WorldWideScience

Sample records for aluminium phosphate sulphate

  1. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO2 and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the basement

  2. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; R N Yadav

    2000-02-01

    The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  3. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance; Les sulfates phosphates d'aluminium hydrates (APS) dans l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes a une discordance proterozoique: caracterisation cristallochimique et signification petrogenetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaboreau, St

    2005-07-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO{sub 2} and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  4. Effect of iron present in commercial aluminium sulphate on its water coagulation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of aluminium sulphate obtained from venezuelan bauxite as coagulant for water treatment was studied. The results show an average 15% aluminium content expressed as Al2O3 and 1.4% iron content as Fe2O3. The efficiency was similar to that of an iron free analytical grade aluminium sulphate. The significant content of iron found means an additional component that can participate in the coagulation flocculation process; hence the known coagulation properties of iron as a metallic coagulant. The results obtained confirm the iron role in the process and further research, using higher iron contents in the order of 2 percent and more, are proposed to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the participation of this element in the coagulation process. The results can contribute to evaluate the current regulations concerning quality control of the product for use in drinking water

  5. Application of aluminium coagulants for the removal of sulphate from mine water

    OpenAIRE

    Gomelya, Mykola; Trus, Inna; Shabliy, Tetyana

    2014-01-01

    The results of treatment of solutions with high sulphates concentration and the high rate of water hardness are given. It is shown that significant reduction of secondary pollution by chlorides is achieved through integrated use of aluminium hydroxchloride and sodium aluminate coagulants. It was found that the efficiency of water purification from sulphates and water softening can be increased with the carbon dioxide processing.Представлені результати із очищення розчинів, що містять сульф...

  6. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H2PO4− ions to HPO32− ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm−2 and 1.77 mW cm−2, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for bioelectronic applications. • Selective

  7. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Gymama, E-mail: gslaught@umbc.edu; Sunday, Joshua; Stevens, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} ions to HPO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm{sup −2} and 1.77 mW cm{sup −2}, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for

  8. Application of phosphating techniques to aluminium and carbon steel surfaces using nitro guanidine as oxidizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate coatings are inorganic crystalline deposits laid down uniformly on properly prepared surfaces by a chemical reaction with the treated base metal. The reaction consists in dissolving some surface metal by acid attack and then causing surface neutralization of the phosphate solution with consequent precipitation of the phosphate coating. Phosphate coatings do not provide appreciable corrosion protection in themselves. They are useful mainly as a base for paints, ensuring good adherence of paint to steel and decreasing the tendency for corrosion to under cut the paint film at scratches or other defects. In this work firstly were realized phosphate on standard carbon steel, employing technical of cold phosphate (at 40 Centigrade degrees and with a treatment time of 30 minutes) and hot phosphate (at 88 Centigrade degrees and with a treatment time of 15 minutes), where with this last were obtained the best results. Both methods used phosphate solutions of Zn/Mn and using as catalyst Nitro guanidine. Aluminium surfaces were phosphate used solutions of Cr and as catalyst Sodium bi fluoride. The phosphating on this surface were realized at temperature of 50 Centigrade degrees and with a treatment time of 10 minutes. In this work were obtained a new phosphate coatings on steel surfaces, these coatings were realized with a phosphate solution manufactured with the precipitates gathered during the hot phosphating on carbon steel. These coatings show excellent physical characteristics and of corrosion resistance. Were determined the physical testings of the coatings phosphate obtained on carbon steel and aluminium surfaces. These testing were: roughness, thickness, microhardness and adhesion. The best results were showed in carbon steel phosphate with precipitated solutions. The technical of analysis for activation with thermic neutrons was used to determine the phosphate coatings composition. Finally, corrosion testings were realized by means of two methods

  9. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from ...

  10. Struvite recovery from solution containing phosphate(V and sulphate(VI ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutnik Nina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research results concerning the application of magnesium and ammonium ions for continuous removal of phosphate(V ions from solution containing 1.0 or 0.20 mass% of PO43– and from 0.10 to 0.50 mass% of SO42– are presented. A continuous struvite MgNH4PO4 × 6H2O reaction crystallization process was carried out both under stoichiometric conditions and using 20% excess of magnesium ions. The research was conducted in a DT MSMPR type crystallizer with internal circulation of suspension driven by a propeller stirrer, in constant temperature 298 K. The pH varied from 9 to 11 and mean residence time of suspension in a crystallizer τ varied from 900 to 3600 s. It was concluded, that sulphate(VI ions influenced product quality disadvantageously. Depending on process parameter combinations struvite crystals of mean size from ca. 18 to ca. 44 μm and of moderate homogeneity: CV 7–95% were produced. Presence of sulphate(VI ions favored crystallization of struvite as prismatic crystals, but tubular forms were also identified. The best shaped struvite crystals were produced at relatively low concentration of sulphate(VI ions, pH 9 and for mean residence time of suspension in a crystallizer elongated up to 3600 s.

  11. Adsorption of some heavy metals on sulphate and phosphate modified kaolinite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaolinite clay, in bright white lumps collected from from Ubulu-Ukwu, Delta State, Nigeria, was modified with 200μ.ml-1 of phosphate and sulphate anion and thereafter used to adsorb some heavy metals viz. lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) from aqueous solution of the metals. The metal ions showed the greatest affinity for the P-modified (P-mod) sorbents. The order of adsorption of P-mod follows the order: P-modPb > P-modCu > P-modZn> P-modCd. Desorption studies showed that the P-modified sorbents exhibited a very strong ability to specifically adsorb lead, copper and zinc and are therefore poorly desorbed. All the metals were easily desorbed from the unmodified sorbent. The potential of the modified sorbents are enumerated. (author)

  12. Cationic cellulose nanofibers from waste pulp residues and their nitrate, fluoride, sulphate and phosphate adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Mautner, Andreas; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Pfenninger, Numa; Tingaut, Philippe; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNF) having 3 different contents of positively charged quaternary ammonium groups have been prepared from waste pulp residues according to a water-based modification method involving first the etherification of the pulp with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride followed by mechanical disintegration. The cationic nanofibers obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the extent of the reaction was evaluated by conductometric titration, ζ-potential measurements, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cationic CNF had a maximum cationic charge content of 1.2mmolg(-1) and positive ζ-potential at various pH values. Sorption of negatively charged contaminants (fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ions) and their selectivity onto cationic CNF have been evaluated. Maximum sorption of ∼0.6mmolg(-1) of these ions by CNF was achieved and selectivity adsorption studies showed that cationic CNF are more selective toward multivalent ions (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) than monovalent ions (F(-) and NO3(-)). In addition, we demonstrated that cationic CNF can be manufactured into permeable membranes capable of dynamic nitrate adsorption by utilizing a simple paper-making process. PMID:26453885

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, bentonite, aluminium potassium sulphate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2012-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the risk assessment of the active substances sodium carboxymethylcellulose, bentonite and aluminium potassium sulphate dodecahydrate, CAS No 9004-32-4, 1302-78-9 and 7784-24-9 respectively. The active substances form a mixture that is incorporated in articles such as pads, trays, lids. It is intended to be used as a moisture and liquid absorber in packaging for foods with short shelf-life, which are stored and retailed at refrigeration tempe...

  14. Effect ofAuxiliary Cementing Materials on the SulphateAluminium Cement%辅助凝胶材料对硫铝酸盐水泥性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文斌

    2013-01-01

      研究普通硅酸盐水泥、石膏及石灰掺入硫铝酸盐水泥中后对其凝结时间和强度的影响。研究表明:普通硅酸盐水泥掺量增大使得硫铝酸盐水泥凝结时间缩短,强度下降;石灰和石膏的掺入对硫铝酸盐水泥水化有一定的促进作用,且适当的比例对硫铝酸盐水泥的后期强度无不利影响。普通硅酸盐水泥、石灰和石膏的混掺对硫铝酸盐水泥的影响大小则与其掺量的多少有关。%The setting time and strength of sulphate aluminium cement admixed with Portland cement, gypsum and lime were studied. The result indicated that the setting time shortened and the strength declined with Portland cement content increasing. Lime and gypsum could promote hydration of sulphate aluminium cement, and they would be not unfavorable to late strength of sulphate aluminium if there was an appropriate proportion. The performance of sulphate aluminium cement was relevant to their mixing content.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, bentonite, aluminium potassium sulphate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This scientific opinion of EFSA deals with the risk assessment of the active substances sodium carboxymethylcellulose, bentonite and aluminium potassium sulphate dodecahydrate, CAS No 9004-32-4, 1302-78-9 and 7784-24-9 respectively. The active substances form a mixture that is incorporated in articles such as pads, trays, lids. It is intended to be used as a moisture and liquid absorber in packaging for foods with short shelf-life, which are stored and retailed at refrigeration temperature or at room temperature, such as fresh fruit, fresh vegetables, and meat products. The mixture is not in direct contact with food being separated from it by a permeable non-woven fabric.
    To measure the capacity of the absorbent, absorbency tests were performed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that in real conditions of use overload does not occur. If the absorbent capacity is not exceeded, the migration of the active substances is expected to be negligible not giving rise to any safety concern.
    The CEF Panel concluded that the substances sodium carboxymethylcellulose and bentonite do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as moisture and liquid absorbers. Aluminium potassium sulphate dodecahydrate can be used in formulations with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (50-90% w/w and bentonite (10-30% w/w at levels up to 4% w/w. In all cases the absorbers must be placed in components in the food packaging preventing them from being in direct contact with food and the fluid absorption capacity of these absorbers must not be exceeded.

