota * heavy metals * toxicity * T-RFLP Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.284, year: 2012

  7. Three metallothionein isoforms and sequestration of intracellular silver in the hyperaccumulator Amanita strobiliformis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osobova, M.; Urban, V.; Jedelský, P.L.; Borovička, Jan; Gryndler, Milan; Ruml, T.; Kotrba, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 4 (2011), s. 916-926 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600480801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ectomycorrhizal fungi * fungal metal lothionein * heavy metal Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 6.645, year: 2011

  8. Survey of Amanita phalloides poisoning: clinical findings and follow-up evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenová, M.; Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2007), s. 955-961 ISSN 0960-3271 R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK/42 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : death cap * hepatotoxicity * nephrotoxicity * texicological information centre Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2007

  9. Characterization of three distinct metallothionein genes of the Ag-hyperaccumulating ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita strobiliformis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hložková, K.; Matěnová, M.; Žáčková, P.; Strnad, Hynek; Hršelová, Hana; Hroudová, Miluše; Kotrba, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2016), s. 358-369 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0484 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : Ectomycorrhizal fungi * Gene expression * Metal binding * Metallothionein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology ; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2016

  10. Studies of hemolytical and antimicrobical action of Amanita virosa Secr. and Mycena pura /Fr./ Kumm. poisonous mushrooms lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danileuchenko V. V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study hemolytical and antimicrobical action of two new lectins, obtained from fruit bodies of poisonous basidial mushrooms of A. virosa Secr. and M. pura /Fr./ Kumm. Methods. Research on hemolytical action of lectins was conducted on the erythrocytes of human and animals. The experiments on osmotic protection of erythrocytes were performed in the presence of polyethylenglycols of different molecular mass (in a range from 400 to 4000 Da. Antimicrobical activity of lectins was studied by determination of area delay of growth of culture of different types of microorganisms on the Petri dish in an agaric media. Results. Both lectins hemolyse the erythrocytes of rabbit, human, rat and dog and do not hemolyse the erythrocytes of cow and ship in concentration of 1 mg/ml. The rabbit erythrocytes are most sensitive to hemolytical action of lectins, while hemolytic ability of A. virosa lectin is higher. Hemolysis was not observed in the presence of PEG of molecular mass over 1,350 Da. Action of lectins on 10 types of microorganisms was investigated. Lectins inhibited mainly growth of grammpositive microorganisms and protey. For most tested microorganisms antimicrobial action of Mycena lectin is stronger comparing with A. virosa lectin. Conclusions. Two new hemolytical lectins are found in the fruit bodies of mushrooms-basidiomycetes. The lectin formed ion-permeable pores in membrane of erythrocytes with the hydrodynamic diameter smaller than 2.3 nm and larger than 1.6 nm. These lectins displays also antimicrobial activity and by the sum of these features are similar to the cytolytic lectins of lower invertebrates.

  11. Accumulation of Ag and Cu in Amanita strobiliformis and characterization of its Cu and Ag uptake transporter genes AsCTR2 and AsCTR3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, V.; Hložková, K.; Matěnová, M.; Borovička, Jan; Kotrba, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2016), s. 249-264 ISSN 0966-0844 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0484; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : heavy metals * metal uptake * Metallothionein * copper transporter protein family * Ectomycorrhizal fungi Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2016

  12. Technical working criteria about the retrieval and the waste disposal of materials containing amanita's (MCA); Criteri tecnici operativi per la bonifica e lo smaltimento dei materiali contenenti amianto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coduti, A. [Eco International Service S.r.l., Foggia (Italy)

    2000-04-01

    The retrieval of the MCA (Materials Containing Amiantus) is a complex operation either to realize in an operative way or to be subject to a restrict regulation. The risks for the public health because of the amiantus are well-known, even if not well done acts of the retrieval can increase the concentration of the air lost fibres by consequently increasing the risk for workers. Recently concerning the regulation in force, the market has been addressing to the MCA maintenance which surely reduces either the risk of releasing the air lost fibres or the costs. It is important, at last, that the removal operations produce a large amount of wastes containing amiantus which will represent a real and big danger for the environment and the public health if they are not wasted as well as possible. [Italian] La bonifica dei materiali contenenti amianto e' un'operazione complessa sia da realizzarsi operativamente sia perche' soggetta ad obblighi normativi rigidi. I rischi sulla salute pubblica indotti dalla presenza di amianto sono ormai risaputi, anche se le operazioni di bonifica, se non adeguatamente eseguite, possono incrementare la concentrazione di fibre aerodisperse accrescendone il rischio per gli addetti alle operazioni di lavoro. Di recente con l'entrata in vigore di nuove regolamentazioni, il mercato si sta orientando sugli interventi di manutenzione dei materiali contenenti amianto, che senz'altro, riducono la possibilita' di rilascio di fibre aerodisperse oltre ovviamente ad una riduzione dei costi. Si ricorda, infatti, che le operazioni di rimozione generano ingenti quantitativi di rifiuti contenenti amianto che, se non adeguatamente smaltiti, rappresentano un vero e grosso pericolo per l'ambiente e la salute pubblica.

  13. Accumulation of Ag and Cu in.i. Amanita strobiliformis./i., and characterization of its Cu and Ag uptake transporter genes AsCTR2 and AsCTR3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, V.; Hložková, K.; Matěnová, M.; Borovička, Jan; Kotrba, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2016), s. 249-264 ISSN 0966-0844 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : heavy metal s * metal uptake * metal lothionein * Copper transporter protein family * ectomycorrhizal fungi Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2016

  14. Identification and use of genes encoding amatoxin and phallotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen, Heather E.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong; Scott-Craig, John S.

    2016-12-13

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptide toxins and toxin production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Amanita species encoding Amanita peptides, specifically relating to amatoxins and phallotoxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for detecting Amanita peptide toxin genes for identifying Amanita peptide-producing mushrooms and for diagnosing suspected cases of mushroom poisoning. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for diagnosing and monitoring suspected cases of mushroom poisoning in patients.

  15. 70612-171057-1 Onguene corrected Proofs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confo

    , to a large .... Table 3: List of putative ectomycorrhizal mushroom species by family, genus and species in humid forests of. South Cameroon. Amanitaceae. Amanita .... ECM forest communities with their associated edible mushrooms such as ...

  16. SAMJ 8615.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoimmune hepatitis. Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Neonatal haemochromatosis. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with giant cell hepatitis. Toxic. Drugs/toxins/herbals. Amanita phalloides. Vascular. BuddChiari syndrome. Venoocclusive disease. Ischaemic hepatitis/shock liver. Post cardiac surgery. Liver trauma.

  17. [Mushroom poisoning. New possibilities for treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, O

    1976-04-08

    Poisonous species of fungi in Germany are very few. Dangerous is the ingestion of raw, spoiled or poisonous mushrooms. There exist no reliable tests to determine whether a mushroom is safe except by expert examination and identification of the mushroom. In clinical practice the classification of mushroom poisoning is possible in muscarine-syndrome, gastroenteritic syndrome and in two-phase-syndrome. 90-95% of lethal mushroom poisonings are due to ingestion of Amanita phalloides. In severe cases extensive hepatic necrosis occurs, characterized by profound abnormalities in liver function caused by hepatic coma. In deep coma mortality rates amount to 70% or more. A new therapeutic measure (coated charcoal hemoperfusion)-first applied in liver failure by Chang (1972) and Williams (1973)-has been performed in 3 patients with severe poisoning after ingestion of Amanita phalloides (each patient had eaten at least 7-10 fungi Amanita phalloides). Two of the patients survived.

  18. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  19. Nuevos registros de Agaricales de Sonora, México New records of Agaricales from Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Pérez-Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron 114 especies de Agaricales de Sonora, 104 de los cuales son registros nuevos para la micobiota sonorense. Se identificaron 16 familias, correspondiendo el mayor número de taxones a Pluteaceae (26, Cortinariaceae (17 y Russulaceae (12; y en tipo de vegetación, a bosque de pino-encino (54, bosque de encino (46 y selva baja caducifolia (16. Amanita fue el género mejor representado, con 22 especies, que incluyen comestibles, micorrízicas y tóxicas. Amanita daucipes y Entoloma byssisedum se registran por segunda vez para México.One hundred and fourteen species of Agaricales from Sonora were determined. One hundred and four of these are new records of Sonoran mycobiota. Sixteen families were identified, with the higher number of taxa for Pluteaceae (26, Cortinariaceae (17, and Russulaceae (12, in the following types of vegetation: pine-oak forest (54, oak forest (46 and tropical deciduous forest (16. The genus Amanita was the best represented with 22 taxa,including edible, mycorrhizic and toxic species. Amanita daucipes and Entoloma byssisedum are registered for the second time from Mexico.

  20. Bioaccumulation of silver in ectomycorrhizal and saprobic macrofungi from pristine and polluted areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovička, Jan; Kotrba, P.; Gryndler, Milan; Mihaljevič, M.; Řanda, Zdeněk; Rohovec, Jan; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Stijve, T.; Dunn, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 408, č. 13 (2010), s. 2733-2744 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600480801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Fungi * Amanita * Hyperaccumulation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.190, year: 2010

  1. Baba Yaga and the Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nineteenth and early twentieth century artists portray the Russian witch Baba Yaga with mushrooms, especially with Amanita muscaria, the fly agaric. Fairy tales about Baba Yaga, as well as other Slavic folktales, repeatedly contain passing reference to mushrooms, but mushrooms are not integral to st...

  2. New and interesting ectomycorrhizal fungi from Puerto Rico, Mona, and Guana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orson K. Miller; D. Jean Lodge; Timothy J. Baroni

    2000-01-01

    A report of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi from Puerto Rico, Mona, and Guana Island in the Greater Antilles includes four species of Amanita, three of which are new species; two Lactarius, one is new, and two species of Boletus, one new. In addition, new distribution records of Phlebopus beniensis, Russula littoralis, Lactarius ferrugineus, a new small spored...

  3. A survey of macrofungi in Edo/Delta region of Nigeria, their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amanita phalloides, Daldinia concentrica, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma resinaceus and Nothopanus sp are more frequently employed in the treatment of varying degrees of anemic, blood pressure, gastro-intestinal, homoeostatic, oral and rheumatic ailments. Lowland forest regions recorded greater species diversity ...

  4. Ribosomal biosynthesis of α-amanitin in Galerina marginata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong; Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Amatoxins, including α-amanitin, are bicyclic octapeptides found in mushrooms (Agaricomycetes, Agaricales) of certain species in the genera Amanita, Galerina, Lepiota, and Conocybe. Amatoxins and the chemically similar phallotoxins are synthesized on ribosomes in Amanita bisporigera, Amanita phalloides, and Amanita ocreata. In order to determine if amatoxins are synthesized by a similar mechanism in another, distantly related mushroom, we obtained genome survey sequence data from a monokaryotic isolate of Galerina marginata, which produces α-amanitin. The genome of G. marginata contains two copies of the α-amanitin gene (GmAMA1-1 and GmAMA1-2). The α-amanitin proprotein sequences of G. marginata (35 amino acids) are highly divergent from AMA1 of A. bisporigera except for the toxin region itself (IWGIGCNP in single-letter amino acid code) and the amino acids immediately upstream (N[A/S]TRLP). G. marginata does not contain any related toxin-encoding sequences besides GmAMA1-1 and GmAMA1-2. DNA from two other α-amanitin-producing isolates of Galerina (G. badipes and G. venenata) hybridized to GmAMA1, whereas DNA from the toxin non-producing species Galerina hybrida did not. Expression of the GmAMA1 genes was induced by growth on low carbon. RNASeq evidence indicates that both copies of GmAMA1 are expressed approximately equally. A prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) is strongly implicated in processing of the cyclic peptide toxins of A. bisporigera and Conocybe apala. G. marginata has two predicted POP genes; one, like AbPOPB of A. bisporigera, is present only in the toxin-producing isolates of Galerina and the other, like AbPOPA of A. bisporigera, is present in all species. Our results indicate that G. marginata biosynthesizes amatoxins on ribosomes by a pathway similar to Amanita species, involving a genetically encoded proprotein of 35 amino acids that is post-translationally processed by a POP. However, due to the high degree of divergence, the evolutionary

  5. [Mushroom poisoning--classification, symptoms and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, R; Mot'ovská, Z

    1997-04-01

    The most serious poisonings are the hepatotoxic ones which are caused above all by Amanita phalloides, virosa, verna, Lepiota helveola, Galerina marginata, Gyromitra esculenta, Hypholoma fasciculare, and nephroptoxic intoxications which are caused above all by Cortinarius orrelanus and Paxillus involutus. Neurotoxic and psychotropic intoxications develop after ingestion of Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita-panterina, muscaria and Psilocybe. Most frequently the gastroenteric type of mushroom poisoning is encountered which is caused by many species e.g. Boletus satanas, Entoloma sinuatum and others. In the diagnosis anamnestic data are used, the clinical picture, mycological and toxicological examinations of residues of mushrooms, their spores and toxins. Therapeutic strategy comprises elimination methods gastric lavage, intestinal lavage and administration of large amounts of animal charcoal, forced diuresis, haemoperfusion, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administration of antidotes and symptomatic treatment, i.e. mainly rehydration and restoration of the mineral balance. Early and comprehensive treatment are important.

