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Sample records for aluminum inorganic compounds

  1. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  2. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inorganic drugs, chelation therapy, radiopharmaceuticals, contrast agents. B S Sekhon and Leena Gandhi. In the first part of this article, we described medicinal uses of inorganic compounds relating to cancer care, infection and diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular and in- flammatory diseases. This article contains ...

  3. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  4. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide...... and sulfate. Thus the overall process is comparable to the fermentation of organic compounds such as glucose and is consequently often described as 'inorganic fermentation'. The process is primarily carried out by microorganisms with phylogenetic affiliation to the so called sulfate-reducing bacteria within...... the delta subclass of Proteobacteria. The organisms grow with sulfate as their external electron acceptor and low-molecular weight organic compounds or hydrogen as energy sources. Studies of the biochemistry of a few isolates indicate that the disproportionating microbes reverse the sulfate reduction...

  5. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    focusing much attention on inorganic drugs because (i) many activities of metal ions in biology have stimulated the develop- .... Li(I) interferes with the bio- chemistry of Mg (II) which is of similar size. Lithium (I) ..... and long bones and is found in children aged between 5 and 12 years. It is a progressive disorder that results in ...

  6. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    1963-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  7. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  8. The Corrosion Protection of 2219-T87 Aluminum by Organic and Inorganic Zinc-Rich Primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.; Walsh, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    The behavior of zinc-rich primer-coated 2219-T87 aluminum in a 3.5-percent Na-Cl was investigated using electrochemical techniques. The alternating current (ac) method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the frequency range of 0.001 to 40,000 Hz, and the direct current (dc) method of polarization resistance (PR) were used to evaluate the characteristics of an organic, epoxy zinc-rich primer and an inorganic, ethyl silicate zinc-rich primer. A dc electrochemical galvanic corrosion test was also used to determine the corrosion current of each zinc-rich primer anode coupled to a 2219-T87 aluminum cathode. Duration of the EIS/PR and galvanic testing was 21 days and 24 h, respectively. The galvanic test results demonstrated a very high galvanic current between the aluminum cathode and both zinc-rich primer anodes (37.9 pA/CM2 and 23.7 pA/CM2 for the organic and inorganic primers, respectively). The PR results demonstrated a much higher corrosion rate of the zinc in the inorganic primer than in the organic primer, due primarily to the higher porosity in the former. Based on this investigation, the inorganic zinc-rich primer appears to provide superior galvanic protection and is recommended for additional study for application in the solid rocket booster aft skirt.

  9. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivovichev, S.V.; Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Single crystals of [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)](H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.85 (H 2 O) 2 (1), [C 10 H 26 N 2 ][(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 ] (H 2 SeO 4 ) 0.50 (H 2 O) (2), and [C 8 H 20 N] 2 [(UO 2 )(SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] (H 2 O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO 7 and SeO 4 polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 10 NH 3 ] 2+ molecules, H 2 O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 ] 2- sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H 2 SeO 4 ) groups but is based upon alternating [UO 2 (SeO 4 ) 2 (H 2 O)] 2- sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 7 CH 3 ] + . The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in general, actinyl) chemistry, it requires specific additional mechanisms: (a) in long-chain-amine-templated compounds, protonated amine molecules inter-digitate; (b) in long-chain-diamine-templated compounds, incorporation of acid-water interlayers into

  10. Synthesis and properties of inorganic pigments based on pyrochlore compounds with different lanthanides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stránská, L.; Šulcová, P.; Vlček, Milan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2013), s. 127-135 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : inorganic pigments * pyrochlore compounds * solid state reaction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.206, year: 2013

  11. Charge-density matching in organic-inorganic uranyl compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivovichev, S.V. [Saint Petersburg State Univ., Dept. of Crystallography, Faculty of Geology (Russian Federation); Krivovichev, S.V.; Tananaev, I.G.; Myasoedov, B.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-15

    Single crystals of [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.85}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), [C{sub 10}H{sub 26}N{sub 2}][(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}] (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.50}(H{sub 2}O) (2), and [C{sub 8}H{sub 20}N]{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2})(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (H{sub 2}O) (3) were prepared by evaporation from aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate, selenic acid and the respective amines. The structures of the compounds have been solved by direct methods and structural models have been obtained. The structures of the compounds 1, 2, and 3 contain U and Se atoms in pentagonal bipyramidal and tetrahedral coordinations, respectively. The UO{sub 7} and SeO{sub 4} polyhedra polymerize by sharing common O atoms to form chains (compound 1) or sheets (compounds 2 and 3). In the structure of 1, the layers consisting of hydrogen-bonded [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} chains are separated by mixed organic-inorganic layers comprising from [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 10}NH{sub 3}]{sup 2+} molecules, H{sub 2}O molecules, and disordered electroneutral (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups. The structure of 2 has a similar architecture but a purely inorganic layer is represented by a fully connected [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheet. The structure of 3 does not contain disordered (H{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}) groups but is based upon alternating [UO{sub 2}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sup 2-} sheets and 1.5-nm-thick organic blocks consisting of positively charged protonated octylamine molecules, [NH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 7}CH{sub 3}]{sup +}. The structures may be considered as composed of anionic inorganic sheets (2D blocks) and cationic organic blocks self-organized according to competing hydrophilic-hydrophobic interactions. Analysis of the structures allows us to conclude that the charge-density matching principle is observed in uranyl compounds. In order to satisfy some basic peculiarities of uranyl (in

  12. Analysis of inorganic sulphur compounds by means of ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, J.; Goebl, M.

    1985-03-01

    Ionic inorganic sulphur compounds can be separated and determined by ion-chromatographic techniques. In aqueous solution the species of interest mostly exist as anions. Separation techniques include both ion exchange and ion-pair chromatography. The stationary phases are latexed anion exchangers based on polystyrene/divinylbenzene as well as neutral resins of an unpolar character. The most widely used detection system is the conductometric detector. The high background conductivity of the eluent is eliminated by the use of a suppressor device. Sulphide is detected by amperometry due to the high pK-value of the corresponding acid formed in the suppressor. Amperometric detection can also be employed for detection of other sulphur containing species like thiocyanate and thiosulphate in a complex matrix. Detection limits for the species investigated are in the lowest ppb region.

  13. Room temperature electrodeposition of aluminum antimonide compound semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, T.; Raja, K.S.; Misra, M.

    2008-01-01

    AlSb is a group III-V compound semiconductor material that is conventionally grown by high temperature processes such as Czochralski and Bridgman methods. Development of a method to synthesize AlSb at room temperature will be more economical to help modulate the electronic properties. In this investigation, a pulsed potential electrodeposition method using a room temperature molten salt system (aluminum trichloride, AlCl 3 /1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride, EMIC) with an addition of SbCl 3 is discussed. The potential pulse parameters were established by carrying out cyclic voltammetry at different concentrations of SbCl 3 and with varying molar ratios of AlCl 3 /EMIC. Stoichiometric AlSb deposits were obtained from an acidic AlCl 3 /EMIC (1.5:1 molar ratio) melt containing 4 x 10 -3 mol/l of SbCl 3 onto an ordered TiO 2 nanotubular template. The AlSb compound was predominantly amorphous in as-deposited condition and annealing at 350 deg. C for 2 h in argon transformed into crystalline phase. The AlSb deposit showed a high resistivity in the order of 10 9 Ω-cm and a defect concentration of 10 16 cm -3 which was attributed to presence of carbon. The deposits obtained from a basic melt (0.67:1 molar ratio of AlCl 3 /EMIC) were enriched with antimony

  14. Multi-Phase Equilibrium and Solubilities of Aromatic Compounds and Inorganic Compounds in Sub- and Supercritical Water: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinli; Ding, Xin; Du, Bowen; Fang, Tao

    2017-11-02

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), as a novel and efficient technology, has been applied to wastewater treatment processes. The use of phase equilibrium data to optimize process parameters can offer a theoretical guidance for designing SCWO processes and reducing the equipment and operating costs. In this work, high-pressure phase equilibrium data for aromatic compounds+water systems and inorganic compounds+water systems are given. Moreover, thermodynamic models, equations of state (EOS) and empirical and semi-empirical approaches are summarized and evaluated. This paper also lists the existing problems of multi-phase equilibria and solubility studies on aromatic compounds and inorganic compounds in sub- and supercritical water.

  15. Room temperature electrodeposition of aluminum antimonide compound semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhi, T.; Raja, K.S. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nevada, Mail Stop 388, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Misra, M. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Nevada, Mail Stop 388, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)], E-mail: misra@unr.edu

    2008-10-15

    AlSb is a group III-V compound semiconductor material that is conventionally grown by high temperature processes such as Czochralski and Bridgman methods. Development of a method to synthesize AlSb at room temperature will be more economical to help modulate the electronic properties. In this investigation, a pulsed potential electrodeposition method using a room temperature molten salt system (aluminum trichloride, AlCl{sub 3}/1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride, EMIC) with an addition of SbCl{sub 3} is discussed. The potential pulse parameters were established by carrying out cyclic voltammetry at different concentrations of SbCl{sub 3} and with varying molar ratios of AlCl{sub 3}/EMIC. Stoichiometric AlSb deposits were obtained from an acidic AlCl{sub 3}/EMIC (1.5:1 molar ratio) melt containing 4 x 10{sup -3} mol/l of SbCl{sub 3} onto an ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotubular template. The AlSb compound was predominantly amorphous in as-deposited condition and annealing at 350 deg. C for 2 h in argon transformed into crystalline phase. The AlSb deposit showed a high resistivity in the order of 10{sup 9} {omega}-cm and a defect concentration of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} which was attributed to presence of carbon. The deposits obtained from a basic melt (0.67:1 molar ratio of AlCl{sub 3}/EMIC) were enriched with antimony.

  16. Effects of aluminum on growth, polyamine metabolism, and inorganic ions in suspension cultures of red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Walter C. Shortle; Daniel J. Jr. Coughin; Subhash C. Minocha

    1996-01-01

    The influence of age of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cell suspensions on aluminum (Al) effects was studied by adding AICI3 (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) to the media on each day of a 7-day culture period and analyzing for changes in total cell mass, polyamines, arginine decarboxylase activity, and inorganic ions after 24 h of...

  17. Binary systems solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds, v.1 pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Stephen, H

    2013-01-01

    Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, Volume 1: Binary Systems, Part 1 is part of an approximately 5,500-page manual containing a selection from the International Chemical Literature on the Solubilities of Elements, Inorganic Compounds, Metallo-organic and Organic Compounds in Binary, Ternary and Multi-component Systems. A careful survey of the literature in all languages by a panel of scientists specially appointed for the task by the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has made the compilation of this work possible. The complete English edition in five separately bound volumes w

  18. Structure of inorganic phosphorus-nitrogen tetrahedral compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitola, A.; Ronis, J.; Avotins, V.; Millers, T.

    1997-01-01

    The structure analysis of phosphorus-nitrogen compounds has shown the possibility of the P(O,N) 4 tetrahedra to form various kinds of structures. The wide spectrum of the properties determined by the diversity of structures marks the considerable promise to the future application of phosphorus-nitrogen compounds

  19. Infrared spectra of inorganic compounds (3800-45cm- 1)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nyquist, Richard A; Kagel, Ronald O; Kagel, Ron

    1971-01-01

    ... availability of low- cost infrared spectrometers. For these reasons, over the last 30 years large numbers of standard spectra of organic compounds have been collected and catalogued, and are presently available for reference...

  20. Neutron diffraction by monocrystals of inorganic and elementary organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.; Hauser, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    The phase of preparation and X-ray structural analysis of the compounds has been completed following the synthetical preparation of compounds sensitive to oxidation and pyrolysis, in this case: phosphonic acid, potassium silanide, lithium dihydrogenphosphide * DME, bis[lithium-tri(tert.butyl)alanate], dibromophenylbismuthate, potassium tetrahydride aluminate, and phosphinic acid. The work was started is neutron diffraction experiments for detecting the positions of the hydrogen and carbon atoms, in order to analyse space group problems. (BBR) [de

  1. Improving of Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum Alloys by Removing Intermetallic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri, Osami

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that iron is one of the most common impurity elements sound in aluminum and its alloys. Iron in the aluminum forms an intermetallic compounds such as FeAl 3 . The FeAl 3 particles on the aluminum surface are one of the most detrimental phases to the corrosion process and anodizing procedure for aluminum and its alloys. Trial and error surface treatment will be carried out to find the preferential and effective removal of FeAl 3 particles on the surfaces without dissolution of aluminum matrix around the particles. One of the preferable surface treatments for the aim of getting FeAl 3 free surface was an electrochemical treatment such as cathodic current density of -2 kAm -2 in a 20-30 mass% HNO 3 solution for the period of 300s. The corrosion characteristics of aluminum surface with FeAl 3 free particles are examined in a 0.1 kmol/m 3 NaCl solution. It is found that aluminum with free FeAl 3 particles shows higher corrosion resistance than aluminum with FeAl 3 particles

  2. Biological and chemical investigation of Allium cepa L. response to selenium inorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Kacymirow, M; Kurek, E; Smolis, A; Wierzbicka, M; Bulska, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and chemical response of Allium cepa L. exposed to inorganic selenium compounds. Besides the investigation of the total content of selenium as well as its chemical speciation, the Allium test was used to evaluate the growth of onion roots and mitotic activity in the roots' meristem. The total content of selenium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled to ICP MS, was used for the selenium chemical speciation. Results indicated that A. cepa plants are able to biotransform inorganic selenium compounds into their organic derivatives, e.g., Se-methylselenocysteine from the Se(IV) inorganic precursor. Although the differences in the biotransformation of selenium are due mainly to the oxidation state of selenium, the experiment has also shown a fine effect of counter ions (H(+), Na(+), NH4 (+)) on the response of plants and on the specific metabolism of selenium.

  3. Capillary electrophoretic separation of inorganic and organic arsenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greschonig, H. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria); Schmid, M.G.; Guebitz, G. [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Karl Franzens University Graz (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis was used to separate arsenite, arsenate, dimethylarsinic and diphenylarsinic acid, methanearsonic acid, phenyl- and p-aminophenyl arsonic acid, phenylarsineoxide and phenarsazinic acid. Anionic and uncharged species were separated in a fused silica capillary with on-column UV detection at 200 nm. A 15 mM phosphate solution adjusted to pH 6.5 containing 10 mM sodium dodecylsulfonate served as background electrolyte. The influence of pH and applied voltage on separation efficiency, as well as the feasibility of identification of arsenic compounds in spiked urine, were investigated. (orig.) With 7 figs., 1 tab., 22 refs.

  4. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry : The promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, B.; Casini, A.

    2014-01-01

    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold

  5. Effects of Nano-Aluminum Nitride on the Performance of an Ultrahigh-Temperature Inorganic Phosphate Adhesive Cured at Room Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chengkun; Chen, Hailong; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jifeng; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Limin

    2017-01-01

    Based on the optimal proportion of resin and curing agent, an ultrahigh-temperature inorganic phosphate adhesive was prepared with aluminum dihydric phosphate, aluminium oxide ( α -Al2O3), etc. and cured at room temperature (RT). Then, nano-aluminum nitride (nano-AlN), nano-Cupric oxide (nano-CuO), and nano-titanium oxide (nano-TiO2) were added into the adhesive. Differential scanning calorimetry was conducted using the inorganic phosphate adhesive to analyze the phosphate reactions durin...

  6. Matrix- and tensor-based recommender systems for the discovery of currently unknown inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Atsuto; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Kashima, Hisashi; Tanaka, Isao

    2018-01-01

    Chemically relevant compositions (CRCs) and atomic arrangements of inorganic compounds have been collected as inorganic crystal structure databases. Machine learning is a unique approach to search for currently unknown CRCs from vast candidates. Herein we propose matrix- and tensor-based recommender system approaches to predict currently unknown CRCs from database entries of CRCs. Firstly, the performance of the recommender system approaches to discover currently unknown CRCs is examined. A Tucker decomposition recommender system shows the best discovery rate of CRCs as the majority of the top 100 recommended ternary and quaternary compositions correspond to CRCs. Secondly, systematic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to investigate the phase stability of the recommended compositions. The phase stability of the 27 compositions reveals that 23 currently unknown compounds are newly found to be stable. These results indicate that the recommender system has great potential to accelerate the discovery of new compounds.

  7. Moessbauer spectroscopic study on inorganic compounds. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Kitazawa, Takafumi; Nanba, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Norio; Sumisawa, Yasuhiro; Takeda, Masuo [Toho Univ., Funabashi, Chiba (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sawahata, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    {sup 166}Er and {sup 127}I Moessbauer spectra were observed. {sup 166}Er Moessbauer spectrum of Er metal and 9 compounds were measured by {sup 166}Ho/Y{sub 0.6}Ho{sub 0.4}H{sub 2} source at 12K and the parameters such as e{sup 2}qQ(mm s{sup -1}), Heff(T) and {tau}(ns) were determined. The relaxation time of ErCl{sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O was 0.7ns, long, but that of ErCl{sub 3} was 10 ps, short time. {sup 127}I Moessbauer spectrum of PhI(O{sub 2}CR){sub 2} (R=CH{sub 3}, CHF{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}Cl, CHCl{sub 2}, CCl{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}Br, CHBr{sub 2} and CBr{sub 3}) were observed and compared with that of R`{sub 3}Sb(O{sub 2}CR){sub 2} was similar to that of PhI(O{sub 2}CR){sub 2}. The correlation coefficient between e{sup 2}qQ({sup 127}I) and Mulliken population of carboxylic hydrogen atom of R{sub 2}CO{sub 2}H was -0.87. The relation between the hypervalent bond of O-I-O and that of O-Sb-0 was shown by the equation: e{sup 2}qQ({sup 121}Sb)/mm s{sup -1} = -47.2 + 1.32 e{sup 2}qQ({sup 127}I)/mm s{sup -1}. Hypervalent iodine complex such as (PhI(py){sub 2}){sup 2+} salt and E-Sb-I (E=O, I, N and C) were studied, too. (S.Y.)

  8. Inorganic and methane clathrates: Versatility of guest–host compounds for energy harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, Lakshmi; Koh, Carolyn A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    This review article evaluates the structure–property relations of inorganic clathrates and clathrate hydrates and their potential role in energy harvesting. There is potential cross-fertilization between the two research areas.

    Guest–host clathrate compounds exhibit unique structural and physical properties, which lead to their versatile roles in energy applications. Prominent classes of clathrate compounds are gas hydrates and inorganic clathrates. That said, there is limited cross-fertilization between the clathrate hydrate and inorganic clathrate communities, with researchers in the respective fields being less informed on the other field. Yet the structures and unique guest–host interactions in both these compounds are common important features of these clathrates. Common features and procedures can inspire and inform development between the compound classes, which may be important to the technological advancements for the different clathrate materials, e.g., structure characterization techniques and guest–host dynamics in which the “guest” tends to be imprisoned in the host structure, until external forces are applied. Conversely, the diversity in chemical compositions of these two classes of materials leads to the different applications from methane capture and storage to converting waste heat to electricity (thermoelectrics). This article highlights the structural and physical similarities and differences of inorganic and methane clathrates. The most promising state-of-the-art applications of the clathrates are highlighted for harvesting energy from methane (clathrate) hydrate deposits under the ocean and for inorganic clathrates as promising thermoelectric materials.

  9. Inorganic tin compounds do not induce micronuclei in human lymphocytes in the absence of metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damati, Artemis; Vlastos, Dimitris; Philippopoulos, Athanassios I; Matthopoulos, Demetrios P

    2014-04-01

    The genotoxic evaluation (in vitro analysis) of a series of eight inorganic tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds [tin(II) acetate, tin(II) chloride, tin(II) ethylhexanoate, tin(II) oxalate, tin(II) oxide, tin(IV) acetate, tin(IV) chloride and tin(IV) oxide], for the detection of micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes, was performed in the absence of metabolic activation by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Human lymphocytes were treated for over one cell cycle (31 hours), with concentrations ranging from 1 to 75 μM (1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 75 μM), of tin(II) and tin(IV) salts dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. The above-listed concentrations cover the values that have been detected in humans with no occupational exposure to tin compounds. The experimental results show the absence of genotoxicity for all inorganic compounds tested in the specific concentrations and experimental conditions. Cytotoxic effects of tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds were evaluated by the determination of cytokinesis block proliferation index and cytotoxicity percentage. Our observations on the cytotoxicity pattern of the tested tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds indicate that they are cytotoxic in several tested concentrations to human lymphocytes treated in vitro. The observed differences in cytotoxicity of each tested compound might reflect differences in their chemical structure.

  10. Physiological responses of suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus to aluminum: changes in polyamines and inorganic ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinhua Zhou; Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha

    1995-01-01

    The effects of aluminum (Al) treatment on polyamines were studied using suspension cultures of Madagascar periwinkle [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don]. The addition of A1 (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mM) to the suspension cultures caused a significant increase in putrescine within 24h only in freshly transferred cells. By contrast, Al treatment reduced putrescine...

  11. Genomic Analysis Unravels Reduced Inorganic Sulfur Compound Oxidation of Heterotrophic Acidophilic Acidicaldus sp. Strain DX-1

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Hongying; Zhang, Xian; Xiao, Yunhua; Guo, Xue; Liu, Xueduan

    2016-01-01

    Although reduced inorganic sulfur compound (RISC) oxidation in many chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers has been investigated in recent years, there is little information about RISC oxidation in heterotrophic acidophiles. In this study, Acidicaldus sp. strain DX-1, a heterotrophic sulfur-oxidizing acidophile, was isolated. Its genome was sequenced and then used for comparative genomics. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR was performed to identify the expression of genes involved in th...

  12. Inorganic elements and organic compounds degradation studies by gamma irradiation in used lubricating oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The automotive lubricating oils have partial degradation of organic compounds and addition of undesirable inorganic elements, during its use. These substances classify the used lubricating oils as dangerous and highly toxic. According to global consensus, concerning the environmental conservation, the best is to perform a reuse treatment of these lubricating oils. For this purpose, the uses of an alternative and effective technology have been sought. In this work, the efficacy and technical feasibility of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), by gamma radiation, for used automotive lubricating oil treatment has been studied. Different quantities of hydrogen peroxide and water Milli-Q were added to oil samples. They were submitted to the Cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammacell, with 100, 200 and 500 kGy absorbed doses. The inorganic analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed inorganic elements removal, mainly to sulphur, calcium, iron and nickel elements at acceptable levels by environmental protection law for oils reusing. The gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis showed that the advanced oxidation process promotes the organic compounds degradation. The main identified compounds were tridecane, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and trietilamina-tetramethyl urea, which have important industrial applications. The multivariate analysis, Cluster Analysis, showed that advanced oxidation process application is a viable and promising treatment for used lubricating oil reusing. (author)

  13. Process for production of an aluminum hydride compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Miller, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2013-08-06

    A compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl substituted by at least one of: (i) an alkoxy group having from one to six carbon atoms; and (ii) an alkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms; wherein M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two.

  14. Development of conjugate methods with gas chromatography for inorganic compounds analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccan, N.

    1975-01-01

    The application of gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry or with nuclear methods for the analysis of inorganic compounds is studied. The advantages of the use of a gas chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer or with a high resolution radiation detector, are discussed. We also studied the formation and solvent extraction of metal chelates; an aliquot of the organic phase was directly injected into the gas chromatograph and the eluted compounds were detected by mass spectrometry or, when radioactive, by nuclear methods. (author)

  15. Scintillating Organic–Inorganic Layered Perovskite-type Compounds and the Gamma-ray Detection Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kawano, Naoki; Koshimizu, Masanori; Okada, Go; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Yanagida, Takayuki; Asai, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    We investigated scintillation properties of organic–inorganic layered perovskite-type compounds under gamma-ray and X-ray irradiation. A crystal of the hybrid compounds with phenethyl amine (17 × 23 × 4 mm) was successfully fabricated by the poor-solvent diffusion method. The bulk sample showed superior scintillation properties with notably high light yield (14,000 photons per MeV) under gamma-rays and very fast decay time (11 ns). The light yield was about 1.4 time higher than that of common...

  16. A golden future in medicinal inorganic chemistry: the promise of anticancer gold organometallic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Benoît; Casini, Angela

    2014-03-21

    From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold coordination compounds. In fact, several studies have proved that they can be used to develop highly efficient metal-based drugs with possible applications in the treatment of cancer. This Perspective summarizes the results obtained for different families of bioactive organometallic gold compounds including cyclometallated gold(iii) complexes with C,N-donor ligands, gold(I) and gold(I/III) N-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene complexes, as well as gold(I) alkynyl complexes, with promising anticancer effects. Most importantly, we will focus on recent developments in the field and discuss the potential of this class of organometallic compounds in relation to their versatile chemistry and innovative mechanisms of action.

  17. Crystal chemical characterization of mullite-type aluminum borate compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, K., E-mail: Kristin.Hoffmann@uni-bremen.de [Kristallographie, FB05, Klagenfurter Straße / GEO, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Kristallographie, FB02, Leobener Straße / NW2, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Hooper, T.J.N. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Zhao, H.; Kolb, U. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie, Jakob-Welder-WegJakob-Welder-Weg 11, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Murshed, M.M. [Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Kristallographie, FB02, Leobener Straße / NW2, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, Bibliothekstraße 1, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Fischer, M.; Lührs, H. [Kristallographie, FB05, Klagenfurter Straße / GEO, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, Bibliothekstraße 1, Universität Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Nénert, G. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Kudějová, P.; Senyshyn, A. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2017-03-15

    Al-rich aluminum borates were prepared by different synthesis routes using various Al/B ratios, characterized by diffraction methods, spectroscopy and prompt gamma activation analysis. The {sup 11}B NMR data show a small amount of BO{sub 4} species in all samples. The chemical analysis indicates a trend in the Al/B ratio instead of a fixed composition. Both methods indicate a solid solution Al{sub 5−x}B{sub 1+x}O{sub 9} where Al is substituted by B in the range of 1–3%. The structure of B-rich Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} (C2/m, a=1488 pm, b=553 pm, c=1502 pm, ß=90.6°), was re-investigated by electron diffraction methods, showing that structural details vary within a crystallite. In most of the domains the atoms are orderly distributed, showing no signal for the postulated channel oxygen atom O5. The absence of O5 is supported by density functional theory calculations. Other domains show a probable disordered configuration of O5 and O10, indicated by diffuse scattering along the b direction. - Graphical abstract: Projections of three-dimensional electron diffraction space of Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} along the main directions. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} was re-evaluated. • Structural details vary among different crystals and inside Al{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 9} crystallites. • Diffuse scattering indicate a probable disordered configuration of O5 and O10. • A solid solution series for Al{sub 5−x}B{sub x}O{sub 9} is indicated by PGAA and NMR spectroscopy. • The presence of BO{sub 4} groups is confirmed by {sup 11}B MAS NMR spectroscopy for Al{sub 5−x}B{sub 1+x}O{sub 9}.

  18. The effect of various naturally occurring metal-binding compounds on the electrochemical behavior of aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.C.; McCafferty, E. [Naval Research lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Naturally occurring biological molecules are of considerable interest as possible corrosion inhibitors because of increased attention on the development of environmentally compatible, nonpolluting corrosion inhibitors. A hydroxamate yeast siderophore (rhodotorulic acid), a catecholate bacterial siderophore (parabactin), an adhesive protein from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, and two metal-binding compounds isolated from the tomato and sunflower roots, namely, chlorogenic and caffeic acid, respectively, were adsorbed from solution onto pure aluminum (99.9995%) and their effect on the critical pitting potential and polarization resistance in deaerated 0.1 M NaCl was measured. These measurements were made using anodic polarization and ac impedance spectroscopy. The catechol-containing siderophore has an inhibitive effect on the critical pitting potential of aluminum in 0.1 M NaCl and increases the polarization resistance of the metal over time. The adhesive protein from the blue mussel is also effective in inhibiting the pitting of aluminum.

  19. Release of Inorganic Phosphate from Irradiated Yeast: Radiation Biodosimetry and Evaluation of Radioprotective Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Hillel S.; Garber, Esther B.

    1967-01-01

    When cells of bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were irradiated with ionizing radiation, inorganic phosphate, ninhydrin-reactive material, and substances absorbing at 260 mμ were released into the suspending medium. The amount of inorganic phosphate released depended on the radiation dose and on the temperature and pH during irradiation. The concentration of yeast cells did not affect the phosphate yield per milligram of yeast. It is suggested that the release of phosphate may serve as an index of the total radiation environment (i.e., as a biodosimeter) where radiation inactivation of microrganisms is of primary importance, e.g., in radiation preservation of foods. The somewhat limited range of the yeast biodosimeter (ca. 0.5 to 1.75 Mrad) may be extended by use of other more resistant microorganisms, such as bacterial spores. Compounds which have been reported as protecting microorganisms and mammals against the lethal effect of ionizing radiation also inhibited the radiation-induced release of inorganic phosphate from yeast. This phosphate release system is proposed as the basis for an economical, rapid supplement to screening procedures in the evaluation of radioprotective compounds. PMID:6029839

  20. Antitumor Activity and Toxicity of Salts of Inorganic Group IIIa Metals: Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, and Thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael M.; Adamson, Richard H.

    1971-01-01

    The toxicity and antitumor activity of salts of the Group IIIa metals aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium were determined. With the (lethal dose)50 as a measure, the decreasing order of toxicity was TlCl3 ≥ In(NO3)3 > Ga(NO3)3 > Al(NO3)3. All four metals exhibited antitumor activity, but when the tumor was inoculated by a route different from that of the drug, only Ga+3 and, to a lesser extent, In+3 inhibited tumor growth. Ga(NO3)3 was found to inhibit the growth of three out of four rodent solid tumors. Gallium therefore has potential therapeutic usefulness for treatment of solid tumors in man. PMID:5283954

  1. Structural Characterization and Infrared and Electrical Properties of the New Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oueslati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New inorganic-organic hybrid [(C3H74N]2Hg2Cl6 compound was obtained and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared, and impedance spectroscopy. The latter crystallizes in the monoclinic system (space group C 2/c, with the following unit cell dimensions: (1 Å, (6 Å, (2 Å, and (2. Besides, its structure was solved using 84860 independent reflections leading to . Electrical properties of the material were studied using impedance spectroscopic technique at different temperatures in the frequency range of 209 Hz to 5 MHz. Detailed analysis of the impedance spectrum suggested that the electrical properties of the material are strongly temperature-dependent. The Nyquist plots clearly showed the presence of bulk and grain boundary effect in the compound.

  2. Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: Inorganic chromium compounds. Draft report (Second)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    Information profiles are presented for the following inorganic chromium compounds: chromic(VI) acid, chromic(III) hydroxide, chromic(III) oxide, chromic(III) sulfate, chromic(III) sulfate (basic), chromium dioxide, potassium dichromate(VI), lead chromate, sodium-chromate(VI), sodium-dichromate(VI), and zinc-yellow-chromate(VI). Biological effects of hexavalent chromium in humans included skin ulceration, dermatitis, nasal membrane irritation and ulceration, nasal septal perforation, rhinitis, nosebleed, nephritis, liver damage, epigastric pain, pulmonary congestion and edema, and erosion and discoloration of teeth. Chromium(VI) compounds caused mutations in a variety of systems. Exposure to trivalent chromium in the work place has caused contact dermatitis and chrome ulcers. Epidemiological studies indicated respiratory carcinogenicity among workers occupationally exposed during chromate production.

  3. A Novel Inorganic Low Melting Electrolyte for Secondary-Aluminum-Nickel Sulfide Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, H.A.; Winbrush, S. von; Berg, Rolf W.

    1989-01-01

    A new, inorganic low melting electrolyte with the composition LiAlCl4-NaAlCl4-NaAlBr4-KAlCl4 (3:2:3:2) [or equivalentlyLiAlBr4-NaAlCl4-KAlCl4 (3:5:2)] has been developed. The melting point for this neutral melt is 86°C; the decompositionpotential is approximately 2.0V; the ionic conductivity...... is measured in the range 97°–401°C and is 0.142s cm–1 at100°C, and the density is 2.07g cm–3. The conductivity seems to be an almost linear combination of the conductivities ofthe four individual halo salts which form the melt. Other examined higher melting mixtures exhibit conductivities deviatingless than...... ±10% from their combination expectations. The low melting electrolyte is employed in the rechargeable batterysystem Al/electrolyte/Ni3S2 at 100°C. The open-circuit voltage of this system is from 0.82 to 1.0V. Dendrite-free aluminumdeposits are obtained. The cycling behavior of the battery system...

  4. Analysis of “Favorable Growth Element” Based on Rare Earth-aluminum Composite Mechanism of Compound Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Baohong; Zeng, Qihui; Zhao, Jin

    2018-01-01

    Under the background that failure resulted in by high temperature once only aluminum oxide is used as the gasoline additive. This paper, with the purpose to solve this problem, is to synthesize AcAl oxide for gasoline additive. In order to get the rare-earth-aluminum oxide, first, a complex model of rare earth oxide based on theories about ion coordination is established. Then, by the complex model, the type of “compound growth unit” when rare earth elements join the hydrothermal conditions and the inclination that “diversification” might probably happen are deduced. Depending on the results got by complex model, this paper introduces the type of compound and its existence conditions of “Compound growth unit” owned by stable rare-earth-aluminum oxide. By adjusting the compositions of modifier, compound materials of rare earth-aluminum oxide used for gasoline additive is made. By XRD test, aperture test, adsorption test and desorption test, the theoretical deduction is proved to be right. From the experiment, it is concluded that: a dense environment is the pre-condition to form rare-earth-aluminum polymer, which is also an essential condition for the polymer to update to a favorable growth unit and produce mesoporous rare-earth-aluminum oxide with high activity.

  5. Migration of residual nonvolatile and inorganic compounds from recycled post-consumer PET and HDPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Camila; Reyes, Felix G.R., E-mail: reyesfgr@fea.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia dos Alimentos. Dept. de Ciencias dos Alimentos; Freire, Maria Teresa de A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencia Animal e Engenharia dos Alimentos. Dept. de Engenharia dos Alimentos; Nerin, Cristina; Bentayeb, Karim; Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Aznar, Margarita [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Arago Inst. of Engineering Research, University of Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-04-15

    Migration of nonvolatile and inorganic residual compounds from post-consumer recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) submitted to cleaning processes for subsequent production of materials intended to food contact, as well as from multilayer packaging material containing post-consumer recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) was determined. Tests were carried out using food simulant. Nonvolatile organic contaminants from PET, determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ/MS), showed significant migration reduction as consequence of the more complex cleaning technologies applied. However, contaminants not allowed by Brazilian and European Union regulations were identified even in deep cleaning samples. Results from multilayer HDPE showed a greater number of contaminants when compared to recycled pellets. Inorganic contaminants, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were below the acceptable levels. Additional studies for identification and quantitation of unknown molecules which were not possible to identify in this study by UPLC-QqQ/MS are required to ascertain the safety of using post-consumer recycled packaging material. (author)

  6. Enhancing Optically Pumped Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Amplified Spontaneous Emission via Compound Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite has attracted intensive attention from researchers as the gain medium in lasing devices. However, achieving electrically driven lasing remains a significant challenge. Modifying the devices’ structure to enhance the optically pumped amplified spontaneous emission (ASE is the key issue. In this work, gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are first doped into PEDOT: PSS buffer layer in a slab waveguide device structure: Quartz/PEDOT: PSS (with or w/o Au NPs/CH3NH3PbBr3. As a result, the facile device shows a significantly enhanced ASE intensity and a narrowed full width at half maximum. Based on experiments and theoretical simulation data, the improvement is mainly a result of the compound surface plasmon resonance, including simultaneous near- and far-field effects, both of which could increase the density of excitons excited state and accelerate the radiative decay process. This method is highly significant for the design and development and fabrication of high-performance organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite lasing diodes.

  7. Trivalent metal ions based on inorganic compounds with in vitro inhibitory activity of matrix metalloproteinase 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hanyu; Qin, Yuan; Zhong, Weilong; Li, Cong; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Yehua

    2016-10-01

    Collagenase-3 (MMP-13) inhibitors have attracted considerable attention in recent years and have been developed as a therapeutic target for a variety of diseases, including cancer. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can be inhibited by a multitude of compounds, including hydroxamic acids. Studies have shown that materials and compounds containing trivalent metal ions, particularly potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) (K3[Fe(CN)6]), exhibit cdMMP-13 inhibitory potential with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.3μM. The target protein was obtained by refolding the recombinant histidine-tagged cdMMP-13 using size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The secondary structures of the refolded cdMMP-13 with or without metal ions were further analyzed via circular dichroism and the results indicate that upon binding with metal ions, an altered structure with increased domain stability was obtained. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments demonstrated that K3[Fe(CN)6]is able to bind to MMP-13 and endothelial cell tube formation tests provide further evidence for this interaction to exhibit anti-angiogenesis potential. To the best of our knowledge, no previous report of an inorganic compound featuring a MMP-13 inhibitory activity has ever been reported in the literature. Our results demonstrate that K3[Fe(CN)6] is useful as a new effective and specific inhibitor for cdMMP-13 which may be of great potential for future drug screening applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Inorganic sulfur-nitrogen compounds: from gunpowder chemistry to the forefront of biological signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Butler, Anthony R; Woollins, J Derek; Feelisch, Martin

    2016-04-14

    The reactions between inorganic sulfur and nitrogen-bearing compounds to form S-N containing species have a long history and, besides assuming importance in industrial synthetic processes, are of relevance to microbial metabolism; waste water treatment; aquatic, soil and atmospheric chemistry; and combustion processes. The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide exert often similar, sometimes mutually dependent effects in a variety of biological systems, and that the chemical interaction of these two species leads to formation of S-N compounds brought this chemistry to the attention of physiologists, biochemists and physicians. We here provide a perspective about the potential role of S-N compounds in biological signaling and briefly review their chemical properties and bioactivities in the context of the chronology of their discovery. Studies of the biological role of NO revealed why its chemistry is ideally suited for the tasks Nature has chosen for it; realising how the distinctive properties of sulfur can enrich this bioactivity does much to revive 'die Freude am experimentellen Spiel' of the pioneers in this field.

  9. Controlling the release of active compounds from the inorganic carrier halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tescione, F.; Buonocore, G. G.; Stanzione, M.; Oliviero, M.; Lavorgna, M.

    2014-01-01

    Halloysite (HNTs), a natural material characterized by a nanotube structure, has been used as an inorganic carrier of active compounds in several applications from medicine to anticorrosion coatings. In this present work, vanillin (VAN) used as a antimicrobial model, has been encapsulated within HNTs for exploiting its applicability in the active food packaging sector. The molecule release rate has been controlled by crosslinking at the tube ends the loaded vanillin with copper ions, thus producing a stopper network. The vanillin-loaded HNTs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial release kinetics from the loaded nanoparticles (VAN/HNTs) in water was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the vanillin crosslinked with cupper ions is a feasible method to tailor the release rate of antimicrobial model from HTNs nanoparticles

  10. Controlling the release of active compounds from the inorganic carrier halloysite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tescione, F.; Buonocore, G. G.; Stanzione, M.; Oliviero, M.; Lavorgna, M. [National Research Council - Institute of Composites and Biomedical Materials, P.le E. Fermi, 1 80055 Portici (Naples) (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    Halloysite (HNTs), a natural material characterized by a nanotube structure, has been used as an inorganic carrier of active compounds in several applications from medicine to anticorrosion coatings. In this present work, vanillin (VAN) used as a antimicrobial model, has been encapsulated within HNTs for exploiting its applicability in the active food packaging sector. The molecule release rate has been controlled by crosslinking at the tube ends the loaded vanillin with copper ions, thus producing a stopper network. The vanillin-loaded HNTs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial release kinetics from the loaded nanoparticles (VAN/HNTs) in water was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the vanillin crosslinked with cupper ions is a feasible method to tailor the release rate of antimicrobial model from HTNs nanoparticles.

  11. Modeling the Detection of Organic and Inorganic Compounds Using Iodide-Based Chemical Ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Siddharth; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe; Lee, Ben H; Thornton, Joel A; Kurtén, Theo

    2016-02-04

    Iodide-based chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) has been used to detect and measure concentrations of several atmospherically relevant organic and inorganic compounds. The significant electronegativity of iodide and the strong acidity of hydroiodic acid makes electron transfer and proton abstraction essentially negligible, and the soft nature of the adduct formation ionization technique reduces the chances of sample fragmentation. In addition, iodide has a large negative mass defect, which, when combined with the high resolving power of a high resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS), provides good selectivity. In this work, we use quantum chemical methods to calculate the binding energies, enthalpies and free energies for clusters of an iodide ion with a number of atmospherically relevant organic and inorganic compounds. Systematic configurational sampling of the free molecules and clusters was carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level, followed by subsequent calculations at the PBE/SDD and DLPNO-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP//PBE/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP levels. The binding energies, enthalpies, and free energies thus obtained were then compared to the iodide-based University of Washington HR-ToF-CIMS (UW-CIMS) instrument sensitivities for these molecules. We observed a reasonably linear relationship between the cluster binding enthalpies and logarithmic instrument sensitivities already at the PBE/SDD level, which indicates that relatively simple quantum chemical methods can predict the sensitivity of an iodide-based CIMS instrument toward most molecules. However, higher level calculations were needed to treat some outlier molecules, most notably oxalic acid and methylerythritol. Our calculations also corroborated the recent experimental findings that the molecules that the UW-CIMS detects at maximum sensitivity usually have binding enthalpies to iodide which are higher than about 26 kcal/mol, depending slightly on the level of theory.

  12. Effects of Nano-Aluminum Nitride on the Performance of an Ultrahigh-Temperature Inorganic Phosphate Adhesive Cured at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkun Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the optimal proportion of resin and curing agent, an ultrahigh-temperature inorganic phosphate adhesive was prepared with aluminum dihydric phosphate, aluminium oxide ( α -Al2O3, etc. and cured at room temperature (RT. Then, nano-aluminum nitride (nano-AlN, nano-Cupric oxide (nano-CuO, and nano-titanium oxide (nano-TiO2 were added into the adhesive. Differential scanning calorimetry was conducted using the inorganic phosphate adhesive to analyze the phosphate reactions during heat treatment, and it was found that 15 wt % nano-AlN could clearly decrease the curing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microphenomenon of the modified adhesive at ultrahigh-temperature. The differential thermal analysis of the inorganic phosphate adhesive showed that the weight loss was approximately 6.5 wt % when the mass ratio of resin to curing agent was 1:1.5. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the adhesive with 10% nano-AlN showed that the phase structure changed from AlPO4(11-0500 to the more stable AlPO4(10-0423 structure after heat treatment. The shear strength of the adhesive containing 10% nano-AlN reached 7.3 MPa at RT due to the addition of nano-AlN, which promoted the formation of phosphate and increased the Al3+.