  16. Structural and luminescence studies of Ho3+-doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivalent holmium doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and characterized for their structural and luminescence properties. The amorphous nature, elemental analysis and thermal stability of the glasses were studied by using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, respectively. The absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative parameters such as spontaneous transition probabilities (AR), branching ratios (βR), radiative lifetimes (τR) were calculated and discussed. From the emission spectra emission peak positions (λP), effective bandwidths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) were calculated for the observed emission transitions,5S2 (5F4→5I8) and 5F5→5I8 in all the glass samples. The stimulated emission cross-section is higher for ZANPHo10 glass matrix and so it may be useful for laser excitation

  17. The sulphation of chondroitin sulphate in embryonic chicken cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, H. C.

    1969-01-01

    1. Whole tissue preparations and subcellular fractions from embryonic chicken cartilage were used to measure the rate of incorporation of inorganic sulphate into chondroitin sulphate in vitro. 2. In cartilage from 14-day-old embryos, [35S]sulphate is incorporated to an equal extent into chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate at a rate of 1·5nmoles of sulphate/hr./mg. dry wt. of cartilage. 3. Microsomal and soluble enzyme preparations from embryonic cartilage catalyse the transfer of sulphate from adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate into both chondroitin 4-sulphate and chondroitin 6-sulphate. 4. The effects of pH, ionic strength, adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate concentration and acceptor chondroitin sulphate concentration on the soluble sulphotransferase activity were examined. These factors all influence the activity of the sulphotransferase, and pH and incubation time also influence the percentage of chondroitin 4-sulphate formed. PMID:5807213

  18. Aluminium Phosphate Sulfate (APS) minerals. Some markers of paleoconditions in unconformity related uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of unconformity uranium deposits knowledge, aluminium phosphate minerals (APS) are considered for markers of paleoconditions of formation of ore deposits. APS minerals are ubiquitous and occur as disseminated crystals in a wide range of geological environments near the Earth surface. Their general formula is AB3(XO4)2OH6. These minerals are well known to incorporate a great number of chemical elements in their lattice and form complex solid solution series which are controlled by the physico-chemical conditions of their formation (Eh, pH, elements activities). These minerals are particularly widespread and spatially related to hydrothermal clay parageneses in the surrounding of unconformity related uranium deposits (URUD). Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystals-chemistry have been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore-bodies. A thermodynamic study on the stability domains of the APS minerals solid solution series associated with clay parageneses has been investigated in the thermal conditions prevailing during the U ore deposition in order to correlate their crystal-chemistry according to pH, Eh or elements activities like strontium or cerium and then to precise the origin of strontium and the conditions of formation of the three different identified APS minerals. A first simulation has been done to illustrate diagenetic environments far away from the uranium deposits in a barren sandstone area. This study has been realized with the KINDIS software which simulate the dissolution of minerals in a given solution and calculate the mass balance versus the reaction progress. A second one illustrates the paleoconditions of precipitation of APS minerals associated with the clay halo of alteration encounter in the vicinity of uranium deposits. (author)

  19. Kinetic and thermodynamics of the removal of Zn2+ and Cu2+ from aqueous solution by sulphate and phosphate-modified Bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modification of pristine Bentonite clay with sulphate and phosphate anions was found to increase its cation-exchange capacity (CEC), adsorption capacity and overall pseudo-second order kinetic rate constant for the adsorption of Cu2+ and Zn2+. Modification with sulphate and phosphate anion decreased the specific surface area of pristine Bentonite clay. Phosphate-modified Bentonite clay was found to give the highest adsorption capacity for both metal ions. The adsorption process was observed to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature for both metal ions with Zn2+ being more adsorbed. Modification with phosphate anion increased the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The effective modification of pristine Bentonite clay with sulphate anion was confirmed from hypochromic shifts in the range of 13-18 cm-1 which is typical of physisorption while modification with phosphate anion was confirmed by its hyperchromic shifts typical of chemisorption in the infrared red region using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Using the model efficiency indicator, kinetic data were found to show very strong fit to the pseudo-second order kinetic model implying that the adsorption of Cu2+ and Zn2+ were basically by chemisorption.

  20. Treatment Of Sewage By The Use Of Biofloaters For Cod, Sulphate, Nitrate And Phosphate Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pirgonde

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes is forage weed, because of its ease of propagation, fast growth. This weed is a biotic resource, due to its several properties weed is used for wastewater treatment by Phytoremediation (Root Zone technology through constructed wetland. In the present investigation, Eichhornia crassipes was used for the treatment of sewage, because of its highest growth near sewage disposal areas. During the study we analysed the sewage sample two times i.e. before treatment and after treatment. At the time of analysis we analysed COD, BOD, Nitrate, Phospate and sulphate ions. After treatment we get the results in such a manner that colour, odour and other pollutants are removed to get clear water

  1. Aluminium Phosphate Sulfate minerals (APS): Some markers of paleoconditions in unconformity related uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium Phosphate Sulfate minerals (APS) are ubiquitous and occur as disseminated crystals in a wide range of geological environments near the Earth surface, including weathering, sedimentary, diagenetic, hydrothermal, metamorphic and post magmatic systems. APS minerals belong to the alunite supergroup and crystallize most often in the rhombohedral crystal system. Their general formula is AB3(XO4)2OH6in which A, B and X represent three different crystallographic sites. A are 12-fold coordinated sites, occupied by monovalent, divalent, trivalent and more rarely tetravalent cations; B consist of 6-fold coordinated sites, occupied by trivalent cations and X are 4-fold coordinated sites, occupied by anions. These minerals are well known to incorporate a great number of chemical elements in their lattice and to form complex solid solution series which are controlled by the physico-chemical conditions of their formation (Eh, pH, elements activities). Petrographic, mineralogical and crystal-chemical studies have been performed on these APS minerals, related to the clay parageneses, occurring around different unconformity related uranium deposits of the Kombolgie basin (Northern Territories, Australia) and Athabasca (Saskatchewan, Canada). Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore-bodies and the structural discontinuities which have drained the solutions during the mineralization events. The major crystal-chemistry variations of the APS solid solution series mainly consist in the relative proportions of svanbergite (SrAl3[PO4,SO4]OH6), florencite (REEAl3(PO4)2OH6) and goyazite (SrAl3(PO3·(O0.5(OH)0.5))2(OH)6)end members. Three different assemblages are considered as a function of the distance to the structures that focused the solutions and probably controlled the uranium deposition in these areas. There is too some differences of APS compositions between the two basins. In

  2. Re-use of dewatered aluminium-coagulated water treatment residual to immobilize phosphorus : batch and column trials using a condensed phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, A.O.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Yang, Y.; Kearney, P.

    2008-01-01

    The aluminium content in dewatered aluminium-coagulated water treatment residual (DAC-WTR) can lead to a high phosphorus (P) removal capacity. Therefore, DAC-WTR has been used as adsorbent/soil amendment to remove P in several studies, focusing mostly on orthophosphates (ortho-P). This study is concerned with extending such reuse of DAC-WTR to remove P using a condensed phosphate as the model P source. Using a 48-hr equilibration time and a 1.18mm (mean particle size); (1) P removal was found...

  3. Analytical developments in the measurements of boron, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate isotopes and case examples of discrimination of nitrogen and sulphur sources in pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are documented for the analysis of B isotopes, O and N isotopes in nitrates. B isotopes can be measured by negative ion thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Nitrate is recovered from groundwaters by ion exchange and the resulting silver nitrate combusted for stable isotope gas analysis. Oxygen isotope analysis of phosphates can be determined by generating and analysing CO2 gas from the combustion of silver phosphate produced from aqueous samples. Sulphate in ground and surface waters can be separated and concentrated by ion exchange and precipitated as barium sulphate. This is reacted with graphite to yield CO2 and CO, the latter being spark discharged to CO2 and the total CO2 measured for oxygen isotope analysis. Barium sulphide from this reaction is converted to silver sulphide which is reacted with cuprous oxide to give SO2 gas for sulphur isotope measurements. A case study of the semi-rural Manakau area in New Zealand was conducted to see if nitrate isotopes could be used to detect the source of nitrate contamination (groundwater nitrate -3-N). Nitrogen isotope (+4 to +12 per mille) coupled with oxygen isotope measurements (+5 to +9 per mille) demonstrated that the nitrogen is not sources from fertilisers but from some combination of septic tank and animal waste. For the case study of sulphate isotope use, sulphur and oxygen isotopic compositions of sulphate in river and lake water from seven major catchments of New Zealand were determined. The isotope analyses have allowed the distinction between natural (geological, geothermal and volcanic) and anthropogenic (fertiliser) sulphur sources. (author)

  4. The effect of anions in the fluorimetric determination of uranium after extraction from acid-deficient aluminium nitrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of perchlorate, chloride, sulphate, phosphate and fluoride on the fluorimetric determination of uranium after the extraction of uranium into methyl isobutyl ketone from acid-deficient aluminium nitrate solution has been established. Recoveries of uranium from perchlorate and sulphate media after addition of 1 ml of 15 M nitric acid are 100%. Chloride interferes, and a correction must be made to compensate for the anion effect. Phosphate and fluoride in amounts up to 25 mg give recoveries of at least 95%. The anion effect may be minimized by increasing the volume of the organic phase. (author)

  5. Structural and luminescence studies of Ho{sup 3+}-doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahmachary, K.; Rajesh, D.; Ratnakaram, Y. C., E-mail: ratnakaramsvu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517502 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Trivalent holmium doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and characterized for their structural and luminescence properties. The amorphous nature, elemental analysis and thermal stability of the glasses were studied by using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, respectively. The absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative parameters such as spontaneous transition probabilities (A{sub R}), branching ratios (β{sub R}), radiative lifetimes (τ{sub R}) were calculated and discussed. From the emission spectra emission peak positions (λ{sub P}), effective bandwidths (Δλ{sub eff}) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σ{sub P}) were calculated for the observed emission transitions,{sup 5}S{sub 2} ({sup 5}F{sub 4}→{sup 5}I{sub 8}) and {sup 5}F{sub 5}→{sup 5}I{sub 8} in all the glass samples. The stimulated emission cross-section is higher for ZANPHo10 glass matrix and so it may be useful for laser excitation.

