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Sample records for amanita

  1. Amanita viscidolutea, a new species from Brazil with a key to Central and South American species of Amanita section Amanita.

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    Menolli, Nelson; Capelari, Marina; Baseia, Iuri Goulart

    2009-01-01

    We described and illustrated Amanita viscidolutea sp. nov. from specimens collected in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern Brazil. The main characteristics of the new species are its yellow pileus with white margin, the viscidity of the pileal surface, an exannulate stipe and inamyloid basidiospores. We also present an artificial dichotomous key to Central and South American species of Amanita (subgenus Amanita) section Amanita.

  2. Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning: two syndromes.

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    Vendramin, Andreja; Brvar, Miran

    2014-11-01

    Amanita muscaria contains more excitatory ibotenic acid and less depressant muscimol compared to Amanita pantherina. In this study A. muscaria poisoned patients were more often confused (26/32, p = 0.01) and agitated (20/32, p = 0.03) compared to those poisoned with A. pantherina (8/17 and 5/17). Patients poisoned with A. pantherina were more commonly comatose (5/17) compared to those poisoned with A. muscaria (2/32) (p = 0.03). In conclusion, the so-called ibotenic or pantherina-muscaria syndrome might be divided into two subtypes.

  3. [Amanita pantherina and Amanita muscaria poisonings--pathogenesis, symptoms and treatment].

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    Tupalska-Wilczyńska, K; Ignatowicz, R; Poziemski, A; Wójcik, H; Wilczyński, G

    1997-07-01

    Amanita pantherina and Amanita muscaria are commonly occurring mushrooms in Polish forests. They contain ibotenic acid and muscimol: the substances reacting with neurotransmitter receptors in central nervous system. The ingestion of these mushrooms produces a distinctive syndrome consisting of alternating phase of drowsiness and agitation with hallucinations, and sometimes with convulsions. The diagnosis of Amanita pantherina or Amanita muscaria poisoning is established by means of mycologic investigation of gastric lavage. The treatment is only symptomatic, and the prognosis is usually good.

  4. Mineral composition of basidiomes of Amanita species.

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    Vetter, János

    2005-06-01

    Basidiomes of 43 samples of eight Amanita species were gathered from different habitats of Hungary. The mineral composition (22 elements) was analysed by the ICP method in three independent replications, and mineral compositions found as discussed and compared. The Amanita species analysed were very different in As-, Cd-, Cr-, Mo-, Mn-, Se- and mainly in V-content. Other elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Ni, Sr, Ti, Zn) occur in the basidiomes in balanced concentrations. The K and P contents have the lowest differences. Summarizing all the data (n = 43), the average mineral status of species of Amanita can be deduced. The lowest variability measured was for K and P, and the highest for chromium, nickel and vanadium. Specific, significant accumulation was found only for vanadium, due to the previously demonstrated occurrence of a binding molecule 'amavadine' in the basidiomes of A. muscaria. Remarkable Cd-levels were estimated in A. pantherina and A. muscaria (11.4 and 12.3 mg kg(-1) D.M., respectively). The higher contents of other elements (e.g. K, practically in all species; Se in A. strobiliformis) are analytical facts but, not accumulations. The mineral compositions of the ectomycorrhizal genus Amanita, of litter decomposing Agaricus and of wood decaying Trametes were compared. Some significant differences were found (AsAmanita KTrametes; PAmanita > PTrametes) but it seems that the mineral composition of the basidiomes is practically independent of the ectomycorrhizal habit. The specificities of the fungi-tree symbiotic interactions are known, and well documented (higher uptake and transport of certain elements first of all of P), however, the differences found in the mineral components are due to other factors (e.g. substrates, accumulating ability) and not to the mycorrhizal status.

  5. New species of Amanita from the eastern Himalaya and adjacent regions.

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    Yang, Zhu L; Weiß, M; Oberwinkler, F

    2004-01-01

    Four new species of Amanita, Amanita-ceae (Agaricales) are described from the eastern Himalaya and adjacent regions of southwestern China. Amanita altipes and A. parvipantherina are members of section Amanita, while A. orientifulva and A. liquii are representatives of section Vaginatae. They are compared with similar species and illustrated with line drawings.

  6. Characterization and toxicity of Amanita cokeri extract.

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    Drehmel, Dennis C; Chilton, William Scott

    2002-02-01

    The nonprotein amino acids 2-amino-3-cyclopropylbutanoic acid and 2-amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid were isolated from the mushroom Amanita cokeri. The cyclopropyl amino acid is toxic to the fungus Cercospora kikuchii, the arthropod Oncopeltus fasciatus (milk weed bug), and the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia amylovora, and Xanthomonas campestris. Toxicity to bacteria was reversible by addition of isoleucine to the medium. No toxicity was observed for 2-amino-5-chloro-4-pentenoic acid.

  7. Amatoxin and phallotoxin composition in species of the genus Amanita in Colombia: a taxonomic perspective.

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    Vargas, N; Bernal, A; Sarria, V; Franco-Molano, A; Restrepo, S

    2011-11-01

    Some species in the genus Amanita have a great variety of toxic secondary metabolites. They are characterized macroscopically by having a white spore print and free gills, and microscopically by the presence of a divergent hymenophoral trama. Some species of Amanita present in Colombia were chemically characterized by analyzing their toxin composition using HPLC. Samples were collected in oak (Quercus humboldtii) and pine (Pinus radiata) forests. Twelve species were recovered, Amanita fuligineodisca, Amanita xylinivolva, Amanita flavoconia, Amanita rubescens, Amanita bisporigera, Amanita muscaria, Amanita humboldtii, Amanita sororcula, Amanita brunneolocularis, Amanita colombiana, Amanita citrina, Amanita porphyria as well as two unreported species. Results showed that most of the analyzed species have α -amanitin in concentrations ranging from 50 ppm to 6000 ppm. Concentrations of α-amanitin in the pileus were significantly greater than in the stipe. Phalloidin and phallacidin were only present in A. bisporigera. Chromatographic profiles are proposed as an additional taxonomic tool since specific peaks with similar retention times were conserved at the species level.

  8. Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita.

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    Chaib De Mares, Maryam; Hess, Jaqueline; Floudas, Dimitrios; Lipzen, Anna; Choi, Cindy; Kennedy, Megan; Grigoriev, Igor V; Pringle, Anne

    2015-03-01

    The genus Amanita encompasses both symbiotic, ectomycorrhizal fungi and asymbiotic litter decomposers; all species are derived from asymbiotic ancestors. Symbiotic species are no longer able to degrade plant cell walls. The carbohydrate esterases family 1 (CE1s) is a diverse group of enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, including decomposition and carbon storage. CE1 genes of the ectomycorrhizal A. muscaria appear diverged from all other fungal homologues, and more similar to CE1s of bacteria, suggesting a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event. In order to test whether AmanitaCE1s were acquired horizontally, we built a phylogeny of CE1s collected from across the tree of life, and describe the evolution of CE1 genes among Amanita and relevant lineages of bacteria. CE1s of symbiotic Amanita were very different from CE1s of asymbiotic Amanita, and are more similar to bacterial CE1s. The protein structure of one CE1 gene of A. muscaria matched a depolymerase that degrades the carbon storage molecule poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Asymbiotic Amanita do not carry sequence or structural homologues of these genes. The CE1s acquired through HGT may enable novel metabolisms, or play roles in signaling or defense. This is the first evidence for the horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal fungi.

  9. [Clinical symptoms and circumastances of acute poisonings with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina)].

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    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Druzdz, Artur; Naskret, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom poisonings in Poland are quite common, especially in summer and autumn, but fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and panther cap (Amanita pantherina) are rather rare cause of these intoxications. Fly agaric is a cause of deliberate poisoning, whereas panther cap poisoning also happens accidentally. The main toxins of these two mushrooms are ibotenic acid (pantherine, agarine), muscimol, muscazone and muscaridine. The other bioactive substances are stizolobic and stizolobinic acids and aminodicarboxyethylthiopropanoic acids. All these compounds are responsible for diverse picture of intoxication. An analysis of patients with Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina poisoning hospitalized in the Poznan Departament of Toxicology revealed that symptoms occurred after 30 minutes to 2 hours with vomiting, hallucinations, restlessness, increased psychomotor drive and central nervous system depression. Other antycholinergic symptoms like tachycardia and increased blood pressure, mydriasis, dry and red skin were seen only in a few cases. Acute respiratory failure was the most dangerous symptom observed in the course of poisoning.

  10. Amanita muscaria: chemistry, biology, toxicology, and ethnomycology.

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    Michelot, Didier; Melendez-Howell, Leda Maria

    2003-02-01

    The fly agaric is a remarkable mushroom in many respects; these are its bearing, history, chemical components and the poisoning that it provokes when consumed. The 'pantherina' poisoning syndrome is characterized by central nervous system dysfunction. The main species responsible are Amanita muscaria and A. pantherina (Amanitaceae); however, some other species of the genus have been suspected for similar actions. Ibotenic acid and muscimol are the active components, and probably, some other substances detected in the latter species participate in the psychotropic effects. The use of the mushroom started in ancient times and is connected with mysticism. Current knowledge on the chemistry, toxicology, and biology relating to this mushroom is reviewed, together with distinctive features concerning this unique species.

  11. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

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    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  12. Four New Species of Amanita in Inje County, Korea.

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    Cho, Hae Jin; Park, Myung Soo; Lee, Hyun; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Jang, Yeongseon; Fong, Jonathan J; Lim, Young Woon

    2015-12-01

    Amanita (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) is one of the most well-known genera composed of poisonous mushrooms. This genus of almost 500 species is distributed worldwide. Approximately 240 macrofungi were collected through an ongoing survey of indigenous fungi of Mt. Jeombong in Inje County, Korea in 2014. Among these specimens, 25 were identified as members of Amanita using macroscopic features. Specimens were identified to the species level by microscopic features and molecular sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA. We molecularly identified 13 Amanita species, with seven species matching previously recorded species, four species (A. caesareoides, A. griseoturcosa, A. imazekii, and A. sepiacea) new to Korea, and two unknown species.

  13. Prolonged psychosis after Amanita muscaria ingestion.

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    Brvar, Miran; Mozina, Martin; Bunc, Matjaz

    2006-05-01

    Amanita muscaria has a bright red or orange cap covered with small white plaques. It contains the isoxazole derivatives ibotenic acid, muscimol and muscazone and other toxins such as muscarine. The duration of clinical manifestations after A. muscaria ingestion does not usually exceed 24 hours; we report on a 5-day paranoid psychosis after A. muscaria ingestion. A 48-year-old man, with no previous medical history, gathered and ate mushrooms he presumed to be A. caesarea. Half an hour later he started to vomit and fell asleep. He was found comatose having a seizure-like episode. On admission four hours after ingestion he was comatose, but the remaining physical and neurological examinations were unremarkable. Creatine kinase was 8.33 microkat/l. Other laboratory results and brain CT scan were normal. Toxicology analysis did not find any drugs in his blood or urine. The mycologist identified A. muscaria among the remaining mushrooms. The patient was given activated charcoal. Ten hours after ingestion, he awoke and was completely orientated; 18 hours after ingestion his condition deteriorated again and he became confused and uncooperative. Afterwards paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations appeared and persisted for five days. On the sixth day all symptoms of psychosis gradually disappeared. One year later he is not undergoing any therapy and has no symptoms of psychiatric disease. We conclude that paranoid psychosis with visual and auditory hallucinations can appear 18 hours after ingestion of A. muscaria and can last for up to five days.

  14. Horizontal transfer of carbohydrate metabolism genes into ectomycorrhizal Amanita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaib De Mares, Maryam; Hess, Jaqueline; Floudas, Dimitrios; Lipzen, Anna; Choi, Cindy; Kennedy, Megan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Pringle, Anne

    2015-01-01

    - The genus Amanita encompasses both symbiotic, ectomycorrhizal fungi and asymbiotic litter decomposers; all species are derived from asymbiotic ancestors. Symbiotic species are no longer able to degrade plant cell walls. The carbohydrate esterases family 1 (CE1s) is a diverse group of enzymes invol

  15. Diversity of macrofungal genus Russula and Amanita in Hirpora Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern Kashmir Himalayas

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    SHAUKET AHMED PALA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Mir RA. 2012. Diversity of macrofungal genus Russula and Amanita in Hirpora Wild Life Sancturary. Biodiversitas 13: 65-71. The Hirpora Wildlife Sanctuary that extends over an area of 114 km2 lies in the Pir Panjal range at a distance of 70 km in south-west of summer capital Srinagar. It is rich in biodiversity including macrofungal diversity. The Sanctuary has been subjected to high ecological and anthropogenic disturbance due to the construction of Mughal road which is major threat for its biodiversity. Since there is hardly any report of documentation of macrofungi from this sanctuary. In this back drop a survey was carried out during the year 2010 and 2011 to explore and invetorise macrofungal diversity of the sanctuary. During the survey a no of macrofungi were documented, among which Amanita and Russula were dominant genus represented by 7 species each. All the 14 species viz. Amanita ceciliae (Berk. & Broome Bas. Amanita flavoconia G.F. Atk., Amanita muscaria var. formosa Pers., Amanita pantherina (Fr. Krombh., Amanita phalloides (Fr. Link., Amanita vaginata (Bull. ex Fr. Vitt., Amanita virosa (Fr. Bertillon, Russula aeruginea Fr., Russula atropurpurea (Krombh. Britz., Russula aurea Pers., Russula cyanoxantha (Schaeff. Fr., Russula delica Fr. Russula emetica (Schaeff. ex Fr. Gray. and Russula nobilis Velen. are ectomycorrhizal in nature and among them Russula aeruginea Fr. is reported first time from the Kashmir.

  16. Toxic metabolites of Amanita pantherina, A. cothurnata, A. muscaria and other Amanita species.

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    Chilton, W S; Ott, J

    1976-01-01

    Forty-seven specimens representing 35 species or varieties of Amanita were examined for the presence of ibotenic acid, muscimol, stizolobic acid, stizolobinic acid, aminohexadienoic acid and chlorocrotylglycine. In addition, crude extracts of A. muscaria were examined chromatographically for the presence of methyltetrahydrocarboline carboxylic acid (MTC). Ibotenic acid and muscimol were found in clearly detectable concentrations in extracts of A. cothurnata, all specimens of A. muscaria, all specimens of A. pantherina and in lower concentrations in A. gemmata. Stizolobic acid and stizobinic acid were found in detectable concentrations in one variety of A. muscaria, in all specimens of A. pantherina and in trace levels after additional purification of the extracts in A. gemmata and in the remaining specimens of A. muscaria. Aminohexadienoic acid and chlorocrotylglycine were detected only in crude extracts of A. smithiana. MTC could not be detected in crude extracts of A. muscaria. Crystalline ibotenic acid (820 mg) was isolated from 17 kg of a specimen of A. pantherina collected in western Washington State.

  17. Analysis of hallucinogenic constituents in Amanita mushrooms circulated in Japan.

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    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Mohri, Hiroyuki; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko; Gohda, Akinaga; Fukushima, Sunao; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kishi, Tohru

    2006-12-20

    The constituents of seven mushrooms sold as Amanita muscaria or Amanita pantherina (five A. muscaria and two A. pantherina) and four "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products that are currently circulated in Japan were determined. All mushroom samples were identified as A. muscaria or A. pantherina by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The dissociative constituents, ibotenic acid (IBO) and muscimol (MUS), were extracted with 70% methanol twice and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The IBO (as the hydrate)/MUS contents were in the range of muscaria and 188-269ppm/1554-1880ppm in the cap of A. pantherina. In the caps, these compounds had a tendency to be more concentrated in the flesh than in the cuticle. On the other hand, the IBO/MUS contents in the stem were far lower than in the caps. In the "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products, IBO/MUS were detected below the lower limit of calibration curve (Amanita mushrooms that are circulated in the drug market.

  18. In vitro mycorrhization and acclimatization of Amanita caesareoides and its relatives on Pinus densiflora.

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    Endo, Naoki; Gisusi, Seiki; Fukuda, Masaki; Yamada, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Amanita caesareoides is a sister species of Amanita caesarea, also known as Caesar's mushroom and one of the most desirable edible mycorrhizal mushrooms. However, cultivation of Caesar's mushrooms has not yet been successful due to the difficulties involved in establishing pure cultures. In this study, we established pure cultures of four Asian Caesar's mushroom species, i.e., A. caesareoides, Amanita javanica, Amanita esculenta, and Amanita similis, which were identified by sequence analysis of their rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Five selected isolates in A. caesareoides, A. javanica, and A. esculenta were tested for ectomycorrhizal syntheses with axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal tips of each fungal isolate tested were observed on pine lateral roots within 5 months of inoculation. Seventeen pine seedlings that formed ectomycorrhizas in vitro with these three Amanita species were acclimatized under non-sterile conditions. Seven months following acclimatization, ectomycorrhizal colonization by A. caesareoides was observed on newly grown root tips, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the fungal rDNA ITS region. Two other Amanita species also survived during ectomycorrhizal acclimatization. These results suggest that the cultivation of A. caesareoides and its relatives can be attempted through mycorrhizal synthesis using P. densiflora as a host. This is the first report of in vitro mycorrhization of Asian Caesar's mushrooms and their acclimatization under non-sterile conditions.

  19. Ethnomyocological data from Siberia and North-East Asia on the effect of Amanita muscaria.

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    Saar, M

    1991-02-01

    The paper includes literary data on the use of Amanita muscaria in Siberia and North-East Asia as well as information collected from ethnographers investigating these areas during the past decades. A survey is given on the cases and rules of Amanita muscaria consumption and the ways of its administration. The peoples having the tradition of Amanita muscaria consumption were aware of its different psychotrophic qualities and were able to use for several purposes. The fungus has been used by them as a psychostimulant having a simultaneous effect on several psychic functions.

  20. Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) poisoning, case report and review.

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    Satora, Leszek; Pach, Dorota; Butryn, Beata; Hydzik, Piotr; Balicka-Slusarczyk, Barbara

    2005-06-01

    Gathering and eating mushrooms and other plants containing psychoactive substances has become increasingly popular among young people experimenting with drugs. Dried fly agaric Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies were eaten by five young persons (18-21 years of age) at a party in order to evoke hallucinations. Visual and auditory hallucinations occurred in four of them, whereas a 18-year-old girl lost consciousness. The following morning, she went to the Clinic of Toxicology. Due to the fact that not all the active substances present in the fly agaric have been identified, and some of them have an effect after a period of latency, the patient was admitted for several days of observation during which check-up examinations were performed. After four days without any problems, she was discharged. The poisoning regressed with no organ complications. The remaining persons who had eaten the fly agaric were free from any complaints.

  1. Mushroom poisoning in infants and children: the Amanita pantherina/muscaria group.

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    Benjamin, D R

    1992-01-01

    The clinical features and management of nine cases of mushroom poisoning due to Amanita pantherina (eight cases) and Amanita muscaria (one case) admitted to a children's hospital are described. Most ingestions were in the toddler age group with males being more frequently involved. Symptoms occurred between 30-180 min with the onset of central nervous system depression, ataxia, waxing and waning obtundation, hallucinations, intermittent hysteria or hyperkinetic behavior. Vomiting was rare. Seizures or myoclonic twitching occurred in 4/9 patients, but was controlled with standard anticonvulsant therapy. No other anticholinergic or cholinergic signs were prominent. Recovery was rapid and complete in all patients.

  2. Revisiting Wasson's Soma: exploring the effects of preparation on the chemistry of Amanita muscaria.

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    Feeney, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    In 1968 R. Gordon Wasson first proposed his groundbreaking theory identifying Soma, the hallucinogenic sacrament of the Vedas, as the Amanita muscaria mushroom. While Wasson's theory has garnered acclaim, it is not without its faults. One omission in Wasson's theory is his failure to explain how pressing and filtering Soma, as described in the Rig Veda, supports his theory of Soma's identity. Several critics have reasoned that such preparation should be unnecessary if equivalent results can be obtained by consuming the raw plant, as is done with other psychoactive mushrooms. In order to address these specific criticisms over 600 anecdotal accounts of Amanita muscaria inebriation were collected and analyzed to determine the impact of preparation on Amanita muscaria's effects. The findings of this study demonstrated that the effects of Amanita muscaria were related to the type of preparation employed, and that its toxic effects were considerably reduced by preparations that paralleled those described for Soma in the Rig Veda. While unlikely to end debate over the identity of Soma, this study's findings help to solidify the foundation of Wasson's theory, and also to demonstrate the importance of preparation in understanding and uncovering the true identity of Soma.

  3. Evaluation of aluminum and silicon accumulation on species of genus Amanita depending on soil characteristics

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    Campos Gallego, Juan Antonio; García Moreno, Rosario

    2010-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, as different species of the Genus Amanita, have the potential to attack the mineral particles of soil, especially clay, and actively mobilize and translocate plant nutrients, as well as toxic elements, from minerals. At field conditions, the mineral composition of the bed rock and texture could determine which elements are going to be released to the environment and the relative amounts of each specific substance. In this sense, the study of the relationship of ectomycorrizal fungi and soils is of great importance since the uptake of substances could determine potential toxicity on soil biota. In order to evaluate the potential relationship between substrate and fungi, the authors studied aluminum and silicon content found in seven different species of mycorrhizal fungi of the Genus Amanita. The sampling areas were located in the forest area of the region of Ciudad Real, Centre Region of Spain. All sampling locations had in common a quartzite acid substrate but with differences in texture and shale content. As regards the relationship of fungi with inorganic substrate, the relative presence of the clay is of great importance since they are easily altered by the acid attack of fungi. The results indicated large fluctuations in content of aluminum and silicon among the different species of Amanita and sampling locations. The mean values of concentrations in the studied fungi species ranged between 0.243 g kg 1and 2.240 g kg 1for aluminum and between 0.550 g kg 1 and 6.493 g kg 1for silicon. The highest values for the accumulation of aluminium were found for Amanita citrina, while Amanita phalloides showed the highest concentration in silicon. Both species were collected in the area of Saceruela, which possess the highest sand content and the predominant mineral content is quartzite. The results showed that the content of silicon and aluminum found in different Amanita species was highly significant correlated to the texture and silicon content

  4. Mannitol in Amanita muscaria--an osmotic blood-brain barrier disruptor enhancing its hallucinogenic action?

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    Maciejczyk, E; Kafarski, P

    2013-11-01

    Hypothesis have been made that relatively high level of mannitol present in the tissues of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) enables more efficient transportation of these active substances into the brain and thus enhance their total activity. It may have been supported by the fact that hallucinogenic effect after A. muscaria consumption is greater than after ingestion of an active substance quantity which the eaten fungi dose contain.

  5. Release and dispersal of basidiospores from Amanita muscaria var. alba and their infiltration into a residence.

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    Li, De-Wei

    2005-11-01

    Release and dispersal of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba and their potential to infiltrate a nearby residence were investigated. Basidiospore release mainly occurred in the first three days following the expansion of the caps. The concentrations of released basidiospores near basidiomata were 77 137, 75 062, and 41 738 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively, with the highest concentration at 281 738 spores m(-3) air. After three days, the concentration dropped by 95%. At the second location, airborne basidiospore concentrations dropped 96-99% after three days with the concentrations of 940, 575, and 1359 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively. The diurnal pattern showed a relatively extended night peak. Relative humidity and dew were positively correlated with basidiospore release and short distance dispersal. Rain and rain rate were positively correlated with basidiospore release, but not correlated with short distance dispersal. The basidiospore release period of Amanita muscaria var. alba was short, but within such a period it released a large amount of basidiospores. However, only less than 5% of basidiospores released were dispersed to the second location 5.2 m away and 2.7 m above the basidiomata. Only Amanita muscaria var. alba showed a low potential of infiltrating the residence.