  13. Effects of Nano-Aluminum Nitride on the Performance of an Ultrahigh-Temperature Inorganic Phosphate Adhesive Cured at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chengkun; Chen, Hailong; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jifeng; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Limin

    2017-11-03

    Based on the optimal proportion of resin and curing agent, an ultrahigh-temperature inorganic phosphate adhesive was prepared with aluminum dihydric phosphate, aluminium oxide ( α -Al₂O₃), etc. and cured at room temperature (RT). Then, nano-aluminum nitride (nano-AlN), nano-Cupric oxide (nano-CuO), and nano-titanium oxide (nano-TiO₂) were added into the adhesive. Differential scanning calorimetry was conducted using the inorganic phosphate adhesive to analyze the phosphate reactions during heat treatment, and it was found that 15 wt % nano-AlN could clearly decrease the curing temperature. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the microphenomenon of the modified adhesive at ultrahigh-temperature. The differential thermal analysis of the inorganic phosphate adhesive showed that the weight loss was approximately 6.5 wt % when the mass ratio of resin to curing agent was 1:1.5. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the adhesive with 10% nano-AlN showed that the phase structure changed from AlPO₄(11-0500) to the more stable AlPO₄(10-0423) structure after heat treatment. The shear strength of the adhesive containing 10% nano-AlN reached 7.3 MPa at RT due to the addition of nano-AlN, which promoted the formation of phosphate and increased the Al 3+ .

  14. Critical review of animal carcinogenesis by cadmium and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximilien, R.; Dero, B.

    1990-01-01

    Animal carcinogenic biassays relative to 6 inorganic cadmium substances (cadmium metal, cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate, cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate) are reviewed (speciation). Critical evaluation of literature data on carcinogenicity has been performed by making reference to E.C. guidelines of good laboratory practice. There are few data on routes relevant for human risk assessment: experiments on inhalation demonstrate lung carcinogenicity of cadmium oxide, cadmium sulfide, cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride in rats but not in mice nor in hamsters; no carcinogenic effects of cadmium compounds are observed following oral administration. For routes of less or no relevance for human risk assessment, some results are clearly positive: subcutaneous injection induces cancers in situ (various cadmium compounds), testicular tumours (cadmium sulfate and cadmium chloride) and prostatic tumours (cadmium chloride) but such effects are not observed using relevant malignancies in rats. With respect to other no relevant routes (intraperitoneal, intrarenal...) tumours are incidentally produced in situ, but not in remote organs. Numerous studies fail to demonstrate cadmium carcinogenicity, but methodologically acceptable negative ones are very limited in number. Accordingly strain dependent effects and dose effect relationship could not be thoroughly assessed

  15. Stoichiometric modeling of oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (Riscs) in Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla Fazzini, Roberto A; Cortés, Maria Paz; Padilla, Leandro; Maturana, Daniel; Budinich, Marko; Maass, Alejandro; Parada, Pilar

    2013-08-01

    The prokaryotic oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs) is a topic of utmost importance from a biogeochemical and industrial perspective. Despite sulfur oxidizing bacterial activity is largely known, no quantitative approaches to biological RISCs oxidation have been made, gathering all the complex abiotic and enzymatic stoichiometry involved. Even though in the case of neutrophilic bacteria such as Paracoccus and Beggiatoa species the RISCs oxidation systems are well described, there is a lack of knowledge for acidophilic microorganisms. Here, we present the first experimentally validated stoichiometric model able to assess RISCs oxidation quantitatively in Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans (strain DSM 17318), the archetype of the sulfur oxidizing acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs. This model was built based on literature and genomic analysis, considering a widespread mix of formerly proposed RISCs oxidation models combined and evaluated experimentally. Thiosulfate partial oxidation by the Sox system (SoxABXYZ) was placed as central step of sulfur oxidation model, along with abiotic reactions. This model was coupled with a detailed stoichiometry of biomass production, providing accurate bacterial growth predictions. In silico deletion/inactivation highlights the role of sulfur dioxygenase as the main catalyzer and a moderate function of tetrathionate hydrolase in elemental sulfur catabolism, demonstrating that this model constitutes an advanced instrument for the optimization of At. thiooxidans biomass production with potential use in biohydrometallurgical and environmental applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genomic Analysis Unravels Reduced Inorganic Sulfur Compound Oxidation of Heterotrophic Acidophilic Acidicaldus sp. Strain DX-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although reduced inorganic sulfur compound (RISC oxidation in many chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers has been investigated in recent years, there is little information about RISC oxidation in heterotrophic acidophiles. In this study, Acidicaldus sp. strain DX-1, a heterotrophic sulfur-oxidizing acidophile, was isolated. Its genome was sequenced and then used for comparative genomics. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR was performed to identify the expression of genes involved in the RISC oxidation. Gene encoding thiosulfate: quinone oxidoreductase was present in Acidicaldus sp. strain DX-1, while no candidate genes with significant similarity to tetrathionate hydrolase were found. Additionally, there were genes encoding heterodisulfide reductase complex, which was proposed to play a crucial role in oxidizing cytoplasmic sulfur. Like many heterotrophic sulfur oxidizers, Acidicaldus sp. strain DX-1 had no genes encoding enzymes essential for the direct oxidation of sulfite. An indirect oxidation of sulfite via adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate was proposed in Acidicaldus strain DX-1. However, compared to other closely related bacteria Acidiphilium cryptum and Acidiphilium multivorum, which harbored the genes encoding Sox system, almost all of these genes were not detected in Acidicaldus sp. strain DX-1. This study might provide some references for the future study of RISC oxidation in heterotrophic sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles.

  17. Genomic Analysis Unravels Reduced Inorganic Sulfur Compound Oxidation of Heterotrophic Acidophilic Acidicaldus sp. Strain DX-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Hongying; Zhang, Xian; Xiao, Yunhua; Guo, Xue; Liu, Xueduan

    2016-01-01

    Although reduced inorganic sulfur compound (RISC) oxidation in many chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers has been investigated in recent years, there is little information about RISC oxidation in heterotrophic acidophiles. In this study, Acidicaldus sp. strain DX-1, a heterotrophic sulfur-oxidizing acidophile, was isolated. Its genome was sequenced and then used for comparative genomics. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR was performed to identify the expression of genes involved in the RISC oxidation. Gene encoding thiosulfate: quinone oxidoreductase was present in Acidicaldus sp. strain DX-1, while no candidate genes with significant similarity to tetrathionate hydrolase were found. Additionally, there were genes encoding heterodisulfide reductase complex, which was proposed to play a crucial role in oxidizing cytoplasmic sulfur. Like many heterotrophic sulfur oxidizers, Acidicaldus sp. strain DX-1 had no genes encoding enzymes essential for the direct oxidation of sulfite. An indirect oxidation of sulfite via adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate was proposed in Acidicaldus strain DX-1. However, compared to other closely related bacteria Acidiphilium cryptum and Acidiphilium multivorum, which harbored the genes encoding Sox system, almost all of these genes were not detected in Acidicaldus sp. strain DX-1. This study might provide some references for the future study of RISC oxidation in heterotrophic sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles.

  18. Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds and their self-assembled behavior in different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xuewen; Wang, Wenguang; Hao, Jingcheng

    2018-06-01

    Self-assembly behavior of polyoxometalates (POMs) is influenced by the functional group linked with polyoxometalates structure. We modified the POMs with organic molecule terpyridine to endow POMs the ability to assemble into nanostructure and control the properties of POMs. An amphiphilic organic-inorganic hybrid compound was prepared through combining the 4'-para-phenylcarboxyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine (PPCT) with POM to form the (TBA) 3 POM-PPCT. After cationic exchange, tetrabutylammonium cation (TBA + ) can be turned into H + to produce H 3 POM-PPCT. H 3 POM-PPCT showed excellent self-assembly behavior in different solvents. By adjusting the proportion of solvents, different fibers and leaf-like aggregates were obtained, which were determined by SEM and TEM observations. According to the experimental observations, mechanism of the formation of nanostructures was established. The redox properties of POMs can be maintained after the modification with PPCT, which were demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. The successful synthesis of these POMs may provide us an opportunity to find more functionalized ramifications of POMs, with self-assembled structures controlled in different solvent, but the interesting properties of these novel POMs can also provide motivation and guidance for the further development of novel functionalized POMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Atmospheric Deposition of Inorganic Elements and Organic Compounds at the Inlets of the Venice Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Morabito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Venice Lagoon is subjected to long-range transport of contaminants via aerosol from the near Po Valley. Moreover, it is an area with significant local anthropogenic emissions due to the industrial area of Porto Marghera, the urban centres, and the glass factories and with emissions by ships traffic within the Lagoon. Furthermore, since 2005, the Lagoon has also been affected by the construction of the MOSE (Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico—Electromechanical Experimental Module mobile dams, as a barrier against the high tide. This work presents and discusses the results from chemical analyses of bulk depositions, carried out in different sites of the Venice Lagoon. Fluxes of pollutants were also statistically analysed on PCA with the aim of investigating the spatial variability of depositions and their correlation with precipitations. Fluxes of inorganic pollutants depend differently on precipitations, while organic compounds show a more seasonal trend. The statistical analysis showed that the site in the northern Lagoon has lower and almost homogeneous fluxes of pollutants, while the other sites registered more variable concentrations. The study also provided important information about the annual trend of pollutants and their evolution over a period of about five years, from 2005 to 2010.

  20. Comparison of organic and inorganic germanium compounds in cellular radiosensitivity and preparation of germanium nanoparticles as a radiosensitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Hsing; Hsu, Tzu-Sheng; Yang, Pei-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Perng, Tsong-Pyng; Lin, Lih-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work is to compare the radiosensitizing effect between organic and inorganic germanium compounds and to investigate whether nanometer-sized germanium particles can act as radiosensitizers. Bis (2-carboxyethylgermanium) sesquioxide (Ge-132), germanium oxide (GeO(2)) and germanium nanoparticles were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by clonogenic survival assay. Cellular DNA damage was evaluated by alkaline comet assay, confocal microscopy and the cellular level of phospho-histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX). Nanometer-sized germanium particles were fabricated. They have a similar radiosensitizing effect as that of GeO(2). Conversely, Ge-132 did not enhance the radiosensitivity of cells. Comet assay was employed to evaluate the level of DNA damage and confirmed that inorganic germanium compounds enhanced cellular radiosensitivity. Notably, the comet assay indicated that the nanoparticle itself caused a higher level of DNA damage. The possibility that germanium nanoparticles per se caused DNA damage was ruled out when the cellular level of gamma-H2AX was examined. We demonstrated that inorganic but not organic germanium compounds exerted radiosensitizing effect in cells. Nanometer-sized germanium particles were fabricated and were able to enhance the radiosensitivity of cells. Confounding effect may occur when comet assay is used to estimate the level of DNA damage in the presence of germanium nanoparticles.

  1. Insertion, reduction, and carbon-carbon coupling induced by monomeric aluminum hydride compounds bearing substituted pyrrolyl ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Che-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Fu; Chen, Hsing-Jen; Hung, Chen-Hsiung; Yu, Ru-Ching; Kuo, Pei-Cheng; Lee, Hon Man; Huang, Jui-Hsien

    2006-04-03

    A monomeric aluminum hydride complex bearing substituted pyrrolyl ligands, AlH[C(4)H(3)N(CH(2)NMe(2))-2](2) (1), was synthesized and structurally characterized. To further confirm the presence of Al--H bonds, the compound AlD[C(4)H(3)N(CH(2)NMe(2))-2](2) ([D]1) was synthesized by reacting LiAlD(4) with [C(4)H(4)N(CH(2)NMe(2))-2]. Compound 1 and [D]1 react with phenyl isothiocyanate yielding Al[C(4)H(3)N(CH(2)NMe(2))-2](2)[eta(3)-SCHNPh] (2) and Al[C(4)H(3)N(CH(2)NMe(2))-2](2)[eta(3)-SCDNPh] ([D]2) by insertion. The reactions of 1 with 9-fluorenone and benzophenone generated the unusual aluminum alkoxide complexes 3 and 4, respectively, through intramolecular proton abstraction and C-C coupling. A mechanistic study shows that 9-fluorenone coordinates to [D]1 and releases one equivalent of HD followed by C-C coupling and hydride transfer to yield the final product. Reduction of benzil with 1 affords aluminum enediolate complex 5 in moderate yield. Mechanistic studies also showed that the benzil was inserted into the aluminum hydride bond of [D]1 through hydroalumination followed by proton transfer to generate the final product [D]5. All new complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography.

  2. Development of water-repellent organic–inorganic hybrid sol–gel coatings on aluminum using short chain perfluoro polymer emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wankhede, Ruchi Grover, E-mail: 123.ruchi@gmail.com [IITB-Monash Research Academy, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Morey, Shantaram [Dow Chemicals (India); Khanna, A.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Birbilis, N. [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    The development of an organic–inorganic sol–gel coating system (thickness ∼ 2 μm) on aluminum is reported. The coating uses glycidoxytrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as silane precursors, crosslinked with hexamethylmethoxymelamine (HMMM) and followed by hydrophobic modification using a water base short chain per-fluoro emulsion (FE). Such coating resulted in enhanced hydrophobicity with a contact angle of about 120° and sliding angle of 25° for a 20 μL water droplet. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed reduced corrosion upon coated substrates than the bare; correlated with both a higher degree of water repellency and formation of low permeable crosslinked sol–gel network. The structure of the coatings deposited was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, revealing replacement of hydrophillic surface hydroxyls groups with low energy per-fluoro groups.

  3. Development of water-repellent organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel coatings on aluminum using short chain perfluoro polymer emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhede, Ruchi Grover; Morey, Shantaram; Khanna, A. S.; Birbilis, N.

    2013-10-01

    The development of an organic-inorganic sol-gel coating system (thickness ∼ 2 μm) on aluminum is reported. The coating uses glycidoxytrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as silane precursors, crosslinked with hexamethylmethoxymelamine (HMMM) and followed by hydrophobic modification using a water base short chain per-fluoro emulsion (FE). Such coating resulted in enhanced hydrophobicity with a contact angle of about 120° and sliding angle of 25° for a 20 μL water droplet. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements showed reduced corrosion upon coated substrates than the bare; correlated with both a higher degree of water repellency and formation of low permeable crosslinked sol-gel network. The structure of the coatings deposited was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, revealing replacement of hydrophillic surface hydroxyls groups with low energy per-fluoro groups.

  4. Inorganic compounds and materials as catalysts for oxidations with aqueous hydrogen peroxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardello, veronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie; De Vos, Dirk E.; Neumann, Ronny; Adam, Waldemar; Zhang, Rui; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Witte, Peter T.; Alsters, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews our work on oxidations with aqueous hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by inorganic catalysts devoid of organic ligands. In the first part of the review, the use of the [WZn3(ZnW9O34)2]12− “sandwich” polyoxometalate as a multi-purpose oxidation catalyst is described. Attention is paid to

  5. The Bonding Behavior of co-extruded Aluminum-Titanium-Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striewe, Barbara; Hunkel, Martin; von Hehl, Axel; Grittner, Norbert

    The combination of aluminum and titanium enables the design of lightweight structures with tailor-made properties at global as well as local scale. In this context the co-extrusion process offers a great potential for advanced solutions for long products especially being applied in the aircraft and automobile sector. While titanium alloys show particular high mechanical strength and good corrosion resistance, aluminum alloys provide a considerable high specific bending stiffness along with lower materials costs.

  6. A Simple and Easy-To-Learn Chart of The Main Classes of Inorganic Compounds and Their Acid-Base Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, Grigoriy

    2005-01-01

    The main classes of inorganic compounds is presented to students as a two-dimensional chart and one coordinate of the chart corresponds to the acidic equivalent while the other corresponds to the number of bound water molecules. The chart is intended for those students who can assign a compound to a particular class and can be used at different…

  7. Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis Leaves: Analysis Of Proximate, Antioxidant Activities And Inorganic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Irwan Zubairi; Nurul Shahreda Jaies

    2014-01-01

    A variety of herbal plants species has been used in traditional medicine. Most of these plants contained several potent bio-active ingredients and nutrients that could give potential positive effects to the health such as antioxidant and antipyretic. Hibiscus rosa sinensis, commonly known as Bunga raya, have similar concoction characteristic to tea which contain antioxidants that help to control cholesterol. In addition, mucilage that was found in the leaves could helps to reduce extreme body heat during fever (which potentially acts as an antipyretic). Therefore, this preliminary study on the fresh and dried H. rosa sinensis leaves was carried out to analyze and identify the nutrients content, anti-oxidants and inorganic material. Total phenolic content (TPC) method was used for both fresh and dried leaves prior to the antioxidant activities of DPPH free radicals scavenging and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) as to confirm the existence of antioxidant constituents. Meanwhile, the composition of heavy metals was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The proximate analysis of the fresh leaves showed the presence of moisture content (9.03 %), protein (10.44 %), fat (6.43 %), crude fiber (11.55 %), ash (11.22 %) and carbohydrate (51.33 %). Meanwhile, the inorganic contents are as follows: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of FRAP and DPPH showed that dried leaves of H. rosa sinensis was higher than the fresh leaves (p < 0.05) irrespective of any solvent used. The positive correlation between TPC and two other antioxidant activities of DPPH and FRAP (p < 0.05) indicates the presence of antioxidant components in the acetone and water extracts. Therefore, the high availability of essential nutritional component, anti-oxidants and low concentration of hazardous inorganic matter in H. rosa sinensis leaves enable it to be used as one

  8. Composition and leaching of construction and demolition waste: Inorganic elements and organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Thirty-three samples of construction and demolition waste collected at 11 recycling facilities in Denmark were characterised in terms of total content and leaching of inorganic elements and presence of the persistent organic pollutants PCBs and PAHs. Samples included (i) "clean" (i.e. unmixed......) concrete waste, (ii) mixed masonry and concrete, (iii) asphalt and (iv) freshly cast concrete cores; both old and newly generated construction and demolition waste was included. PCBs and PAHs were detected in all samples, generally in non-critical concentrations. Overall, PAHs were comparable to background...

  9. Cast Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X Compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of nanoparticles Al2O3 and Al3-X compounds (X = Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their low cost, chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism at high temperature for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. For Al2O3 nanoparticles, the test samples were prepared from special Al2O3 preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and then pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. In another method, Al2O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with fine aluminum powder and consolidated into test samples through hot pressing and sintering. With the Al3-X nanoparticles, the test samples are produced as precipitates from in-situ reactions with molten aluminum using conventional permanent mold or die casting techniques. It is found that cast aluminum alloy using nanoparticles Al3-X is the most cost effective method to produce high strength aluminum alloys for high temperature applications in comparison to nanoparticles Al2O3. Furthermore, significant mechanical properties retention in high temperature environment could be achieved with Al3-X nanoparticles, resulting in tensile strength of nearly 3 times higher than most 300- series conventional cast aluminum alloys tested at 600 F.

  10. Hygroscopic growth and critical supersaturations for mixed aerosol particles of inorganic and organic compounds of atmospheric relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Svenningsson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols contains a multitude of compounds and usually only a small fraction can be identified and quantified. However, a limited number of representative organic compounds can be used to describe the water-soluble organic fraction. In this work, initiated within the EU 5FP project SMOCC, four mixtures containing various amounts of inorganic salts (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and sodium chloride and three model organic compounds (levoglucosan, succinic acid and fulvic acid were studied. The interaction between water vapor and aerosol particles was studied at different relative humidities: at subsaturation using a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA and at supersaturation using a cloud condensation nuclei spectrometer (CCN spectrometer. Surface tensions as a function of carbon concentrations were measured using a bubble tensiometer. Parameterizations of water activity as a function of molality, based on hygroscopic growth, are given for the pure organic compounds and for the mixtures, indicating van't Hoff factors around 1 for the organics. The Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule was tested on the hygroscopic growth of the mixtures and it was found to adequately explain the hygroscopic growth for 3 out of 4 mixtures, when the limited solubility of succinic acid is taken into account. One mixture containing sodium chloride was studied and showed a pronounced deviation from the ZSR mixing rule. Critical supersaturations calculated using the parameterizations of water activity and the measured surface tensions were compared with those determined experimentally.

  11. Synthesis, crystal structure and electrical properties of the new organic-inorganic hybrid compound bis(1-chlorido-4-aminopyridinium) octachlorodiantimoinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersi, Mohamed Amine; Hajji, Rachid; Chaabane, Iskandar; Gargouri, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Bis(1-chlorido-4-aminopyridinium) octachlorodiantimoinate has been synthesized and characterized by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 296 K and impedance spectroscopy. At room temperature, the title compound is crystallized in the triclinic system (P 1 ̅ space group) with Z = 2 and the following unit cell dimensions: a = 7.919 (1) Å, b = 9.624 (1) Å, c = 17.692 (3) Å, α = 101.81 (1)°, β = 95.12 (1)°and γ = 112.48 (1)°. The crystal structure of the [C10H12Cl2N4]Sb2Cl8 compound is built of two un-equivalent monoprotonated cations [C5H6N2Cl] + and two un-equivalent tetrachloroantimonate (III) anions noted which are [Sb(1)Cl4]- and [Sb(2)Cl4]-. The arrangement of this compound can be described by an alternation of organic and inorganic layers stacked along [010] direction. The cohesion of compound entities is ensured by hydrogen bonding (N-H…. Cl) and Van Der Waals interaction (C-H…. Cl). The temperature dependence of the σdc conductivity exhibits an Arrhenius type behavior described by the following expression σdc T = Aexp(-Ea/kβT). The Ac conductivity and the dielectric loss suggest that the correlated barrier hopping is the appropriate model for the conduction mechanism.

  12. Dimeric aluminum-phosphorus compounds as masked frustrated Lewis pairs for small molecule activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roters, S.; Appelt, C.; Westenberg, H.; Hepp, A.; Slootweg, J.C.; Lammertsma, K.; Uhl, W.

    2012-01-01

    Hydroalumination of aryldialkynylphosphines RP(CC-tBu) 2 (R = Ph, Mes) with equimolar quantities of diethylaluminum hydride afforded mixed alkenyl-alkynyl cyclic dimers in which the dative aluminum-phosphorus bonds are geminal to the exocyclic alkenyl groups. Addition of triethylaluminum

  13. [Pollution characteristics and source of the atmospheric fine particles and secondary inorganic compounds at Mount Dinghu in autumn season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Rui; Wang, Yue-Si; Liu, Quan; Liu, Lu-Ning; Zhang, De-Qiang

    2011-11-01

    Real-time measurements of PM2.5, secondary inorganic compounds in PM2.5 (SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-)) and related gaseous pollutants were conducted at Mount Dinghu, a regional background station of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), in October and November 2008 by using a conventional R&P TEOM and a system of rapid collection of fine particles and ion chromatography (RCFP-IC). Sources and transportation of atmospheric particles during the experiment were discussed with principal component analysis and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The average daily mass concentrations of PM2.5 were 76.9 microg x m(-3) during sampling period, and average daily mass concentrations of SO4(2-), NH4(+), and NO3(-) were 20.0 microg x m(-3), 6.8 microg x m(-3) and 2.6 microg x m(-3), respectively. The sum of these three secondary inorganic compounds accounted for more than one third of the PM2.5 mass concentration, which had become the major source of atmospheric fine particles at Mount Dinghu. The diurnal variation of PM2.5, SO4(2-), and NH4(+) all showed a "bimodal" distribution with two peaks appeared at 10:00 am and at 16:00 pm, respectively, whereas NO3(-s) howed "single peak" distribution peaked at 10:00 am. The mass concentrations of SO4(2-) in PM2.5 had the similar diurnal variation with that of SO2, SO4(2-) in PM2.5 was mainly transformed from SO2, whereas NO3(-) showed difference diurnal variation with that of NO2, and the second conversion rate of NO2 was far lower than that of SO2. NH4(+) in PM2.5 existed mainly in the form of sulfate, nitrate and chloride. Both of principal component analysis and back trajectory analysis showed that the variations of PM2.5 and secondary inorganic compounds at Mount Dinghu were mainly affected by the long-range transport air mass passed over Guangzhou, Huizhou and other highly industrialized areas which carried air pollutants to the observation site, at the same time local sulfate originated from secondary formation also

  14. Hydrogen generation by aluminum corrosion in aqueous alkaline solutions of inorganic promoters: The AlHidrox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macanas, Jorge; Soler, Lluis; Candela, Angelica Maria; Munoz, Maria; Casado, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The research of alternative processes to obtain clean fuels has become a main issue because of the concerns related to the current energy system, both from economical and environmental points of view. Hydrogen storage and production methods are being investigated for stationary and portable applications. Up to now, a significant part of H 2 production on demand was thought to be fulfilled by using chemical hydrides, but recent studies have proved the limitations of this approach. Conversely, H 2 production based in the corrosion of light metals in water solutions is an interesting alternative. Among all of them, Al is probably the most adequate metal for energetic purposes due to its high electron density and oxidation potential. But concerning H 2 production from Al corrosion in water, a major issue remains unsolved: metal passivation due to the formation of Al(OH) 3 inhibits H 2 evolution. In this work we show the last results obtained for the generation of H 2 from water using Al powder using diverse alkaline solutions. It is confirmed that corrosion is not affected solely by the solution pH but also by the nature of the ionic species found in the aqueous medium. Moreover, we describe the AlHidrox process, which minimizes Al passivation under mild conditions by the addition of different inorganic salts as corrosion promoters, allowing 100% yields and flow rates up to 2.9 L/min per gram of Al. The feasibility of the process has been regarded in terms of stability (by conducting several successive runs) and self-initiation without an external heating. -- Highlights: → The AlHidrox process minimizes Al passivation by the addition of inorganic salts. → Al corrosion to produce H 2 greatly depends on the nature of the dissolved species. → The maximum flow achieved was 2.9 dm 3 H 2 min -1 .per gram of Al using Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . → We found conditions to start up H 2 generation without external energy input.

  15. Aluminum corrosion mitigation in alkaline electrolytes containing hybrid inorganic/organic inhibitor system for power sources applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Danny; Lasman, Itay; Elfimchev, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2015-07-01

    The severe corrosion accompanied with hydrogen evolution process is the main obstacle preventing the implementation of Al as an anode in alkaline batteries. It impairs the functionality of alkaline battery, due to a drastic capacity loss and a short shelf life. The possibility to reduce Al corrosion rate in alkaline solution with the use of hybrid organic∖inorganic inhibitor based on poly (ethylene glycol) di-acid (PEG di-acid) and zinc oxide (ZnO) was examined in this work. A correlation between an Al corrosion rates and the concentrations of both PEG di-acid and ZnO in alkaline is shown. Selecting 5000 ppm PEG di-acid and 16 gr/l ZnO provides substantial corrosion protection of Al, reducing the corrosion rate in a strong alkaline solution by more than one order of magnitude. Moreover, utilizing the same formulation results in increase in Al-air battery discharge capacity, from 44.5 (for a battery utilizing only KOH in the electrolyte) to 70 mhA/cm2 (for a battery utilizing ZnO/PEG di-acid hybrid inhibitor in the electrolyte). The morphology and composition of the Al electrode surface (studied by SEM, EDS, and XRD) depend on PEG di-acid and ZnO concentrations.

  16. Critical review of the chemistry and thermodynamics of technetium and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rard, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical and thermodynamic data for Technetium (Tc) and some of its inorganic compounds and aqueous species are reviewed here. Major emphasis is given to systems with potential geochemical applications, especially the geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal. Compounds considered include oxides, hydroxides, hydrates oxides, halides, oxyhalides, double halides, and sulfides. The aqueous species considered include those in both noncomplexing media (pertechnetates, technetates, aquo-ions, and hydrolyzed cations) and complexing media (halides, sulfates, and phosphates). Thermodynamic values are recommended for specific compounds and aqueous ions when reliable experimental data are available. Where thermodynamic data are inadequate or unavailable, the chemistry is still discussed to provide information about what needs to be measured, and which chemistry needs to be clarified. A major application of these thermodynamic data will be for chemical equilibrium modeling and for construction of potential-pH diagrams for aqueous solutions. Unfortunately, the present lack of data precludes such calculations for complexing aqueous media. The situation is much better for noncomplexing aqueous media, but the chemistry and thermodynamics of cationic Tc(V) species and hydrolyzed Tc(III) species are poorly understood. 240 references, 6 tables

  17. Inorganic insertion compounds under the form of Langmuir-Blodgett films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylberajch, Claire

    1989-01-01

    As the study of organic or mineral compounds under the form of thin layers showed that they are displaying very original properties with respect to massive compounds, this research thesis reports a work which aimed at obtaining mineral conductive materials under the form of extremely thin layers, notably metallic sulfides of mercury and cadmium. Synthesis is performed in soft conditions within an organic matrix produced by using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique with successive diffusions of mineral reactants. Salt formation is monitored by infrared spectroscopy. Physical properties of these compounds have been studied by various techniques (UV, visible, and IR spectroscopy, linear dichroism, X ray diffraction, X ray photoelectron spectrometry, conduction, and so on). Structural and electronic properties of these extremely thin films confirm that metallic sulfides adopt a lamellar geometry with molecular thickness. Conductivity and photo-conductivity are interpreted by means of a conventional band diagram [fr

  18. Composition and leaching of construction and demolition waste: inorganic elements and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2014-07-15

    Thirty-three samples of construction and demolition waste collected at 11 recycling facilities in Denmark were characterised in terms of total content and leaching of inorganic elements and presence of the persistent organic pollutants PCBs and PAHs. Samples included (i) "clean" (i.e. unmixed) concrete waste, (ii) mixed masonry and concrete, (iii) asphalt and (iv) freshly cast concrete cores; both old and newly generated construction and demolition waste was included. PCBs and PAHs were detected in all samples, generally in non-critical concentrations. Overall, PAHs were comparable to background levels in urban environments. "Old" and "new" concrete samples indicated different PCB congener profiles and the presence of PCB even in new concrete suggested that background levels in raw materials may be an issue. Significant variability in total content of trace elements, even more pronounced for leaching, was observed indicating that the number of analysed samples may be critical in relation to decisions regarding management and utilisation of the materials. Higher leaching of chromium, sulphate and chloride were observed for masonry-containing and partly carbonated samples, indicating that source segregation and management practices may be important. Generally, leaching was in compliance with available leaching limits, except for selenium, and in some cases chromium, sulphate and antimony. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inorganic nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef; Rao, C N R

    2004-10-15

    Following the discovery of carbon fullerenes and carbon nanotubes, it was hypothesized that nanoparticles of inorganic compounds with layered (two-dimensional) structure, such as MoS(2), will not be stable against folding and form nanotubes and fullerene-like structures: IF. The synthesis of numerous other inorganic nanotubes has been reported in recent years. Various techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanotubes, including high-temperature reactions and strategies based on 'chemie douce' (soft chemistry, i.e. low-temperature) processes, are described. First-principle, density functional theory based calculations are able to provide substantial information on the structure and properties of such nanotubes. Various properties of inorganic nanotubes, including mechanical, electronic and optical properties, are described in brief. Some potential applications of the nanotubes in tribology, protection against impact, (photo)catalysis, batteries, etc., are discussed.

  20. Large-scale exfoliation of inorganic layered compounds in aqueous surfactant solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ronan J.; King, Paul J.; Lotya, Mustafa; Wirtz, Christian; Khan, Umar; De, Sukanta; O' Neill, Arlene; Coleman, Jonathan N. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Duesberg, Georg S. [CRANN, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); School of Chemistry, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Grunlan, Jaime C.; Moriarty, Gregory [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Chen, Jun [Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, AIIM Facility, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Wang, Jiazhao [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Minett, Andrew I. [Laboratory for Sustainable Technology, School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Nicolosi, Valeria [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-08

    A method to exfoliate MoS{sub 2} in large quantities in surfactant-water solutions is described. The layered material tends to be exfoliated as dispersions of thin, relatively defect-free flakes with lateral sizes of hundreds of nanometers. This method can be extended to a range of other layered compounds. The dispersed flakes can be mixed with nanotubes or graphene to greate functional hybrid materials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Study of behaviour of radioactive iodine inorganic compounds in PWR type reactor loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, M.; Johannsen, K.-H.; Dreyer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Compounds of radioactive iodine and its distribution between water and vapour depending on temperature, pressure and water regime of reactor coolant with water under pressure are investigated. The field of variation of parameters indicated is widened as compared with operating reactor parameters (pressure 2-14 MPa, temperature 210-335 deg C). Distribution of iodine compounds has been studied by a statistical method. For WWER-type reactors the following conclusions have been drawn: radioactive iodine in water and vapor in the first and second loops exists in the form of iodide, radioactive iodine concentration in water vapour at constant temperature and pressure mainly is depended on water pH value, radioactive iodine solubility in water vapor at normal parameters of the reactor first loop can be approximately calculated by the equation: Ksub(d)=Csub(g)/Csub(l)=(rhosub(g)/rhosub(l))sup(2), where Ksub(d) is a coefficient of solid distribution between water and vapour, rho is density c is concentration [ru

  2. Excretion of organic and inorganic tritiated compounds in cow's milk after ingestion of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hoek, J.; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.

    1980-01-01

    The secretion of tritium in milk as water, casein and lipids was studied in cows given tritiated water to drink for 25 days. The parameters of the exponential functions describing the secretion of tritium as water, casein and lipid are determined during this 'loading phase' and also for a 'decay period' of 75 days after the tritiated water administration had been terminated. Secretion started after a short delay (0.5 day). Turnover of all three compounds was short (half time of about 5 days). Calculations of the dilution of the ingested water during metabolism showed that about 83% of the milk water secreted is found to originate from drinking water; the rest comes from water in food and from that formed in metabolism. The parameters of the decay phase indicated that the principle components of water, casein and lipids had about the same turnover rates as during the loading phase. Using the loading and decay phase data, calculations were performed to determine how much activity in each compound and in each metabolic component would be excreted after a single and after a continuous application of tritium oxide when integrated over infinite times. (UK)

  3. Experimental studies of sensitization to beryllium, zirconium, and aluminum compounds in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K Y; Bice, D; Hoffman, E; D'Amato, R; Salvaggio, J

    1977-06-01

    In a study designed to assess the potential sensitizing and granulomagenic capacities of selected metallic salts, rabbits were inoculated intradermally with zirconium aluminum glycinate (ZAG), sodium zirconium lactate (NZL), aluminum chlorhydrate (ACH), BeSO 4, and ovalbumin (OVA) by single and multiple injections. Animals immunized with BeSO4 and with OVA developed delayed skin reactivity as well as antigen-specific alveolar macrophage migration inhibition. Neither single nor multiple injections of ZAG or ACH resulted in clear-cut positive skin reactivity, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) production, or lymphocyte stimulation. Rabbits inoculated with multiple injections of NZL (500 microng) showed some marginally positive macrophage migration inhibition and skin reactivity. Histologically, ZAG and ACH were found to induce well-organized foreign-body granulomas after intradermal injection in both normal and inoculated rabbits. NZL and BeSO4 also induced skin granulomas, but these were less organized and distinct. Cell viability and ultrastructural studies indicated that BeSO4 was highly toxic for isolated alveolar macrophages in vitro at concentrations above 10 microng/ml, but NZL and ZAG did not exert such an effect at these dose levels. BeSO4 also depressed lymphocyte stimulation in sensitized animals which demonstrated delayed skin reactivity and macrophage migration inhibition.

  4. Dimeric aluminum-phosphorus compounds as masked frustrated Lewis pairs for small molecule activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roters, Steffi; Appelt, Christian; Westenberg, Hauke; Hepp, Alexander; Slootweg, J Chris; Lammertsma, Koop; Uhl, Werner

    2012-08-14

    Hydroalumination of aryldialkynylphosphines RP(C≡C-(t)Bu)(2) (R = Ph, Mes) with equimolar quantities of diethylaluminum hydride afforded mixed alkenyl-alkynyl cyclic dimers in which the dative aluminum-phosphorus bonds are geminal to the exocyclic alkenyl groups. Addition of triethylaluminum to isolated 1 (R = Ph) or to the in situ generated species (R = Mes) caused diethylaluminum ethynide elimination to yield the arylethylphosphorus dimers 2 and 3. These possess a chair-like Al(2)C(2)P(2) heterocycle with intermolecular Al-P interactions. The boat conformation (4) was obtained by the reaction of (t)Bu-P(C≡C-(t)Bu)(2) with di(tert-butyl)aluminum hydride. Despite being dimeric, 2 behaves as a frustrated Lewis pair and activates small molecules. The reaction with carbon dioxide gave cis/trans isomeric AlPC(2)O heterocycles that differ only by the configuration of the exocyclic alkenyl unit. Four isomers resulted from the reaction with phenyl isocyanate. This is caused by cis/trans isomerization of the initial C=O adduct and subsequent rearrangement to the AlPC(2)N heterocycle, being the C=N adduct.

  5. Investigating roles of organic and inorganic soil components in sorption of polar and nonpolar aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Xin; Ji Liangliang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse/School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Zhu Dongqiang, E-mail: zhud@nju.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse/School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Jiangsu 210093 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The main objective of the present study was to assess the roles of various soil components in sorption of organic compounds differing in polarity. Removal of the whole soil organic matter decreased sorption by approximately 86% for nonpolar 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB), but only 34-54% for highly polar 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB); however, removal of the extractable humic/fulvic acids did not much affect sorption of the two sorbates. With normalization of solute hydrophobicity, TNB exhibits several orders of magnitude stronger sorption compared with TCB to maize burn residue (black carbon), extracted humic acid and Na{sup +}-saturated montmorillonite clay, suggesting specific sorptive interactions for TNB with the individual model soil components. It was proposed that sorption of TCB to the bulk soil was dominated by hydrophobic partition to the condensed, non-extractable fraction of organic matters (humin/kerogen and black carbon), while interactions with soil clay minerals were an important additional factor for sorption of TNB. - Soil humin and black carbon play a predominant role in sorption of 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, while polar interactions with soil clay minerals are an important additional factor for sorption of 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene.

  6. Investigating roles of organic and inorganic soil components in sorption of polar and nonpolar aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xin; Ji, Liangliang; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to assess the roles of various soil components in sorption of organic compounds differing in polarity. Removal of the whole soil organic matter decreased sorption by approximately 86% for nonpolar 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene (TCB), but only 34-54% for highly polar 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB); however, removal of the extractable humic/fulvic acids did not much affect sorption of the two sorbates. With normalization of solute hydrophobicity, TNB exhibits several orders of magnitude stronger sorption compared with TCB to maize burn residue (black carbon), extracted humic acid and Na(+)-saturated montmorillonite clay, suggesting specific sorptive interactions for TNB with the individual model soil components. It was proposed that sorption of TCB to the bulk soil was dominated by hydrophobic partition to the condensed, non-extractable fraction of organic matters (humin/kerogen and black carbon), while interactions with soil clay minerals were an important additional factor for sorption of TNB.

  7. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    Isotope exchange reactions between S-35-labeled sulfur compounds were studied in anoxic estuarine sediment slurries at 21-degrees-C and pH 7.4-7.7. Two experiments labeled with radioactive elemental sulfur (S-35-degrees) and one labeled with radioactive sulfate ((SO42-)-S-35) were performed as time......% of the total S-35 was recovered in the SIGMA-HS- pool in less than 1.5 h. With no detectable SIGMA-HS- (less than 1-mu-M) in the slurry, 58% of the total S-35 was observed in the pyrite pool within 1.5 h. The FeS pool received up to 31% of all S-35 added. The rapid S-35 incorporation from S-35-degrees...... into SIGMA-HS- and FeS pools was explained by isotope exchange reactions. In contrast, there was evidence that the radioactivity observed in the 'pyrite pool' was caused by adhesion of the added S-35-degrees to the FeS2 grains. In all S-35-degrees-labeled experiments we also observed oxidation...

  8. Inhibition of the formation of intermetallic compounds in aluminum-steel welded joints by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres López, Edwar A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formation of deleterious phases during welding of aluminum and steel is a challenge of the welding processes, for decades. Friction Stir Welding (FSW has been used in an attempt to reduce formation of intermetallic compounds trough reducing the heat input. In this research, dissimilar joint of 6063-T5 aluminum alloy and AISI-SAE 1020 steel were welded using this technique. The temperature of welded joints was measured during the process. The interface of the welded joints was characterized using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, composition measurements were carried out by X-EDS and DRX. The experimental results revealed that the maximum temperature on the joint studied is less than 360 °C. The microstructural characterization in the aluminum-steel interface showed the absence of intermetallic compounds, which is a condition attributed to the use of welding with low thermal input parameters.La unión de juntas aluminio-acero, sin la formación de fases deletéreas del tipo FexAly, ha sido, por décadas, un desafío para los procesos de soldadura. La soldadura por fricción-agitación ha sido empleada para intentar reducir el aporte térmico y evitar la formación de compuestos intermetálicos. Usando esta técnica fueron soldadas juntas disimilares de aluminio 6063-T5 y acero AISI-SAE 1020. La soldadura fue acompañada de medidas de temperatura durante su ejecución. La interfase de las juntas soldadas fue caracterizada utilizando microscopía óptica, electrónica de barrido y electrónica de transmisión. Adicionalmente fueron realizadas medidas puntuales X-EDS y DRX. Los resultados experimentales revelan que la temperatura máxima en la junta es inferior a 360 °C. La caracterización microestructural en la interfase aluminio-acero demostró la ausencia de compuestos intermetálicos, condición atribuida al uso de parámetros de soldadura con bajo aporte térmico.

  9. Effects of inorganic sulfur addition on fluxes of volatile sulfur compounds in Sphagnum peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Short and long-term impacts of increased S deposition on fluxes of volatile S compounds (VSC's) from Sphagnum peatlands were investigated in an artificially acidified (sulfuric and nitric acids) poor fen (Mire 239) at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario, Canada. Additional experiments were conducted in a poor fen (Sallie's Fen) in Barrington, NH, USA. At Mire 239, emissions of VSC's were monitored, before and after acidification, at control (unacidified) and experimental sections within two major physiographic zones of the mire (oligotrophic and minerotrophic). The experimental segments of the mire received S amendments since 1983, in amounts equivalent to the annual S deposition in the highest polluted areas of Canada and U.S. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was the predominant VSC released from the mire and varied largely with time and space (i.e., from 2.5 to 127 nmol/m(sup -2)h(sup -1)). Sulfur addition did not affect DMS emissions in a period of hours to a few days, although it stimulated production of DMS and MSH in the anoxic surficial regions of the peat. DMS emissions in the experimental oligotrophic segment of the mire was approximately 3-fold greater than in the control oligotrophic segment, and approximately 10-fold greater than in the minerotrophic zones. These differences could be due to a combination of differences in types of vegetation, nutritional status, and S input. At Sallie's Fen, DMS fluxes were approximately 8 times higher from a Sphagnum site than from a bare peat site. Fluxes of VSC's were not significantly affected by sulfate amendments at both sites, while DMS and MSH concentrations increases greatly with time in the top 10 cm of the peat column. Our data indicated that although Sphagnum is not the direct source of DMS released from Sphagnum peatlands, it might play a role in regulating DMS emissions to the atmosphere.

  10. A clinical and histopathological comparison of the effectiveness of salicylic acid to a compound of inorganic acids for the treatment of digital dermatitis in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capion, N.; Larsson, E. K.; Nielsen, O. L.