  6. Electrochemical properties and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORICA M. KACAREVIC-POPOVIC

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium, as well as on electrochemically and chemically modified aluminium were investigated during exposure to 3 % NaCl. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were used for the determination of the protective properties of epoxy coatings on aluminium, anodized aluminium, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium. The protective properties of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium are significantly improved with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminium and phosphatized aluminium: higher values of the pore resitance and charge-transfer resistance, lower values of the coating capacitance, double-layer capacitance and relative permittivity (from EIS smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating (From TGA. On the other hand, the lower values of the ipdt temperature indicate a lower thermal stability of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium.

  7. Tyrosine sulphation of sphingosine 1-phosphate 1 (S1P1) is required for S1P-mediated cell migration in primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Li; Lin, Hsiao-Sheng; Chen, Shee-Uan; Lee, Hsinyu

    2009-12-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a lysophospholipid mediator, regulates diverse functions of many types of cells by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors termed S1P(1)-S1P(5). In T-cells, tyrosine sulphation of S1P(1) is required for high-affinity binding of S1P and fully functional signalling. In this study, we showed that tyrosine sulphation of S1P(1) is necessary for S1P-induced Src phosphorylation and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Both substitution of phenylalanine (F) for tyrosine (Y) in S1P(1) and inhibition of tyrosine sulphation blocked c-Src phosphorylation and migration in HUVECs. In addition, overexpression of mutant (F19, 22F) S1P(1), lacking tyrosine sulphation sites, suppressed native S1P(1) effects on migration, actin rearrangement and lamellipodia formation. Therefore, tyrosine sulphation of S1P(1) is required for its optimal transduction of signals from S1P in HUVECs. PMID:19692429

  8. In situ monitoring of corrosion mechanisms and phosphate inhibitor surface deposition during corrosion of zinc-magnesium-aluminium (ZMA) alloys using novel time-lapse microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James; Cooze, Nathan; Gallagher, Callum; Lewis, Tom; Prosek, Tomas; Thierry, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In situ time-lapse optical microscopy was used to examine the microstructural corrosion mechanisms in three zinc-magnesium-aluminium (ZMA) alloy coated steels immersed in 1% NaCl pH 7. Preferential corrosion of MgZn(2) lamellae within the eutectic phases was observed in all the ZMA alloys followed by subsequent dissolution of Zn rich phases. The total extent and rate of corrosion, measured using time-lapse image analysis and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) estimated mass loss, decreased as Mg and Al alloying additions were increased up to a level of 3 wt% Mg and 3.7 wt% Al. This was probably due to the increased presence of MgO and Al(2)O(3) at the alloy surface retarding the kinetics of cathodic oxygen reduction. The addition of 1 × 10(-2) mol dm(-3) Na(3)PO(4) to 1% NaCl pH 7 had a dramatic influence on the corrosion mechanism for a ZMA with passivation of anodic sites through phosphate precipitation observed using time-lapse image analysis. Intriguing rapid precipitation of filamentous phosphate was also observed and it is postulated that these filaments nucleate and grow due to super saturation effects. Polarisation experiments showed that the addition of 1 × 10(-2) mol dm(-3) Na(3)PO(4) to the 1% NaCl electrolyte promoted an anodic shift of 50 mV in open circuit potential for the ZMA alloy with a reduction in anodic current of 2.5 orders of magnitude suggesting that it was acting primarily as an anodic inhibitor supporting the inferences from the time-lapse investigations. These phosphate additions resulted in a 98% reduction in estimated mass loss as measured by SVET demonstrating the effectiveness of phosphate inhibitors for this alloy system. PMID:25912828

  9. Metabolism of inorganic sulphate in the isolated perfused rat liver. Effect of sulphate concentration on the rate of sulphation by phenol sulphotransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Gerard J.; Keulemans, Katja

    1978-01-01

    1. The metabolism of inorganic [35S]sulphate (Na235SO4) was studied in the isolated perfused rat liver at three initial concentrations of inorganic sulphate in the perfusion medium (0, 0.65 and 1.30mm), in relation to sulphation and glucuronidation of a phenolic drug, harmol (7-hydroxy-1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole). 2. [35S]Sulphate rapidly equilibrated with endogenous sulphate in the liver. It was excreted in bile and reached, at the lowest concentration in the perfusion medium, concentrations in bile that were much higher than those in the perfusion medium; at the higher sulphate concentrations, these concentrations were equal. The physiological concentration of inorganic sulphate in the liver, available for sulphation of drugs, is similar to the plasma concentration. 3. At zero initial inorganic sulphate in the perfusion medium, the rate of sulphation was very low and harmol was mainly glucuronidated. At 0.65mm-sulphate glucuronidation was much decreased and considerable sulphation took place, indicating efficient competition of conjugation by sulphation. At 1.30mm-sulphate the sulphation increased still further. 4. The results suggest that an important factor in sulphation is the relatively high Km of synthesis of adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate (the co-substrate of sulphation) for inorganic sulphate, which is of the order of the plasma concentration of inorganic sulphate. The steady-state adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate concentration may determine the rate of sulphate conjugation of drugs in the rat in vivo. PMID:747664

  10. Solidification of spent TBP solvent with aluminium chloride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new techniques for processing spent TBP was investigated. It was proved that treatment of TBP containing DBP with aluminium chloride resulted in the formation of aluminium phosphate suitable for long term storage and final disposal

  11. Protective effects of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase on neurotoxicity of aluminium applied into the CA1 sector of rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina D Jovanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Aluminum (Al toxicity is closely linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer′s disease (AD. This experimental study was aimed to investigate the active avoidance behaviour of rats after intrahippocampal injection of Al, and biochemical and immunohistochemical changes in three bilateral brain structures namely, forebrain cortex (FBCx, hippocampus and basal forebrain (BF. Methods: Seven days after intra-hippocampal (CA1 sector injection of AlCl 3 into adult male Wistar rats they were subjected to two-way active avoidance (AA tests over five consecutive days. Control rats were treated with 0.9% w/v saline. The animals were decapitated on the day 12 post-injection. The activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH were measured in the FBCx, hippocampus and BF. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for transferrin receptors, amyloid β and tau protein. Results: The activities of both AChE and G6PDH were found to be decreased bilaterally in the FBCx, hippocampus and basal forebrain compared to those of control rats. The number of correct AA responses was reduced by AlCl 3 treatment. G6PDH administered prior to AlCl 3 resulted in a reversal of the effects of AlCl 3 on both biochemical and behavioural parameters. Strong immunohistochemical staining of transferrin receptors was found bilaterally in the FBCx and the hippocampus in all three study groups. In addition, very strong amyloid β staining was detected bilaterally in all structures in AlCl 3 -treated rats but was moderate in G6PDH/AlCl 3 -treated rats. Strong tau staining was noted bilaterally in AlCl 3 -treated rats. In contrast, tau staining was only moderate in G6PDH/AlCl 3 -treated rats. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicated that the G6PDH alleviated the signs of behavioural and biochemical effects of AlCl 3 -treatment suggesting its involvement in the pathogenesis of Al neurotoxicity and its potential

  12. Removal of phosphate from municipal sewage by high gradient magnetic separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄自力; 胡岳华; 徐竞; 郑春华

    2004-01-01

    The removal of phosphate from municipal sewage by high gradient magnetic separation using aluminium sulphate as precipitating agent and Fe3O4 as seeding material was studied. The effects of aluminium sulphate,Fe3O4, magnetic field intensity, pH value and flow-rate of sewage on phosphorus removal rate were investigated.200 kA/m, pH value of 4.5 - 7.0 and flow-rate of 6.15 cm/s are both efficient and economic technical parameters for removal of phosphate. The pH value has a tremendous effect on the removal of phosphate. In the pH range of 4.5- 7.0, more than 95% phosphate can be removed. Theoretical analysis indicates that the solubility of AlPO4 is minimum at pH 4.0 - 7.0 and the electrostatic attractive force between AlPO4 and Fe3O4 is maximum at pH 4.5 -6.5.