  6. Contribution to a macromycete survey of the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Sobestiansky

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Collections of macromycetes made in seven municipalities in southern Brazil, viz. six in Rio Grande do Sul and one in Santa Catarina, are listed. They belonged to the Myxomycota (6 spp., Ascomycota (54 spp. and Basidiomycota (189 spp.. First records for Brazil could be Battarrea phalloides, Amanita rubescens, Boletus edulis and Mycena filopes, the last three found under exotic Pinus.São listadas as coletas executadas pelo autor em sete municípios no sul do Brasil, sendo seis no estado de Rio Grande do Sul e um no estado de Santa Catarina. Pertencem à Myxomycota (6 espécies, Ascomycota (54 espécies e Basidiomycota (189 espécies. Primeiros registros para o Brasil são aparentemente: Battarrea phalloides, Amanita rubescens, Boletus edulis e Mycena filopes, as últimas três encontradas sob espécies de Pinus.

  7. Inventaire des champignons ectomycorhiziens du Maroc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2014 ... Sous Quercus rotundifolia, (LNS) (Malençon et. Bertault, 1961 et 1970) cité par Ait Aguil (2005). Amanita lactea G. Malençon, H. Romagnési et D.A.. Reid). Espèce isolée en subéraie claire (forêt de la Mamora près de Rabat) (Malençon et Bertault, 1970) ; sous. Quercus suber dans la Mamora (Outcoumit, ...

  8. LETHAL MUSHROOM TOXINS: ANALYSIS OF THE AMANITINS AND APPLICATION OF LATERAL FLOW IMMUNOASSAY

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Ertuğrul

    2018-01-01

    Deaths from mushroom poisoning, due to the ingestionofmushrooms containing amatoxins, seem to be increasingboth in Turkey andworldwide. The amatoxinsfound in Amanita phalloides (also called thedeath capmushroom) are most toxic agents, and they are responsible for more than 95% ofthe cases of deadlymushroom poisoning. Alpha amanitin is best known toxin ofthis group. Alpha amanitin analysis can be carried out with special methodssuch as chromatography and ELISA. ELISA method is suitable in orde...

  9. Characterization of juvenile maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) ectomycorrhizal fungal community using morphotyping, direct sequencing and fruitbodies sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestaña Nieto, Montserrat; Santolamazza Carbone, Serena

    2009-02-01

    Using ectomycorrhizal root tip morphotyping (anatomical and morphological identification), molecular analysis (internal transcribed spacer region amplification and sequencing), and fruitbody sampling, we assessed diversity and composition of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community colonizing juvenile Pinus pinaster Ait. under natural conditions in NW Spain. Overall, we found 15 Basidiomycetes and two Ascomycetes. Members of the family Thelephoraceae represented up to 59.4% of the samples. The most frequent species was Tomentella sublilacina followed by Thelephora terrestris, Russula drimeia, Suillus bovinus, and Paxillus involutus, while the less frequent were Pseudotomentella tristis, Lactarius subdulcis, Russula ochroleuca, and Entoloma conferendum. From October 2007 to June 2008, we sampled 208 sporocarps belonging to seven genera and nine species: Thelephora terrestris, Paxillus involutus, Suillus bovinus, Xerocomus badius, Scleroderma verrucosum, Amanita gemmata, A. rubescens, Amanita sp., and Russula sp. The species belonging to the genus Amanita, X. badius and S. verrucosum were not found on root samples. By comparing our results with a bibliographic review of papers published from 1922 to 2006, we found five genera and six species which have not been previously reported in symbiosis with P. pinaster. This is the first time that the diversity of the ectomycorrhizal fungal community associated with P. pinaster was investigated using molecular techniques. Considering that only 38% of the genera found by sequencing were found as fruitbodies, we conclude that integrating morphotyping and sporocarps surveys with molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizas is important to documenting the ectomycorrhizal fungus community.

  10. Alchohol Consumption Practices in the Koryak Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Khakhovskaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of alcohol consumption practices within the Koryak ethno-cultural community. The aim of the article is to understand how the reasons for alcohol consumption are explained within the framework of the community. The analysis is based on the ideas of Durkheim’s social theory. The author of the article claims that the practice of consuming alcohol is essentially connected with the more archaic practice of mushroom consumption since both have a grounding in the Koryak perception of the world. The analysed models of behaviour stem from appropriate Koryak epistemology and ontology, which themselves are based on the notion of the ‘other world’ and communication with supernatural entities (spirits. The isomorphism of consuming alcohol and amanita intoxication reflects the inner core of this connection: the Koryak believe that an entity enters the human body and controls their actions. The transition from one type of intoxication to another is accompanied by drastic transformation of the materiality of the consumed product, which, in turn, leads towards social transformations. Such social changes are qualified as anomie by the author of the article. The visual materiality of the amanita mushroom dictated its symbolic anthropomorphism and creation of special rules for the treatment (amanita codex. The physical amorphousness of vodka does not imply the same intellectual work. The author claims that this factor was one of the reasons why the Koryak do not have social regulations about vodka consumption – which leads to mass alcoholism. It is possible that indigenous communities have difficulties in working out the required social regulations because of the complexities surrounding the non-utilitarian treatment of the unusual materiality of vodka.

  11. III. MYCORRHIZAE IN AGROFORESTRY: A CASE-STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. NUHAMARA

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Census of mycorrhizae in Shorea javanica agroforests has been made periodically in the district of Krui, Lampung, Sumatra. Amanita hemibapha (Amanitaceae, Cantharellus cibarius (Cantharella-ceae, Lactarius spp., Russula spp. (Russulaceae and Scleroderma sp. (Sclerodermataceae were commonly encountered on the agroforest floor. These mycorrhizal fungi are naturally associated with the planted trees. The significance of mycorrhizae for the maximization of growth and sustained productivity of resin is discussed as well as the need to design well defined agroforestry systems to facilitate growth and to improve production management techniques. INTRODU

  12. Larvicidal efficiency of the mushroom Amanitamuscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae) against the mosquito Culexquinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Carapeto, Luiz Paiva; Duarte, Jucelio Peter; Bernardi, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha

    2016-02-01

    We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.

  13. Larvicidal efficiency of the mushroom Amanitamuscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against the mosquito Culexquinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.

  14. etudes ethnomycologiques et identification des champignons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agronomie Africaine 29 (1) : 93 - 109 (2017). 100. FADEYI O. G. et al. 7 cf. Amanita s p. A m a n ita c e a e. E k ika n c o. L ia n d jo. -. -. Sy m biote. -. (FOG. 0. 00. 8). (c h a m p ig n o n. + m ycorrh izie ns b la n c. ) +. 8. Ikou an. -y o y i. -. -. Ikou anyo y i. -. Sy m biote. -. (FOG. 0. 01. 6). + m ycorrh izie ns. 9. T ermito myc es c.

  15. alpha-Amanitin induced apoptosis in primary cultured dog hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szelag

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Amatoxin poisoning is caused by mushroom species belonging to the genera Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota with the majority of lethal mushroom exposures attributable to Amanita phalloides. High mortality rate in intoxications with these mushrooms is principally a result of the acute liver failure following significant hepatocyte damage due to hepatocellular uptake of amatoxins. A wide variety of amatoxins have been isolated; however, alpha-amanitin (alpha-AMA appears to be the primary toxin. Studies in vitro and in vivo suggest that alpha-AMA does not only cause hepatocyte necrosis, but also may lead to apoptotic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complex hepatocyte apoptosis in alpha-AMA cytotoxicity. All experiments were performed on primary cultured canine hepatocytes. The cells were incubated for 12 h with alpha-AMA at a final concentration of 1, 5, 10 and 20 microM. Viability test (MTT assay, apoptosis evaluation (TUNEL reaction, detection of DNA laddering and electron microscopy were performed at 6 and 12 h of exposure to alpha-AMA. There was a clear correlation between hepatocyte viability, concentration of alpha-AMA and time of exposure to this toxin. The decline in cultured dog hepatocyte viability during the exposure to alpha-AMA is most likely preceded by enhanced cellular apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that apoptosis might contribute to pathogenesis of the severe liver injury in the course of amanitin intoxication, particularly during the early phase of poisoning.

  16. Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  17. Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  18. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in toxicological analysis. Studies on the detection of clobenzorex and its metabolites within a systematic toxicological analysis procedure by GC-MS and by immunoassay and studies on the detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin in urine by atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Kraemer, T; Ledvinka, O; Schmitt, C J; Weber, A A

    1997-02-07

    GC-MS is the method of choice for toxicological analysis of toxicants volatile in GC while non-volatile and/or thermally labile toxicants need LC-MS for their determination. Studies are presented on the toxicological detection of the amphetamine-like anorectic clobenzorex in urine by GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation and by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA, TDx (meth)amphetamine II). After ingestion of 60 mg of clobenzorex, the parent compound and/or its metabolites could be detected by GC-MS for up to 84 h or by FPIA for up to 60 h. Since clobenzorex shows no cross-reactivity with the used immunoassay, the N-dealkylated metabolite amphetamine is responsible for the positive TDx results. The intake of clobenzorex instead of amphetamine can be differentiated by GC-MS detection of hydroxyclobenzorex which is detectable for at least as long as amphetamine. In addition, the described GC-MS procedure allows the simultaneous detection of most of the toxicologically relevant drugs. Furthermore, studies are described on the atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin, toxic peptides of amanita mushrooms, in urine after solid-phase extraction on RP-18 columns. Using the single ion monitoring mode with the ions m/z 919 and 920 the amanitins could be detected down to 10 ng/ml of urine which allows us to diagnose intoxications with amanita mushrooms.

  19. [Acute higher funghi mushroom poisoning and its treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviuc, Philippe; Flesch, Françoise

    2003-09-20

    The various mushroom poisoning syndromes are summarised together with elements underlining uncertainty and lack of knowledge. For each of the classical syndromes concerned, classified in delays inferior or superior to 6 hours, the toxins and their mechanisms of action, the main mushrooms responsible, the symptoms and their treatment are all presented. Characterised by early onset within 6 hours, these represent the majority of intoxications. There are 6 syndromes: gastro-intestinal (resinoid), muscarine (sudorien, cholinergic), pantherine (myco-atropine, anticholinergic), coprine (similar to the antabuse syndrome), narcotine (psilocybin, hallucinatory) and paxillus syndrome (exceptional). Characterised by an onset after six hours, they regroup the phalloid syndrome that is responsible for 90 to 95% of deaths due to higher funghi mushrooms, the orellanine and gyromitrin syndrome and new syndromes identified over the past decade concerning acute renal failure with shorter onset than during the orellanine syndrome (Amanita proxima), erythermalgia (Clitocybe amoenolens), rhabdomyolysis (Tricholoma equestre) and central nervous system failure (Hapalopilus rutilans).

  20. Thunder among the pines: defining a pan-Asian soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaway, Frederick

    2009-03-01

    Many ancient cultures and religions engaged in various techniques and used various substances to instigate religious experience and to alter perception. These techniques of psycho-sexual drug yoga reached an unparalleled level of sophistication that arose and was often cloaked in practical terms of alchemy and metallurgy. The Vedic tradition describes this plant-based ritualism as soma, which has been identified by Gordon Wasson as the mushroom Amanita muscaria. This article traces these soma-influenced sects of esoteric Buddhism that exerted influences from India, China and Tibet to Japan. Some of the key components, practices and symbolism are retained despite numerous cultural filters. Japan's tradition of esoteric Buddhism can thus be seen to have preserved and incorporated the soma/amrita mushroom lore into its own traditions of mountain ascetic mystics.

  1. Screening of ectomycorrhizal fungi for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Huettermann, A.; Majcherczyk, A. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik

    2000-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 16 species (27 strains) were tested for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Cultivated on a complex liquid medium, most of the fungi tested were able to metabolise these compounds. Approximately 50% of the benzo[a]pyrene was removed by strains of Amanita excelsa, Leccinum versipelle, Suillus grevillei, S. luteus, and S. variegatus during a 4-week incubation period. The same amount of phenanthrene was also metabolised by A. muscaria, Paxillus involutus, and S. grevillei. The degradation of the other two PAHs was, for the most part, less effective. Only S. grevillei was able to remove 50% of the pyrene, whereas Boletus edulis and A. muscaria removed 35% of the chrysene. (orig.)

  2. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

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    A. A. Greeshma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  3. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed.

  4. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Fungal Cyclic Peptides, Excluding Cyclodipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohan; Lin, Minyi; Xu, Dan; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang

    2017-11-27

    Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring) reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and octadecapeptides as well as cyclic peptides containing ether bonds in the core ring have been isolated from fungi. They were mainly isolated from the genera Aspergillus , Penicillium , Fusarium , Acremonium and Amanita . Some of them were screened to have antimicrobial, antiviral, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal, immunosuppressive and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications. Some fungal cyclic peptides such as the echinocandins, pneumocandins and cyclosporin A have been developed as pharmaceuticals.

  5. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Fungal Cyclic Peptides, Excluding Cyclodipeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and octadecapeptides as well as cyclic peptides containing ether bonds in the core ring have been isolated from fungi. They were mainly isolated from the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Acremonium and Amanita. Some of them were screened to have antimicrobial, antiviral, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal, immunosuppressive and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications. Some fungal cyclic peptides such as the echinocandins, pneumocandins and cyclosporin A have been developed as pharmaceuticals.