    2018-01-01

    ; however, the demand for effective nonantibiotic alternatives is increasing. The objective was to evaluate the performance of 3 nonantibiotic topical treatments (salicylic acid and a compound of inorganic acids in a 20% solution and in a dry form) on DD in a commercial dairy herd. Within the 30-d test...... of spirochetes present in the epidermis), 2 (moderate number of spirochetes present and reaching an intermediary level in the epidermis), and 3 (large number of spirochetes present and reaching the deepest part of the epidermis or the superficial dermis). The improvement rate was 10/14 (71%) for salicylic acid......, 11/15 (73%) for the inorganic acid solution, and 8/13 (62%) for the inorganic acid powder. The analysis showed no difference among treatments. The association between clinical score and histopathological score was determined by an odds ratio. The odds ratio of a healed lesion having spirochetes...

  11. Strengthening Aluminum Alloys for High Temperature Applications Using Nanoparticles of Al203 and Al3-X Compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the effect of nanoparticles A12O3 and A13-X compounds (X= Ti, V, Zr) on the improvement of mechanical properties of aluminum alloys for elevated temperature applications is presented. These nanoparticles were selected based on their chemical stability and low diffusions rates in aluminum matrix at high temperatures. The strengthening mechanism for aluminum alloy is based on the mechanical blocking of dislocation movements by these nanoparticles. Samples were prepared from A12O3 nanoparticle preforms, which were produced using ceramic injection molding process and pressure infiltrated by molten aluminum. A12O3 nanoparticles can also be homogeneously mixed with aluminum powder and consolidated into samples through hot pressing and sintering. On the other hand, the Al3-X nanoparticles are produced as precipitates via in situ reactions with molten aluminum alloys using conventional casting techniques. The degree of alloy strengthening using nanoparticles will depend on the materials, particle size, shape, volume fraction, and mean inter-particle spacing.

  12. Effects of aluminum on DNA synthesis, cellular polyamines, polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and inorganic ions in cell suspension cultures of a woody plant, Catharanthus roseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Subhash C. Minocha; Stephanie L. Long; Walter C. Shortle

    1992-01-01

    Increased aluminum (Al) solubility in soil waters due to acid precipitation has aroused considerable interest in the problem of Al toxicity in plants. In the present study, an in vitro suspension culture system of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don was used to analyze the effects of aluminum on several biochemical processes in these cells. The aliphatic...

  13. Compound Formation and Microstructure of As-Cast High Entropy Aluminums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Mikel Sanchez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the microstructure of four high entropy alloys (HEAs produced by large scale vacuum die casting. Al40Cu15Mn5Ni5Si20Zn15, Al45Cu15Mn5Fe5Si5Ti5Zn20, Al35Cu5Fe5Mn5Si30V10Zr10, and Al50Ca5Cu5Ni10Si20Ti10 alloys formed a mixture of different structures, containing intermetallic compound (IC and solid solution (SS phases. The phases observed in the casting alloys were compared with the equilibrium phases predicted by Thermo-Calc. The measured densities varied from 3.33 g/cm−3 to 5.07 g/cm−3 and microhardness from 437 Hv to 887 Hv. Thus, the microhardness and estimated strength/density ratios are significantly higher than other lightweight high entropy alloys (LWHEAs.

  14. Effects of uncertainties in the thermodynamic properties of aerosol components in an air quality model - Part 1: Treatment of inorganic electrolytes and organic compounds in the condensed phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S. L.; Kleeman, M. J.; Griffin, R. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2008-02-01

    Air quality models that generate the concentrations of semi-volatile and other condensable organic compounds using an explicit reaction mechanism require estimates of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the compounds that affect gas/aerosol partitioning: vapour pressure (as a subcooled liquid), and activity coefficients in the aerosol phase. The model of Griffin, Kleeman and co-workers (e.g., Griffin et al., 2003; Kleeman et al., 1999) assumes that aerosol particles consist of an aqueous phase, containing inorganic electrolytes and soluble organic compounds, and a hydrophobic phase containing mainly primary hydrocarbon material. Thirty eight semi-volatile reaction products are grouped into ten surrogate species which partition between the gas phase and both phases in the aerosol. Activity coefficients of the organic compounds are calculated using UNIFAC. In a companion paper (Clegg et al., 2008) we examine the likely uncertainties in the vapour pressures of the semi-volatile compounds and their effects on partitioning over a range of atmospheric relative humidities. In this work a simulation for the South Coast Air Basin surrounding Los Angeles, using lower vapour pressures of the semi-volatile surrogate compounds consistent with estimated uncertainties in the boiling points on which they are based, yields a doubling of the predicted 24-h average secondary organic aerosol concentrations. The dependency of organic compound partitioning on the treatment of inorganic electrolytes in the air quality model, and the performance of this component of the model, are determined by analysing the results of a trajectory calculation using an extended version of the Aerosol Inorganics Model of Wexler and Clegg (2002). Simplifications are identified where substantial efficiency gains can be made, principally: the omission of dissociation of the organic acid surrogates; restriction of aerosol organic compounds to one of the two phases (aqueous or hydrophobic) where

  15. Effects of uncertainties in the thermodynamic properties of aerosol components in an air quality model - Part I: Treatment of inorganic electrolytes and organic compounds in the condensed phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S. L.; Kleeman, M. J.; Griffin, R. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2007-07-01

    Air quality models that generate the concentrations of semi-volatile and other condensable organic compounds using an explicit reaction mechanism require estimates of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the compounds that affect gas/aerosol partitioning: vapour pressure (as a subcooled liquid), and activity coefficients in the aerosol phase. The model of Griffin, Kleeman and co-workers (e.g., Griffin et al., 1999; Kleeman et al., 1999) assumes that aerosol particles consist of an aqueous phase, containing inorganic electrolytes and soluble organic compounds, and a hydrophobic phase containing mainly primary hydrocarbon material. Thirty eight semi-volatile reaction products are grouped into ten surrogate species which partition between the gas phase and both phases in the aerosol. Activity coefficients of the organic compounds are calculated using UNIFAC. In a companion paper (Clegg et al., 2007) we examine the likely uncertainties in the vapour pressures of the semi-volatile compounds and their effects on partitioning over a range of atmospheric relative humidities. In this work a simulation for the South Coast Air Basin surrounding Los Angeles, using lower vapour pressures of the semi-volatile surrogate compounds consistent with estimated uncertainties in the boiling points on which they are based, yields a doubling of the predicted 24-h average secondary organic aerosol concentrations. The dependency of organic compound partitioning on the treatment of inorganic electrolytes in the air quality model, and the performance of this component of the model, are determined by analysing the results of a trajectory calculation using an extended version of the Aerosol Inorganics Model of Wexler and Clegg (2002). Simplifications are identified where substantial efficiency gains can be made, principally: the omission of dissociation of the organic acid surrogates; restriction of aerosol organic compounds to one of the two phases (aqueous or hydrophobic) where

  16. Development of an online method for quantification of maritime molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine containing inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Sven; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of iodine is important in multiple ways. The focus lies on the ability to influence the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere, i.e. by destruction of ozone, and the formation of iodine oxide particles (IOP), i.e. the influence on condensation nuclei (CCN). Using a variation of techniques, like differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS), the reactive iodine species of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2), iodine monoxide (IO) and iodine dioxide (OIO) have all been detected in the atmosphere from Antarctica to the equatorial marine boundary layer (MBL). In the past few years there have been active research on IO, especially after revealing significant levels in open ocean measurements, OIO and higher iodine oxides. In addition to atmospheric measurements, significant developments in laboratory kinetics, photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry of iodine species have been accomplished. [1] Here we introduce an online-method for detecting gaseous molecular iodine and other gaseous iodine-containing inorganic compounds such as HOI, which is a further development of the technique used by Carpenter et al. [2]. The method is based on selective photolytic dissociation of the analytes, followed by oxidization and particle formation of the iodine compounds. The particles are than size-segregated and detected by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) system. Initial IOP forming is performed in a reaction chamber providing specific wavelengths according to corresponding bond dissociation thresholds. Atmospheric samples can also be pre concentrated by diffusion denuder (with α Cyclodextrin modified and immobilised silica coating) [3-5] and afterwards released by thermodesorption. First attempts of quantification are carried out by external calibration using an

  17. Activating Student to Learn Chemistry using Chemmy Card 6-1 Game as an Instructional Medium in IUPAC Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfi, A.; Hidayah, R.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to know the effect of Internet-assisted Chemmy Card 6-1 game as an instructional medium in IUPAC Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds material for X grade of senior high school on students’ activity, learning motivation, and learning outcome. The study was conducted at SMA Negeri Sidoarjo, Indonesia, in two different classes. The instruction was done based on the lesson plan made. The observation on students’ activity was conducted during the instruction with the game while test and questionnaire were given after the instruction. The result showed positive activities, which students listened to the teacher’s explanation, actively delivered questions, and enabled to solve problems in naming compounds. It was also effective to avoid the drowsiness. The result of students’ motivation of X MIPA 6 was 74.78% (good) while X MIPA 7 was 83.80% (very good). The pretest results of two classes showed that no students mastered but 100% students mastered and the increase of N-gain scores in two classes was categorized as high, ≥0,7, after the instruction. The result of this study showed that the use of Internet-assisted Chemmy Card 6-1 game in IUPAC nomenclature of inorganic compounds for X grade of senior high school could be pleasant for students to learn and effective in achieving the learning objective.

  18. Inorganic Halogen Oxidizer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-26

    TiCl. which are converted to C102*SbF6~, (C102 KSnF ~~, and (CICL )2TiF ~", respectively. Aluminum trichloride is coverted to A1F_ (99, 255...H0S02F. The addition of HF-BF, increases the FC10, yield to 85%, but requires elevated pressure. Zinc, aluminum , silver, and lead fluorides were found...following discussion to facilitate comparison. Compound X.. This compound could be prepared from N0o and small amounts of F„ only in an aluminum cylinder

  19. Inorganic particulates in removal of toxic heavy metal ions: Part-X. removal behaviour of aluminum hydroxide for Hg(II) - a radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.P.; Tiwari, Diwakar; Prasad, S.K.; Dubey, R.S.; Mishra, Manisha

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with a study on the removal behaviour of amorphous-type aluminum hydroxide for Hg(II) at micro to tracer level concentrations from aqueous solutions by employing the radiotracer technique. The solid/solution interface study was carried out for various physico-chemical parameters, e.g., effect of concentration, temperature and pH. The effect of the presence of several added cations/anions towards its removal behaviour was also assessed

  20. Inorganic particulates in removal of toxic heavy metal ions. Part 10. Removal behavior of aluminum hydroxide for Hg(II). A radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.P.; Tiwari, D.; Prasad, S.K.; Dubey, R.S.; Manisha Mishra

    2007-01-01

    The removal behavior of amorphous aluminum hydroxide for Hg(II) ions from aqueous solutions was investigated by employing a radiotracer technique at micro down to trace level concentrations. The batch type experiments were performed to obtain various physico-chemical parameters, viz., effect of sorptive concentration, temperature and pH. It was observed that the increase in sorptive concentration (from 1 x 10 -8 to 1 x 10 -2 mol x dm -3 ), temperature (from 303 to 333 K) and pH (from 3.4 to 10.3) apparently favored the uptake of Hg(II) by this solid. Similarly, the presence of anions (six fold) viz., oxalate, phosphate, glycine and EDTA also enhanced the uptake behavior of aluminum hydroxide for Hg(II). Whereas, the added cations viz., Na + , K + , Ba 2+ , Sr 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cd 2+ and Fe 3+ more or less suppressed the removal behavior of the adsorbent. Further, the adsorption process followed the classical Freundlich adsorption isotherm and deductions of various thermodynamic data revealed that the uptake of Hg(II) on aluminum hydroxide followed the ion-exchange type mechanism and thermodynamically it was found to be endothermic in nature. (author)

  1. Biosynthetic inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2006-08-25

    Inorganic chemistry and biology can benefit greatly from each other. Although synthetic and physical inorganic chemistry have been greatly successful in clarifying the role of metal ions in biological systems, the time may now be right to utilize biological systems to advance coordination chemistry. One such example is the use of small, stable, easy-to-make, and well-characterized proteins as ligands to synthesize novel inorganic compounds. This biosynthetic inorganic chemistry is possible thanks to a number of developments in biology. This review summarizes the progress in the synthesis of close models of complex metalloproteins, followed by a description of recent advances in using the approach for making novel compounds that are unprecedented in either inorganic chemistry or biology. The focus is mainly on synthetic "tricks" learned from biology, as well as novel structures and insights obtained. The advantages and disadvantages of this biosynthetic approach are discussed.

  2. Organic and inorganic compounds in the water streams of the paper machine; Haitta-ainevirrat ja -tasot paperikoneella - PMST 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, P.; Edelmann, K.; Kaijaluoto, S. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The tightening standards for environmental protection set forth in legislation and the green consideration has reduced the environmental load of the paper and pulp industry significantly during recent years. Paper mills have decreased their water consumption by increasing internal circulation and by improving external effluent treatment. The consequence is that the concentrations of organic and inorganic dissolved and colloidal substances in the paper mill waters have risen. The fresh water consumption of paper machine can be decreased by cleaning the different water streams from the wire- and press-section and by lowering the amount of organic and inorganic materials led to paper machine water. In this case also water from mechanical pulping process and pulp itself should be cleaned. In this project the water use of modern paper machine and stream connections are studied. In addition flows, interactions and retention of dissolved and colloidal materials in the wet end of the paper machine are investigated. By utilizing this knowledge accurate simulation models of paper machine wet end can be created. With this model the various methods and technologies for controlling the harmful components in paper machine wet end are analyzed. (orig.)

  3. Use of inorganic and organic compounds as decontaminates for cobalt T-60 and cesium-134 by clover plant grown on Inshas Sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; El-naggr, H.A.; Soliman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Out door lysimeter experiment was carried out to elucidate the effect of four inorganic and three organic salts on 60 Co and 134 Cs uptake and dry matter yield of three cuts of clover in the soil Inshas A new concept was proposed for assessing the difference in capacity of soil to supply radionuclides (i.e. 60 Co and 134 Cs) to plants as affected by applied inorganic or organic compounds. The relation of plant tissues (P c ) Co/IR Cs content with increasing time can be expressed as log (Pc) = A + B log time (T), where A and B the regression. When the same plant species is grown on the same soil differ only in the applied compound (e.g. Fe-EDDHA, Fe-DTPA, Fe-O A C, Fe(Coo)z, A1(OH)3, Ca(H2 P O 4 )2 and Fe 2 O 3 ) the equation will change to, log (P'c) = A + B' log (T) (I). Based on both equations, the relationship between (Pc) becomes; log (P'c) = [(A'B')/(A B + A B ) [ +[1/A'B + A B ) [ log (Pc) (II). The intercept (C) and slope (S) in Eq. (II) were determined among 7 treatments (for either 60 Co or 134 Cs). Then the difference of either Co or Cs accumulation with time between control and any other treatment was evaluated according to (C) and (S) values. The data also that Fe-DTPA is preferred for 60 Co as enhancing compound for plant uptake (for decontamination use); compared with other applied salts; on the other hand, any tested salts did not significantly effect 134 Cs taken by clover. Also, it was found that more than 70% of total cobalt uptake was accumulated in the roots which indicate that Co is less mobile in plants than Cs. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Defect-originated magnetism in carbon-based and non-traditional inorganic compounds: A new class of magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriotis, A. N.; Sheetz, R. M.; Richter, E.; Menon, M.

    2005-11-01

    Magnetism in organic and non-traditional inorganic materials (NTIMs) is a fascinating phenomenon from both scientific and technological perspective. Recent experimental discovery of ferromagnetism in organic C60-based polymers has challenged the traditional concepts of the origin of magnetism. Although the nature of the s-p magnetism of the C60-based polymers has been distinguished from the nature of the newly observed magnetism in NTIMs, a defect-based picture of magnetism is found to provide a common thread connecting all these materials. As shown in the present work, this magnetism can be considered as a generalized form of the well-known McConnell model, thereby providing a unified classification of these magnetic materials and elucidating its common origin with the d-ferromagnetism.

  5. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid layered perovskite and intercalated compound (n-C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Kader, M. M.; Aboud, A. I.; Gamal, W. M.

    2016-05-01

    We report on some electrical properties and solid-solid phase transitions of organic-inorganic hybrid layered halide perovskite and intercalated compound (n-C12H25NH3)2ZnCl4 which is one member of the long-chain compounds of the series (n-CnH2n+1NH3)2,(n = 8-18). The complex dielectric permittivity ɛ*(ω,T) and the ac conductivity σ (ω,T) were measured as functions of temperature 100 K < T < 390 K and frequency 5 kHz < f < 100 kHz. Moreover, the differential scanning calorimetery and the differential thermal analysis thermograms were performed. The analysis of our data confirms the existence of a structural phase transition at T ≈ (362 ± 2) K, where the compound changes its state from intercalation to non-intercalation with a drastic increase in the c-axis by about 16.4%. The behavior of the frequency-dependent conductivity follows the Jonscher universal power law: σ (ω, T) αῳs(ῳ,T). The mechanism of electrical conduction in the low-temperature phase (phase II) can be described as quantum mechanical tunneling model.

  6. Methods for estimating the enthalpy of formation of inorganic compounds; thermochemical and crystallographic investigations of uranyl salts of group VI elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is concerned with parameter methods for estimating the standard enthalpy of formation, ΔH 0 sub(f), of inorganic compounds. In this type of method the estimate is a function of parameters, assigned to cation and anion, respectively. The usefulness of a new estimation method is illustrated in the case of uranyl sulphide. In the second part of this thesis crystallographic and thermochemical properties of uranyl salts of group VI elements are described. Crystal structures are given for β-UO 2 SO 4 , UO 2 SeO 3 , and α-UO 2 SeO 4 . Thermochemical measurements have been restricted to the determination of ΔH 0 sub(f)(UO 2 SO 3 ) and ΔH 0 sub(f)(UO 2 TeO 3 ) by means of isoperibol solution calorimetry. (Auth.)

  7. Evans-Showell-Type Polyoxometalates Constructing High-Dimensional Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Compounds with Copper-Organic Coordination Complexes: Synthesis and Oxidation Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Haiyan; Hou, Yujiao; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Yumeng; Yang, Wei; Chang, ShenZhen

    2017-10-02

    Four new hybrid architectures containing a [Co 2 Mo 10 H 4 O 38 ] 6- polyoxoanion, (en)[Cu 3 (ptz) 4 (H 2 O) 4 ][Co 2 Mo 10 H 4 O 38 ]·24H 2 O (1), (Hbim) 2 [{Cu(bim) 2 (H 2 O) 2 } 2 {Co 2 Mo 10 H 4 O 38 }]·5H 2 O (2), H 2 [Cu(dpdo) 3 (H 2 O) 4 ][{Cu 2 (dpdo) 3 (H 2 O) 4 (CH 3 CN)} 2 {Co 2 Mo 10 H 4 O 38 } 2 ]·9H 2 O (3), and (H 2 bpp) 4 [{Cu(H 2 O) 2 }{NaCo 2 Mo 10 H 4 O 38 } 2 ]·10H 2 O (4), where ptz = 5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-tetrazole, en = ethylenediamine, bim = benzimidazole, dpdo = 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide, and bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane, have been prepared and characterized through elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectroscopy, and powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 shows a 3D host-guest framework composed of 3D Cu-ptz as the host and Evans-Showell-type polyoxoanion [Co 2 Mo 10 H 4 O 38 ] 6- as the guest. Compound 2 is constructed from [Co 2 Mo 10 H 4 O 38 ] 6- polyoxoanions and Cu-bim coordination complexes to form a 2D covalent layer. Compound 3 also exhibits a 2D hybrid network based on [Co 2 Mo 10 H 4 O 38 ] 6- polyoxoanions linked by Cu-dpdo coordination groups. Compound 4 is a 1D double-chain structure composed of [Co 2 Mo 10 H 4 O 38 ] 6- polyoxoanions joined together by Na + and Cu 2+ cations. As far as we know, compound 1 is the first host-guest compound with an Evans-Showell-type polyoxometalate as the guest, and compounds 2 and 3 are the first 2D inorganic-organic hybrid architectures constructed from Evans-Showell-type polyoxometalates. Compounds 1-4 are redox catalysts that heterogeneously prompt sulfide and alcohol oxidation with excellent efficiency.

  8. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 3: Organic compounds, water, and ionic constituents by consideration of short-, mid-, and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdakos, Garnet B.; Chang, Elsa I.; Pankow, James F.; Seinfeld, John H.

    X-UNIFAC.3, a group contribution method for estimating activity coefficients of neutral and ionic components in liquid mixtures of organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water, is presented here. It is an extended UNIFAC method, in that traditional UNIFAC terms for short-range energetic interaction effects are extended to include ions as mixture components, and are combined with a Debye-Hückel long-range effect term and a second virial coefficient-type mid-range effect term. The method is formulated for application in modeling the formation of liquid aerosol particles consisting of general organic+inorganic salt+water solutions in which phase separation is likely to occur. Existing extended UNIFAC activity coefficient estimation methods can be problematic in modeling phase separation, since they require independent reference state corrections that may introduce significant errors. In X-UNIFAC.3, this problem is avoided by selecting appropriate reference states for all solution components, and imposing additional constraints on method parameters, when necessary, by inclusion of reference state correction terms within the activity coefficient expressions. Interaction parameters in the X-UNIFAC.3 equations are optimized for 12 different chemical groups (CH 3-, -CH 2-, -C|H-, -C||-, -OH, -COOH, H 2O, NH 4+, Na +, Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-) using available data for systems containing multi-functional oxygenated organic compounds and/or inorganic salts that are relevant to atmospheric aerosol applications. Estimations of water activities and mean ionic activity coefficients using X-UNIFAC.3 are compared with those of other extended UNIFAC methods. To demonstrate the use of X-UNIFAC.3 in predicting phase separation, the method is also applied to the butanoic acid+NaCl+water system, for which experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data is available. The method performs well for aqueous salt solutions with salt concentrations within 30 mol kg -1 and for organic+inorganic salt

  9. Compilation and evaluation of gas phase diffusion coefficients of reactive trace gases in the atmosphere: volume 1. Inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, M. J.; Cox, R. A.; Kalberer, M.

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion of gas molecules to the surface is the first step for all gas-surface reactions. Gas phase diffusion can influence and sometimes even limit the overall rates of these reactions; however, there is no database of the gas phase diffusion coefficients of atmospheric reactive trace gases. Here we compile and evaluate, for the first time, the diffusivities (pressure-independent diffusion coefficients) of atmospheric inorganic reactive trace gases reported in the literature. The measured diffusivities are then compared with estimated values using a semi-empirical method developed by Fuller et al. (1966). The diffusivities estimated using Fuller's method are typically found to be in good agreement with the measured values within ±30%, and therefore Fuller's method can be used to estimate the diffusivities of trace gases for which experimental data are not available. The two experimental methods used in the atmospheric chemistry community to measure the gas phase diffusion coefficients are also discussed. A different version of this compilation/evaluation, which will be updated when new data become available, is uploaded online (google.com/site/mingjintang/home/diffusion"target="_blank">https://sites.google.com/site/mingjintang/home/diffusion).

  10. Radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Williams, L.M.; Campbell, L.J.

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, sampled 17 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, stable isotopes, inorganic constituents, and organic compounds. The samples were collected from 11 irrigation wells, 2 domestic wells, 2 stock wells, 1 spring, and 1 public-supply well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the radionuclide, inorganic constituents, or organic compound concentrations exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Many of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations were greater than their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that were greater than the minimum reporting level

  11. Synthesis of boronate-functionalized organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column for the separation of cis-diol containing compounds at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heqing; Lyu, Haixia; Qin, Wenfei; Xie, Zenghong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, an organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolithic column was prepared via "one-pot" process using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid as organic monomer and divinylbenzene as cross-linker. The effects of reaction temperature, solvents and composition of organic monomers on the column properties (e.g. morphology, permeability, and mechanical stability) were investigated. A series of test compounds including small neutral molecules, aromatic amines, and cis-diol compounds were used to evaluate the retention behaviors of the prepared hybrid monolithic column. The results demonstrated that the prepared hybrid monolith exhibited mixed-interactions including hydrophilicity, cation exchange, and boronate affinity interaction. The run-to-run, day-to-day and batch-to-batch reproducibilities of the prepared hybrid monolith for thiourea's retention time were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 0.09, 1.45 and 4.05% (n = 3), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Crystal structure and electrical conduction of the new organic-inorganic compound (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuqi; Wang, Jilin; Han, Feifei; Mo, Shuyi; Long, Fei; Gao, Yihua

    2018-03-01

    The new organic-inorganic compound (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4 was prepared by slow evaporation method using a mixture solution of CdI2 and ethylenediamine iodide (EDAI) in the γ-butyrolactone (GBL). The synthesized compound was further characterized by single crystal diffraction, Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis. The relaxation behavior and conductivity mechanism of (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4 was studied by the electrical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicated that (CH2)2(NH3)2CdI4 had a monoclinic structure with space group P21/c at room temperature. The complex impedance plotted as semicircle arcs and the proposed electrical equivalent circuit was to interpret the impedance behavior at different temperatures. The electrical equivalent circuit was made of a parallel combination of resistance (R) and fractal capacitance (CPE). Furthermore, the alternating current conductivity of the sample obeyed the Jonscher's law: σf =σdc + Afs and the conduction could be attributed to the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model.

  13. Oxidative treatment of bromide-containing waters: formation of bromine and its reactions with inorganic and organic compounds--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeb, Michèle B; Criquet, Justine; Zimmermann-Steffens, Saskia G; von Gunten, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Bromide (Br(-)) is present in all water sources at concentrations ranging from ≈ 10 to >1000 μg L(-1) in fresh waters and about 67 mg L(-1) in seawater. During oxidative water treatment bromide is oxidized to hypobromous acid/hypobromite (HOBr/OBr(-)) and other bromine species. A systematic and critical literature review has been conducted on the reactivity of HOBr/OBr(-) and other bromine species with inorganic and organic compounds, including micropollutants. The speciation of bromine in the absence and presence of chloride and chlorine has been calculated and it could be shown that HOBr/OBr(-) are the dominant species in fresh waters. In ocean waters, other bromine species such as Br2, BrCl, and Br2O gain importance and may have to be considered under certain conditions. HOBr reacts fast with many inorganic compounds such as ammonia, iodide, sulfite, nitrite, cyanide and thiocyanide with apparent second-order rate constants in the order of 10(4)-10(9)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7. No rate constants for the reactions with Fe(II) and As(III) are available. Mn(II) oxidation by bromine is controlled by a Mn(III,IV) oxide-catalyzed process involving Br2O and BrCl. Bromine shows a very high reactivity toward phenolic groups (apparent second-order rate constants kapp ≈ 10(3)-10(5)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7), amines and sulfamides (kapp ≈ 10(5)-10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7) and S-containing compounds (kapp ≈ 10(5)-10(7)M(-1)s(-1) at pH 7). For phenolic moieties, it is possible to derive second-order rate constants with a Hammett-σ-based QSAR approach with [Formula in text]. A negative slope is typical for electrophilic substitution reactions. In general, kapp of bromine reactions at pH 7 are up to three orders of magnitude greater than for chlorine. In the case of amines, these rate constants are even higher than for ozone. Model calculations show that depending on the bromide concentration and the pH, the high reactivity of bromine may outweigh the reactions of chlorine during

  14. Formation of inorganic nanofibers by heat-treatment of poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakane K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(vinyl alcohol-zirconium compound hybrid nanofibers (precursors were formed by electrospinning employing water as a solvent for the spinning solution. The precursors were converted into oxide (ZrO2, carbide (ZrC or nitride (ZrN nanofibers by heating them in air, Ar or N2 atmospheres. Monoclinic ZrO2 nanofibers with high-specific surface area were obtained by heat-treatment of the precursors in air. ZrC and ZrN nanofibers could be obtained below theoretical temperatures calculated from thermodynamics data.

  15. Dry and wet deposition of inorganic nitrogen compounds to a tropical pasture site (Rondônia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Trebs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The input of nitrogen (N to ecosystems has increased dramatically over the past decades. While total (wet + dry N deposition has been extensively determined in temperate regions, only very few data sets of N wet deposition exist for tropical ecosystems, and moreover, reliable experimental information about N dry deposition in tropical environments is lacking. In this study we estimate dry and wet deposition of inorganic N for a remote pasture site in the Amazon Basin based on in-situ measurements. The measurements covered the late dry (biomass burning season, a transition period and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions (12 September to 14 November 2002 and were a part of the LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia – Smoke, Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate 2002 campaign. Ammonia (NH3, nitric acid (HNO3, nitrous acid (HONO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2, nitric oxide (NO, ozone (O3, aerosol ammonium (NH4+ and aerosol nitrate (NO3- were measured in real-time, accompanied by simultaneous meteorological measurements. Dry deposition fluxes of NO2 and HNO3 are inferred using the ''big leaf multiple resistance approach'' and particle deposition fluxes are derived using an established empirical parameterization. Bi-directional surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of NH3 and HONO are estimated by applying a ''canopy compensation point model''. N dry and wet deposition is dominated by NH3 and NH4+, which is largely the consequence of biomass burning during the dry season. The grass surface appeared to have a strong potential for daytime NH3 emission, owing to high canopy compensation points, which are related to high surface temperatures and to direct NH3 emissions from cattle excreta. NO2 also significantly accounted for N dry deposition, whereas HNO3, HONO and N-containing aerosol species were only minor contributors. Ignoring NH3 emission from the vegetation surface, the annual net N deposition rate is estimated to

  16. Pressure effects on the magnetic behaviour of copper (II) compounds: magnetic ordering of layered organic/inorganic magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levchenko, G; Varyukhin, V N; Berezhnaya, L V; Rusakov, V F

    2012-01-01

    The high hydrostatic pressure effect on the magnetic properties of the layered hybrid compounds Cu 2 (OH) 3 (C n H 2n+1 CO 2 )⋅mH 2 O with distance between magnetic layers of up to 40 Å is studied. It is shown that the temperature of the ferromagnetic ordering decreases linearly with pressure increase. From measurements of susceptibility in the paramagnetic region, using both quantum Heisenberg and Ising exchange coupling models in layers and dipole interaction between layers, the in- and interlayer interactions are deduced. The dipole interactions are calculated and are shown to coincide with the model of Ising interactions in the layers. The value and decrease of T c under pressure are mainly driven by the value and decrease of the in-plane interactions. The formation of the long range ordering in the layered sample with dipolar interaction between layers is analysed. As a conclusion it is suggested that for designing high temperature ferromagnetism in layer compounds it is enough to have large in-plane interactions of ions with specific symmetry in layers and weak dipole interactions between layers. (paper)

  17. Structural characterization, vibrational spectroscopy accomplished with DFT calculation, thermal and dielectric behaviors in a new organic-inorganic tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajlaoui, Sondes, E-mail: hajlaouisondes@yahoo.fr [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Chaabane, Iskandar [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia); Lhoste, Jérôme; Bulou, Alain [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, CNRS UMR 6283, Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans, Cedex 9 (France); Guidara, Kamel [Unité de recherche de la matière condensée, Faculté des Sciences de Sfax, Université de Sfax, BP 1171, 3000, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    In this work a novel compound tertrapropylammonium aquapentachlorostannate dihydrate was synthesized and characterized by; single crystal X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric and dielectric measurement. The crystal structure refinement at room temperature reveled that this later belongs to the monoclinic compound with P121/c1 space group with the following unit cell parameters a = 8.2699(3) Å, b = 12.4665(4) Å, c = 22.3341(7) Å and β = 92.94(0)°. The crystal arrangement can be described by stacked organic-inorganic layers in the c direction with two independent water molecules placed between each two layers. The detailed interpretations of the vibrational properties of the studied compound were performed using density functional theory (DFT) with the B3LYP/LanL2DZ basis set, and has enabled us to make the detailed assignments by comparative study of the experimental and calculated Raman and IR spectra. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement disclosed two anomalies in the temperature range 356–376 (T{sub 1}) K and at 393 K (T{sub 2}) characterized by the dehydration of the sample and probably a reconstruction of a new structure after T{sub 2} transition. The temperature dependences of dielectric permittivity show a relaxation process around T{sub 2} anomaly indicating the occurrence of the disorder at high temperature. The dependence of the exponent m(T) on temperature, extracted from the straight lines of log(ε″) with log (ω), suggests that the correlated barrier hopping is the appropriate model for the conduction mechanism. - Highlights: • The single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been performed. • The assignments of the vibration modes based on DFT were reported and discussed. • Differential scanning calorimetric reveals the presence of two endothermic peaks. • The electric permittivity was studied using the impedance measurements. • The CBH is the appropriate model for the conduction

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and growth of a new inorganic- organic hybrid compound for nonlinear optical applications: Aquadiiodo (3-aminopropanoic acid) cadmium (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, K.; Babu, S. Moorthy; Jagan, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-12-01

    The new inorganic-organic hybrid material aquadiiodo (3-aminopropanoic acid) cadmium (II) [ADI (3-AP) Cd] has been successfully synthesized and good quality crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique. The structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system with centro symmetric space group P21/c and four molecules in the unit cell. The structure of the title compound was further confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the compound. The transmittance and optical parameters of the crystal were studied by UV- Visible-NIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was evaluated using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Mechanical hardness has been identified by Vickers micro hardness study and work hardening coefficient was calculated. Dielectric measurement was carried out as a function of frequency and results are discussed. The growth mechanism of the crystal was assessed by chemical etching studies. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of [ADI (3-AP) Cd] was derived using the Z-scan technique, and it was 3.24955 × 10-8 esu. The positive nonlinear refractive index 2.48505 × 10-11 m2/W, is an indication of self-defocusing optical nonlinearity of the sample. It is believed that the [ADI (3-AP) Cd] is a promising new candidate for developing efficient nonlinear optical and optical power limiting devices.

  19. Inhibition of the formation of intermetallic compounds in aluminum-steel welded joints by friction stir welding; Inhibicion de la formacion de compuestos intermetalicos en juntas aluminio-acero soldadas por friccion-agitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Lopez, E. A.; Ramirez, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    Formation of deleterious phases during welding of aluminum and steel is a challenge of the welding processes, for decades. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) has been used in an attempt to reduce formation of intermetallic compounds trough reducing the heat input. In this research, dissimilar joint of 6063-T5 aluminum alloy and AISI-SAE 1020 steel were welded using this technique. The temperature of welded joints was measured during the process. The interface of the welded joints was characterized using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, composition measurements were carried out by X-EDS and DRX. The experimental results revealed that the maximum temperature on the joint studied is less than 360 degree centigrade. The microstructural characterization in the aluminum-steel interface showed the absence of intermetallic compounds, which is a condition attributed to the use of welding with low thermal input parameters. (Author)

  20. Ring opening of azetidine cycle: First examples of 1-azetidinepropanamine molecules as a template in hybrid organic-inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzhiy, Vladislav V.; Tyumentseva, Olga S.; Britvin, Sergey N.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Tananaev, Ivan G.

    2018-01-01

    Three novel uranyl selenate and sulfate oxysalts templated by protonated azetidine molecules, [AzH]+, and its ring-opened counterpart 1-azetidinepropanamine, [AzH(CH2)3NH3]2+, have been prepared and studied by X-ray structural analysis. Conformations of azetidinium cations were analysed by means of infrared vibrational assignments supported by the DFT calculations. Crystallization of [AzH]2 [(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)] (I) from highly acidic solutions suggests that low pH does not necessarily result in the opening of azetidine ring. [AzH(CH2)3NH3][(UO2)2(SeO4)3(H2O)](H2O) (II) and [AzH(CH2)3NH3](H5O2)[(UO2)2(SO4)3(HSO4)] (III) are the first structurally characterized crystalline compounds bearing isolated ring-opened azetidine moiety.

  1. An automated analyzer to measure surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of water soluble inorganic aerosol compounds and reactive trace gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rick M; Trebs, Ivonne; Otjes, René; Jongejan, Piet A C; Ten Brink, Harry; Phillips, Gavin; Kortner, Michael; Meixner, Franz X; Nemitz, Eiko

    2009-03-01

    Here, we present a new automated instrument for semicontinuous gradient measurements of water-soluble reactive trace gas species (NH3, HNO3, HONO, HCl, and SO2) and their related aerosol compounds (NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-)). Gas and aerosol samples are collected simultaneously at two heights using rotating wet-annular denuders and steam-jet aerosol collectors, respectively. Online (real-time) analysis using ion chromatography (IC) for anions and flow injection analysis (FIA) for NH4+ and NH3 provide a half-hourly averaged gas and aerosol gradients within each hour. Through the use of syringe pumps, IC preconcentration columns, and high-quality purified water, the system achieves detection limits (3sigma-definition) under field conditions of typically: 136/207,135/114, 29/ 22,119/92, and 189/159 ng m(-3) for NH3/NH4+, HNO3/NO3-, HONO/ NO2-, HCl/Cl- and SO2/SO4(2-), respectively. The instrument demonstrates very good linearity and accuracy for liquid and selected gas phase calibrations over typical ambient concentration ranges. As shown by examples from field experiments, the instrument provides sufficient precision (3-9%), even at low ambient concentrations, to resolve vertical gradients and calculate surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes undertypical meteorological conditions of the atmospheric surface layer using the aerodynamic gradient technique.

  2. Room-temperature polar order in [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3]--a hybrid inorganic-organic compound with a unique perovskite architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aguirre, L C; Pato-Doldán, B; Stroppa, A; Yáñez-Vilar, S; Bayarjargal, L; Winkler, B; Castro-García, S; Mira, J; Sánchez-Andújar, M; Señarís-Rodríguez, M A

    2015-03-02

    We report on the hybrid inorganic-organic ammonium compound [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3], which displays a most unusual framework structure: instead of the expected 4(9)·6(6) topology, it shows an ABX3 perovskite architecture with the peculiarity and uniqueness (among all the up-to-date reported hybrid metal formates) that the Cd ions are connected only by syn-anti formate bridges, instead of anti-anti ones. This change of the coordination mode of the formate ligand is thus another variable that can provide new possibilities for tuning the properties of these versatile functional metal-organic framework materials. The room-temperature crystal structure of [NH4][Cd(HCOO)3] is noncentrosymmetric (S.G.: Pna21) and displays a polar axis. DFT calculations and symmetry mode analysis show that the rather large polarization arising from the off-center shift of the ammonium cations in the cavities (4.33 μC/cm(2)) is partially canceled by the antiparallel polarization coming from the [Cd(HCOO)3](-) framework, thus resulting in a net polarization of 1.35 μC/cm(2). As shown by second harmonic generation studies, this net polarization can be greatly increased by applying pressure (Pmax = 14 GPa), an external stimulus that, in turn, induces the appearance of new structural phases, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Methods development for separation of inorganic anions, organic acids and bases, and neutral organic compounds by ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A novel anion-exchange resin containing three amine groups was prepared by reaction of a chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resin with diethylenetriamine. After being protonated by contact with an aqueous acid, this resin can be used for ion chromatographic separation of anions. The charge on the resins can be varied from +1 to +3 by changing the mobile phase pH. The selectivity of the new ion exchangers for various inorganic anions was quite different from that of conventional anion exchangers. The performance of this new anion exchanger was studied by changing the pH and the concentration of the eluent, and several different eluents were used with some common anions as testing analytes. Conductivity detection and UV-visible detection were applied to detect the anions after separation. The new resin can also be used for HPLC separation of neutral organic compounds. Alkylphenols and alkylbenzenes were separated with this new polymeric resin, and excellent separations were obtained under simple conditions. This report contains Chapter 1: General introduction and Chapter 6: General conclusions.

  4. An iodide-adduct high-resolution time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer: application to atmospheric inorganic and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ben H; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D; Mohr, Claudia; Kurtén, Theo; Worsnop, Douglas R; Thornton, Joel A

    2014-06-03

    A high-resolution time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) using Iodide-adducts has been characterized and deployed in several laboratory and field studies to measure a suite of organic and inorganic atmospheric species. The large negative mass defect of Iodide, combined with soft ionization and the high mass-accuracy (5500) of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer, provides an additional degree of separation and allows for the determination of elemental compositions for the vast majority of detected ions. Laboratory characterization reveals Iodide-adduct ionization generally exhibits increasing sensitivity toward more polar or acidic volatile organic compounds. Simultaneous retrieval of a wide range of mass-to-charge ratios (m/Q from 25 to 625 Th) at a high frequency (>1 Hz) provides a comprehensive view of atmospheric oxidative chemistry, particularly when sampling rapidly evolving plumes from fast moving platforms like an aircraft. We present the sampling protocol, detection limits and observations from the first aircraft deployment for an instrument of this type, which took place aboard the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) 2013 field campaign.

  5. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 1: Organic compounds and water by consideration of short- and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdakos, Garnet B.; Asher, William E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pankow, James F.

    The semi-empirical group contribution method (GCM) of Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780] for estimating activity coefficient ( ζ) values of neutral organic compounds and water in solutions composed of organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water is adapted for application to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). It is assumed that ζ values are determined by a combination of short- and long-range interactions. The ζ expression involves conventional UNIFAC terms and a Debye-Hückel term, with the former computed using group-group interaction parameters. Organic-organic interaction parameters are assigned the values from the UNIFAC-LLE model of Magnussen et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 20 (1981) 331-339]. Forty interaction parameters (ion-solvent group and anion-cation) were obtained from Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780], Achard et al. [Fluid Phase Equilibria 98 (1994) 71-89], and Ming and Russell [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 48 (2002) 1331-1348]. Twenty additional interaction parameters (ion-solvent group) are estimated based on 879 UNIQUAC-fitted ζ values for organic compounds and water. The fitted ζ values are based on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for a range of ternary and quaternary organic/inorganic salt/water mixtures at 293-308 K. The UNIQUAC fits are analogous to those described by Fredenslund et al. [Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using UNIFAC: A Group-Contribution Method, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, 1977]. The LLE mixture compositions range from primarily organic solutions to primarily aqueous solutions with maximum ionic strengths of ˜5 mol kg -1. The groups characteristic of organic compounds found in atmospheric PM considered here include: CH 3-, -CH 2-, -CH|-, -C||-, -OH, -CH 2CO-, and -COOH. These are: single bonded carbon with three, two, one, and zero hydrogens, respectively, hydroxyl, -CH 2-carbonyl, and carboxyl, respectively. The inorganic salts represented in the mixture

  6. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase)   The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.