  13. The availability of inorganic sulphate in blood for sulphate conjugation of drugs in rat liver in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Na235SO4 is injected intravenously in rats, it is immediately available for sulphate conjugation of the phenolic drug harmol (7-hydroxyl-l-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) in the liver. This was esteblished by following the time course of the biliary excretion of the sulphate conjugate of harmol, and the incorporation of [35S]sulphate into harmol sulphate. During the 10 min immediately after injection of Na235SO4 re-distribution of [35S]sulphate took place, which resulted in a rapid initial decrease in the plasma concentration of [35S]sulphate; a concomitant decrease in the amount of [35S]sulphate incorporated into harmol sulphate was observed, indicating that the co-substrate of sulphation, adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate, equilibrates rapidly with [35S]sulphate in plasma. The results suggest that the pool size of adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate is very small; therefore the specific radioactivity of [35S]sulphate in plasma determines the specific radioactivity incorporated into sulphate esters at any time. (author)

  14. Sulphate radical generation through interaction of peroxymonosulphate with Co(II) for in-line sample preparation aiming at spectrophotometric flow-based determination of phosphate and phosphite in fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Carla C; Kamogawa, Marcos Y; Ferreira, José R; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2016-09-01

    An advanced oxidative process relying on the interaction of peroxymonosulphate and cobalt(II) was implemented for generating the sulphate radicals in flow analysis, in order to accomplish in-line sample preparation thus improving the spectrophotometric determination of phosphate and phosphite in liquid foliar fertilizers. To this end, a flow-batch system with a heated chamber was designed. The sample was handled twice, with and without the step of phosphite oxidation to phosphate, and the formed orthophosphate was quantified after interaction with the vanadate-molybdate reagent. Phosphite was determined as the difference in analytical signals corresponding to sample handling with and without the oxidation step. Influence of Co(II) on the peroxymonosulphate activation, reagent concentrations and added volumes, acidity, temperature and heating time were investigated like aiming at to improve analytical recovery and measurement repeatability, as well as the and system ruggedness. The 6.6-20.0mgL(-1) P2O5 standards were in-line prepared from a single stock solution. Detection limits were estimated as 0.8 and 0.1mgL(-1) for P2O5 and P-PO4. Twenty-four samples are were run per hour, and results are were in agreement with those obtained by the official procedure. PMID:27343605

  15. Epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Zorica Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on modified aluminum surfaces (anodized, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium were monitored during exposure to 3% NaCl solution, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Better protective properties of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminum and phosphatized aluminum were obtained: higher values of Rp and Rct and smaller values of Cc and Cd, from EIS, and a smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating, from TGA. On the other hand, a somewhat lower thermal stability of these coatings was obtained (smaller values of the ipdt temperature. This behavior can be explained by the less porous structure of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum, caused by a lower rate of H2 evolution and better wet ability.

  16. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dawson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology.

  17. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources. PMID:1542992

  18. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K;

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or...... aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in 11 dialysis patients participating in a randomised cross-over study. Each treatment period lasted 6 months. Serum phosphorus was maintained in the range 1.5-2.0 mmol/l. During Al(OH)3 treatment bone mineral content (BMC) decreased by 11% per half-year (mean), but only by 3......% per half-year during CaCO3 treatment (P less than 0.05). Comparing the CaCO3 and Al(OH)3 periods the following differences were found: serum calcium increased during CaCO3 treatment, PTH(1-84) decreased (79% of initial values during CaCO3 versus 196% during Al(OH)3, mean area under curve, P less than...

  19. Automotive Aluminium Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelas, B. des

    2000-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview on the contribution of aluminium recycling in the supply of new aluminium for automotive applications. Based on a presentation on how the global European automotive aluminium supply requirements are met, an analysis of the present and future contribution of automotive aluminium recycling is first presented. Current situation and future developments for automotive aluminium recycling practices are then commented, together with an outline on design principles for easier aluminium recycling. (orig.)

  20. Corrosion of aluminium metal in OPC- and CAC-based cement matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Hajime, E-mail: h.kinoshita@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Swift, Paul; Utton, Claire [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Carro-Mateo, Beatriz [The Public University of Navarra, C/Esquíroz, 30 trasera, Pamplona 31007 (Spain); Marchand, Geraldine [The National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) Lyon, 20 Avenue Albert Einstein 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Collier, Nick [National Nuclear Laboratory, Chadwick House, Birchwood Park, Warrington, WA3 6AE (United Kingdom); Milestone, Neil [Industrial Research Ltd., 69 Gracefield Road, Lower Hutt, 5040 (New Zealand)

    2013-08-15

    Corrosion of aluminium metal in ordinary Portland cement (OPC) based pastes produces hydrogen gas and expansive reaction products causing problems for the encapsulation of aluminium containing nuclear wastes. Although corrosion of aluminium in cements has been long known, the extent of aluminium corrosion in the cement matrices and effects of such reaction on the cement phases are not well established. The present study investigates the corrosion reaction of aluminium in OPC, OPC-blast furnace slag (BFS) and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) based systems. The total amount of aluminium able to corrode in an OPC and 4:1 BFS:OPC system was determined, and the correlation between the amount of calcium hydroxide in the system and the reaction of aluminium obtained. It was also shown that a CAC-based system could offer a potential matrix to incorporate aluminium metal with a further reduction of pH by introduction of phosphate, producing a calcium phosphate cement.

  1. Modelling the corrosion behaviour of Al2CuMg coarse particles in copper-rich aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Blanc, Christine; Freulon, Alexandre; Lafont, Marie-Christine; Kihn, Yolande; Mankowski, Georges

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of 2024 aluminium alloy in sulphate solutions was studied; attention was focused on the influence of coarse intermetallic Al2CuMg particles on the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Model alloys representative of the aluminium matrix and of Al2CuMg coarse intermetallics were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. Open-circuit potential measurements, current–potential curve plotting and galvanic coupling tests were performed in sulphate solutions with or without chlorides...

  2. Aluminium structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Švent, Nejc

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the structural analysis of aluminium structural members in accordance with the SIST EN 1999-1-1 standard. In the introduction, historical development of aluminium is summarized, as well as the processes of structural aluminium production and manufacture. Predominantly, resistance control checks of aluminium structural members are covered, with special attention to the major contrasts between aluminium and steel structural analyses. Finally, fundamental examples of resis...

  3. Role of acidic chemistries in steam treatment of aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acidic chemistry on the accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys Peraluman 706TM and AA6060 under exposure to high temperature steam was investigated. Studied chemistries were based on citrates and phosphates. Results showed that the presence of citrate and phosphate anions...

  4. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  5. Morphine sulphation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choonara, I; Ekbom, Y; Lindström, B; Rane, A

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of morphine was studied in nine children and seven preterm neonates receiving a continuous infusion of morphine. All the neonates and three children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-sulphate (M3S) in urine. None of the neonates or the children had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-sulphate (M6S) in urine. None of the children had detectable concentrations of M3S in plasma. The M3S/morphine ratios were significantly higher in neonates than children (P less than 0.01), suggesting that morphine sulphation decreases after the neonatal period. The amount of M3S formed, even in neonates, is low suggesting that this is a minor metabolic pathway. PMID:2288836

  6. Increased sulphation improves the anticoagulant activities of heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, F A; Modi, G J; Blajchman, M A; Buchanan, M R; Johnson, E A

    1987-01-01

    Heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate have both antithrombotic and anticoagulant properties. These are, however, significantly weaker than those of a comparable amount of standard pig mucosal heparin. Antithrombotic and anticoagulant effects of glycosaminoglycans depend on their ability to catalyse the inhibition of thrombin and/or to inhibit the activation of prothrombin. Since heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate are less sulphated than unfractionated heparin, we investigated whether the decreased sulphation contributes to the lower antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities compared with standard heparin. To do this, we compared the anticoagulant activities of heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate with those of their derivatives resulphated in vitro. The ratio of sulphate to carboxylate in these resulphated heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate derivatives was approximately twice that of the parent compounds and similar to that of standard heparin. Anticoagulant effects were assessed by determining (a) the catalytic effects of each glycosaminoglycan on the inhibition of thrombin added to plasma, and (b) the ability of each glycosaminoglycan to inhibit the activation of 125I-prothrombin in plasma. The least sulphated glycosaminoglycans were least able to catalyse the inhibition of thrombin added to plasma and to inhibit the activation of prothrombin. Furthermore, increasing the degree of sulphation improved the catalytic effects of glycosaminoglycans on the inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II in plasma. The degree of sulphation therefore appears to be an important functional property that contributes significantly to the anticoagulant effects of the two glycosaminoglycans. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2963622

  7. Morphine sulphation in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Choonara, I; Ekbom, Y; Lindström, B; Rane, A.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of morphine was studied in nine children and seven preterm neonates receiving a continuous infusion of morphine. All the neonates and three children had detectable concentrations of morphine-3-sulphate (M3S) in urine. None of the neonates or the children had detectable concentrations of morphine-6-sulphate (M6S) in urine. None of the children had detectable concentrations of M3S in plasma. The M3S/morphine ratios were significantly higher in neonates than children (P less than ...

  8. Underground Corrosion by Microorganisms Part II : Role of Anaerobic Sulphate Reducing Bacteria-Desulfotomaculum SP

    OpenAIRE

    H. M. Dayal; K. C. Tiwari; Kamlesh Mehta; Chandrashekhar,

    1988-01-01

    During the course of studies on the corrosion causing soil microflora from different geoclimatic regions of India, several strains of anaerobic sulphate reducing bacteria belonging to genus Desulfotomaculum were isolated and characterised. Their corrosive action on mild steel, galvanised iron and structural aluminium, the three main metals of construction of underground structures, have been studied under laboratory conditions.

  9. Underground Corrosion by Microorganisms Part II : Role of Anaerobic Sulphate Reducing Bacteria-Desulfotomaculum SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available During the course of studies on the corrosion causing soil microflora from different geoclimatic regions of India, several strains of anaerobic sulphate reducing bacteria belonging to genus Desulfotomaculum were isolated and characterised. Their corrosive action on mild steel, galvanised iron and structural aluminium, the three main metals of construction of underground structures, have been studied under laboratory conditions.

  10. Zinc sulphate in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mattingly, P. C.; Mowat, A G

    1982-01-01

    To assess the antirheumatic activity of zinc sulphate, 27 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis took part in a 6-month, randomised, double-blind, between-group trial of oral zinc sulphate versus placebo. Twelve patients on zinc and 9 on placebo completed the trial, but no significant antirheumatic activity of zinc sulphate was demonstrated.