  6. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

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    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  7. [Forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with certain poisonous mushrooms in the case of the lethal outcome in a hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraf'iants, G N

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with a view to improving forensic medical diagnostics of intoxication with poisonous mushrooms in the cases of patients' death in a hospital. A total of 15 protocols of forensic medical examination of the corpses of the people who had died from acute poisoning were available for the analysis. The deathly toxins were amanitin and muscarine contained in various combinations in the death cap (Amanita phalloides) and the early false morels (Gyromitra esculenta and G. gigas). The main poisoning season in the former case was May and in the latter case August and September (93.4%). The mortality rate in the case of group intoxication (such cases accounted for 40% of the total) amounted to 28.6%. 40% of the deceased subjects consumed mushrooms together with alcohol. The poisoning caused the development of either phalloidin- or gyromitrin-intoxication syndromes (after consumption of Amanita phalloides and Gyromitra esculenta respectively). It is emphasized that the forensic medical experts must substantiate the diagnosis of poisoning with mushroom toxins based on the results of the chemical-toxicological and/or forensic chemical investigations. The relevant materials taken from the victim or the corpse should be dispatched for analysis not only within the first day but also on days 2-4 after intoxication. The mycological and genetic analysis must include the detection and identification of mushroom microparticles and spores in the smears from the oral cavity, vomiting matter, wash water, gastric and intestinal contents. In addition, the macro- and microscopic morphological signs, clinical data (major syndromes, results of laboratory studies, methods of treatment) should be taken into consideration as well as the time (season) of mushroom gathering, simultaneous poisoning in a group of people, and other pertinent information.

  8. Accumulation of several heavy metals and lanthanides in mushrooms (Agaricales) from the Chicago region.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruguete, D. M.; Aldstadt, J. H., III; Mueller, G. M.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Chicago; Field Museum of Natural History

    1998-01-01

    This study explored the differences in metal uptake in sporocarps of ectomycorrhizae-forming fungi relative to (1) fungal species; (2) collection location; (3) differential metal uptake and variation within single-species, single-area populations; and (4) mobile metal content of soil substrate for the fungi. In addition, this study examined levels of some of the lanthanides in these mushrooms, as lanthanide uptake in higher fungi has not been quantified to date. In 1995 and 1996, sporocarps from three species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (Amanita flavorubescens, Amanita rubescens, and Russula pectinatoides) were collected from Cowles Bog, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (near an industrial area) and the Palos forest preserves (near a residential area). Soil was also collected from the Cowles Bog plots; metals were extracted from the soil, either with local Lake Michigan water or with nitric acid. These two extractions were meant to simulate the natural soil equilibrium concentrations of soluble metals and the maximum possible effects of any fungal chelating chemicals, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to analyze soil extracts and nitric acid digests of whole sporocarps for the target analytes. The metals found at elevated levels in the mushrooms included four of environmental interest (Ag, Cd, Ba, and Pb) and three lanthanides (La, Ce, and Nd). Significant differences in uptake of metals were observed between A. rubescens and R. pectinatoides, while A. rubescens and A. flavorubescens were not significantly different. With regard to location, more cadmium was found in Cowles Bog collections of A. rubescens, while Palos forest A. rubescens had more of the lanthanides and barium. Significant specimen-to-specimen variation occurred in all populations examined. Correlation analysis between pairs of trace elements within each sporocarp population revealed strong positive correlations between the lanthanides. Sporocarps concentrated more

  9. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Aguilar, Luis Enrique; Montoya, Adriana; Kong, Alejandro; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto

    2014-03-05

    We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus

  10. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. Results The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in

  11. “Boletum medicatum”. La seta que mató al emperador Claudio / Boletum medicatum. The mushroom that killed the emperor Claudius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Villalba Álvarez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Mucho se ha escrito a lo largo de los siglos sobre las circunstancias que rodearon la muerte del emperador romano Claudio (10 a. C. – 54 d. C.. El consenso general entre los historiadores antiguos que narran el episodio –Tácito, Suetonio y Dion Casio-, así como muchas otras referencias dispersas en la literatura latina nos llevan a pensar que su muerte se debió a una conspiración de su cuarta esposa, su sobrina Agripina, que le sirvió un plato de setas previamente envenenadas. Sin embargo, entre los estudiosos modernos hay quienes, como Grimm-Samuel, han barajado la posibilidad de que su muerte se debió a la ingesta (ya fuese premeditadamente, ya de manera accidental de setas venenosas, en concreto de la especie Amanita phalloides. Partiendo de diversos argumentos, ofrecemos nuestra opinión sobre el tema, que no difiere mucho de la que ofrecen los escritores de la Antigüedad.Summary: In the course of the centuries, many pages have been written on the circumstances surrounding the death of the Roman Emperor Claudius (10 BC – 54 AD. General agreement among ancient historians who relate us the story –Tacitus, Suetonius, Cassius Dio-, as well as the rest of scattered references in Latin literature induce us to think his death was due to his fourth wife’s conspiracy, his niece Agrippina, who served him a dish with previously poisoned mushrooms. Nevertheless, some of the scholars of our time, Grimm-Samuel for example, have considered the hypothesis that Claudius died because he ingested poisonous mushrooms (“either through criminal intent, or by sheer accident”, more specifically Amanita phalloides. Starting from different arguments, we offer our own point of view, which does not differ much from the ancient writers’ opinion.

  12. Growth and Nutrition of Eucalypt Rooted Cuttings Promoted by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Commercial Nurseries

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    Andrezza Mara Martins Gandini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF may improve the adaptation of eucalypts saplings to field conditions and allow more efficient fertilizer use. The effectiveness of EMF inoculum application in promoting fungal colonization, plant growth, nutrient uptake, and the quality of rooted cuttings was evaluated forEucalyptus urophylla under commercial nursery conditions. For inoculated treatments, fertilization of the sapling substrate was reduced by 50 %. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, wherein the factors were inoculum application rates of 0 (control, 5, 10, and 15 gel beads of calcium alginate containing the vegetative mycelium of Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces antracinus, Pisolithus microcarpus, andScleroderma areolatum, plus a non-inoculated treatment without fertilization reduction in the substrate (commercial. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increased plant growth and fungal colonization as well as N and K uptake evenly. The best plant growth and fungal colonization were observed for the highest application rate. The greatest growth and fungal colonization and contents of P, N, and K were observed at the 10-bead rate. Plant inoculation with Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces anthracinus, and Scleroderma areolatum increased P concentrations and contents in a differential manner. The Dickson Quality Index was not affected by the type of fungi or by inoculum application rates. Eucalypt rooted cuttings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi and under half the amount of commercial fertilization had P, N, and K concentrations and contents greater than or equal to those of commercial plants and have high enough quality to be transplanted after 90 days.

  13. Characterization and Functional Identification of a Novel Plant 4,5-Extradiol Dioxygenase Involved in Betalain Pigment Biosynthesis in Portulaca grandiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christinet, Laurent; Burdet, Frédéric X.; Zaiko, Maïa; Hinz, Ursula; Zrÿd, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Betalains are pigments that replace anthocyanins in the majority of families of the plant order Caryophyllales. Betalamic acid is the common chromophore of betalains. The key enzyme of the betalain biosynthetic pathway is an extradiol dioxygenase that opens the cyclic ring of dihydroxy-phenylalanine (DOPA) between carbons 4 and 5, thus producing an unstable seco-DOPA that rearranges nonenzymatically to betalamic acid. A gene for a 4,5-DOPA-dioxygenase has already been isolated from the fungus Amanita muscaria, but no homolog was ever found in plants. To identify the plant gene, we constructed subtractive libraries between different colored phenotypes of isogenic lines of Portulaca grandiflora (Portulacaceae) and between different stages of flower bud formation. Using in silico analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, we identified a candidate showing strong homology at the level of translated protein with the LigB domain present in several bacterial extradiol 4,5-dioxygenases. The gene was expressed only in colored flower petals. The function of this gene in the betalain biosynthetic pathway was confirmed by biolistic genetic complementation in white petals of P. grandiflora genotypes lacking the gene for color formation. This gene named DODA is the first characterized member of a novel family of plant dioxygenases phylogenetically distinct from Amanita sp. DOPA-dioxygenase. Homologs of DODA are present not only in betalain-producing plants but also, albeit with some changes near the catalytic site, in other angiosperms and in the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. These homologs are part of a novel conserved plant gene family probably involved in aromatic compound metabolism. PMID:14730069

  14. Syndromic diagnosis and management of confirmed mushroom poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2005-02-01

    To assess the evolving global epidemiology of mushroom poisoning and to identify new and emerging mushroom poisonings and their treatments, a descriptive analysis and review of the world's salient scientific literature on mushroom poisoning was conducted. Data sources from observation studies conducted over the period 1959-2002, and describing 28,018 mushroom poisonings since 1951, were collected from case reports, case series, regional descriptive studies, meta-analyses, and laboratory studies of mushroom poisonings and the toxicokinetics of mycotoxins. Studies included in the review were selected by a MEDLINE search, 1966-2004, an Ovid OLDMEDLINE search, 1951-1965, and a medical library search for sources published before 1951. To better guide clinicians in establishing diagnoses and implementing therapies, despite confusing ingestion histories, data were extracted to permit an expanded syndromic classification of mushroom poisoning based on presentation timing and target organ systemic toxicity. The final 14 major syndromes of mushroom poisoning were stratified first by presentation timing and then by target organ systemic toxicity and included early (syndromes (> or =1 day). There were eight early syndromes (four neurotoxic, two gastrointestinal, two allergic); three late syndromes (hepatotoxic, accelerated nephrotoxic, erythromelalgia); and three delayed syndromes (delayed nephrotoxic, delayed neurotoxic, rhabdomyolysis). Four new mushroom poisoning syndromes were classified including accelerated nephrotoxicity (Amanita proxima, Amanita smithiana), rhabdomyolysis (Tricholoma equestre, Russula subnigricans), erythromelalgia (Clitocybe amoenolens, Clitocybe acromelalgia), and delayed neurotoxicity (Hapalopilus rutilans). In addition, data sources were stratified by three chronological time periods with >1,000 confirmed mushroom ingestions reported and tested for any statistically significant secular trends in case fatalities from mushroom ingestions over the

  15. Evolving global epidemiology, syndromic classification, general management, and prevention of unknown mushroom poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2005-02-01

    To assess the evolving global epidemiology of mushroom poisoning and to identify new and emerging mushroom poisonings and their treatments, a descriptive analysis and review of the world's salient scientific literature on mushroom poisoning was conducted. Data sources from observation studies conducted over the period 1959-2002 and describing 28,018 mushroom poisonings since 1951 were collected from case reports, case series, regional descriptive studies, meta-analyses, and laboratory studies of mushroom poisonings and the toxicokinetics of mycotoxins. Studies included in the review were selected by a MEDLINE search, 1966-2004, an Ovid OLDMEDLINE search, 1951-1965, and a medical library search for sources published before 1951. To better guide clinicians in establishing diagnoses and implementing therapies, despite confusing ingestion histories, data were extracted to permit an expanded syndromic classification of mushroom poisoning based on presentation timing and target organ systemic toxicity. The final 14 major syndromes of mushroom poisoning were stratified first by presentation timing and then by target organ systemic toxicity and included early (syndromes (> or =1 day). There were eight early syndromes (four neurotoxic, two gastrointestinal, two allergic); three late syndromes (hepatotoxic, accelerated nephrotoxic, erythromelalgia); and three delayed syndromes (delayed nephrotoxic, delayed neurotoxic, rhabdomyolysis). Four new mushroom poisoning syndromes were classified including accelerated nephrotoxicity (Amanita proxima, Amanita smithiana), rhabdomyolysis (Tricholoma equestre, Russula subnigricans), erythromelalgia (Clitocybe amoenolens, Clitocybe acromelalgia), and delayed neurotoxicity (Hapalopilus rutilans). In addition, data sources were stratified by three chronological time periods with >1,000 confirmed mushroom ingestions reported and tested for any statistically significant secular trends in case fatalities from mushroom ingestions over the

  16. Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñónez-Martínez, Miroslava; Ruan-Soto, Felipe; Aguilar-Moreno, Ivonne Estela; Garza-Ocañas, Fortunato; Lebgue-Keleng, Toutcha; Lavín-Murcio, Pablo Antonio; Enríquez-Anchondo, Irma Delia

    2014-09-17

    The Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua in Northern Mexico is inhabited by indigenous Raramuris, mestizos, and other ethnic groups. The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus. A great diversity of potentially edible mushrooms is found in forests of the Municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting and eating these during the "rainy season." However, despite the wide diversity of edible mushrooms that grow in these areas, residents have a selective preference. This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Using a semi-structured technique, we surveyed 197 habitants from seven locations in Urique, Bocoyna, and the Cusarare area from 2010 to 2012. Known fungi, local nomenclature, species consumed, preparation methods, appreciation of taste, forms of preservation, criteria for differentiating toxic and edible fungi, other uses, economic aspects, and traditional teaching were recorded. To identify the recognized species, photographic stimuli of 22 local edible species and two toxic species were used. The respondents reported preference for five species: Amanita rubescens, Agaricus campestris, Ustilago maydis, Hypomyces lactifluorum, and the Amanita caesarea complex. No apparent differences were found between ethnic groups in terms of preference, although mestizos used other species in Bocoyna (Boletus edulis and B. pinophilus). Some different uses of fungi are recognized by respondents, i.e. home decorations, medicine, as food in breeding rams, etc. The studied population shows a great appreciation towards five species, mainly the A. caesarea complex, and an apparent lack of knowledge of nearly 20 species which are used as food in other areas of Mexico. There are no

  17. Fungal Responses to Anthropogenic N Deposition: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, L.; Gutknecht, J.; Kennedy, P.