  7. Effects of heat treatment on the intermetallic compounds and mechanical properties of the stainless steel 321-aluminum 1230 explosive-welding interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiran, Mohammadreza Khanzadeh Gharah; Khalaj, Gholamreza; Pouraliakbar, Hesam; Jandaghi, Mohammadreza; Bakhtiari, Hamid; Shirazi, Masoud

    2017-11-01

    The effects of heat treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds in the interface of stainless steel 321 explosively bonded to aluminum 1230 were investigated in this study. Experimental investigations were performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness and shear tensile strength testing. Prior to heat treatment, increasing the stand-off distance between samples from 1 to 2.5 mm caused their interface to become wavy and the thickness of intermetallic layers to increase from 3.5 to 102.3 μm. The microhardness increased from HV 766 in the sample prepared at a stand-off distance of 1 mm to HV 927 in the sample prepared at a stand-off distance of 2.5 mm; in addition, the sample strength increased from 103.2 to 214.5 MPa. Heat treatment at 450°C for 6 h increased the thickness of intermetallic compound layers to 4.4 and 118.5 μm in the samples prepared at stand-off distances of 1 and 2.5 mm, respectively. These results indicated that increasing the duration and temperature of heat treatment decreased the microhardness and strength of the interface of explosively welded stainless steel 321-Al 1230 and increased the thickness of the intermetallic region.

  8. Aluminum: Reflective Aluminum Chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    This fact sheet reveals how the use of reflective aluminum chips on rooftops cuts down significantly on heat absorption, thus decreasing the need for air conditioning. The benefits, including energy savings that could reach the equivalent of 1.3 million barrels of oil annually for approximately 100,000 warehouses, are substantial.

  9. Inorganic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.; Barta, C.; Jursova, L.

    1986-01-01

    An inorganic liquid scintillator is designed which contains 1 to 30 wt.% of an inorganic molecular compound as the basic active component; the compound contains a cation with an atomic number higher than 47 and a halogen anion. The basic inorganic component is dissolved in water or in an organic solvent in form of non-dissociated molecules or self-complexes in which the bond is preserved between the cation and anion components. The light yield from these scintillators ranges between 70 and 150% of the light yield of a standard organic scintillator based on toluene. They are advantageous in that that they allow to increase the water content in the sample to up to 100%. (M.D.)

  10. Structure determination of a novel metal-organic compound synthesized from aluminum and 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Kenny; Brink, Bastian; Andersen, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    The structure of [Al2(pydc)2(μ2-OH)2(H2O)2]n(pydc=2,5-pyridinedicarboxylate) was successfully determined from powder X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic system (space group P -1) with a=6.7813(1) A° , b=7.4944(1) A°, c=8.5013(1) A° , α=95.256(1)°, β=102.478(1)°, γ=1...

  11. Microbial oxidation and reduction of inorganic sulphur compounds in relation to the development and control of microorganisms active in leaching operations. Part of a coordinated programme on bacterial leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuovinen, O.H.

    1977-01-01

    The project considers the use of Thiobacillus ferroxidans type bacteria for the leaching of metals from ores. The various ways by which Thiobacillus ferroxidans utilizes inorganic sulfur compounds for oxidation, energy, growth and synthesis of cellular material were studied. The report briefly describes the scope and background of the project, and a list of publications describing experimental methods and research materials used is given. Unpublished work commenced during the Research Contract includes three major projects: (1) Transition of Thiobacillus ferroxidans from heterotrophic growth on fucose to autotropic growth on ferrous-iron; (2) development of a method to determine the ATP-content of bacteria attached to ore particles; (3) microbiological and chemical interactions of inorganic sulfur compounds. These three projects are summarized briefly

  12. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  13. Radionuclides, inorganic constitutents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the U.S. Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. The samples were collected from 13 irrigation wells, 1 domestic well, 1 spring, 2 stock wells, and 1 public supply well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. Most of the samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting levels. None of the samples contained reportable concentrations of purgeable organic compounds or pesticides. Total coliform bacteria was present in nine samples

  14. Inorganic elements and organic compounds degradation studies by gamma irradiation in used lubricating oils; Estudos de remocao de elementos inorganicos e degradacao de compostos organicos por radiacao gama em oleos lubrificantes usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio

    2008-07-01

    The automotive lubricating oils have partial degradation of organic compounds and addition of undesirable inorganic elements, during its use. These substances classify the used lubricating oils as dangerous and highly toxic. According to global consensus, concerning the environmental conservation, the best is to perform a reuse treatment of these lubricating oils. For this purpose, the uses of an alternative and effective technology have been sought. In this work, the efficacy and technical feasibility of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), by gamma radiation, for used automotive lubricating oil treatment has been studied. Different quantities of hydrogen peroxide and water Milli-Q were added to oil samples. They were submitted to the Cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammacell, with 100, 200 and 500 kGy absorbed doses. The inorganic analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed inorganic elements removal, mainly to sulphur, calcium, iron and nickel elements at acceptable levels by environmental protection law for oils reusing. The gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis showed that the advanced oxidation process promotes the organic compounds degradation. The main identified compounds were tridecane, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and trietilamina-tetramethyl urea, which have important industrial applications. The multivariate analysis, Cluster Analysis, showed that advanced oxidation process application is a viable and promising treatment for used lubricating oil reusing. (author)

  15. A Correlation between the Ultimate Shear Stress and the Thickness Affected by Intermetallic Compounds in Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloy–Stainless Steel Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Picot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Friction Stir Welding (FSW was applied to join a stainless steel 316L and an aluminum alloy 5083. Ranges of rotation and translation speeds of the tool were used to obtain welding samples with different heat input coefficients. Depending on the process parameters, the heat generated by FSW creates thin layers of Al-rich InterMetallic Compound (IMC mainly composed of FeAl3, identified by energy dispersive spectrometry. Traces of Fe2Al5 were also depicted in some samples by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Monotonous tensile tests performed on the weld joint show the existence of a maximum mechanical resistance for a judicious choice of rotation and translation speeds. It can be linked to an affected zone of average thickness of 15 µm which encompass the presence of IMC and the chaotic mixing caused by plastic deformation in this area. A thickness of less than 15 µm is not sufficient to ensure a good mechanical resistance of the joint. For a thickness higher than 15 µm, IMC layers become more brittle and less adhesive due to high residual stresses which induces numerous cracks after cooling. This leads to a progressive decrease of the ultimate shear stress supported by the bond.

  16. Investigation of the influence of liquid water films on O3 and PAN deposition on plant leaf surfaces treated with organic / inorganic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Moravek, Alexander; von der Heyden, Lisa; Held, Andreas; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Sörgel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Liquid water films on environmental surfaces play an important role in various fields of interest (Burkhardt and Eiden, 1994). For example, the deposition of water soluble trace gases could be increased by surface moisture. Chameides and Stelson (1992) found out that the dissolution of trace gases in airborne particulate matter increases with rising water/solid ratio of the particles. Further, Flechard et al. (1999) concluded that deliquescent salt particles represent a potential sink for trace gases, depending on their chemical property. The formation of surface water films and its influence on the gas deposition was proposed by many previous studies (Fuentes and Gillespie, 1992, Burkhardt and Eiden, 1994, van Hove et al., 1989, Burkhardt et al., 1999, Flechard et al., 1999). In this study we investigate the influence of leaf surface water films on the deposition of O3 and PAN under controlled laboratory conditions. A twin cuvette system described in Sun et al. (2015) was used to control the environmental parameters such as light, temperature, trace gas mixing ratio and humidity. Furthermore, the leaf surface was treated with various organic and inorganic solutions to investigate the influence of deposited compounds on the electrical surface conductance of the leaves and the surface deposition of O3 and PAN at various relative humidities. The result shows that RHcrit, where the electrical surface conductance (G) increases exponentially, was 40 % during the light period and 50 % during the dark period. Furthermore, we observed that the formation of the leaf surface liquid film was depended on the deposited compounds on the leaf cuticles. For the O3 deposition on plants (Quercus ilex) a clear enhancement at rising environmental air humidity under light and dark condition was found. The increase during light conditions can be related partly to increasing stomatal conductance with higher RH. From the non-stomatal deposition measured in dark experiments, we could

  17. Synthesis and characterization of two novel organic-inorganic compounds based on tetrahexyl and tetraheptyl ammonium ions and the Preyssler anion and their catalytic activities in the synthesis of 4-aminopyrazolo[3,4-d]- pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamoharram, Fatemeh Farrash

    2010-04-08

    Two novel organic-inorganic compounds based on tetrahexylammonium (THA) and tetraheptylammonium (THPA) ions and the Preyssler anion, [NaP5W30O110]14-, were synthesized and formulated as (THA)7.7H6.3 [NaP5W30O110] (A) and (THPA)7.5 H6.5[NaP5W30O110] (B). The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, UV, and TGA and used for the catalytic synthesis of 4-aminopyrazolo[3,4,-d]pyrimidine derivatives 2a-2d. Our findings showed efficient catalytic activities for A and B.

  18. Thermochromic Fluorescence from B18H20(NC5H5)(2): An Inorganic-Organic Composite Luminescent Compound with an Unusual Molecular Geometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Londesborough, Michael Geoffrey Stephen; Dolanský, Jiří; Cerdán, L.; Lang, Kamil; Jelínek, Tomáš; Oliva, J. M.; Hnyk, Drahomír; Roca-Sanjuan, D.; Frances-Monerris, A.; Martinčík, Jiří; Nikl, Martin; Kennedy, John David

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2017), č. článku UNSP 1600694. ISSN 2195-1071 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-09876S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : boranes * energy transfer * fluorescence * solar concentrators * thermochromicity Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry; Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 6.875, year: 2016

  19. Effects of uncertainties in the thermodynamic properties of aerosol components in an air quality model ─ Part 1: Treatment of inorganic electrolytes and organic compounds in the condensed phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Seinfeld

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Air quality models that generate the concentrations of semi-volatile and other condensable organic compounds using an explicit reaction mechanism require estimates of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the compounds that affect gas/aerosol partitioning: vapour pressure (as a subcooled liquid, and activity coefficients in the aerosol phase. The model of Griffin, Kleeman and co-workers (e.g., Griffin et al., 2003; Kleeman et al., 1999 assumes that aerosol particles consist of an aqueous phase, containing inorganic electrolytes and soluble organic compounds, and a hydrophobic phase containing mainly primary hydrocarbon material. Thirty eight semi-volatile reaction products are grouped into ten surrogate species which partition between the gas phase and both phases in the aerosol. Activity coefficients of the organic compounds are calculated using UNIFAC. In a companion paper (Clegg et al., 2008 we examine the likely uncertainties in the vapour pressures of the semi-volatile compounds and their effects on partitioning over a range of atmospheric relative humidities. In this work a simulation for the South Coast Air Basin surrounding Los Angeles, using lower vapour pressures of the semi-volatile surrogate compounds consistent with estimated uncertainties in the boiling points on which they are based, yields a doubling of the predicted 24-h average secondary organic aerosol concentrations. The dependency of organic compound partitioning on the treatment of inorganic electrolytes in the air quality model, and the performance of this component of the model, are determined by analysing the results of a trajectory calculation using an extended version of the Aerosol Inorganics Model of Wexler and Clegg (2002. Simplifications are identified where substantial efficiency gains can be made, principally: the omission of dissociation of the organic acid surrogates; restriction of aerosol organic compounds to one of the two phases (aqueous or

  20. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D. [Geological Survey, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Campbell, L.J. [State of Idaho, Dept. of Water Resources (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from six irrigation wells, seven domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, one dairy well, and one observation well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All the samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Concentrations of 1,1,1 -trichloroethane exceeded the reporting level in two water samples. Two samples and a quality assurance replicate contained reportable concentrations of 2, 4-D. One sample contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water.

  1. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1992-03-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 19 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from seven irrigation wells, five domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, two dairy wells, one observation well, and one commercial well. Two quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All samples analyzed for surfactants and dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Toluene concentrations exceeded the reporting level in one water sample. Two samples contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water

  2. Radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria in water from selected wells and springs from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomay, R.C.; Edwards, D.D.; Campbell, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in response to a request from the US Department of Energy, sampled 18 sites as part of a long-term project to monitor water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to the Hagerman area. Water samples were collected and analyzed for manmade pollutants and naturally occurring constituents. The samples were collected from six irrigation wells, seven domestic wells, two springs, one stock well, one dairy well, and one observation well. Quality assurance samples also were collected and analyzed. The water samples were analyzed for selected radionuclides, inorganic constituents, organic compounds, and bacteria. None of the samples analyzed for radionuclides, inorganic constituents, or organic compounds exceeded the established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Most of the radionuclide and inorganic constituent concentrations exceeded their respective reporting levels. All the samples analyzed for dissolved organic carbon had concentrations that exceeded their reporting level. Concentrations of 1,1,1 -trichloroethane exceeded the reporting level in two water samples. Two samples and a quality assurance replicate contained reportable concentrations of 2, 4-D. One sample contained fecal coliform bacteria counts that exceeded established maximum contaminant levels for drinking water

  3. Application of a macrocyclic compound, bambus[6]uril, in tailor-made liquid membranes for highly selective electromembrane extractions of inorganic anions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlampová, Andrea; Šindelář, V.; Kubáň, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 950, JAN (2017), s. 49-56 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : bambus[6]uril * electromembrane extraction selectivity * inorganic anions Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  4. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a ...

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal analysis, and DFT calculation of a novel zinc (II)-trifluoro-β-diketonate 3D supramolecular nano organic-inorganic compound with 1,3,5-triazine derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirtamizdoust, Babak, E-mail: babakm.tamizdoust@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, PO Box 37185-359, Qom, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaedi, Mehrorang [Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes, E-mail: y_hanifehpour@yu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, WCU Nano Research Center, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mague, Joel T. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans (United States); Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo1@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, WCU Nano Research Center, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    A sonochemical method was used to synthesize a novel nano-structure of a zinc(II) organic-inorganic compound [Zn(dapt){sub 2}(ttfa){sub 2}] (1) [dapt = 2,4-diamino-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine and ttfa = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate]. The new nanostructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, and thermal analysis. The single-crystal X-ray structure shows that 1 is a discrete coordination compound. Strong intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds are observed in the structure with the latter forming chains of molecules running parallel to (110). The chains are further extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure by intermolecular C−F⋯π interactions between trifluoromethyl and triazine moieties. The coordination number of the zinc(II) ion is six (ZnN{sub 2}O{sub 4}), and the coordination sphere is tetragonally elongated octahedral. The structure of the title complex was optimized by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • A new zinc(II) 3D coordination supramolecular compound was synthesized. • Ultrasound synthesis of nano coordination compound have been reported. • The X-ray crystal structure of the compound is reported.

  6. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability o...

  7. Aluminum Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Presents three problems based on the price of aluminum designed to encourage students to be cooperative and to use an investigative approach to learning. Students collect and synthesize information, analyze results, and draw conclusions. (AIM)

  8. Thermal Decoating of Aerospace Aluminum Alloys for Aircraft Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz Lerma, Jose Alberto; Jung, In-Ho; Brochu, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    Recycling of aircraft aluminum alloys can be complex due to the presence of their corrosion protection coating that includes inorganic compounds containing Cr(VI). In this study, the characterization and thermal degradation behavior of the coating on aluminum substrates coming from an aircraft destined for recycling are presented. Elements such as Sr, Cr, Si, Ba, Ti, S, C, and O were found in three different layers by EDS elemental mapping corresponding to SrCrO4, Rutile-TiO2, SiO2, and BaSO4 with an overall particle size D 50 = 1.96 µm. The thermal degradation profile analyzed by TGA showed four different stages. The temperature of complete degradation at the fourth stage occurred at 753.15 K (480 °C) at lower heating rates. At higher heating rates and holding an isotherm at the same temperature, the residence time to fully decompose the aircraft coating has been estimated as 4.0 ± 0.2 minutes. The activation energy calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and the modified Coats-Redfern methods for multiple fraction of decomposition showed a non-constant behavior indicating the complexity of the reaction. Finally, the concentration of Cr(VI) released to the environment during thermal decoating was obtained by UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was found that 2.6 ± 0.1 µg of Cr(VI)/mm2 of aluminum substrate could be released unless adequate particle controls are used.

  9. Aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate purified from traditional Chinese medicinal herb Korean monkshood root is a potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yehua; Liu, Sen; Jin, Fenghai; Mu, Tianyang; Li, Cong; Jiang, Kun; Tian, Weihua; Yu, Dahai; Zhang, Yingqi; Fang, Xuexun

    2012-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases and key regulators for many physiological and pathological functions. The MMP inhibitors have been shown to modulate diseases such as cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. In this paper we tracked the MMP inhibitory activities of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Korean Monkshood Root. The purified active ingredient was identified by the elemental analysis, infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray diffraction as aluminum ammonium sulfate dodecahydrate. This inorganic compound showed inhibitory activities toward a number of MMP family members. In particular, it has a strong inhibitory effect toward MMP-2 and MMP-9, with IC50 values of 0.54 and 0.50 μM, respectively. Further analysis suggested that the MMP inhibitory activity is mainly due to Al(3+). Cell viability assays using human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells showed aluminum ammonium sulfate had minimal cyto-toxicity with a concentration up to 500 μM. However, within 50 μM, it exhibited significant inhibition of cell invasion. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of inorganic form of the MMP inhibitor with strong inhibitory activity. Our results for the first time showed that aluminum ammonium sulfate is an inorganic form of MMP inhibitor with high potency, and can be used to interfere with MMP related cellular processes.

  10. Inorganic chemistry of earliest sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A number of inorganic elements are now known to be essential to organisms. Chemical evolutionary processes involving carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen have been studied intensively and extensively, but the other essential elements have been rather neglected in the studies of chemical and biological evolution. This article attempts to assess the significance of inorganic chemistry in chemical and biological evolutionary processes on the earth. Emphasis is placed on the catalytic effects of inorganic elements and compounds, and also on possible studies on the earliest sediments, especially banded iron formation and stratabound copper from the inorganic point of view in the hope of shedding some light on the evolution of the environment and the biological effects on it. (orig./WL)

  11. Inorganic chemistry and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, P.J.; Guo, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is beginning to have a major impact on medicine. Not only does it offer the prospect of the discovery of truly novel drugs and diagnostic agents, but it promises to make a major contribution to our understanding of the mechanism of action of organic drugs too. Most of this article is concerned with recent developments in medicinal coordination chemistry. The role of metal organic compounds of platinum, titanium, ruthenium, gallium, bismuth, gold, gadolinium, technetium, silver, cobalt in the treatment or diagnosis of common diseases are briefly are examined

  12. EELS data acquisition, processing and display for the Zeiss CEM 902 based on LOTUS 1-2-3: application examples from a biological system and inorganic transition metal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, M; Cantow, H J

    1991-04-01

    A personal computer combined with LOTUS 1-2-3 software, including the RS232 module of LOTUS MEASURE and a 12-bit ADC, has been used for data acquisition of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectra with the Zeiss CEM 902. The internal macro language of LOTUS 1-2-3 allows a menu-driven procedure. Macro-programs partly combined with external FORTRAN programs can be chosen from the menu for background subtraction, removal of multiple scattering effects by deconvolution, elemental quantification and several utilities. For special applications or conditions the macro programs can easily be modified. Spectra from crystals of two inorganic transition metal compounds, ruthenium trichloride and vanadium disulphide, and from a biological sample are presented as examples of the application of this software.

  13. Synthesis, crystal structure and dielectric properties of the new organic -inorganic hybrid compound [C6H10N2]7[Bi2Cl11]2.4[Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Mohamed; Karoui, Sahel; Oueslati, Abderrazek; Kamoun, Slaheddine; Hlel, Faouzi

    2018-02-01

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid compound, [C6H10N2]7 [Bi2Cl11]2.4 [Cl], was synthesized, the crystal was grown by slow evaporation solution technique at room temperature and its structure determined by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The molecule crystallizes in the tetragonal P4/n space group with cell parameters a = b = 12.9758 (14) Å, c = 14.2611 (17) Å, V = 2401.2 (5) Å3 and Z = 1. Crystal structure was solved with a final R = 0.033 for 2185 independent reflections. The structure consists of alternate organic and inorganic layers stacked in the a-direction. The anionic layers are made up of discrete [Bi2Cl11]5- tetrahedrons, while the cationic layers are formed by [C6H10N2]2+ cations. Hirschfeld surface analyses of the studied salt have also been carried out. Furthermore, the complex impedance of the compound has been investigated in the temperature range of 293-423 K and in the frequency range of 209 Hz-5 MHz. The frequency-dependent AC conductivity is well described by Jonscher's universal power law. The nature of DC conductivity variation suggests Arrhenius type of electrical conductivity. Besides, analysis is of the dielectric constants ε‧, ε'' versus temperature, at several frequencies, shows a distribution of relaxation times. Which is probably related to the change in the dynamical state of the [C6H10N2]2+ cations and the [Bi2Cl11]5- anions.

  14. The synthesis, characterization and optical properties of Si4+ and Pr4+ doped Y6 MoO12 compounds: environmentally benign inorganic pigments with high NIR reflectance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Giable; Reddy, M.L.P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Much interest has attended roofing materials with high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance, so that interiors stay cool, thereby reducing the demand for air conditioned buildings. The heat producing region of the infrared radiations ranges from 700-1100 nm. Replacing conventional pigments with 'cool pigments' that absorb less NIR radiation can provide coatings similar in color to that of conventional roofing materials, but with higher solar reflectance. NIR reflective pigments have been used in the military, construction, plastics and ink industries. Complex inorganic pigments based on mixed metal oxides (eg., chromium green, cobalt blue, cadmium stannate, lead chromate, cadmium yellow and chrome titanate yellow), which have been used in camouflage, absorb visible light but reflect the NIR portion of incident radiation. However, many of these pigments are toxic and there is a need to develop novel colored, NIR-reflecting inorganic pigments that are less hazardous to the environment. In this work, a series of NIR reflective colored pigments of formula Y 6-x M x MoO 12+δ (where M Si 4+ or Pr 4+ and x ranges from 0 to 1.0) were synthesized by traditional solid-state route and applied to asbestos cement roofing material so as to evaluate their use as 'cool pigments'. The phase purity of the calcined pigment samples were determined using powder X-ray diffraction. The diffuse reflectance of the powdered pigment samples were measured using a UV-Vis-NIR Spectrometer. The Lab color coordinates were evaluated by CIE 1976 color scale. Replacing Si 4+ for Y 3+ in Y 6 MoO 12 changed the color from light-yellow to dark-yellow and the band gap decreased from 2.60 to 2.45 eV due to O 2p -Mo 4d charge transfer transitions. In contrast, replacing Pr 4+ for Y 3+ changed the color from light yellow to dark brown and the band gap shifted from 2.60 to 1.90 eV. The coloring mechanism is based on the introduction of an additional 4f 1 electron energy level of Pr 4

  15. Determination of inorganic compounds in drinking water on the basis of house water heater scale, part 1: Determination of heavy metals and uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of scale originated from drinking water on the house water heater, showed that scale is basically calcium carbonate that crystallizes hexagonally in the form of calcite. Scale taken as a sample from different spots in Belgrade – upper town of Zemun (sample 1 and Pančevo (sample 2 showed different configuration although it came from the same waterworks. That indicates either that the water flowing through waterworks pipes in different parts of the city is not the same or the waterworks net is not the same (age, maintaining, etc. All the elements which are dominant in drinking water (Ca, Mg, K, and Na, and which could be found in water by natural processes, are by their content far below the values regulated by law. The analysis also showed the presence of many metals: Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu Li, Sr, Cd, and Cr in the first sample, which are not found in the scale taken near Pančevo. The results obtained by calculating the mass concentration in drinking water on the basis of scale content, showed that both waters belonged to the category of low mineral waters. Contents of inorganic substances in these waters (117.85 mg/dm3 for sample 1 or 80.83 mg/dm3 for sample 2 are twice lower than the values predicted by the legislation. Gammaspectrometric analysis indicates the presence of radioactive elements – uranium and strontium which can influence human health.

  16. Science Update: Inorganic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    Describes areas of inorganic chemistry which have changed dramatically in the past year or two, including photochemistry, electrochemistry, organometallic complexes, inorganic reaction theory, and solid state chemistry. (DS)

  17. Inorganic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Two compounds (O 2 SbF 6 and IF 6 SbF 6 ) were tested as chemical reagents for trapping the heavier noble gases (isotopes of radon and xenon) released to the atmosphere by nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants. Results on the Raman scattering of anhydrous liquid HF are reported. (U.S.)

  18. Synthesis of Dichlorophosphinenickel(II) Compounds and Their Catalytic Activity in Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reactions: A Simple Air-Free Experiment for Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thananatthanachon, Todsapon; Lecklider, Michelle R.

    2017-01-01

    In this experiment, students perform an air-free synthesis of three dichlorophosphinenickel(II) compounds, NiCl[subscript 2](PPh[subscript 3])[subscript 2], NiCl[subscript 2](PCy[subscript 3])[subscript 2], and NiCl[subscript 2](DPPE), using NiCl[subscript 2]·6H[subscript 2]O and the appropriate phosphine as the precursors. These colorful nickel…

  19. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  20. Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) and Standardized Data and Crystal Chemical Characterization of Inorganic Structure Types (TYPIX)—Two Tools for Inorganic Chemists and Crystallographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluck, Ekkehard

    1996-01-01

    The two databases ICSD and TYPIX are described. ICSD is a comprehensive compilation of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds (about 39 000 entries). TYPIX contains 3600 critically evaluated data sets representative of structure types formed by inorganic compounds. PMID:27805158

  1. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them. Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and aluminum borate whiskers, which also comprise the new generation of inorganic whiskers. According to research results, composites filled by inorganic whiskers show improved strength, wear-resistance, thermal conductivity, and antistatic properties. It explains the importance of modifying polymer materials for use with inorganic whiskers and describes preparation and evaluation methods of polymers filled with inorganic ...

  2. Annual reports in inorganic and general syntheses 1972

    CERN Document Server

    Niedenzu, Kurt

    1973-01-01

    Annual Reports in Inorganic and General Syntheses-1972 presents an organized annual summary of synthetic developments in inorganic chemistry and its related areas. The book discusses alkali and alkaline earth elements, alloys, silver, gold, zinc, cadmium, mercury, boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium, yttrium, scandium, lanthanides, actinides, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, Group V and VI transition elements, manganese, technetium, rhenium, iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, osmium, rhodium, and iridium. The text also describes the chemistry of palladium, platinum, silicon, germanium, tin,

  3. Salicylate-spectrophotometric determination of inorganic monochloramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hui; Chen Zhonglin; Li Xing; Yang Yanling; Li Guibai

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of classical Berthelot reaction, a simple salicylate-spectrophotometric method was developed for quantitative determination of inorganic monochloramine in water samples. With the catalysis of disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III), inorganic monochloramine reacts with salicylate in equimolar to produce indophenol compound which has an intense absorption at 703 nm. Parameters that influence method performance, such as pH, dosage of salicylate and nitroprussiate and reaction time, were modified to enhance the method performance. By using this method, inorganic monochloramine can be distinguished from organic chloramines and other inorganic chlorine species, such as free chlorine, dichloramine, and trichloramine. The molar absorptivities of the final products formed by these compounds are below ±3% of inorganic monochloramine, because of the α-N in them have only one exchangeable hydrogen atom, and cannot react with salicylate to produce the indophenol compound. The upper concentrations of typical ions that do not interfere with the inorganic monochloramine determination are also tested to be much higher than that mostly encountered in actual water treatment. Case study demonstrates that the results obtained from this method are lower than DPD-titrimetric method because the organic chloramines formed by chlorination of organic nitrogenous compounds give no response in the newly established method. And the result measured by salicylate-spectrophotometric method is coincident with theoretical calculation

  4. Recycling of automotive aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jirang; Roven, Hans Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    With the global warming of concern, the secondary aluminum stream is becoming an even more important component of aluminum production and is attractive because of its economic and environmental benefits. In this work, recycling of automotive aluminum is reviewed to highlight environmental benefits of aluminum recycling, use of aluminum alloys in automotive applications, automotive recycling process, and new technologies in aluminum scrap process. Literature survey shows that newly developed t...

  5. Inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Janiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of "inorganic materials from ionic liquids" (ILs is a young and dynamically growing research area for less than 10 years. The ionothermal synthesis in ILs is often connected with the preparation of nanomaterials, the use of microwave heating and in part also ultrasound. Inorganic material synthesis in ILs allows obtaining phases which are not accessible in conventional organic or aqueous solvents or with standard methods of solid-state chemistry or under such mild conditions. Cases at hand include "ligand-free" metal nanoparticles without added stabilizing capping ligands, inorganic or inorganic-organic hybrid solid-state compounds, large polyhedral clusters and exfoliated graphene from low-temperature synthesis. There are great expectations that ILs open routes towards new, possibly unknown, inorganic materials with advantageous properties that cannot (or only with great difficulty be made via conventional processes.

  6. Inorganic and organometallic polymers: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Azam

    2004-01-01

    Inorganic polymeric materials comprise a very unique area science. These macromolecules which contain inorganic elements as part of their main chain structure or as pendent group, attract considerable attention as sceptically materials with unique properties and novel applications. Two main classes of these compounds: in organic and organometallic polymers, which represent a growing field of research, have found broad diverse applications. As, organic components with countless combinations are found in these classes of polymers they offer a wide range of interesting properties and applications. In this paper, the main properties of some more important classes of these compounds, including wholly inorganic-organic polymers, organometallic polymers and hybrid organic-inorganic networks are discussed on the basis of their structural features, and some examples of the novel applications of these materials are presented

  7. Practical development of natural Mo (n, gamma) 99Mo-99mTc generator utilizing a new inorganic polymer with high adsorption capacity of molybdenum; poly-zirconium compound (PZC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi; Hishinuma, Yukio; Terunuma, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    For a new and practical 99m Tc generator using [ 99 Mo] molybdate obtained from 98M o (n, gamma) 99 Mo method instead of 235 U (n, fission) 99 Mo method, an inorganic polymer adsorbent framed with oxygen-zirconium-chlorine bonds with a high adsorption performance of Mo has been developed and the polymer adsorbent was named PZC (Poly-Zirconium Compound), PZC has a high and practically useful Mo adsorption capacity more than 250 mg (Mo)/g-PZC. Based on utilizing the ability of PZC to alternate from 235 U (n, fission) 99 Mo method with any disadvantages to 98 Mo (n, gamma) 99 Mo method with many advantages, the feasibility and practical studies of 99m Tc generator based on (n, gamma) method using PZC has been performed since 1994 by the collaboration research between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and KAKEN Co., and since 2000 by the collaboration research between BATAN (National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia) and KAKEN Co., and recently by the collaboration of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) member 8 countries. From many current experimental results including a recent administering tests conducted by BATAN to the mice with labeled compound of 99m Tc generated by PZC method, it is cleared and confirmed that PZC has many excellent performances for practicable (n, gamma) 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. Therefore, it is expected that a new 99m Tc generator based on PZC method with many advantages compared with the (n, fission) method and other developing (n, gamma) methods should be realized in a near future. (author)

  8. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  9. Assessment of ethylene dibromide, dibromochloropropane, other volatile organic compounds, radium isotopes, radon, and inorganic compounds in groundwater and spring water from the Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch aquifers near McBee, South Carolina, 2010-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, James E.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Public-supply wells near the rural town of McBee, in southwestern Chesterfield County, South Carolina, have provided potable water to more than 35,000 residents throughout Chesterfield County since the early 1990s. Groundwater samples collected between 2002 and 2008 in the McBee area by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) officials indicated that groundwater from two public-supply wells was characterized by the anthropogenic compounds ethylene dibromide (EDB) and dibromochloropropane (DBCP) at concentrations that exceeded their respective maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). Groundwater samples from all public-supply wells in the McBee area were characterized by the naturally occurring isotopes of radium-226 and radium-228 at concentrations that approached, and in one well exceeded, the MCL for the combined isotopes. The local water utility installed granulated activated carbon filtration units at the two EDB- and DBCP-contaminated wells and has, since 2011, shut down these two wells. Groundwater pumped by the remaining public-supply wells is currently (2014) centrally treated at a water-filtration plant.

  10. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  11. In-situ electrochemical doping of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with indigo carmine organic dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Norek, Małgorzata; Budner, Bogusław; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Bombalska, Aneta; Kaliszewski, Miron; Mostek, Anna; Thorat, Sanjay; Salerno, Marco; Giersig, Michael; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide was formed in sulfuric acid with addition of indigo carmine. During anodizing, the organic dye was incorporated into the porous oxide walls. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of nitrogen and sulfur in the anodic aluminum oxide. Two types of incorporated sulfur were found: belonging to the sulfate anions SO 4 2− of the electrolyte and belonging to the C-SO 3 − side groups of the indigo carmine. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the incorporation and showed that the inorganic–organic hybrid material inherited optical properties from the indigo carmine. Typical modes from pyrrolidone rings, unique for indigo carmine in the investigated system (650 and 1585 cm −1 ), were found to be the strongest for the greatest anodizing voltages used. Despite the indigo carmine incorporation, the morphology of the oxide is still nanoporous and its geometry is still tuned by the voltage applied during aluminum anodization. This work presents an inexpensive and facile approach to doping an inorganic oxide material with organic compounds. - Highlights: • Nanoporous anodic alumina was formed in electrolyte with indigo carmine. • XPS confirmed the presence of N and S in anodic alumina. • Raman spectroscopy revealed indigo carmine bands in anodic alumina. • The higher the voltage, the more indigo carmine was incorporated.

  12. In-situ electrochemical doping of nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide with indigo carmine organic dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J., E-mail: wojciech.stepniowski@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Norek, Małgorzata [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Budner, Bogusław [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Michalska-Domańska, Marta [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Nowak-Stępniowska, Agata; Bombalska, Aneta; Kaliszewski, Miron [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Mostek, Anna [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Thorat, Sanjay; Salerno, Marco [Department of Nanophysics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego 30, Genova I-16163 (Italy); Giersig, Michael [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Bojar, Zbigniew [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide was formed in sulfuric acid with addition of indigo carmine. During anodizing, the organic dye was incorporated into the porous oxide walls. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of nitrogen and sulfur in the anodic aluminum oxide. Two types of incorporated sulfur were found: belonging to the sulfate anions SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} of the electrolyte and belonging to the C-SO{sub 3}{sup −} side groups of the indigo carmine. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the incorporation and showed that the inorganic–organic hybrid material inherited optical properties from the indigo carmine. Typical modes from pyrrolidone rings, unique for indigo carmine in the investigated system (650 and 1585 cm{sup −1}), were found to be the strongest for the greatest anodizing voltages used. Despite the indigo carmine incorporation, the morphology of the oxide is still nanoporous and its geometry is still tuned by the voltage applied during aluminum anodization. This work presents an inexpensive and facile approach to doping an inorganic oxide material with organic compounds. - Highlights: • Nanoporous anodic alumina was formed in electrolyte with indigo carmine. • XPS confirmed the presence of N and S in anodic alumina. • Raman spectroscopy revealed indigo carmine bands in anodic alumina. • The higher the voltage, the more indigo carmine was incorporated.

  13. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 2: Consideration of phase separation effects by an X-UNIFAC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Elsa I.; Pankow, James F.

    A thermodynamic model is presented for predicting the formation of particulate matter (PM) within an aerosol that contains organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water. Neutral components are allowed to partition from the gas phase to the PM, with the latter potentially composed of both a primarily aqueous ( α) liquid phase and a primarily organic ( β) liquid phase. Partitioning is allowed to occur without any artificial restraints: when both α and β PM phases are present, ionic constituents are allowed to partition to both. X-UNIFAC.2, an extended UNIFAC method based on Yan et al. (1999. Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria in mixed-solvent electrolyte systems using the group contribution concept. Fluid Phase Equilibria 162, 97-113), was developed for activity coefficient estimation. X-UNIFAC.2 utilizes the standard UNIFAC terms, a Debye-Hückel term, and a virial equation term that represents the middle-range (MR) contribution to activity coefficient effects. A large number (234) of MR parameters are already available from Yan et al. (1999). Six additional MR parameters were optimized here to enable X-UNIFAC.2 to account for interactions between the carboxylic acid group and Na +, Cl -, and Ca 2+. Predictions of PM formation were made for a hypothetical sabinene/O 3 system with varying amounts of NaCl in the PM. Predictions were also made for the chamber experiments with α-pinene/O 3 (and CaCl 2 seed) carried out by Cocker et al. (2001. The effect of water on gas-particle partitioning of secondary organic aerosol. Part I. α-pinene/ozone system. Atmospheric Environment 35, 6049-6072); good agreement between the predicted and chamber-measured PM mass concentrations was achieved.

  14. Stereochemistry of organometallic and inorganic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The authors of this fourth volume in the series have reviewed the making and breaking of chemical bonds in a sophisticated manner. In particular, new pressures brought about by environmental concerns, larger demands for the medical and pharmaceutical sectors and economics of the market place are forcing us into demanding greater stereochemical control and better product yields for chemical reactions capable of producing useful products. The chapters are written by leading experts in this area and give excellent overviews of the strengths and weaknesses of the various methodologies.In C

  15. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    within the cell, it will be more likely to react with the nontarget. Lithium drugs such as lithium carbonate Li2C03 ! are used for the treatment of manic-depressive disorders. .... stroy beneficial enzymes, colloidal silver leaves these tissue-cell enzymes ... tration to patients, metabolism occurs with bond cleavage within the drug ...

  16. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in medicine is generally regarded as using chelating agents to remove toxic heavy metals from the body. The chelating agent binds to the metal in the body's tissues, forming a chelate complex, which is then released to the bloodstream. The chelate is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

  17. Assessment of aluminum bioavailability in alum sludge for agricultural utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczka, Joanna; Zołotajkin, Maria; Ciba, Jerzy; Staroń, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Inorganic aluminum ions, [Al(H 2 O) 6 ] 3+ , [Al(OH)(H 2 O) 5 ] 2+ , and [Al(OH) 2 (H 2 O) 4 ] + , are toxic to a number of crops. The aim of this study was to estimate the danger of soil contamination of bioavailable aluminum and heavy metals forms because of alum sludge which was a by-product of water, and wastewater treatment technology using aluminum coagulant is introduced into the soil. Aluminum and selected heavy metal fractionation was carried out in the post-coagulation sludge collected at a water treatment plant (where aluminum was used as a coagulant), fermented sewage sludge at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (which did not apply aluminum coagulant), and soil from water treatment plant as well as the mixtures of sludge and soil. It has been found that post-coagulation sludge used as natural fertilizer is a secondary source of bioavailable aluminum, especially when aluminum coagulants are used during water and wastewater treatment. The evaluation of applicability of the sludge to very weak acidic and acidic agricultural soils was carried out. The authors shall debate the question whether, in this case, the Regulation of EU and Polish Government on sewage sludge should also take the bioavailable aluminum into account and add to the list of the elements whose allowable contents are limited.

  18. The relevance of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) in inorganic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 124, No. 2, March 2012, pp. 339–353. c Indian Academy of Sciences. The relevance of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) in inorganic materials chemistry. SRINIVASAN NATARAJAN. ∗ .... preparing inorganic coordination compounds such as: .... (c) The connectivity between the heptanuclear cobalt cluster and the.

  19. An overview of the bioremediation of inorganic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, H. Jr.; Gorby, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation, or the biological treatment of wastes, usually is associated with the remediation of organic contaminants. Similarly, there is an increasing body of literature and expertise in applying biological systems to assist in the bioremediation of soils, sediments, and water contaminated with inorganic compounds including metals, radionuclides, nitrates, and cyanides. Inorganic compounds can be toxic both to humans and to organisms used to remediate these contaminants. However, in contrast to organic contaminants, most inorganic contaminants cannot be degraded, but must be remediated by altering their transport properties. Immobilization, mobilization, or transformation of inorganic contaminants via bioaccumulation, biosorption, oxidation, reduction, methylation, demethylation, metal-organic complexation, ligand degradation, and phytoremediation are the various processes applied in the bioremediation of inorganic compounds. This paper briefly describes these processes, referring to other contributors in this book as examples when possible, and summarize the factors that must be considered when choosing bioremediation as a cleanup technology for inorganics. Understanding the current state of knowledge as well as the limitations for bioremediation of inorganic compounds will assist in identifying and implementing successful remediation strategies at sites containing inorganic contaminants. 79 refs

  20. Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Aluminum Phosphide Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhredin Taghaddosi Nejad; Ali Banagozar Mohammadi; Behnam Behnoush; AmirMohammad Kazemifar; Maryam Zaare Nahandi; Soheila Dabiran; Mohammad Jamalian; Ali Bani sheikholeslami

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aluminum phosphide as a fumigant is extensively used for wheat preservation from rodents and bugs especially in silos worldwide. There is increasing number of acute intoxication with this potentially lethal compound because of its easy availability. We have tried to locate predictors of poor prognosis in patients with aluminum phosphide intoxication in order to find patients who need more strict medical cares. Methods: All cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication that had been ...

  1. Fine Grain Aluminum Superplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Continua on ravaraa sida H nacaaaary and identify by block numbar) Superplastic aluminum, Superplasticity, Superplastic forming. High strength aluminum...size. The presence of precipitate particles also acts to impede grain boundary migration during recrystallization, further aiding in maintaining a

  2. Synthesis and structure of dawson polyoxometalate-based, multifunctional, inorganic-organic hybrid compounds: organogermyl complexes with one terminal functional group and organosilyl analogues with two terminal functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiya, Kenji; Togashi, Yoshihiro; Kasahara, Yuhki; Aoki, Shotaro; Seki, Hideaki; Noguchi, Marie; Yoshida, Shoko

    2011-10-03

    Four novel multifunctional polyoxometalate (POM)-based inorganic-organic hybrid compounds, [α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61){(RGe)}](7-) (Ge-1, R(1) = HOOC(CH(2))(2(-)) and Ge-2, R(2) = H(2)C═CHCH(2(-))) and [α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61){(RSi)(2)O}](6-) (Si-1, R(1) and Si-2, R(2)), were prepared by incorporating organic chains having terminal functional groups (carboxylic acid and allyl groups) into monolacunary site of Dawson polyoxoanion [α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61)](10-). In these POMs, new modification of the terminal functional groups was attained by introducing organogermyl and organosilyl groups. Dimethylammonium salts of the organogermyl complexes, (Me(2)NH(2))(7)[α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61)(R(1)Ge)]·H(2)O MeN-Ge-1 and (Me(2)NH(2))(7)[α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61)(R(2)Ge)]·4H(2)O MeN-Ge-2, were obtained as analytically pure crystals, in 22.8% and 55.3% yields, respectively, by stoichiometric reactions of [α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61)](10-) with separately prepared Cl(3)GeC(2)H(4)COOH in water, and H(2)C═CHCH(2)GeCl(3) in a solvent mixture of water/acetonitrile. Synthesis and X-ray structure analysis of the Dawson POM-based organogermyl complexes were first successful. Dimethylammonium salts of the corresponding organosilyl complexes, (Me(2)NH(2))(6)[α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61){(R(1)Si)(2)O}]·4H(2)O MeN-Si-1 and (Me(2)NH(2))(6)[α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61){(R(2)Si)(2)O}]·6H(2)O MeN-Si-2, were also obtained as analytically pure crystalline crystals, in 17.1% and 63.5% yields, respectively, by stoichiometric reactions of [α(2)-P(2)W(17)O(61)](10-) with NaOOC(CH(2))(2)Si(OH)(2)(ONa) and H(2)C═CHCH(2)Si(OEt)(3). These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), FTIR, solid-state ((31)P) and solution ((31)P, (1)H, and (13)C) NMR, and X-ray crystallography.