  11. Monitoring of slurry fields solutions of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of annual monitoring of slurry fields solutions of aluminium industrial production of Tajik Aluminium Plant are considered in this work. It is found that in summer period the containing of sulfate, carbonate, hydro carbonate and fluoride salts in slurry fields solutions increase. This is due to intensive evaporation of solvent (water). In autumn-winter period due to air temperature decreasing the precipitation of above mentioned salts is observed. The results of chemical analysis of slurry fields solutions are presented in this work. The slurry fields solutions are analyzed by means of X-ray and thermal analysis. The flowsheet of purification of processed slurry fields solutions from sodium sulphate is proposed.

  12. Effects of detergent on the sulphation of chondroitin by cell-free preparations from chick-embryo epiphyseal cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, G; Silbert, J E

    1992-07-15

    The effects of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 on 6-sulphation of two species of endogenous nascent proteochondroitin by a chick-embryo cartilage microsomal system was examined. Sulphation of the larger (Type I) species with adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate was slightly diminished when Triton X-100 was present, whereas sulphation of the smaller (Type II) species was slightly enhanced. An ordered rather than random pattern of sulphation was obtained for the smaller proteoglycan, but with a considerably lower degree of sulphation than that of the larger proteochondroitin. These differences were consistent with other differences between these two species as described previously. Sulphation of exogenous [14C]chondroitin and exogenous proteo[3H]chondroitin by the microsomal system with Triton X-100 present produced ordered rather than random sulphation patterns. When a 100,000 g supernatant fraction was utilized for sulphation of [14C]chondroitin or proteo[3H]chondroitin, Triton X-100 was not needed, and ordered sulphation was still obtained. When hexasaccharide was used, sulphation of multiple N-acetylgalactosamine residues of the individual hexasaccharides resulted. This was relatively independent of Triton X-100 or the concentration of the hexasaccharide acceptors. With soluble enzyme, sulphation of multiple N-acetylgalactosamine residues on the individual hexasaccharide molecules was even greater, so that tri-sulphated products were found. This suggests that ordered rather than random sulphation of chondroitin with these enzyme preparations is due to enzyme-substrate interaction rather than to membrane organization. PMID:1637348

  13. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković Aleksandra; Tajber Lidia; Paluch Krzysztof J.; Djurić Zorica; Parojčić Jelena; Corrigan Owen I.

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution ...

  14. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    performed on hundreds of kilograms of glass and showed that 50% of the sulphate initially introduced could be confined in the glass melt. Two alternative ways are possible to confine sulphate-rich wastes in glasses: one should either maximize sulphate incorporation into the glass matrix or let it decompose and free up consequently the generated sulphur-containing gases through the gas-treating apparatus melter. It is thus essential to determine at a laboratory scale the kinetics of sulphate removal from the glass melt for different compositions of glasses (silicate, vanadate or phosphate glasses). (authors)

  15. Hydrous aluminium-oxides prepared by homogeneous precipitation from aluminium(III)sulphate with urea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáč, Jozef; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Štengl, Václav; Szatmáry, Lórant; Šubrt, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2006), s. 22-26. ISSN 0862-5468 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0577 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : urea * homogeneous precipitation * alpha-boehmite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.597, year: 2006

  16. Rows of Dislocation Loops in Aluminium Irradiated by Aluminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.;

    1967-01-01

    Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics......Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  17. Sulphation of proteochondroitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside-chondroitin formed by mouse mastocytoma cells cultured in sulphate-deficient medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, J E; Sugumaran, G; Cogburn, J N

    1993-11-15

    H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate were calculated from the 3H and 35S c.p.m. of isolated dual-labelled delta Di-4S from each, and indicated that the presence of the beta-xyloside resulted in a dilution of the [3H]GlcN by endogenous GlcN that was 4 times higher than that of cultures lacking the beta-xyloside. The higher sulphate concentrations needed for sulphation of beta-xyloside-chondroitin suggests that the membrane-bound nature of the proteochondroitin acceptor in juxtaposition to a chondroitin sulphate-synthesizing enzyme complex effectively reduces the apparent Km for adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate. PMID:8250831

  18. Studies on buccoadhesive tablets of terbutaline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhat P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to develop buccoadhesive bilayered tablets comprising of drug containing bioadhesive layer and drug free backing layer to release the drug for extended period of time with reduction in dosing frequency. Tablets of terbutaline sulphate were prepared by direct compression method using bioadhesive polymers like Carbopol 934P, Methocel K4M, Methocel K15M and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose either alone or in combinations with backing layer of ethyl cellulose. The physical characteristics, swelling index, surface pH, in vitro bioadhesion strength, and in vitro release of formulated tablets were shown to be dependent on characteristics and composition of bioadhesive materials used. The modified in vitro assembly was used to measure and compare the bioadhesive strength of tablets with fresh porcine buccal mucosa as a model tissue. The maximum bioadhesive strength was observed in tablets formulated with Carbopol 934P alone and strength decreases with decrease in its content. The tablets were evaluated for in vitro release in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 10 h using a standardized dissolution apparatus. In order to determine the mode of release, the data was subjected to Korsmeyer and Peppas diffusion model. All the formulations followed non-Fickian release mechanism. Carbopol 934P and Methocel K4M in the ratio of 1:1 could be used to design effective and stable buccoadhesive tablets of terbutaline sulphate.

  19. Aluminum sulphate production and zeolite from residual muds of the company Extralum S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of our research on alternative raw materials for the chemical industry we studied sludge from an anodizing process at Extralum S.A. The sludge contains mainly bayerite, Al(OH)3 and bohemite A1O (OH). Starting from these we developed a hydrothermal synthesis of Aluminium sulphate and Zeolite A. The Zeolite A was identified by Powder X-ray crystallography. The scanning electron microscope image of the Zeolite A shows a very high degree of crystallinity. (Author)

  20. The Sulphation of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and related compounds by the rat liver cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hext, P M; Rose, F A

    1975-01-01

    Cytosol preparations of rat liver and kidney were examined for their ability to transfer sulphate from adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-sulphatophosphate to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid. Little activity towards this substrate was observed, and the main product detected in the reaction mixtures was identified as p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol O-sulphate. This was not formed from p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, a spontaneous oxidation product of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, by sulphation followed by a rapid enzyme-catalysed reduction of the intermediate phydroxybenzaldehyde O-sulphate. This product was formed mainly by this sequence of reactions, but the reverse, reduction followed by sulphation, also appeared possible. p-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol itself was very readily sulphated by both preparations, and the liver also produced a sulpho-conjugate of homogentisic acid. These observations are important in calculating the turnover of L-tyrosine O-sulphate in the mammalian system, and establish that p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid O-sulphate is an end product of its metabolism, rather than an intermediate in its synthesis by reversed transamination. PMID:1180912

  1. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO42−) into hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6−x(SO4)x(OH)2−x) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO42− ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO3)2·4H2O), ((NH4)2HPO4) and (Na2SO4) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO42− ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure

  2. Evaluation of poly-alumino-iron sulphate (PAFS) as a coagulant for water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J.Q.; Graham, N.J.D. [Environmental and Water Resource Engineering, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the performance of a new kind of pre-polymerised inorganic coagulant, poly-alumino-iron sulphate (PAFS), for use in drinking water treatment. Considerable laboratory work has been undertaken to evaluate the performance of PAFS in comparison with conventional coagulants such as ferric sulphate (SF) and aluminium sulphate (AS), for the coagulation of a model upland coloured water and a typical lowland surface water in the UK. The results have shown that the PAFS coagulant was superior to the FS and AS in terms of the removal of colour, UV{sub 254}-absorbing substances and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). PAFS achieved the lowest residual concentrations of Fe and Al in comparison with FS and AS, respectively. In addition, to achieve an equivalent removal percentage, a lower coagulant dose (in molar units) was required for PAFS in comparison with AS and FS. (orig.)

  3. Conditioning of radioactive aluminium generated by the VVR-S Nuclear Reactor Decommissioning Laboratory Inactive Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium is a reactive amphoteric metal, readily forming a protective oxide layer on contact with air or water. However, as the oxides are amphoteric, aluminium is not resistant to corrosion in acidic and alkaline conditions, because the protective films dissolve. As a consequence radioactive waste containing bulk aluminium alloys can not be embedded in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). A potential encapsulating material for the radioactive aluminium is potassium magnesium phosphate (MKP). This paper presents the characterization results obtained from analyzing the potential magnesium phosphate formulations and assesses its potential to reduce the corrosion of aluminium. A series of experiments have been performed. The main conclusions of the paper are as follows. First, the pH values of magnesium phosphate formulation investigated increased gradually over the test duration, with pH measurement ranging from 8.1 - 9.1, indicating lower values compared with the reference composite OPC (pH ∼ 13). The reduction of pH is an important controlling factor for the corrosion of aluminium. Secondly, according to XRD, the hardened magnesium phosphate matrix is polycrystalline and the main reaction product of magnesium phosphate cement formulations was confirmed as MgKPO4-6H2O, which was found to dominate the crystalline phase composition. Thirdly, the compressive strengths obtained for magnesium phosphate matrices investigated are included in the accepted limits for the embedding matrix with cement (above 5 N/mm2). And fourthly, the corrosion of metallic aluminium in magnesium phosphate matrix is markedly reduced in comparison with the composite OPC

  4. Effect of aluminium toxicity on the development of poplar (Populus tremula L. x P. alba L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bojarczuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious bud cultures were established using vegetative buds from selected clones of poplar (Populus tremula L. x P. alba L. as initial explants. For multiplication of shoots a modified Murashige and Skoog medium (MS was used. Aluminium salts (aluminium sulphate and aluminium chloride were added to the media. It was found that the pH of the medium had no effect on the development of cultures at low concentrations of nutrients (1/2 or 1/4 MS. Low concentrations of aluminium (Al 25mg•dm-3 supplied as aluminium sulphate, Al 15 mg•dm-3 as aluminium chloride had no inhibitory effect on shoot development but decreased regeneration of adventitious roots. High concentrations of aluminium inhibited the development of shoots and roots, especially in a medium at pH 4.5. Microcuttings rooted in the highest percentage and formed the strongest rooting system on 1/4 strength MS medium at pH 4.5. It was found that there was no difference between the rooting of shoots excised from cultures cultivated with or without A1 in this medium at pH 5.5.