  6. El género Amanita Pers. ex Hooker en la provincia de León

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    Sánchez Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Andrés Rodríguez, J.; García Prieto, O.; Terrón Alfonso, Arsenio; Llamas Frade, Basilio; Arrojo Martín, Eduardo; Pérez Jarauta, Tomás

    1991-01-01

    Se citan 23 taxa del género Amanita en la provincia de León (Noroeste de España).Se acompaña una clave para su determinación, su distribución provincial, ecología, así como su relación con las series de vegetación. Twenty three taxa of genus Amanita in León province (NW Spain) are quoted.An identification key of all these taxa is provided, as well as their provincial distribution, ecology and their relation with the vegetation series

  7. Variation in nitrogen source utilisation by nine Amanita muscaria genotypes from Australian Pinus radiata plantations.

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    Sawyer, Nicole A; Chambers, Susan M; Cairney, John W G

    2003-08-01

    The abilities of nine genotypes of Amanita muscaria (L.:Fr) Pers. to utilise a range of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources for growth was examined in axenic liquid cultures. Considerable intraspecific variation was observed in biomass yields on all substrates; however biomass yield was highest on glutamine and/or NH4+ for all genotypes. Yields on aspartic acid, glutamic acid and histidine were generally low relative to NH4+, while utilisation of arginine and glycine showed marked variation between genotypes. Eight genotypes produced significantly less biomass on bovine serum albumin than on NH4+, raising questions regarding classification of A. muscaria as a 'protein fungus'.

  8. Taxonomic studies of Amanita muscaria (L. Lam (Amanitaceae, Agaricomycetes and its infraspecific taxa in Brazil

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    Felipe Wartchow

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed specimens identified as Amanita muscaria, some recently collected and others already deposited in herbaria, in Brazil. We concluded that two subspecies of A. muscaria occur in Brazil: A. muscaria var. muscaria; and A.muscaria var. flavivolvata. The first taxon was found in association with Castanea sativa, and the second (one specimen only was found in association with Pinus and Eucalyptus spp. Morphologically, A. muscaria var. flavivolvata is distinguished by a shallower subhymenium and by basidiospores that are more elongated than are those of A. muscaria var. muscaria, which is the more widely known subspecies. We present descriptions, discussions, illustrations and a dichotomous key for these two subspecies.

  9. GC/MS determination of ibotenic acid and muscimol in the urine of patients intoxicated with Amanita pantherina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stříbrný, Jan; Sokol, Miloš; Merová, Barbora; Ondra, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Ibotenic acid and muscimol are substances which mostly participate in psychotropic properties of Amanita pantherina and Amanita muscaria. They are rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and readily excreted in urine. The poisoning with A. pantherina is in the majority of cases accidental because it can be easily mistaken for the edible species (Amanita rubescens, Amanita spissa and Macrolepiota procera). Intoxication with A. muscaria is mostly intentional for recreational purposes. Prognosis of the poisoning is generally good; lethal cases are rare. Mushroom poisoning is often proved by microscopic examination of spores in the stomach or intestinal content. Authors of this article introduce an instrumental method of proving A. pantherina or A. muscaria poisoning. The article describes the isolation of ibotenic acid and muscimol from urine, the derivatization step and the determination of these compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Isolation of these alkaloids from urine was performed on a strong cation exchanger (Dowex® 50W X8), and the elution and derivatization of the alkaloids were made in one step with ethyl chloroformate in aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide with the addition of ethanol and pyridine. Cycloserine was used as internal standard. By this method, concentrations of ibotenic acid and muscimol in the urine of four persons intoxicated with A. pantherina were determined. In this study, mass spectra of derivatized ibotenic acid and muscimol are shown, and validation of the method is described.

  10. Amanita fuliginea Hongo and Its Ecological Properties%灰花纹鹅膏菌及其生态习性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹福祥; 张志光; 张晓元; 陈作红

    2001-01-01

    灰花纹鹅膏菌Amanita fuliginea Hongo的 分类地位和生态习性国内一直没有详细报道.用形态解剖、HPLC和种群生态学研究方法对其 研究表明:日本学者Hongo对该菌的分类是正确的;它的毒素含量与欧洲的主要种毒鹅膏菌 Amanita phalloides (Fr.∶ Fr.)Link毒素含量相当,甚至更高.湘东湘南丘陵针栎混 交林非常适宜该菌生长发育与演化.%The classification and ecological properties of Amanita fuliginea Hongo have not been reported in China before now. By using methods of morphology and HPLC and population ecology, A. fuliginea Hongo a re investigated. The research shows that Japanese Hongo's classification for this species is correct. It's toxius quantity is as same as that of A. phalloi des (Fr∶Fr) Link, that is a main species of Europe,even is more. The pine and oak mixed forest of low mountain areas in east south of Hunan Province is suit able for growth and development of Amanita fuliginea Hongo.

  11. Accumulation of metallic elements by Amanita muscaria from rural lowland and industrial upland regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Krzysztof; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-03-04

    This study was carried out on the accumulation and occurrence of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sr and Zn in the mushroom Amanita muscaria and forest topsoil from two lowland sites in the Tuchola Pinewoods in the north-central region and an upland site in the Świetokrzyskie Mountains in the south-central region of Poland. Topsoil from the upland location showed Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Na and Zn at significantly higher concentration levels (pseudo-total fraction and often also the labile or extractable fraction) than at both lowland locations, where topsoil was richer in Mg, and similar in Rb. Amanita muscaria from the upland region differed from individuals collected in the lowland sites by higher concentration levels of Cd, Cu, Hg and Mn in caps. This could be related to higher concentration levels of the metallic elements in topsoil in the upland region. On other side, A. muscaria from the upland site was poorer in Co and Fe in caps, and in Ca, Co, Fe and Sr in stipes. In spite of the differences in content of the geogenic metallic elements in topsoil between the lowland and upland locations, A. muscaria from both regions was able to regulate uptake and accumulation of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Rb and Zn, which were at similar concentration levels in caps but not necessarily in stipes.

  12. Characterisation of ectomycorrhizal formation by the exotic fungus Amanita muscaria with Nothofagus cunninghamii in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunk, Christopher William; Lebel, Teresa; Keane, Philip J

    2012-02-01

    The occurrence of the exotic ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mixed Nothofagus-Eucalyptus native forest was investigated to determine if A. muscaria has switched hosts to form a successful association with a native tree species in a natural environment. A mycorrhizal morphotype consistently found beneath A. muscaria sporocarps was examined, and a range of morphological and anatomical characteristics in common with those described for ectomycorrhizae formed by A. muscaria on a broad range of hosts were observed. A full description is provided. The likely plant associate was determined to be Nothofagus cunninghamii based upon anatomy of the roots. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the identities of both fungal and plant associates. These findings represent conclusive evidence of the invasion of a non-indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungus into native forest and highlight the ecological implications of this discovery.

  13. Especies tóxicas de Agaricales halladas en la Argentina: nueva cita de Amanita pantherina y reevaluación de la comestibilidad de Tricholoma equestre Poisonous species of Agaricales found in Argentina: new record of Amanita pantherina and revaluation of the edibility of Tricholoma equestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo E. Lechner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Si bien los hongos comestibles en la Argentina no constituyen una parte importante de la dieta, algunas personas colectan y consumen especies silvestres. Esto ha ocasionado en los últimos años la intoxicación de un número importante de adultos y niños. En el presente trabajo se cita por primera vez para la Argentina el hongo tóxico Amanita pantherina, se describen las colecciones halladas y se provee una clave para la determinación de las especies de Amanita Secc. Amanita. A su vez se describe y se reevalúa la comestibilidad de Tricholoma equestre causante de un nuevo síndrome de intoxicación, por lo cual fue recientemente prohibido en varios países de la comunidad Europea.Mushrooms are not usually included in the traditional eating habits of the Argentinean population. Nevertheless, there are some people that consume wild species. This practice has caused poisoning to important number of adults and children over the last years. In the present paper we describe the poisonous mushroom Amanita pantherina as a new record for Argentina and we provide a key for the identification of the species of Amanita belonging to Secc. Amanita found in our country. We also describe and explain a new poisoning syndrome caused by Tricholoma equestre. This species was recently prohibited in some countries of Europe.

  14. Determination of muscimol and ibotenic acid in Amanita mushrooms by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Kishi, Tohru

    2007-06-01

    A reliable analytical method was developed for the quantification and identification of muscimol (MUS) and ibotenic acid (IBO), the toxic constituents of Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina. MUS and IBO were extracted from mushrooms by aqueous methanol and derivatized with dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl). After extraction with ethyl acetate and evaporation of the solvent, the residue was ethylated with 1.25 M hydrogen chloride in ethanol. The resulting derivatives were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and identified by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Calibration curves were linear in the range of 25-2500 ppm for MUS and 40-2500 ppm for IBO, respectively. This method was successfully applied to identify and quantify MUS and IBO in Amanita mushrooms naturally grown and circulated in the drug market.

  15. Fucomannogalactan and glucan from mushroom Amanita muscaria: structure and inflammatory pain inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthes, Andrea Caroline; Carbonero, Elaine R; Córdova, Marina Machado; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gorin, Philip Albert James; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Iacomini, Marcello

    2013-10-15

    A fucomannogalactan (FMG-Am) and a (1→3), (1→6)-linked β-D-glucan (βGLC-Am) were isolated from Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies. These compounds' structures were determined using mono- and bi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis, and controlled Smith degradation. FMG-Am was shown to be a heterogalactan formed by a (1→6)-linked α-D-galactopyranosyl main chain partially substituted at O-2 mainly by α-L-fucopyranose and a minor proportion of β-D-mannopyranose non-reducing end units. βGLC-Am was identified as a (1→3)-linked β-D-glucan partially substituted at O-6 by mono- and a few oligosaccharide side chains, which was confirmed after controlled Smith degradation. Both the homo- and heteropolysaccharide were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential, and they produced potent inhibition of inflammatory pain, specifically, 91±8% (30 mg kg(-1)) and 88±7% (10 mg kg(-1)), respectively.

  16. Theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupka, Teobald; Wieczorek, Piotr P.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report results of combined theoretical and experimental NMR studies on muscimol, the bioactive alkaloid from fly agaric mushroom (Amanita muscaria). The assignment of 1H and 13C NMR spectra of muscimol in DMSO-d6 was supported by additional two-dimensional heteronuclear correlated spectra (2D NMR) and gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The effect of solvent in theoretical calculations was included via polarized continuum model (PCM) and the hybrid three-parameter B3LYP density functional in combination with 6-311++G(3df,2pd) basis set enabled calculation of reliable structures of non-ionized (neutral) molecule and its NH and zwitterionic forms in the gas phase, chloroform, DMSO and water. GIAO NMR calculations, using equilibrium and rovibrationally averaged geometry, at B3LYP/6-31G* and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ-J levels of theory provided muscimol nuclear magnetic shieldings. The theoretical proton and carbon chemical shifts were critically compared with experimental NMR spectra measured in DMSO. Our results provide useful information on its structure in solution. We believe that such data could improve the understanding of basic features of muscimol at atomistic level and provide another tool in studies related to GABA analogs.

  17. Carbon allocation in ectomycorrhizas: identification and expression analysis of an Amanita muscaria monosaccharide transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, U; Wiese, J; Guttenberger, M; Hampp, R

    1998-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizas are formed between certain soil fungi and fine roots of predominantly woody plants. An important feature of this symbiosis is the supply of plant-derived carbohydrates to the fungus. As a first step toward a better understanding of the molecular basis of this process, we cloned a monosaccharide transporter from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed to match conserved regions from known fungal sugar transporters. A cDNA fragment of the transporter was obtained from mycorrhizal mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This fragment was used to identify a clone (AmMst1) encoding the entire monosaccharide transporter in a Picea abies/A. muscaria mycorrhizal cDNA library. The cDNA codes for an open reading frame of 520 amino acids, showing best homology to a Neurospora crassa monosaccharide transporter. The function of AmMST1 as monosaccharide transporter was confirmed by heterologous expression of the cDNA in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant lacking a monosaccharide uptake system. AmMst1 was constitutively expressed in fungal hyphae under all growth conditions. Nevertheless, in mycorrhizas as well as in hyphae grown at monosaccharide concentrations above 5 mM, the amount of AmMst1 transcript increased fourfold. We therefore suggest that AmMst1 is upregulated in ectomycorrhizas by a monosaccharide-controlled mechanism.

  18. Investigation of horizontal gene transfer in poplar/Amanita muscaria ectomycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Hampp, Rüdiger; Nehls, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    Fine roots of forest trees form together with certain soil fungi symbiotic structures (ectomycorrhizas), where fungal hyphae are in intimate contact with plant cells. Due to root cell degeneration, plant DNA is released and could be taken up by the fungus. The possibility that horizontal gene transfer might result in a risk for the environment should be evaluated before a massive release of genetically engineered trees into nature occurs, even though only a few convincing examples of horizontal gene transfer are known. Transgenic poplars containing a construct of the Streptomyces hygroscopicus bar gene under the control of the Cochliobolus heterostrophus GPD (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) promoter were generated by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The functionality of this construct in the ectomycorrhizal model fungus Amanita muscaria was previously verified by protoplast-based fungal transformation. 35,000 ectomycorrhizas, formed between transgenic poplars and non-transgenic A. muscaria hyphae, were isolated and transferred to selective agar plates. Putative herbicide-resistant fungal colonies were obtained after the first round of selection. However, none of these colonies survived a transfer onto fresh selection medium, nor did they contain the bar gene, indicating that no horizontal gene transfer from poplar to A. muscaria occurred during symbiosis under axenic conditions. However, since ectomycorrhizas are associated under natural conditions with viruses, bacteria and other fungi, these additional associations should be evaluated in future.

  19. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the widely distributed Amanita species, A. muscaria and A. pantherina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takashi; Tanaka, Chihiro; Tsuda, Mitsuya

    2004-08-01

    The molecular phylogeny and biogeography of two widely distributed Amanita species, A. muscaria and A. pantherina, were studied based on specimens from diverse localities. Analyses of both a partial sequence of the ITS region of nuclear DNA and a partial sequence of the beta-tubulin gene were able to resolve specimens of each species. Analyses revealed a greater divergence of the beta-tubulin region than the ITS region. Based on molecular phylogeny of the combination of the ITS and beta-tubulin regions, A. muscaria could be separated into at least three groups (Eurasian, Eurasian subalpine, and North American), and A. pantherina could be separated into at least two groups (North American and Eurasian). We hypothesize that the speciation of A. muscaria occurred in Eurasia with subsequent migration to North America via land bridges. However, it is impossible to determine whether A. pantherina moved from Eurasia to North America or vice versa. For both A. muscaria and A. pantherina, the intracontinental relationships of both Eurasia and North America were closer than the relationships between eastern Asia and eastern North America.

  20. Mercury and its bioconcentration factors in fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) from spatially distant sites in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Lipka, K; Mazur, A

    2007-09-01

    Total mercury content has been determined in the fruiting bodies of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and topsoil layer (0-10 cm) collected from 14 spatially distant sites across Poland. Mercury was measured by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) after nitric acid (mushrooms) or nitric acid and sulfuric acid (soil) digestion of the samples. The caps, depending on the site, contained total mercury at mean concentrations from 0.24+/-0.13 to 1.4+/-0.6 microg/g dm (median 0.19-1.4 microg/g dm), and stalks from 0.18+/-0.06 to 0.71+/-0.26 microg/g dm (median 0.18-0.67 microg/g dm). An overall-mean the total mercury content for 204 caps and stalks was, respectively, 0.73+/-0.55 (0.05-3.3 microg/g dm) and 0.43+/-0.33 (0.09-2.3 microg/g dm).

  1. Antamanide, a derivative of Amanita phalloides, is a novel inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore.

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    Luca Azzolin

    Full Text Available Antamanide is a cyclic decapeptide derived from the fungus Amanita phalloides. Here we show that antamanide inhibits the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, a central effector of cell death induction, by targeting the pore regulator cyclophilin D. Indeed, (i permeability transition pore inhibition by antamanide is not additive with the cyclophilin D-binding drug cyclosporin A, (ii the inhibitory action of antamanide on the pore requires phosphate, as previously shown for cyclosporin A; (iii antamanide is ineffective in mitochondria or cells derived from cyclophilin D null animals, and (iv abolishes CyP-D peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Permeability transition pore inhibition by antamanide needs two critical residues in the peptide ring, Phe6 and Phe9, and is additive with ubiquinone 0, which acts on the pore in a cyclophilin D-independent fashion. Antamanide also abrogates mitochondrial depolarization and the ensuing cell death caused by two well-characterized pore inducers, clotrimazole and a hexokinase II N-terminal peptide. Our findings have implications for the comprehension of cyclophilin D activity on the permeability transition pore and for the development of novel pore-targeting drugs exploitable as cell death inhibitors.

  2. Mercury in fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: Fr.) Pers. collected from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J.; Lipka, K.

    2003-05-01

    Total mercury concentrations were determined in the fruiting bodies of Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria (L.: FL) Pers. and underlying soil substrate collected from several sites in Poland in 1993-2000 to evaluate mercury status as contaminant and bioindicating features of this species. The samples were collected from the spatially distant sites such as: Zaborski Landscape Park, Mierzeja Wiślana Landscape Park, Wdzydzki Landscape Park, Borecka Forest, Tucholskie Forest, Wieluńska Upland, the communities of Gubin, Manowo, Lubiana and Morag. Total mercury content of caps and stalks of Fly agaric varied widely depending on the sites examined. The range of the mean mercury concentrations for all 17 sites was between 96±10 and 1900±1400 ng/g dry wt for the caps and between 6l±32 and 920±760 ng/g dry wt for the stalks, while between 4.4±3.1 and 150±20 ng/g were noted for soil substrate samples from 9 sites examined. Fly agaric independently of the site examined showed relatively good capacity to accumulate total mercury and BCF values varied between 16±10 and 74±15 for the caps and between 11±8 and 42±10 for the stalks. Nevertheless, relatively high bioconcentration potential of mercury by Fly agaric seems to be specific for that species and under soil mercury concentrations noted no bioindication properties of this mushroom could be observed.

  3. 我国的几种剧毒鹅膏菌%Deadly Poisonous Amanitae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨祝良

    2002-01-01

    @@ 在鹅膏属(Amanita)真菌中,有的是重要的食用菌,有的有一定的毒性但误食并不致命,而有的则是剧毒的,误食常会危及生命.绿盖鹅膏[A.phalloides(Fr.)Link.]、春生鹅膏[A.verna(Bull.:Fr.)Lamarck]和鳞柄鹅膏[A.virosa(Fr.)Bertillon]就是著名的致死性毒菌,最初描述于欧洲,在欧洲许多国家都较常见,如笔者在德国南部的欧洲水青冈[Fagus sylvatica L.]林下就曾多次采到绿盖毒鹅膏菌.如同在其它地区一样,每年在欧洲都有误食毒菌而中毒死亡的记录,其中大都是因误食此三种毒菌所致.这是因为这些鹅膏中含有丰富的鹅膏毒肽(amatoxins)、鬼笔毒肽(phallotoxins)或毒伞素(virotoxins)等三大类肽类毒素,它们对肝脏和肾脏有强烈的破坏作用.

  4. Microanalysis characterization of bioactive protein-bound polysaccharides produced by Amanita ponderosa cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Cátia; Martins, M Rosário; Caldeira, A Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Different compounds of edible mushrooms are responsible for their bioactivity. The ability to synthesize polysaccharides, namely protein-polysaccharide (PPS) complexes, is related to the antioxidant capacity of these compounds and present great interest in preventing a number of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular and auto-immune diseases, and accelerated aging. Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in Mediterranean "montado" areas [Portuguese name given to cork oak (Quercus suber) and holm oak (Quercus ilex) forests]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of PPS complexes obtained from A. ponderosa cultures using a new microanalytical approach to quickly and easily monitor the production process. Microanalysis using Fourier-transform infrared using attenuated total reflection and Raman spectroscopy of PPS samples showed spectra compatible with identification of this type of compound in culture extracts. PPS separated by size-exclusion chromatography showed seven main complexes. Molecular weights of the main PPS complexes isolated from cultures ranged between 1.5 and 20 kDa and did not present toxicity against Artemia salina, demonstrating the potential of A. ponderosa as a source of biologically active compounds with nutraceutical value. Application of this microanalytical approach to monitoring the production of PPS compounds can be successfully applied in biotechnological processes.

  5. N2-(1-Methoxycarbonylethyl)guanosine, a new nucleoside coupled with an amino acid derivative from Amanita exitialis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Lang Chi; Hui Ye Zhang; Jing Hua Xue; Jing Hao; Mei Fang Liu; Xiao Yi Wei

    2009-01-01

    A new purine nucleoside coupled with an amino acid derivative, N2-(1-methoxycarbonylethyl)guanosine 1, along with βearboline and russulaceramide was isolated from the fruiting bodies ofAmanita exitialis, a newly described poisonous mushroom. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. This is the first report of naturally occurring nucleosides in which an α-amino acid derivative is bonded through its a-amino nitrogen to a nucleobase aglycone by a C-N bond. The new compound was found to be toxic in brine shrimp lethality test (BST).

  6. Beringian origins and cryptic speciation events in the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, J; Laursen, G A; O'neill, K; Nusbaum, H C; Taylor, D L

    2006-01-01

    Amanita muscaria sensu lato has a wide geographic distribution, occurring in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and North, Central and South America. Previous phylogenetic work by others indicates three geographic clades (i.e. 'Eurasian', 'Eurasian-alpine' and 'North American' groups) within A. muscaria. However, the historical dispersal patterns of A. muscaria remained unclear. In our project, we collected specimens from arctic, boreal and humid temperate regions in Alaska, and generated DNA sequence data from the protein-coding beta-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) regions of the ribosomal DNA repeat. Homologous sequences from additional A. muscaria isolates were downloaded from GenBank. We conducted phylogenetic and nested clade analyses (NCA) to reveal the phylogeographic history of the species complex. Although phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of the three above-mentioned clades, representatives of all three groups were found to occur sympatrically in Alaska, suggesting that they represent cryptic phylogenetic species with partially overlapping geographic distributions rather than being allopatric populations. All phylogenetic species share at least two morphological varieties with other species, suggesting ancestral polymorphism in pileus and wart colour pre-dating their speciations. The ancestral population of A. muscaria likely evolved in the Siberian-Beringian region and underwent fragmentation as inferred from NCA and the coalescent analyses. The data suggest that these populations later evolved into species, expanded their range in North America and Eurasia. In addition to range expansions, populations of all three species remained in Beringia and adapted to the cooling climate.

  7. A breakthrough on Amanita phalloides poisoning: an effective antidotal effect by polymyxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juliana; Costa, Vera Marisa; Carvalho, Alexandra T P; Silvestre, Ricardo; Duarte, José Alberto; Dourado, Daniel F A R; Arbo, Marcelo D; Baltazar, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Baptista, Paula; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix

    2015-12-01

    Amanita phalloides is responsible for more than 90 % of mushroom-related fatalities, and no effective antidote is available. α-Amanitin, the main toxin of A. phalloides, inhibits RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), causing hepatic and kidney failure. In silico studies included docking and molecular dynamics simulation coupled to molecular mechanics with generalized Born and surface area method energy decomposition on RNAP II. They were performed with a clinical drug that shares chemical similarities to α-amanitin, polymyxin B. The results show that polymyxin B potentially binds to RNAP II in the same interface of α-amanitin, preventing the toxin from binding to RNAP II. In vivo, the inhibition of the mRNA transcripts elicited by α-amanitin was efficiently reverted by polymyxin B in the kidneys. Moreover, polymyxin B significantly decreased the hepatic and renal α-amanitin-induced injury as seen by the histology and hepatic aminotransferases plasma data. In the survival assay, all animals exposed to α-amanitin died within 5 days, whereas 50 % survived up to 30 days when polymyxin B was administered 4, 8, and 12 h post-α-amanitin. Moreover, a single dose of polymyxin B administered concomitantly with α-amanitin was able to guarantee 100 % survival. Polymyxin B protects RNAP II from inactivation leading to an effective prevention of organ damage and increasing survival in α-amanitin-treated animals. The present use of clinically relevant concentrations of an already human-use-approved drug prompts the use of polymyxin B as an antidote for A. phalloides poisoning in humans.