    2017-12-01

    Fungi mediate primary productivity via the decay of organic matter and the formation of mycorrhizal associations. Short-term experimental manipulations reveal that nitrogen (N) addition slows decomposition and decreases plant reliance on fungal symbionts. However, it remains unclear if the responses observed in experimental systems apply to natural forests, where the addition of N via atmospheric deposition has taken place over much longer time periods. To address this discrepancy, we measured N concentration and isotopic composition in leaf and sporocarp tissue of herbarium specimens collected over the last 120 years in the Twin Cities metropolitan area of Minnesota, USA. We selected specimens from two fungal genera (Marasmius, Amanita) and two plant genera (Acer, Betula) due to their differing ability to form ectomycorrhizal associations as well as extensive representation in the UMN Bell Museum collections (1890 - 2010). Independent of taxonomy and mycorrhizal association, we observed consistent and significant decreases in foliar δ15N and sporocarp δ15N values through time (mixed effects model; b = -0.046; F = 42.0; P < 0.001). Furthermore, N concentration significantly decreased over the last 12 decades in Betula leaves (ectomycorrhizal host; r2 = 0.24; P = 0.003) and was marginally significant in Marasmius sporocarps (saprotrophic fungi ; r2 = 0.10 P = 0.085), despite no significant change in Amanita (ectomycorrhizal fungi) or Acer (non-mycorrhizal host) N content. The declining foliar δ15N and foliar N concentrations suggest that despite significant atmospheric N input during the latter half of the 20th century, soil N availability in MN forests has actually declined. Furthermore, concomitant declines in foliar and sporocarp δ15N did not indicate a shrinking fungal role in temperate forest N cycling. We hypothesize that interactions among global change agents (i.e., N deposition and elevated atmospheric CO2) may be leading to enhanced ecosystem N

  18. Feasibility of flotation concentration of fungal spores as a method to identify toxigenic mushrooms

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    Bazzle LJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lisa J Bazzle,1 Marc A Cubeta,2 Steven L Marks,1 David C Dorman3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Center for Integrated Fungal Research, 3Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Purpose: Mushroom poisoning is a recurring and challenging problem in veterinary medicine. Diagnosis of mushroom exposure in animals is hampered by the lack of rapid diagnostic tests. Our study evaluated the feasibility of using flotation concentration and microscopic evaluation of spores for mushroom identification. Evaluation of this method in living animals exposed to toxigenic mushrooms is limited by ethical constraints; therefore, we relied upon the use of an in vitro model that mimics the oral and gastric phases of digestion. Methods: In our study, mycologist-identified toxigenic (poisonous and nontoxigenic fresh mushrooms were collected in North Carolina, USA. In phase 1, quantitative spore recovery rates were determined following magnesium sulfate, modified Sheather's sugar solution, and zinc sulfate flotation (n=16 fungal species. In phase 2, mushrooms (n=40 fungal species were macerated and digested for up to 2 hours in a salivary and gastric juice simulant. The partially digested material was acid neutralized, filtered, and spores concentrated using zinc sulfate flotation followed by microscopic evaluation of spore morphology. Results: Mean spore recovery rates for the three flotation fluids ranged from 32.5% to 41.0% (P=0.82. Mean (± standard error of the mean Amanita spp. spore recovery rates were 38.1%±3.4%, 36.9%±8.6%, and 74.5%±1.6% (P=0.0012 for the magnesium sulfate, Sheather's sugar, and zinc sulfate solutions, respectively. Zinc sulfate flotation following in vitro acid digestion (phase 2 yielded spore numbers adequate for microscopic visualization in

  19. Photophysical properties of betaxanthins: Vulgaxanthin I in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, Monika [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Szot, Dominika; Starzak, Karolina; Tuwalska, Dorota [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Institute C-1, Section of Analytical Chemistry, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, Cracow 31-155 (Poland); Gapinski, Jacek [Molecular Biophysics Department, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Naskrecki, Ryszard [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Prukala, Dorota; Sikorski, Marek [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 89b, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Wybraniec, Slawomir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Institute C-1, Section of Analytical Chemistry, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, Cracow 31-155 (Poland); Burdzinski, Gotard, E-mail: gotardb@amu.edu.pl [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Betaxanthins are yellow pigments present in Caryophyllales plants and some higher fungi. We characterize photophysical properties of vulgaxanthin I and extracts of Amanita muscaria L. Vulgaxanthin I photoexcitation at λ{sub exc}=476 nm leads to the S{sub 1} excited state with the S{sub 1}→S{sub n} absorption bands at ca. 390 and 920 nm in both aqueous and alcoholic solutions. The S{sub 1} state lifetimes (2.9 and 37 ps in water) imply that vulgaxanthin I exists in two stereoisomeric forms. An increase in the solvent viscosity extends the S{sub 1} lifetimes and fluorescence quantum yields, probably due to hindered internal rotations in the dye. Internal conversion is the major S{sub 1} state deactivation path, with fluorescence being a minor channel, and S{sub 1}→T{sub 1} intersystem crossing not observed. Betaxanthins extracted from A. muscaria L. have similar properties. Efficient dissipation of the absorbed light energy as heat supports the postulate of photoprotective role of betaxanthins in vivo. - Highlights: • Betaxanthin S{sub 1} state deactivation mechanism is mainly radiationless. • S{sub 1} state shows absorption band with maxima at about 390 nm and 920 nm. • Solvent viscosity affects S{sub 1} state lifetime and fluorescence quantum yield. • Addition of potassium iodide to solution enhances ISC in betaxanthin.

  20. Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Pringle, Anne

    2012-04-01

    The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown. The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides (the death cap) is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges. On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. phalloides in its native range. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe. The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and the current distribution of A. phalloides appears constrained within the distribution of Q. agrifolia. In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year. Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. phalloides and other ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced across the world.

  1. Uses of mushrooms by Finns and Karelians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, M

    1998-01-01

    Finns have adopted two traditions of mushroom use: one, the old Roman tradition, came through France and Sweden to the educated, mostly Swedish speaking people of southwest Finland; the other came from the east via Karelia and was adopted by ordinary country folk. This eastern tradition is still maintained among the Karelinas living in Tver government in Russia. Even the use of Amanita muscaria for killing flies is still utilized there. The western tradition favoured chanterelles and Boletus edulis, the eastern acrid milk caps, the Lactarius species. During the famines in the 1860's and after the World War II the government authorities tried to promote the use of wild mushrooms, but the real impulse to a more versatile mushroom use was initiated after the war when 400,000 evacuees from that part of Karelia conquered by the Soviet Union were resettled among farming families all over Finland. In 1969 the National Board of Forestry began to train mushroom advisors, a programme which still continues. In 1981 Finland passed a statute on edible mushrooms and drew up a list of commercial species. Even today the largest percentage of marketed mushrooms comes from Eastern Finland and the Lactarius tivialis species sells best. Gyromitra esculenta, the false morel is considered a delicacy. Today picking mushrooms is a passionate hobby for many Finns.

  2. Fatty acid profiles of polar and neutral lipids of ten species of higher basidiomycetes indigenous to eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedneault, Karine; Angers, Paul; Gosselin, André; Tweddell, Russell J

    2008-12-01

    Neutral and polar lipid contents of ten species of edible mushrooms indigenous to Eastern Canada belonging to the families Agaricaceae, Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, Coprinaceae, Ganodermataceae, and Lycoperdaceae were analysed. The total lipid content of the species analysed ranged from 3.1% (Ganoderma applanatum) to 16% (w/w) d.w. (Amanita vaginata) and averaged 8.6% (w/w) d.w. Polar lipids accounted for more than 50% of the total lipids in most species and differences were observed between neutral and polar lipid contents according to the species analysed. In both lipid fractions, high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) ranging from 62.7 to 82.3% (polar lipids) and 59.8 to 82.5% (neutral lipids) of the total FAs were observed. Analysis of FA profiles showed that both neutral and polar lipids were mainly composed of linoleic (18:2 Delta9c,12c), oleic (18:1 Delta9c), and palmitic (16:0) acids. Significant differences (P<0.05) in the contents of specific FAs were observed between mushroom species. Among the 44 FAs detected in the species analysed, the occurrence of cis-11-heptadecenoic (17:1 Delta11c) acid is reported for the first time in basidiomycetes, while elaidic acid (18:1 Delta9t) is reported for the first time in fungi.

  3. New syndromes in mushroom poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviuc, Philippe; Danel, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Several new mushroom poisoning syndromes have been described since the early 1990s. In these syndromes, the onset of symptoms generally occurs >6 hours after ingestion. Treatment is mainly supportive. The syndrome induced by Amanita smithiana/proxima consists of acute tubulopathy, which appears earlier and does not have the same poor prognosis as the orellanine-induced syndrome. It has been described since 1992 in the US and Canada with A. smithiana; in France, Spain and Italy with A. proxima; and in Japan with A. pseudoporphyria. The responsible toxin is probably 2-amino-4,5-hexadienoic acid. The erythromelalgia syndrome has been described as early as the late 19th century in Japan and South Korea with Clitocybe acromelalga, and since 1996 in France and then Italy with C. amoenolens. Responsible toxins are probably acromelic acids identified in both species. Several cases of massive rhabdomyolysis have been reported since 1993 in France and 2001 in Poland after ingestion of large amounts of an edible and, until then, valuable species called Tricholoma equestre. These cases of rhabdomyolysis are associated with respiratory and cardiac (myocarditis) complications leading to death. Rhabdomyolysis with an apparently different mechanism was described in Taiwan in 2001 with Russula subnigricans. Finally, cases of encephalopathy were observed twice after ingestion of Hapalopilus rutilans in Germany in 1992 and Pleurocybella porrigens in Japan in 2004, where a convulsive encephalopathy outbreak was reported in patients with history of chronic renal failure.

  4. The use Prometheus FPSA system in the treatment of acute liver failure: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarek, A; Grodzicki, M; Nyckowski, P; Kotulski, M; Zieniewicz, K; Michalowicz, B; Patkowski, W; Grzelak, I; Paczkowska, A; Giercuszkiewicz, D; Sańko-Resmer, J; Paczek, L; Krawczyk, M

    2006-01-01

    The preliminary outcomes of patients with acute liver failure treated with the Prometheus Fractionated Plasma Separation and Absorption (FPSA) system are presented herein. The procedures were performed in 13 patients (4, intoxication by Amanita phalloides; 4, unknown reason; 3, acetaminophen intoxication; 1, Wilson disease, and 1, liver insufficiency after hemihepatectomy owing to metastases of colon adenocarcinoma). The patients were qualified for the procedure according to the King's College Hospital criteria. The patients' general status was assessed on basic of GCS, UNOS, and the 4-grade encephalopathy classifications. The procedures were performed with the Prometheus 4008H Fresenius Medical Care unit. The 29 procedures were of mean duration 6.5 hours. There were statistically significant reductions in total bilirubin, ammonia, and aminotransferase levels. In addition, the procedures corrected water, mineral, and carbohydrate disorders. One patient did not require liver transplantation. Seven patients received liver transplants: three patients with positive outcomes; two died due to septicemia within 30 days perioperatively, one died at 6 months after OLT owing to respiratory failure; and one, owing to hemorrhagic diathesis. Four patients did not receive a liver transplant because of lack of a organ, no consent for the surgery, or neoplastic disease with metastases. The Prometheus FPSA-System was an effective detoxication method for patients with acute liver failure. The system was useful as a symptomatic treatment before liver transplantation allowing a longer wait for a graft.

  5. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 天然林における Agaricales の菌類社会学的研究 (I) : 5斜面の植生と Agaricales の主要な属について

    OpenAIRE

    岡部, 宏秋

    1979-01-01

    今報告では5斜面の植生を外生菌根を有する樹種と関連させて検討し, さらに高等菌類の中で出現率の高い主要な属を抽出する作業を試みた。1) 5斜面の各天然林は暖帯から温帯への移行帯に位置し外生菌根を有する樹種 (ウラジロガシ, ブナ, ミズナラ, ミズメなど) と混交率の高いスギが菌類相に大きく影響しているようである。2) 各斜面を通じて見られる Agaricales の主要な属は3群計17属であった。腐朽菌群9属 : Mycena, Marasmius, Collybia, Galerina, Marasmiellus, Pseudohiatula, Oudemansiella, Crepidotus, Tricholomopsis 菌根菌群5属 : Russula, Lactarius, Laccaria, Amanita, Cortinarius 菌根菌, 腐朽菌, 腐朽能力を有する菌根菌らを含めた一群3属 : Rhodophyllus, Lepiota, Hrgrophorus...

  7. Synthesis of enzymes connected with mycoparasitism by ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna; Dahm, Hanna; Strzelczyk, Edmund; Werner, Antoni

    2006-03-01

    The production of enzymes involved in mycoparasitism by several strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi: Amanita muscaria (16-3), Laccaria laccata (9-12), L. laccata (9-1), Suillus bovinus (15-4), S. bovinus (15-3), S. luteus (14-7) on different substrates such as colloidal chitin, mycelia of Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens and Mucor hiemalis was examined. Chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases were assayed spectrophotometrically by measuring the amount of reducing sugars releasing from suitable substrate by means of Miller's method. Beta-glucosidases were determined by measuring the amount of p-nitrophenol released from p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside. It was observed that A. muscaria (16-3) and L. laccata (9-12) biosynthesized the highest activity of enzymes in contrast to the strains of S. bovinus and S. luteus. The mycelium of T. harzianum turned out to be the best substrate for the induction of beta-1,3-glucanases and beta-glucosidases for both strains of L. laccata, although the difference in the induction of chitinases in the presence of mycelia of different species of Trichoderma was not indicated.