  5. Aluminium content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyed, Salim M; Yokel, Robert A

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Quality control (QC) samples, with matrices matching the samples, were generated and used to verify the Al determinations. Food product Al content ranged from Cheese in a serving of frozen pizzas had up to 14 mg of Al, from basic sodium aluminium phosphate; whereas the same amount of cheese in a ready-to-eat restaurant pizza provided 0.03-0.09 mg. Many single serving packets of non-dairy creamer had approximately 50-600 mg Al kg(-1) as sodium aluminosilicate, providing up to 1.5 mg Al per serving. Many single serving packets of salt also had sodium aluminosilicate as an additive, but the Al content was less than in single-serving non-dairy creamer packets. Acidic sodium aluminium phosphate was present in many food products, pancakes and waffles. Baking powder, some pancake/waffle mixes and frozen products, and ready-to-eat pancakes provided the most Al of the foods tested; up to 180 mg/serving. Many products provide a significant amount of Al compared to the typical intake of 3-12 mg/day reported from dietary Al studies conducted in many countries. PMID:16019791

  6. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    growth curves are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold......In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X......-ray diffraction technique for studies of the evolution of grains within polycrystalline materials. The much smaller volume of the crystallites of interest here in comparison to grains implies that the existing method is not applicable due to overlap of diffraction spots. In this work this obstacle is overcome by...

  7. Studies on the sulphation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) and related compounds by rat tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, William N.; Rose, Frederick A.

    1973-01-01

    The formation of sulpho-conjugates of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (dopamine) and related compounds was examined in preparations of rat tissues. Liver high-speed-supernatant preparations readily transferred sulphate from adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphato-phosphate to dopamine under standard conditions. The main product was identified as the 3-O-sulphate. The preparation also sulphated the 3- and 4-methoxy derivatives but to a lesser extent (44% and 95% respectively) relative to dopamine. Brain preparations possessed only half the activity of liver but formed both the 3- and 4-O-sulphates in the molar ratio of 1.7:1. l-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) in both tissue preparations did not yield any significant amount of sulpho-conjugate when the dopa decarboxylase present was inhibited. The sulphotransferase activity of preparations was doubled in the presence of dithiothreitol and it was concluded that l-tyrosine methyl ester sulphotransferase was the enzyme involved. A method for the preparation of authentic dopamine 3-O-sulphate and 4-O-sulphate was developed. PMID:4798178

  8. Soldering of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature survey about soldering in general and aluminium alloys soldering in particular is presented. The existing methods of soldering aluminium alloys are described. These include soldering with flux, soldering after preliminary plating, vacuum brazipressure and temperature (NTP), sample age calculation based on 14C half life of 5570 and 5730 years, age correction for NTP, dendrochronological corrections and the relative radiocarbon concentration. All results are given with one standard deviation. Input data test (Chauvenet's criterion), gas purity test, standard deviation test and test of the data processor are also included in the program. (author)

  9. Production of aluminium oxide from the kaolin waste reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kaolin processing for paper covering produces a great volume of residues formed primary by clay mineral kaolinite which was in this study, the starting point for the synthesis of ammonium alum aiming to obtain free sodium alumina with fine grade for ceramic manufacture. The synthesis process to obtain ammonium alum consisted of the following procedures: residues calcination and sulphuric leaching of meta kaolinite followed by neutralization/ crystallization of aluminium sulphate solution with ammonium hydroxide concentrated solution. The effect of calcination temperature (650 deg C, 700 deg C and 750 deg C), calcination time of residues (30 min, 60 min and 120 min),sulphuric acid concentration as well as leaching temperature (70 deg C, 80 deg C and 90 deg C) on kinetics of aluminium leaching were studied. The influence of pH on ammonium alum crystallization was also studied. Data on chemical analysis, XRD and DTA of raw material utilized and synthesized are presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Molecular distinctions between heparan sulphate and heparin. Analysis of sulphation patterns indicates that heparan sulphate and heparin are separate families of N-sulphated polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J T; Walker, A

    1985-01-01

    Heparan sulphate and heparin are chemically related alpha beta-linked glycosaminoglycans composed of alternating sequences of glucosamine and uronic acid. The amino sugars may be N-acetylated or N-sulphated, and the latter substituent is unique to these two polysaccharides. Although there is general agreement that heparan sulphate is usually less sulphated than heparin, reproducible differences in their molecular structure have been difficult to identify. We suggest that this is because most of the analytical data have been obtained with degraded materials that are not necessarily representative of complete polysaccharide chains. In the present study intact heparan sulphates, labelled biosynthetically with [3H]glucosamine and Na2(35)SO4, were isolated from the surface membranes of several types of cells in culture. The polysaccharide structure was analysed by complete HNO2 hydrolysis followed by fractionation of the products by gel filtration and high-voltage electrophoresis. Results showed that in all heparan sulphates there were approximately equal numbers of N-sulpho and N-acetyl substituents, arranged in a similar, predominantly segregated, manner along the polysaccharide chain. O-Sulphate groups were in close proximity to the N-sulphate groups but, unlike the latter, the number of O-sulphate groups could vary considerably in heparan sulphates of different cellular origins ranging from 20 to 75 O-sulphate groups per 100 disaccharide units. Inspection of the published data on heparin showed that the N-sulphate frequency was very high (greater than 80% of the glucosamine residues are N-sulphated) and the concentration of O-sulphate groups exceeded that of the N-sulphate groups. We conclude from these and other observations that heparan sulphate and heparin are separate families of N-sulphated glycosaminoglycans. PMID:2933029

  11. Sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses: implications for the containment of sulphate-bearing nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis deals with sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses, in order to control sulphate incorporation and sulphate volatilization in nuclear waste glasses. It was conducted on simplified compositions, in the SiO2-B2O3-R2O (R = Li, Na, K, Cs), SiO2-B2O3-BaO and V2O5-B2O3-BaO systems. These compositions allowed us to study the influence of the nature of network-modifying ions (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+ or Ba2+) and also of former elements (Si, B, V), on structure and properties of glasses. Sulphate volatility is studied in sodium borosilicate melts using an innovative technique of sulphate quantitation with Raman spectroscopy. This technique is useful to obtain kinetic curves of sulphate volatilization. The establishment of a model to fit these curves leads to the determination of diffusion coefficients of sulphate. These diffusion coefficients can thus be compared to diffusion coefficients of other species, determined by other techniques and presented in the literature. They are also linked to diffusion coefficients in relation with the viscosity of the melts. Concerning sulphate solubility in glasses, it depends on glass composition and on the nature of sulphate incorporated. Sulphate incorporation in alkali borosilicate glasses leads to the formation of a sulphate layer floating on top of the melt. Sulphate incorporation in barium borosilicate and boro-vanadate glasses leads to the crystallization of sulphate species inside the vitreous matrix. Moreover, sulphate solubility is higher in these glasses than in alkali borosilicates. Finally, exchanges between cations present in glasses and cations present in the sulphate phase are also studied. (author)

  12. Complex processing of fluorine- and alumina comprising wastes of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to complex processing of fluorine- and alumina comprising wastes of aluminium production. The composition and optimal parameters of soda-alkaline treatment of solution, obtained at sulfuric acid decomposition of fluorine- and alumina comprising wastes of aluminium production was defined. The conducted studies shown that from sulphate comprising solution at soda-alkaline treatment it is possible to obtain the alumina, fluoric salts and building materials. The flowsheet of complex processing of fluorine- and alumina comprising wastes was elaborated and proposed.

  13. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  14. Prolonged release terbutaline sulphate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, N C; Puranik, P K; Joshi, S B

    1991-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate microcapsules were prepared by coacervation-phase separation induced by solvent evaporation technique. The cellulose acetate phthalate was employed as coating material alone and in combination with ethyl cellulose. The prepared microcapsules were evaluated for their drug content, particle size distribution (microscopic method), flow properties, bulk density and in vitro dissolution. PMID:1798022

  15. Sulphate reduction experiment: SURE-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was previously concluded that opposing gradients of sulphate and methane, observations of 16S rDNA sequences displaying great similarity to those of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea, and a peak in sulphide concentration in groundwater from a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, indicated proper conditions for methane oxidation with sulphate. In the present research (SURE-1), pressure-resistant, gas-tight circulating systems were constructed to enable the investigation of attached and unattached anaerobic microbial populations from a depth of 327 m in Olkiluoto under in situ pressure (2.4 MPa), diversity, dissolved gas, and hydrochemical conditions of groundwater station ONKPVA6. Three parallel flow cell cabinets were configured to allow observation of the influence on microbial metabolic activity of 11 mM methane, 11 mM methane plus 10 mM H2, or 2.1 mM O2 plus 7.9 mM N2 (i.e., air). The concentrations of these gases and of organic acids and carbon, sulphur chemistry, pH and Eh, ATP, numbers of cultivable microorganisms, and total numbers of cells and bacteriophages were subsequently recorded under batch conditions for 105 d. The system containing H2 and methane displayed microbial reduction of 0.7 mM sulphate to sulphide, while the system containing only methane produced 0.2 mM reduced sulphate. The system containing added air became inhibited and displayed no signs of microbial activity. Added H2 and methane induced increasing numbers of lysogenic bacteriophages per cell. It appears possible that a microbial anaerobic methane-oxidizing process coupled to acetate formation and sulphate reduction may be ongoing in aquifers at a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, but clear evidence of such an AOM process was not obtained. (orig.)