  8. Distribution of mercury in Amanita fulva (Schaeff.) Secr. mushrooms: Accumulation, loss in cooking and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Drewnowska, Małgorzata

    2015-05-01

    Representative individual specimens and pooled samples of carpophores of edible wild-grown fungus Amanita fulva (Schaeff.) Secr. and forest topsoil layer (0-10 cm) beneath the carpophores were collected from 15 spatially distant places in Poland and examined for total Hg. The median values of Hg in soils for most of the sites were below 0.05 mgkg(-1) dry matter. The ability of fungus A. fulva to bioconcentrate Hg was low (BCF, bioconcentration factor values of 1.2-3.6 for caps and 0.66-1.7 for stipes) at five sites that showed Hg in soils ranging from 0.066 to 0.21 mgkg(-1) dry matter, while much higher bioconcentration (BCF of 11-25 for caps and 7.0-12 for stipes) were observed for less contaminated soils with Hg contents of 0.018-0.054mgkg(-1) dry matter. Differences were also observed in Hg contamination of A. fulva from spatially and distantly distributed sites, and the median values (mgkg(-1) dry matter) ranged from 0.13 to 0.67 for caps and from 0.065 to 0.34 for stipes, while 0.63mgkg(-1) dry matter was observed in a set of whole fruiting bodies. Boiling of fresh A. fulva for 10min reduced the Hg content by 10%. A meal of A. fulva containing 0.065mgkg(-1) of Hg in the fresh mushroom product will not result in exceeding the reference dose set for inorganic Hg and for majority of the sites assessed (>90%) intake was substantially lower than the reference dose or the provisional tolerable weekly intake of inorganic Hg.

  9. Ectomycorrhiza-mediated repression of the high-affinity ammonium importer gene AmAMT2 in Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Anita; Weiss, Michael; Nehls, Uwe

    2007-02-01

    A main function of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between certain soil fungi and fine roots of woody plants, is the exchange of plant-derived carbohydrates for fungus-derived nutrients. As it is required in large amounts, nitrogen is of special interest. A gene (AmAMT2) coding for a putative fungal ammonium importer was identified in an EST project of functional Amanita muscaria/poplar ectomycorrhizas. Heterologous expression of the entire AmAMT2 coding region in yeast revealed the corresponding protein to be a high-affinity ammonium importer. In axenically grown Amanita hyphae AmAMT2 expression was strongly repressed by nitrogen, independent of whether the offered nitrogen source was transported by AmAMT2 or not. In functional ectomycorrhizas the AmAMT2 transcript level was further decreased in both hyphal networks (sheath and Hartig net), while extraradical hyphae revealed strong gene expression. Together our data suggest that (1) AmAMT2 expression is regulated by the endogenous nitrogen content of hyphae and (2) fungal hyphae in ectomycorrhizas are well supported with nitrogen even when the extraradical mycelium is nitrogen limited. As a consequence of AmAMT2 repression in mycorrhizas, ammonium can be suggested as a potential nitrogen source delivered by fungal hyphae in symbiosis.

  10. Diversidad del género Amanita en dos áreas con diferente condición silvícola en Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca, México Diversity of the genus Amanita in two areas with different forestry management in Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Emmanuel Villanueva-Jiménez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad de especies de Amanita presentes en dos áreas de bosque de Pinus-Quercus con diferente manejo silvícola en la comunidad de Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca. Las recolectas se realizaron durante una temporada de lluvias, obteniéndose un total de 107 ejemplares que corresponden a 36 especies, de las cuales 21 pertenecen al subgénero Amanita y 15 al subgénero Lepidella; 14 nuevos registros son para el estado de Oaxaca y 19 para la comunidad de Ixtlán en particular. La abundancia de especies estuvo correlacionada con la precipitación y condiciones ecológicas. 20 especies fructificaron sólo una vez; las más frecuentes fueron Amanita flavoconia var. inquinata , A. flavoconia var. flavoconia, A. flavoconia var. sinapicolor, A. virosa, A. xylinivolva, A .muscaria var. flavivolvata y A. arocheae. Los resultados muestran la necesidad de continuar los estudios en la comunidad de Ixtlán donde especies poco frecuentes de Amanita y otros datos ecológicos podrán conocerse.The diversity of Amanita species occurring in two areas of Pinus-Quercus forest with different management, in the community of Ixtlán de Juárez, Oaxaca, was studied. The samples were collected during the wet season. The 107 specimens collected correspond to 36 species, 21 belonging to the subgenus Amanita and 15 to the subgenus Lepidella; 14 represent first records in Oaxaca state and 19 to Ixtlán of Juarez County in particular. The abundance of species within a year was correlated with the precipitation and ecological conditions. Twenty species appeared once and the most frequent were: Amanita flavoconia var. sinapicolor, A. flavoconia var. flavoconia, A. virosa, A. flavoconia var. inquinata, A. xylinivolva, A .muscaria var. flavivolvata y A. arocheae. These findings encourage for further studies in the community of Ixtlán, where infrequent species of Amanita and other ecological data may be obtained.

  11. Influence of copper, manganese and pH on the growth and several enzyme activities in mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, E X

    1995-01-01

    The effects of various concentrations of copper, manganese and pH on the growth and several enzyme activities of mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria were investigated. Cu (5-25 mg l-1) and lower pH (3.0-4.0) strongly inhibited the mycelial growth (dry weight), however, the protein content was not affected evidently. Some enzyme activities were lower as the Cu and Mn concentrations were higher and other enzymes had the maximum values at the specified concentration. The activities of the following enzymes were significantly correlated with the fungal growth after the treatment with Cu: G6PDH, MTLDH and trehalase, and with Mn: G6PDH, MTLDH and alpha-mannosidase respectively. Measurement of these enzyme activities might provide a useful biochemical criterion for the evaluation of the fungitoxicity of soil contaminated by copper or manganese.

  12. The mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria induces chitinase activity in roots and in suspension-cultured cells of its host Picea abies.

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    Sauter, M; Hager, A

    1989-08-01

    A cell-wall fraction of the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria increased the chitinase activity in suspension-cultured cells of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) which is a frequent host of Amanita muscaria in nature. Chitinase activity was also increased in roots of spruce trees upon incubation with the fungal elicitor. Non-induced levels of chitinase activity in spruce were higher in suspension cells than in roots whereas the elicitorinduced increase of chitinase activity was higher in roots. Treatment of cells with hormones (auxins and cytokinin) resulted in a severalfold depression of enzyme activity. However, the chitinase activity of hormone-treated as well as hormone-free cells showed an elicitor-induced increase. Suspension cells of spruce secreted a large amount of enzyme into the medium. It is postulated that chitinases released from the host cells in an ectomycorrhizal system partly degrade the fungal cell walls, thus possibly facilitating the exchange of metabolites between the symbionts.

  13. Clinical Experience in Treatment of Amanita Mushroom Poisoning with Glossy Ganoderma Decoction(灵芝煎剂) and Routine Western Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gu-lin; ZHANG Chun-hu; LIU Fa-yi; CHEN Zuo-hong; HU Sui-yu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of treatment of Amanita Glossy anoderma Decoction (灵芝煎剂, GGD). Methods: Twelve patients with acute Amanita mushroom poisoning with poisoning received conventional treatment (penicillin and reduced glutathione) combined with oral administration of GGD (treated group), which was prepared out of 200 g Glossy ganoderma decocted in water to 600 mL, and 200 ml was given once, three times a day for 7 successive days; while conventional treatment alone was given to the other 11 patients assigned to the control group. The therapeutic efficacy and changes in serum levels of total bilirubin (TBil), bile acids (BA), alanine transaminase (ALT),and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities in the two groups were compared. Results: The curedmarkedly effective rate in the treated group was more significant than that in the control group (P<0.01).Elevation in TBil, BA, ALT, and AST activities were observed in both groups 3 days after poisoning, which progressively increased thereafter in the control group. In the treated group, they reached their peak on the 3rd day and then declined gradually. The differences between pre-treatment and post-treatment in both groups were obviously significant (P<0.01), so were the differences between the two groups at corresponding time points (P<0.01). Conclusion: GGD shows excellent clinical efficacy in the treatment of acute Amanita mushroom poisoning and can reduce mortality significantly.

  14. 苍山国家级自然保护区鹅膏菌属真菌资源调查%Investigation of the Genus Amanita in Cangshan Mountain National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚斌; 罗宗龙; 唐松明; 饶灿菏; 苏鸿雁

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the resources of Amanita from Cangshan National Nature Reserve. Methods: Random survey was conducted to investigate and identify the species of Amanita in Cangshan Mountain based on the morphology characters. Results:Nearly 200 samples were collected in Cangshan Mountain from 2008 to 2015 with 34 species of Amanita genus were identified. Conclusion:The resources of Amanita are abundant in Cangshan National Nature Reserve. Among the Amanita species in this area, A. hemibapha is tasted delicious, A. muscaria and A. excelsa are hypertoxic.%目的:调查苍山自然保护区内鹅膏菌属Amanita真菌资源。方法:采用随机调查的方法对苍山国家级自然保护区的鹅膏菌属真菌资源进行调查,并根据形态学特征对其进行鉴定。结果:在2008年至2015年间共采集标本近200份,鉴定出该区鹅膏菌属真菌34种。结论:苍山自然保护区内鹅膏菌属真菌资源丰富,其中本属真菌中花柄橙黄鹅膏Amanita hemibapha为美味野生食用菌;毒蝇鹅膏A. muscaria、块鳞鹅膏A. excelsa等为剧毒野生菌。

  15. Do differences in chemical composition of stem and cap of Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies correlate with topsoil type?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Stanisław; Wieczorek, Piotr P; Halama, Marek; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Kafarski, Paweł; Poliwoda, Anna; Młynarz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) was investigated using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The caps and stems were studied separately, revealing different metabolic compositions. Additionally, multivariate data analyses of the fungal basidiomata and the type of soil were performed. Compared to the stems, A. muscaria caps exhibited higher concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, threonine, lipids (mainly free fatty acids), choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), acetate, adenosine, uridine, 4-aminobutyrate, 6-hydroxynicotinate, quinolinate, UDP-carbohydrate and glycerol. Conversely, they exhibited lower concentrations of formate, fumarate, trehalose, α- and β-glucose. Six metabolites, malate, succinate, gluconate, N-acetylated compounds (NAC), tyrosine and phenylalanine, were detected in whole A. muscaria fruiting bodies but did not show significant differences in their levels between caps and stems (P value>0.05 and/or OPLS-DA loading correlation coefficient muscaria from mineral and mineral-organic topsoil. Moreover, the metabolomic approach and multivariate tools enabled to ascribe the basidiomata of fly agaric to the type of topsoil. Obtained results revealed that stems metabolome is more dependent on the topsoil type than caps. The correlation between metabolites and topsoil contents together with its properties exhibited mutual dependences.

  16. Mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces AcH 505 induces differential gene expression in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Silvia D; Schellhammer, Michael; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger; Tarkka, Mika T

    2005-10-01

    The interaction between the mycorrhiza helper bacteria Streptomyces nov. sp. 505 (AcH 505) and Streptomyces annulatus 1003 (AcH 1003) with fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and spruce (Picea abies) was investigated. The effects of both bacteria on the mycelial growth of different ectomycorrhizal fungi, on ectomycorrhiza formation, and on fungal gene expression in dual culture with AcH 505 were determined. The fungus specificities of the streptomycetes were similar. Both bacterial species showed the strongest effect on the growth of mycelia at 9 wk of dual culture. The effect of AcH 505 on gene expression of A. muscaria was examined using the suppressive subtractive hybridization approach. The responsive fungal genes included those involved in signalling pathways, metabolism, cell structure, and the cell growth response. These results suggest that AcH 505 and AcH 1003 enhance mycorrhiza formation mainly as a result of promotion of fungal growth, leading to changes in fungal gene expression. Differential A. muscaria transcript accumulation in dual culture may result from a direct response to bacterial substances.

  17. Do differences in chemical composition of stem and cap of Amanita muscaria fruiting bodies correlate with topsoil type?

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    Stanisław Deja

    Full Text Available Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria was investigated using a 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach. The caps and stems were studied separately, revealing different metabolic compositions. Additionally, multivariate data analyses of the fungal basidiomata and the type of soil were performed. Compared to the stems, A. muscaria caps exhibited higher concentrations of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, aspartate, asparagine, threonine, lipids (mainly free fatty acids, choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, acetate, adenosine, uridine, 4-aminobutyrate, 6-hydroxynicotinate, quinolinate, UDP-carbohydrate and glycerol. Conversely, they exhibited lower concentrations of formate, fumarate, trehalose, α- and β-glucose. Six metabolites, malate, succinate, gluconate, N-acetylated compounds (NAC, tyrosine and phenylalanine, were detected in whole A. muscaria fruiting bodies but did not show significant differences in their levels between caps and stems (P value>0.05 and/or OPLS-DA loading correlation coefficient <0.4. This methodology allowed for the differentiation between the fruiting bodies of A. muscaria from mineral and mineral-organic topsoil. Moreover, the metabolomic approach and multivariate tools enabled to ascribe the basidiomata of fly agaric to the type of topsoil. Obtained results revealed that stems metabolome is more dependent on the topsoil type than caps. The correlation between metabolites and topsoil contents together with its properties exhibited mutual dependences.

  18. Evidence for strong inter- and intracontinental phylogeographic structure in Amanita muscaria, a wind-dispersed ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Tulloss, Rodham E; Laursen, Gary A; Sazanova, Nina A; Taylor, D L

    2008-08-01

    A growing number of molecular studies show that many fungi have phylogeographic structures and that their distinct lineages are usually limited to different continents. As a conservative test of the extent to which wind-dispersed mycorrhizal fungi may exhibit phylogeographic structure, we chose to study Amanita muscaria, a host-generalist, widespread, wind-dispersed fungus. In this paper, we document the existence of several distinct phylogenetic species within A. muscaria, based on multilocus DNA sequence data. According to our findings, A. muscaria has strong intercontinental genetic disjunctions, and, more surprisingly, has strong intracontinental phylogeographic structure, particularly within North America, often corresponding to certain habitats and/or biogeographic provinces. Our results indicate that the view of A. muscaria as a common, widespread, easily identifiable, ecologically plastic fungus with a wide niche does not correctly represent the ecological and biological realities. On the contrary, the strong associations between phylogenetic species and different habitats support the developing picture of ecoregional endemisms and relatively narrow to very narrow niches for some lineages.

  19. The gene coding for the DOPA dioxygenase involved in betalain biosynthesis in Amanita muscaria and its regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, U G; Fivaz, J; Girod, P A; Zyrd, J P

    1997-09-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones derived from the gene (dodA) coding for DOPA dioxygenase, a key enzyme in the betalain pathway, were obtained from the basidiomycete Amanita muscaria. A cDNA library was established in the phage lambda ZapII and dodA clones were isolated using polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified enzyme. Their identity was confirmed by comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the sequence of several tryptic peptide fragments of DOPA dioxygenase. The gene coded for a 228-amino acid protein that showed no homology to published sequences. The coding region was interrupted by five short introns. Regulation was shown to occur at the transcriptional level; the mRNA accumulated to high levels only in the coloured cap tissue. dodA was found to be a single-copy gene in A. muscaria. To our knowledge, this is the first gene from the betalain pathway to be cloned. It encodes a type of aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenase that has not been previously described.

  20. A novel alkaline protease with antiproliferative activity from fresh fruiting bodies of the toxic wild mushroom Amanita farinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Zhao, Yongchang; Chai, Hongmei; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-01-01

    A novel protease with a molecular mass of 15 kDa was purified from fresh fruiting bodies of the wild mushroom Amanita farinosa. The purification protocol entailed anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The protease was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose. It demonstrated a single 15-kDa band in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS/PAGE) and a 15-kDa peak in gel filtration. The optimal pH and optimal temperature of the protease were pH 8.0 and 65 °C, respectively. Proliferation of human hepatoma HepG2 cells was inhibited by the protease with an IC(50) of 25 µM. The protease did not have antifungal or ribonuclease activity.

  1. Carbon dioxide concentration and nitrogen input affect the C and N storage pools in Amanita muscaria-Picea abies mycorrhizae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnau, K; Berger, A; Loewe, A; Einig, W; Hampp, R; Chalot, M; Dizengremel, P; Kottke, I

    2001-02-01

    We studied the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on the vacuolar storage pool of nitrogen-containing compounds and on the glycogen pool in the hyphal sheath of Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr.) Hooker-Picea abies L. Karst. mycorrhizae grown with two concentrations of ammonium in the substrate. Mycorrhizal seedlings were grown in petri dishes on agar containing 5.3 or 53 mg N l(-1) and exposed to 350 or 700 microl CO2 l(-1) for 5 or 7 weeks, respectively. Numbers and area of nitrogen-containing bodies in the vacuoles of the mycorrhizal fungus were determined by light microscopy linked to an image analysis system. The relative concentration of nitrogen in the vacuolar bodies was measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Glycogen stored in the cytosol was determined at the ultrastructural level by image analysis after staining the sections (PATAg test). Shoot dry weight, net photosynthesis and relative amounts of N in vacuolar bodies were greater at the higher N and CO2 concentrations. The numbers and areas of vacuolar N-containing bodies were significantly greater at the higher N concentration only at ambient [CO2]. In the same treatment the percentage of hyphae containing glycogen declined to nearly zero. We conclude that, in the high N/low [CO2] treatment, the mycorrhizal fungus had an insufficient carbohydrate supply, partly because of increased amino acid synthesis by the non-mycorrhizal rootlets. When [CO2] was increased, the equilibrium between storage of glycogen and N-containing compounds was reestablished.

  2. Structure and antitumor activity of a branched (1----3)-beta-D-glucan from the alkaline extract of Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiho, T; Katsuragawa, M; Nagai, K; Ukai, S; Haga, M

    1992-02-07

    A beta-(1----6)-branched (1----3)-beta-D-glucan(AM-ASN) was isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruiting bodies of Amanita muscaria. AM-ASN had [alpha]D - 11 degrees in 0.5 M sodium hydroxide. Its estimated molecular weight was 95,000 in this alkaline solution and 260,000 in a neutral solution. The branches in the glucan were primarily single, (1----6)-linked D-glucopyranosyl groups, two for every seven residues in the (1----3)-linked main chain. AM-ASN exhibited significant antitumor activity against Sarcoma 180 in mice, and a mixture of AM-ASN with mitomycin C was more effective against the tumor than mitomycin C only.

  3. Polysaccharides in Fungi. XXXIV. A polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Amanita muscaria and the antitumor activity of its carboxymethylated product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiho, T; Yoshida, I; Katsuragawa, M; Sakushima, M; Usui, S; Ukai, S

    1994-11-01

    A water-insoluble, alkali-soluble, glucan (AM-APP), [alpha]D +160 degrees in 0.4 M NaOH, was isolated from the alkaline extract of the fruiting bodies of Amanita muscaria. The results of chemical and spectroscopic investigations indicate that AM-APP is a linear (1 --> 3)-alpha-D-glucan with a molecular weigh estimated by gel chromatography of about 42000. Its carboxymethylated product (AM-APP-CM) showed potent antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 in mice, although the native polysaccharide (AM-APP) had little effect. The distribution of carboxymethyl groups in the molecule was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The degree of substitution of carboxymethyl groups was 0.95 and the substituents were located at O-2, at O-4, at O-6, at O-2 and O-6, and at O-4 and O-6 on glucose.

  4. IMA Genome-F 3: Draft genomes of Amanita jacksonii, Ceratocystis albifundus, Fusarium circinatum, Huntiella omanensis, Leptographium procerum, Rutstroemia sydowiana, and Sclerotinia echinophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Nest, Magriet A; Beirn, Lisa A; Crouch, Jo Anne; Demers, Jill E; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; De Vos, Lieschen; Gordon, Thomas R; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Naidoo, Kershney; Sanchez-Ramirez, Santiago; Roodt, Danielle; Santana, Quentin C; Slinski, Stephanie L; Stata, Matt; Taerum, Stephen J; Wilken, P Markus; Wilson, Andrea M; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2014-12-01

    The genomes of fungi provide an important resource to resolve issues pertaining to their taxonomy, biology, and evolution. The genomes of Amanita jacksonii, Ceratocystis albifundus, a Fusarium circinatum variant, Huntiella omanensis, Leptographium procerum, Sclerotinia echinophila, and Rutstroemia sydowiana are presented in this genome announcement. These seven genomes are from a number of fungal pathogens and economically important species. The genome sizes range from 27 Mb in the case of Ceratocystis albifundus to 51.9 Mb for Rutstroemia sydowiana. The latter also encodes for a predicted 17 350 genes, more than double that of Ceratocystis albifundus. These genomes will add to the growing body of knowledge of these fungi and provide a value resource to researchers studying these fungi.

  5. Interaction with mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 modifies organisation of actin cytoskeleton in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria (fly agaric).

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    Schrey, Silvia D; Salo, Vanamo; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Hampp, Rüdiger; Nehls, Uwe; Tarkka, Mika T

    2007-08-01

    The actin cytoskeleton (AC) of fungal hyphae is a major determinant of hyphal shape and morphogenesis, implicated in controlling tip structure and secretory vesicle delivery. Hyphal growth of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria and symbiosis formation with spruce are promoted by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces sp. AcH 505 (AcH 505). To investigate structural requirements of growth promotion, the effect of AcH 505 on A. muscaria hyphal morphology, AC and actin gene expression were studied. Hyphal diameter and mycelial density decreased during dual culture (DC), and indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that the dense and polarised actin cap in hyphal tips of axenic A. muscaria changes to a loosened and dispersed structure in DC. Supplementation of growth medium with cell-free bacterial supernatant confirmed that reduction in hyphal diameter and AC changes occurred at the same stage of growth. Transcript levels of both actin genes isolated from A. muscaria remained unaltered, indicating that AC changes are regulated by reorganisation of the existing actin pool. In conclusion, the AC reorganisation appears to result in altered hyphal morphology and faster apical extension. The thus improved spreading of hyphae and increased probability to encounter plant roots highlights a mechanism behind the mycorrhiza helper effect.

  6. The alpha-tubulin gene AmTuba1: a marker for rapid mycelial growth in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkka, Mika T; Schrey, Silvia; Nehls, Uwe

    2006-05-01

    The apical extension of hyphae is of central importance for extensive spread of fungal mycelium in forest soils and for effective ectomycorrhiza development. Since the tubulin cytoskeleton is known to be important for fungal tip growth, we have investigated the expression of an alpha-tubulin gene from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Amanita muscaria (AmTuba1). The phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed the existence of two subgroups of alpha-tubulins in homobasidiomycetes, clearly distinguishable by defined amino acids. AmTuba1 belongs to subgroup1. The AmTuba1 transcript level is related to mycelial growth rate. Growth induction of carbohydrate starved (non-growing) hyphae resulted in an enhanced AmTuba1 expression as soon as hyphal growth started, reaching a maximum at highest mycelial growth rate. Bacterium-induced hyphal elongation also leads to increased AmTuba1 transcript levels. In mature A. muscaria/P. abies ectomycorrhizas, where fungal hyphae are highly branched, and slowly growing, AmTuba1 expression were even lower than in carbohydrate-starved mycelium, indicating a further down-regulation of gene expression in symbiosis. In conclusion, our analyses show that the AmTuba1 gene can be used as a marker for active apical extension in fly agaric, and that alpha-tubulin proteins are promising tools for the classification of fungi.