  8. Detection of extracellular protease activity in different species and genera of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Cajsa M R; Edqvist, Johan; Elfstrand, Malin; Heller, Gregory; Taylor, Andy F S

    2007-05-01

    In northern forest ecosystems, most soil nitrogen (N) is in organic form and forest trees are largely dependent on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and their degradative abilities for N uptake. The ability of ECM fungi to acquire N from organic substrates should, therefore, be a widespread trait given its ecological importance. However, little is known about the degradative abilities of most ECM fungi as they remain untested due to problems of isolation or extremely slow growth in pure culture. In this paper, we present data on extracellular protease activity of 32 species of ECM fungi, most of which have not previously been cultured. Milk powder plates and zymograms were compared for detecting protease activity in these intractable species. In total, 29/32 of the species produced extracellular protease activity, but detection was method dependent. Growth on milk powder plates detected protease activity in 28 of 32 species, while zymograms only detected proteases in Amanita muscaria, Russula chloroides, Lactarius deterrimus and Lactarius quieticolor. The study supports the hypothesis that protease excretion is a widespread physiological trait in ECM fungi and that this ability is of considerable significance for nitrogen uptake in forest ecosystems.

  9. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrey Silvia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum. The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines. Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.

  10. Correlation between the pattern volatiles and the overall aroma of wild edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, P Guedes; Ribeiro, Bárbara; Gonçalves, Rui F; Baptista, Paula; Valentão, Patrícia; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2008-03-12

    Volatile and semivolatile components of 11 wild edible mushrooms, Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius, were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and by liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifty volatiles and nonvolatiles components were formally identified and 13 others were tentatively identified. Using sensorial analysis, the descriptors "mushroomlike", "farm-feed", "floral", "honeylike", "hay-herb", and "nutty" were obtained. A correlation between sensory descriptors and volatiles was observed by applying multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchic cluster analysis) to the sensorial and chemical data. The studied edible mushrooms can be divided in three groups. One of them is rich in C8 derivatives, such as 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, trans-2-octen-1-ol, 3-octanone, and 1-octen-3-one; another one is rich in terpenic volatile compounds; and the last one is rich in methional. The presence and contents of these compounds give a considerable contribution to the sensory characteristics of the analyzed species.

  11. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  12. Co-ingestion of amatoxins and isoxazoles-containing mushrooms and successful treatment: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juliana; Costa, Vera M; Costa, Ana Elisa; Andrade, Sérgio; Carneiro, Ana Cristina; Conceição, Filipe; Paiva, José Artur; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Baptista, Paula; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix

    2015-09-01

    Mushroom poisonings occur when ingestion of wild mushrooms containing toxins takes place, placing the consumers at life-threatening risk. In the present case report, an unusual multiple poisoning with isoxazoles- and amatoxins-containing mushrooms in a context of altered mental state and poorly controlled hypertension is presented. A 68-year-old female was presented to São João hospital (Portugal) with complaints of extreme dizziness, hallucinations, vertigo and imbalance, 3 h after consuming a stew of wild mushrooms. The first observations revealed altered mental state and elevated blood pressure. The examination of cooked mushroom fragments allowed a preliminary identification of Amanita pantherina. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of muscimol in urine. Moreover, through high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) analysis of the gastric juice, the presence of α-amanitin was found, showing that amatoxins-containing mushrooms were also included in the stew. After 4 days of supportive treatment, activated charcoal, silybin and N-acetylcysteine, the patient recovered being discharged 10 days post-ingestion with no organ complications. The prompt and appropriate therapy protocol for life-threatening amatoxins toxicity probably saved the patient's life as oral absorption was decreased and also supportive care was immediately started. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tuber indicum shapes the microbial communities of ectomycorhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree (Pinus armandii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tuber indicum on the diversity of microbial communities associated with an indigenous tree, Pinus armandii, and the microbial communities in the surrounding ectomycorhizosphere soil. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the richness of microbial communities in the roots or rhizosphere of treatments with or without ectomycorrhizae. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of ectomycorhizosphere soil was significantly lower compared with the control soil. Presumably, the dominance of truffle mycelia in ectomycorhizosphere soil (80.91% and ectomycorrhizae (97.64% was the main factor that resulted in lower diversity and abundance of endophytic pathogenic fungi, including Fusarium, Monographella, Ustilago and Rhizopus and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Amanita, Lactarius and Boletus. Bacterial genera Reyranena, Rhizomicrobium, Nordella, Pseudomonas and fungal genera, Cuphophyllus, Leucangium, Histoplasma were significantly more abundant in ectomycorrhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the similarities between rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere soil based on the soil properties differed significantly, indicating the mycorrhizal synthesis may have a feedback effect on soil properties. Meanwhile, some soil properties were significantly correlated with bacterial and fungal diversity in the rhizosphere or root tips. Overall, this work illustrates the interactive network that exists among ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil properties and microbial communities associated with the host plant and furthers our understanding of the ecology and cultivation of T. indicum.

  14. Tuber indicum shapes the microbial communities of ectomycorhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae of an indigenous tree (Pinus armandii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Jian; Xiong, Chuan; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Zuqin; Li, Ping; Huang, Wenli

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an ectomycorrhizal fungus (Tuber indicum) on the diversity of microbial communities associated with an indigenous tree, Pinus armandii, and the microbial communities in the surrounding ectomycorhizosphere soil. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the richness of microbial communities in the roots or rhizosphere of treatments with or without ectomycorrhizae. The results indicated that the bacterial diversity of ectomycorhizosphere soil was significantly lower compared with the control soil. Presumably, the dominance of truffle mycelia in ectomycorhizosphere soil (80.91%) and ectomycorrhizae (97.64%) was the main factor that resulted in lower diversity and abundance of endophytic pathogenic fungi, including Fusarium, Monographella, Ustilago and Rhizopus and other competitive mycorrhizal fungi, such as Amanita, Lactarius and Boletus. Bacterial genera Reyranena, Rhizomicrobium, Nordella, Pseudomonas and fungal genera, Cuphophyllus, Leucangium, Histoplasma were significantly more abundant in ectomycorrhizosphere soil and ectomycorrhizae. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the similarities between rhizosphere and ectomycorrhizosphere soil based on the soil properties differed significantly, indicating the mycorrhizal synthesis may have a feedback effect on soil properties. Meanwhile, some soil properties were significantly correlated with bacterial and fungal diversity in the rhizosphere or root tips. Overall, this work illustrates the interactive network that exists among ectomycorrhizal fungi, soil properties and microbial communities associated with the host plant and furthers our understanding of the ecology and cultivation of T. indicum. PMID:28410376

  15. Community composition of root-associated fungi in a Quercus-dominated temperate forest: “codominance” of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Gilbert, Gregory S; Kadowaki, Kohmei

    2013-01-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant roots are colonized by various clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Focused on the root systems of an oak-dominated temperate forest in Japan, we used 454 pyrosequencing to explore how phylogenetically diverse fungi constitute an ecological community of multiple ecotypes. In total, 345 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of fungi were found from 159 terminal-root samples from 12 plant species occurring in the forest. Due to the dominance of an oak species (Quercus serrata), diverse ectomycorrhizal clades such as Russula, Lactarius, Cortinarius, Tomentella, Amanita, Boletus, and Cenococcum were observed. Unexpectedly, the root-associated fungal community was dominated by root-endophytic ascomycetes in Helotiales, Chaetothyriales, and Rhytismatales. Overall, 55.3% of root samples were colonized by both the commonly observed ascomycetes and ectomycorrhizal fungi; 75.0% of the root samples of the dominant Q. serrata were so cocolonized. Overall, this study revealed that root-associated fungal communities of oak-dominated temperate forests were dominated not only by ectomycorrhizal fungi but also by diverse root endophytes and that potential ecological interactions between the two ecotypes may be important to understand the complex assembly processes of belowground fungal communities. PMID:23762515

  16. Les champignons ecto-mycorrhiziens consommés par les Bassar et les Kabyè, peuples riverains du Parc National Fazao-Malfakassa (PNFM au Togo (Afrique de l’Ouest

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    H. KAMOU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The wild edible mushrooms are often used by people who live around the PNFM of Togo. To know better the ecto-mycorrhizal taxa used and to document the endogenous knowledge, surveys on ethno-mycological knowledge were conducted in the city of Bassar from the ethnic group of Bassar and in the village of Hezoudè from Kabyè ethnic group. During this study, based on semi-structural ethno-mycological survey, 432 people aged 10 to 80 years from the Kabyè and Bassar areas are interviewed via focus group and/or individual interviews. After ethno-mycological investigations, 23 taxa are known as edible. The ethno-mycological indices such as Use Value (UV, Index of Fisher (p and Index of Importance Value (IVI are calculated to test the knowledge on the different use of mushrooms by the two ethnic groups. The study revealed that there is no significant difference regarding the number of consumed taxa for each ethnic group and the levels of their traditional knowledge. The study also showed that the traditional ethno-mycological knowledge of the population varies according to age, the ethnical group and sex. The elders are proven to be the holders of the best mycological knowledge. The most ecto-mycorrhizal mushrooms consumed are Amanita loosii, Russula oleifera and Cantharellus congolensis. These preliminary data indicate that the ecto-mycorrhizal mushrooms and their uses are well known by the people who live around the PNFM.

  17. Fabrication of a biomimetic adsorbent imprinted with a common specificity determinant for the removal of α- and β-amanitin from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lei; He, Rong; Li, Yongxian; Liang, Yong; Li, He; Tang, Youwen

    2016-08-12

    α-Amanitin and β-amanitin are the main toxins of mushroom poisoning. The application of traditional non-selective adsorbents is not satisfactory in clinical treatment of amanita mushroom poisoning due to lack of specificity adsorption capability of these adsorbents toward amanitin toxins. In the current work, we introduce a novel molecularly imprinted biomimetic adsorbent based on a ligand specificity determinant through surface imprinted strategy. Owing to the expensive price of the amanitin sources, we selected a typical common moiety of α, β-amanitin as specificity determinant to synthesize a template necessary for the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Computer simulation was used to initially select acidic methacrylic acid (MAA) and basic 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) together as functional monomers. The experiments further demonstrated that the synergistic interaction of MAA and 4-VP played a primary role in the recognition of α, β-amanitin by MIPs. By means of batch and packed-bed column experiment and the hemocompatibility evaluation, the resultant biomimetic adsorbent has been proved to be capable of selectively removing α, β-amanitin and possess good hemocompatibility. This novel adsorbent has great potential to find application in human plasma purification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fungal biology: compiling genomes and exploiting them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Uehling, Jessie K [ORNL; Payen, Thibaut [INRA; Plett, Jonathan [University of Western Sydney, Australia

    2014-01-01

    The last 10 years have seen the cost of sequencing complete genomes decrease at an incredible speed. This has led to an increase in the number of genomes sequenced in all the fungal tree of life as well as a wide variety of plant genomes. The increase in sequencing has permitted us to study the evolution of organisms on a genomic scale. A number of talks during the conference discussed the importance of transposable elements (TEs) that are present in almost all species of fungi. These TEs represent an especially large percentage of genomic space in fungi that interact with plants. Thierry Rouxel (INRA, Nancy, France) showed the link between speciation in the Leptosphaeria complex and the expansion of TE families. For example in the Leptosphaeria complex, one species associated with oilseed rape has experienced a recent and massive burst of movement by a few TE families. The alterations caused by these TEs took place in discrete regions of the genome leading to shuffling of the genomic landscape and the appearance of genes specific to the species, such as effectors useful for the interactions with a particular plant (Rouxel et al., 2011). Other presentations showed the importance of TEs in affecting genome organization. For example, in Amanita different species appear to have been invaded by different TE families (Veneault-Fourrey & Martin, 2011).

  19. Bactericidal activites of selected macrofungi extracts against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolovska-Nedelkoska Daniela A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of the antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic microorganisms has resulted in research directed toward evaluation of novel sources of antimicrobial compounds. Previous studies have indicated that macrofungi, as a specific response to the natural hostile environment, produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. In this study, antimicrobial activities of the extracts from six wild mushrooms: Amanita echinocephala, Russula medulata, Cerena unicolor, Hericium erinaceus, Ishnoderma benzoinum and Laetiporus sulphureus were evaluated against Grampositive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial potential of the methanolic mushroom extracts was investigated by the microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity was observed in all species included in the study. All the extracts that demonstrated inhibitory activities were further tested for bactericidal activity and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values were determined. The tested microorganism was most sensitive to the examined extracts from the polypore fungi C. unicolor and H. erinaceus. The highest bactericidal activity was obtained in the extracts from the species C. unicolor (MBC=1.563 mg/mL. The experimental results revealed that the methanolic extract of C. unicolor possessed significant bactericidal activity. The findings suggest the potential use of this wild mushroom as antimicrobial agent.