  3. Superhydrophobic coating deposited directly on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Ana M.; Llorca-Isern, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    This study develops an alternative method for enhancing superhydrophobicity on aluminum surfaces with an amphiphilic reagent such as the dodecanoic acid. The goal is to induce superhydrophobicity directly through a simple process on pure (99.9 wt%) commercial aluminum. The initial surface activation leading to the formation of the superhydrophobic coating is studied using confocal microscopy. Superhydrophobic behavior is analyzed by contact angle measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The highest contact angle (approaching 153°) was obtained after forming hierarchical structures with a particular roughness obtained by grinding and polishing microgrooves on the aluminum surface together with the simultaneous action of HCl and dodecanoic acid. The results also showed that after immersion in the ethanol-acidic-fatty acid solutions, they reacted chemically through the action of the fatty acid, on the aluminum surface. The mechanism is analyzed by TOF-SIMS and XPS in order to determine the molecules involved in the reaction. The TOF-SIMS analysis revealed that the metal and its oxides seem to be necessary, and that free-aluminum is anchored to the fatty acid molecules and to the alumina molecules present in the medium. Consequently, both metallic aluminum and aluminum oxides are necessary in order to form the compound responsible for superhydrophobicity.

  4. A review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a literature review of the inorganic and organometallic chemistry of zirconium are presented. Compounds with physical and chemical properties compatible with the requirements of an ir laser zirconium isotope separation process have been identified

  5. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  6. Aluminum reference electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  7. Characteristics and aluminum reuse of textile sludge incineration residues after acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Manhong; Chen, Liang; Chen, Donghui; Zhou, Saijie

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition and aluminum speciation of sludge incineration residue (SIR) were determined. Cementation of aluminum from sulfuric acid solution using SIR was studied. The results showed that acid-soluble inorganic aluminum was the predominant component in the sludge, and the total leached aluminum increased from 62.2% to 92.9% after incineration. Sulfuric acid dosage and reaction time were found to affect aluminum recovery positively. Conversely, the increase in temperature significantly inhibited recovery reactions. The optimized leaching condition was 1.66 g sulfuric acid per gram of SIR with a reaction time of 3 hr at 20 degrees C, resulting in the highest aluminum leaching rate of 96.7%. Compared to commercial aluminum sulfate solution coagulants, the leaching solution demonstrated higher COD(Cr), turbidity and color removal efficiency for textile wastewater.

  8. In situ formation of ZrB2 particulates and their influence on microstructure and tensile behavior of AA7075 aluminum matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. David Raja Selvam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In situ synthesis of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs has become a popular method due to several advantages over conventional stir casting method. In the present study, AA7075/ZrB2 AMCs reinforced with various content of ZrB2 particulates (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 wt.% were synthesized by the in situ reaction of molten aluminum with inorganic salts K2ZrF6 and KBF4. The composites were characterized using XRD, OM, SEM, EBSD and TEM. The XRD patterns revealed the formation of ZrB2 particulates without the presence of any other compounds. The formation of ZrB2 particulates refined the grains of aluminum matrix extensively. Most of the ZrB2 particulates were located near the grain boundaries. The ZrB2 particulates exhibited various morphologies including spherical, cylindrical and hexagonal shapes. The size of the ZrB2 particulates was in the order of nano, sub micron and micron level. A good interfacial bonding was observed between the aluminum matrix and the ZrB2 particulates. The in situ formed ZrB2 particulates enhanced the mechanical properties such as microhardness and the ultimate tensile strength. Various strengthening mechanisms were identified.

  9. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  10. Separation of fission products using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Venkatachalam, R.; Varma, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the separation of long lived fission products like caesium-137, strontium-90 using inorganic exchangers ammonium phosphomolybdate and zirconium antimonate. A revised flow sheet is proposed for the sequential separation of these isotopes using the above two compounds. This is a modification of the earlier scheme developed which involved the use of four inorganic exchangers namely ammonium phosphomolybdate, manganese dioxide, zirconium antimonate and polyantimonic acid. The elution of the adsorbed elements like cerium, strontium, and sodium has been studied and it has been possible to elute these using different eluting agents. (author)

  11. Water soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol compounds in the tropical boundary layer. An analysis based on real time measurements at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the behavior of water-soluble inorganic trace gases and related aerosol species in the tropical boundary layer. Mixing ratios of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrous acid (HONO), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO;,) and the corresponding water-soluble

  12. Reactive ion assisted deposition of aluminum oxynitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Lingg, L.J.; Lehan, J.P.; Macleod, H.A.; Suits, F.

    1989-01-01

    Optical properties, stoichiometry, chemical bonding states, and crystal structure of aluminum oxynitride (AlO/sub x/N/sub y/) thin films prepared by reactive ion assisted deposition were investigated. The results show that by controlling the amount of reactive gases the refractive index of aluminum oxynitride films at 550 nm is able to be varied from 1.65 to 1.83 with a very small extinction coefficient. Variations of optical constants and chemical bonding states of aluminum oxynitride films are related to the stoichiometry. From an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis it is observed that our aluminum oxynitride film is not simply a mixture of aluminum oxide and aluminum nitride but a continuously variable compound. The aluminum oxynitride films are amorphous from an x-ray diffraction analysis. A rugate filter using a step index profile of aluminum oxynitride films was fabricated by nitrogen ion beam bombardment of a growing Al film with backfill oxygen pressure as the sole variation. This filter shows a high resistivity to atmospheric moisture adsorption, suggesting that the packing density of aluminum oxynitride films is close to unity and the energetic ion bombardment densifies the film as well as forming the compound

  13. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  14. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  15. Effect of Degassing Treatment on the Interfacial Reaction of Molten Aluminum and Solid Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Triyono T.; Muhayat N.; Supriyanto A.; Lutiyatmi L.

    2017-01-01

    The gas porosity is one of the most serious problems in the casting of aluminum. There are several degassing methods that have been studied. During smelting of aluminum, the intermetallic compound (IMC) may be formed at the interface between molten aluminum and solid steel of crucible furnace lining. In this study, the effect of degassing treatment on the formations of IMC has been investigated. The rectangular substrate specimens were immersed in a molten aluminum bath. The holding times of ...

  16. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  17. Elimination of aluminum adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, Stanley L

    2002-05-31

    In vitro dissolution experiments although perhaps not at typical body concentrations and temperatures demonstrated that the alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids present in interstitial fluid (citric acid, lactic acid, and malic acid) are capable of dissolving aluminum-containing adjuvants. Amorphous aluminum phosphate adjuvant dissolved more rapidly than crystalline aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Intramuscular administration in New Zealand White rabbits of aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide adjuvants, which were labelled with 26Al, revealed that 26Al was present in the first blood sample (1 h) for both adjuvants. The area under the blood level curve for 28 days indicated that three times more aluminum was absorbed from aluminum phosphate adjuvant than aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. In vivo studies using 26Al-labelled adjuvants are relatively safe because accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can quantify quantities of 26Al as small as 10(-17) g. A similar study in humans would require a whole-body exposure of 0.7 microSv per year compared to the natural background exposure of 3000 microSv per year. The in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption studies indicate that aluminum-containing adjuvants which are administered intramuscularly are dissolved by alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acids in interstitial fluid, absorbed into the blood, distributed to tissues, and eliminated in the urine.

  18. Weld Development for Aluminum Fission Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Jesse Norris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-16

    The Sigma welding team was approached to help fabricate a small fission chamber (roughly ½ inch dia. x ½ inch tall cylinder). These chambers are used as radiation sensors that contain small traces of radionuclides (Cf 252, U 235, and U 238) that serve to ionize gas atoms in addition to external radiation. When a voltage is applied within the chamber, the resulting ion flow can be calibrated and monitored. Aluminum has the advantage of not forming radioactive compounds when exposed to high external radiation (except from minor Na alloy content). Since aluminum has not been used before in this application, this presented an unexplored challenge.

  19. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  20. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  1. Microfluidics in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hassan, Ali; Sandre, Olivier; Cabuil, Valérie

    2010-08-23

    The application of microfluidics in chemistry has gained significant importance in the recent years. Miniaturized chemistry platforms provide controlled fluid transport, rapid chemical reactions, and cost-saving advantages over conventional reactors. The advantages of microfluidics have been clearly established in the field of analytical and bioanalytical sciences and in the field of organic synthesis. It is less true in the field of inorganic chemistry and materials science; however in inorganic chemistry it has mostly been used for the separation and selective extraction of metal ions. Microfluidics has been used in materials science mainly for the improvement of nanoparticle synthesis, namely metal, metal oxide, and semiconductor nanoparticles. Microfluidic devices can also be used for the formulation of more advanced and sophisticated inorganic materials or hybrids.

  2. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Nitric Acid, Nitrates, and Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherick, Leslie

    1989-01-01

    Discussed are the potential hazards associated with nitric acid, inorganic and organic nitrate salts, alkyl nitrates, acyl nitrates, aliphatic nitro compounds, aromatic nitro compounds, and nitration reactions. (CW)

  3. Polyphenol-aluminum complex formation: Implications for aluminum tolerance in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural polyphenols may play an important role in aluminum detoxification in some plants. We examined the interaction between Al3+ and the purified high molecular weight polyphenols pentagalloyl glucose (940 Da) and oenothein B (1568 Da), and the related compound methyl gallate (184 Da) at pH 4 and ...

  4. Inorganic and organic radiation chemistry: state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyazin, E.P.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inorganic and organic chemistry is presented on the basis of the general scheme and classification of radiolysis products and elementary processes, by which evolution of radiation-affected substances up to the final radiolysis products takes place. The evolution is traced for the representatives of inorganic and organic compounds. The contribution of radiation inorganic and organic chemistry to radiation technology, radiation materials technology, radiation ecology and medicine, is shown. Tendencies in the development of radiation chemistry and prediction of its certain directions are considered

  5. Heterogeneous Catalysis of Polyoxometalate Based Organic–Inorganic Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuanhang; Wang, Meiyin; Chen, Xueying; Yue, Bin; He, Heyong

    2015-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid polyoxometalate (POM) compounds are a subset of materials with unique structures and physical/chemical properties. The combination of metal-organic coordination complexes with classical POMs not only provides a powerful way to gain multifarious new compounds but also affords a new method to modify and functionalize POMs. In parallel with the many reports on the synthesis and structure of new hybrid POM compounds, the application of these compounds for heterogeneous catalysis has also attracted considerable attention. The hybrid POM compounds show noteworthy catalytic performance in acid, oxidation, and even in asymmetric catalytic reactions. This review summarizes the design and synthesis of organic–inorganic hybrid POM compounds and particularly highlights their recent progress in heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:28788017

  6. Advances in aluminum pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudour, Michel; Maintier, Philippe [PPG Industries France, 3 Z.A.E. Les Dix Muids, B.P. 89, F-59583 Marly (France); Simpson, Mark [PPG Industries Inc., 1200 Piedmont Troy, Michigan 48083 (United States); Quaglia, Paolo [PPG Industries Italia, Via Garavelli 21, I-15028 Quattordio (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    As automotive manufacturers continue to look for ways to reduce vehicle weight, aluminum is finding more utility as a body panel component. The substitution of cold-rolled steel and zinc-coated substrates with aluminum has led to new challenges in vehicle pretreatment. As a result, changes to traditional pretreatment chemistries and operating practices are necessary in order to produce an acceptable coating on aluminum body panels. These changes result in increased sludging and other undesirable characteristics. In addition to the chemistry changes, there are also process-related problems to consider. Many existing automotive pretreatment lines simply were not designed to handle aluminum and its increased demands on filtration and circulation equipment. To retrofit such a system is capital intensive and in addition to requiring a significant amount of downtime, may not be totally effective. Thus, the complexities of pre-treating aluminum body panels have actually had a negative effect on efforts to introduce more aluminum into new vehicle design programs. Recent research into ways of reducing the negative effects has led to a new understanding of the nature of zinc phosphate bath -aluminum interactions. Many of the issues associated with the pretreatment of aluminum have been identified and can be mitigated with only minor changes to the zinc phosphate bath chemistry. The use of low levels of soluble Fe ions, together with free fluoride, has been shown to dramatically improve the efficiency of a zinc phosphate system processing aluminum. Appearance of zinc phosphate coatings, coating weights and sludge are all benefited by this chemistry change. (authors)

  7. Chiral Inorganic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; de Moura, André F; Wu, Xiaoling; Kuang, Hua; Xu, Chuanlai; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-06-28

    The field of chiral inorganic nanostructures is rapidly expanding. It started from the observation of strong circular dichroism during the synthesis of individual nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies and expanded to sophisticated synthetic protocols involving nanostructures from metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and nanocarbons. Besides the well-established chirality transfer from bioorganic molecules, other methods to impart handedness to nanoscale matter specific to inorganic materials were discovered, including three-dimentional lithography, multiphoton chirality transfer, polarization effects in nanoscale assemblies, and others. Multiple chiral geometries were observed with characteristic scales from ångströms to microns. Uniquely high values of chiral anisotropy factors that spurred the development of the field and differentiate it from chiral structures studied before, are now well understood; they originate from strong resonances of incident electromagnetic waves with plasmonic and excitonic states typical for metals and semiconductors. At the same time, distinct similarities with chiral supramolecular and biological systems also emerged. They can be seen in the synthesis and separation methods, chemical properties of individual NPs, geometries of the nanoparticle assemblies, and interactions with biological membranes. Their analysis can help us understand in greater depth the role of chiral asymmetry in nature inclusive of both earth and space. Consideration of both differences and similarities between chiral inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures will also accelerate the development of technologies based on chiroplasmonic and chiroexcitonic effects. This review will cover both experiment and theory of chiral nanostructures starting with the origin and multiple components of mirror asymmetry of individual NPs and their assemblies. We shall consider four different types of chirality in nanostructures and related physical, chemical, and

  8. Chronic aluminum intake causes Alzheimer's disease: applying Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causality criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, J R

    2014-01-01

    Industrialized societies produce many convenience foods with aluminum additives that enhance various food properties and use alum (aluminum sulfate or aluminum potassium sulfate) in water treatment to enable delivery of large volumes of drinking water to millions of urban consumers. The present causality analysis evaluates the extent to which the routine, life-long intake, and metabolism of aluminum compounds can account for Alzheimer's disease (AD), using Austin Bradford Hill's nine epidemiological and experimental causality criteria, including strength of the relationship, consistency, specificity, temporality, dose-dependent response, biological rationale, coherence with existing knowledge, experimental evidence, and analogy. Mechanisms that underlie the risk of low concentrations of aluminum relate to (1) aluminum's absorption rates, allowing the impression that aluminum is safe to ingest and as an additive in food and drinking water treatment, (2) aluminum's slow progressive uptake into the brain over a long prodromal phase, and (3) aluminum's similarity to iron, in terms of ionic size, allows aluminum to use iron-evolved mechanisms to enter the highly-active, iron-dependent cells responsible for memory processing. Aluminum particularly accumulates in these iron-dependent cells to toxic levels, dysregulating iron homeostasis and causing microtubule depletion, eventually producing changes that result in disconnection of neuronal afferents and efferents, loss of function and regional atrophy consistent with MRI findings in AD brains. AD is a human form of chronic aluminum neurotoxicity. The causality analysis demonstrates that chronic aluminum intake causes AD.

  9. Process Challenges in Compound Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    eliminate problems arising from donor-related electron traps (so-called DX centers) in doped AlGaAs with high aluminum content. With a 0.25-micrometer...several problems in common. Fundamental problems associated with the chloride chemistry prevent the growth of aluminum -containing compounds and alloys...It delivers excellent uniformity and good thickness control. Since it is compatible with the trichloride method, high-purity source material is

  10. THE PROSPECTS OF CREATION OF A MODIFIED INSULATING INORGANIC MATERIAL BASED ON SILICA AND ALUMINA MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of use of heat insulation materials inUkraineis given. The advantages of creation of heat insulation inorganic material on the basis of aluminum silicate raw material compared to the heat insulation materials utilized today are shown.

  11. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  12. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  13. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  14. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  15. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  16. Synthesis of MWNT-based composite materials with inorganic coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernadi, K.; Ljubovic, E.; Seo, J.W.; Forro, L

    2003-03-14

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) based metal oxide composites were prepared by an impregnation method using organometallic compounds as precursor. Aluminium isopropoxide (AlIP), tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), and tetraethyl orthotitanate (TEOTi) were used as inorganic sources and decomposed by hydrolysis on the surface of carbon nanotubes. The composites were subsequently investigated by transmission electron microscopy and their coverage was compared. A direct, solvent-free impregnation technique turned out to be the most successful for all organometallic compounds and provided homogeneous inorganic cover layer on the surface of purified MWNTs.

  17. Natural organic matter residue as a low cost adsorbent for aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luana Maria Tavares; Botero, Wander Gustavo; Santos, Josué Carinhanha Caldas; Cacuro, Thiago Aguiar; Waldman, Walter Ruggeri; do Carmo, Janaina Braga; de Oliveira, Luciana Camargo

    2018-06-01

    The contamination of aquatic and terrestrial environments by potentially toxic metals is highlighted by the possible impacts that their high availability can have on the environment. Thus, the development of alternative absorbents that can be used in the remediation of contaminated areas is of great environmental interest. Humin, one of the fractions of natural organic matter, is a promising alternative in studies on the retention of different metals that are environmentally toxic. In this study, the influence of the organic and inorganic humin constituents that are involved in the retention of aluminum species was evaluated. After extraction and calcination to obtain the ashes (inorganic constituents), humin and ash samples were structurally characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Interaction studies between aluminum-humin and ash-humin were performed in the pH range of 4.0-8.0 and with various contact times. The results of the characterization of humin and ash showed different functional groups present in the structures of these materials. Based on the results of the interaction between humin-aluminum and ash-aluminum, it can be inferred that both the organic and inorganic components of humin are efficient at absorbing aluminum. However, the adsorption isotherms showed that humin and the ashes have different adsorption behaviors. Humin is the only fraction of natural organic matter with a significant inorganic constituent content; it is the fraction least used by researchers in this field and is often discarded as waste. In light of this, the results obtained in this work highlight the importance of humin as a natural adsorbent material. Humin may be promising for the removal of aluminum species in contaminated environments due to the presence of organic and inorganic constituents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  19. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  20. Inorganic: the other mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, John F; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad array of mercury species to which humans may be exposed. While exposure to methylmercury through fish consumption is widely recognized, the public is less aware of the sources and potential toxicity of inorganic forms of mercury. Some oral and laboratory thermometers, barometers, small batteries, thermostats, gas pressure regulators, light switches, dental amalgam fillings, cosmetic products, medications, cultural/religious practices, and gold mining all represent potential sources of exposure to inorganic forms of mercury. The route of exposure, the extent of absorption, the pharmacokinetics, and the effects all vary with the specific form of mercury and the magnitude and duration of exposure. If exposure is suspected, a number of tissue analyses can be conducted to confirm exposure or to determine whether an exposure might reasonably be expected to be biologically significant. By contrast with determination of exposure to methylmercury, for which hair and blood are credible indicators, urine is the preferred biological medium for the determination of exposure to inorganic mercury, including elemental mercury, with blood normally being of value only if exposure is ongoing. Although treatments are available to help rid the body of mercury in cases of extreme exposure, prevention of exposure will make such treatments unnecessary. Knowing the sources of mercury and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the prudent ways of preventing mercury intoxication. When exposure occurs, it should be kept in mind that not all unwanted exposures will result in adverse health consequences. In all cases, elimination of the source of exposure should be the first priority of public health officials.

  1. Rapid Analysis of Inorganic Species in Herbaceous Materials Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Inorganic compounds in biomass, often referred to as ash, are known to be problematic in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to bio-oil or syngas and, ultimately, hydrocarbon fuels because they negatively influence reaction pathways, contribute to fouling and corrosion, poison catalysts, and impact waste streams. The most common ash-analysis methods, such as inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry (ICP-OES/MS), require considerable time and expensive reagents. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is emerging as a technique for rapid analysis of the inorganic constituents in a wide range of biomass materials. This study compares analytical results using LIBS data to results obtained from three separate ICP-OES/MS methods for 12 samples, including six standard reference materials. Analyzed elements include aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and silicon, and results show that concentrations can be measured with an uncertainty of approximately 100 parts per million using univariate calibration models and relatively few calibration samples. These results indicate that the accuracy of LIBS is comparable to that of ICP-OES methods and indicate that some acid-digestion methods for ICP-OES may not be reliable for Na and Al. These results also demonstrate that germanium can be used as an internal standard to improve the reliability and accuracy of measuring many elements of interest, and that LIBS can be used for rapid determination of total ash in biomass samples. Key benefits of LIBS include little sample preparation, no reagent consumption, and the generation of meaningful analytical data instantaneously. PMID:26733765

  2. Polyphenol-Aluminum Complex Formation: Implications for Aluminum Tolerance in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Ruiqiang; Gung, Benjamin W; Tindall, Steven; Gonzalez, Javier M; Halvorson, Jonathan J; Hagerman, Ann E

    2016-04-20

    Natural polyphenols may play an important role in aluminum detoxification in some plants. We examined the interaction between Al(3+) and the purified high molecular weight polyphenols pentagalloyl glucose (940 Da) and oenothein B (1568 Da), and the related compound methyl gallate (184 Da) at pH 4 and 6. We used spectrophotometric titration and chemometric modeling to determine stability constants and stoichiometries for the aluminum-phenol (AlL) complexes. The structures and spectral features of aluminum-methyl gallate complexes were evaluated with quantum chemical calculations. The high molecular weight polyphenols formed Al3L2 complexes with conditional stability constants (β) ∼ 1 × 10(23) at pH 6 and AlL complexes with β ∼ 1 × 10(5) at pH 4. Methyl gallate formed AlL complexes with β = 1 × 10(6) at pH 6 but did not complex aluminum at pH 4. At intermediate metal-to-polyphenol ratios, high molecular weight polyphenols formed insoluble Al complexes but methyl gallate complexes were soluble. The high molecular weight polyphenols have high affinities and solubility features that are favorable for a role in aluminum detoxification in the environment.

  3. Aluminum for plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Mark W; King, Nicholas S; Liu, Lifei; Everitt, Henry O; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-01-28

    Unlike silver and gold, aluminum has material properties that enable strong plasmon resonances spanning much of the visible region of the spectrum and into the ultraviolet. This extended response, combined with its natural abundance, low cost, and amenability to manufacturing processes, makes aluminum a highly promising material for commercial applications. Fabricating Al-based nanostructures whose optical properties correspond with theoretical predictions, however, can be a challenge. In this work, the Al plasmon resonance is observed to be remarkably sensitive to the presence of oxide within the metal. For Al nanodisks, we observe that the energy of the plasmon resonance is determined by, and serves as an optical reporter of, the percentage of oxide present within the Al. This understanding paves the way toward the use of aluminum as a low-cost plasmonic material with properties and potential applications similar to those of the coinage metals.

  4. The Nondestructive Determination of the Aluminum Content in Pressed Skulls of Aluminum Dross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkijan, Varuzan; Škapin, Srečo Davor; Kovačec, Uroš

    2013-02-01

    During production of primary and secondary aluminum, various amounts (in some cases up to 200 kg) of aluminum dross, a mixture consisting of molten aluminum metal and different oxide compounds (the nonmetallic phase), are skimmed per tonne of molten metal. To preserve the maximum aluminum content in hot dross for further extraction, it is necessary to cool the dross immediately after skimming. One way to do this is to press the skimmed hot dross in a press. In this process, the skimmed dross is transformed into so-called pressed skulls, with characteristic geometry convenient for storage, transport, or further in-house processing. Because of its high aluminum content—usually between 30% and 70%—pressed skulls represent a valuable source of aluminum and hence are in great demand in the aluminum recycling industry. Because pressed skulls are generally valued on a free-metal recovery basis, which is influenced by the yield of recovery, or in other words, by the quality of the recycling process, it was recognized as important and useful to develop a method of fast and cost-effective nondestructive measurement of the free aluminum content in pressed skulls, independent of the technology of pressed skulls recycling. In the model developed in this work, the aluminum content in pressed skulls was expressed as a function of the pressed skulls density, the density of the nonmetallic phase, and the volume fraction of closed pores. In addition, the model demonstrated that under precisely defined conditions (i.e., skulls from the dross of the same aluminum alloy and skimmed, transported, cooled, and pressed in the same way and under the same processing conditions), when other parameters except the pressed skulls density remain constant, the aluminum content in pressed skulls can be expressed as a linear function of the pressed skulls density. Following the theoretical considerations presented in this work, a practical industrial methodology was developed for nondestructive

  5. Effects of various additives on sintering of aluminum nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeya, K.; Inoue, H.; Tsuge, A.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of thirty additives on sintering A/N were investigated. The addition of alkali earth oxides and rare earth oxides gave fully densified aluminum nitride. This is due to the formation of nitrogen-containing aluminate liquid in the system aluminum nitride-alkali earth oxides or rare earth oxides. Microstructural studies of the sintered specimens with the above two types of additives suggested that the densification was due to the liquid phase sintering. Additions of silicon compounds resulted in poor densification by the formation of highly refractory compounds such as A/N polytypes.

  6. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  7. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  8. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  9. Characterization of South African Coal for Metals, Inorganic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Submitted by invitation to celebrate 2011 the 'International Year of Chemistry'. ABSTRACT. This work characterized South African coal for metals, organic and inorganic sulfur compounds. Microwave assisted extraction. (MAE) followed by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used for ...

  10. Chemical decomposition of water into hydrogen in heterogeneous aluminum-containing compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinchuk, V.K.; Belozerov, V.I.; Anan'eva, O.A.; Laricheva, T.E.; Kunitsyna, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    Authors investigate the kinetic regularities and mechanism of chemical decomposition of water into hydrogen in heterogeneous hydro-reactive systems, containing aluminum, aluminum alloys, and such chemical compounds as liquid sodium glass or quicklime giving a water solution an alkaline character [ru

  11. Aluminum Sulfate 18 Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) of the chemical, aluminum sulfate 18 hydrate, is presented. The profile lists physical and harmful properties, exposure limits, reactivity risks, and symptoms of major exposure for the benefit of teachers and students using the chemical in the laboratory.

  12. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    Electrochemistry of aluminum is of special importance from both theoretical and technological point of view. It covers a wide range of electrolyte systems from molten fluoride melts at around 1000oC to room temperature molten salts, from aqueous to various organic media and from liquid to solid...

  13. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  14. Aluminum for Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    mini - mize the deleterious effects of the bulk metal oxide. Conversely, the optical scattering spectrum of an Al nanodisk can serve as a reporter of Al...Nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. C 2008, 112, 13958–13963. 22. Chowdhury, M. H.; Ray, K.; Gray, S. K.; Pond , J.; Lakowicz, J. R. Aluminum Nanoparticles as

  15. Aluminum battery alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  16. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  17. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  18. [Aluminum forms in acid sulfate soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Luo, S; Feng, Y

    2000-10-01

    With the method of sequential extraction, the extractable noncrystalline aluminum in Acid Sulfate Soils was fractionized into exchangeable Al (ExAl), absorbed inorganic hydroxy-Al(HyAl), organic complexed Al(OrAl), Fe oxide bound Al (DCBAl), interlayered Al(InAl) and noncrystalline aluminosilicate(NcAl) with average of 1.79, 2.51, 4.17, 4.14, 4.31 and 8.66 g Al2O3.kg-1, respectively. In actual Acid Sulfate Soils, the amount of different forms Al followed the order of NcAl > OrAl > InAl > DCBAl > ExAl > HyAl, but in potential acid sulfate soils, NcAl > InAl > DCBAl > HyAl > OrAl > ExAl. The average of the total extractable noncrystalline Al was 35.57 g Al2O3.kg-1, which covered 25.04% of the total amount of Al in Acid Sulfate Soils. The characteristic of extractable noncrystalline Al in Acid Sulfate Soils was the high proportion of active aluminum, such as ExAl, HyAl and OrAl. All forms of Al were closely related to the corresponding properties and ecological characteristics of Acid Sulfate Soils. The strong acid environment of actual Acid Sulfate Soils induced over-released Al, which transformed to active Al and resulted in Al toxicity.

  19. Computer-Assisted Inverse Design of Inorganic Electrides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwei Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrides are intrinsic electron-rich materials enabling applications as excellent electron emitters, superior catalysts, and strong reducing agents. There are a number of organic electrides; however, their instability at room temperature and sensitivity to moisture are bottlenecks for their practical uses. Known inorganic electrides are rare, but they appear to have greater thermal stability at ambient conditions and are thus better characterized for application. Here, we develop a computer-assisted inverse-design method for searching for a large variety of inorganic electrides unbiased by any known electride structures. It uses the intrinsic property of interstitial electron localization of electrides as the global variable function for swarm intelligence structure searches. We construct two rules of thumb on the design of inorganic electrides pointing to electron-rich ionic systems and low electronegativity of the cationic elements involved. By screening 99 such binary compounds through large-scale computer simulations, we identify 24 stable and 65 metastable new inorganic electrides that show distinct three-, two-, and zero-dimensional conductive properties, among which 18 are existing compounds that have not been pointed to as electrides. Our work reveals the rich abundance of inorganic electrides by providing 33 hitherto unexpected structure prototypes of electrides, of which 19 are not in the known structure databases.

  20. Reduction of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron(III) by Klebsiella sp. FD-3 immobilized on iron(II, III) oxide poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres: effects of inorganic compounds and kinetic study of effective diffusion in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zuo-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Tian-Ming; Jing, Guo-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Fe3O4 poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres (MPPMs) were introduced to immobilize Klebsiella sp. FD-3, an iron-reducing bacterium applied to reduce Fe(III)EDTA. The effects of potential inhibitors (S(2-), SO3(2-), NO3(-), NO2(-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO) on Fe(III)EDTA reduction were investigated. S(2-) reacted with Fe(III)EDTA as an electron-shuttling compound and enhanced the reduction. But Fe(III)EDTA reduction was inhibited by SO3(2-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO due to their toxic to microorganisms. Low concentrations of NO3(-) and NO2(-) accelerated Fe(III)EDTA reduction, but high concentrations inhibited the reduction, whether by free or immobilized FD-3. The immobilized FD-3 performed better than freely-suspended style. The substrate mass transfer and diffusion kinetics in the porous microspheres were calculated. The value of Thiele modulus and effectiveness factors showed that the intraparticle diffusion was fairly small and neglected in this carrier. Fe(III)EDTA reduction fitted first-order model at low Fe(III)EDTA concentration, and changed to zero-order model at high concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abundance of interstellar aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, E. S.; Lugger, P. M.; Weiler, E. J.; York, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    New observations of Al II 1670 A, the only line of the dominant ionization stage of interstellar aluminum detected to date, are presented. Observations of ionized silicon are used to define an empirical curve of growth from which aluminum depletions can be derived. The depletion ranges from a factor of 10 in alpha Vir, with E(B-V) of about 0.04, to a factor of 1000 in omicron Per. The depletion is similar to that of iron, but a factor of 2-10 lower than that for silicon in the same stars. The observations of near-UV lines using the Copernicus V1 tubes with removal of a high cosmic-ray-induced fluorescent background are described.

  2. Low toxic corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    Combinations of chemical compounds that reportedly reduce the corrosion of aluminum in fresh water were evaluated. These included combinations of borates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, silicates, and mercaptobenzothiazole. Eight of fifty inhibitor combinations evaluated gave excellent corrosion protection and compared favorably with sodium chromate, which has generally been considered standard for many years.

  3. Behavior of aluminum in aluminum welders and manufacturers of aluminum sulfate--impact on biological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Vesa; Valkonen, Sinikka; Engström, Bernt; Tossavainen, Antti; Mutanen, Pertti; Aitio, Antero

    2008-12-01

    The suitability of determining aluminum in serum or urine as a form of biological monitoring was critically assessed. Airborne and internal aluminum exposure was assessed for 12 aluminum welders in a shipyard and 5 manufacturers of aluminum sulfate. Particles were characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Aluminum in air and biological samples was analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Basic toxicokinetic features were inferred from the data. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average concentration of aluminum was 1.1 (range 0.008-6.1) mg/m(3) for the shipyard and 0.13 (range 0.02-0.5) mg/m(3) for the aluminum sulfate plant. Welding fume contained aluminum oxide particles aluminum sulfate particles ranged from 1 to 10 microm in diameter. The shipyard welders' mean postshift serum and urinary concentrations of aluminum (S-Al and U-Al, respectively) were 0.22 and 3.4 micromol/l, respectively, and the aluminum sulfate workers' corresponding values were 0.13 and 0.58 micromol/l. Between two shifts, the welders' S-Al concentration decreased by about 50% (Paluminum sulfate workers. After aluminum welding at the shipyard had ceased, the median S-Al concentration decreased by about 50% (P=0.007) within a year, but there was no change (P=0.75) in the corresponding U-Al concentration. About 1% of aluminum in welding fume appears to be rapidly absorbed from the lungs, whereas an undetermined fraction is retained and forms a lung burden. A higher fractional absorption of aluminum seems possible for aluminum sulfate workers without evidence of a lung burden. After rapid absorption, aluminum is slowly mobilized from the lung burden and dominates the S-Al and U-Al concentrations of aluminum welders. For kinetic reasons, S-Al or U-Al concentrations cannot be used to estimate the accumulation of aluminum in the target organs of toxicity. However, using U-Al analysis to monitor aluminum welders' lung burden seems practical.

  4. Thin-layer chromatography in analysis of inorganic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volynets, M.P.

    1988-01-01

    The use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and determination of inorganic compounds is briefly considered. Universal character of the method, its simplicity, rapidness, high efficiency, clear separation and visual demonstration of results are pointed out, which permits to use TLC extensively for solving scientific and practical problems related to the determination of trace amounts of inorganic substances. TLC method permits to work with nano- and microgram amounts of substances and ensures the absolute limit of determination in the optimal conditions, which is 10 -2 -10 -7 g. Techniques of chromatographic determination of Te, rare earths, Y, Pu in various objects and their metrological characteristics are presented

  5. Scintillation properties of (C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 3 NH sub 3) sub 2 PbI sub 4 Exciton luminescence of an organic/inorganic multiple quantum well structure compound induced by 2.0 MeV protons

    CERN Document Server

    Shibuya, K; Takeoka, Y; Asai, K

    2002-01-01

    We report a new type of scintillator especially suitable for pulse-radiation detection. Thin films of organic/inorganic perovskite compound (n-C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 3 NH sub 3) sub 2 PbI sub 4 , which is characterized by a multiple quantum well structure, were bombarded by 2.0 MeV protons, and their radiation-induced emission spectra were obtained. A single and sharp emission peak due to an exciton was observed at the wavelength of 524 nm. This emission was clearly detected even at room temperature, and its quantum efficiency was very high. The line shape of this emission did not change, retaining its sharpness, and no other emissions appeared throughout the irradiation. The optical response of (n-C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 3 NH sub 3) sub 2 PbI sub 4 is very fast. (n-C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 3 NH sub 3) sub 2 PbI sub 4 is a promising scintillator material, meeting requirements not satisfied by conventional scintillators.

  6. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  7. Technology for High Pure Aluminum Oxide Production from Aluminum Scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaryan, G. N.; Vlaskin, M. S.; Shkolnikov, E. I.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-10-01

    In this study a simple ecologically benign technology of high purity alumina production is presented. The synthesis process consists of three steps) oxidation of aluminum in water at temperature of 90 °C) calcinations of Al hydroxide in atmosphere at 1100 °C) high temperature vacuum processing of aluminum alpha oxide at 1750 °C. Oxidation of aluminum scrap was carried out under intensive mixing in water with small addition of KOH as a catalyst. It was shown that under implemented experimental conditions alkali was continuously regenerated during oxidation reaction and synergistic effect of low content alkali aqueous solution and intensive mixing worked. The product of oxidation of aluminum scrap is the powder of Al(OH)3. Then it can be preliminary granulated or directly subjected to thermal treatment deleting the impurities from the product (aluminum oxide). It was shown the possibility to produce the high-purity aluminum oxide of 5N grade (99.999 %). Aluminum oxide, synthesized by means of the proposed method, meets the requirements of industrial manufacturers of synthetic sapphire (aluminum oxide monocrystals). Obtained high pure aluminum oxide can be also used for the manufacture of implants, artificial joints, microscalpels, high-purity ceramics and other refractory shapes for manufacture of ultra-pure products.

  8. Aluminum Carbothermic Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Marshall J.

    2005-03-31

    This report documents the non-proprietary research and development conducted on the Aluminum Carbothermic Technology (ACT) project from contract inception on July 01, 2000 to termination on December 31, 2004. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new carbothermic process for producing commercial grade aluminum, designated as the ''Advanced Reactor Process'' (ARP). The scope of the program ranged from fundamental research through small scale laboratory experiments (65 kW power input) to larger scale test modules at up to 1600 kW power input. The tasks included work on four components of the process, Stages 1 and 2 of the reactor, vapor recovery and metal alloy decarbonization; development of computer models; and economic analyses of capital and operating costs. Justification for developing a new, carbothermic route to aluminum production is defined by the potential benefits in reduced energy, lower costs and more favorable environmental characteristics than the conventional Hall-Heroult process presently used by the industry. The estimated metrics for these advantages include energy rates at approximately 10 kWh/kg Al (versus over 13 kWh/kg Al for Hall-Heroult), capital costs as low as $1250 per MTY (versus 4,000 per MTY for Hall-Heroult), operating cost reductions of over 10%, and up to 37% reduction in CO2 emissions for fossil-fuel power plants. Realization of these benefits would be critical to sustaining the US aluminum industries position as a global leader in primary aluminum production. One very attractive incentive for ARP is its perceived ability to cost effectively produce metal over a range of smelter sizes, not feasible for Hall-Heroult plants which must be large, 240,000 TPY or more, to be economical. Lower capacity stand alone carbothermic smelters could be utilized to supply molten metal at fabrication facilities similar to the mini-mill concept employed by the steel industry

  9. Chromate-free corrosion resistant conversion coatings for aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, R.G.; Drewien, C.A.; Martinez, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoner, G.E. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science

    1995-03-01

    Inorganic polycrystalline hydrotalcite, Li{sub 2}[Al{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sub 2}{center_dot}CO{sub 3}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O, coatings can be formed on aluminum and aluminum alloys by exposure to alkaline lithium carbonate solutions. This process is conducted using methods similar to traditional chromate conversion coating procedures, but does not use or produce toxic chemicals. The coating provides anodic protection and delays the onset of pitting during anodic polarization. Cathodic reactions are also inhibited which may also contribute to corrosion protection. Recent studies have shown that corrosion resistance can be increased by sealing hydrotalcite coated surfaces to transition metal salt solutions including Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, KMnO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}. Results from these studies are also reported.

  10. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  11. Coordination Compounds in Biology R

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    naturally occurring organometallic compound found in biology. An intriguing aspect of vitamin Bl2 is the great stability of the metal-carbon bond. A great deal of new and interesting inorganic chemistry has been uncoveredwhlle studying systems pertinent to BI2• In this article some salient features of this unique molecule (B.

  12. Fundamental Studies on Aluminum Soaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-06-01

    loosely bound lauric acid in aluminum dilaurate giving results accurate probably to 0.1 - 0.2# and reproducible to ubdtit ,𔃺.05^, The method...proceeds at the steady rate quoted above» Therefore the lauric acid is not hold in the form of solid solution which would give a constantly...both from lauric acid and aluminum dilaurate. It is extremely unlikely that aluminum trilaurate, AIL3, would rapidly yield dilaurate with dry acetone

  13. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    MTIC-. VIII). It was jointly hosted by the Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry,. Indian Institute of Science and the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific. Research, Jakkur, Bangalore. This special issue of the journal contains ...

  14. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  15. Regeneration of lithium aluminum hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James; Reilly, James J

    2008-12-31

    Lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH(4)) is a promising compound for hydrogen storage, with a high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density and a low decomposition temperature. Similar to other metastable hydrides, LiAlH(4) does not form by direct hydrogenation at reasonable hydrogen pressures; therefore, there is considerable interest in developing new routes to regenerate the material from the dehydrogenated products LiH and Al. Here we demonstrate a low-energy route to regenerate LiAlH(4) from LiH and Ti-catalyzed Al. The initial hydrogenation occurs in a tetrahydrofuran slurry and forms the adduct LiAlH(4).4THF. The thermodynamics of this reversible reaction were investigated by measuring pressure-composition isotherms, and the free energy was found to be small and slightly negative (DeltaG = -1.1 kJ/mol H(2)), suggesting an equilibrium hydrogen pressure of just under 1 bar at 300 K. We also demonstrate that the adduct LiAlH(4).4THF can be desolvated at low temperature to yield crystalline LiAlH(4).

  16. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  17. Aluminum nitride grating couplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Doerr, Christopher R; Piazza, Gianluca

    2012-06-10

    Grating couplers in sputtered aluminum nitride, a piezoelectric material with low loss in the C band, are demonstrated. Gratings and a waveguide micromachined on a silicon wafer with 600 nm minimum feature size were defined in a single lithography step without partial etching. Silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) was used for cladding layers. Peak coupling efficiency of -6.6 dB and a 1 dB bandwidth of 60 nm have been measured. This demonstration of wire waveguides and wideband grating couplers in a material that also has piezoelectric and elasto-optic properties will enable new functions for integrated photonics and optomechanics.

  18. Dynamic Property of Aluminum Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Irie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum in the foam of metallic foam is in the early stage of industrialization. It has various beneficial characteristics such as being lightweight, heat resistance, and an electromagnetic radiation shield. Therefore, the use of aluminum foam is expected to reduce the weight of equipment for transportation such as the car, trains, and aircraft. The use as energy absorption material is examined. Moreover aluminum foam can absorb the shock wave, and decrease the shock of the blast. Many researchers have reported about aluminum foam, but only a little information is available for high strain rates (103 s-1 or more. Therefore, the aluminum foam at high strain rates hasn't been not characterized yet. The purpose in this research is to evaluate the behavior of the aluminum form in the high-strain rate. In this paper, the collision test on high strain rate of the aluminum foam is investigated. After experiment, the numerical analysis model will be made. In this experiment, a powder gun was used to generate the high strain rate in aluminum foam. In-situ PVDF gauges were used for measuring pressure and the length of effectiveness that acts on the aluminum foam. The aluminum foam was accelerated to about 400 m/s from deflagration of single component powder and the foam were made to collide with the PVDF gauge. The high strain rate deformation of the aluminum form was measured at two collision speeds. As for the result, pressure was observed to go up rapidly when about 70% was compressed. From this result, it is understood that complete crush of the cell is caused when the relative volume is about 70%. In the next stage, this data will be compared with the numerical analysis.