  7. Amanita muscaria (Basidiomycota y su asociación micorríca con Cedrus Deodara (Pinaceae en las Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina Amanita muscaria (Basidiomycota and its mycorrhizal association with Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae in the Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina

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    Graciela Daniele

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se cita por primera vez para el centro de Argentina, la presencia de fructificaciones de Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr. Hooker asociadas con Cedrus deodara (Roxb Loud. Se describen los esporocarpos hallados y se caracteriza morfo-anatómicamente la ectomicorriza con C. deodara. La ectomicorriza presenta ramificaciones simples a dicotómicas, escasas hifas emanantes y un manto blanco con abundantes partículas de suelo adheridas, constituido por tres capas, la externa plectenquimática con hifas formando un arreglo en forma de anillo.This is the first record of A. muscaria (L. ex Fr. Hooker basidiocarps in the center of Argentina in association with Cedrus deodara (Roxb Loud. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of the mycorrhizal association between A. muscaria and C. deodara are described and illustrated for the first time. The ectomycorrhizae is characterized by the presence of simple to dichotomous branches, few emanating hyphae and a white mantle with abundant soil particles with three layers, the plectenquimatic outer layer characterized by a ring-like arrangement.

  8. 鹅膏菌产抑菌物质培养条件优化及安全性分析%Optimization of Cultivation Conditions and Security Analysis of Antifungal Substance from Amanita sp.i

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀瑞卿; 李玉; 宋瑞清

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiment proved the inhibiting effects of strain AV of Amanita on Cytospora chrysosperma. The optimal substrates for antifungal substance were obtained by the colorimetric method and biomass determination. In the tested nutrients , lactose was the optimal carbon source, and peptone was the optimal nitrogen source. Carbon source was the main influence factor on the biomass of strain AV of Amanita and the activity of antifungal substance from strain AV of Amanita sp. , and there was significant differences (a=0.05) between the carbon source and other nutrients. The optimal nutrient combinations were obtained as lactose 30.0 g/L, peptone 0.5 g/L, MgSO4 1.5 g/L and KH2PO4 4.5 g/L; lactose 10.00 g/L, peptone 0.50 g/L, MgSO4 0.75 g/L and KH2 PO4 4.50 g/L; lactose 30.0 g/L, peptone 2.0 g/L, MgSO4 1.5 g/L and KH2PO4 3.0 g/L. The optimal fermentation conditions for antifungal activity were obtained as pH 5-6, fermentation temperature 25 degrees C, inoculum concentration 1.25% , liquid medium volume 50% , rotation speed 180 r/min, and fermentation time 20 d. The antifungal activity would be reduced at 75 degrees C when pH was more than 9 or less than 4. The antifungal activity also decreased when the antifungal substance was irradiated with ultraviolet radiation for more than 4 h. The toxicity test on mice indicated that the median lethal dose (LD50) of the mycelium of the strain AV of Amanita was 418.70 mg/kg (95% credible limit 453.11 to 386.90). No influence on mice was observed when the concentration of antifungal substance was below 2 g/L. Therefore, the concentration of antifungal substance from strain AV of Amanita should be less than 2 g/L in order to ensure ecological security during the control of pathogens.%经前期试验验证鹅膏菌菌株AV对杨树烂皮病病原菌金黄壳囊孢菌有抑制作用,通过比色法和生物量测定结果得出其抑菌物质产生的最佳营养条件.在供试营养物质中,乳糖为最佳碳源,蛋白胨为最

  9. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVII. Immunomodulating activities of carboxymethylated derivatives of linear (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans extracted from the fruiting bodies of Agrocybe cylindracea and Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, I; Kiho, T; Usui, S; Sakushima, M; Ukai, S

    1996-01-01

    Immunomodulating activities of three carboxymethylated derivatives (AG-AL-CMS, AG-AL-CMI, and AM-APP-CM) of linear (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans from Agrocybe cylindracea and Amanita muscaria were evaluated with murine peritoneal macrophages playing an important role in tumor immunity. The ratio of macrophages in peritoneal exudate cells increased more than 50% after the administration of three carboxymethylated (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans. These carboxymethylated (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucans exhibited higher potentiating activities for macrophages than carboxymethylated linear (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan (CMPS) in the potency of reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium, products of nitric oxide and the soluble cytotoxic factor, the amount of glucose consumption, and the activation of acid phosphatase. AG-AL-CMS, AG-AL-CMI, and AM-APP-CM were found to induce the tumor regressing factor in mouse serum, although the ability of the induction of this factor was weaker than that of CMPS. The reticuloendothelial system-potentiating activation of three carboxymethylated alpha-D-glucans was similar to that of the carboxymethylated beta-D-glucan. AG-AL-CMS and AG-AL-CMI, but not AM-APP-CM, were suggested to possess a higher-order structure, resulting from the formation of a fluorescent complex with aniline blue.

  10. 大型经济真菌的DNA条形码研究——以我国剧毒鹅膏为例%DNA Barcoding of Economically Important Mushrooms: A Case Study on Lethal Amanitas from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡箐; 唐丽萍; 杨祝良

    2012-01-01

    Some species of the genus Amanita are economically important gourmet mushrooms, while others cause dramatic poisonings or even deaths every year in China and in many other countries. A DNA barcode is a short segment or a combination of short segments of DNA sequences that can distinguish species rapidly and accurately. To establish a standard DNA barcode for poisonous species of Amanita in China, three candidate markers, the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA ( nLSU) , the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) , and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1-α) were tested using the eukaryotic general primers for their feasibility as barcodes to identify seven species of lethal fungi and two species of edible ones which can easily be confused with the lethal ones known from China. In addition, A. Phalloides—a European and North American species closely related to one of the seven taxa, A. Subjunquillea was also included. PCR amplification and sequencing success rate, intra- and inter-specific variation and rate of species identification were considered as main criteria for evaluation of the candidate DNA barcodes. Although the nLSU had high PCR and sequencing success rates (100% and 100% respectively) , occasional overlapping occurred between the intra- and inter-specific variations. The PCR amplification and sequencing success rates of ITS were 100% and 85. 7% respectively. ITS showed high sequence variation among species group and low variation within a given species. There was a relatively high PCR amplification and sequencing success rate for tef1-α ( 85. 7% and 100% respectively) , and its intra- and inter-specific variation was higher than that of ITS or nLSU. All three candidate markers showed hight species resolution. ITS and tef1-α had a more clearly defined barcode gap than nLSU. Our study showed that the tef1-α and nLSU can be proposed as supplementary barcodes for the genus Amanita, while ITS can be used as a primary barcode marker considering

  11. Comparisons of culture conditions and peptide toxins in three Amanita species%三种鹅膏菌培养条件及所产肽类毒素的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭学武; 汪国轮; 龚建华; 肖冬光

    2008-01-01

    以外生菌根菌鹅膏菌属三个种Amanita muscaria,A.pseudoporphyria和A.fritillaria为研究材料,以生长速率为评价指标,对其最适生长温度、pH值、光照、培养基、C及N源的利用等基本培养条件及所产肽类毒素进行了比较研究.研究结果表明,三种菌株最适生长温度有差异,A.pseudoporphyria和A.fritillaria的最适温度为28℃,A.muscaria的最适温度为22℃;A.muscaria菌丝体生长的pH值范围为5-7,另外两个菌株的pH值范围为3-6;24h光照、12h光暗交替和24h黑暗对鹅膏菌的生长速率影响不大;SPDM培养基和MMN培养基都适合三种菌株的生长,但对于A.muscaria来说PDM培养基更适合其生长.鹅膏菌能够利用比较广泛的C、N源,但三个种在利用的C、N源种类上有一定的差别.通过抑芽法实验和HPLC分析分别表明三种鹅膏菌所含肽类毒素在种类和含量上有所不同,但都对绿豆发芽有一定的抑制作用.A.pseudoporphyria和A.fritillaria菌丝体中a-amanitin的含量分别为35.56ug/g DCW(drycell weight细胞干重)和26.02ug/g DCW,不含有phalloidin和β-amanitin;A.muscaria菌丝体中没有检测到α-amanitm、β-amanitin和phalloidin.结果表明供试的三种鹅膏菌在基本培养条件及所产肽类毒素方面存在种水平上的差异.

  12. Selected elements in fly agaric Amanita muscaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, J; Kunito, T; Kubota, R; Lipka, K; Mazur, A; Falandysz, Justyna J; Tanabe, S

    2007-09-01

    Concentrations of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb, Rb, Se, Sb, Sr, V, Tl and Zn have been determined in the whole fruiting bodies, as well as separately in caps and stalks, of fly agaric collected from three geographically distant sites in northern part of Poland. The elements were determined using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, HG-AAS and CV-AAS, respectively. For elements such as Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Ga, Mo, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, Tl, and V concentrations were similar in the caps and stalks, respectively, and for K, Zn, Ag, Ca, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mg, Rb and Se were greater in the caps, while for Co, Cs and Na in the stalks. For Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Ga, Hg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sr, Tl and V concentration in the caps showed spatial variations (P<0.05), while for Cu, K, Mg, Na, Se and Zn was independent of the site. The elements such as K with median or mean in the caps between 37,000 and 43,000 microg/g.dm and Mg with 920 and 1,100 microg/g dm were most abundant. Next, within median values range from approximately 100 to 500 microg/g dm were such as Ca, Fe and Al, and in descending order they followed by Rb (100-400 microg/g dm); V, Na, Zn (50-200 microg/g dm); Cu, Mn (10-50 microg/g dm); Cd (10-20 microg/g dm); Se (5 microg/g dm); Ba (<1-3); Cr, Ag, Pb, Sr (<1-2 microg/g dm); Cs, Co, Hg (<1-1 microg/g dm); Ga (<0.5), Sb, Mo and Tl (<0.1 microg/g dm).

  13. Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, U; Ecke, M; Hampp, R

    1999-03-01

    The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.

  14. Coma in the course of severe poisoning after consumption of red fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Małgorzata A; Pankowska, Sylwestra; Janiak, Marek; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Łazowski, Tomasz; Jankowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Red fly agaric poisoning is rare. It can be consumed for suicidal purposes or its psychedelic effect. The paper describes the case of a young men, who fell into a coma after ingestion of the red toadstools. Quick identification of the poison, early use of gastric lavage and symptomatic treatment resulted in regression of symptoms and lead to the patient's discharge from the hospital on the third day after intoxication. Authors discussing the poisonous alkaloids contained in the red toadtools: ibotenic acid, muscimol, muscasone and muscarine and theirs properties, responsible for the symptoms of intoxication.

  15. Studies of hemolytical and antimicrobical action of Amanita virosa Secr. and Mycena pura /Fr./ Kumm. poisonous mushrooms lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danileuchenko V. V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study hemolytical and antimicrobical action of two new lectins, obtained from fruit bodies of poisonous basidial mushrooms of A. virosa Secr. and M. pura /Fr./ Kumm. Methods. Research on hemolytical action of lectins was conducted on the erythrocytes of human and animals. The experiments on osmotic protection of erythrocytes were performed in the presence of polyethylenglycols of different molecular mass (in a range from 400 to 4000 Da. Antimicrobical activity of lectins was studied by determination of area delay of growth of culture of different types of microorganisms on the Petri dish in an agaric media. Results. Both lectins hemolyse the erythrocytes of rabbit, human, rat and dog and do not hemolyse the erythrocytes of cow and ship in concentration of 1 mg/ml. The rabbit erythrocytes are most sensitive to hemolytical action of lectins, while hemolytic ability of A. virosa lectin is higher. Hemolysis was not observed in the presence of PEG of molecular mass over 1,350 Da. Action of lectins on 10 types of microorganisms was investigated. Lectins inhibited mainly growth of grammpositive microorganisms and protey. For most tested microorganisms antimicrobial action of Mycena lectin is stronger comparing with A. virosa lectin. Conclusions. Two new hemolytical lectins are found in the fruit bodies of mushrooms-basidiomycetes. The lectin formed ion-permeable pores in membrane of erythrocytes with the hydrodynamic diameter smaller than 2.3 nm and larger than 1.6 nm. These lectins displays also antimicrobial activity and by the sum of these features are similar to the cytolytic lectins of lower invertebrates.

  16. [Poisoning with spotted and red mushrooms--pathogenesis, symptoms, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupalska-Wilczyńska, K; Ignatowicz, R; Poziemski, A; Wójcik, H; Wilczyński, G

    1996-01-01

    Amanita pantherina and Amanita muscaria are commonly occurring mushrooms in Polish forests. They contain ibotenic acid and muscimol: the substances reacting with neurotransmitter receptors in central nervous system. The ingestion of these mushrooms produces a distinctive syndrome consisting of alternating phases of drowsiness and agitation with hallucinations, and sometimes with convulsions. The diagnosis of Amanita pantherina or Amanita muscaria poisoning is established by means of mycologic investigation of gastric lavage. The treatment is only symptomatic, and the prognosis is usually good.

  17. AcEST: DK944834 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -Prot sp_hit_id O93967 Definition sp|O93967|PALY_AMAMU Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase OS=Amanita...significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O93967|PALY_AMAMU Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase OS=Amanita...|Q55F68|CYAD_DICDI Adenylate cyclase, terminal-differentiation... 29 8.3 >sp|O93967|PALY_AMAMU Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase OS=Amanita

  18. Dicty_cDB: SHA231 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RNA gene, partial sequence. 190 3e-97 3 AJ645166 |AJ645166.1 Populus tremula x P. tremuloides/Amanita muscar...ia mixed EST library EST, clone ptamabc210057a10. 188 7e-94 3 AJ643225 |AJ643225.1 Populus tremula x P. tremuloides/Amanita...ulus tremula x P. tremuloides/Amanita muscaria mixed EST library EST, clone ptama...e, partial sequence. 206 1e-93 3 AJ644039 |AJ644039.1 Populus tremula x P. tremuloides/Amanita muscaria mixe

  19. Identification and use of genes encoding amatoxin and phallotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallen, Heather E.; Walton, Jonathan D.; Luo, Hong; Scott-Craig, John S.

    2016-12-13

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods comprising genes and peptides associated with cyclic peptide toxins and toxin production in mushrooms. In particular, the present invention relates to using genes and proteins from Amanita species encoding Amanita peptides, specifically relating to amatoxins and phallotoxins. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention also relates to methods for detecting Amanita peptide toxin genes for identifying Amanita peptide-producing mushrooms and for diagnosing suspected cases of mushroom poisoning. Further, the present inventions relate to providing kits for diagnosing and monitoring suspected cases of mushroom poisoning in patients.

  20. AcEST: BP913601 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available racting protein 3 OS=Saccharomyces... 30 4.8 sp|O93967|PALY_AMAMU Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase OS=Amanita mus...HLREILPI 487 >sp|O93967|PALY_AMAMU Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase OS=Amanita muscaria GN=PAL PE=2 SV=1 Length =

  1. Compilation of 1987 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Apparently strong associations occur between A anni and eastern white pine, between amanita muscaria , boletus piDeratus, £in alboviolaceus, and T...EWPBA .818 17.950 .013 bigtooth aspen/ Y4 = -23.094 + 4.200 BTA# .719 25.647 .001 Amanita muscaria Yi = -14.262 + 74.455 BTABA .932 54.836 .002

  2. AcEST: BP916097 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |PALY_AMAMU Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase OS=Amanita musc... 30 8.8 sp|Q32LL5|INT12_BOVIN Integrator complex s...----AYC 194 >sp|O93967|PALY_AMAMU Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase OS=Amanita muscaria

  3. Qualitative and quantitative determination of muscarine in amanita muscaria of Yunnan province with gas chromatography and mass spectrum%GC/MS,SIM定性定量分析云南野生毒蝇菌中的毒蝇碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林佶; 段志敏; 万玉萍; 沈其萍; 刘建辉

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究探讨GC/MS测定毒蝇碱的分析方法.方法:通过毒蝇碱标准品建立毒蝇碱的特征离子谱库.用甲醇提取样品中的毒蝇碱,运用GC/MS的Xcalibur分析软件,与标准毒蝇碱的特征离子峰比较,定性定量测定毒蝇菌样品中的毒蝇碱含量.结果:云南野生毒蝇菌中毒蝇碱含量为25.6 mg/kg.结论:该方法简便、快速、灵敏度高、准确可靠.

  4. 条纹毒鹅膏菌液体培养产物对桃红颈天牛幼虫的毒杀活性研究%Toxic Activity of Amanita phalloides (Vaill.:Fr.) Secr.var.striatula Pk.Liquid Culture Products against Aromia bungii Faldermann Larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪娜; 杨绍斌

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究条纹毒鹅膏菌液体培养产物对桃红颈天牛幼虫的毒杀活性.[方法]采用PDA培养基(不含琼脂)摇床培养条纹毒鹅膏菌,获得其液体培养产物;将液体培养产物经超声波破碎离心后,配置成不同浓度(5%、10%、15%、20%)上清液;通过定量载毒饲喂法测定条纹毒鹅膏菌液体培养产物及不同浓度的上清液对桃红颈天牛幼虫的毒杀活性.[结果]条纹毒鹅膏菌液体培养产物对桃红颈天牛幼虫的致死率达60%以上;当经超声波破碎处理后的上清液浓度达到15%以上时,毒杀活性明显增强,虫体死亡率达68.33%以上.[结论]该研究结果为新型条纹毒鹅膏菌源杀虫剂的开发奠定了理论和试验基础.

  5. Enzymatic activity of myccorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Pachlewski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigations included assays of enzymatic activity of ectomycorrhizal fungi from the genera: Amanita, Cenococcum, Coltricia, Hebeloma, Lactarius, Rhizopogon, Russula, Suillus, Tricholoma and the pine ectendomycorrhizal strain MrgX. Among the 22 investigated strains of fungi 18 could decompose starch, 14 urea, 11 asparagine, 7 protein, 6 pectin and 3 ce1lulose. The most varied enzyme activities were found in Amanita muscaria, A. verna, Hebeloma, mesophaeum, ectendomycorrhizal isolate MrgX, Rhizopogon luteolus and Suillus bovinus, the highest cellolotytic activity was shown by the ectendomycorrhizal strain.

  6. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stihi, Claudia; Gheboianu, Anca; Radulescu, Cristiana; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela; Bancuta, Iulian

    2011-10-01

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  7. Death cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille Bouteloup; Bove, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused...

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13700-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Populus tremula x P. tremuloides/Amanita muscaria... 46 0.010 2 ( AC116305 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chro...93 1 ( CN650175 ) Eg_PSGRS_13C02_T7 Echinococcus granulosus protosc... 46 0.93 1 ( AJ643300 ) Populus tremula x P. tremuloides/Amanit

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16119-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available remula x P. tremuloides/Amanita muscaria... 54 5e-19 4 ( EC830502 ) TDE00002760 Advantage polymerase (lib1_t...5e-57 1 ( EC853457 ) HDE00004908 Hyperamoeba dachnaya Non-normalized (... 100 6e-33 3 ( AJ643335 ) Populus t

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14951-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 557 e-157 X16798_1( X16798 |pid:none) C.elegans act3 gene. 557 e-157 EF544569_1( EF544569 |pid:none) Amani...ta muscaria actin (act2) mRNA... 542 e-157 AY156508_1( AY156508 |pid:none) Myxobolu

  11. Dicty_cDB: VFB409 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Q9UVX4) RecName: Full=Actin; &AB034637_1( AB034637 |pid:none) 370 0.0 EF544569_1( EF544569 |pid:none) Aman...ita muscaria actin (act2) mRNA... 361 0.0 AB115328_1( AB115328 |pid:none) Phaneroch

  12. Molecular identification of poisonous mushrooms using nuclear ITS region and peptide toxins: a retrospective study on fatal cases in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnmen, Sittiporn; Sikaphan, Sujitra; Leudang, Siriwan; Boonpratuang, Thitiya; Rangsiruji, Achariya; Naksuwankul, Khwanruan

    2016-02-01

    Cases of mushroom poisoning in Thailand have increased annually. During 2008 to 2014, the cases reported to the National Institute of Health included 57 deaths; at least 15 died after ingestion of amanitas, the most common lethal wild mushrooms inhabited. Hence, the aims of this study were to identify mushroom samples from nine clinically reported cases during the 7-year study period based on nuclear ITS sequence data and diagnose lethal peptide toxins using a reversed phase LC-MS method. Nucleotide similarity was identified using BLAST search of the NCBI database and the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). Clade characterization was performed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches. Based on BLAST and BOLD reference databases our results yielded high nucleotide similarities of poisonous mushroom samples to A. exitialis and A. fuliginea. Detailed phylogenetic analyses showed that all mushroom samples fall into their current classification. Detection of the peptide toxins revealed the presence of amatoxins and phallotoxins in A. exitialis and A. fuliginea. In addition, toxic α-amanitin was identified in a new provisional species, Amanita sp.1, with the highest toxin quantity. Molecular identification confirmed that the mushrooms ingested by the patients were members of the lethal amanitas in the sections Amanita and Phalloideae. In Thailand, the presence of A. exitialis was reported here for the first time and all three poisonous mushroom species provided new and informative data for clinical studies.

  13. 灰花纹鹅膏菌及其生态习性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹福祥; 张志光; 张晓元; 陈作红

    2001-01-01

    灰花纹鹅膏菌Amanita fuliginea Hongo的分类地位和生态习性国内一直没有详细报道.用形态解剖、HPLC和种群生态学研究方法对其研究表明:日本学者Hongo对该菌的分类是正确的;它的毒素含量与欧洲的主要种毒鹅膏菌Amanita phalloides(Fr.∶Fr.)Link毒素含量相当,甚至更高.湘东湘南丘陵针栎混交林非常适宜该菌生长发育与演化.

  14. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN EDIBLE MUSHROOMS BY MICROWAVE DIGESTION AND FLAME ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiana Radulescu; Claudia Stihi; Valerica Gh. Cimpoca; Popescu, Ion V.; Gabriela Busuioc; Ana Irina Gheboianu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu) content of the fruiting bodies (cap and stipe) of four species (Amanita caesarea, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fistulina hepatica and Armillariella mellea) and their substrate, collected from forest sites in Dâmboviţa County, Romania. The elements were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) after microwave assisted digestion. From the same collecting point were taken n = 5 samples of young and...