  16. Sulphate reduction experiment: SURE-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Hallbeck, L.; Johansson, J.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    It was previously concluded that opposing gradients of sulphate and methane, observations of 16S rDNA sequences displaying great similarity to those of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea, and a peak in sulphide concentration in groundwater from a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, indicated proper conditions for methane oxidation with sulphate. In the present research (SURE-1), pressure-resistant, gas-tight circulating systems were constructed to enable the investigation of attached and unattached anaerobic microbial populations from a depth of 327 m in Olkiluoto under in situ pressure (2.4 MPa), diversity, dissolved gas, and hydrochemical conditions of groundwater station ONKPVA6. Three parallel flow cell cabinets were configured to allow observation of the influence on microbial metabolic activity of 11 mM methane, 11 mM methane plus 10 mM H{sub 2}, or 2.1 mM O{sub 2} plus 7.9 mM N{sub 2} (i.e., air). The concentrations of these gases and of organic acids and carbon, sulphur chemistry, pH and E{sub h}, ATP, numbers of cultivable microorganisms, and total numbers of cells and bacteriophages were subsequently recorded under batch conditions for 105 d. The system containing H{sub 2} and methane displayed microbial reduction of 0.7 mM sulphate to sulphide, while the system containing only methane produced 0.2 mM reduced sulphate. The system containing added air became inhibited and displayed no signs of microbial activity. Added H{sub 2} and methane induced increasing numbers of lysogenic bacteriophages per cell. It appears possible that a microbial anaerobic methane-oxidizing process coupled to acetate formation and sulphate reduction may be ongoing in aquifers at a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, but clear evidence of such an AOM process was not obtained. (orig.)

  17. Substitution of lead salts for aluminium salts in the determination of sucrose content in molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyura Julianna F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the sugar industry analytical practice it is necessary to remove nonsucrose compounds from samples in order to determine sucrose content by polarimetric procedure. These mentioned compounds are removed by sedimentation after adding lead salts. Lead is considered as one of outstandingly strong pollutant of human environment and the living world as a whole. Ways of its environment presence are various. Some industrial branches are very close to this top including on this level even the sugar factories. Toxic effects of lead salts and the intensified concern for protecting the environment imposed the need for finding new sedimentation agents. In this work the influence of molasses quality on nonsucrose compounds sedimentation by aluminium-sulphate was examined. Optimum values of the parameters influencing the sedimentation process were determined. Best results were obtained with aluminium-sulphate at concentration of 0.1227 mol Al/dm3 and pH 6.0.

  18. Partial purification and properties of an enzyme from rat liver that catalyses the sulphation of l-tyrosyl derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattock, P.; Jones, J. G.

    1970-01-01

    1. An enzyme that catalyses the transfer of sulphate from adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′[35S]-sulphatophosphate to l-tyrosine methyl ester and tyramine was purified approx. 70-fold from female rat livers. 2. The partially purified preparation is still contaminated with adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-sulphatophosphate–phenol sulphotransferase (EC 2.8.2.1), but a partial separation of the two enzymes can be achieved by chromatography on columns of Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-Sephadex. 3. The enzyme responsible for the sulphation of l-tyrosine methyl ester and tyramine is activated by dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol and GSH, the degree of activation being more marked with preparations previously stored at 0 or −10°C. In contrast, the enzymic sulphation of p-nitrophenol is inhibited by all three thiols. Again, there is a quantitative difference in the degree of inhibition of the two enzymes by o-iodosobenzoate, p-chloromercuribenzoate, N-ethylmaleimide and iodoacetate. 4. Mixed-substrate experiments support the hypothesis that the enzyme responsible for the sulphation of l-tyrosine methyl ester and tyramine is separate from that responsible for the sulphation of p-nitrophenol. However, p-nitrophenol is a potent inhibitor of the sulphation of both tyrosyl derivatives whereas these latter compounds have no effect on the sulphation of p-nitrophenol. PMID:5441369

  19. Recovery in aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X-ray diffraction technique for studies of the evolution of grains within polycrystalline materials. The much smaller volume of the crystallites of interest here in comparison to grains implies that the ...

  20. Electron diffraction and 31P and 27Al NMR studies of aluminium phospate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Various forms of aluminium phosphate were crystallised using a variety of fluxes. Selected area electron diffraction showed that preparations of the tridymite form of aluminium phosphate consists of hexagonal sheets of aluminium phosphate stacked in regular random or irregular stacking. The stacking depends on the preparation conditions. Undoped AlPO4 or AlPO4 doped with trivalent cations such as Fe3+ or Cr3+ exhibit a mixture of hexagonal, h, and cubic, c, sequences of layers corresponding to ABA and ABC stacking respectively of successive layers. Doping with 0.1 mole percent of divalent impurities such as Ni2+ or Co2+ with simultaneous doping by Li+ to maintain charge neutrality stabilised pure hexagonal stacking. The 31P and 27Al NMR of samples of AlPO4 with quartz, tridymite, and cristobalite structures gave characteristic peaks that were clearly distinguished. Samples with the quartz and cristobalite structures gave sharp resonances but a sample with the tridymite structure gave a broad resonance if it had random stacking of layers as evidenced by diffraction. However samples prepared with regular stacking gave a resonance that was clearly resolved into two peaks are attributed to hexagonal or cubic stacking sequences of layers respectively. The tridymite form of aluminium phosphate that was undoped or doped with trivalent impurities always showed the two peaks. For the aluminium phosphate doped with divalent impurities the peak indentified as arising from hexagonal stacking of layers predominated with only a weak shoulder from the cubic stacking. The doped aluminium phosphate samples were yellow for Fe3+, blue for Co2+, green for Ni2+, and pink for Cr2+. Further studies using electron paramagnetic resonance and cathodoluminesence are planned to elucidate the nature of these colour centres. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  1. Detoxications in peripatus. Sulphate, phosphate and histidine conjugations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T W; McNaught, R W; Smith, J N

    1970-06-01

    Phenols were detoxified in the Onycophoran Peripatoides novaezealandiae by conjugation with sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid, but no evidence for a glycoside detoxication could be found. [(14)C]Benzoic acid was metabolized in 24h to N(2)-benzoyl-l-histidine, which was identified by electrophoresis, chromatography and dilution analysis. Similar conjugates were formed with p-aminobenzoic acid and p-nitrobenzoic acid. In longer-duration experiments further unidentified metabolites were formed, two of which appeared to result from the further metabolism of the histidine conjugate. PMID:5472152

  2. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate. PMID:22099158

  3. Method of aluminium fluoride manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of aluminium fluoride is based on waste processing in uranium hexafluoride conversion to uranium oxides within the fuel cycle. The conversion is the stoichiometric conversion of uranium hexafluoride with aluminium nitrate to uranyl nitrate. This is extracted from the water phase by phosphoric acid trialkyl ester to an organic solvent and further processed. The discharge water phase is solidified by evaporation to solid aluminium fluoride and nitric acid. (M.S.)

  4. RAMAN SPECTRUM STUDIES OF THE COORDINATIONS OF ALUMINIUM AND BORON IN Na2O-Al2O3-B2O3-P2O5 GLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Yifen, Yin; Dehua, Jiang; Xiangsheng, Chen; Beiya, Bian; Xihuai, Huang

    1985-01-01

    The coordination states of aluminium and boron in Na2O-Al2O3-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The study shows that when boron and aluminium ions exist simultaneously in phosphate glasses, it is possible that boron ions form BO4 tetrahedra prior to aluminium ions, and the former has three and four coordinations while the latter has four and six.

  5. Sulphate removal from uraniferous liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for the recovery of uranium from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is claimed. An ion exchange resin is used to separate the uranium from the solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. The ion exchange resin is then eluted with a solution of ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate to provide an eluate containing ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and ammonium sulphate. The eluate is heated to boiling to convert the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate to ammonium uranate and/or diuranate. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor are released. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is separated from the remaining liquor and calcined to give uranium trioxide

  6. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Magee, Laura A; Mitton, Craig;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at ... sensitivity analyses were used to compare the administration of magnesium sulphate with the alternative of no treatment. Two separate cost perspectives were utilized in this series of analyses: a health system and a societal perspective. In addition, two separate measures of effectiveness were utilized: cases...... of cerebral palsy (CP) averted and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). RESULTS: From a health system and a societal perspective, respectively, a savings of $2,242 and $112,602 is obtained for each QALY gained and a savings of $30,942 and $1,554,198 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium...

  7. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geology; Laaksoharju, M. [ed.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetics, Microbiology and Molecular Biology; Rhen, I. [VBB Viak (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Wallin, B. [Geokema AB (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl{sup -} concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs.

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.

    1997-12-31

    Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.

  9. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl- concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs

  10. Phosphate sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Human phosphate homeostasis is regulated at the level of intestinal absorption of phosphate from the diet, release of phosphate through bone resorption, and renal phosphate excretion and involves the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) to maintain circulating phosphate levels within a narrow normal range, which is essential for numerous cellular functions, for the growth of tissues and for bone mineralization. ...