  19. Aluminum and aluminum/silicon coatings on ferritic steels by CVD-FBR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.J.; Hierro, M.P.; Trilleros, J.A.; Carpintero, M.C.; Sanchez, L.; Bolivar, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    The use of chemical vapor deposition by fluidized bed reactors (CVD-FBR) offers some advantages in comparison to other coating techniques such as pack cementation, because it allows coating deposition at lower temperatures than pack cementation and at atmospheric pressure without affecting the mechanical properties of material due to heat treatments of the bulk during coating process. Aluminum and aluminum/silicon coatings have been obtained on two different ferritics steels (P-91 and P-92). The coatings were analyzed using several techniques like SEM/EDX and XRD. The results indicated that both coatings were form by Fe 2 Al 5 intermetallic compound, and in the co-deposition the Si was incorporated to the Fe 2 Al 5 structure in small amounts

  20. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate such elements as aluminum, barium, strontium, zinc in seeds in concentrations that exceed their content in black mustard seeds, while compounds of calcium, cesium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium in a greater degree were accumulated in black mustard seeds. Conclusions. As legal and regulatory documents for important chemical elements don’t contain the maximum permissible limits of their content in medicinal plants, it would make sense to launch a comprehensive research with the involvement of specia­lists of relevant profiles in order to establish such a gradation. Plants of white and black mustard in Kiev Oblast have accumulated high levels of such metals as Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn that exceed the known limits of accumulation, indicating a partial contamination of soils in the region. Consequently, these plants can be used for phytoremediation of soils. Considering the fact that in the pharmaceutical practice refined mustard seed oil is used, revealed alterations of metal accumulation in seeds will not affect the quality of the final drugs. According to the research results, white and black mustard is promising for cultivation in Kiev Oblast with a view to obtain raw material that can be processed into drugs.

  1. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (biosensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (biosensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  2. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo; Canalejas-Tejero, Víctor; Herranz, Sonia; Urraca, Javier; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Maquieira, Ángel; Puchades, Rosa

    2015-07-09

    Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (bio)sensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (bio)sensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation--which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA) immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports--the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs.

  3. Aluminum Nanoholes for Optical Biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Carlos Angulo; Canalejas-Tejero, Víctor; Herranz, Sonia; Urraca, Javier; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz; Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Maquieira, Ángel; Puchades, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Sub-wavelength diameter holes in thin metal layers can exhibit remarkable optical features that make them highly suitable for (bio)sensing applications. Either as efficient light scattering centers for surface plasmon excitation or metal-clad optical waveguides, they are able to form strongly localized optical fields that can effectively interact with biomolecules and/or nanoparticles on the nanoscale. As the metal of choice, aluminum exhibits good optical and electrical properties, is easy to manufacture and process and, unlike gold and silver, its low cost makes it very promising for commercial applications. However, aluminum has been scarcely used for biosensing purposes due to corrosion and pitting issues. In this short review, we show our recent achievements on aluminum nanohole platforms for (bio)sensing. These include a method to circumvent aluminum degradation—which has been successfully applied to the demonstration of aluminum nanohole array (NHA) immunosensors based on both, glass and polycarbonate compact discs supports—the use of aluminum nanoholes operating as optical waveguides for synthesizing submicron-sized molecularly imprinted polymers by local photopolymerization, and a technique for fabricating transferable aluminum NHAs onto flexible pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes, which could facilitate the development of a wearable technology based on aluminum NHAs. PMID:26184330

  4. Mechanisms of inorganic and organometallic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    The purpose of this series is to provide a continuing critical review of the literature concerned with mechanistic aspects of inorganic and organo­ metallic reactions in solution, with coverage being complete in each volume. The papers discussed are selected on the basis of relevance to the elucidation of reaction mechanisms and many include results of a nonkinetic nature when useful mechanistic information can be deduced. The period of literature covered by this volume is July 1982 through December 1983, and in some instances papers not available for inclusion in the previous volume are also included. Numerical results are usually reported in the units used by the original authors, except where data from different papers are com­ pared and conversion to common units is necessary. As in previous volumes material included covers the major areas of redox processes, reactions of the nonmetallic elements, reaction of inert and labile metal complexes and the reactions of organometallic compounds. While m...

  5. Solubility and stability of inorganic carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1987-01-01

    The chemistry of inorganic carbonates is reviewed, with emphasis on solubility and hydrolytic stability, in order to identify candidate waste forms for immobilization and disposal of 14 C. At present, CaCO 3 and BaCO 3 are the two most widely favoured wasted forms, primarily because they are the products of proven CO 2 -scrubbing technology. However, they have relatively high solubilities in non-alkaline solutions, necessitating care in selecting and assessing an appropriate disposal environment. Three compounds with better solubility characteristics in near-neutral waters are identified: bismutite, (BiO) 2 CO 3 ; hydrocerussite, Pb 3 (OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 ; and rhodochrosite, MnCO 3 . Some of the limitations of each of these alternative waste forms are discussed

  6. Spheroidization of inorganic compounds by the LPPS method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mastný, L.; Brožek, Vlastimil; Medřický, Jan; Marek, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2017), s. 162 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemikov /69./. 11.09.2017-15.09.2017, Vysoké Tatry, Starý Smokovec] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * Liquid precursor plasma spraying * nanoparticles * spheroidization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics)

  7. Copper inorganic-organic hybrid coordination compound as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gas storage and luminescent materials.1–11 Predicting the final structures of demanded crystalline products ... layers, tubes, rods, spheres and sheets.21 The elec- trochemical reactions catalyzed by transition metal ..... 11. Kurmoo M 2009 Chem. Soc. Rev. 38 1353. 12. Forster P M, Stock N and Cheetham A K 2005 Angew.

  8. Leaching studies of inorganic and organic compounds from fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, F.; Swart, K.; Morabito, R.; Brunori, C.; Balzamo, S.; Slobodnik, J.; Korenkova, E.; Janos, P.; Wildnerova, M.; Hlavay, J.; Polyak, K.; Fodor, P.; Muntau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Fly ash is produced in massive quantities by fossil fuel based power plants and waste incinerators, and contains high levels of potentially toxic chemicals. Various leaching tests exist to determine the available fractions, but the outcome is strongly dependent on the experimental conditions, and

  9. Copper inorganic-organic hybrid coordination compound as a novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coordinates to a Cu(II) ion in a meridional fashion and defines the basal plane of the complex. The fourth equatorial coordination ... the final structures of demanded crystalline products is a great challenge. The self-assembly process of crys- talline products is influenced by various factors, such as metal salt, organic ligands, ...

  10. Study on radiation-induced polymerization of vinyl monomers adsorbed on inorganic substances. II. Radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate adsorbed on several inorganic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, K.; Kageyama, E.

    1975-01-01

    The radiation-induced polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) adsorbed on such inorganic substances as silica gel, white carbon, silicic acid anhydride, zeolite, and activated alumina was carried out to compare with the case of styrene. The rate of radiation-induced polymerization adsorbed on inorganic substances was high compared with that of radiation-induced bulk state polymerization, as was the case with styrene. Inorganic substrates which contain aluminum as a component element are more likely to be grafted than those which consist of SiO 2 alone, as with styrene. The molecular weight distribution of unextractable polymer and extractable polymer differs, depending on the type of inorganic substance. Experiments by a preirradiation method were carried out in case of silica gel, white carbon, and silicic acid anhydride. GPC spectra of the polymer obtained were different from those of polymer formed by the simultaneous irradiation method. It appears that all the unextractable polymer is grafted to the inorganic surface with chemical bond

  11. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  12. Aluminum plasmonic photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Wang, Chenxi; Huang, Hao; Li, Wan; Du, Deyang; Han, Di; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of photocatalytic processes is dictated largely by plasmonic materials with the capability to enhance light absorption as well as the energy conversion efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate how to improve the plasmonic photocatalytic properties of TiO2/Al nano-void arrays by overlapping the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes with the TiO2 band gap. The plasmonic TiO2/Al arrays exhibit superior photocatalytic activity boasting an enhancement of 7.2 folds. The underlying mechanisms concerning the radiative energy transfer and interface energy transfer processes are discussed. Both processes occur at the TiO2/Al interface and their contributions to photocatalysis are evaluated. The results are important to the optimization of aluminum plasmonic materials in photocatalytic applications. PMID:26497411

  13. Aluminum phosphate coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambasivan, Sankar (Chicago, IL); Steiner, Kimberly A. (Chicago, IL); Rangan, Krishnaswamy K. (Evanston, IL)

    2007-12-25

    Aluminophosphate compounds and compositions as can be used for substrate or composite films and coating to provide or enhance, without limitation, planarization, anti-biofouling and/or anti-microbial properties.

  14. Stability and efficacy of sunscreens containing inorganic filters and quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah de Oliveira Nishikawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the sun can have health benefits, however, excess exposure can cause skin damage, such as skin cancer. Photoprotection can be used as a preventive method against the harmful effects of the ultraviolet (UV radiation and Brazilian biodiversity is a fertile field for research in this area. Therefore, the aim of this study was the development of sunscreens containing quercetin (bioactive compound and inorganic filters (titanium dioxide and zinc oxide with further characterization of the formulae and evaluation of stability. Formulations containing the bioactive compound, isolated or in association with the inorganic filters, presented: pH values biocompatible with the skin; apparent viscosity between 10550 and 23600 cP; sun protection factor (SPF between 2.1 and 22.5; and broad spectrum protection, with critical wavelengths above 379 nm. It was found that the association of quercetin with inorganic filters was not adequate due to the negative interactions that occurred between the bioactive compound and the metals, which were only identified during the stability study. However, considering the in vitro estimated efficacy of the isolated flavonoid, its use can still be explored as an alternative substitute to classic UVfilters.

  15. Determination of Sandoz Black Aluminum Coloring Dye Olive Aluminum Coloring Dye and Sodium Dichromate Aluminum Sealing Solutions by UV-Visible Spectrophotometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sopok, Samuel

    1992-01-01

    The chemical literature lacks an acceptable method to determine and adequately control Sandoz black aluminum coloring dye, olive aluminum coloring dye, and sodium dichromate aluminum sealing solutions...

  16. Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Aluminum Phosphide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhredin Taghaddosi Nejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aluminum phosphide as a fumigant is extensively used for wheat preservation from rodents and bugs especially in silos worldwide. There is increasing number of acute intoxication with this potentially lethal compound because of its easy availability. We have tried to locate predictors of poor prognosis in patients with aluminum phosphide intoxication in order to find patients who need more strict medical cares. Methods: All cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication that had been referred to our hospital during April 2008 to March 2010 were studied by their medical dossiers. Pertinent data including vital signs, demographic features, clinical and lab findings, and incidence of any complication were collected and analyzed by the relevant statistical methods. Results: Sixty seven cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication were included in the study. 44.8% of them were male. 97% of cases were suicidal. Mean amount of ingestion was 1.23+/- 0.71 tablets. Mortality rate was 41.8%. ECG abnormality and need for mechanical ventilation had negative relation with outcome. Conclusion: Correlation between some findings and complications with outcome in aluminum phosphide intoxication can be used as guidance for risk assessment and treatment planning in the patients.

  17. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  18. Determination of organic compounds in medicinal plants, commercialized in capsulated forms and 'in natura' by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF). Determination of quantitative inorganic profiles; Determinacao de componentes organicos em plantas medicinais, comercializadas em forma de po (capsulas) e 'in natura', utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios X por dispersao de comprimento de onda (WDXRF). Determinacao de perfis inorganicos quantitativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Manuel Octavio M.; Sato, Ivone Mulako; Salvador, Vera Lucia R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: lawless@usp.br

    2005-07-01

    X-ray fluorescence technique was used to determine major and trace elements for five Brazilian commercial medicinal plants. The bromobutane (Barbatimao), Ginkgo folium (Ginkgo biloba), Echinodorus macrophyllus (Chapeu de couro), Valeriana officinalis (Valeriana), Cordia salicifolia (Porangaba) samples were collected from three to six different commercial suppliers. The species were collected 'in natura' (leaves, flowers, barks and roots) and capsulated forms. The samples were grinded in liquid N{sub 2} atmosphere and double layer pressed pellet were prepared. The elements Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb e Sr concentrations were determined by individual calibration curves. The precision and accuracy of method were evaluated by certified reference material, NIST 1547 - Peach Leaves and the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests were applied. Each specimen presented a distinct inorganic profile and a great variation in its composition was observed. The inorganic profile will contribute for the elaboration of a quality and security guide to assure the phytotherapics commercialization. Moreover, these profiles could be used as complementary data to active farmaco compounds profiles for specimen's ratification. (author)

  19. Modeling and Computation of Thermodynamic Equilibrium for Mixtures of Inorganic and Organic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboussat, A.; Amundson, N. R.; He, J.; Martynenko, A. V.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2007-05-01

    A series of modules has been developed in the atmospheric modeling community to predict the phase transition, crystallization and evaporation of inorganic aerosols. Modules for the computation of the thermodynamics of pure organic-containing aerosols have been developed more recently; however, the modeling of aerosols containing mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds has gathered less attention. We present here a model (UHAERO), that is flexible, efficient and rigorously computes the thermodynamic equilibrium of atmospheric particles containing inorganic and organic compounds. It is applied first to mixtures of inorganic electrolytes and dicarboxylic acids, and then to thermodynamic equilibria including crystallization and liquid-liquid phase separation. The model does not rely on any a priori specification of the phases present in certain atmospheric conditions. The multicomponent phase equilibrium for a closed organic aerosol system at constant temperature and pressure and for specified feeds is the solution to the equilibrium problem arising from the constrained minimization of the Gibbs free energy. For mixtures of inorganic electrolytes and dissociated organics, organic salts appear at equilibrium in the aqueous phase. In the general case, liquid-liquid phase separations happen and electrolytes dissociate in both aqueous and organic liquid phases. The Gibbs free energy is modeled by the UNIFAC model for the organic compounds, the PSC model for the inorganic constituents and a Pitzer model for interactions. The difficulty comes from the accurate estimation of interactions in the modeling of the activity coefficients. An accurate and efficient method for the computation of the minimum of energy is used to compute phase diagrams for mixtures of inorganic and organic species. Numerical results show the efficiency of the model for mixtures of inorganic electrolytes and organic acids, which make it suitable for insertion in global three-dimensional air quality

  20. An Epidemiological Study of Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning in Patients Admitted in a Specialized Poisoning Referral Center in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Banagozar Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : In recent decades, aluminum phosphide pills are used for suicide attempts in Tehran and other parts of the country. Aluminum phosphide is a solid inorganic phosphide that because of its involvement in entire the body organs right after the use, it causes different clinical signs and symptoms. In this research, we studied the epidemiological factors of poisoned patients with aluminum phosphide who were admitted in Tehran Baharloo hospital over the two years. Material and Methods : In this retrospective case series study, we surveyed the poisoned patients with aluminum phosphide who were admitted in Tehran Baharloo hospital. After recording data in   pre-designed data collection forms, the collected data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results : Seventy one cases of poisoned patients with aluminum phosphide with an average age of 26.18 ± 11.29 years were included in this study. The average number of ingested pills was 1.27±0.73. Sixty eight (95.8% patients had a suicidal and deliberate attempt. In this study, the fatality rate of fresh aluminum phosphide tablets was 51.6%. Conclusion : Based on the fatality rate of aluminum phosphide pills, preventive health care actions, increasing the awareness and training of health and medical management personnel at medical universities seem necessary to reduce the tendency and access to aluminum phosphides.

  1. High-strength and high-RRR Al-Ni alloy for aluminum-stabilized superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Wada, K; Sakamoto, H; Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y

    2000-01-01

    The precipitation type aluminum alloys have excellent performance as the increasing rate in electric resistivity with additives in the precipitation state is considerably low, compared to that of the aluminum alloy with additives in the solid-solution state. It is possible to enhance the mechanical strength without remarkable degradation in residual resistivity ratio (RRR) by increasing content of selected additive elements. Nickel is the suitable additive element because it has very low solubility in aluminum and low increasing rate in electric resistivity, and furthermore, nickel and aluminum form intermetallic compounds which effectively resist the motion of dislocations. First, Al-0.1wt%Ni alloy was developed for the ATLAS thin superconducting solenoid. This alloy achieved high yield strength of 79 MPa (R.T.) and 117 MPa (4.2 K) with high RRR of 490 after cold working of 21% in area reduction. These highly balanced properties could not be achieved with previously developed solid-solution aluminum alloys. ...

  2. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  3. PREPARATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  4. High-performance liquid ion-pair chromatography in inorganic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimarin, I.P.; Basova, E.M.; Bol'shova, T.A.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    In literature review for the recent 15 years theoretical foundations, regularities and mechanisms of ionized compound retention in reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography are considered, possibilities and prospects of its application in inorganic analysis being demonstrated. Analytic characteristics of the methods for the determination of inorganic anions (I - , IO 3 - , MoO 4 2- , etc.), as well as metals (Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Mo, W, Ru, lanthanides, etc.) in the form of chelates, are given

  5. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    property has been used to determine whether a compound is aromatic or not. Mesoionic compounds are structurally very different from ben- zenoid compounds, but they fulfill most of the criteria of aroma- ticity and form a part of a variety of aromatic compounds, which can be classified as follows. A) Benzenoid Compounds.

  6. Inorganic membranes for pervaporation technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sekulic, J.; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Luiten, M.W.J.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Keizer, Klaas

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of inorganic membranes that will enable broad application of pervaporation/vapour permeation technology in the chemical industry. This can be achieved by improvement of the existing microporous membranes and the development of new types with enhanced

  7. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Chemical. Sciences) is based on 18 papers presented at the Ninth Symposium on Modern Trends in. Inorganic Chemistry (MTIC-IX) held during 12–14 December 2001 at the Indian. Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata. We have also ...

  8. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    wide range in keeping with the current trends of research in inorganic chemistry. Needless to emphasize, the deliberations were excellent. We are happy to bring out these lectures in a special issue of the Proceedings. The cooperation received from Professor. S S Krishnamurthy, Editor of the journal in this regard is very ...

  9. Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Process analysis of the co-extrusion of aluminum and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, N.; Striewe, B.; Dietrich, D.; von Hehl, A.; Klose, C.; Schaper, M.; Zoch, H.-W.; Bach, Fr.-W.

    This document provides the results of the process analysis of the co-extrusion of aluminum and titanium alloys. The compound consists of the slave material aluminum and the core material titanium. The investigation determines the influence of the parameters billet temperature, press ratio and core length on the process. The material combinations used for the experiments were Al99,5 — Ti Grade 2, and EN AW — 6082 — TiAl6V4. The titanium core material was inserted in a drilled and machined aluminum billet. Furthermore, mechanical properties of the interface were determined by tensile tests. Additionally, the formation of the interface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, electron probe micro analysis and electron backscatter diffraction. The aim of the presented investigations is to show the technical feasibility of the co-extrusion of aluminum-titanium-compounds and to control the growth of intermetallic phases in the interface to increase the mechanical properties.

  11. A comparison of total bound nitrogen with the sum of inorganic nitrogen in the present partice in the German Water Regulation Act for monitoring of nitrogen compounds; Ein Vergleich des gesamten gebundenen Stickstoffs mit der Summe des anorganischen Stickstoffs in der derzeitigen Gesetzespraxis zur Ueberwachung auf Stickstoffverbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, D.; Seckert-Knopp, W. [Landesamt fuer Wasserwirtschaft Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    The results of the analysis of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and total bound nitrogen (TN{sub b}) from 331 samples of municipal and 322 samples of industrial waste water effluents were compiled in the years 1990 to 1994. These data were evaluated due to - the comparison of the sum of inorganic nitrogen ({Sigma} N{sub anorg.}) of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia to TN{sub b} in view of a planned exchange in the German Waste Water Regulation Act - the calculation of organic bound nitrogen (N{sub org.}) - the usefulness to generate sufficient data for balancing the `content of nitrogen` in water systems. The results of our investigations are: The analytical results from the sum of inorganic nitrogen and TN{sub b} are in very good agreement. In most cases the TN{sub b} values were higher than those of {Sigma} N{sub anorg.} This is plausible because most samples contain a certain amount of organic bound nitrogen. Therefore the differences between the results of this two analytical parameters should express the term `organic bound nitrogen` (N{sub org.}). This substraction is an excellent method to estimate this value without a further analytical procedure. The data from our investigation underline this quite clearly. In contrary to the determination of the single compounds ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite the TN{sub b} as a sum parameter is fast, instrument based, can be automated and shows a sufficient limit of determination. This method allows the evaluation of a high data density for water monitoring and balancing the `content of nitrogen` in water systems. A further advantage is the minimizing of errors when applying only one analytical method instead of three. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Analysenergebnisse der Parameter Nitrit, Nitrat, Ammonium sowie die davon abgeleiteten Parameter `Summe anorganischer Stickstoff` ({Sigma} N{sub anorg.}) und `gesamter gebundener Stickstoff` (TN{sub b}) wurden fuer 331 Proben kommunaler und 322 Proben industrieller Abwasseranlagen aus den Jahren

  12. Organic - Inorganic Hybrids made from Polymerizable Precursors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uricanu, V.I.; Donescu, D.; Banu, A.G.; Serban, S.; Olteanu, M.; Dudau, M.

    2004-01-01

    Organic–inorganic hybrid films were prepared based on a recipe using organoalkoxysilanes’ ability to create an inorganic network combined with polymer network formation via radical polymerization of the organic groups. The starting mixtures included different triethoxysilanes (RTES), where the

  13. Organic Polymers Modified with Inorganic Polyhedra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddad, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    ...) macromers into organic polymers. These hybrid inorganic/organic thermoplastics based on styrenes, acrylics, imides, norbornenes or siloxanes, are reinforced by covalently linking monodisperse inorganic POSS clusters to the polymer backbone...

  14. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  15. Optomechanics of Single Aluminum Nanodisks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Man-Nung; Dongare, Pratiksha D; Chakraborty, Debadi; Zhang, Yue; Yi, Chongyue; Wen, Fangfang; Chang, Wei-Shun; Nordlander, Peter; Sader, John E; Halas, Naomi J; Link, Stephan

    2017-04-12

    Aluminum nanostructures support tunable surface plasmon resonances and have become an alternative to gold nanoparticles. Whereas gold is the most-studied plasmonic material, aluminum has the advantage of high earth abundance and hence low cost. In addition to understanding the size and shape tunability of the plasmon resonance, the fundamental relaxation processes in aluminum nanostructures after photoexcitation must be understood to take full advantage of applications such as photocatalysis and photodetection. In this work, we investigate the relaxation following ultrafast pulsed excitation and the launching of acoustic vibrations in individual aluminum nanodisks, using single-particle transient extinction spectroscopy. We find that the transient extinction signal can be assigned to a thermal relaxation of the photoexcited electrons and phonons. The ultrafast heating-induced launching of in-plane acoustic vibrations reveals moderate binding to the glass substrate and is affected by the native aluminum oxide layer. Finally, we compare the behavior of aluminum nanodisks to that of similarly prepared and sized gold nanodisks.

  16. Control of the residual aluminum in drinking water by optimization of the coagulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouadi, Mouna; Amdouni, Noureddine; Chaouchi, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Coagulation-Flocculation is an unavoidable stage in water treatment. It permits to reduce the color and the turbidity, normally caused by the organic and inorganic contaminants to acceptable levels for drinking water or for wastewater. The used coagulants can be organic or inorganic nature. The main goal of this work is to make the follow-up of water quality parameters and the optimization of the clarification stages in the drinking waters treatment station, by determination of the break point in the stage of the prechloration and optimization of the coagulant (aluminum sulphate) proportion. The determination of the anions concentration by means of the ionic chromatography before and after coagulation-flocculation shows that the stability and the solubility of the aluminum species are strongly affected by the presence of these anions. Consequently, the content of the anions affects the process of coagulation and must be taken into account in the optimization of this process. We present in this communication, the results of the pH, concentration of the coagulant, time of coagulation effect on the coagulation process .These factors show optimum values. The research of residual aluminum in the two water studied during this work shows that the aluminum content is lower than 200 g/L at the pH optimum.

  17. Identification of inorganic anions by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakayanagi, Masataka; Yamada, Yaeko; Sakabe, Chikako; Watanabe, Kunio; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2006-03-10

    Inorganic anions were identified by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Derivatization of the anions was achieved with pentafluorobenzyl p-toluenesulphonate (PFB-Tos) as the reaction reagent and a crown ether as a phase transfer catalyst. When PFB-Br was used as the reaction reagent, the retention time of it was close to those of the derivatized inorganic anions and interfered with the analysis. In contrast, the retention time of PFB-Tos differed greatly from the PFB derivatives of the inorganic anions and the compounds of interest could be detected without interference. Although the PFB derivatives of SO4, S2O3, CO3, ClO4, and ClO3 could not be detected, the derivatives of F, Cl, Br, I, CN, OCN, SCN, N3, NO3, and NO2 were detected using PFB-Tos as the derivatizing reagent. The inorganic anions were detectable within 30 ng approximately, which is of sufficient sensitivity for use in forensic chemistry. Accurate mass number was measured for each PFB derivative by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) within a measurement error of 2 millimass units (mmu), which allowed determination of the compositional formula from the mass number. In addition, actual analysis was performed successively by our method using trial samples of matrix.

  18. Aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, Maria Teresa; Peris-Sampedro, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is one of the most extended metals in the Earth's crust. Its abundance, together with the widespread use by humans, makes Al-related toxicity particularly relevant for human health.Despite some factors influence individual bioavailability to this metal after oral, dermal, or inhalation exposures, humans are considered to be protected against Al toxicity because of its low absorption and efficient renal excretion. However, several factors can modify Al absorption and distribution through the body, which may in turn progressively contribute to the development of silent chronic exposures that may lately trigger undesirable consequences to health. For instance, Al has been recurrently shown to cause encephalopathy, anemia, and bone disease in dialyzed patients. On the other hand, it remains controversial whether low doses of this metal may contribute to developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), probably because of the multifactorial and highly variable presentation of the disease.This chapter primarily focuses on two key aspects related to Al neurotoxicity and AD, which are metabolic impairment and iron (Fe) alterations. We discuss sex and genetic differences as a plausible source of bias to assess risk assessment in human populations.

  19. Managing aluminum phosphide poisonings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Mohan; Baronia, Arvind K; Azim, Afzal; Sharma, Kalpana

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a cheap, effective and commonly used pesticide. However, unfortunately, it is now one of the most common causes of poisoning among agricultural pesticides. It liberates lethal phosphine gas when it comes in contact either with atmospheric moisture or with hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The mechanism of toxicity includes cellular hypoxia due to the effect on mitochondria, inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase and formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and instantaneous. The toxicity of AlP particularly affects the cardiac and vascular tissues, which manifest as profound and refractory hypotension, congestive heart failure and electrocardiographic abnormalities. The diagnosis of AlP usually depends on clinical suspicion or history, but can be made easily by the simple silver nitrate test on gastric content or on breath. Due to no known specific antidote, management remains primarily supportive care. Early arrival, resuscitation, diagnosis, decrease the exposure of poison (by gastric lavage with KMnO4, coconut oil), intensive monitoring and supportive therapy may result in good outcome. Prompt and adequate cardiovascular support is important and core in the management to attain adequate tissue perfusion, oxygenation and physiologic metabolic milieu compatible with life until the tissue poison levels are reduced and spontaneous circulation is restored. In most of the studies, poor prognostic factors were presence of acidosis and shock. The overall outcome improved in the last decade due to better and advanced intensive care management. PMID:21887030

  20. Metastable phase formation in ion-irradiated nickel-aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eridon, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Phase transformations induced by ion beam mixing of nickel-aluminum alloys with 500-keV krypton ions were investigated over a range of temperatures (80 K to 300K), composition (NiAl 3 , NiAl, Ni 1 Al), initial structures (both nickel-aluminum layers and ordered intermetallic compounds), and doses (ranging from 2 x 10 14 cm -2 to 5 x 10 16 cm -2 ). Samples were formed by alternate evaporation of layers of nickel and aluminum in high vacuum onto copper grids. These samples were check for purity with energy dispersive-x-ray spectroscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. A portion of these samples was annealed to form the intermetallic compounds appropriate to the given composition. Irradiations were performed at both room temperature (300 K) and 80 K using the 2-MV ion accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. Phase transformations were observed during both in-situ irradiations in the High Voltage Electron Microscopy at Argonne and also in subsequent electron-diffraction analysis of an array of samples irradiated in a target chamber. Metastable phases formed include disordered crystalline structures at composition s of 25% and 50% aluminum, an amorphous structure at 75% aluminum, and a hexagonal closed-packed structure formed at 25% aluminum. These metastable states were all converted to the stable intermetallic compounds through annealing treatments

  1. The Resource-Saving Technology of Aluminum Nitride Obtaining During Combustion of Aluminum Nanopowder in Air

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyin, Aleksandr Petrovich; Mostovshchikov, Andrey Vladimirovich; Root, Lyudmila Olegovna

    2016-01-01

    The resource-saving technology of aluminum nitride obtaining during the combustion of aluminum nanopowder in air has been analyzed in the article. The investigation of the crystal phases of aluminum nanopowder combustion products obtained under the magnetic field exposure has been made. The experimental results showed the increase of aluminum nitride content up to 86 wt. % in comparison with the aluminum nitride content in combustion products without any exposure. The mechanism of aluminum ni...

  2. Inorganic hollow nanotube aerogels by atomic layer deposition onto native nanocellulose templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Juuso T; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Malm, Jari; Karppinen, Maarit; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H A

    2011-03-22

    Hollow nano-objects have raised interest in applications such as sensing, encapsulation, and drug-release. Here we report on a new class of porous materials, namely inorganic nanotube aerogels that, unlike other aerogels, have a framework consisting of inorganic hollow nanotubes. First we show a preparation method for titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and aluminum oxide nanotube aerogels based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) on biological nanofibrillar aerogel templates, that is, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), also called microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) or nanocellulose. The aerogel templates are prepared from nanocellulose hydrogels either by freeze-drying in liquid nitrogen or liquid propane or by supercritical drying, and they consist of a highly porous percolating network of cellulose nanofibrils. They can be prepared as films on substrates or as freestanding objects. We show that, in contrast to freeze-drying, supercritical drying produces nanocellulose aerogels without major interfibrillar aggregation even in thick films. Uniform oxide layers are readily deposited by ALD onto the fibrils leading to organic-inorganic core-shell nanofibers. We further demonstrate that calcination at 450 °C removes the organic core leading to purely inorganic self-supporting aerogels consisting of hollow nanotubular networks. They can also be dispersed by grinding, for example, in ethanol to create a slurry of inorganic hollow nanotubes, which in turn can be deposited to form a porous film. Finally we demonstrate the use of a titanium dioxide nanotube network as a resistive humidity sensor with a fast response.

  3. Correlating single-molecule and ensemble-average measurements of peptide adsorption onto different inorganic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Oh; Jackman, Joshua A; Mochizuki, Masahito; Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-06-07

    The coating of solid-binding peptides (SBPs) on inorganic material surfaces holds significant potential for improved surface functionalization at nano-bio interfaces. In most related studies, the goal has been to engineer peptides with selective and high binding affinity for a target material. The role of the material substrate itself in modulating the adsorption behavior of a peptide molecule remains less explored and there are few studies that compare the interaction of one peptide with different inorganic substrates. Herein, using a combination of two experimental techniques, we investigated the adsorption of a 16 amino acid-long random coil peptide to various inorganic substrates - gold, silicon oxide, titanium oxide and aluminum oxide. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) experiments were performed in order to measure the peptide binding affinity for inorganic solid supports at the ensemble average level, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments were conducted in order to determine the adhesion force of a single peptide molecule. A positive trend was observed between the total mass uptake of attached peptide and the single-molecule adhesion force on each substrate. Peptide affinity for gold was appreciably greater than for the oxide substrates. Collectively, the results obtained in this study offer insight into the ways in which inorganic materials can differentially influence and modulate the adhesion of SBPs.

  4. A Designer Fluid For Aluminum Phase Change Devices: Aluminum Inorganic Aqueous Solutions (IAS) Chemistry and Experiments. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    syphons and heat pipes alike are most often created by taking a hollow metal casing and, under partial vacuum, charging a small amount of liquid into the...heat transfer devices, such as heat pipes, are the latent heat of vaporization ( ), surface tension ( ), and liquid kinetic viscosity ( ). These...chemicals. Surface tension for UCLA IAS 1 was reported as 69 vs. 71 for water, both at 25° ; this represented a small 2.8% difference. Contact angle

  5. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs

  6. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs.

  7. Problems in structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas Chung Wai; Mak, Kendrew Kin Wah

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

  8. Inorganic ion composition in Tardigrada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Larsen, Kristine Wulff; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    composition and total osmotic concentration of five different species of tardigrades (Echiniscus testudo, Milnesium tardigradum, Richtersius coronifer, Macrobiotus cf. hufelandi and Halobiotus crispae) using high-performance liquid chromatography and nanoliter osmometry. Quantification of the ionic content....... Concentrations of most inorganic ions are largely identical between active and dehydrated groups of R. coronifer, suggesting that this tardigrade does not lose large quantities of inorganic ions during dehydration. The large osmotic and ionic gradients maintained by both limno-terrestrial and marine species...... are indicative of a powerful ion-retentive mechanism in Tardigrada. Moreover, our data indicate that cryptobiotic tardigrades contain a large fraction of unidentified organic osmolytes, the identification of which is expected to provide increased insight into the phenomenon of cryptobiosis....

  9. Gas separations using inorganic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, B.Z.; Singh, S.P.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results from a research and development program to develop, fabricate, and evaluate inorganic membranes for separating gases at high temperatures and pressures in hostile process environments encountered in fossil energy conversion processes such as coal gasification. The primary emphasis of the research was on the separation and recovery of hydrogen from synthesis gas. Major aspects of the program included assessment of the worldwide research and development activity related to gas separations using inorganic membranes, identification and selection of candidate membrane materials, fabrication and characterization of membranes using porous membrane technology developed at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, and evaluation of the separations capability of the fabricated membranes in terms of permeabilities and fluxes of gases.

  10. Inorganic membranes and catalytic reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, Maria do Carmo

    1997-01-01

    Membrane reactors are reviewed with emphasis in their applications in catalysis field. The basic principles of these systems are presented as well as a historical development. The several kinds of catalytic membranes and their preparations are discussed including the problems, needs and challenges to be solved in order to use these reactors in commercial processes. Some applications of inorganic membrane reactors are also shown. It was concluded that these systems have a great potential for i...

  11. Impacts of inorganic fluorides on terrestrial ecosystems: An ecological risk assessment case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, R.A.; Schneider, U.A.; Pawlisz, A.V. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada). Evaluation and Interpretation Branch

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, the national environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act concluded that concentrations of inorganic fluorides near industrial sources in Canada may cause long-term adverse effects in sensitive terrestrial plant and wildlife species. This case study examines the accumulation of inorganic fluorides in vegetation and subsequent effects on a sensitive herbivore species, the white tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on Cornwall Island, Ontario, near an aluminum smelting facility, Using environmental concentration data for air, water and food (vegetation), a Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the probability that multimedia exposure of inorganic fluorides exceeded known effects thresholds of skeletal and dental fluorosis in deer, and in turn quantify the magnitude of that risk. With daily intakes ranging from 2--324 {micro}g/deer/day, it was estimated that exposure to fluorides exceeds the daily intake threshold for fluorosis (55 {micro}g/deer/day) in 12% of the deer population. Seasonal differences in exposure and subsequent risk were noted. These results are also supported by additional field data on domestic cattle from the Cornwall Island area where effects (e.g., excessive teeth wear, delayed eruption of permanent teeth, osteosclerosis, osteonecrosis) have been reported and linked to high levels of fluorides in air, water, and forage. It is estimated that at least 10% of the deer from the Cornwall Island area may be subject to debilitating skeletal and dental fluorosis as a result of fluoride emissions from the adjacent aluminum smelter.

  12. A novel lattice energy calculation technique for simple inorganic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Cemal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kaya, Savaş, E-mail: savaskaya@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Banerjee, Priyabrata [Surface Engineering and Tribology Group, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur 713209 (India)

    2017-01-01

    In this pure theoretical study, a hitherto unexplored equation based on Shannon radii of the ions forming that crystal and chemical hardness of any crystal to calculate the lattice energies of simple inorganic ionic crystals has been presented. To prove the credibility of this equation, the results of the equation have been compared with experimental outcome obtained from Born-Fajans-Haber- cycle which is fundamentally enthalpy-based thermochemical cycle and prevalent theoretical approaches proposed for the calculation of lattice energies of ionic compounds. The results obtained and the comparisons made have demonstrated that the new equation is more useful compared to other theoretical approaches and allows to exceptionally accurate calculation of lattice energies of inorganic ionic crystals without doing any complex calculations.

  13. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  14. Chemical synthesis of aluminum nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanta, Sekher Reddy; Muralidharan, Krishnamurthi, E-mail: kmsc@uohyd.ernet.in [Advanced Center of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad (India)

    2013-06-15

    An alternate synthetic route has been described for the production of aluminum nanoparticles (Al-NPs). These Al-NPs were obtained through a reduction of aluminum acetylacetonate [Al(acac){sub 3}] by lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH{sub 4}) in mestitylene at 165 Degree-Sign C. The side products were removed by repeated washing with dry, ice cold methanol and the reaction mixture was filtered to obtain gray-colored Al-NPs. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction pattern and {sup 27}Al-MAS-NMR spectrum. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of face-centered cubic (fcc) form of aluminum. The size and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope which showed particle of varying shapes with size ranging from 50 to 250 nm. The weight loss from the nanoparticles was studied by thermo gravimetric analysis which indicated that the nanoparticles were tightly bound with an unknown amorphous organic residue which cannot be removed by simple washing. The carbonaceous residue might be outcome of the decomposition of acac ligand which was responsible in stabilizing aluminum nanoparticles.

  15. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Matthias; Leitner, Thomas; Schmon, Alexander; Aziz, Kirmanj; Pottlacher, Gernot

    2017-06-01

    Ohmic pulse-heating with sub-microsecond time resolution is used to obtain thermophysical properties for aluminum in the liquid phase. Measurement of current through the sample, voltage drop across the sample, surface radiation, and volume expansion allow the calculation of specific heat capacity and the temperature dependencies of electrical resistivity, enthalpy, and density of the sample at melting and in the liquid phase. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity as a function of temperature are estimated from resistivity data using the Wiedemann-Franz law. Data for liquid aluminum obtained by pulse-heating are quite rare because of the low melting temperature of aluminum with 933.47 K (660.32 °C), as the fast operating pyrometers used for the pulse-heating technique with rise times of about 100 ns generally might not be able to resolve the melting plateau of aluminum because they are not sensitive enough for such low temperature ranges. To overcome this obstacle, we constructed a new, fast pyrometer sensitive in this temperature region. Electromagnetic levitation, as the second experimental approach used, delivers data for surface tension (this quantity is not available by means of the pulse-heating technique) and for density of aluminum as a function of temperature. Data obtained will be extensively compared to existing literature data.

  16. Vanadium compounds as insulin mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvig, C; Thompson, K H; Battell, M; McNeill, J H

    1995-01-01

    That vanadium compounds act in an insulin-mimetic fashion both in vitro and in vivo has been well established. Both inorganic and organic vanadium compounds have been shown to lower plasma glucose levels, increase peripheral glucose uptake, improve insulin sensitivity, decrease plasma lipid levels, and normalize liver enzyme activities in a variety of animal models of both type I and type II diabetes. Vanadium treatment of diabetic animals does not restore plasma insulin levels but may spare pancreatic insulin. Elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action and potentiation of vanadium's insulin-mimetic effect by appropriate ligand binding would seem to be the highest priorities for future investigation.

  17. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550°C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  18. Electronically Unsaturated Three-Coordinate Aluminum Hydride and Organoaluminum Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashanth, Billa; Bhandari, Mamta; Ravi, Satyam; Shamasundar, K R; Singh, Sanjay

    2018-02-16

    New three-coordinate and electronically unsaturated aluminum hydride [LAlH] + [HB(C 6 F 5 ) 3 ] - (LH=[{(2,6-iPr 2 C 6 H 3 N)P(Ph 2 )} 2 N]H) and aluminum methyl [LAlMe] + [MeB(C 6 F 5 ) 3 ] - cations have been prepared. The quantitative estimation of Lewis acidity by Gutmann-Beckett method revealed [LAlH] + [HB(C 6 F 5 ) 3 ] - to be better Lewis acid than B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 and AlCl 3 making these compounds ideal catalysts for Lewis acid-mediated reactions. To highlight that the work is of fundamental importance, catalytic hydroboration of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones have been demonstrated. Important steps of the catalytic cycle have been probed by using multinuclear NMR measurements, including successful characterization of the proposed aluminum benzyloxide cationic intermediate, [LAl-O-CH 2 Ph] + [HB(C 6 F 5 ) 3 ] - . The proposed catalytic cycle has been found to be consistent with experimental observations and computational studies clearly indicating the migration of hydride from cationic aluminum center to the carbonyl carbon is the rate-limiting step of the catalytic cycle. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Differential response of plants to aluminum. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia R. Rubén A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Aluminum toxicity is a major limiting factor to the growth and development of plants in acidic soils worldwide, occurring in 40% of arable soils. The root seems to be the object of aluminum toxicity, particularly the apex, producing a rapid inhibition of cell division and elongation of the root. Fortunately, plants differ in their ability to tolerate aluminum and grow in acidic soils. Tolerance mechanisms have commonly been defined in genetic and physiological terms, however, tolerance mechanisms are not the same in all species, moreover, in certain species, mechanisms can operate simultaneously producing tolerance through their combined effects; the genetic control of tolerance can be very complex and involve many genes. The toxic action of aluminum, according to several studies, can be reduced by internal or external Al chelation with different organic compounds such as organic acids, proteins and polysaccharides, although this type of tolerance mechanism is very controversial and highly debated.

  20. Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase and the inorganic arsenic methylation phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiaxin; Waters, Stephen B.; Drobna, Zuzana; Devesa, Vicenta; Styblo, Miroslav; Thomas, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is enzymatically methylated; hence, its ingestion results in exposure to the parent compound and various methylated arsenicals. Both experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that some of the adverse health effects associated with chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic may be mediated by these methylated metabolites. If i As methylation is an activation process, then the phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation may determine risk associated with exposure to this metalloid. We examined inorganic arsenic methylation phenotypes and arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase genotypes in four species: three that methylate inorganic arsenic (human (Homo sapiens), rat (Rattus norwegicus), and mouse (Mus musculus)) and one that does not methylate inorganic arsenic (chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes). The predicted protein products from arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase are similar in size for rat (369 amino acid residues), mouse (376 residues), and human (375 residues). By comparison, a 275-nucleotide deletion beginning at nucleotide 612 in the chimpanzee gene sequence causes a frameshift that leads to a nonsense mutation for a premature stop codon after amino acid 205. The null phenotype for inorganic arsenic methylation in the chimpanzee is likely due to the deletion in the gene for arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase that yields an inactive truncated protein. This lineage-specific loss of function caused by the deletion event must have occurred in the Pan lineage after Homo-Pan divergence about 5 million years ago

  1. Behavior of Aluminum Based Coagulants in Treatment of Surface Water–Assessment of Chemical and Microbiological Properties of Treated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spînu (Gologan Daniela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-polymerized inorganic aluminum coagulants have high efficiency in reducing turbidity, total, dissolved, biodegradable organic carbon and microbiological content of surface waters used for drinking, while obtaining low concentrations of residual aluminum after the coagulation phase. Correlation between turbidity raw water and coagulant dose is logarithmic being influenced by temperature and organic content of surface waters. The coagulant’s effect on the organic content of the raw water is closely related to the microbiological concentration and can thus determine the mathematical correlations between the two types of parameters after the coagulation-flocculation stage that can be used to assess the water biostability coagulant action.