  15. Toxic Insecticidal Effects of Composite Biological Extract on Ambrostoma quadriimpressum Motschlsky%复合生物提取物对榆紫叶甲毒杀效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓楠; 杨绍斌

    2014-01-01

    为研究大型真菌和植物提取物的杀虫效果,筛选了12种真菌和17种植物,选定橙黄鹅膏菌[A-manita citrina (Schaeff.) Pers. ex S. F. Gray]、艾蒿(Artemisia argyi)和橙黄鹅膏菌和艾蒿的复合提取物测定其对榆紫叶甲(Ambrostoma quadriimpressum Motschlsky)的杀虫效果。急性毒性试验结果表明,橙黄鹅膏菌提取物、艾蒿提取物和复合提取物对榆紫叶甲均有毒杀作用,橙黄鹅膏菌提取物的12、24、48、72 h半致死浓度(LC50)分别是17.889、16.521、14.688、13.588 mg∕mL;艾蒿提取物的12、24、48、72 h LC50分别是3.555、2.764、1.784、1.436 mg∕mL;橙黄鹅膏菌和艾蒿的复合提取物的12、24、48、72 h LC50分别是16.317、15.193、14.028、13.503 mg∕mL;橙黄鹅膏菌提取物和艾蒿提取物无拮抗作用,且12、24 h呈增效作用;短时间大剂量使用杀虫效果更好。%In order to study toxic insecticidal effects of the extracts of several large fungi and plant, 12 fungi and 17 plants were selected. The extract of Amanita citrina (Schaeff.) Pers. ex S. F. Gray and the extract of Artemisia argyi and the mixed extract of Amanita citrina (Schaeff.) Pers. ex S. F. Gray and Artemisia argyi was used to do the acute toxicity test on Ambrostoma quadriimpressum Motschlsky. The results showed that the extract of Amanita citrina (Schaeff.) Pers. ex S. F. Gray and Artemisia argyi and the mixed extract of Amanita citrina (Schaeff.) Pers. ex S. F. Gray and Artemisia argyi had insecticidal effects. For the acute toxicity test on Amanita citrine(Schaeff.) Pers. ex S. F. Gray, the LC50 on 12, 24, 48 and 72 h was 17.889, 16.521, 14.688 and 13.588 mg∕mL. For the acute toxicity test on Artemisia argyi, the LC50 on 12, 24, 48 and 72 h was 3.555, 2.764, 1.784 and 1.436 mg∕mL. For the acute toxicity test on the mixed extract of Amanita citrina (Schaeff.) Pers. ex S. F. Gray and Artemisia argyi,the LC50 on 12,24,48 and 72 h was 16.317 15.193, 14.028l

  16. Larvicidal efficiency of the mushroom Amanitamuscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against the mosquito Culexquinquefasciatus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We report the larvicidal activity of two formulations from Amanita muscariaagainst Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as the viability of the aqueous extract after storage. METHODS The larvicidal activity of aqueous extract and powder from A. muscaria, and the viability of the aqueous extract after storage, were evaluated. RESULTS The aqueous extract caused larval deaths, which varied from 16.4% to 88.4%. The efficiency of the powder varied from 29.2% to 82.8%. Storage did not interfere with the larvicidal efficiency of the aqueous extract of A. muscaria. CONCLUSIONS These results show the potential of A. muscariato control C. quinquefasciatus.

  17. Muscimol as an ionotropic GABA receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Graham A R

    2014-10-01

    Muscimol, a psychoactive isoxazole from Amanita muscaria and related mushrooms, has proved to be a remarkably selective agonist at ionotropic receptors for the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. This historic overview highlights the discovery and development of muscimol and related compounds as a GABA agonist by Danish and Australian neurochemists. Muscimol is widely used as a ligand to probe GABA receptors and was the lead compound in the development of a range of GABAergic agents including nipecotic acid, tiagabine, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol, (Gaboxadol(®)) and 4-PIOL.

  18. III. MYCORRHIZAE IN AGROFORESTRY: A CASE-STUDY

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    S.T. NUHAMARA

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Census of mycorrhizae in Shorea javanica agroforests has been made periodically in the district of Krui, Lampung, Sumatra. Amanita hemibapha (Amanitaceae, Cantharellus cibarius (Cantharella-ceae, Lactarius spp., Russula spp. (Russulaceae and Scleroderma sp. (Sclerodermataceae were commonly encountered on the agroforest floor. These mycorrhizal fungi are naturally associated with the planted trees. The significance of mycorrhizae for the maximization of growth and sustained productivity of resin is discussed as well as the need to design well defined agroforestry systems to facilitate growth and to improve production management techniques. INTRODU

  19. Increased trehalose biosynthesis in Hartig net hyphae of ectomycorrhizas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mónica Fajardo; Männer, Philipp; Willmann, Anita; Hampp, Rüdiger; Nehls, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    To obtain photoassimilates in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, the fungus has to create a strong sink, for example, by conversion of plant-derived hexoses into fungus-specific compounds. Trehalose is present in large quantities in Amanita muscaria and may thus constitute an important carbon sink. In Amanita muscaria-poplar (Populus tremula x tremuloides) ectomycorrhizas, the transcript abundances of genes encoding key enzymes of fungal trehalose biosynthesis, namely trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) and trehalose phosphorylase (TP), were increased. When mycorrhizas were separated into mantle and Hartig net, TPS, TPP and TP expression was specifically enhanced in Hartig net hyphae. Compared with the extraradical mycelium, TPS and TPP expression was only slightly increased in the fungal sheath, while the increase in the expression of TP was more pronounced. TPS enzyme activity was also elevated in Hartig net hyphae, displaying a direct correlation between transcript abundance and turnover rate. In accordance with enhanced gene expression and TPS activity, trehalose content was 2.7 times higher in the Hartig net. The enhanced trehalose biosynthesis at the plant-fungus interface indicates that trehalose is a relevant carbohydrate sink in symbiosis. As sugar and nitrogen supply affected gene expression only slightly, the strongly increased expression of the investigated genes in mycorrhizas is presumably developmentally regulated.

  20. [Poisoning with selected mushrooms with neurotropic and hallucinogenic effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Beata; Ferenc, Tomasz; Kusowska, Joanna; Ciećwierz, Julita; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Picking mushrooms, especially in summer and autumn, is still very popular in Poland. Despite raising awareness of poisonous mushrooms in the Polish society, year after year hospitals treat many patients diagnosed with poisoning with the most common toxic species of mushroom found in our country. Furthermore, growing interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms among young people has become a serious medical problem of our time. Websites make it incredibly easy for people to obtain information on the morphology and appearance of mushrooms with psychoactive properties, which leads inexperienced pickers to misidentification, resulting frequently in a fatal outcome. The article explores the subject of poisoning with the most common mushrooms with neurotropic effects, these are: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Inocybe rubescens, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe rivulosa and Psilocybe semilanceata. Toxins found in these species show symptoms that affect the central nervous system, parasympathetic system as well as the gastro-intestinal system. The effects of poisoning in the mushroom species mentioned above are mild in general, liver and kidney damage occur rarely, but the symptoms depend on both the dosage of the consumed toxins and individual susceptibility. In most cases the treatment is of symptomatic nature. There is no specific treatment. Medical procedures mainly involve induced gastrolavage--stomach pumping (providing that the patient is conscious), prescription of active carbon as well as replacement of lost body fluids and electrolytes. If the muscarinic symptoms prevail it is generally advised to dose atropine. Patients showing the signs of hyperactivity receive tranquilizers or narcoleptics to eliminate psychotic symptoms.

  1. Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild Mushrooms

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    Sudip Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in toxicological analysis. Studies on the detection of clobenzorex and its metabolites within a systematic toxicological analysis procedure by GC-MS and by immunoassay and studies on the detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin in urine by atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H H; Kraemer, T; Ledvinka, O; Schmitt, C J; Weber, A A

    1997-02-07

    GC-MS is the method of choice for toxicological analysis of toxicants volatile in GC while non-volatile and/or thermally labile toxicants need LC-MS for their determination. Studies are presented on the toxicological detection of the amphetamine-like anorectic clobenzorex in urine by GC-MS after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation and by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA, TDx (meth)amphetamine II). After ingestion of 60 mg of clobenzorex, the parent compound and/or its metabolites could be detected by GC-MS for up to 84 h or by FPIA for up to 60 h. Since clobenzorex shows no cross-reactivity with the used immunoassay, the N-dealkylated metabolite amphetamine is responsible for the positive TDx results. The intake of clobenzorex instead of amphetamine can be differentiated by GC-MS detection of hydroxyclobenzorex which is detectable for at least as long as amphetamine. In addition, the described GC-MS procedure allows the simultaneous detection of most of the toxicologically relevant drugs. Furthermore, studies are described on the atmospheric pressure ionization electrospray LC-MS detection of alpha- and beta-amanitin, toxic peptides of amanita mushrooms, in urine after solid-phase extraction on RP-18 columns. Using the single ion monitoring mode with the ions m/z 919 and 920 the amanitins could be detected down to 10 ng/ml of urine which allows us to diagnose intoxications with amanita mushrooms.

  3. A Simple and High-Throughput Analysis of Amatoxins and Phallotoxins in Human Plasma, Serum and Urine Using UPLC-MS/MS Combined with PRiME HLB μElution Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Haijiao; Zhou, Shuang; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Yizhe; Yao, Qunmei; Sun, Chengye

    2016-05-04

    Amatoxins and phallotoxins are toxic cyclopeptides found in the genus Amanita and are among the predominant causes of fatal food poisoning in China. In the treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning, an early and definite diagnosis is necessary for a successful outcome, which has prompted the development of protocols for the fast and confirmatory determination of amatoxins and phallotoxins in human biological fluids. For this purpose, a simple, rapid and sensitive multiresidue UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of α-amanitin, β-amanitin, γ-amanitin, phalloidin (PHD) and phallacidin (PCD) in human plasma, serum and urine was developed and validated. The diluted plasma, serum and urine samples were directly purified with a novel PRiME technique on a 96-well μElution plate platform, which allowed high-throughput sample processing and low reagent consumption. After purification, a UPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed using positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. This method fulfilled the requirements of a validation test, with good results for the limit of detection (LOD), lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), accuracy, intra- and inter-assay precision, recovery and matrix effects. All of the analytes were confirmed and quantified in authentic plasma, serum and urine samples obtained from cases of poisoning using this method. Using the PRiME μElution technique for quantification reduces labor and time costs and represents a suitable method for routine toxicological and clinical emergency analysis.

  4. Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

  5. A Simple and High-Throughput Analysis of Amatoxins and Phallotoxins in Human Plasma, Serum and Urine Using UPLC-MS/MS Combined with PRiME HLB μElution Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amatoxins and phallotoxins are toxic cyclopeptides found in the genus Amanita and are among the predominant causes of fatal food poisoning in China. In the treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning, an early and definite diagnosis is necessary for a successful outcome, which has prompted the development of protocols for the fast and confirmatory determination of amatoxins and phallotoxins in human biological fluids. For this purpose, a simple, rapid and sensitive multiresidue UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of α-amanitin, β-amanitin, γ-amanitin, phalloidin (PHD and phallacidin (PCD in human plasma, serum and urine was developed and validated. The diluted plasma, serum and urine samples were directly purified with a novel PRiME technique on a 96-well μElution plate platform, which allowed high-throughput sample processing and low reagent consumption. After purification, a UPLC-MS/MS analysis was performed using positive electrospray ionization (ESI+ in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode. This method fulfilled the requirements of a validation test, with good results for the limit of detection (LOD, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ, accuracy, intra- and inter-assay precision, recovery and matrix effects. All of the analytes were confirmed and quantified in authentic plasma, serum and urine samples obtained from cases of poisoning using this method. Using the PRiME μElution technique for quantification reduces labor and time costs and represents a suitable method for routine toxicological and clinical emergency analysis.

  6. alpha-Amanitin induced apoptosis in primary cultured dog hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szelag

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Amatoxin poisoning is caused by mushroom species belonging to the genera Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota with the majority of lethal mushroom exposures attributable to Amanita phalloides. High mortality rate in intoxications with these mushrooms is principally a result of the acute liver failure following significant hepatocyte damage due to hepatocellular uptake of amatoxins. A wide variety of amatoxins have been isolated; however, alpha-amanitin (alpha-AMA appears to be the primary toxin. Studies in vitro and in vivo suggest that alpha-AMA does not only cause hepatocyte necrosis, but also may lead to apoptotic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complex hepatocyte apoptosis in alpha-AMA cytotoxicity. All experiments were performed on primary cultured canine hepatocytes. The cells were incubated for 12 h with alpha-AMA at a final concentration of 1, 5, 10 and 20 microM. Viability test (MTT assay, apoptosis evaluation (TUNEL reaction, detection of DNA laddering and electron microscopy were performed at 6 and 12 h of exposure to alpha-AMA. There was a clear correlation between hepatocyte viability, concentration of alpha-AMA and time of exposure to this toxin. The decline in cultured dog hepatocyte viability during the exposure to alpha-AMA is most likely preceded by enhanced cellular apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that apoptosis might contribute to pathogenesis of the severe liver injury in the course of amanitin intoxication, particularly during the early phase of poisoning.

  7. Influence of autoclaved saprotrophic fungal mycelia on proteolytic activity in ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna; Dahm, Hanna; Werner, Antoni

    2007-07-01

    The production of proteolytic enzymes by several strains of ectomycorrhizal fungi i.e., Amanita muscaria (16-3), Laccaria laccata (9-12), L. laccata (9-1), Suillus bovinus (15-4), Suillus bovinus (15-3), Suillus luteus (14-7) on mycelia of Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma virens and Mucor hiemalis and sodium caseinate, yeast extract was evaluated. The strains of A. muscaria (16-3) and L. laccata (9-12) were characterized by the highest activity of the acidic and neutral proteases. Taking the mycelia of saprotrophic fungi into consideration, the mycelium of M. hiemalis was the best inductor for proteolytic activity. The examined ectomycorrhizal fungi exhibited higher activity of acidic proteases than neutral ones on the mycelia of saprotrophic fungi, which may imply the participation of acidic proteases in nutrition.

  8. Screening of ectomycorrhizal fungi for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Huettermann, A.; Majcherczyk, A. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik

    2000-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 16 species (27 strains) were tested for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Cultivated on a complex liquid medium, most of the fungi tested were able to metabolise these compounds. Approximately 50% of the benzo[a]pyrene was removed by strains of Amanita excelsa, Leccinum versipelle, Suillus grevillei, S. luteus, and S. variegatus during a 4-week incubation period. The same amount of phenanthrene was also metabolised by A. muscaria, Paxillus involutus, and S. grevillei. The degradation of the other two PAHs was, for the most part, less effective. Only S. grevillei was able to remove 50% of the pyrene, whereas Boletus edulis and A. muscaria removed 35% of the chrysene. (orig.)

  9. Thunder among the pines: defining a pan-Asian soma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannaway, Frederick

    2009-03-01

    Many ancient cultures and religions engaged in various techniques and used various substances to instigate religious experience and to alter perception. These techniques of psycho-sexual drug yoga reached an unparalleled level of sophistication that arose and was often cloaked in practical terms of alchemy and metallurgy. The Vedic tradition describes this plant-based ritualism as soma, which has been identified by Gordon Wasson as the mushroom Amanita muscaria. This article traces these soma-influenced sects of esoteric Buddhism that exerted influences from India, China and Tibet to Japan. Some of the key components, practices and symbolism are retained despite numerous cultural filters. Japan's tradition of esoteric Buddhism can thus be seen to have preserved and incorporated the soma/amrita mushroom lore into its own traditions of mountain ascetic mystics.

  10. Changes in hyphal morphology and activity of phenoloxidases during interactions between selected ectomycorrhizal fungi and two species of Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Joanna

    2011-06-01

    Patterns of phenoloxidase activity can be used to characterize fungi of different life styles, and changes in phenoloxidase synthesis were suspected to play a role in the interaction between ectomycorrhizal and two species of Trichoderma. Confrontation between the ectomycorrhizal fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria laccata with species of Trichoderma resulted in induction of laccase synthesis, and the laccase enzyme was bound to mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Tyrosinase release was noted only during interaction of L. laccata strains with Trichoderma harzianum and T. virens. Ectomycorrhizal fungi, especially strains of Suillus bovinus and S. luteus, inhibited growth of Trichoderma species and caused morphological changes in its colonies in the zone of interaction. In contrast, hyphal changes occurred less often in the ectomycorrhizal fungi tested. Species of Suillus are suggested to present a different mechanism in their interaction with other fungi than A. muscaria and L. laccata.

  11. Influence of resting and pine sawdust application on chemical changes in post-agricultural soil and the ectomycorrhizal community of growing Scots pine saplings

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    Małecka Monika

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in chemical compounds and in ectomycorrhizal structure were determined for Scots pine growing on post agricultural soil lying fallow for 3, 6 and 15 years, after amendment with pine sawdust. Soil without any amendments was used as the control treatment. Comparing the ectomycorrhizal structure 15 years after the application of pine sawdust revealed no significant differences in abundance or species richness between soil with and without organic enrichment. The results showed that the ectomycorrhizal status depends on soil conditions (soil pH, nitrogen content, which remain unaffected by saw dust application. In all treatments, the most frequently occurring ectomycorrhizae genera were Dermocybe, Hebeloma, Suillus, Tomentella and Tricholoma. Two species (Paxillus involutus, Amanita muscaria were specific to the control plots that lay fallow for 15 years.

  12. Mycorrhizal and Saprophytic edible fungi as biological indicators for environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso, M.I.; Segovia, N.; Cervantes, M.L. [ININ, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs specific activities were determined in soil and in 137 mushroom samples belonging to 32 edible mushroom species from a forest ecosystem located in Mexico. Among all the species investigated, 15 were mycorrhizal fungi and 15 were saprophytes. {sup 40}K specific activities lay within a range from 332 to 2070 (Bq kg{sup -1}, dry weight), with the lower value corresponding to the saprophytic fungi Clitocybe gibba and the higher value to the ectomycorrhizal Amanita cesarea. The {sup 137}Cs concentration determined in mycorrhizal fungi was also higher than in saprophytes. The contribution from mushrooms to the dietary intake of {sup 40}K was estimated to be several times higher than the corresponding component of annual intake calculated for {sup 137}Cs. (orig.)

  13. Macrofungi in the lateritic scrub jungles of southwestern India

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    A. A. Greeshma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study on macrofungi in scrub jungles (with and without fire-impact in lateritic region of southwestern coast of India was carried out.  Out of 11 species in 10 genera recovered, six and five species were confined to scrub jungle and fire-impacted scrub jungle, respectively.  An ectomycorrhizal Amanita sp. was the most frequent in scrub jungle associated with exotic (Acacia auriculiformis and A. mangium and plantation (Anacardium occidentale trees.  Based on traditional knowledge, it is a highly edible and nutritional delicacy in the coastal regions.  Astraeus odoratus was another common ectomycorrhizal fungus in native trees Hopea ponga, which was recovered from the fire-impacted scrub jungle and is possibly edible.  Edible termite mound mushroom Termitomyces striatus was also common in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  Chlorophyllum molybdites was the most frequent mushroom in the fire-impacted scrub jungle.  

  14. Composición y cuantificación por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas de la fracción esterólica de once hongos colombianos

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    Augusto Rivera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La composición de la fracción esterólica de los hongos Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma lucidum, Amanita rubescens, Licoperdon perlatum, Lentinula edades, Coltricia hammata. Lacearía laccata, Suillus luteus, Panus panoides, Macrolepiota colombiana y Agaricus bisporus se estableció mediante la técnica combinada CG-EM. La cuantificación individual de los esteróles presentes en esta fracción se realizó igualmente por CG-EM usando estigmasterol como estándar interno. Los resultados demostraron qyxe. Agaricus bisporus solo contiene ergosterol y por ello, adicionalmente, se esmdio su fracción esterólica a diferentes etapas de desarrollo del hongo.

  15. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Solak, Mehmet Halil; Cetinkaya, Serap

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Al, Ca, Mg, and K in Agaricus campestris, Agrocybe cylindracea, Collybia dryophila, Helvella leucopus, Russula delica, Tricholoma auratum, Amanita ovoidea, Melanoleuca excissa, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula chloroides, Volvoriella gloiocephala, Lyophyllum decastes, Morcella angusticeps, Morchella esculenta and Morcella eximia collected from Isparta, Mugla, and Osmaniye provinces (Turkey) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion. The intake of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. cylindracea and H. leucopus (for Cd) for the consumer.

  16. Evaluation of metal concentration and antioxidant activity of three edible mushrooms from Mugla, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Semiz, Deniz Karsli; Solak, M Halil

    2010-05-01

    This study is designed for the determination of metal concentrations, antioxidant activity potentials and total phenolics of Amanita caesarea, Clitocybe geotropa and Leucoagaricus pudicus. Concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni) and five minor elements (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co) are determined. In the case of A. caesarea, Cr and Ni concentrations are found in a high level. Concentrations of the metals are found to be within safe limits for C. geotropa. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid test, L. pudicus showed the highest activity potential. In DPPH system, A. caesarea showed 79.4% scavenging ability. Additionally, reducing power and chelating capacity of the mushrooms increased with concentration. The strongest super-oxide anion scavenger was A. caesarea. In the case of total phenolics, L. pudicus found to have the highest content.

  17. Growth and Nutrition of Eucalypt Rooted Cuttings Promoted by Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Commercial Nurseries

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    Andrezza Mara Martins Gandini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF may improve the adaptation of eucalypts saplings to field conditions and allow more efficient fertilizer use. The effectiveness of EMF inoculum application in promoting fungal colonization, plant growth, nutrient uptake, and the quality of rooted cuttings was evaluated forEucalyptus urophylla under commercial nursery conditions. For inoculated treatments, fertilization of the sapling substrate was reduced by 50 %. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, wherein the factors were inoculum application rates of 0 (control, 5, 10, and 15 gel beads of calcium alginate containing the vegetative mycelium of Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces antracinus, Pisolithus microcarpus, andScleroderma areolatum, plus a non-inoculated treatment without fertilization reduction in the substrate (commercial. Ectomycorrhizal fungi increased plant growth and fungal colonization as well as N and K uptake evenly. The best plant growth and fungal colonization were observed for the highest application rate. The greatest growth and fungal colonization and contents of P, N, and K were observed at the 10-bead rate. Plant inoculation with Amanita muscaria, Elaphomyces anthracinus, and Scleroderma areolatum increased P concentrations and contents in a differential manner. The Dickson Quality Index was not affected by the type of fungi or by inoculum application rates. Eucalypt rooted cuttings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi and under half the amount of commercial fertilization had P, N, and K concentrations and contents greater than or equal to those of commercial plants and have high enough quality to be transplanted after 90 days.

  18. “Boletum medicatum”. La seta que mató al emperador Claudio / Boletum medicatum. The mushroom that killed the emperor Claudius

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    Joaquín Villalba Álvarez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Mucho se ha escrito a lo largo de los siglos sobre las circunstancias que rodearon la muerte del emperador romano Claudio (10 a. C. – 54 d. C.. El consenso general entre los historiadores antiguos que narran el episodio –Tácito, Suetonio y Dion Casio-, así como muchas otras referencias dispersas en la literatura latina nos llevan a pensar que su muerte se debió a una conspiración de su cuarta esposa, su sobrina Agripina, que le sirvió un plato de setas previamente envenenadas. Sin embargo, entre los estudiosos modernos hay quienes, como Grimm-Samuel, han barajado la posibilidad de que su muerte se debió a la ingesta (ya fuese premeditadamente, ya de manera accidental de setas venenosas, en concreto de la especie Amanita phalloides. Partiendo de diversos argumentos, ofrecemos nuestra opinión sobre el tema, que no difiere mucho de la que ofrecen los escritores de la Antigüedad.Summary: In the course of the centuries, many pages have been written on the circumstances surrounding the death of the Roman Emperor Claudius (10 BC – 54 AD. General agreement among ancient historians who relate us the story –Tacitus, Suetonius, Cassius Dio-, as well as the rest of scattered references in Latin literature induce us to think his death was due to his fourth wife’s conspiracy, his niece Agrippina, who served him a dish with previously poisoned mushrooms. Nevertheless, some of the scholars of our time, Grimm-Samuel for example, have considered the hypothesis that Claudius died because he ingested poisonous mushrooms (“either through criminal intent, or by sheer accident”, more specifically Amanita phalloides. Starting from different arguments, we offer our own point of view, which does not differ much from the ancient writers’ opinion.

  19. Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, John H

    2004-05-01

    It is usually believed that drugs of abuse are smuggled into the United States or are clandestinely produced for illicit distribution. Less well known is that many hallucinogens and dissociative agents can be obtained from plants and fungi growing wild or in gardens. Some of these botanical sources can be located throughout the United States; others have a more narrow distribution. This article reviews plants containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine, reversible type A monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), lysergic acid amide, the anticholinergic drugs atropine and scopolamine, or the diterpene salvinorin-A (Salvia divinorum). Also reviewed are mescaline-containing cacti, psilocybin/psilocin-containing mushrooms, and the Amanita muscaria and Amanita pantherina mushrooms that contain muscimol and ibotenic acid. Dangerous misidentification is most common with the mushrooms, but even a novice forager can quickly learn how to properly identify and prepare for ingestion many of these plants. Moreover, through the ever-expanding dissemination of information via the Internet, this knowledge is being obtained and acted upon by more and more individuals. This general overview includes information on the geographical range, drug content, preparation, intoxication, and the special health risks associated with some of these plants. Information is also offered on the unique issue of when bona fide religions use such plants as sacraments in the United States. In addition to the Native American Church's (NAC) longstanding right to peyote, two religions of Brazilian origin, the Santo Daime and the Uniao do Vegetal (UDV), are seeking legal protection in the United States for their use of sacramental dimethyltryptamine-containing "ayahuasca."