  20. Bioconcentration factors and trace elements bioaccumulation in sporocarps of fungi collected from quartzite acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Juan Antonio; Tejera, Noel Amaurys

    2011-10-01

    The content of 19 metals (Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Pb, Th, U and Nd) was investigated in 15 edible species of phylum Basidiomycota collected in an area with quartzite acidic soils in a province of the central Spain. The study explores the differences in metal accumulation in relation to fungal species, and the results were related to metal content in soil through the determination of bioconcentration factors. Regarding the highest concentrations, Zn, Al, Cu and Rb were the metals more accumulated in the sporocarps. Notable concentrations were also found in Sr, Zr, Ba, Cs and Ce. The major bioconcentration factors were found for Cu and Zn in sporocarps of Agaricus silvicola and Lepista nuda. Regarding the different species, Tricholoma equestre and Cantharellus cibarius were those with the greatest capacity to absorb trace elements, and in contrast, Amanita caesarea and Agaricus campestris showed the lowest values. The cluster analysis shows that there are some species with the same nutritive physiology that share similarities in the absorptive behaviour. Lactarius sanguifluus and Lactarius deliciosus, both ectomycorrhizas of the genus Pinus, are closely related, and Clitocybe gibba, L. nuda and Marasmius oreades, all of them saprobes on soil organic matter, are very close too.

  1. Gender differences and regionalization of the cultural significance of wild mushrooms around La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, A; Torres-García, E A; Kong, A; Estrada-Torres, A; Caballero, J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cultural significance of wild mushrooms in 10 communities on the slopes of La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala. The frequency and order of mention of each mushroom species in interviews of 200 individuals were used as indicators of the relative cultural significance of each species. A X(2) analysis was used to compare the frequency of mention of each species between males and females, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Traditional names for mushroom species were documented and frequency of mention assessed through multivariate statistics. The fungi with highest frequency of mention were Amanita basii, Lyophyllum decastes, Boletus pinophilus, Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus cibarius complex. We found significant differences in the frequency of mention of different fungi by males and females but no significant difference was found for the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Principal component analysis suggested a cultural regionalization of La Malinche volcano communities based on preferences for consumption and use of traditional names. We observed two groups: one formed by communities on the eastern part of the volcano (with mixed cultures) and the other including communities on the western slope (ethnic Nahua towns). San Isidro Buensuceso is the most distinct community, according to the criteria in this study.

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests.

  3. Macromicetos del Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica, municipio de Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas, México Macrofungi from Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica, Municipality of Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Chanona-Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos contribuir al conocimiento de los macromicetos que crecen en el Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica (PELB, en Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas y determinar el índice de diversidad de Simpson y similitud de Sorensen de la micobiota existente en los diferentes tipos de vegetación. Se realizaron 24 exploraciones micológicas durante un año, encontrándose 144 especies (24 Ascomycota y 120 Basidiomycota. El índice de diversidad, mostró que la vegetación con la micobiota más diversa fue la del bosque de Quercus elliptica (D= 0.9678 la cual presentó mayor similitud con el bosque de Liquidambar stracyflua (Is= 83 %. El sustrato más frecuente fue la madera en descomposición (57.63 %. Se determinaron las especies de macromicetos potencialmente utilizables para el consumo humano (22 especies, lo que determinó el valor micológico del área de estudio en 15.27 %. Del total de especies determinadas 22 son nuevos registros para el estado de Chiapas; 4 Ascomicetos Scutellinia scutellata, Xylaria amphitele, X. persicaria, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, y 18 Basidiomicetos Amanita pantherina, Geastrum striatum, Hydnum repandum, Hygrocybe miniata, Scleroderma verrucosum, Cotylidia diaphana, Lactarius indigo, Phlogiotis helvelloides, Hydnochaete olivaceae, Phellinus ferruginosus, P. contiguus, P.rufitinctus, Thelephora terrestris, T. cervicornis, Perenniporia ohiensis, Diplomitoporus lenis, Schizopora paradoxa y Tremella fuciformis.The objectives of this study were to contribute to the knowledge of macro fungi growing in the "Parque Educativo Laguna Belgica" (PELB, in Chiapas, Mexico and to determine the diversity and similarity indexes for its mycobiota in each type of vegetation. Twenty four mycological explorations were made during a year, resulting in the identification of 144 species (24 Ascomycota and 120 Basidiomycota. The diversity of fungal species was determined through the index of Simpson and the similarity

  4. Common environmental factors explain both ectomycorrhizal species diversity and pine regeneration variability in a post-fire Mediterranean forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscardo, Erika; Freitas, Helena; Pereira, João Santos; De Angelis, Paolo

    2011-08-01

    Natural seedling regeneration and establishment after stand replacing wildfires is influenced by a series of environmental and biological constraints. In this study, we characterized the diversity and structure of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community associated with post-fire naturally regenerated maritime pine saplings, and individuate the environmental factors responsible for fungal species distribution. We also identify the main environmental factors responsible for maritime pine regeneration variability and assessed the relation between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices. Fungal species were identified by direct sequencing of internal transcribed spacer regions. Five years after the disturbance event, a total of 30 taxa colonized the pine saplings. The ECM fungal community was dominated by ruderal species of the genus Rhizopogon (present in almost half of the samples). Almost one third of the identified ECM fungal species belonged to the family Thelephoraceae. Typical k-selected species like Amanita pantherina, Boletus aestivalis, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and Russula densifolia were found on pine saplings collected in proximity of unburnt pine trees, in correspondence with low erosion extents. Pine regeneration varied throughout the study areas and was enhanced at higher elevations, in correspondence with moderate slopes, shallower soils, and a reduced cover of ericaceous shrubs and bare ground. These conditions were found in close proximity to patches of pine trees that survived the disturbance event and were previously characterized by a higher pre-fire pine biomass. Even though no correlations were found between saplings performance and ECM fungal diversity indices, common environmental factors (i.e., ericaceous shrub cover, extent of erosion, slope, and soil depth) were responsible for shaping the ECM fungal distribution and for describing most of the explained regeneration variability.

  5. de Pachuca, Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mendoza-Díaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar las especies de hongos asociadas con encinos en áreas de su distribución natural en la sierra de Pachuca, Hgo., se seleccionaron tres sitios con presencia de encinos como elemento estructural importante en la vegetación de la porción noroeste de la región. En cada sitio se trazaron parcelas para observación, donde se recolectaron cuerpos fructíferos de hongos y muestras de especies de encino en bosque de Quercus mexicana (BQM, bosque de oyamel-encino (BOE y bosque de Quercus obtusata (BQO, de julio a noviembre de 2002; posteriormente, se determinaron las especies del material recolectado. Los datos registrados en campo se analizaron mediante el valor de importancia (V.I. y coeficiente de asociación de especies (V, además de consultarse literatura especializada para determinar las especies de hongos. Se registraron seis especies de encinos y 37 de hongos micorrízicos. El BOE presentó el menor número de especies de hongos micorrízicos y las mejores características de fertilidad de suelo con respecto a los otros sitios. Las especies micorrízicas de hongos con mayor V.I. fueron Lactarius thyinos, Inocybe sororia, Russula paludosa, R. xerampelina, Lycoperdum perlatum, Psathyrella spadicea, Russula aff. olivacea y Lactarius croceus. Sin embargo, Amanita flavoconia, Clitocibe gibba, Inocybe sororia, Lactarius piperatus, Russula emetica, R. densifolia y R. decolorans mostraron coeficientes de asociación positivos con las especies de encinos.

  6. [Phalloidin syndrome: role of Elisa-based assay for the detection of alpha- and gamma-amanitins in urine. Preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parant, F; Peltier, L; Lardet, G; Pulce, C; Descotes, J; Moulsma, M

    2006-01-01

    After consumption of mushrooms containing amatoxins (Amanita, Lepiota, and Galerina species), symptoms usually develop after a long delay (>6 h). Initial symptoms start as severe gastroenteritis, progressing to liver failure and possibly death as a result of hepatic coma. Since the survival rate of poisoned patients is claimed to depend on the time of beginning of efficient treatment, fast and reliable assays for amatoxins in biological fluids are essential. Described analytical methods for amatoxins include high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Recently, a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Bühlmann Amanitin ELISA kit) has been introduced as an alternative method to RIA. This ELISA-based assay offers several advantages: no complex extraction procedure is required (vs. HPLC) and no safety precautions concerning radioactivity have to be taken (vs. RIA). From August 2004 to October 2005, a pilot study was performed to test the practicability and the clinical utility of this method in emergency situations. ten urines, 9 serums and 1 faeces from 10 patients suffering from acute gastroenteritis after mushroom ingestions (7 contaminated meals) were analyzed. Definitive diagnosis of amatoxin poisoning was made in 4 cases (3 contaminated meals) on the basis of the anamnesis, laboratory results, and clinical course. A patient developed a severe amatoxin poisoning with urinary amanitins level mushroom ingestion). Two patients were paucisymptomatic with urinary amanitins levels >10 microg/L (urines were collected before the 36th hour). Urine is the sample of choice for the determination of amatoxins. The most critical factor to invalidate the usefulness of this analysis is time. After 36 h, the sensitivity is unreliable.

  7. Trace elements in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi growing in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The trace metal contents in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic partners of Scots pine, were studied on three sites situated in west-central Poland. Elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 123 samples of 16 species. The study explored the differences in metal accumulation in relation to site, fungal species, age and part of the fruiting body and results were related to metal content in soil and plant material (roots and needles). Soil analysis revealed that results were obtained under environmental conditions not subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Median metal concentrations did not differ disparately between sites, although the concentrations of each of the tested metals in the individual species varied to a large extent. Extremely high levels of Al with a large bioconcentration factor (BCF) were found in sporocarps of Thelephora terrestris. The spread between the highest and the lowest concentration (max/min) was very wide in Al, Cd and Pb and these elements may be considered to be absorbed preferentially by fruiting bodies of some species whereas Fe, Mn and Zn, with relatively low values of max/min, are normally absorbed by the majority of fungi. There was no clear relationship between caps and stipes in metal content. However, a tendency to higher metal concentration in the caps was observed. The metal content in young and older fruiting bodies of five different fungi was species dependent. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by plant and mushrooms, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In plant material (roots and needles), highest values of BCFs were noted for essential metals, like Zn and Mn. Lead showed a definite exclusion pattern (BCF below 1). In fruiting bodies of tested fungi, especially in Amanita muscaria, cadmium was the most intensively accumulated metal. Lead was excluded by plants but was accumulated or excluded by fungi depending on the species. The

  8. Hongos tóxicos en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M. Romano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (FCEN-UBA funciona el Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos. Lo integran los investigadores del Programa de Plantas Medicinales y Programa de Hongos que Intervienen en la Degradación Biológica (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET y colabora con servicios médicos, estatales y privados, identificando los materiales remitidos en casos de intoxicaciones con hongos, permitiendo, en muchos casos, realizar el tratamiento adecuado. El presente trabajo da a conocer los casos atendidos por el servicio desde 1985 hasta 2012 inclusive, además de una tabla para reconocer las especies tóxicas más comunes de la región. Según esta información, el 47% de las consultas que se recibieron correspondieron a pacientes menores de 18 años de edad que ingirieron materiales fúngicos de forma accidental (o al menos se sospechaba que lo hubieran hecho. El 53% restante correspondió a adultos que afirmaron ser capaces de distinguir hongos comestibles de tóxicos. Se determinó que Chlorophyllum molybdites fue la principal especie causante de intoxicaciones, la cual es comúnmente confundida con el hongo comestible Macrolepiota procera. En segundo lugar Amanita phalloides, un hongo altamente tóxico, que se caracteriza por presentar inicio de síntomas en forma tardía (latencia de 6-10 horas, evolucionando a falla hepática con el consiguiente requerimiento de trasplante o la muerte, si no se realiza el tratamiento adecuado en forma oportuna.