  2. Chemical equilibrium modeling of organic acids, pH, aluminum, and iron in Swedish surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöstedt, Carin S; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Köhler, Stephan J

    2010-11-15

    A consistent chemical equilibrium model that calculates pH from charge balance constraints and aluminum and iron speciation in the presence of natural organic matter is presented. The model requires input data for total aluminum, iron, organic carbon, fluoride, sulfate, and charge balance ANC. The model is calibrated to pH measurements (n = 322) by adjusting the fraction of active organic matter only, which results in an error of pH prediction on average below 0.2 pH units. The small systematic discrepancy between the analytical results for the monomeric aluminum fractionation and the model results is corrected for separately for two different fractionation techniques (n = 499) and validated on a large number (n = 3419) of geographically widely spread samples all over Sweden. The resulting average error for inorganic monomeric aluminum is around 1 µM. In its present form the model is the first internally consistent modeling approach for Sweden and may now be used as a tool for environmental quality management. Soil gibbsite with a log *Ks of 8.29 at 25°C together with a pH dependent loading function that uses molar Al/C ratios describes the amount of aluminum in solution in the presence of organic matter if the pH is roughly above 6.0.

  3. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  4. Aluminum--Industry of the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-23

    This 8-page brochure describes the Office of Industrial Technologies' Aluminum Industry of the Future; a partnership between the Department of Energy and the aluminum industry established to increase industrial energy and cost efficiency.

  5. A novel speciation alternative for the determination of inorganic arsenic in marine samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Herbst, M. Birgitte Koch

    Arsenic (As) is bioaccumulated from seawater to concentrations in the mg/kg range in marine animals. More than 50 naturally-occurring arsenic containing species, both inorganic and organic forms, have been identified in marine animals. The organic forms are mainly considered to be non......-toxic, whereas inorganic arsenic is highly toxic and exposure may lead to severe adverse effects including cancer. Since seafood is the major dietary source for arsenic exposure in the European population, arsenic speciation analysis of marine samples is highly relevant for food safety. However, most data...... of inorganic arsenic in marine based food is based on microwave extraction, species separation by strong anion solid phase extraction (SPE) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) detection. Separation organic arsenic compounds (e.g. MA, DMA and AB) and inorganic arsenic in the form...

  6. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  7. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  8. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  9. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  10. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,376] Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood Forge Division; Currently Known As Contech Forgings, LLC..., applicable to workers of Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division...

  11. Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Aluminum Nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Matthew Albert

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis, processing and characterization of nanocrystalline aluminum nitride has been systematically studied. Non-carbon based gas nitridation was used to reduce nanocrystalline γ-alumina, having a grain size of ~80 nm. Single phase aluminum nitride powder was obtained at firing temperatures of 1200°C. Further processing of AlN powders was performed by CAPAD (Current Activated Pressure Assisted Densification) to obtain dense single phase aluminum nitride. Dense bulk aluminum nitride was ob...

  12. Mineral resource of the month: aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. Lee

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on aluminum, a mineral resource which is described as the third-most abundant element in Earth's crust. According to the article, aluminum is the second-most used metal. Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish chemist, was the first to isolate aluminum in the laboratory. Aluminum is described as lightweight, corrosion-resistant and an excellent conductor of electricity and heat.

  13. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  14. The inorganic constituents of echinoderms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.

    1915-01-01

    In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids

  15. Organic-Inorganic hybrid networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Libor; Dukh, O.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 171, - (2001), s. 181-188 ISSN 1022-1360. [Polymer Networks Group Meeting: Polymer Networks - Formation-Structure-Properties /15./. Rzeszów, 17.07.2000-21.07.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0884; GA AV ČR IAA4050008; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : organic-inorganic networks * nanosized silica * mammalian cells Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2001

  16. Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, O.

    1980-01-01

    Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.

  17. Solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of three aluminum-centered dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Mroué, Kamal H.

    2010-02-01

    We report the first solid-state 27Al NMR study of three aluminum phthalocyanine dyes: aluminum phthalocyanine chloride, AlPcCl (1); aluminum-1,8,15,22-tetrakis(phenylthio)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine chloride, AlPc(SPh)4Cl (2); and aluminum-2,3-naphthalocyanine chloride, AlNcCl (3). Each of these compounds contains Al3+ ions coordinating to four nitrogen atoms and a chlorine atom. Solid-state 27Al NMR spectra, including multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) spectra and quadrupolar Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) spectra of stationary powdered samples have been acquired at multiple high magnetic field strengths (11.7, 14.1, and 21.1 T) to determine their composition and number of aluminum sites, which were analyzed to extract detailed information on the aluminum electric field gradient (EFG) and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. The quadrupolar parameters for each 27Al site were determined from spectral simulations, with quadrupolar coupling constants (CQ) ranging from 5.40 to 10.0 MHz and asymmetry parameters (η) ranging from 0.10 to 0.50, and compared well with the results of quantum chemical calculations of these tensors. We also report the largest 27Al chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA), with a span of 120 ± 10 ppm, observed directly in a solid material. The combination of MQMAS and computational predictions are used to interpret the presence of multiple aluminum sites in two of the three samples.

  18. Controlling harmful algae blooms using aluminum-modified clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Xihua; Yu, Zhiming; Song, Xiuxian; Qiu, Lixia

    2016-02-15

    The performances of aluminum chloride modified clay (AC-MC), aluminum sulfate modified clay (AS-MC) and polyaluminum chloride modified clay (PAC-MC) in the removal of Aureococcus anophagefferens were compared, and the potential mechanisms were analyzed according to the dispersion medium, suspension pH and clay surface charges. The results showed that AC-MC and AS-MC had better efficiencies in removing A.anophagefferens than PAC-MC. The removal mechanisms of the three modified clays varied. At optimal coagulation conditions, the hydrolysates of AC and AS were mainly monomers, and they transformed into Al(OH)3(am) upon their addition to algae culture, with the primary mechanism being sweep flocculation. The PAC mainly hydrolyzed to the polyaluminum compounds, which remained stable when added to the algae culture, and the flocculation mainly occurred through polyaluminum compounds. The suspension pH significantly influenced the aluminum hydrolysate and affected the flocculation between the modified clay and algae cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recycling of Aluminum from Fibre Metal Laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, G.; Xiao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, B.; Boom, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of aluminum alloy scrap obtained from delaminated fibre metal laminates (FMLs) was studied through high temperature refining in the presence of a salt flux. The aluminum alloy scrap contains approximately mass fraction w(Cu) = 4.4%, w(Mg) = 1.1% and w(Mn) = 0.6% (2024 aluminum alloy). The

  20. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...)] Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of aluminum extrusions, primarily provided... contained in Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum nicotinate. 172.310 Section 172.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely...

  5. Magnetism in intercalated compounds of layered manganese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Magnetism in intercalated compounds of layered manganese thiophosphate. N V VENKATRAMAN and S VASUDEVAN. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science,. Bangalore 560 012, India. Layered manganese thiophosphate MnPS3 undergoes an unusual ion-exchange intercalation ...

  6. Polymers and inorganics: A happy marriage?

    OpenAIRE

    Wegner, Gerhard; Demir, Mustafa M.; Faatz, Michael; Gorna, Katazyrna; Munoz-Espi, Rafael; Guillemet, Baptiste; Gröhn, Franziska

    2007-01-01

    The most recent developments in two areas: (a) synthesis of inorganic particles with control over size and shape by polymer additives, and (b) synthesis of inorganic-polymer hybrid materials by bulk polymerization of blends of monomers with nanosized crystals are reviewed. The precipitations of inorganics, such as zinc oxide or calcium carbonate, in presence and under the control of bishydrophilic block or comb copolymers, are relevant to the field of Biomineralization. The application of sur...

  7. Complex rare-earth aluminum hydrides: mechanochemical preparation, crystal structure and potential for hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenthaler, Claudia; Pommerin, André; Felderhoff, Michael; Sun, Wenhao; Wolverton, Christopher; Bogdanović, Borislav; Schüth, Ferdi

    2009-11-25

    A novel type of complex rare-earth aluminum hydride was prepared by mechanochemical preparation. The crystal structure of the REAlH(6) (with RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds was calculated by DFT methods and confirmed by preliminary structure refinements. The trigonal crystal structure consists of isolated [AlH(6)](3-) octahedra bridged via [12] coordinated RE cations. The investigation of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides during thermolysis shows a decrease of thermal stability with increasing atomic number of the RE element. Rare-earth hydrides (REH(x)) are formed as primary dehydrogenation products; the final products are RE-aluminum alloys. The calculated decomposition enthalpies of the rare-earth aluminum hydrides are at the lower end for reversible hydrogenation under moderate conditions. Even though these materials may require somewhat higher pressures and/or lower temperatures for rehydrogenation, they are interesting examples of low-temperature metal hydrides for which reversibility might be reached.

  8. Laser Overlap Welding of Zinc-coated Steel on Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Hamed Tasalloti; Kah, Paul; Martikainen, Jukka

    Local reinforcement of aluminum with laser welded patches of zinc-coated steel can effectively contribute to crashworthiness, durability and weight reduction of car body. However, the weld between Zn-coated steel and aluminum is commonly susceptible to defects such as spatter, cavity and crack. The vaporization of Zn is commonly known as the main source of instability in the weld pool and cavity formation, especially in a lap joint configuration. Cracks are mainly due to the brittle intermetallic compounds growing at the weld interface of aluminum and steel. This study provides a review on the main metallurgical and mechanical concerns regarding laser overlap welding of Zn-coated steel on Al-alloy and the methods used by researchers to avoid the weld defects related to the vaporization of Zn and the poor metallurgical compatibility between steel and aluminum.

  9. Comparative effects of macro-sized aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles on erythrocyte hemolysis: influence of cell source, temperature, and size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinardell, M. P., E-mail: mpvinardellmh@ub.edu; Sordé, A. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain); Díaz, J. [Universitat de Barcelona CCiT, Scientific and Technological Centers (Spain); Baccarin, T.; Mitjans, M. [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the most abundantly produced nanomaterial and has been used in diverse fields, including the medical, military, and industrial sectors. As there are concerns about the health effects of nanoparticles, it is important to understand how they interact with cells, and specifically with red blood cells. The hemolysis induced by three commercial nano-sized aluminum oxide particles (nanopowder 13 nm, nanopowder <50 nm, and nanowire 2–6 × 200–400 nm) was compared to aluminum oxide and has been studied on erythrocytes from humans, rats, and rabbits, in order to elucidate the mechanism of action and the influence of size and shape on hemolytic behavior. The concentrations inducing 50 % hemolysis (HC{sub 50}) were calculated for each compound studied. The most hemolytic aluminum oxide particles were of nanopowder 13, followed by nanowire and nanopowder 50. The addition of albumin to PBS induced a protective effect on hemolysis in all the nano-forms of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, but not on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The drop in HC{sub 50} correlated to a decrease in nanomaterial size, which was induced by a reduction of aggregation. Aluminum oxide nanoparticles are less hemolytic than other oxide nanoparticles and behave differently depending on the size and shape of the nanoparticles. The hemolytic behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles differs from that of aluminum oxide.

  10. A Simple Method for the Calculation of Lattice Energies of Inorganic Ionic Crystals Based on the Chemical Hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Savaş; Kaya, Cemal

    2015-09-08

    This paper presents a new technique for estimation of lattice energies of inorganic ionic compounds using a simple formula. This new method demonstrates the relationship between chemical hardness and lattice energies of ionic compounds. Here chemical hardness values of ionic compounds are calculated via our molecular hardness equation. The results obtained using the present method and comparisons made by considering experimental data and the results from other theoretical methods in the literature showed that the new method allows easy evaluation of lattice energies of inorganic ionic crystals without the need for ab initio calculations and complex calculations.

  11. Characterization of ultrafine aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Mang, Joseph T.; Smith, Bettina L.; Son, Steven F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nanopowders with particle sizes ranging from ∼25 nm to 80 nm were characterized by a variety of methods. We present and compare the results from common powder characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), BET gas adsorption surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and low angle laser light scattering (LALLS). Aluminum nanoparticles consist of an aluminum core with an aluminum oxide coating. HRTEM measurements of both the particle diameter and oxide layer thickness tend to be larger than those obtained from BET and TGA. LALLS measurements show a large degree of particle agglomeration in solution; therefore, primary particle sizes could not be determined. Furthermore, results from small-angle scattering techniques (SAS), including small-angle neutron (SANS) and x-ray (SAXS) scattering are presented and show excellent agreement with the BET, TGA, and HRTEM. The suite of analytical techniques presented in this paper can be used as a powerful tool in the characterization of many types of nanosized powders.

  12. Aluminum: The Next Twenty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, M. Desmond; Pollio, Gerald

    1982-12-01

    This report concludes that the outlook for the world aluminum industry is quite favorable. Demand is expected to expand at a more rapid rate than for other basic metals, but not sufficiently to put undue strain on productive capacity. Capital requirements of the world aluminum industry are projected at 95.5 billion in 1980 prices — more than 200 billion in current prices—over the balance of the century. Given the aluminum industry's past success in generating internal funds, this level of capital expanditure should not cause undue financing problems. Finally, we expect changes to occur in the structure of the industry over the forecast period, with virtually all new alumina capacity being installed in proximity to bauxite production, and—with the exception of Australia—a major shift in smelting capacity away from other industrialized economies. While the large multinational companies will still play a dominant role in the world aluminum market, their share of production and ownership is likely to decline progressively during the period.

  13. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A.P.; Gabis, I.E.; Dmitriev, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Dobrotvorskii, M.A., E-mail: mstislavd@gmail.com [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V.G. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, O.P. [National Mineral Resources University, Saint Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Titov, S.A. [Petersburg State University of Railway Transport, Saint-Petersburg 190031 (Russian Federation); Voyt, A.P.; Elets, D.I. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH{sub 3}– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH{sub 3} and α-AlH{sub 3} irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH{sub 3} and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers.

  14. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor...

  15. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  16. Directly polished lightweight aluminum mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, Rik; Tromp, Niels; de Haan, Menno; Navarro, Ramon; Venema, Lars; Pragt, Johan

    2017-11-01

    During the last ten years, Astron has been a major contractor for the design and manufacturing of astronomical instruments for Space- and Earth based observatories, such as VISIR, MIDI, SPIFFI, X-Shooter and MIRI. Driven by the need to reduce the weight of optically ultra-stiff structures, two promising techniques have been developed in the last years: ASTRON Extreme Lightweighting [1][2] for mechanical structures and an improved Polishing Technique for Aluminum Mirrors. Using one single material for both optical components and mechanical structure simplifies the design of a cryogenic instrument significantly, it is very beneficial during instrument test and verification, and makes the instrument insensitive to temperature changes. Aluminum has been the main material used for cryogenic optical instruments, and optical aluminum mirrors are generally diamond turned. The application of a polishable hard top coating like nickel removes excess stray light caused by the groove pattern, but limits the degree of lightweighting of the mirrors due to the bi-metal effect. By directly polishing the aluminum mirror surface, the recent developments at Astron allow for using a non-exotic material for light weighted yet accurate optical mirrors, with a lower surface roughness ( 1nm RMS), higher surface accuracy and reduced light scattering. This paper presents the techniques, obtained results and a global comparison with alternative lightweight mirror solutions. Recent discussions indicate possible extensions of the extreme light weight technology to alternative materials such as Zerodur or Silicon Carbide.

  17. Inorganic Phosphor Materials for Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chih; Karlsson, Maths; Bettinelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This chapter addresses the development of inorganic phosphor materials capable of converting the near UV or blue radiation emitted by a light emitting diode to visible radiation that can be suitably combined to yield white light. These materials are at the core of the new generation of solid-state lighting devices that are emerging as a crucial clean and energy saving technology. The chapter introduces the problem of white light generation using inorganic phosphors and the structure-property relationships in the broad class of phosphor materials, normally containing lanthanide or transition metal ions as dopants. Radiative and non-radiative relaxation mechanisms are briefly described. Phosphors emitting light of different colors (yellow, blue, green, and red) are described and reviewed, classifying them in different chemical families of the host (silicates, phosphates, aluminates, borates, and non-oxide hosts). This research field has grown rapidly and is still growing, but the discovery of new phosphor materials with optimized properties (in terms of emission efficiency, chemical and thermal stability, color, purity, and cost of fabrication) would still be of the utmost importance.

  18. Investigations of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kinson Chihang

    This thesis focuses on the exploratory synthesis and characterization of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials. In particular, nanostructures of semiconducting nitrides and oxides, and hybrid systems of nanowire-polymer composites and framework materials, are investigated. These materials are characterized by a variety of techniques for structure, composition, morphology, surface area, optical properties, and electrical properties. In the study of inorganic nanomaterials, gallium nitride (GaN), indium oxide (In2O3), and vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures were synthesized using different strategies and their physical properties were examined. GaN nanostructures were obtained from various synthetic routes. Solid-state ammonolysis of metastable gamma-Ga2O 3 nanoparticles was found to be particularly successful; they achieved high surface areas and photoluminescent study showed a blue shift in emission as a result of surface and size defects. Similarly, In2O3 nanostructures were obtained by carbon-assisted solid-state syntheses. The sub-oxidic species, which are generated via a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, resulted in 1D nanostructures including nanowires, nanotrees, and nanobouquets upon oxidation. On the other hand, hydrothermal methods were used to obtain VO2 nanorods. After post-thermal treatment, infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that these nanorods exhibit a thermochromic transition with temperature that is higher by ˜10°C compared to the parent material. The thermochromic behavior indicated a semiconductor-to-metal transition associated with a structural transformation from monoclinic to rutile. The hybrid systems, on the other hand, enabled their properties to be tunable. In nanowire-polymer composites, zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanowires were synthesized and incorporated into polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) via in-situ and ex-situ polymerization method. The electrical properties of these composites are

  19. Reinforcing thermoplastics with hydrogen bonding bridged inorganics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Mingliang, E-mail: du@zstu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Guo Baochun, E-mail: psbcguo@scut.edu.c [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu Mingxian; Cai Xiaojia; Jia Demin [Department of Polymer Materials and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A new reinforcing strategy for thermoplastics via hydrogen bonding bridged inorganics in the matrix was proposed. The hydrogen bonds could be formed in thermoplastics matrices with the incorporation of a little organics containing hydrogen bonding functionalities. Isotactic polypropylene (PP), polyamide 6 (PA 6), and high density polyethylene (HDPE), together with specific inorganics and organics were utilized to verify the effectiveness of the strategy. The investigations suggest that the hydrogen bonding bridged inorganics led to substantially increased flexural properties. The results of attenuated total refraction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) indicate the formation of hydrogen bonding among the inorganics and organics in the composites.

  20. Thermodynamic calculations of the interaction of scandium halides with aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, A. B.; Shunyaev, K. Yu.

    2010-12-01

    The fundamental characteristics of the reduction of scandium trifluoride and trichloride with aluminum were studied by thermodynamic modeling over wide temperature and pressure ranges (1100-1400 K and 1-106 Pa for ScF3 and 800-1200 K and 1-105 Pa for ScCl3). Calculations of the equilibrium compositions of the systems were performed to draw conclusions about the contents of condensed and gaseous components and determine the temperatures of the complete reduction of trihalides with the formation of a two-phase alloy containing a saturated solution of scandium in aluminum and the Al3Sc intermetallic compound. The results of modeling were in agreement with the available experimental data.

  1. Influence of copper in spheres of iron and aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, A.F. de; Gomes, E.C.C.; Valentini, A.; Longhinotti, E.; Sales, F.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The various applications of mesoporous materials in adsorption and catalysis have driven research for new synthetic routes to improve the structural and morphological characteristics of the compounds currently available. Spherical mesoporous materials of aluminum oxide and / or iron were synthesized in proportions of 10.30 and 50%, and then impregnated with copper oxide by wet impregnation method. Supporters of spherical iron oxide and aluminum before and after impregnation with copper were characterized by XRD, SEM, chemical analysis, BET and TPR. The analysis results of XRD showed the formation of crystalline phases AB 2 O 4 type, the results of TPR showed a shift of the band of iron reduction with the incorporation of copper and the samples indicated a decrease in porosity, possibly due to the closure of pores with the addition of copper. (author)

  2. The influence of tungsten on the pitting of aluminum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.A.; Fritz, T.L.; Davis, G.D.; Moshier, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the alloying additions responsible for the corrosion resistance of stainless steels can also be used to enhance the passivity of aluminum, provided that these elements remain in solid solution in the alloy. Passivity enhancing elements such as Cr, Mo, Ta, Zr, and W typically exhibit very low solubility limits in aluminum, below 1 atomic percent, and at these concentrations exert little influence on corrosion behavior. However, these solubility limits can be increased with a concomitant enhancement in corrosion performance if the alloys are produced using a rapid solidification process. One such process is co-sputter deposition of two metals, such as Al and W, simultaneously to form a binary alloy of W in solid solution with Al. Co-sputter deposition is routinely used to produce compound semiconductor films. The authors report on shifts in pitting potentials and on the effect of a transition element (W) on pitting resistance of Al

  3. Estimation of effect of inorganic salts on state of melts and carbamide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymnikov, N.S.; Yakunin, N.A.; Baranov, A.V.; Moryganov, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The character of coordination in the systems carbamide-LiCl and carbamide-CaCl 2 has been shown on the basis of IR spectroscopy data. Interrelation between complexing in the melt carbamide-inorganic salt and thermal resistance of amide compound has been ascertained. 3 refs.; 3 figs

  4. HPLC inorganic arsenic speciation analysis of samples containing high sulfuric acid and iron levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.; Gerrits, I.P.A.M.; Weijma, J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    To monitor the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate in oxidizing and bioleaching reactors, speciation analysis of the inorganic arsenic compounds is required. Existing arsenic speciation analysis techniques are based on the use of liquid chromatography columns coupled to detector equipment such as

  5. Metal nanoparticle deposited inorganic nanostructure hybrids, uses thereof and processes for their preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef; Tsverin, Yulia; Burghaus, Uwe; Komarneni, Mallikharjuna Rao

    2016-01-26

    This invention relates to a hybrid component comprising at least one nanoparticle of inorganic layered compound (in the form of fullerene-like structure or nanotube), and at least one metal nanoparticle, uses thereof as a catalyst, (e.g. photocatalysis) and processes for its preparation.

  6. Effect of salt stress on growth and contents of organic and inorganic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of salt stress on growth and contents of organic and inorganic compounds in noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Alide Mitsue Watanabe Cova, André Dias de Azevedo Neto, Rogério Ferreira Ribas, Hans Raj Gheyi, Renata Velasques Menezes ...

  7. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

  8. Development of a Research-Oriented Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallarino, L. M.; Polo, D. L.; Esperdy, K.

    2001-02-01

    We report the development of a research-oriented, senior-level laboratory course in inorganic chemistry, which is a requirement for chemistry majors who plan to receive the ACS-approved Bachelor of Science degree and is a recommended elective for other chemistry majors. The objective of this course is to give all students the advantage of a research experience in which questions stemming from the literature lead to the formulation of hypotheses, and answers are sought through experiment. The one-semester Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory is ideal for this purpose, since for most students it represents the last laboratory experience before graduation and can assume the role of "capstone" course--a course where students are challenged to recall previously learned concepts and skills and put them into practice in the performance of an individual, original research project. The medium chosen for this teaching approach is coordination chemistry, a branch of chemistry that involves the interaction of inorganic and organic compounds and requires the use of various synthetic and analytical methods. This paper presents an outline of the course organization and requirements, examples of activities performed by the students, and a critical evaluation of the first five years' experience.

  9. Sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Smotraiev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The actual problem of water supply in the world and in Ukraine, in particular, is a high level of pollution in water resources and an insufficient level of drinking water purification. With industrial wastewater, a significant amount of pollutants falls into water bodies, including suspended particles, sulfates, iron compounds, heavy metals, etc. Aim: The aim of this work is to determine the impact of aluminum and manganese ions additives on surface and sorption properties of zirconium oxyhydroxide based sorbents during their production process. Materials and Methods: The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were prepared by sol-gel method during the hydrolysis of metal chlorides (zirconium oxychloride ZrOCl2, aluminum chloride AlCl3 and manganese chloride MnCl2 with carbamide. Results: The surface and sorption properties of sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium, aluminum and manganese oxyhydroxides were investigated. X-ray amorphous structure and evolved hydroxyl-hydrate cover mainly characterize the obtained xerogels. The composite sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide doped with aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 537 m2/g and manganese oxyhydroxide (aS = 356 m2/g have more developed specific surface area than single-component xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide (aS = 236 m2/g and aluminum oxyhydroxide (aS = 327 m2/g. The sorbent based on the xerogel of zirconium and manganese oxyhydroxides have the maximum SO42--ions sorption capacity. It absorbs 1.5 times more SO42–-ions than the industrial anion exchanger AN-221. The sorbents based on xerogels of zirconium oxyhydroxide has the sorption capacity of Fe3+-ions that is 1.5…2 times greater than the capacity of the industrial cation exchanger KU-2-8. The Na+-ions absorption capacity is 1.47…1.56 mmol/g for each sorbent. Conclusions: Based on these data it can be concluded that the proposed method is effective for sorbents production based on

  10. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  11. Ionizing radiation as optimization method for aluminum detection from drinking water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazante-Yamguish, Renata; Geraldo, Aurea Beatriz C.; Moura, Eduardo; Manzoli, Jose Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The presence of organic compounds in water samples is often responsible for metal complexation; depending on the analytic method, the organic fraction may dissemble the evaluation of the real values of metal concentration. Pre-treatment of the samples is advised when organic compounds are interfering agents, and thus sample mineralization may be accomplished by several chemical and/or physical methods. Here, the ionizing radiation was used as an advanced oxidation process (AOP), for sample pre-treatment before the analytic determination of total and dissolved aluminum by ICP-OES in drinking water samples from wells and spring source located at Billings dam region. Before irradiation, the spring source and wells' samples showed aluminum levels of 0.020 mg/l and 0.2 mg/l respectively; after irradiation, both samples showed a 8-fold increase of aluminum concentration. These results are discussed considering other physical and chemical parameters and peculiarities of sample sources. (author)

  12. Microstructural Characterization of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum-Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Erin E.; Hovanski, Yuri; Field, David P.

    2016-06-01

    This work focuses on the microstructural characterization of aluminum to steel friction stir welded joints. Lap weld configuration coupled with scribe technology used for the weld tool have produced joints of adequate quality, despite the significant differences in hardness and melting temperatures of the alloys. Common to friction stir processes, especially those of dissimilar alloys, are microstructural gradients including grain size, crystallographic texture, and precipitation of intermetallic compounds. Because of the significant influence that intermetallic compound formation has on mechanical and ballistic behavior, the characterization of the specific intermetallic phases and the degree to which they are formed in the weld microstructure is critical to predicting weld performance. This study used electron backscatter diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Vickers micro-hardness indentation to explore and characterize the microstructures of lap friction stir welds between an applique 6061-T6 aluminum armor plate alloy and a RHA homogeneous armor plate steel alloy. Macroscopic defects such as micro-cracks were observed in the cross-sectional samples, and binary intermetallic compound layers were found to exist at the aluminum-steel interfaces of the steel particles stirred into the aluminum weld matrix and across the interfaces of the weld joints. Energy dispersive spectroscopy chemical analysis identified the intermetallic layer as monoclinic Al3Fe. Dramatic decreases in grain size in the thermo-mechanically affected zones and weld zones that evidenced grain refinement through plastic deformation and recrystallization. Crystallographic grain orientation and texture were examined using electron backscatter diffraction. Striated regions in the orientations of the aluminum alloy were determined to be the result of the severe deformation induced by the complex weld tool geometry. Many of the textures observed in the weld

  13. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  14. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum calcium level was determined by EDTA titration, inorganic phosphate by spectrophotometric method of Goldberg and the Haematological parameters by Bain method. Results: The age range of both test subjects and controls was 3 to 26 years. There were no significant differences in calcium and inorganic phosphate ...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1118 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1926.1118 Section 1926.1118 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1018 - Inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inorganic arsenic. 1915.1018 Section 1915.1018 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1018 Inorganic arsenic. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  17. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  18. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    eminent inorganic chemist, who suddenly passed away in Hyderabad on 21 March 2004. The topics covered in this special issue – porphyrin chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and photochemistry – were dear to. Prof Maiya's heart. In addition to his significant contributions to the field of bio-inorganic chemistry, Prof.

  19. On some problems of inorganic supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervov, Vladislav S; Zotova, Anna E

    2013-12-02

    In this study, some features that distinguish inorganic supramolecular host-guest objects from traditional architectures are considered. Crystalline inorganic supramolecular structures are the basis for the development of new functional materials. Here, the possible changes in the mechanism of crystalline inorganic supramolecular structure self-organization at high interaction potentials are discussed. The cases of changes in the host structures and corresponding changes in the charge states under guest intercalation, as well as their impact on phase stability and stoichiometry are considered. It was demonstrated that the deviation from the geometrical and topological complementarity conditions may be due to the additional energy gain from forming inorganic supramolecular structures. It has been assumed that molecular recognition principles can be employed for the development of physicochemical analysis and interpretation of metastable states in inorganic crystalline alloys. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Inorganic ion-exchangers for the treatment and disposal of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasany, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Ion-exchangers can be broadly classified into organic and inorganic ion-exchangers. Inorganic ion-exchangers are stable at high temperatures and radiation dosage, resistant towards oxidizing agents and organic solvents. They are cheap and easy to prepare. Inorganic ion-exchangers, due to their superiority over organic ion-exchangers, have been extensively used for a wide variety of applications including treatment and management of industrial effluents. The criteria governing the division into essential and toxic elements for animal life have been described. The occupational sources of toxic elements and their compounds in the environment have been identified and their tolerance limits prescribed in air, water and food are given. The toxicity and adverse effects of harmful elements and their hazardous compounds are mentioned. Factors influencing sorption of trace elements onto inorganic ion-exchangers are highlighted. Examples of inorganic ion-exchangers are cited where they can be utilized for the treatment of industrial effluents before their safe discharge into waterways and biosphere. (author)

  1. Inorganic Reactive Sulfur-Nitrogen Species: Intricate Release Mechanisms or Cacophony in Yellow, Blue and Red?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grman, Marian; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Leontiev, Roman; Misak, Anton; Jakusova, Veronika; Ondrias, Karol; Jacob, Claus

    2017-02-15

    Since the heydays of Reactive Sulfur Species (RSS) research during the first decade of the Millennium, numerous sulfur species involved in cellular regulation and signalling have been discovered. Yet despite the general predominance of organic species in organisms, recent years have also seen the emergence of inorganic reactive sulfur species, ranging from inorganic polysulfides (HS x - /S x 2- ) to thionitrous acid (HSNO) and nitrosopersulfide (SSNO - ). These inorganic species engage in a complex interplay of reactions in vitro and possibly also in vivo. Employing a combination of spectrophotometry and sulfide assays, we have investigated the role of polysulfanes from garlic during the release of nitric oxide ( • NO) from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in the absence and presence of thiol reducing agents. Our studies reveal a distinct enhancement of GSNO decomposition by compounds such as diallyltrisulfane, which is most pronounced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione and presumably proceeds via the initial release of an inorganic mono- or polysulfides, i.e., hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) or HS x - , from the organic polysulfane. Albeit being of a preliminary nature, our spectrophotometric data also reveals a complicated underlying mechanism which appears to involve transient species such as SSNO - . Eventually, more in depth studies are required to further explore the underlying chemistry and wider biological and nutritional implications of this interplay between edible garlic compounds, reductive activation, inorganic polysulfides and their interplay with • NO storage and release.

  2. The Resource-Saving Technology of Aluminum Nitride Obtaining During Combustion of Aluminum Nanopowder in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyin Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The resource-saving technology of aluminum nitride obtaining during the combustion of aluminum nanopowder in air has been analyzed in the article. The investigation of the crystal phases of aluminum nanopowder combustion products obtained under the magnetic field exposure has been made. The experimental results showed the increase of aluminum nitride content up to 86 wt. % in comparison with the aluminum nitride content in combustion products without any exposure. The mechanism of aluminum nitride formation and stabilization in air was due to the oxygen molecules deactivation by light emission during combustion.

  3. Towards Cr(VI)-free anodization of aluminum alloys for aerospace adhesive bonding applications : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahami, S.T.; de Kok, John M.M.; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    For more than six decades, chromic acid anodizing (CAA) has been the central process in the surface pre-treatment of aluminum for adhesively bonded aircraft structures. Unfortunately, this electrolyte contains hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a compound known for its toxicity and carcinogenic

  4. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  5. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  6. Aluminum nanostructures for ultraviolet plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme; Khlopin, Dmitry; Zhang, Feifei; Schuermans, Silvère; Proust, Julien; Maurer, Thomas; Gérard, Davy; Plain, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    An electromagnetic field is able to produce a collective oscillation of free electrons at a metal surface. This allows light to be concentrated in volumes smaller than its wavelength. The resulting waves, called surface plasmons can be applied in various technological applications such as ultra-sensitive sensing, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, or metal-enhanced fluorescence, to name a few. For several decades plasmonics has been almost exclusively studied in the visible region by using nanoparticles made of gold or silver as these noble metals support plasmonic resonances in the visible and near-infrared range. Nevertheless, emerging applications will require the extension of nano-plasmonics toward higher energies, in the ultraviolet range. Aluminum is one of the most appealing metal for pushing plasmonics up to ultraviolet energies. The subsequent applications in the field of nano-optics are various. This metal is therefore a highly promising material for commercial applications in the field of ultraviolet nano-optics. As a consequence, aluminum (or ultraviolet, UV) plasmonics has emerged quite recently. Aluminium plasmonics has been demonstrated efficient for numerous potential applications including non-linear optics, enhanced fluorescence, UV-Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, optoelectronics, plasmonic assisted solid-state lasing, photocatalysis, structural colors and data storage. In this article, different preparation methods developed in the laboratory to obtain aluminum nanostructures with different geometries are presented. Their optical and morphological characterizations of the nanostructures are given and some proof of principle applications such as fluorescence enhancement are discussed.

  7. The Molecular Geometry of Nitro-compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadova, N. I.; Vilkov, Lev V.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic account is given of data on the molecular geometries of approximately 300 nitro-compounds obtained for the vapours by gas electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy and for the crystalline phases by X-ray diffraction. Certain rules have been formulated for the variation of the geometrical parameters of the molecules in the principal classes of nitrocompounds: inorganic, aliphatic, alicyclic, and aromatic nitro-compounds, nitroamines, and salts and complexes of nitroalkanes and aromatic nitro-compounds. The bibliography includes 181 references.

  8. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, Gerald W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  9. James Moir as Inorganic Chemist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    James Moir was a pioneering chemist in the early 1900s who played a leading role in various chemical societies in South Africa. Although he was mainly ... He was also a theoretical chemist who played a role in the development of atomic theory and made .... remarkable property was its power to form compounds with many ...

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STEEL AND ALUMINUM STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Peko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined steel and aluminum variants of modern exhibition structures in which the main design requirements include low weight (increased span/depth ratio, transportation, and construction and durability (resistance to corrosion. This included a design situation in which the structural application of aluminum alloys provided an extremely convenient and practical solution. Viability of an aluminum structure depends on several factors and requires a detailed analysis. The overall conclusion of the study indicated that aluminum can be used as a structural material and as a viable alternative to steel for Croatian snow and wind load values and evidently in cases in which positive properties of aluminum are required for structural design. Furthermore, a structural fire analysis was conducted for an aluminum variant structure by using a zone model for realistic fire analysis. The results suggested that passive fire protection for the main structural members was not required in the event of areal fire with duration of 60 min.

  11. [Link between aluminum neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    Aluminum is an old element that has been known for a long time, but some of its properties are only now being discovered. Although environmentally abundant, aluminum is not essential for life; in fact, because of its specific chemical properties, aluminum inhibits more than 200 biologically important functions and exerts various adverse effects in plants, animals, and humans. Aluminum is a widely recognized neurotoxin. It has been suggested that there is a relationship between exposure to aluminum and neurodegenerative diseases, including dialysis encephalopathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism dementia in the Kii Peninsula and Guam, as well as Alzheimer' s disease: however, this claim remains to be verified. In this chapter, we review the detailed characteristics of aluminum neurotoxicity and the link between Alzheimer' s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, based on recent findings on metal-metal interactions and the functions of metalloproteins in synapses.

  12. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  13. Aluminum and aluminum nitride formation in sapphire by ion beam synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Stritzker, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    Aluminum and aluminum nitride formation in sapphire by ion beam synthesis / J. K. N. Lindner, W. Schlosser, and B. Stritzker. - In: Nuclear instruments & methods in physics research. B. 166. 2000. S. 133-139

  14. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  15. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  16. Inorganic constituents in American lignites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M. E.; Jenkins, R. G.; Walker, P. L.

    1980-04-01

    Both the discrete mineral phases and the ion-exchangeable inorganic components of lignites from Texas, North Dakota, and Montana have been studied. The ion-exchangeable cations and the carboxyl groups with which they are associated were characterized by ion exchange methods utilizing ammonium acetate and barium acetate, respectively. Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba were found to be present in all three coals. It was found that Ca and Mg were the most abundant cations and that 40 to 60% of the carboxyl groups in the raw coals were exchanged with cations. Also, significant variations in the relative and absolute concentrations of all the cations were observed. The discrete mineral phases in these lignites were studied by semiquantitative x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The importance of the cations in this analysis was shown when the mineralogical analyses of the low temperature ash of the coals with the cations removed and the raw coals were compared. Results show that up to 50% of the low temperature ash of these raw coals can be attributed to the existence of metal cations and that fixation of sulfur, carbon, and oxygen to form sulfates and carbonates is the major reason for this contribution.

  17. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  18. Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Ronald M.

    1988-01-01

    An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  19. An all aluminum alloy UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kenzaburo

    1985-01-01

    An all aluminum components was developed for use with UHV system. Aluminum alloy whose advantage are little discharge gas, easy to bake out, light weight, little damage against radieactivity radiation is used. Therefore, as it is all aluminum alloy, baking is possible. Baking temperature is 150 deg C in case of not only ion pump, gate valve, angle valve but also aluminum components. Ion pump have to an ultrahigh vacuum of order 10 -9 torr can be obtained without baking, 10 -10 torr order can be obtained after 24 hour of baking. (author)

  20. Nd:YAG laser welding aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, E. Jr.

    1992-02-01

    Autogenous Nd:YAG laser welding wrought 4047, 1100, 3003, 2219, 5052, 5086, 5456, and 6061 and cast A356 aluminum alloys to cast A356 aluminum alloy in restrained annular weld joints was investigated. The welds were 12.7 mm (0.375 in.) and 9.5 mm (0.375 in.) diameter with approximately 0.30 mm (0.012 in.) penetration. This investigation determined 4047 aluminum alloy to be the optimum alloy for autogenous Nd:YAG laser welding to cast A356 aluminum alloy. This report describes the investigation and its results.

  1. 40 CFR 180.1091 - Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1091 Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Aluminum isopropoxide (CAS Reg. No. 555...

  2. Study of the emission oxidative reactions of ruthenium (II) complex by cationic compounds in anionic micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilha, J.B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidative quenching of the emission of the tetraanionic complex tris (4,4' dicarboxylate - 2,2' - bipyridine ruthenium (II) in aqueous solution, by both organic and inorganic compounds in presence of anionic detergents, above and below the critical micelle concentration is studied. The organic cations, the inorganic ion and detergents used are shown. (M.J.C.) [pt

  3. Direct synthesis of catalyzed hydride compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.; Majzoub, Eric

    2004-09-21

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing alkali metal aluminum hydrides such as NaAlH.sub.4 and Na.sub.3 AlH.sub.6 from either the alkali metal or its hydride, and aluminum. The hydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a transition metal catalyst compound, such as TiCl.sub.3, TiF.sub.3, or a mixture of these materials, in order to render them reversibly hydridable. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen while heating the mixture to about 125.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

  4. Aluminum and acid effects on calcium and phosphorus metabolism in young growing chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle, M C; Hart, L E; Goff, J; Scanes, C G

    1998-07-01

    Acidification is associated with increased mortality, reduced growth, and bone abnormalities in birds. Associated with acid deposition is an increase in aluminum availability due to solubilization from soil and other sources. (Conversely, experimental diets containing aluminum sulfate have much reduced pHs.) The present studies compare the effects of two levels of dietary acid (sulfuric acid) (0.122 and 0.56 mol H+ per kg feed; 0.056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) and dietary aluminum (aluminum sulfate at 0.1 and 0.5%; sulfate at 0. 056 and 0.277 mol sulfate per kg feed) on bone growth, mineralization, and phosphorous/calcium homeostasis in growing birds (chickens and mallard ducks). Growth was reduced by the high acid (chicken) and aluminum (ducks and chickens) diets. A reduction in bone mineralization was observed in birds receiving aluminum-containing diets [low aluminum diet: decreased tibia ash, calcium, and phosphorus (chickens); high aluminum diet: decreased tibia dry weight, % of ash and mg; ash, calcium (chickens, ducks as % of ash), and phosphorus (chickens mg/duck, % of ash)]. Moreover, plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate were reduced in chicks on the high aluminum diet. There were also marked decreases in bone growth and mineralization [tibia weight, ash (mg), calcium (mg), phosphorus (mg)] and plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 in chicks on the high acid diet compared to those on a control diet. These changes were probably due to reduced feed intake; changes in bone indices being of a greater or similar magnitude in pairfed control. There was little change in bone indices, growth rate or feed consumption in ducklings receiving either the low or high acid diets. It is concluded that aluminum directly adversely affected bone mineralization whereas acid effects are mediated in part by changes in feed consumption.

  5. Biomedical inorganic polymers bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...

  6. Information Problems of an Inorganic Chemist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, G. W. Rayner

    1972-01-01

    The difficulties of readily obtaining peripheral information and drawbacks of citation searches are discussed. A citation survey of inorganic chemistry journals is compared with previous studies. The publication of a chemical newspaper is proposed. (11 references) (Author)

  7. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  8. IMEP-32: Determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Cordeiro, Fernando; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    A collaborative study, IMEP-32, was conducted in accordance with international protocols to determine the performance characteristics of an analytical method for the determination of inorganic arsenic in animal feed of marine origin. The method would support Directive No 2002/32/EC of the European...... Parliament and the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed [1] where it is indicated that "Upon request of the competent authorities, the responsible operator must perform an analysis to demonstrate that the content of inorganic arsenic is lower than 2 ppm". The method is based on solid phase...... extraction (SPE) separation of inorganic arsenic from organoarsenic compounds followed by detection with hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The collaborative study investigated different types of samples of marine origin, including complete feed (unspiked and spiked), fish meal...