  20. Mercury in wild mushrooms and underlying soil substrate from Koszalin, North-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Jedrusiak, Aneta; Lipka, Krzysztof; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kawano, Masahide; Gucia, Magdalena; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Dadej, Monika

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury were determined by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AAS) in 221 caps and 221 stalks of 15 species of wild growing higher fungi/mushrooms and 221 samples of corresponding soil substrate collected in 1997-98 in Manowo County, near the city of Koszalin in North-central Poland. Mean mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of the mushroom species examined and soils varied between 30+/-31 and 920+/-280, 17+/-11 and 560+/-220, and 10+/-9 and 170+/-110 ng/g dry matter, respectively. Cap to stalk mercury concentration quotients were from 1.0+/-0.4 in poison pax (Paxillus involutus) to 2.8+/-0.7 in slippery jack (Suillus luteus). Brown cort (Cortinarius malicorius), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), orange-brown ringless amanita (A. fulva), red-aspen bolete (Leccinum rufum) and mutagen milk cap (Lactarius necator) contained the highest concentrations of mercury both in caps and stalks, and mean concentrations varied between 600+/-750 and 920+/-280 and 370+/-470 and 560+/-220 ng/g dry matter, respectively. An estimate of daily intake of mercury from mushroom consumption indicated that the flesh of edible species of mushrooms may not pose hazards to human health even at a maximum consumption rate of 28 g/day. However, it should be noted that mercury intake from other foods will augment the daily intake rates. Species such as the sickener (Russula emetica), Geranium-scented russula (R. fellea) and poison pax (P. involutus) did not concentrate mercury as evidenced from the bioconcentration factors (BCFs: concentrations in mushroom/concentration in soil substrate), which were less than 1. Similarly, red-hot milk cap (L. rufus), rickstone funnel cap (Clitocybe geotropa) and European cow bolete (S. bovinus) were observed to be weak accumulators of mercury. Fly agaric (A. muscaria) accumulated great concentrations of mercury with BCFs reaching 73+/-42 and 38+/-22 in caps and stalks, respectively. Mercury BCFs of between 4.0+/-2.3 and 23

  1. Feasibility of flotation concentration of fungal spores as a method to identify toxigenic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzle LJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lisa J Bazzle,1 Marc A Cubeta,2 Steven L Marks,1 David C Dorman3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Center for Integrated Fungal Research, 3Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Purpose: Mushroom poisoning is a recurring and challenging problem in veterinary medicine. Diagnosis of mushroom exposure in animals is hampered by the lack of rapid diagnostic tests. Our study evaluated the feasibility of using flotation concentration and microscopic evaluation of spores for mushroom identification. Evaluation of this method in living animals exposed to toxigenic mushrooms is limited by ethical constraints; therefore, we relied upon the use of an in vitro model that mimics the oral and gastric phases of digestion. Methods: In our study, mycologist-identified toxigenic (poisonous and nontoxigenic fresh mushrooms were collected in North Carolina, USA. In phase 1, quantitative spore recovery rates were determined following magnesium sulfate, modified Sheather's sugar solution, and zinc sulfate flotation (n=16 fungal species. In phase 2, mushrooms (n=40 fungal species were macerated and digested for up to 2 hours in a salivary and gastric juice simulant. The partially digested material was acid neutralized, filtered, and spores concentrated using zinc sulfate flotation followed by microscopic evaluation of spore morphology. Results: Mean spore recovery rates for the three flotation fluids ranged from 32.5% to 41.0% (P=0.82. Mean (± standard error of the mean Amanita spp. spore recovery rates were 38.1%±3.4%, 36.9%±8.6%, and 74.5%±1.6% (P=0.0012 for the magnesium sulfate, Sheather's sugar, and zinc sulfate solutions, respectively. Zinc sulfate flotation following in vitro acid digestion (phase 2 yielded spore numbers adequate for microscopic visualization in

  2. Differential effect of purified spruce chitinases and beta-1,3-glucanases on the activity of elicitors from ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, P; Hübner, B; Sirrenberg, A; Hager, A

    1997-07-01

    Two chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) and two beta-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.39) were purified from the culture medium of spruce (Picea abines [L.] Karst.) cells to study their role in modifying elicitors, cell walls, growth, and hyphal morphology of ectomycorrhizal fungi. The 36-kD class I chitinase (isoelectric point [pl] 8.0) and the 28-kD chitinase (pl 8.7) decreased the activity of elicitor preparations from Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull. ex Fries.) Quél., Amanita muscaria (L.) Pers., and Suillus variegatus (Sw.: Fr.) O.K., as demonstrated by using the elicitor-induced extracellular alkalinization in spruce cells as a test system. In addition, chitinases released monomeric products from the walls of these ectomycorrhizal fungi. The beta-1,3-glucanases (35 kD, pl 3.7 and 3.9), in contrast, had little influence on the activity of the fungal elicitors and released only from walls of A. muscaria some polymeric products. Furthermore, chitinases alone and in combination with beta-1,3-glucanases had no effect on the growth and morphology of the hyphae. Thus, it is suggested that apoplastic chitinases in the root cortex destroy elicitors from the ectomycorrhizal fungi without damaging the fungus. By this mechanism the host plant could attenuate the elicitor signal and adjust its own defense reactions to a level allowing symbiotic interaction.

  3. Mastering ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: the impact of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhiza formation is the consequence of a mutualistic interaction between certain soil fungi and plant roots that helps to overcome nutritional limitations faced by the respective partners. In symbiosis, fungi contribute to tree nutrition by means of mineral weathering and mobilization of nutrients from organic matter, and obtain plant-derived carbohydrates as a response. Support with easily degradable carbohydrates seems to be the driving force for fungi to undergo this type of interaction. As a consequence, the fungal hexose uptake capacity is strongly increased in Hartig net hyphae of the model fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria bicolor. Next to fast carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, storage carbohydrates are of special interest. In functional A. muscaria ectomycorrhizas, expression and activity of proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis is mainly localized in hyphae of the Hartig net, indicating an important function of trehalose in generation of a strong carbon sink by fungal hyphae. In symbiosis, fungal partners receive up to approximately 19 times more carbohydrates from their hosts than normal leakage of the root system would cause, resulting in a strong carbohydrate demand of infected roots and, as a consequence, a more efficient plant photosynthesis. To avoid fungal parasitism, the plant seems to have developed mechanisms to control carbohydrate drain towards the fungal partner and link it to the fungus-derived mineral nutrition. In this contribution, current knowledge on fungal strategies to obtain carbohydrates from its host and plant strategies to enable, but also to control and restrict (under certain conditions), carbon transfer are summarized.

  4. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schrey Silvia D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum. The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines. Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites.

  5. Study of the risk of heavy metal transfer to homoeopathic mother tinctures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, J; Werner, W; Huwer, A

    2012-04-01

    To assess the risk of heavy metal contamination of homoeopathic mother tinctures, 9 plant species and 1 fungus used in the manufacture of homoeopathic medicaments were investigated. Mother tinctures were prepared according to the manufacturing procedures described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The original herbal drug and the material processed during production were analysed for their cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) content. The plant components were harvested from 2 sites contaminated by different heavy metal exposure pathways and compared with reference material from Deutsche Homöopathie-Union (DHU). It was confirmed that in all cases a significant depletion of all heavy metals studied occurred during manufacture of the mother tincture, regardless of the starting material used. In all cases, most of the heavy metal content was retained in the press cake; low levels only were detected in the mother tincture. None of the mother tinctures of plant origin exceeded the required limits, not even those of plant starting materials originating from highly contaminated sites. Substantial heavy metal concentrations could only be detected in the mother tincture of the fungus Amanita muscaria, calculated from the dry weight of the starting material. According to the results obtained, a risk-based approach to heavy metal assessment is suggested where permanent control is focused on the heavy metals accumulating in organisms such as fungi.

  6. Auxofuran, a novel metabolite that stimulates the growth of fly agaric, is produced by the mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlinger, Julia; Schrey, Silvia D; Tarkka, Mika T; Hampp, Rüdiger; Kapur, Manmohan; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2006-05-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505 improves mycelial growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi and formation of ectomycorrhizas between Amanita muscaria and spruce but suppresses the growth of plant-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that it produces both fungal growth-stimulating and -suppressing compounds. The dominant fungal-growth-promoting substance produced by strain AcH 505, auxofuran, was isolated, and its effect on the levels of gene expression of A. muscaria was investigated. Auxofuran and its synthetic analogue 7-dehydroxy-auxofuran were most effective at a concentration of 15 microM, and application of these compounds led to increased lipid metabolism-related gene expression. Cocultivation of strain AcH 505 and A. muscaria stimulated auxofuran production by the streptomycete. The antifungal substances produced by strain AcH 505 were identified as the antibiotics WS-5995 B and C. WS-5995 B completely blocked mycelial growth at a concentration of 60 microM and caused a cell stress-related gene expression response in A. muscaria. Characterization of these compounds provides the foundation for molecular analysis of the fungus-bacterium interaction in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between fly agaric and spruce.

  7. Decomposition of /sup 14/C-labelled lignin, holocellulose and lignocellulose by mycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojanowski, J.; Huettermann, A.; Haider, K.

    1984-01-01

    Five different species of known ecto-mycorrhizal fungi: Cenococcum geophilum, Amanita muscaria, Tricholoma aurantium, Rhizopogon luteolus and Rhizopogon roseolus were studied for their ability to metabolize the major components of plant cell walls. All strains were able to decompose /sup 14/C-labelled plant lignin, /sup 14/C-lignocellulose and /sup 14/C-DHP-lignin at a rate which was lower than the one observed for the known white rot fungi Heterobasidion annosum and Sporotrichum pulverulentum. Also /sup 14/C-(U)-holocellulose was relatively less degradable for the mycorrhizal fungi than for the white rotters. On the other hand, aromatic monomers like /sup 14/C-vanillic acid were decomposed to a much higher extent by two species of mycorrhizal fungi compared to the activity observed for Heterobasidion annosum. The results of the experiments reveal that these stains of mycorrhizal fungi are well able to utilize the major components of plant material and thus can contribute to litter decomposition in the forest floor.

  8. Determination of muscimol and ibotenic acid in mushrooms of Amanitaceae by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliwoda, Anna; Zielińska, Katarzyna; Halama, Marek; Wieczorek, Piotr P

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the CZE method for rapid quantitative and qualitative determination of ibotenic acid and muscimol in Amanita mushrooms naturally grown in Poland was developed. The investigations included the species of A. muscaria, A. pantherina, and A. citrina, collected in southern region of Poland. The studied hallucinogenic compounds were effectively extracted with a mixture of methanol and 1 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 3 (1:1 v/v) using ultrasound-assisted procedure. The obtained extracts were separated and determined by CZE utilizing a 25 mM sodium phosphate running buffer adjusted to pH 3 with 5% content of acetonitrile v/v. The calibration curves for both analytes were linear in the range of 2.5-7000 μg/mL. The intraday and interday variations of quantitative data were 1.0 and 2.5% RSD, respectively. The recovery values of analyzed compounds were over 87%. The identities of ibotenic acid and muscimol were confirmed by UV spectra, migration time, and measurements after addition of external standard.

  9. Influence of fertilization of nitrogen on the mycorrhiza-system of spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, I.; Kottke, I.; Oberwinkler, F.; Horsch, F.; Filby, W.G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A.

    1988-04-01

    A laboratory experiment was carried out with different nitrogen forms (NH/sub 4//sup +/, NO/sub 3//sup -/) and different nitrogen levels. For each nitrogen form three concentrations were chosen. Spruce seedlings inoculated with Pisolithus tinctorius or Amanita muscaria were placed in growth chambers with the different nitrogen-variants. After 7 weeks most seedlings in the high ammonium concentration were dead. There was no significant difference in the growth rate of the roots with exception of the high ammonium variant. The greatest total root length was reached in the low variants, also the highest amount of short roots. The shoot/root-ratio is positively correlated with the ammonium concentration. With increasing nitrate concentrations, the shoot/root-ratio also increases, but the differences are not significant. In the low and middle variants, there were well developed mycorrhizae with a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The greatest amount of mycorrhizae was found in the low nitrate variant. Light microscopic investigations revealed no differences in the structure of the mycorrhizae from the different variants. Quantitative analyses are not possible with the used method.

  10. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séne, Seynabou; Avril, Raymond; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, Alexandre; Ndiaye, Cheikh; Diédhiou, Abdala Gamby; Sadio, Oumar; Courtecuisse, Régis; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Selosse, Marc-André; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-10-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula cremeolilacina, Inocybe littoralis, Inocybe xerophytica, Melanogaster sp., and Scleroderma bermudense) and one EM fungal species from sclerotia (Cenococcum geophilum). After internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing, the EM root tips fell into 15 EM fungal taxa including 14 basidiomycetes and 1 ascomycete identified. Sporocarp survey only weakly reflected belowground assessment of the EM fungal community, although 5 fruiting species were found on roots. Seagrape seedlings and mature trees had very similar communities of EM fungi, dominated by S. bermudense, R. cremeolilacina, and two Thelephoraceae: shared species represented 93 % of the taxonomic EM fungal diversity and 74 % of the sampled EM root tips. Furthermore, some significant differences were observed between the frequencies of EM fungal taxa on mature trees and seedlings. The EM fungal community composition also varied between the four investigated sites. We discuss the reasons for such a species-poor community and the possible role of common mycorrhizal networks linking seagrape seedlings and mature trees in regeneration of coastal forests.

  11. Gender differences and regionalization of the cultural significance of wild mushrooms around La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, A; Torres-García, E A; Kong, A; Estrada-Torres, A; Caballero, J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cultural significance of wild mushrooms in 10 communities on the slopes of La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala. The frequency and order of mention of each mushroom species in interviews of 200 individuals were used as indicators of the relative cultural significance of each species. A X(2) analysis was used to compare the frequency of mention of each species between males and females, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Traditional names for mushroom species were documented and frequency of mention assessed through multivariate statistics. The fungi with highest frequency of mention were Amanita basii, Lyophyllum decastes, Boletus pinophilus, Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus cibarius complex. We found significant differences in the frequency of mention of different fungi by males and females but no significant difference was found for the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Principal component analysis suggested a cultural regionalization of La Malinche volcano communities based on preferences for consumption and use of traditional names. We observed two groups: one formed by communities on the eastern part of the volcano (with mixed cultures) and the other including communities on the western slope (ethnic Nahua towns). San Isidro Buensuceso is the most distinct community, according to the criteria in this study.

  12. Influence of commonly used clinical antidotes on antioxidant systems in human hepatocyte culture intoxicated with alpha-amanitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalan, Jan; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomułkiewicz, Agnieszka; Sozański, Tomasz; Szeląg, Adam; Dziegięl, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    α-Amanitin (α-AMA) is the main toxin of Amanita phalloides and its subspecies (A. virosa and A. verna). The primary mechanism of α-AMA toxicity is associated with protein synthesis blocking in hepatocytes. Additionally, α-AMA exhibits prooxidant properties that may contribute to its severe hepatotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of α-AMA on lipid peroxidation and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in human hepatocyte culture. The effects of benzylpenicillin (BPCN), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (ACC), and silibinin (SIL) on SOD and CAT activities and on lipid peroxidation in human hepatocyte culture intoxicated with α-AMA were also examined. In human hepatocyte culture, 48-hour exposure to α-AMA at a 2-μM concentration caused an increase in SOD activity, a reduction of CAT activity, and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation. Changes in SOD and CAT activity caused by α-AMA could probably enhance lipid peroxidation by increased generation of hydrogen peroxide combined with reduced detoxification of that oxygen radical. The addition of antidotes (ACC or SIL) to the culture medium provided more effective protection against lipid peroxidation in human hepatocytes intoxicated with α-AMA than the addition of BPCN, possessing no antioxidant properties.

  13. Legalon® SIL: the antidote of choice in patients with acute hepatotoxicity from amatoxin poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengs, Ulrich; Pohl, Ralf-Torsten; Mitchell, Todd

    2012-08-01

    More than 90% of all fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide are due to amatoxin containing species that grow abundantly in Europe, South Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Many cases have also been reported in North America. Initial symptoms of abdominal cramps, vomiting, and a severe cholera-like diarrhea generally do not manifest until at least six to eight hours following ingestion and can be followed by renal and hepatic failure. Outcomes range from complete recovery to fulminant organ failure and death which can sometimes be averted by liver transplant. There are no controlled clinical studies available due to ethical reasons, but uncontrolled trials and case reports describe successful treatment with intravenous silibinin (Legalon® SIL). In nearly 1,500 documented cases, the overall mortality in patients treated with Legalon® SIL is less than 10% in comparison to more than 20% when using penicillin or a combination of silibinin and penicillin. Silibinin, a proven antioxidative and anti-inflammatory acting flavonolignan isolated from milk thistle extracts, has been shown to interact with specific hepatic transport proteins blocking cellular amatoxin re-uptake and thus interrupting enterohepatic circulation of the toxin. The addition of intravenous silibinin to aggressive intravenous fluid management serves to arrest and allow reversal of the manifestation of fulminant hepatic failure, even in severely poisoned patients. These findings together with the available clinical experience justify the use of silibinin as Legalon® SIL in Amanita poisoning cases.

  14. Hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher basidiomycetes) on α-amanitin-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Zeng, Jun; Hu, Jinsong; Liao, Qiong; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Zuohong

    2013-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of G. lucidum aqueous extracts (GLEs) on liver injury induced by α-amanitin (α-AMA) in mice and to analyze the possible hepatoprotective mechanisms related to radical scavenging activity. Mice were treated with α-AMA prepared from Amanita exitialis and then administrated with GLE after the α-AMA injection. The hepatoprotective activity of the GLE was compared with the reference drug silibinin (SIL). α-AMA induced a significant elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and provoked a significant reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and a significant increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver homogenate. Treatment with GLE or SIL significantly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased MDA content in liver compared with the α-AMA control group. The histopathological examination of liver sections was consistent with that of biochemical parameters. The results demonstrated that GLE induces hepatoprotective effects on acute liver injury induced by α-AMA; these protective effects may be related in part to the antioxidant properties of GLE.

  15. Hepatoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Action of Triterpenoids from Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes) on α-Amanitin-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huihui; Tang, Shanshan; Huang, Zhaoqin; Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    Most fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by species of the genus Amanita; the amatoxins are responsible for acute liver failure and death in humans. Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of triterpenoids from G. lucidum on liver injury induced by a-amanitin (α-AMA) in mice and the mechanisms of action of these triterpenoids, including radical scavenging and antiapoptosis activities. Mice were treated with α-AMA, followed by G. lucidum total triterpenoids or individual triterpenoids, and their hepatoprotective effects were compared with those of the reference drug silibinin (SIL). Treatment with SIL, G. lucidum total triterpenoids, and each of the 5 individual triterpenoids significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate ami- notransaminase concentrations and reduced mortality rates 20-40%. Moreover, triterpenoids and SIL significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and reduced malondialdehyde content in livers. Treatment with ganoderic acid C2 significantly inhibited DNA fragmentation and decreased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities. The results demonstrated that triterpenoids have hepatoprotective effects on α-AMA-induced liver injury and that their hepatoprotective mechanisms may be the result of their antioxidative and radical scavenging activities and their inhibition of apoptosis.

  16. [Toxic fungi in Buenos Aires City and surroundings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Gonzalo M; Iannone, Leopoldo; Novas, María V; Carmarán, Cecilia; Romero, Andrea I; López, Silvia E; Lechner, Bernardo E

    2013-01-01

    In Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales,Universidad de Buenos Aires there is a service called Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos, directed by researchers of the Program of Medicinal Plants and Fungi Involved in Biological Degradation (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET) that assist hospitals and other health establishments, identifying the different samples of fungi and providing information about their toxicity, so that patients can receive the correct treatment. The objective of the present study was to analyze all the cases received from 1985 to 2012. This analysis permitted the confection of a table identifying the most common toxic species. The information gathered revealed that 47% of the patients were under 18 years of age and had eaten basidiomes; the remaining 53% were adults who insisted that they were able to distinguish edible from toxic mushrooms. Chlorophyllum molybdites turned out to be the main cause of fungal intoxication in Buenos Aires, which is commonly confused with Macrolepiota procera, an edible mushroom. In the second place Amanita phalloides was registered, an agaric known to cause severe symptoms after a long period of latency (6-10 hours), and which can lead to hepatic failure even requiring a transplant to prevent severe internal injuries or even death, is not early and correctly treated.

  17. Mycorrhizal detection of native and non-native truffles in a historic arboretum and the discovery of a new North American species, Tuber arnoldianum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Rosanne A; Zurier, Hannah; Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E; Pfister, Donald H

    2016-10-01

    During a study comparing the ectomycorrhizal root communities in a native forest with those at the Arnold Arboretum in Massachusetts (USA), the European species Tuber borchii was detected on the roots of a native red oak in the arboretum over two successive years. Since T. borchii is an economically important edible truffle native to Europe, we conducted a search of other roots in the arboretum to determine the extent of colonization. We also wanted to determine whether other non-native Tuber species had been inadvertently introduced into this 140-year-old Arboretum because many trees were imported into the site with intact soil and roots prior to the 1921 USDA ban on these horticultural practices in the USA. While T. borchii was not found on other trees, seven other native and exotic Tuber species were detected. Among the North American Tuber species detected from ectomycorrhizae, we also collected ascomata of a previously unknown species described here as Tuber arnoldianum. This new species was found colonizing both native and non-native tree roots. Other ectomycorrhizal taxa that were detected included basidiomycetes in the genera Amanita, Russula, Tomentella, and ascomycetes belonging to Pachyphlodes, Helvella, Genea, and Trichophaea. We clarify the phylogenetic relationships of each of the Tuber species detected in this study, and we discuss their distribution on both native and non-native host trees.