  9. Affinity capillary electrophoresis and density functional theory study of noncovalent interactions of cyclic peptide [Gly6]-antamanide with small cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangavhane, Sachin; Böhm, Stanislav; Makrlík, Emanuel; Ruzza, Paolo; Kašička, Václav

    2017-08-01

    ACE and density functional theory were employed to study the noncovalent interactions of cyclic decapeptide glycine-6-antamanide ([Gly 6 ]AA), synthetic derivative of native antamanide (AA) peptide from the deadly poisonous fungus Amanita phalloides, with small cations (Li + , Rb + , Cs + , NH 4 + , and Ca 2+ ) in methanol. The strength of these interactions was quantified by the apparent stability constants of the appropriate complexes determined by ACE. The stability constants were calculated using the nonlinear regression analysis of the dependence of the effective electrophoretic mobility of [Gly 6 ]AA on the concentration of the above ions in the BGE (methanolic solution of 20 mM chloroacetic acid, 10 mM Tris, pH MeOH 7.8, containing 0-70 mM concentrations of the above ions added in the form of chlorides). Prior to stability constant calculation, the effective mobilities measured at actual temperature inside the capillary and at variable ionic strength of the BGEs were corrected to the values corresponding to the reference temperature of 25°C and to the constant ionic strength of 10 mM. From the above ions, Rb + and Cs + cations interacted weakly with [Gly 6 ]AA but no interactions of [Gly 6 ]AA with univalent Li + and NH 4 + ions and divalent Ca 2+ ion were observed. The apparent stability constants of [Gly 6 ]AA-Rb + and [Gly 6 ]AA-Cs + complexes were found to be equal to 13 ± 4 and 22 ± 3 L/mol, respectively. The structural characteristics of these complexes, such as position of the Rb + and Cs + ions in the cavity of the [Gly 6 ]AA molecule and the interatomic distances within these complexes, were obtained by the density functional theory calculations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. (51)V solid-state NMR and density functional theory studies of eight-coordinate non-oxo vanadium complexes: oxidized amavadin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Kristopher J; Bolte, Stephanie E; Baruah, Bharat; Choudhary, Muhammad Aziz; Crans, Debbie C; Polenova, Tatyana

    2009-05-07

    Using (51)V magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations we have characterized the chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling parameters for two eight-coordinate vanadium complexes, [PPh(4)][V(v)(HIDPA)(2)] and [PPh(4)][V(v)(HIDA)(2)]; HIDPA = 2,2'-(hydroxyimino)dipropionate and HIDA = 2,2'-(hydroxyimino)diacetate. The coordination geometry under examination is the less common non-oxo eight coordinate distorted dodecahedral geometry that has not been previously investigated by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Both complexes were isolated by oxidizing their reduced forms: [V(iv)(HIDPA)(2)](2-) and [V(iv)(HIDA)(2)](2-). V(iv)(HIDPA)(2)(2-) is also known as amavadin, a vanadium-containing natural product present in the Amanita muscaria mushroom and is responsible for vanadium accumulation in nature. The quadrupolar coupling constants, C(Q), are found to be moderate, 5.0-6.4 MHz while the chemical shift anisotropies are relatively small for vanadium complexes, -420 and -360 ppm. The isotropic chemical shifts in the solid state are -220 and -228 ppm for the two compounds, and near the chemical shifts observed in solution. Presumably this is a consequence of the combined effects of the increased coordination number and the absence of oxo groups. Density functional theory calculations of the electric field gradient parameters are in good agreement with the NMR results while the chemical shift parameters show some deviation from the experimental values. Future work on this unusual coordination geometry and a combined analysis by solid-state NMR and density functional theory should provide a better understanding of the correlations between experimental NMR parameters and the local structure of the vanadium centers.

  11. Seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2008-03-01

    The potential for seasonal dynamics in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal assemblages has important implications for the ecology of both the host trees and the fungal associates. We compared EM fungus distributions on root systems of out-planted oak seedlings at two sites in mixed southeastern Appalachian Mountain forests at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina, from samples taken in mid-July and early September. Species level EM fungus type specificity, and identification in some cases, was enabled by direct sequencing of the mycobionts from the seedling roots. Seventy-four EM fungal ITS types were documented, most of which occurred only in the midsummer or early-fall samples, respectively. Cenococcum geophilum (morphotyped) was ubiquitously present and accounted for the majority of root tips sampled. Abundance and relative frequency of types other than C. geophilum were significantly higher in the July samples, while C. geophilum was significantly more frequent and abundant in September. Several generalistic dominants were found fairly equally at both sites and on both sample dates. Other taxa with relatively high frequency were recovered from both sites and tree seedling species, but were reliable indicators occurring primarily in the July sample (e.g., Laccaria cf laccata). Notable shifts in mycobiont dominance were apparent in relation to sample date, including increases in Cortinarius spp. richness, decreases in Thelephoraceae richness, and the disappearance of Amanita spp. types in the early fall compared to midsummer samples. However, diversity and rarity were high and differences in overall community composition (other than C. geophilum) by season were not significant based on multi-response permutation procedures. Although these results based on a single growing season are preliminary, changes in abundance and frequency, detection of significant indicator species, and the apparent systematic affinities of shifting EM types support the potential

  12. 210Pb and stable lead content in fungi: Its transfer from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, J.; Baeza, A.; Ontalba, M.A.; Miguez, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The uptake and transfer of natural radionuclides, other than 40 K, from soil to mushrooms has been somewhat overlooked in the literature. Their contribution to the dose due to the consumption of mushrooms was considered negligible. But the contribution of 210 Pb in areas unaffected by any recent radioactive fallout has been found to be significant, up to 35% of the annual dose commitment in Spain. More than 30 species of mushrooms were analyzed, and the 210 Pb detected was in the range of 0.75-202 Bq/kg d.w. A slight difference was observed between species with different nutritional mechanisms (saprophytes ≥ mycorrhizae). The 210 Pb content was correlated with the stable lead content, but not with its predecessor in the uranium radioactive series, 226 Ra. This suggested that 210 Pb was taken up from the soil by the same pathway as stable lead. The bioavailability of 210 Pb in soil was determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure (NH 4 OAc, 1M HCl, 6M HCl, and residue). About 30% of the 210 Pb present in the soil was available for transfer to mushrooms, more than other natural radionuclides in the same ecosystem. Lycoperdon perlatum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, and Amanita curtipes presented the highest values of the available transfer factor, ATF. As reflected in their ATF values, the transfer from soil to mushroom of some natural and anthropogenic radionuclides was in the following order: 228,230,232 Th ∼ 40 K ≥ 137 Cs ≥ 234,238 U ∼ 226 Ra ≥ 90 Sr ≥ 210 Pb ∼ 239+240 Pu ∼ 241 Am.

  13. Mercury in forest mushrooms and topsoil from the Yunnan highlands and the subalpine region of the Minya Konka summit in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Saba, Martyna; Liu, Hong-Gao; Li, Tao; Wang, Ji-Peng; Wiejak, Anna; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Zhang, Dan

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate and discuss the occurrence and accumulation of mercury in the fruiting bodies of wild-growing fungi (Macromycetes) collected from montane forests in two regions of southwestern China with differences in soil geochemistry, climate and geographical conditions. Fungal mycelia in soils of the subalpine region of the Minya Konka (Gongga Mountain) in Sichuan and in the highlands of Yunnan efficiently accumulated mercury in fruiting bodies (mushrooms). The examined sites in Yunnan with highly mineralized red and yellow soils showed Hg contents ranging from 0.066 to 0.28 mg kg -1 dry biomass (db) which is roughly similar to the results obtained for samples collected from sites with dark soils relatively rich in organic matter from a remote, the subalpine region of Minya Konka. Due to the remoteness of the subalpine section of Minya Konka, as well as its elevation and climate, airborne mercury from long-range transport could be deposited preferentially on the topsoil and the Hg levels determined in soil samples taken beneath the fruiting bodies were up to 0.48 mg kg -1 dry matter. In Yunnan, with polymetallic soils (Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt), Amanita mushrooms showed mercury in caps of fruiting bodies of up to 7.3 mg kg -1 dry biomass. Geogenic Hg from the mercuriferous belt seems to be the overriding source of mercury accumulated in mushrooms foraged in the regions of Yunnan, while long-range atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition are the mercury sources for specimens foraged in the region of Minya Konka.

  14. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Qiuming; Bao, Changjun; Fan, Jian

    2017-02-24

    Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor , Boletus speciosus , Boletus sinicus , Boletus craspedius , Boletus griseus , Boletus ornatipes , Xerocomus , Suillus placidus , Boletinus pinetorus , Tricholoma terreum , Tricholomopsis lividipileata , Termitomyces microcarpus , and Amanita hemibapha , were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA) contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus . The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA) to TAA was 0.13-0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%-54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  15. Identification of some ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes by PCR amplification of their gpd (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzinger, N; Podeu, R; Gruber, F; Göbl, F; Kubicek, C P

    1996-01-01

    Degenerated oligonucleotide primers designed to flank an approximately 1.2-kb fragment of the gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes were used to amplify the corresponding gpd fragments from several species of the ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa Boletus, Amanita, and Lactarius. Those from B. edulis, A. muscaria, and L. deterrimus were cloned and sequenced. The respective nucleotide sequences of these gene fragments showed a moderate degree of similarity (72 to 76%) in the protein-encoding regions and only a low degree of similarity in the introns (56 to 66%). Introns, where present, occurred at conserved positions, but the respective positions and numbers of introns in a given taxon varied. The amplified fragment from a given taxon could be distinguished from that of others by both restriction nuclease cleavage analysis and Southern hybridization. A procedure for labeling DNA probes with fluorescein-12-dUTP by PCR was developed. These probes were used in a nonradioactive hybridization assay, with which the gene could be detected in 2 ng of chromosomal DNA of L. deterrimus on slot blots. Taxon-specific amplification was achieved by the design of specific oligonucleotide primers. The application of the gpd gene for the identification of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions was demonstrated, with Picea abies (spruce) mycorrhizal roots harvested from a northern alpine forest area as well as from a plant-breeding nursery. The interference by inhibitory substances, which sometimes occurred in the DNA extracted from the root-fungus mixture, could be overcome by using very diluted concentrations of template DNA for a first round of PCR amplification followed by a second round with nested oligonucleotide primers. We conclude that gpd can be used to detect ectomycorrhizal fungi during symbiotic interaction. PMID:8795234

  16. Evaluation of different mushroom species as indicator organisms[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Stensrud, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    To investigate the differences between accumulation capacity and transfer factor from soil to different mushroom species, 25 species were collected at 9 locations in south and central parts of Norway. Yearly sampling has been carried since 1988 and a total of 1283 samples analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Entire, fresh fruit bodies were collected, homogenized and measured fresh weight. Levels of ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in Norway were taken from a nationwide sampling program carried out by National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in 1986 following the Chernobyl accident. The estimated ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs (Bq m{sup -2}) and the corresponding activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in mushrooms were used to calculate the ratio between activity concentration in mushroom and ground deposition (transfer factor, TF). Both the mushroom and the soil data are decay corrected to 2004. Considerable differences in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in different mushroom species were found. The Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, and Rozites caperata were found to have the highest levels. Followed by two Cortinarius species, C. brunneus and C. traganus. The highest transfer factors were found in the Cortinarius armillatus and C. brunneus, but also Tricoloma album and Rozites caperata had high transfer factors. Other mushroom species, e.g. Leccinum versipelle (Orange Birch Bolete), Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric), Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete), Collybia butyracea (Butter Cap) generally show a low radiocaesium uptake and are therefore not considered as good indicators. Even though Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, C. brunneus, C. traganus, and Rozites caperata accumulate high levels of {sup 137}Cs, their seasonality and local occurrence should be evaluated before they are considered as good indicator organisms. (LN)

  17. Comparison of Free Total Amino Acid Compositions and Their Functional Classifications in 13 Wild Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Sun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor, Boletus speciosus, Boletus sinicus, Boletus craspedius, Boletus griseus, Boletus ornatipes, Xerocomus, Suillus placidus, Boletinus pinetorus, Tricholoma terreum, Tricholomopsis lividipileata, Termitomyces microcarpus, and Amanita hemibapha, were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analysis. Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid (TAA contents ranged from 1462.6 mg/100 g in B. craspedius to 13,106.2 mg/100 g in T. microcarpus. The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. The ratio of total essential amino acids (EAA to TAA was 0.13–0.41. All of the analyzed species showed high contents of hydrophobic amino acids, at 33%–54% of TAA. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached 94.39%. Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. microcarpus and A. hemibapha showed remarkable EAA content among the 13 species.

  18. Solarization of nursery soil induces production of fruit bodies of mushrooms and enhances growth of tropi-cal forest tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find out the effect of soil solarization on microbial population and its effect on growth of two species of tropical forest trees. For this purpose, solar heating of nursery seedbeds (1 x 5m was done during April- May 2009 for one month, by application of a thin clear sheet of polyethylene. The top soil (5 inches consists of a mix of loam soil, sand and farm yard manure in 2:1:0.5 ratios (v/v. Temperature variations were recorded daily for a period of one month, at 2 depths, (5 cm and 10 cm. Maximum differences in temperature between solar treatment and control was recorded as high as 12.1° C at 5 cm and 9.1° C at 10 cm depth. After one month, population of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and nematodes were completely eliminated from upper 5 cm depth, although population of AM fungi, bacteria and Trichoderma were reduced, but not completely eliminated. Seedlings of Gmelina arborea Roxb. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. were raised through seeds on treated and control beds. After three months, the production of fruit bodies of mushrooms, namely Amanita populiphila Tullos & E. Moses, Lepiota longicauda Henn. and Scleroderma sp. were observed. It was noticed that these mushrooms only appeared on treated soil with white mycelial growth in rhizosphere under fruit bodies. Lepiota longicauda produced the maximum number of fruit bodies on teak seedbeds followed by Scleroderma sp. on G. arborea seedbeds. Due to solar heating there was 23.9% increase in plant height and 22.1% increase in collar diameter of G. arborea seedlings, where as 17.4% increase in plant height and 9.8% increase in collar diameter in case of T. grandis, as compared to control seedlings.

  19. Solarization of nursery soil induces production of fruit bodies of mushrooms and enhances growth of tropical forest tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find out the effect of soil solarization on microbial population and its effect on growth of two species of tropical forest trees. For this purpose, solar heating of nursery seedbeds (1 x 5m was done during April- May 2009 for one month, by application of a thin clear sheet of polyethylene. The top soil (5 inches consists of a mix of loam soil, sand and farm yard manure in 2:1:0.5 ratios (v/v. Temperature variations were recorded daily for a period of one month, at 2 depths, (5 cm and 10 cm. Maximum differences in temperature between solar treatment and control was recorded as high as 12.1° C at 5 cm and 9.1° C at 10 cm depth. After one month, population of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and nematodes were completely eliminated from upper 5 cm depth, although population of AM fungi, bacteria and Trichoderma were reduced, but not completely eliminated. Seedlings of Gmelina arborea Roxb. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. were raised through seeds on treated and control beds. After three months, the production of fruit bodies of mushrooms, namely Amanita populiphila Tullos & E. Moses, Lepiota longicauda Henn. and Scleroderma sp. were observed. It was noticed that these mushrooms only appeared on treated soil with white mycelial growth in rhizosphere under fruit bodies. Lepiota longicauda produced the maximum number of fruit bodies on teak seedbeds followed by Scleroderma sp. on G. arborea seedbeds. Due to solar heating there was 23.9% increase in plant height and 22.1% increase in collar diameter of G. arborea seedlings, where as 17.4% increase in plant height and 9.8% increase in collar diameter in case of T. grandis, as compared to control seedlings.