  9. Advances in the synthesis of inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef

    2003-11-03

    In analogy to graphite, nanoparticles of inorganic compounds with lamellar two-dimensional structure, such as MoS(2), are not stable against folding, and can adopt nanotubular and fullerene-like structures, nicknamed inorganic fullerenes or IF. Various applications for such nanomaterials were proposed. For instance, IF-WS(2) nanoparticles were shown to have beneficial effects as solid lubricants and as part of tribological surfaces. Further applications of IF for high-tensile-strength fibers, hydrogen storage, rechargeable batteries, catalysis, and in nanotechnology are being contemplated. This Minireview highlights some of the latest developments in the synthesis of inorganic nanotubes and fullerene-like structures. Some structural aspects and properties of IF, which are distinct from the bulk materials, are briefly discussed.

  10. Removal of primary iron rich phase from aluminum-silicon melt by centrifugal separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Woo Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is a major consideration in continued aluminum use due to the enormous demand for high quality products. Some impurity elements gradually accumulate through the repetitive reuse of aluminum alloy scrap. Of them, the iron content should be suppressed under the allowed limit. In the present research, a novel separation method was introduced to remove primary iron-rich intermetallic compounds by centrifugation during solidification of Al-Si-Fe alloys. This method does not use the density difference between two phases as in other centrifugal methods, but uses the order of solidification in Al-Si-Fe alloys, because iron promotes the formation of intermetallic compounds with other alloying elements as a primary phase. Two Al-Si-Fe alloys which have different iron contents were chosen as the starting materials. The iron-rich phase could be efficiently removed by centrifuging under a centrifugal force of 40 g. Coarse intermetallic compounds were found in the sample inside the crucible, while rather fine intermetallic compounds were found in the sample outside the crucible. Primary intermetallic compounds were linked to each other via aluminum-rich matrix, and formed like a network. The highest iron removal fraction is 67% and the lowest one is 7% for Al-12Si-1.7Fe alloy. And they are 82% and 18% for Al-12Si-3.4Fe alloy, respectively.

  11. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD... Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT...of both Aluminum Hydride Cluster Anions and Boron Aluminum Hydride Cluster Anions with Oxygen: Anionic Products The anionic products of reactions

  12. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1580 - Phosphorus (inorganic) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. 862.1580... Systems § 862.1580 Phosphorus (inorganic) test system. (a) Identification. A phosphorus (inorganic) test system is a device intended to measure inorganic phosphorus in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurements of...

  14. Archimedean (4,8)-tessellation of haeckelite ultrathin nanosheets composed of boron and aluminum-group V binary materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul A; Shuford, Kevin L

    2016-11-24

    A compendium of unique haeckelite boron and aluminum-group V binary materials have been assessed for their fundamental thermodynamic and ground state electronic properties within density functional theory. We explore their thermodynamic stability relative to new bulk haeckelite crystal structures and find a number of stable polymorphs of planar and buckled ultrathin nanosheets. The bulk boron and aluminum haeckelite crystals display semiconducting and metallic behavior. From the dispersion curves, we predict the formation of both indirect and direct bandgap crystals. We also discover the existence of a five-coordinate aluminum antimonide crystal hitherto never before observed. Moreover, it is found that a number of the Archimedean four and eight membered ring tessellation planar nanosheets could form should synthesis be attempted. It is predicted that these nanosheets can attain two configurations - planar and buckled. From this work we find that combinations of elements such as boron and nitrogen or phosphorus, and aluminum and nitrogen will likely become true single-atom thick nanosheets. These materials show intrinsic indirect bandgap character, which spans the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectrum. In the boron series of these materials, the planar structures show double extrema in the bandstructures with van Hove singularities in the projected density of states at the Fermi energy suggesting strong light-matter interactions. The aluminum series we observe strong charge transfer and larger indirect bandgap nanosheets. This study serves as a starting point for a new class of inorganic bulk and ultrathin film materials, which can have many varied applications in nanotechnology.

  15. Materials Chemistry and Performance of Silicone-Based Replicating Compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumbach, Michael T.; Mirabal, Alex James; Kalan, Michael; Trujillo, Ana B; Hale, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Replicating compounds are used to cast reproductions of surface features on a variety of materials. Replicas allow for quantitative measurements and recordkeeping on parts that may otherwise be difficult to measure or maintain. In this study, the chemistry and replicating capability of several replicating compounds was investigated. Additionally, the residue remaining on material surfaces upon removal of replicas was quantified. Cleaning practices were tested for several different replicating compounds. For all replicating compounds investigated, a thin silicone residue was left by the replica. For some compounds, additional inorganic species could be identified in the residue. Simple solvent cleaning could remove some residue.

  16. Organic-inorganic nano-composite films for photonic applications made by multi-beam multi-target pulsed laser deposition with remote control of the plume directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Moore, Shaelynn; Mohammed, Aziz; Alexander, Deonte'; Bastian, Tyler; Dorlus, Wydglif; Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Patel, Darayas N.; Mele, Paolo; Koplitz, Brent

    2016-09-01

    the components of different nature, organic polymers and inorganic dopants, in the same target at a certain proportion and exposing them to the same laser beam not necessarily brings good quality nano-composite films. The laser pulse energy and wavelength cannot be optimized for each component individually. Also, the mixing proportion in the composite film is dictated by the initial proportion of the target and thus cannot be changed in the process. These limitations were removed in the recently proposed method of multi-beam and multi-target deposition (in its doublebeam/ dual-target variation) using a MAPLE polymer target and one inorganic target, each being concurrently exposed to laser beams of different wavelengths.5-14 Using the method, nano-composite films of polymer poly(methyl methacrylate) known as PMMA doped with a rare earth (RE) inorganic upconversion phosphor compounds were prepared. Also, a nano-composite film of thermoelectric film of inorganic aluminum-doped ZnO known as AZO was impregnated with PMMA nano-fillers with the purpose of improving electrical conductivity and thermoelectric performance.10, 14 The polymer target was a frozen (to a temperature of liquid nitrogen) PMMA solution in chlorobenzene exposed to a 1064- nm laser beam from a Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser. The inorganic targets were the pellets made of the compressed micro-powders of highly efficient RE-doped NaYF4 or the sintered powder of AZO concurrently ablated with the

  17. Aluminum induced proteome changes in tomato cotyledons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotyledons of tomato seedlings that germinated in a 20 µM AlK(SO4)2 solution remained chlorotic while those germinated in an aluminum free medium were normal (green) in color. Previously, we have reported the effect of aluminum toxicity on root proteome in tomato seedlings (Zhou et al. J Exp Bot, 20...

  18. Aluminum extrusion with a deformable die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assaad, W.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion process is one of metal forming processes. In aluminum extrusion, a work-piece (billet) is pressed through a die with an opening that closely resembles a desired shape of a profile. By this process, long profiles with an enormous variety of cross-sections can be produced to

  19. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Olga; Alekseev, Alexey; Zubkova, Olga; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Changing the source of raw materials for producing aluminum and the emergence of a huge number of secondary alumina waste (foundry slag, sludge, spent catalysts, mineral parts of coal and others that are formed in various industrial enterprises) require the creation of scientific and theoretical foundations for their processing. In this paper, the aluminum alloys (GOST 4784-97) are used as an aluminum raw material component, containing the aluminum component produced as chips in the machine-building enterprises. The aluminum waste is a whole range of metallic aluminum alloys including elements: magnesium, copper, silica, zinc and iron. Analysis of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  20. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  1. Plastic-aluminum composites in transportation infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This report presents an initial investigation of the mechanics of I-beams developed with plastic-aluminum composite technology. Plastic-aluminum composites in structural beam/frame/truss elements are a relatively new concept that has seen little, if ...

  2. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  3. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  4. Proposal of recycling system for waste aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Valenčík

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced work is focused on waste aluminum recycling process with objective to propose complex production system for recovering of aluminum and some aluminum alloys. Solution is supported by extended analysis concerning purpose, basis and system sequences for recyclation. Based on that, sources, possibilities and conditions for recycling are formed. This has been used in proposal of manufacturing system. The principle is the structural proposal of manufacturing system, which does not only differentiate the stage of aluminum melting process, but also related stages as gross separation, sizing, containerisation and batching, palletisation, stacking and some related operations. Production system respects technological specifications, requirements for rationalisation of manufacturing systems, technical and economical feasibility conditions and is considered in lower automation level. However production system solves complex problem of recycling of some types of aluminum, it improves flexibility, production, quality (melting by high enforcements and in protective atmosphere and extention of production (final products production.

  5. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  6. DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2009-01-14

    The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

  7. Dry etching method for compound semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul, Randy J.; Constantine, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

  8. Bibliography of Work on the Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Removal of Hazardous Compounds from Water and Air--Update Number 4 to October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, D.

    2001-11-19

    This report is the fifth in a series of bibliographies of work on the photocatalytic oxidation of organic or inorganic compounds in air or water and on the photocatalytic reduction of inorganic compounds in water. This search contains information extracted from 1149 new references to papers, books, and reports from searches conducted between October 1996 and April 2001.

  9. Prevention of small black spots on sugar-coated tablets containing aluminum acetylsalicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomida, Y; Makino, T

    1999-04-01

    Sugar-coated tablets containing aluminum acetylsalicylate gradually developed black spots on their surface. A factorial experiment was performed based on an L32 orthogonal array table in an attempt to halt this phenomenon. The factor responsible proved to be talc used to formulate the smooth coating layer over the subcoating layer containing aluminum acetylsalicylate. When HCl-treated talc was used as a filler for the smoothing layer, the black spots were markedly decreased. The spotting mechanism was considered to be due to hydrolysis of aluminum acetylsalicylate in the subcoating layer to salicylic acid and acetic acid, which sublimated into the pores of the smoothing layer. Then, ferrous ion substituted from magnesium ion in the talc molecule center was extracted by salicylic acid, acetic acid, and moisture. Finally, the ferrous ion was oxidized to ferric ion, and this produced an Fe3+ chelate compound together with salicylic acid.

  10. Fabrication of Lotus-Type Porous Aluminum through Thermal Decomposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. Y.; Park, J. S.; Nakajima, H.

    2009-04-01

    Lotus-type porous aluminum with cylindrical pores was fabricated by unidirectional solidification through thermal decomposition of calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, or titanium hydride. The pore-forming gas decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate, and titanium hydride is identified as hydrogen. The elongated pores are evolved due to the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt dissolving hydrogen is solidified unidirectionally. The porosity of lotus aluminum is as high as 20 pct despite the type of the compounds. The pore size decreases and the pore density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by an increase in the number of pore nucleation sites. The porosity and pore size in lotus aluminum fabricated using calcium hydroxide decrease with increasing argon pressure, which is explained by Boyle’s law. It is suggested that this fabrication method is simple and safe, which makes it superior to the conventional technique using high-pressure hydrogen gas.

  11. Mesoionic Compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sydnone, the representative mesoionic compound has been extensively studied because of its unusual structure, chemi- cal properties and synthetic utility. Sydnone is used as a versatile synthon in heterocyclic synthesis. This article gives a brief account of the comparative studies of the structural features of mesoionic ...

  12. Orbital fabrication of aluminum foam and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for producing foamed aluminum in space comprising the steps of: heating aluminum until it is molten; applying the force of gravity to the molten aluminum; injecting gas into the molten aluminum to produce molten foamed aluminum; and allowing the molten foamed aluminum to cool to below melting temperature. The apparatus for carrying out this invention comprises: a furnace which rotates to simulate the force of gravity and heats the aluminum until it is molten; a door on the furnace, which is opened for charging the aluminum into the furnace, closed for processing and opened again for removal of the foamed aluminum; a gas injection apparatus for injecting gas into the molten aluminum within the furnace; and an extraction apparatus adjacent the door for removing the foamed aluminum from the furnace.

  13. Self-assembly of inorganic nanoparticles: Ab ovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-09-01

    There are numerous remarkable studies related to the self-organization of polymers, coordination compounds, microscale particles, biomolecules, macroscale particles, surfactants, and reactive molecules on surfaces. The focus of this paper is on the self-organization of nanoscale inorganic particles or simply nanoparticles (NPs). Although there are fascinating and profound discoveries made with other self-assembling structures, the ones involving NPs deserve particular attention because they (a) are omnipresent in Nature; (b) have relevance to numerous disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, Earth sciences, and others); (c) embrace most of the features, geometries, and intricacies observed for the self-organization of other chemical species; (d) offer new tools for studies of self-organization phenomena; and (e) have a large economic impact, extending from energy and construction industries, to optoelectronics, biomedical technologies, and food safety. Despite the overall success of the field it is necessary to step back from its multiple ongoing research venues and consider two questions: What is self-assembly of nanoparticles? and Why do we need to study it? The reason to bring them up is to achieve greater scientific depth in the understanding of these omnipresent phenomena and, perhaps, deepen their multifaceted impact. Contribution to the Focus Issue Self-assemblies of Inorganic and Organic Nanomaterials edited by Marie-Paule Pileni.

  14. The phospholipid vesicles coating on metal chelated inorganic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jeong Ho; Cho, Min Ae; Son, Hong Ha; Lee, Cheon Koo; Kim, Kyung Ja

    2007-01-01

    This work showed the formation of phospholipid vesicle coating on inorganic sericite surface with characterization by combining electron microscopy of FE-SEM, TEM, AFM, and qualitatively evaluated the coated phospholipid vesicle by XPS as a function of etching time. The possibility of phospholipid vesicle mobility on the surface was restrained by the chelation effect of magnesium cation. The stabilization properties of phospholipid vesicles on sericite surface were demonstrated by the various concentration of magnesium cation. The presence of magnesium was found to have a much more pronounced influence on the lipid deposition process. The Mg cation plays an important role for attaching the phospholipids with optimum concentration of 7 mM. Totally, the phospholipid vesicles coating on inorganic powder could be useful for bio-related fields such as cosmetics and drug delivery system as the key functional compounds. We hope this basic result lead to a general and simple approach to prepare a wide a range of controlled releasing materials including an encapsulation with cosmetics or drugs

  15. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  16. Inorganic nanoparticles as nucleic acid transporters into eukaryotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanov, R. N.; Zarytova, V. F.; Zenkova, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    The review is concerned with inorganic nanoparticles (gold, titanium dioxide, silica, iron oxides, calcium phosphate) used as nucleic acid transporters into mammalian cells. Methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles and approaches to surface modification through covalent or noncovalent attachment of low- or high-molecular-weight compounds are considered. The data available from the literature on biological action of nucleic acids delivered into the cells by nanoparticles and on the effect of nanoparticles and their conjugates and complexes on the cell survival are summarized. Pathways of cellular internalization of nanoparticles and the mechanism of their excretion, as well as the ways of release of nucleic acids from their complexes with nanoparticles after the cellular uptake are described. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  17. Electric-Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ren; Wu, Hua; Nabok, Dmitrii; Hu, Shunbo; Ren, Wei; Draxl, Claudia; Stroppa, Alessandro

    2017-09-20

    Hybrid organic-inorganic compounds attract a lot of interest for their flexible structures and multifunctional properties. For example, they can have coexisting magnetism and ferroelectricity whose possible coupling gives rise to magnetoelectricity. Here using first-principles computations, we show that, in a perovskite metal-organic framework (MOF), the magnetic and electric orders are further coupled to optical excitations, leading to an Electric tuning of the Magneto-Optical Kerr effect (EMOKE). Moreover, the Kerr angle can be switched by reversal of both ferroelectric and magnetic polarization only. The interplay between the Kerr angle and the organic-inorganic components of MOFs offers surprising unprecedented tools for engineering MOKE in complex compounds. Note that this work may be relevant to acentric magnetic systems in general, e.g., multiferroics.

  18. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80 0 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  19. Effect of Degassing Treatment on the Interfacial Reaction of Molten Aluminum and Solid Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyono T.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The gas porosity is one of the most serious problems in the casting of aluminum. There are several degassing methods that have been studied. During smelting of aluminum, the intermetallic compound (IMC may be formed at the interface between molten aluminum and solid steel of crucible furnace lining. In this study, the effect of degassing treatment on the formations of IMC has been investigated. The rectangular substrate specimens were immersed in a molten aluminum bath. The holding times of the substrate immersions were in the range from 300 s to 1500 s. Two degassing treatments, argon degassing and hexachloroethane tablet degassing, were conducted to investigate their effect on the IMC formation. The IMC was examined under scanning electron microscope with EDX attachment. The thickness of the IMC layer increased with increasing immersion time for all treatments. Due to the high content of hydrogen, substrate specimens immersed in molten aluminum without degasser had IMC layer which was thicker than others. Argon degassing treatment was more effective than tablet degassing to reduce the IMC growth. Furthermore, the hard and brittle phase of IMC, FeAl3, was formed dominantly in specimens immersed for 900 s without degasser while in argon and tablet degasser specimens, it was formed partially.

  20. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  1. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF 6 . This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible

  2. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  3. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  4. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  5. Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Garcia, F.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Fernandez Llorenta, M.; Tascon, J.M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    A combination of techniques was used to characterize the inorganic constituents of four types of vegetable biomass: apple pulp, olive cake, olive tree pruning and thistle. Two methods were used to selectively eliminate organic matter: low-temperature oxidation in an oxygen plasma, and medium-temperature oxidation in air. Inorganic species present in the residues were identified by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The combination of these techniques allowed one to detect SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3} and various other Ca-, Mg-, Na- and K-containing phases as inorganic constituents of the studied biomass residues. It is concluded that the oxygen plasma treatment produces sulphates and nitrates that were not present in the starting material. Medium-temperature oxidation does not produce these artificial species but induces some thermal transformations in the mineral constituents of biomass, so that each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Industrial inorganic chemistry. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, W.; Schliebs, R.; Winter, G.; Buechel, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is a branch of considerable economic and technical importance. Apart from supplying the market with metals, fertilizers, building materials, pigments and glass it is one of the major suppliers of process materials to the organic chemical industry. Many modern products of other industrial sectors (video tapes, optical fibers or silicon chips) could not have been developed and manufactured without the achievements of industrial inorganic chemistry. The publication is the first of its kind to give a compact description of the inorganic chemistry sector. A clearly arranged survey facilitates access to production processes, economic aspects, ecological implications, energy consumption and raw material consumption as well as to many other data and facts. Due to its clear arrangement and the combination of technical and economic facts the book is a valuable source of information. (orig./EF) [de

  7. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Image-Guided Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong Yeol; Jeon, Sangmin; You, Dong Gil; Park, Jae Hyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Koo, Heebeom; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-01-18

    Recently, nanotechnology has provided significant advances in biomedical applications including diagnosis and therapy. In particular, nanoparticles have emerged as valuable outcomes of nanotechnology due to their unique physicochemical properties based on size, shape, and surface properties. Among them, a large amount of research has reported imaging and therapeutic applications using inorganic nanoparticles with special properties. Inorganic nanoparticles developed for imaging and therapy contain metal (Au), metal oxide (Fe 3 O 4 , WO 3 , WO 2.9 ), semiconductor nanocrystal (quantum dots (QDs)), and lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs). Based on their intrinsic properties, they can generate heat, reactive oxygen species (ROS), or energy transfer, so that they can be used for both imaging and therapy. In this review, we introduce biocompatible inorganic nanoparticles for image-guided thermal and photodynamic therapy, and discuss their promising results from in vitro and in vivo studies for biomedical applications.

  8. Chemical sensors of benzene and toluene based on inorganic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymers elaborated by a sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo Munoz, Maria Luisa

    2000-01-01

    As mono-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAH) are a matter of concern in terms of pollution, and are to be monitored due to new regulations regarding air quality control, this research thesis first aims at explaining why these compounds are to be monitored, at recalling their sources, at outlining what we know about their negative impact on health and how this impact is determined, which are the means implemented to monitor these compounds and which are their drawbacks, and at recalling which requirements are defined by European directives. The author then reports a literature survey of the current technology regarding chemical sensors, and identifies the required characteristics of an ideal sensor. The author proposes a review of studied performed on sol-gel process and of inorganic polymer synthesis methods based on sol-gel process. He reports the synthesis and characterization of inorganic or hybrid organic-inorganic host matrices, monolithic or in thin layers, used to produce MAH sensors. A matrix pore local polarity study is reported. Benzene and toluene trapping is studied with respect to the polarity and thickness of the host matrix. Pollutant trapping is directly monitored by their absorption in the near-UV and visible range. The author finally reports the study of interactions between fluorescent probe molecules and pollutants, as well as the effect of an interfering gas (oxygen) on the fluorescence of probe molecules [fr

  9. Environmental hazards of aluminum to plants, invertebrates, fish, and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Lowe, T.P.

    1996-01-01

    Aluminum is extremely common throughout the world and is innocuous under circumneutral or alkaline conditions. However, in acidic environments, it can be a maJor limiting factor to many plants and aquatic organisms. The greatest concern for toxicity in North America occurs in areas that are affected by wet and dry acid deposition, such as eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Acid mine drainage, logging, and water treatment plant effluents containing alum can be other maJor sources of Al. In solution, the metal can combine with several different agents to affect toxicity. In general, Al hydroxides and monomeric Al are the most toxic forms. Dissolved organic carbons, F, PO(3)3- and SO(4)2- ameliorate toxicity by reducing bioavailability. Elevated metal levels in water and soil can cause serious problems for some plants. Algae tend to be both acid- and Al tolerant and, although some species may disappear with reduced pH, overall algae productivity and biomass are seldom affected if pH is above 3.0. Aluminum and acid toxicity tend to be additive to some algae when pH is less than 4.5. Because the metal binds with inorganic P, it may reduce P availability and reduce productivity. Forest die-backs in North America involving red spruce, Fraser fir, balsam fir, loblolly pine, slash pine, and sugar maples have been ascribed to Al toxicity, and extensive areas of European forests have died because of the combination of high soil Al and low pH. Extensive research on crops has produced Al-resistant cultivars and considerable knowledge about mechanisms of and defenses against toxicity. Very low Al levels may benefit some plants, although the metal is not recognized as an essential nutrient. Hyperaccumulator species of plants may concentrate Al to levels that are toxic to herbivores. Toxicity in aquatic invertebrates is also acid dependent. Taxa such as Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Cladocera are sensitive and may perish when Al is less than 1 mg.L-1 whereas dipterans

  10. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  11. Aluminum Hydride Catalyzed Hydroboration of Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuto, Alessandro; Thomas, Stephen P; Cowley, Michael J

    2016-12-05

    An aluminum-catalyzed hydroboration of alkynes using either the commercially available aluminum hydride DIBAL-H or bench-stable Et 3 Al⋅DABCO as the catalyst and H-Bpin as both the boron reagent and stoichiometric hydride source has been developed. Mechanistic studies revealed a unique mode of reactivity in which the reaction is proposed to proceed through hydroalumination and σ-bond metathesis between the resultant alkenyl aluminum species and HBpin, which acts to drive turnover of the catalytic cycle. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  13. HRR Field in an Aluminum SEN Specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    edge notched, 2024-T3, 2024-0, and 5052 -H32 aluminum alloy specimens subjected to uniaxial and biaxial loadings [4,5,6]. One of the objectives of this...Contract N00014-89-J-1276 Technical Report No. UWA/DME/TR-89/63 00 HRR FIELD IN AN ALUMINUM SEN SPECIMENrkft Ln1 0 by M.S. Dadkhah and A.S. Kobayashi...Washington ~ dY~LI3OI k t*a U1PA09Q111 89 02Ieja II A I 6 I HRR FIELD IN AN ALUMINUM SEN SPECIMEN Mahyar Dadkhah ° and Albert S. Kobayashi** ABSTRACT Moire

  14. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mélinon, Patrice; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Duvail, Jean Luc; Gauffre, Fabienne; Boime, Nathalie Herlin; Ledoux, Gilles; Plain, Jérôme; Reiss, Peter; Silly, Fabien; Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed

  15. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  16. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of Shipping...

  17. 49 CFR 229.51 - Aluminum main reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum main reservoirs. 229.51 Section 229.51... Aluminum main reservoirs. (a) Aluminum main reservoirs used on locomotives shall be designed and fabricated as follows: (1) The heads and shell shall be made of Aluminum Association Alloy No. 5083-0, produced...

  18. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum...

  19. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  20. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660{degree}C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  1. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660 degree C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs

  2. Artificial neural networks to evaluate organic and inorganic contamination in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Maria Grazia; Ferrini, Mauro; Manni, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    The assessment of organic and inorganic contaminants in agricultural soils is a difficult challenge due to the large-scale dimensions of the areas under investigation and the great number of samples needed for analysis. On-site screening techniques, such as Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence (FPXRF) spectrometry, can be used for inorganic compounds, such as heavy metals. This method is not destructive and allows a rapid qualitative characterization, identifying hot spots from where to collect soil samples for analysis by traditional laboratory techniques. Recently, fast methods such as immuno-assays for the determination of organic compounds, such as dioxins, furans and PCBs, have been employed, but several limitations compromise their performance. The aim of the present study was to find a method able to screen contaminants in agricultural soil, using FPXRF spectrometry for metals and a statistical procedure, such as the Artificial Neural Networks technique, to estimate unknown concentrations of organic compounds based on statistical relationships between the organic and inorganic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 63.5753 - How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum recreational boat surface coatings? 63.5753... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5753 How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum...

  4. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, E; Kopac, J

    2013-10-15

    The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al(3+) soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. LOW DIMENSIONAL CONDUCTORS : A NEW SERIES OF TRANSITION METAL TETRACHALCOGENIDES (MX_4)_nY (M = Nb, Ta ; X = S, Se ; Y = halogen) : STRUCTURAL DETERMINATIONS AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES(EXPERIMENTS ON (MX_4)_nY COMPOUNDS, International Symposium on NONLINEAR TRANSPORT AND RELATED PHENOMENA IN INORGANIC QUASI ONE DIMENSIONAL CONDUCTORS)

    OpenAIRE

    A., MEERSCHAUT; U.E.R. de Chimie

    1984-01-01

    In studies concerning low-dimensional conductors, the chemist plays an important role. He has to prepare new materials taking in account some structural rules and ionicity structure relationship about the relative stability of atomic fibers or slabs in a given structure. Then he has to look for new polytypes associating in different ways the same slabs or fibers. He can also act upon the lateral bonds which link chains together, thus modifying the real dimensionality of the compounds. Finally...

  6. Aluminum Toxicity-Induced Alterations of Leaf Proteome in Two Citrus Species Differing in Aluminum Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of aluminum-tolerant ‘Xuegan’ (Citrus sinensis and Al-intolerant ‘sour pummelo’ (Citrus grandis were fertigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.2 mM AlCl3·6H2O. Al toxicity-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and the decrease of total soluble protein only occurred in C. grandis leaves, demonstrating that C. sinensis had higher Al tolerance than C. grandis. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ, we obtained more Al toxicity-responsive proteins from C. sinensis than from C. grandis leaves, which might be responsible for the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. The following aspects might contribute to the Al tolerance of C. sinensis: (a better maintenance of photosynthesis and energy balance via inducing photosynthesis and energy-related proteins; (b less increased requirement for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and other toxic compounds, such as aldehydes, and great improvement of the total ability of detoxification; and (c upregulation of low-phosphorus-responsive proteins. Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to RNA regulation, protein metabolism, cellular transport and signal transduction might also play key roles in the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. We present the global picture of Al toxicity-induced alterations of protein profiles in citrus leaves, and identify some new Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to various biological processes. Our results provide some novel clues about plant Al tolerance.

  7. Aluminum Toxicity-Induced Alterations of Leaf Proteome in Two Citrus Species Differing in Aluminum Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Guo, Peng; Lu, Yi-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

    2016-07-21

    Seedlings of aluminum-tolerant 'Xuegan' (Citrus sinensis) and Al-intolerant 'sour pummelo' (Citrus grandis) were fertigated for 18 weeks with nutrient solution containing 0 and 1.2 mM AlCl₃·6H₂O. Al toxicity-induced inhibition of photosynthesis and the decrease of total soluble protein only occurred in C. grandis leaves, demonstrating that C. sinensis had higher Al tolerance than C. grandis. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), we obtained more Al toxicity-responsive proteins from C. sinensis than from C. grandis leaves, which might be responsible for the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. The following aspects might contribute to the Al tolerance of C. sinensis: (a) better maintenance of photosynthesis and energy balance via inducing photosynthesis and energy-related proteins; (b) less increased requirement for the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and other toxic compounds, such as aldehydes, and great improvement of the total ability of detoxification; and (c) upregulation of low-phosphorus-responsive proteins. Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to RNA regulation, protein metabolism, cellular transport and signal transduction might also play key roles in the higher Al tolerance of C. sinensis. We present the global picture of Al toxicity-induced alterations of protein profiles in citrus leaves, and identify some new Al toxicity-responsive proteins related to various biological processes. Our results provide some novel clues about plant Al tolerance.

  8. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willit, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining

  9. Aluminum titanate crucible for molten uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbury, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    An improved crucible for molten uranium is described. The crucible or crucible liner is formed of aluminum titanate which essentially eliminates contamination of uranium and uranium alloys during molten states thereof. (U.S.)

  10. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  11. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etre, A.Y

    2003-11-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions.

  12. Seacoast stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of high strength, wrought aluminum alloys in a seacoast atmosphere was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in laboratory tests. Round tensile specimens taken from the short transverse grain direction of aluminum plate and stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths were exposed to the seacoast and to alternate immersion in salt water and synthetic seawater. Maximum exposure periods of one year at the seacoast, 0.3 or 0.7 of a month for alternate immersion in salt water, and three months for synthetic seawater were indicated for aluminum alloys to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking failure resulting from pitting. Correlation of the results was very good among the three test media using the selected exposure periods. It is concluded that either of the laboratory test media is suitable for evaluating the stress corrosion cracking performance of aluminum alloys in seacoast atmosphere.

  13. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  14. Pitting corrosion of 5052 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, F.; Lee, S.; Faunce, J.; Green, J. A. S.; Ptashnick, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The relative degree of pitting of 5052 aluminum alloy in a prepaint cleaning process is correlated with the proportion of MgO in the surface oxide of the alloy. Magnesium oxide, formed on the surface during process heat treatments of the alloy, is soluble in the acidic environment of the particular cleaning solutions, thus allowing easier access of corrosive ion to the aluminum metal. The pitting mechanism involves the: (1) formation of microscopic, localized galvanic cells between aluminum (anode) and iron-containing constituents (cathodic sites) normally found in the matrix of 5052 (and other 5xxx aluminum alloys), (2) aggravation of pit formation by chloride, and (3) enhancement of cathodic reactions and hence the overall corrosion process due to penetration of the oxide layer by cupric and ferric ions, and dissolved O 2 present in the cleaning solutions. Pitting was eliminated by adding 0.1% NaNO 3 to the cleaning bath.

  15. Measured and modeled humidification factors of fresh smoke particles from biomass burning: role of inorganic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During the 2006 FLAME study (Fire Laboratory at Missoula Experiment, laboratory burns of biomass fuels were performed to investigate the physico-chemical, optical, and hygroscopic properties of fresh biomass smoke. As part of the experiment, two nephelometers simultaneously measured dry and humidified light scattering coefficients (bsp(dry and bsp(RH, respectively in order to explore the role of relative humidity (RH on the optical properties of biomass smoke aerosols. Results from burns of several biomass fuels from the west and southeast United States showed large variability in the humidification factor (f(RH=bsp(RH/bsp(dry. Values of f(RH at RH=80–85% ranged from 0.99 to 1.81 depending on fuel type. We incorporated measured chemical composition and size distribution data to model the smoke hygroscopic growth to investigate the role of inorganic compounds on water uptake for these aerosols. By assuming only inorganic constituents were hygroscopic, we were able to model the water uptake within experimental uncertainty, suggesting that inorganic species were responsible for most of the hygroscopic growth. In addition, humidification factors at 80–85% RH increased for smoke with increasing inorganic salt to carbon ratios. Particle morphology as observed from scanning electron microscopy revealed that samples of hygroscopic particles contained soot chains either internally or externally mixed with inorganic potassium salts, while samples of weak to non-hygroscopic particles were dominated by soot and organic constituents. This study provides further understanding of the compounds responsible for water uptake by young biomass smoke, and is important for accurately assessing the role of smoke in climate change studies and visibility regulatory efforts.

  16. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, H J; Miller, S L

    1998-06-23

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  17. Oceanic protection of prebiotic organic compounds from UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, H. J.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    It is frequently stated that UV light would cause massive destruction of prebiotic organic compounds because of the absence of an ozone layer. The elevated UV flux of the early sun compounds this problem. This applies to organic compounds of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. Attempts to deal with this problem generally involve atmospheric absorbers. We show here that prebiotic organic polymers as well as several inorganic compounds are sufficient to protect oceanic organic molecules from UV degradation. This aqueous protection is in addition to any atmospheric UV absorbers and should be a ubiquitous planetary phenomenon serving to increase the size of planetary habitable zones.

  18. Perfluorinated Compounds as Test Media for Porous Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clodt, Juliana I; Filiz, Volkan; Shishatskiy, Sergey

    2017-09-05

    We suggest a failure-free method of porous membranes characterization that gives the researcher the opportunity to compare and characterize properties of any porous membrane. This proposal is supported by an investigation of eight membranes made of different organic and inorganic materials, with nine different perfluorinated compounds. It was found that aromatic compounds, perfluorobenzene, and perfluorotoluene, used in the current study show properties different from other perfluorinated aliphatics. They demonstrate extreme deviation from the general sequence indicating the existence of π-π-interaction on the pore wall. The divergence of the flow for cyclic compounds from ideal e.g., linear compounds can be an indication of the pore dimension.

  19. Rinne revisited: steel versus aluminum tuning forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKechnie, Cheryl A; Greenberg, Jesse J; Gerkin, Richard C; McCall, Andrew A; Hirsch, Barry E; Durrant, John D; Raz, Yael

    2013-12-01

    (1) Determine whether tuning fork material (aluminum vs stainless steel) affects Rinne testing in the clinical assessment of conductive hearing loss (CHL). (2) Determine the relative acoustic and mechanical outputs of 512-Hz tuning forks made of aluminum and stainless steel. Prospective, observational. Outpatient otology clinic. Fifty subjects presenting May 2011 to May 2012 with negative or equivocal Rinne in at least 1 ear and same-day audiometry. Rinne test results using aluminum and steel forks were compared and correlated with the audiometric air-bone gap. Bench top measurements using sound-level meter, microphone, and artificial mastoid. Patients with CHL were more likely to produce a negative Rinne test with a steel fork than with an aluminum fork. Logistic regression revealed that the probability of a negative Rinne reached 50% at a 19 dB air-bone gap for stainless steel versus 27 dB with aluminum. Bench top testing revealed that steel forks demonstrate, in effect, more comparable air and bone conduction efficiencies while aluminum forks have relatively lower bone conduction efficiency. We have found that steel tuning forks can detect a lesser air-bone gap compared to aluminum tuning forks. This is substantiated by observations of clear differences in the relative acoustic versus mechanical outputs of steel and aluminum forks, reflecting underlying inevitable differences in acoustic versus mechanical impedances of these devices, and thus efficiency of coupling sound/vibratory energy to the auditory system. These findings have clinical implications for using tuning forks to determine candidacy for stapes surgery.

  20. Intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Daniel; Erhart, Paul; Williamson, Andrew J.; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Calculations within density functional theory on the basis of the local density approximation are carried out to study the properties of intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide. Special care is taken to address finite-size effects, band gap error, and symmetry reduction in the defect structures. The correction of the band gap is based on a set of GW calculations. The most important defects are identified to be the aluminum interstitial $Al_{i,Al}^{1+}$, the antimony antisites $Sb_{Al}^...

  1. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  2. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  3. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Great abundance, trivalent oxidation state, high volumetric energy density and inherent safety make aluminum a desirable source of power. Attempts to use aluminum as an electrochemical energy source have been made since the 1800s. To date no great success has been achieved due to difficulties with finding a suitable electrolyte and cathode material. This dissertation explains some of the author’s efforts to overcome these difficulties.Chapter two reports the results of an investigation of an ...

  4. Sound absorption property of openpore aluminum foams

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Fang; WANG Lu-cai; WU Jian-guo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on sound absorption property of aluminum foam by evaluating its sound absorption coefficients using standing wave tube method. Experimental results showed that the average values of sound absorption coefficients (over the test frequency range) are all above 0.4, which indicate very good sound absorption property of the aluminum foams. The sound absorption coefficient is affected by frequency and pore structure, and reaches its maximum value at around 1 000 Hz. With...

  5. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  6. Research of plating aluminum and aluminum foil on internal surface of carbon fiber composite material centrifuge rotor drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuqi; Dong Jinping; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and sealability of the internal surface of carbon fiber/epoxy composite material centrifuge rotor drum, magnetron sputtering aluminum and pasting an aluminum foil on the inner wall of the drum are adopted to realize the aim. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and OM, the surface topography of aluminum coated (thickness of 5 μm and 12 μm) and aluminum foil (12 μm) are observed and analyzed; the cohesion of between aluminum coated (or aluminum foil) and substrate material (CFRP) is measured by scratching experiment, direct drawing experiment, and shear test. Besides, the ultra-high-speed rotation experiment of CFRP ring is carried out to analyze stress and strain of coated aluminum (or aluminum foil) which is adhered on the ring. The results showed aluminum foil pasted on inner surface do better performance than magnetron sputtering aluminum on CFRP centrifuge rotor drum. (authors)

  7. Obtaining and Investigating Amphoteric Properties of Aluminum Oxide in a Hands-On Laboratory Experiment for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, Kinga; Bernard, Pawel; Migdal-Mikuli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this laboratory exercise is to present a high school hands-on laboratory experiment, focused on obtaining and investigating the properties of various polymorphic forms of aluminum oxide. Amphoterism plays a key role when discussing the law of periodicity and periodic changes of acid-base properties of elements and their compounds. In…

  8. Metabolic models for methyl and inorganic mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, S.R.; Purdue, P.

    1984-03-01

    Following the outbreak of mercury poisoning in Minimata, Japan (1953-60), much work has been done on the toxicology of mercury - in particular methyl mercury. In this paper, the authors derive two compartmental models for the metabolism of methyl mercury and inorganic mercury based upon the data which have been collected since 1960.

  9. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 2. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding networks: Synthesis and crystal structures of [MII(opda)2(NO3)2] (M = Zn and Cd; opda = orthophenylenediamine). Sabbani Supriya. Full Papers Volume 121 Issue 2 March 2009 pp 137-143 ...

  10. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  11. Phytochemical, inorganic and proximate composition-guided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sterols, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all samples. The inorganic composition result showed relatively high concentration of potassium (very high for seed), calcium (for bark and leaf), magnesium and sulphur in Avocado samples. The Avocado seed contained relatively high content of moisture, carbohydrate ...

  12. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    We are interested in obtaining single crystals of metal-opda complexes because their crystal structures would show complex hydrogen bonding network due to the presence of. –NH2 groups in the opda ligand (hydrogen bonding donor sites) and inorganic anions having mostly oxo groups (hydrogen bonding acceptor sites) ...

  13. Corrosion performance of inorganic coatings in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.J.; Ferrari, G.M.; Westing, E. van; Kowalski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic coatings are widely used to protect carbon steel hydraulic cylinder rods from wear and corrosion in aggressive offshore environment. Different types of lay-ers such as Ni/Cr, Al2O3, Cr2O3, TiO2, and Inconel 625 layers were applied to the carbon steels by plasma, High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

  14. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14 C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14 C 2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 14 C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14 C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14 C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10 9 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  16. Orientation Dependent Directed Etching of Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Nyung; Seo, Jong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    The direct-current electroetching of high purity aluminum in hot aqueous-chloride solution produces a high density of micrometer-wide tunnels whose walls are made up of the |100| planes and penetrate aluminum in the directions at rates of micrometer per second. In the process of the alternating-current pitting of aluminum, cathodic polarization plays an important role in the nucleation and growth of the pits during the subsequent polarization. The direct-current tunnel etching and alternating-current etching of aluminum are basically related to the formation of poorly crystallized or amorphous passive films. If the passive film forms on the wall, a natural misfit exists between the film and the aluminum substrate, which in turn gives rise to stress in both the film and the substrate. Even though the amorphous films do not have directed properties, their stresses are influenced by the substrate orientation. the films on elastically soft substrate are likely to be less stressed and more stable than those on elastically hard substrate. The hardest and softest planes of aluminum are the |111| and |100| planes, respectively. Therefore, the films on the |111| substrates are most likely to be attacked, and those on the |100| substrates, are least likely to be attacked. For the tunnel etching, it follows that the tunnel walls tend to be made of four closely packed |111| planes in order to minimize the surface energy, which gives rise to the tunnel etching

  17. Plasma ARC keyhole welding of aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostervoll, H.

    1993-02-01

    An increasing and more advanced use of aluminum as a construction material make higher demands to the effectiveness and quality in aluminum joining. Furthermore, if the advantages of aluminum shall be exploited in the best possible way, it is necessary to use the best processes available for the certain application. Today, the most widely used processes of aluminum welding are gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Plasma arc welding (PAW) is another interesting process, which is rather newly adopted for aluminum welding. However, up to now the use is limited and most of the users are within the space industry in USA (NASA); also the new space industry in Europe has adopted the process. The reason for the great interest for PAW in the space industry is, according to NASA, higher weld quality and less repair costs, less heat distortion, and less groove preparations costs. Of these reasons, PAW should also be of interest for the aluminum industry in Scandinavia. The aim of the project is to focus on the possibilities and to some extent testing the PAW process.

  18. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Dissolution rates and solubility of some metals in liquid gallium and aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsenko, S P; Sabirzyanov, N A; Yatsenko, A S

    2008-01-01

    The effect of liquid gallium and aluminum on some hard metals leading to dissolution and formation of intermetallic compounds (IMC) under static conditions and rotation of a specimen is studied. The solubility parameters from the Clapeyron-Clausius equation were considered to estimate the stability of still not studied metals. The presented experimental data on solubility and corrosion in a wide temperature range allow to calculate a number of parameters useful in manufacturing and application of master-alloys

  20. Silica-supported aluminum chloride-assisted solution phase synthesis of pyridazinone-based antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maatougui, Abdelaziz; Azuaje, Jhonny; Sotelo, Eddy; Caamaño, Olga; Coelho, Alberto

    2011-01-10

    A solution phase protocol that enabled the synthesis of three diverse libraries of pyridazin-3-ones incorporating α,β-unsaturated moieties at position 5 of the heterocyclic core has been developed using silica-supported aluminum trichloride as a heterogeneous and reusable catalyst. This robust procedure has facilitated the hit to lead process for these series of compounds and allowed the identification of new potent derivatives that elicit antiplatelet activity in the low micromolar range.