  18. Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

    2013-01-01

    Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  19. Auxofuran, a Novel Metabolite That Stimulates the Growth of Fly Agaric, Is Produced by the Mycorrhiza Helper Bacterium Streptomyces Strain AcH 505†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedlinger, Julia; Schrey, Silvia D.; Tarkka, Mika T.; Hampp, Rüdiger; Kapur, Manmohan; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The mycorrhiza helper bacterium Streptomyces strain AcH 505 improves mycelial growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi and formation of ectomycorrhizas between Amanita muscaria and spruce but suppresses the growth of plant-pathogenic fungi, suggesting that it produces both fungal growth-stimulating and -suppressing compounds. The dominant fungal-growth-promoting substance produced by strain AcH 505, auxofuran, was isolated, and its effect on the levels of gene expression of A. muscaria was investigated. Auxofuran and its synthetic analogue 7-dehydroxy-auxofuran were most effective at a concentration of 15 μM, and application of these compounds led to increased lipid metabolism-related gene expression. Cocultivation of strain AcH 505 and A. muscaria stimulated auxofuran production by the streptomycete. The antifungal substances produced by strain AcH 505 were identified as the antibiotics WS-5995 B and C. WS-5995 B completely blocked mycelial growth at a concentration of 60 μM and caused a cell stress-related gene expression response in A. muscaria. Characterization of these compounds provides the foundation for molecular analysis of the fungus-bacterium interaction in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between fly agaric and spruce. PMID:16672502

  20. Production of fungal and bacterial growth modulating secondary metabolites is widespread among mycorrhiza-associated streptomycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies on mycorrhiza associated bacteria suggest that bacterial-fungal interactions play important roles during mycorrhiza formation and affect plant health. We surveyed Streptomyces Actinobacteria, known as antibiotic producers and antagonists of fungi, from Norway spruce mycorrhizas with predominantly Piloderma species as the fungal partner. Results Fifteen Streptomyces isolates exhibited substantial variation in inhibition of tested mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi (Amanita muscaria, Fusarium oxysporum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Heterobasidion abietinum, Heterobasidion annosum, Laccaria bicolor, Piloderma croceum). The growth of the mycorrhiza-forming fungus Laccaria bicolor was stimulated by some of the streptomycetes, and Piloderma croceum was only moderately affected. Bacteria responded to the streptomycetes differently than the fungi. For instance the strain Streptomyces sp. AcM11, which inhibited most tested fungi, was less inhibitory to bacteria than other tested streptomycetes. The determined patterns of Streptomyces-microbe interactions were associated with distinct patterns of secondary metabolite production. Notably, potentially novel metabolites were produced by strains that were less antagonistic to fungi. Most of the identified metabolites were antibiotics (e.g. cycloheximide, actiphenol) and siderophores (e.g. ferulic acid, desferroxiamines). Plant disease resistance was activated by a single streptomycete strain only. Conclusions Mycorrhiza associated streptomycetes appear to have an important role in inhibiting the growth of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, our study indicates that the Streptomyces strains, which are not general antagonists of fungi, may produce still un-described metabolites. PMID:22852578

  1. Acute Pancreatitis Caused By Mushroom Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Karahan Research Fellow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the more than 5000 species of mushrooms known, 100 types are toxic and approximately 10% of these toxic types can cause fatal toxicity. A type of mushroom called Amanita phalloides is responsible for 95% of toxic mushroom poisonings. In this article, we report 2 cases of mushroom poisonings caused by Lactarius volemus, known as Tirmit by the local people. The patient and his wife were admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting 20 hours after consuming Lactarius volemus, an edible type of mushroom. The patients reported that they had been collecting this mushroom from the mountains and eating them for several years but had never developed any clinicopathology to date. Further examination of the patients revealed a very rare case of acute pancreatitis due to mushroom intoxication. The male patient was admitted to the intensive care unit while his wife was followed in the internal medicine service, because of her relative mild clinical symptoms. Both patients recovered without sequelae and were discharged. In this article, we aimed to emphasize that gastrointestinal symptoms are often observed in mushroom intoxications and can be confused with acute pancreatitis, thus leading to misdiagnosis of patients. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve patients’ prognosis and prevent the development of complications.

  2. Photophysical properties of betaxanthins: Vulgaxanthin I in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendel, Monika [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Szot, Dominika; Starzak, Karolina; Tuwalska, Dorota [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Institute C-1, Section of Analytical Chemistry, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, Cracow 31-155 (Poland); Gapinski, Jacek [Molecular Biophysics Department, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Naskrecki, Ryszard [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Prukala, Dorota; Sikorski, Marek [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 89b, Poznan 61-614 (Poland); Wybraniec, Slawomir [Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Institute C-1, Section of Analytical Chemistry, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, Cracow 31-155 (Poland); Burdzinski, Gotard, E-mail: gotardb@amu.edu.pl [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznan 61-614 (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Betaxanthins are yellow pigments present in Caryophyllales plants and some higher fungi. We characterize photophysical properties of vulgaxanthin I and extracts of Amanita muscaria L. Vulgaxanthin I photoexcitation at λ{sub exc}=476 nm leads to the S{sub 1} excited state with the S{sub 1}→S{sub n} absorption bands at ca. 390 and 920 nm in both aqueous and alcoholic solutions. The S{sub 1} state lifetimes (2.9 and 37 ps in water) imply that vulgaxanthin I exists in two stereoisomeric forms. An increase in the solvent viscosity extends the S{sub 1} lifetimes and fluorescence quantum yields, probably due to hindered internal rotations in the dye. Internal conversion is the major S{sub 1} state deactivation path, with fluorescence being a minor channel, and S{sub 1}→T{sub 1} intersystem crossing not observed. Betaxanthins extracted from A. muscaria L. have similar properties. Efficient dissipation of the absorbed light energy as heat supports the postulate of photoprotective role of betaxanthins in vivo. - Highlights: • Betaxanthin S{sub 1} state deactivation mechanism is mainly radiationless. • S{sub 1} state shows absorption band with maxima at about 390 nm and 920 nm. • Solvent viscosity affects S{sub 1} state lifetime and fluorescence quantum yield. • Addition of potassium iodide to solution enhances ISC in betaxanthin.

  3. Ectomycorrhizal identification in environmental samples of tree roots by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica ePena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Roots of forest trees are associated with various ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal species that are involved in nutrient exchange between host plant and the soil compartment. The identification of ECM fungi in small environmental samples is difficult. The present study tested the feasibility of attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy followed by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA to discriminate in situ collected ECM fungal species. Root tips colonized by distinct ECM fungal species, i.e., Amanita rubescens, Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius subdulcis, Russula ochroleuca, and Xerocomus pruinatus were collected in mono-specific beech (Fagus sylvatica and mixed deciduous forests in different geographic areas to investigate the environmental variability of the ECM FTIR signatures.A clear HCA discrimination was obtained for ECM fungal species independent of individual provenance. Environmental variability neither limited the discrimination between fungal species nor provided sufficient resolution to discern species sub-clusters for different sites. However, the de-convoluted FTIR spectra contained site-related spectral information for fungi with wide nutrient ranges, but not for Lactarius subdulcis, a fungus residing only in the litter layer. Specific markers for distinct ECM were identified in spectral regions associated with carbohydrates (i.e. mannans, lipids, and secondary protein structures. The present results support that FTIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis is a reliable and fast method to identify ECM fungal species in minute environmental samples. Moreover, our data suggest that the FTIR spectral signatures contain information on physiological and functional traits of ECM fungi.

  4. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms.

  5. Fungal biology: compiling genomes and exploiting them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Uehling, Jessie K [ORNL; Payen, Thibaut [INRA; Plett, Jonathan [University of Western Sydney, Australia

    2014-01-01

    The last 10 years have seen the cost of sequencing complete genomes decrease at an incredible speed. This has led to an increase in the number of genomes sequenced in all the fungal tree of life as well as a wide variety of plant genomes. The increase in sequencing has permitted us to study the evolution of organisms on a genomic scale. A number of talks during the conference discussed the importance of transposable elements (TEs) that are present in almost all species of fungi. These TEs represent an especially large percentage of genomic space in fungi that interact with plants. Thierry Rouxel (INRA, Nancy, France) showed the link between speciation in the Leptosphaeria complex and the expansion of TE families. For example in the Leptosphaeria complex, one species associated with oilseed rape has experienced a recent and massive burst of movement by a few TE families. The alterations caused by these TEs took place in discrete regions of the genome leading to shuffling of the genomic landscape and the appearance of genes specific to the species, such as effectors useful for the interactions with a particular plant (Rouxel et al., 2011). Other presentations showed the importance of TEs in affecting genome organization. For example, in Amanita different species appear to have been invaded by different TE families (Veneault-Fourrey & Martin, 2011).

  6. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN EDIBLE MUSHROOMS BY MICROWAVE DIGESTION AND FLAME ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Radulescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Mn, Zn, Fe and Cu content of the fruiting bodies (cap and stipe of four species (Amanita caesarea, Pleurotus ostreatus, Fistulina hepatica and Armillariella mellea and their substrate, collected from forest sites in Dâmboviţa County, Romania. The elements were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS after microwave assisted digestion. From the same collecting point were taken n = 5 samples of young and mature fruiting bodies of mushrooms and their substrate. The high concentrations of lead, chrome and cadmium (Pb: 0.25 – 1.89 mg.kg-1, Cr: 0.36 – 1.94 mg.kg-1, Cd: 0.23 – 1.13 mg.kg-1 for all collected wild edible mushrooms, were determined. These data were compared with maximum level for certain contaminants in foodstuffs established by the commission of the European Committees (EC No 466/2001. A quantitative evaluation of the relationship of element uptake by mushrooms from substrate was made by calculating the accumulation coefficient (Ka. The moderately acid pH value of soil influenced the accumulation of Zn and Cd inside of the studied species. The variation of heavy metals content between edible mushrooms species is dependent upon the ability of the species to extract elements from the substrate and on the selective uptake and deposition of metals in tissue.

  7. Macromicetos del Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica, municipio de Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas, México Macrofungi from Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica, Municipality of Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Chanona-Gómez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivos contribuir al conocimiento de los macromicetos que crecen en el Parque Educativo Laguna Bélgica (PELB, en Ocozocoautla de Espinosa, Chiapas y determinar el índice de diversidad de Simpson y similitud de Sorensen de la micobiota existente en los diferentes tipos de vegetación. Se realizaron 24 exploraciones micológicas durante un año, encontrándose 144 especies (24 Ascomycota y 120 Basidiomycota. El índice de diversidad, mostró que la vegetación con la micobiota más diversa fue la del bosque de Quercus elliptica (D= 0.9678 la cual presentó mayor similitud con el bosque de Liquidambar stracyflua (Is= 83 %. El sustrato más frecuente fue la madera en descomposición (57.63 %. Se determinaron las especies de macromicetos potencialmente utilizables para el consumo humano (22 especies, lo que determinó el valor micológico del área de estudio en 15.27 %. Del total de especies determinadas 22 son nuevos registros para el estado de Chiapas; 4 Ascomicetos Scutellinia scutellata, Xylaria amphitele, X. persicaria, Chlorociboria aeruginosa, y 18 Basidiomicetos Amanita pantherina, Geastrum striatum, Hydnum repandum, Hygrocybe miniata, Scleroderma verrucosum, Cotylidia diaphana, Lactarius indigo, Phlogiotis helvelloides, Hydnochaete olivaceae, Phellinus ferruginosus, P. contiguus, P.rufitinctus, Thelephora terrestris, T. cervicornis, Perenniporia ohiensis, Diplomitoporus lenis, Schizopora paradoxa y Tremella fuciformis.The objectives of this study were to contribute to the knowledge of macro fungi growing in the "Parque Educativo Laguna Belgica" (PELB, in Chiapas, Mexico and to determine the diversity and similarity indexes for its mycobiota in each type of vegetation. Twenty four mycological explorations were made during a year, resulting in the identification of 144 species (24 Ascomycota and 120 Basidiomycota. The diversity of fungal species was determined through the index of Simpson and the similarity

  8. Characterization of Aluminum-Binding Ligands in Pisolithus tinctorius

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, R. L.; Cumming, J.

    2009-12-01

    Highly abundant in soil, Al is found in non-toxic forms under neutral pH conditions. However, when the pH of the soil decreases, the presence of cationic Al increases, creating a toxic environment for plants and fungi. Certain plants and their ectomycorrhizal symbiotic fungi have higher tolerance for Al in the soil and surrounding media. A particular fungus, Pisolithus tinctorius, has been found to produce Al-binding pigments which chelate and detoxify cationic Al in the environment. The objectives of this study are to 1) determine the resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi species to Al, 2) characterize the production of Al binding compounds by fungi, and 3) quantify Al partitioning between free and bound forms in the environment. Pisolithus tinctorius, Amanita muscaria, Lacaria bicolor, and Rhizopogon rubescens were grown under varying Al concentration in vitro (0 and 200 µM for all species; 0, 100, 200, and 400 µM for P. tinctorius). Biomass was measured and media was analyzed for Al speciation and organic acid profiles post experiment. The Al-binding exudates of P. tinctorius were isolated using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and further separated with reverse phase HPLC (UV). All fungi were resistant to Al at the concentrations tested. Pisolithus was found to have a significantly higher mass than other ectomycorrhizae studied. Organic Al levels were found to increase with an increase in Al treatment for P. tinctorius. These techniques revealed at least eleven compounds active in the Al-binding IMAC fraction with seven peaks having brown pigmentation. These compounds may assist in Al detoxification by P. tinctorius.

  9. DFT characterization of key intermediates in thiols oxidation catalyzed by amavadin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Luca; Barbieri, Valentina; Fantucci, Piercarlo; De Gioia, Luca; Zampella, Giuseppe

    2011-08-14

    Amavadin is an unusual octa-coordinated V(IV) complex isolated from Amanita muscaria mushrooms. The outer-sphere catalytic properties of such a complex toward several oxidation reactions are well known. Nevertheless, a remarkable example exists, in which the V(V) (d(0)) oxidized form of amavadin is able to electro-catalyze the oxidation of some thiols to the corresponding disulfides through an inner-sphere mechanism (Guedes da Silva et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.1996, 118, 7568-7573.) The reaction mechanism implies the formation of an amavadin-substrate intermediate, whose half-life is about 0.3 s. By means of Density Functional Theory (DFT) computations and Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) analysis of the electron density, we have first characterized the stereoelectronic features of the V(IV) (inactive) and V(V) (active) states of amavadin. Then, the formation of the V(V) complex with methyl mercaptoacetate (MMA), which has been chosen as a prototypical substrate, has been characterized both thermodynamically and kinetically. DFT results reveal that protonation of V(V) amavadin at a carboxylate oxygen not directly involved in the V coordination, favors MMA binding into the first coordination sphere of vanadium, by substitution of the amavadin carboxylate oxygen with that of the substrate and formation of an S-HO hydrogen bond interaction. The latter interaction can promote SH deprotonation and binding of the thiolate group to vanadium. The kinetic and thermodynamic feasibility of the V(V)-MMA intermediates formation is in agreement, along with electrochemical experimental data, also with the biological role exerted by amavadin. Finally, the presence of an ester functional group as an essential requisite for MMA oxidation has been rationalized.

  10. In vitro EVALUATION OF EUCALYPTUS ECTOMYCORRHIZAE ON SUBSTRATE WITH PHOSPHORUS DOSES FOR FUNGAL PRE-SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiomar Soares Costa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The benefit promoted by ectomycorrhizal depends on the interaction between symbionts and phosphorus (P contents. Phosphorus effect on ectomycorrhizal formation and the effectiveness of these in promoting plant growth for fungal pre-selection were assessed under in vitro conditions. For P effect evaluation, Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings inoculated with four Pisolithus sp. isolates and others non-inoculated were grown on substrate containing 0.87, 1.16 and 1.72 mg P per plant. For evaluation of effectiveness and fungal pre-selection, other 30 isolates of Pisolithus sp., Pisolithus microcarpus ITA06 isolate, Amanita muscaria AM16 isolate, Scleroderma areolatum SC129 isolate were studied. D26 isolate promoted the highest plant heights for the three P doses, D51 at the lower dose and D72 at the intermediate dose. P doses did not influenced shoot fresh weight and fungal colonization. In the pre-selection of fungi, 14 isolates of Pisolithus sp., P. microcarpus ITA06 isolate and S. areolatum SC129isolate increased plant height and fresh weight. D82 isolate of Pisolithus sp. had effect singly on plant height while D17 and D58 on fresh weight. Of these, only D15, D17, D58 and ITA06 had typical ectomycorrhizae. The cultivation in vitro has shown adequate for pre-selection of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Colonization and benefits depend on species and isolate. D15, D17 and D58 of Pisolithus sp. and P. microcarpus isolate ITA06 are the most promising for nursery studies.

  11. Boron and other elements in sporophores of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavola, Anu; Aphalo, Pedro J; Lehto, Tarja

    2011-04-01

    Fungi are usually thought not to have a boron (B) requirement. It is not known if mycorrhizas take up B from low concentrations that are common in forest soils, as fungi might also immobilise B. Here, we studied the B concentrations in sporophores of 49 ectomycorrhizal and 10 saprotrophic fungi to assess whether B is translocated in mycelium or not. Additionally, P and metal concentrations were measured for comparison. Variability both within species and between species was very large, as the lowest measured B concentration was 0.01 mg kg(-1) in Amanita muscaria, and the highest was 280 mg kg(-1) in Paxillus involutus. There was no clear difference between saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi. The majority of species did not accumulate B at more than 0.01-3 mg kg(-1), but there were some species that consistently had median concentration values higher than 5-6 mg kg(-1) and much higher maximum values, particularly Paxillus involutus, Lactarius necator and several Russula species. Most species increased their B concentration in B fertilised plots, but there were exceptions, particularly Rozites caperatus and Lactarius camphoratus. Boron concentrations did not correlate with those of other elements. In conclusion, B is translocated in the mycelia of most of the studied species. The differences between species may be due to differences in their water use, or carbohydrates used in translocation. It remains to be studied, if B concentrations in mycorrhizas or mycelia in soil are in the same order of magnitude as the larger ones found here, and if this has any effects on the host plants.

  12. Evaluation of different mushroom species as indicator organisms[Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, R.; Stensrud, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Oesteraes (Norway)

    2006-04-15

    To investigate the differences between accumulation capacity and transfer factor from soil to different mushroom species, 25 species were collected at 9 locations in south and central parts of Norway. Yearly sampling has been carried since 1988 and a total of 1283 samples analysed for {sup 137}Cs. Entire, fresh fruit bodies were collected, homogenized and measured fresh weight. Levels of ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in Norway were taken from a nationwide sampling program carried out by National Institute of Radiation Hygiene in 1986 following the Chernobyl accident. The estimated ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs (Bq m{sup -2}) and the corresponding activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in mushrooms were used to calculate the ratio between activity concentration in mushroom and ground deposition (transfer factor, TF). Both the mushroom and the soil data are decay corrected to 2004. Considerable differences in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in different mushroom species were found. The Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, and Rozites caperata were found to have the highest levels. Followed by two Cortinarius species, C. brunneus and C. traganus. The highest transfer factors were found in the Cortinarius armillatus and C. brunneus, but also Tricoloma album and Rozites caperata had high transfer factors. Other mushroom species, e.g. Leccinum versipelle (Orange Birch Bolete), Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric), Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete), Collybia butyracea (Butter Cap) generally show a low radiocaesium uptake and are therefore not considered as good indicators. Even though Tricholoma album, Cortinarius armillatus, C. brunneus, C. traganus, and Rozites caperata accumulate high levels of {sup 137}Cs, their seasonality and local occurrence should be evaluated before they are considered as good indicator organisms. (LN)

  13. Trace elements in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi growing in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudawska, Maria [Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Parkowa Str., 62-035 Kornik (Poland)]. E-mail: mariarud@man.poznan.pl; Leski, Tomasz [Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Parkowa Str., 62-035 Kornik (Poland)

    2005-03-01

    The trace metal contents in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic partners of Scots pine, were studied on three sites situated in west-central Poland. Elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 123 samples of 16 species. The study explored the differences in metal accumulation in relation to site, fungal species, age and part of the fruiting body and results were related to metal content in soil and plant material (roots and needles). Soil analysis revealed that results were obtained under environmental conditions not subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Median metal concentrations did not differ disparately between sites, although the concentrations of each of the tested metals in the individual species varied to a large extent. Extremely high levels of Al with a large bioconcentration factor (BCF) were found in sporocarps of Thelephora terrestris. The spread between the highest and the lowest concentration (max/min) was very wide in Al, Cd and Pb and these elements may be considered to be absorbed preferentially by fruiting bodies of some species whereas Fe, Mn and Zn, with relatively low values of max/min, are normally absorbed by the majority of fungi. There was no clear relationship between caps and stipes in metal content. However, a tendency to higher metal concentration in the caps was observed. The metal content in young and older fruiting bodies of five different fungi was species dependent. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by plant and mushrooms, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In plant material (roots and needles), highest values of BCFs were noted for essential metals, like Zn and Mn. Lead showed a definite exclusion pattern (BCF below 1). In fruiting bodies of tested fungi, especially in Amanita muscaria, cadmium was the most intensively accumulated metal. Lead was excluded by plants but was accumulated or excluded by fungi depending on the species. The

  14. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals, metalloids, and chlorine in ectomycorrhizae from smelter-polluted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejpková, Jaroslava; Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Kotrba, Pavel; Řanda, Zdeněk; Synková, Iva; Borovička, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi contribute to the survival of host trees on metal-rich soils by reducing the transfer of toxic metals into roots. However, little is known about the ability of ECM fungi to accumulate elements in ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). Here we report Ag, As, Cd, Cl, Cu, Sb, V, and Zn contents in wild-grown Norway spruce ECMs collected in a smelter-polluted area at Lhota near Příbram, Czech Republic. The ECMs data were compared with the element concentrations determined in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal fine roots, soils, and soil extracts. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated to differentiate the element accumulation ability of ECMs inhabited by different mycobionts, which were identified by ITS rDNA sequencing. Among the target elements, the highest contents were observed for Ag, Cl, Cd, and Zn; Imleria badia ECMs showed the highest capability to accumulate these elements. ECMs of Amanita muscaria, but not of other species, accumulated V. The analysis of the proportions of I. badia and A. muscaria mycelia in ECMs by using species-specific quantitative real-time PCR revealed variable extent of the colonization of roots, with median values close to 5% (w/w). Calculated Ag, Cd, Zn and Cl concentrations in the mycelium of I. badia ECMs were 1 680, 1 510, 2 670, and 37,100 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively, indicating substantial element accumulation capacity of hyphae of this species in ECMs. Our data strengthen the idea of an active role of ECM fungi in soil-fungal-plant interactions in polluted environments.

  15. {sup 210}Pb and stable lead content in fungi: Its transfer from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.es [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, C.U.M. University of Extremadura, c/ Sta. Teresa de Jornet, 38, 06800 Merida (Badajoz) (Spain); Baeza, A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Ontalba, M.A. [LARUEX, Dpt. Applied Physics, Polytechnics School, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain); Miguez, M.P. [Unit of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad, s/n, 10071 Caceres (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    The uptake and transfer of natural radionuclides, other than {sup 40}K, from soil to mushrooms has been somewhat overlooked in the literature. Their contribution to the dose due to the consumption of mushrooms was considered negligible. But the contribution of {sup 210}Pb in areas unaffected by any recent radioactive fallout has been found to be significant, up to 35% of the annual dose commitment in Spain. More than 30 species of mushrooms were analyzed, and the {sup 210}Pb detected was in the range of 0.75-202 Bq/kg d.w. A slight difference was observed between species with different nutritional mechanisms (saprophytes {>=} mycorrhizae). The {sup 210}Pb content was correlated with the stable lead content, but not with its predecessor in the uranium radioactive series, {sup 226}Ra. This suggested that {sup 210}Pb was taken up from the soil by the same pathway as stable lead. The bioavailability of {sup 210}Pb in soil was determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure (NH{sub 4}OAc, 1M HCl, 6M HCl, and residue). About 30% of the {sup 210}Pb present in the soil was available for transfer to mushrooms, more than other natural radionuclides in the same ecosystem. Lycoperdon perlatum, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, and Amanita curtipes presented the highest values of the available transfer factor, ATF. As reflected in their ATF values, the transfer from soil to mushroom of some natural and anthropogenic radionuclides was in the following order: {sup 228,230,232}Th {approx} {sup 40}K {>=} {sup 137}Cs {>=} {sup 234,238}U {approx} {sup 226}Ra {>=} {sup 90}Sr {>=} {sup 210}Pb {approx} {sup 239+240}Pu {approx} {sup 241}Am.