  20. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals, metalloids, and chlorine in ectomycorrhizae from smelter-polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejpková, Jaroslava; Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Kotrba, Pavel; Řanda, Zdeněk; Synková, Iva; Borovička, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi contribute to the survival of host trees on metal-rich soils by reducing the transfer of toxic metals into roots. However, little is known about the ability of ECM fungi to accumulate elements in ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). Here we report Ag, As, Cd, Cl, Cu, Sb, V, and Zn contents in wild-grown Norway spruce ECMs collected in a smelter-polluted area at Lhota near Příbram, Czech Republic. The ECMs data were compared with the element concentrations determined in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal fine roots, soils, and soil extracts. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated to differentiate the element accumulation ability of ECMs inhabited by different mycobionts, which were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing. Among the target elements, the highest contents were observed for Ag, Cl, Cd, and Zn; Imleria badia ECMs showed the highest capability to accumulate these elements. ECMs of Amanita muscaria, but not of other species, accumulated V. The analysis of the proportions of I. badia and A. muscaria mycelia in ECMs by using species-specific quantitative real-time PCR revealed variable extent of the colonization of roots, with median values close to 5% (w/w). Calculated Ag, Cd, Zn and Cl concentrations in the mycelium of I. badia ECMs were 1 680, 1 510, 2 670, and 37,100 mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively, indicating substantial element accumulation capacity of hyphae of this species in ECMs. Our data strengthen the idea of an active role of ECM fungi in soil-fungal-plant interactions in polluted environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: The collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    Background. Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. Methods. Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. Results. From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland

  2. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-11

    Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc. Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. The compound index divided the cultural significance into several cultural domains and showed

  3. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. METHODS: Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland and the

  4. Ethnomycological knowledge in three communities in Amealco, Quéretaro, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Daniel; Suzán-Azpiri, Humberto; Montoya-Esquivel, Adriana; García-Jiménez, Jesús; Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; Yahia, Elhadi; Landeros-Jaime, Fidel

    2018-01-26

    Fungi have multiple uses in temperate areas of México, but an important decrease in the traditional knowledge of uses and customs of mushrooms becomes a fundamental issue for fungi conservation. However, only few studies quantify the traditional ethnomycological knowledge in México, and this study is the first quantitative report for Querétaro, a central state with both Otomí and Mestizo communities and a high fungi diversity. The present study was conducted registering traditional knowledge on the use and consumption of mushrooms in three Hñähñu (Otomí) communities (Tesquedó, Xajay, and Tenasdá) in Amealco de Bonfil, Querétaro, México, between August 2013 and November 2014. We conducted a stratified sampling, where uses common Hñähñu and Spanish names, and eight quantitative variables that conform the "Edible Mushrooms Cultural Significant Index" (EMCI) were recorded from 100 informants. For the classification and ordination analysis of species and uses, we used multivariate techniques such as cluster, multidimensional scaling, and principal components (PC). Thirty-three mushrooms species were registered, most of them used for consumption by households, few aimed for commercial purposes, one species is medicinal, another has veterinary, and other ludic uses (as a toy). The three species with the highest EMCSI were Amanita basii, Fistulinella wolfeana, and Lactarius indigo. Edibility was the main use detected in the survey, and people harvested mushrooms provided by the forest mainly during the rainy season. We observed that mushroom searching and collection are activities that strengthen the family ties and are crucial for the transfer of this knowledge through generations. Cluster analysis separates groups according to different values in EMCSI variables, and principal components ordinate the species by frequencies (PC1) and traditions (PC2). The current state of knowledge in the studied communities is strong, especially among women, but with a

  5. Actividad antioxidante de extractos de diez basidiomicetos comestibles en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Belloso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Los antioxidantes son esenciales en el cuerpo humano para prevenir el daño oxidativo. Estas substancias pueden obtenerse de diversas fuentes como frutas, plantas y hongos. En Guatemala, diversas especies de hongos comestibles son comercializadas y consumidas, sin embargo su actividad antioxidante no ha sido documentada en el país. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad antioxidante de extractos acuosos y etanólicos obtenidos de diez especies de basidiomicetos comestibles (Agaricus aff. bisporus, Agaricus brunnescens, Armillariella polymyces, Amanita garabitoana, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus lateritius, Laccaria amethystina, Lactarius deliciosus, Neolentinus ponderosus y Pleurotus ostreatus. Se utilizó un método cualitativo por cromatografía en capa fina (CCF y tres ensayos macrométricos in vitro de cuantificación de fenoles totales, reducción del radical 1,1-difenil-2-pricrilhidrazilo (DPPH y decoloración del radical catiónico del reactivo ácido 2,2’-azinobis-(acido-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfónico (ABTS. Los extractos acuosos mostraron mayor actividad antioxidante que los extractos etanólicos en todas las técnicas cuantitativas realizadas. La especie que mostró mayor actividad antioxidante en ambos extractos fue B. edulis, cuyos resultados fueron: fenoles totales del extracto acuoso 93.46 ± 18.17 mg/g y 42.70 ± 3.48 mg/g, DPPH CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.93 mg/mL (IC95 0.65-1.28 y 2.75 mg/mL (IC95 2.46-3.07 del extracto etanólico; y en ABTS CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.96 mg/mL (IC95 0.63-1.35 y 4.13 mg/mL (IC95 2.67-5.88 del extracto etanólico. Por la actividad antioxidante de los extractos acuosos de algunas de las especies de basidiomicetos, pueden promoverse como alimentos funcionales.

  6. Results of treatment of acute liver failure patients with use of the prometheus FPSA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodzicki, M; Kotulski, M; Leonowicz, D; Zieniewicz, K; Krawczyk, M

    2009-10-01

    Herein we have presented the results of treatment of acute liver failure (ALF) patients with the use of the Prometheus FPSA dialysis system. To January 2009, we performed 278 FPSA procedures in 114 patients, including 52 experience and ALF. The patients who underwent the FPSA procedure consisted of 32 women and 20 men of overall mean age of 33 +/- 12 years. The causes of ALF were: Wilson's disease (n = 15), unknown origin ALF (n = 11), amanita phalloides intoxication (n = 7), paracetamol intoxication (n = 8), acute hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (n = 7), liver insufficiency after parenchymal resection (n = 2) drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome (n = 1), rabdomyolysis (n = 1), or primary nonfunction (PNF) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) (n = 1). All procedures were performed using the Prometheus 4008H Fresenius Medical Care liver support system. The average number of treatments per patient was 2.41 and the average time for each FPSA treatment was 6.3 hours. The average heparin dose used during the procedure was 750 IU/h. After the whole treatment regimen, we observed significant improvements in the biochemical results. The average concentrations improved: serum ammonia (before 249.2 mug/dL versus after 109.7 mug/dL); serum bilirubin (before 21.53 mg/dL versus after 8.81 mg/dL), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST; before 2456.4 U/L versus after 1068.8 U/L); serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT; before 2958.2 U/L versus after 1595.8 U/L); serum urea (before 58.5 mg/dL versus after 21.1 mg/dL); serum creatinine (before 2.9 mg/dL versus after 1.7 mg/dL); and pH value (before 7.11 versus after 7.32). After Prometheus treatment OLT was performed in 33 patients. Among the 28 who survived (53.8%), 22 underwent OLT and 6 did not have OLT. Among the 24 patients who died (46.2%), 13 were before OLT and 11 after OLT. The Prometheus 4008H Fresenius Medical Care Liver support system was useful method of

  7. Antifungal activity of macrofungi extracts on phytopathogenic fungal strains of genera Fusarium sp. and Alternaria sp.

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    Spremo Nemanja R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, intensive application of synthetic fungicides in the agricultural crop protection practice caused growing concern for the existence of toxic chemical residues in food as well as in the whole environment. Instead of using synthetic fungicides, it is suggested that crop protection be carried out by using preparations based on compounds of natural origin (secondary metabolites of plants or microorganisms, including macrofungi from Basidiomycota as biological control agents. The potential of macrofungal species as biocontrol agents was analyzed in this investigation of eight autochthonous species from different locations in Serbia. Both the terricolous species: Coprinus comatus, Coprinellus truncorum, Amanita strobiliformis, Hydnum repandum and the lignicolous species: Flammulina velutipes, Stereum subtomentosum, Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta were examined, with an aim to detect some novel sources of antifungal agents. This study surveyed antifungal activity of selected macrofungal extracts (MeOH, EtOH and CHCl3 against phytopathogenic Fusarium and Alternaria strains isolated from garlic, soybean and rice: F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, F. graminearum and A. padwickii. Microdilution method in 96 well microplates was applied for the estimation of antifungal effects of macrofungi extracts in the range from 24.75 to 198.00 mg/ml and determination of minimal inhibitory (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC. EtOH extract of mychorhizal species H. repandum showed antifungal activity against all analyzed phytopathogenic strains, with the strongest effect on Fusarium strains (MIC 24.75 mg/ml; MFC 24.75 mg/ml. Among others, MeOH extracts of S. subtomentosum and C. micaceus showed similar effects while only B. adusta showed slight effect on Fusarium strains (MIC 24.75-99.00 mg/ml; MFC 24.75-99.00 mg/ml and none effect on A. padwickii. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using

  8. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  9. Study of Silymarin and Vitamin E Protective Effects on Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity on Mice Liver Primary Cell Culture

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    Firouz Faedmaleki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine, although, only few nano products are currently in use for medical purposes. A most prominent nanoproduct is nanosilver. Nano-silver has biological properties which are significant for consumer products, food technology, textiles, and medical applications (e.g. wound care products, implantable medical devices, in diagnosis, drug delivery, and imaging. For their antibacterial activity, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are largely used in various commercially available products. The use of nano-silver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine and related applications, and due to its increasing exposure, toxicological and environmental issues need to be raised. Cytotoxicity induced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and the role that oxidative stress plays in this process were demonstrated in human hepatoma cells AgNPs agglomerated in the cytoplasm and nuclei of treated cells, and they induced intracellular oxidative stress. AgNP reduced ATP content of the cell and caused damage to mitochondria and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin was known as a hepatoprotective agent that is used in the treatment of hepatic diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver diseases, Amanita mushroom poisoning, liver cirrhosis, toxic and drug-induced liver diseases. It promotes protein synthesis, helps in regenerating liver tissue, controls inflammation, enhances glucuronidation, and protects against glutathione depletion. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant and has hepatoprotective effect in liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Ag NPs on primary liver cells of mice. Cell viability (cytotoxicity was examined with MTT assay after primary liver cells of mice exposure to AgNPs at 1, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400 ppm for 24h. AgNPs caused a concentration- dependent decrease of cell viability

  10. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nilangani N; Javellana, John; Davies, Kevin M; Lewis, David H; Jameson, Paula E; Deroles, Simon C; Calcott, Kate E; Gould, Kevin S; Schwinn, Kathy E

    2012-03-12

    Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) dioxygenases (DODs), and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA), was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato) and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria) or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora), and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis) lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA) was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin) in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction of a DOD and an enzyme capable of converting

  11. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

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    Cifuentes Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided

  12. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Nilangani N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. Results The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenases (DODs, and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA, was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora, and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. Conclusions The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction

  13. The power of example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliana Gheorghian, Mariana

    2014-05-01

    The Secondary School "Teodor Balan" was evaluated by the National Agency for Quality Assurance with the highest score in an urban area of the county, and is part of the community Gura Humorului, a tourist resort of national interest since 2005. Starting with 2006 the local government implemented a Local Plan, which promotes the concept of sustainable development adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, in 1992. Our school shares the concept of sustainable development and regularly re-evaluates the relationship between man and nature, advocates solidarity between generations, and has constantly developed various successful programs with the students, parents, teachers, and local companies and administration. Quarterly, we maintain and protect the river valley of Moldova arboretum nearby the reserve Oligocene "Stone Pine" and the natural reserve "Stone Hawk". Regarding the preservation of forests, teams of students and teachers from the school conduct activities of afforestation and greening, for the protection of birds. In order to raise public awareness about the harmful effects of radiation on the environment, my work degree in Physics, sustained in 2007, had as theme: Ionizing radiation and radiation protection. The effects of climate change and increasing temperature, as well as the extinction of species such as Amanita regalis and Tremiscus helvelloides mushrooms was studied by my biology colleague, Adriana. She obtained her Ist teaching degree in 2008, with the study "Diversity of macromycetes reported in natural ecosystems surrounding Gura Humorului". There were also organized 3 roundtables in a public awareness campaign initiated by the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change on "Integrated Nutrient Pollution Control", and the students learned to take test samples to determine water quality in wells and springs. In order to promote these activities performed by both teachers and students, we organized a National Symposium on "Life sciences at the