  16. Bufotenine - A Hallucinogen in Ancient Snuff Powders of South America and a Drug of Abuse on the Streets of New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamakura, R P

    1994-06-01

    Bufotenine, an isomer of psilocin, is a controlled Schedule I hallucinogenic substance under the New York state and Federal laws. Bufotenine was identified in 42 case samples received at the New York City Police Laboratory since May 1992. The samples were hard, resinous, dark reddish-brown material, sold on the streets as "hashish". A few other cases were also seized in Orlando and Tampa, FL. Natural sources of bufotenine are: (a) plant material, mostly seeds of the genus Anadenanthera (formerly Piptadenia); (b) plant organs of other genera; (c) toads (Bufo marinus, B. vulgaris, B. viridian, and B. avarice); and (d) mushrooms (Amanita amp, A. Citrina, A. Porphyria, and A. tomentella). The genus Anadenanthera is native to South America and West Indies. Historically, material made from seeds of genus Anadenanthera was, and in isolated areas is still, used by the native Indians of South America and West Indies. Native Indians make intoxicating snuffs from the seeds of Anadenanthera. Recently, bufotenine was identified in 1,200-year-old archaeological samples of an Anadenanthera material found in an excavated tomb in Northern Chile. Historical and published literature on the pharmacology, toxicology, and biological effects of bufotenine and bufotenine-containing material are reviewed. The case material was probably derived from the seeds of genus Andenanthera. There were no prior reported cases of this material being used outside the native Indian areas of South America and West Indies. Indications are that in New York City this material is smoked in combination with marijuana. Bufotenine in case material can be identified by color test, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Though the mass spectra of bufotenine and psilocin (parent compounds and mono-acetyl and di-acetyl derivatives) are very similar, their GC retention times are different. Case samples also gave multiple GC peaks, probably due to the added ingredients during the

  17. Hongos tóxicos en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y alrededores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M. Romano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En la Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales de la Universidad de Buenos Aires (FCEN-UBA funciona el Servicio de Identificación de Hongos Tóxicos. Lo integran los investigadores del Programa de Plantas Medicinales y Programa de Hongos que Intervienen en la Degradación Biológica (PROPLAME-PRHIDEB, CONICET y colabora con servicios médicos, estatales y privados, identificando los materiales remitidos en casos de intoxicaciones con hongos, permitiendo, en muchos casos, realizar el tratamiento adecuado. El presente trabajo da a conocer los casos atendidos por el servicio desde 1985 hasta 2012 inclusive, además de una tabla para reconocer las especies tóxicas más comunes de la región. Según esta información, el 47% de las consultas que se recibieron correspondieron a pacientes menores de 18 años de edad que ingirieron materiales fúngicos de forma accidental (o al menos se sospechaba que lo hubieran hecho. El 53% restante correspondió a adultos que afirmaron ser capaces de distinguir hongos comestibles de tóxicos. Se determinó que Chlorophyllum molybdites fue la principal especie causante de intoxicaciones, la cual es comúnmente confundida con el hongo comestible Macrolepiota procera. En segundo lugar Amanita phalloides, un hongo altamente tóxico, que se caracteriza por presentar inicio de síntomas en forma tardía (latencia de 6-10 horas, evolucionando a falla hepática con el consiguiente requerimiento de trasplante o la muerte, si no se realiza el tratamiento adecuado en forma oportuna.

  18. Mercury in forest mushrooms and topsoil from the Yunnan highlands and the subalpine region of the Minya Konka summit in the Eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Saba, Martyna; Liu, Hong-Gao; Li, Tao; Wang, Ji-Peng; Wiejak, Anna; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Zhang, Dan

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate and discuss the occurrence and accumulation of mercury in the fruiting bodies of wild-growing fungi (Macromycetes) collected from montane forests in two regions of southwestern China with differences in soil geochemistry, climate and geographical conditions. Fungal mycelia in soils of the subalpine region of the Minya Konka (Gongga Mountain) in Sichuan and in the highlands of Yunnan efficiently accumulated mercury in fruiting bodies (mushrooms). The examined sites in Yunnan with highly mineralized red and yellow soils showed Hg contents ranging from 0.066 to 0.28 mg kg(-1) dry biomass (db) which is roughly similar to the results obtained for samples collected from sites with dark soils relatively rich in organic matter from a remote, the subalpine region of Minya Konka. Due to the remoteness of the subalpine section of Minya Konka, as well as its elevation and climate, airborne mercury from long-range transport could be deposited preferentially on the topsoil and the Hg levels determined in soil samples taken beneath the fruiting bodies were up to 0.48 mg kg(-1) dry matter. In Yunnan, with polymetallic soils (Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt), Amanita mushrooms showed mercury in caps of fruiting bodies of up to 7.3 mg kg(-1) dry biomass. Geogenic Hg from the mercuriferous belt seems to be the overriding source of mercury accumulated in mushrooms foraged in the regions of Yunnan, while long-range atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition are the mercury sources for specimens foraged in the region of Minya Konka.

  19. Solarization of nursery soil induces production of fruit bodies of mushrooms and enhances growth of tropi-cal forest tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find out the effect of soil solarization on microbial population and its effect on growth of two species of tropical forest trees. For this purpose, solar heating of nursery seedbeds (1 x 5m was done during April- May 2009 for one month, by application of a thin clear sheet of polyethylene. The top soil (5 inches consists of a mix of loam soil, sand and farm yard manure in 2:1:0.5 ratios (v/v. Temperature variations were recorded daily for a period of one month, at 2 depths, (5 cm and 10 cm. Maximum differences in temperature between solar treatment and control was recorded as high as 12.1° C at 5 cm and 9.1° C at 10 cm depth. After one month, population of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and nematodes were completely eliminated from upper 5 cm depth, although population of AM fungi, bacteria and Trichoderma were reduced, but not completely eliminated. Seedlings of Gmelina arborea Roxb. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. were raised through seeds on treated and control beds. After three months, the production of fruit bodies of mushrooms, namely Amanita populiphila Tullos & E. Moses, Lepiota longicauda Henn. and Scleroderma sp. were observed. It was noticed that these mushrooms only appeared on treated soil with white mycelial growth in rhizosphere under fruit bodies. Lepiota longicauda produced the maximum number of fruit bodies on teak seedbeds followed by Scleroderma sp. on G. arborea seedbeds. Due to solar heating there was 23.9% increase in plant height and 22.1% increase in collar diameter of G. arborea seedlings, where as 17.4% increase in plant height and 9.8% increase in collar diameter in case of T. grandis, as compared to control seedlings.

  20. Solarization of nursery soil induces production of fruit bodies of mushrooms and enhances growth of tropical forest tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find out the effect of soil solarization on microbial population and its effect on growth of two species of tropical forest trees. For this purpose, solar heating of nursery seedbeds (1 x 5m was done during April- May 2009 for one month, by application of a thin clear sheet of polyethylene. The top soil (5 inches consists of a mix of loam soil, sand and farm yard manure in 2:1:0.5 ratios (v/v. Temperature variations were recorded daily for a period of one month, at 2 depths, (5 cm and 10 cm. Maximum differences in temperature between solar treatment and control was recorded as high as 12.1° C at 5 cm and 9.1° C at 10 cm depth. After one month, population of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and nematodes were completely eliminated from upper 5 cm depth, although population of AM fungi, bacteria and Trichoderma were reduced, but not completely eliminated. Seedlings of Gmelina arborea Roxb. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. were raised through seeds on treated and control beds. After three months, the production of fruit bodies of mushrooms, namely Amanita populiphila Tullos & E. Moses, Lepiota longicauda Henn. and Scleroderma sp. were observed. It was noticed that these mushrooms only appeared on treated soil with white mycelial growth in rhizosphere under fruit bodies. Lepiota longicauda produced the maximum number of fruit bodies on teak seedbeds followed by Scleroderma sp. on G. arborea seedbeds. Due to solar heating there was 23.9% increase in plant height and 22.1% increase in collar diameter of G. arborea seedlings, where as 17.4% increase in plant height and 9.8% increase in collar diameter in case of T. grandis, as compared to control seedlings.

  1. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: the collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. METHODS: Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. RESULTS: From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland and the

  2. Betalain production is possible in anthocyanin-producing plant species given the presence of DOPA-dioxygenase and L-DOPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Nilangani N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids and anthocyanins are the predominant non-chlorophyll pigments in plants. However, certain families within the order Caryophyllales produce another class of pigments, the betalains, instead of anthocyanins. The occurrence of betalains and anthocyanins is mutually exclusive. Betalains are divided into two classes, the betaxanthins and betacyanins, which produce yellow to orange or violet colours, respectively. In this article we show betalain production in species that normally produce anthocyanins, through a combination of genetic modification and substrate feeding. Results The biolistic introduction of DNA constructs for transient overexpression of two different dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA dioxygenases (DODs, and feeding of DOD substrate (L-DOPA, was sufficient to induce betalain production in cell cultures of Solanum tuberosum (potato and petals of Antirrhinum majus. HPLC analysis showed both betaxanthins and betacyanins were produced. Multi-cell foci with yellow, orange and/or red colours occurred, with either a fungal DOD (from Amanita muscaria or a plant DOD (from Portulaca grandiflora, and the yellow/orange foci showed green autofluorescence characteristic of betaxanthins. Stably transformed Arabidopsis thaliana (arabidopsis lines containing 35S: AmDOD produced yellow colouration in flowers and orange-red colouration in seedlings when fed L-DOPA. These tissues also showed green autofluorescence. HPLC analysis of the transgenic seedlings fed L-DOPA confirmed betaxanthin production. Conclusions The fact that the introduction of DOD along with a supply of its substrate (L-DOPA was sufficient to induce betacyanin production reveals the presence of a background enzyme, possibly a tyrosinase, that can convert L-DOPA to cyclo-DOPA (or dopaxanthin to betacyanin in at least some anthocyanin-producing plants. The plants also demonstrate that betalains can accumulate in anthocyanin-producing species. Thus, introduction

  3. Mushroom poisoning in Ireland: The collaboration between the National Poisons Information Centre and expert mycologists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Nicola

    2011-03-01

    Background. Occasionally, mycologist assistance is requested to reliably identify mushroom species in symptomatic cases where there is a concern that a toxic species is involved. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in Ireland, to describe the working arrangement between the National Poisons Information Centre (NPIC) and professional mycologists and to present a case series detailing the circumstances when mycologists were consulted. Methods. Computerised records from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and data on patient demographics, circumstances, and mushroom species collated. In 1999, the NPIC established a national registry of volunteer professional mycologists who are available 24 h\\/day for mushroom identification. The NPIC staff liaises directly with the mycologist and arranges transport of mushroom material. Digital photographic images are requested if there is likely to be a delay in arranging transportation of mushroom material, and the images are subsequently emailed to a mycologist. Five cases of suspected mushroom poisoning were chosen to demonstrate the inter-professional collaboration between the NPIC and mycologists. Results. From 2004 to 2009, the NPIC was consulted about 70 cases of suspected mushroom exposures. Forty-five children ingested unknown mushrooms, 12 adults and 2 children ingested hallucinogenic mushrooms and 11 adults ingested wild toxic mushrooms that were incorrectly identified or confused with edible species. The mycologists were consulted 10 times since 1999. In this series, Amanita species were identified in two cases. In three cases, the species identified were Clitocybe nebularis, Coprinus comatus and Panaeolina foenisecii, respectively, and serious poisoning was excluded. Incorrect mushroom identification by a health care professional using the Internet occurred in two cases. The mycologists assisted Poisons Information Centres in Northern Ireland

  4. Actividad antioxidante de extractos de diez basidiomicetos comestibles en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Belloso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Los antioxidantes son esenciales en el cuerpo humano para prevenir el daño oxidativo. Estas substancias pueden obtenerse de diversas fuentes como frutas, plantas y hongos. En Guatemala, diversas especies de hongos comestibles son comercializadas y consumidas, sin embargo su actividad antioxidante no ha sido documentada en el país. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la actividad antioxidante de extractos acuosos y etanólicos obtenidos de diez especies de basidiomicetos comestibles (Agaricus aff. bisporus, Agaricus brunnescens, Armillariella polymyces, Amanita garabitoana, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus lateritius, Laccaria amethystina, Lactarius deliciosus, Neolentinus ponderosus y Pleurotus ostreatus. Se utilizó un método cualitativo por cromatografía en capa fina (CCF y tres ensayos macrométricos in vitro de cuantificación de fenoles totales, reducción del radical 1,1-difenil-2-pricrilhidrazilo (DPPH y decoloración del radical catiónico del reactivo ácido 2,2’-azinobis-(acido-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfónico (ABTS. Los extractos acuosos mostraron mayor actividad antioxidante que los extractos etanólicos en todas las técnicas cuantitativas realizadas. La especie que mostró mayor actividad antioxidante en ambos extractos fue B. edulis, cuyos resultados fueron: fenoles totales del extracto acuoso 93.46 ± 18.17 mg/g y 42.70 ± 3.48 mg/g, DPPH CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.93 mg/mL (IC95 0.65-1.28 y 2.75 mg/mL (IC95 2.46-3.07 del extracto etanólico; y en ABTS CI50 del extracto acuoso 0.96 mg/mL (IC95 0.63-1.35 y 4.13 mg/mL (IC95 2.67-5.88 del extracto etanólico. Por la actividad antioxidante de los extractos acuosos de algunas de las especies de basidiomicetos, pueden promoverse como alimentos funcionales.

  5. 攀枝花野生食用菌重金属含量调查与评价%Evaluation of heavy metal content of some wild edible mushrooms from Panzhihua

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 曹艳茹; 徐恒

    2011-01-01

    研究不同种类野生食用菌的重金属富集规律,对野生食用菌食品安全评估和为土壤重金属污染寻找合适的指示生物提供科学依据.采用原子吸收光谱仪测定了采集于四川攀枝花的19种野生食用菌中Cu、Zn、Ni、Cd和Cr的含量.结果显示:除食用鹅膏菌和香菇中Cu含量稍低于卫生标准外,19种野生食用菌中5种重金属含量全部超标,食用不甚安全.很多蕈菌对重金属具有较强的富集能力.Cu、Zn、Ni、Cd和Cr的最高富集量分别达到47.7 mg/kg(小白蚁伞)、188.6 mg/kg(鸡枞)、21.2 mg/kg(美味牛肝)、21.8 mg/kg(大白菇)和27.2 mg/kg(白蜡伞),其中Cr和Cd的富集浓度普遍高于其他研究结果,Cu、Zn和Ni与其他文献报道一致.%Accumulation of heavy metal in different wild mushroom species was studied to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the safety of the wild edible mushrooms and choosing the desirable bioindicators of environment contamination. The concentrations of five heavy metals (copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and cadmium) in fruiting bodies of 19 wild growing mushroom species from Panzhihua, China were determined, using atomic absorption spectrometer (Varian SpectrAA 220). The results show that the contents of five heavy metals in all mushrooms exceeded Chinese statutory standards limit, except Cu in Amanita esculenta and Lentinus edodes. It is not safe for food. Most of the wild mushrooms can enrich heavy metals. Maximal concentrations of heavy metals were determined in Termitomyces microcarpus for copper (47.7 mg/kg), Termitomycesalbuminosus for zinc (188. 6 mg/kg), Boletus edulis for nickel (21.2 mg/kg), Russula delica for cadmium (21.8 mg/kg), and Boletus aereus for chromium (27.2 mg/kg), respectively. Cadmium and chromium content of wild mushrooms were generally higher than the previous studies. Copper, zinc and nickel were in agreement with the literature value.

  6. Study of Silymarin and Vitamin E Protective Effects on Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity on Mice Liver Primary Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouz Faedmaleki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine, although, only few nano products are currently in use for medical purposes. A most prominent nanoproduct is nanosilver. Nano-silver has biological properties which are significant for consumer products, food technology, textiles, and medical applications (e.g. wound care products, implantable medical devices, in diagnosis, drug delivery, and imaging. For their antibacterial activity, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are largely used in various commercially available products. The use of nano-silver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine and related applications, and due to its increasing exposure, toxicological and environmental issues need to be raised. Cytotoxicity induced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and the role that oxidative stress plays in this process were demonstrated in human hepatoma cells AgNPs agglomerated in the cytoplasm and nuclei of treated cells, and they induced intracellular oxidative stress. AgNP reduced ATP content of the cell and caused damage to mitochondria and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin was known as a hepatoprotective agent that is used in the treatment of hepatic diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver diseases, Amanita mushroom poisoning, liver cirrhosis, toxic and drug-induced liver diseases. It promotes protein synthesis, helps in regenerating liver tissue, controls inflammation, enhances glucuronidation, and protects against glutathione depletion. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant and has hepatoprotective effect in liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Ag NPs on primary liver cells of mice. Cell viability (cytotoxicity was examined with MTT assay after primary liver cells of mice exposure to AgNPs at 1, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400 ppm for 24h. AgNPs caused a concentration- dependent decrease of cell viability

  7. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  8. Land use practices and ectomycorrhizal fungal communities from oak woodlands dominated by Quercus suber L. considering drought scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azul, Anabela Marisa; Sousa, João Paulo; Agerer, Reinhard; Martín, María P; Freitas, Helena

    2010-02-01

    Oak woodlands in the Mediterranean basin have been traditionally converted into agro-silvo-pastoral systems and exemplified sustainable land use in Europe. In Portugal, in line with the trend of other European countries, profound changes in management options during the twentieth century have led to landscape simplification. Landscapes are dynamic and the knowledge of future management planning combining biological conservation and soil productivity is needed, especially under the actual scenarios of drought and increasing evidence of heavy oak mortality. We examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community associated with cork oak in managed oak woodlands (called montado) under different land use practices, during summer. ECM fungal richness and abundance were assessed in 15 stands established in nine montados located in the Alentejo region (southern Portugal), using morphotyping and ITS rDNA analysis. Parameters related to the montados landscape characteristics, land use history over the last 25 years, climatic and edaphic conditions were taken into account. Fifty-five ECM fungal taxa corresponding to the most abundant fungal symbionts were distinguished on cork oak roots. Cenococcum geophilum and the families Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae explained 56% of the whole ECM fungal community; other groups were represented among the community: Cortinariaceae, Boletaceae, Amanita, Genea, Pisolithus, Scleroderma, and Tuber. There were pronounced differences in ECM fungal community structure among the 15 montados stands: C. geophilum was the only species common to all stands, tomentelloid and russuloid species were detected in 87-93% of the stands, Cortinariaceae was detected in 60% of the stands, and the other groups were more unequally distributed. Ordination analysis revealed that ECM fungal richness was positively correlated with the silvo-pastoral exploitation regime and low mortality of cork oak, while ECM fungal abundance was positively correlated with extensive

  9. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  10. Evaluation of heavy metal contents in some wild edible mushrooms from Panzhihua%攀枝花野生食用菌重金属含量测定与安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 曹艳茹; 徐恒

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of heavy metal in different wild mushroom species was studied to provide a scientific basis for evaluating the safety of the wild edible mushrooms and choosing the desirable bioindica-tors of environment contamination. The concentrations of five heavy metals (copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and cadmium) in fruiting bodies of 19 wild growing mushroom species from Panzhihua, China were determined, using atomic absorption spectrometer (Varian SpectrAA 220). The results show that the contents of five heavy metals in all mushrooms exceeded Chinese statutory standards limit, except Cu in Amanita esculenta and Lentinus edodes. It is not safe for food. Most of the wild mushrooms can enrich heavy metals. Maximal concentrations of heavy metals were determined in Termitomyces micro-carpus for copper (47. 7 mg/kg), Termitomyces albuminosus for zinc (188. 6 mg/kg), Boletus edulis for nickel (21. 2 mg/kg), Russula delica for cadmium (21. 8 mg/kg), and Boletus aereus for chromium (27. 2 mg/kg), respectively. Cadmium and chromium content of wild mushrooms were generally higher than the previous studies. Copper, zinc and nickel were in agreement with the literature value.%研究不同种类野生食用菌的重金属富集规律,对野生食用菌食品安全评估和为土壤重金属污染寻找合适的指示生物提供科学依据.采用原子吸收光谱仪测定了采集于四川攀枝花的19种野生食用菌中Cu、Zn、Ni、Cd和Cr的含量.结果显示:除食用鹅膏菌和香菇中Cu含量稍低于卫生标准外,19种野生食用菌中5种重金属含量全部超标,食用不甚安全.很多蕈菌对重金属具有较强的富集能力.Cu、Zn、Ni、Cd和Cr的最高富集量分别达到47.7 mg/kg(小白蚁伞)、188.6mg/kg(鸡枞)、21.2 mg/kg(美味牛肝)、21.8mg/kg(大白菇)和27.2 mg/kg(白蜡伞),其中Cr和Cd的富集浓度普遍高于其他研究结果,Cu、Zn和Ni与其他文献报道一致.

  11. Phosphate absorption and efflux of three ectomycorrhizal fungi as affected by external phosphate, cation and carbohydrate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücking, Heike

    2004-06-01

    A prerequisite for symbiotic phosphate transfer in an ectomycorrhizal (ECM) association is hypothesized to be conditions in the interface between both symbiotic partners, that either promote the release of inorganic phosphate (P) from the Hartig net into the interfacial apoplast and/or decrease the fungal reabsorption from this location. To get more information about conditions, which might be involved in the regulation of P efflux or P reabsorption, the effect of various external conditions on 33P-orthophosphate (33P) uptake or efflux by axenic cultures of the ECM basidiomycetes Hebeloma crustliniforme, Amanita muscaria and Laccaria laccata was analysed. In short-time experiments the following external conditions were analysed: an external supply of (1) P in the preculture, (2) cations (0.1-100 mM K, 0.1-50 mM Na, Mg and Ca), and (3) carbohydrates (0.5-50 mM glucose, fructose or sucrose). The P absorption was generally reduced in cultures previously supplied with an abundant P supply and with increased P concentrations in their tissues. The P uptake was also affected by an external supply of cations, whereas carbohydrates had only a slight effect. Compared to Na, Mg and Ca, the P absorption by H. crustuliniforme and L. laccata was increased by 0.1 mM K in the labelling solution but decreased after a supply of 100 mM K and then did not differ from the other cation treatments. Compared to other cations, an addition of 50 mM Ca led to a decrease of P absorption by A. muscaria, whereas 50 mM Mg increased the P uptake by H. crustuliniforme. The P efflux from the fungi was affected by both the cation and carbohydrate concentration of the bathing solution. High concentrations of the monovalent cations K and Na (5 mM or 50 mM) in the bathing solution increased the P efflux by H. crustuliniforme (only Na) and L. laccata (K and Na), but had little effects on A. muscaria. By contrast, the same concentrations of the divalent cation Mg reduced the P efflux from all fungal

  12. The power of example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliana Gheorghian, Mariana

    2014-05-01

    The Secondary School "Teodor Balan" was evaluated by the National Agency for Quality Assurance with the highest score in an urban area of the county, and is part of the community Gura Humorului, a tourist resort of national interest since 2005. Starting with 2006 the local government implemented a Local Plan, which promotes the concept of sustainable development adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, in 1992. Our school shares the concept of sustainable development and regularly re-evaluates the relationship between man and nature, advocates solidarity between generations, and has constantly developed various successful programs with the students, parents, teachers, and local companies and administration. Quarterly, we maintain and protect the river valley of Moldova arboretum nearby the reserve Oligocene "Stone Pine" and the natural reserve "Stone Hawk". Regarding the preservation of forests, teams of students and teachers from the school conduct activities of afforestation and greening, for the protection of birds. In order to raise public awareness about the harmful effects of radiation on the environment, my work degree in Physics, sustained in 2007, had as theme: Ionizing radiation and radiation protection. The effects of climate change and increasing temperature, as well as the extinction of species such as Amanita regalis and Tremiscus helvelloides mushrooms was studied by my biology colleague, Adriana. She obtained her Ist teaching degree in 2008, with the study "Diversity of macromycetes reported in natural ecosystems surrounding Gura Humorului". There were also organized 3 roundtables in a public awareness campaign initiated by the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change on "Integrated Nutrient Pollution Control", and the students learned to take test samples to determine water quality in wells and springs. In order to promote these activities performed by both teachers and students, we organized a National Symposium on "Life sciences at the