  11. First Principles Study of Aluminium Vacancy in Wurtzite Aluminium Nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ting-Ge; YI Jue-Min; ZHOU Zi-Yao; HU Xiao-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ We report that the aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN brings about two impurity levels e and a2 in the band gap, not just one single t2 level The aluminium vacancy carries a magnetic moment of 1 μB in the ground state. The molecule orbit of the aluminium vacancy becomes e↑↑ a2↑ rather than e↑↑ a2↑. The calculation is carried out by using the CASTEP code. The intrinsic symmetry of wurtzite A1N is the driving force for this spin splitting. Finally the symmetry of wurtzite AlN results in an anti-ferromagnetic coupling between the aluminium vacancies, as is predicted. Our findings are helpful to gain a more through understanding of the structural and spin property of aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN.

  12. Sulphate reducing bacteria in wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Brand, T.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    The depletion of fresh water sources forces to design innovative integral solutions for the urban water cycle. Usual practice in most cities is to use drinking water to transport waste outside the city via sewer system. For toilet flushing the water quality is less important and seawater could be used as alternative to use of drinking water. Due to high sulphate content in seawater it usage for toilet flushing will increase the sulphate content of wastewater. Sulphate enrichment of wastewater...

  13. Radioisotope barium sulphate gauge MZB-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and the gauge for measuring content of barium sulphate are described. The gauge is intended for fast determination of barium sulphate in barite ore and in output products of the enrichment process. The measuring range 60-100% of BaSO4, accuracy ±1% and measuring time 60 s were reached. The barium sulphate gauge is used in barite mine ''Boguszow'' in Poland. (author)

  14. Fly ash formation and sulphation during the combustion of brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domazetis, G. (and others)

    1987-12-01

    This report presents an overview of investigations into the fly ash formation and sulphation process that occurs when brown coal is burnt. A code has been developed to simulate the chemistry of ash formation. The results of this project show that for the coals considered the chemistry of sodium species in a coal flame is central to the ash formation and fouling. Aluminium based additives have been tested on two Loy Yang coals. The tests show that the additives exert a pronounced influence on ash formation, probably via changes in the heterogeneous condensation of sodium compounds.

  15. LOW DOSE MAGNESIUM SULPHATE REGIME FOR ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre- eclampsia is one of the commonest medical complications seen during pregnancy. It contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Dr.J.A.Pritchard in 1955, introduced magnesium sulphate for control of convulsions in eclampsia and is used worldwide. Considering the low body mass index of indian women, a low dose magnesium sulphate regime has been introduced by some authors. Present study was carried out at tertiary care centre in rural area. Fifty cases of eclampsia were randomly selected to find out the efficacy of low dose magnesium sulphate regime to control eclamptic convulsions. Maternal and perinatal outcome and magnesium toxicity were analyzed. It was observed that 86% cases responded to initial intravenous dose of 4 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate . Eight percent cases, who got recurrence of convulsion, were controlled by additional 2 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate. Six percent cases required shifting to standard Pritchard regime, as they did not respond to low dose magnesium sulphate regime. The average total dose of magnesium sulphate required for control of convulsions was 20 grams ie. 54.4% less than that of standard Pritchard regime. The maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the present study werecomparable to those of standard Pritchard regime. The study did not find a single case of magnesium related toxicity with low dose magnesium sulphate regime. Low dose magnesium sulphate regime was found to be safe and effective in eclampsia.

  16. Electrochemical study in the molten sodium acid sulphate - potassium acid sulphate eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general properties of the NaHSO4 - KHSO4 molten eutectic resemble those of neutral sulphates and those of concentrated H2SO4. We have been able to show the existence in solution of the ions HSO-4 SO2-4, and H3O+, these last being formed by the action of the HSO-4 ions on dissolved H2O. The electro-active zone with a polished platinum electrode is limited in oxidation by the ions H3O+ and SO2-4, and in reduction by the protons of HSO-4. We have compared the electro-active zones obtained with different electrodes (Ag-Au-graphite-mercury). We have considered the dissolution of a few metallic oxides and halides. This work shows the role as O2- ion acceptors of HSO-4 ions. We have undertaken an electro-chemical study of a few oxido-reduction Systems: H+ / H2, Ag↓ / Ag (1), the vanadium and uranium Systems, those of mercury Hg↓ / Hg2-2 and of gold Au/Au3+, then of the attack by the solvent of a few common metals such as aluminium, iron, copper and nickel. The study of silver Systems has made it possible to obtain the solubility products of AgCl and AgBr and to consider the possibility of coulometric titration Cl- ions with Ag+ ions. We have shown the existence of various chemical species of vanadium which may exist in the molten eutectic. (author)

  17. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

  18. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  19. Simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in tablets by reverse phase liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai P. N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous determination of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile, methanol and phosphate buffer, pH 4 in the ratio 60:20:20 v/v. The column used was SS Wakosil-II C-18 with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and UV detection at 224 nm. The described method was linear over a concentration range of 10-110 µg/ml and 20-140 µg/ml for the assay of salbutamol sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride, respectively. The mean recovery was found to be 95-105% for salbutamol sulphate and 96.2-102.1% for bromhexine hydrochloride when determined at five different levels.

  20. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  1. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  2. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  3. Aluminium oxide exoelectron dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akselrod, M.S.; Odegov, A.L. (Urals State Technical Univ., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)); Durham, J.S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The exoemission properties of aluminium oxide ([alpha]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]:C), in the forms of both a single crystal and of powder, have been investigated. Measurements obtained during readout in a vacuum showed that irradiated Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]:C dosemeters emit exoelectrons with a sensitivity that is 10-20 times higher than that achievable using beryllium oxide (BeO) exoelectron dosemeters (EEDs). This paper presents results of studies using a commercial methane gas reader. The investigators studied the response of the Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]:C EEDs as a function of beta energy and measured the dose-response relationship. The effect of humidity on the dosemeter response was also investigated. (Author).

  4. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... circumstances both materials show good bonding, but the high purity material is excluded because of recrystallisation and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. The effect of cross stacking and roll bonding pre-strained sheets of the commercial purity material is investigated and some dependence of the...... cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  5. Teor de arsênio e adsorção competitiva arsênio/fosfato e arsênio/sulfato em solos de Minas Gerais, Brasil Arsenate content, and arsenate/phosphate and arsenate/sulphate competitive adsorption in soils from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Lucia Campos

    2013-06-01

    , Melanic Gleysol (GM and Typical Distrophic Red Latosol (LVd collected in Lavras, MG; Quartzenic Neosol (RQ collected in Itutinga, MG, and Typical Distrophic Yellow Latosol (Lad collected in Rosário, MG. Soil samples were dried, ground and sieved through a sieve of 2mm for the test run of adsorption and sieved through a sieve with a mesh of plastic 1.5mm for the As determination. The As content was determined by the method 3051A. The rate 1500µmolL-1As, 1500µmol L-1 As + 1500µmol L-1 P, 1500µmol L-1 As + 750µmol L-1 As were used to evaluate As adsorption, soil solution rate of 1:100, pH 5,5 and ionic force of 15mmol.L-1. The mean As content in the six soils was between 0,14 and 9,3mgkg-1. The adsorpted percentage of As in absence of other anions followed the sequence GM>LVd=RU=LAd=GX=RQ. Phosphate and sulphate addition reduced the percentage of adsorpted arsenic, consequently there was an increase of disponible arsenic in the soil solution.

  6. Friction surfacing of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diogo Jorge O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Friction surfacing is a solid state joining process that has attracted much interest in the past decades. This technology allows joining dissimilar metallic materials while avoiding the brittle intermetallic formations, involving temperatures bellow melting point and producing like forged metal structures. Much research using different steels has been made but the same does not happen with aluminium alloys, specially using different aluminium alloys. Friction surface coatings using cons...

  7. Vibrational spectroscopic study of sulphated silk proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, P.; Freddi, G.; Arosio, C.; Tsukada, M.; Arai, T.; Taddei, P.

    2007-05-01

    Degummed Bombyx mori ( B. m.) silk fibroin fabric and mutant naked pupa cocoons (Nd-s) consisting of almost pure silk sericin were treated with chlorosulphonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Untreated silk fibroin and sericin displayed typical spectral features due to characteristic amino acid composition and molecular conformation (prevailing β-sheet with a less ordered structure in sericin). Upon sulphation, the degree of molecular disorder increased in both proteins and new bands appeared. The IR bands at 1049 and 1014 cm -1 were attributed to vibrations of sulphate salts and that at 1385 cm -1 to the νasSO 2 mode of organic covalent sulphates. In the 1300-1180 cm -1 range various contributions of alkyl and aryl sulphate salts, sulphonamides, sulphoamines and organic covalent sulphates, fell. Fibroin covalently bound sulphate groups through the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine and serine, while sericin through the hydroxyl groups of serine, since the δOH vibrations at 1399 cm -1 in IR and at 1408 cm -1 in Raman disappeared almost completely. Finally, the increase of the I850/ I830 intensity ratio of Raman tyrosine doublet in fibroin suggested a change towards a more exposed state of tyrosine residues, in good agreement with the more disordered conformation taken upon sulphation.

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya R. K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prime object of present study was to develop and evaluate mucoadhesive tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate by non aqueous granulation of polymers HPMC K-4M (Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose and Chitosan in different ratios (1:1. 1:2 & 2:1. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, thickness, drug content uniformity, mucoadhesion and swelling index. Swelling index of batches containing more HPMC K-4M was greater than that of containing less HPMC K-4M. In vitro bioadhesive strength studies showed that tablets containing more HPMC K-4M were excellent in bioadhesive nature. The in-vitro drug release was studied in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8. And all batches were subjected to release kinetics model fitting.

  9. Xenobiotic conjugation with phosphate - a metabolic rarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephen C

    2016-08-01

    1. Although not unknown, the conjugation of a xenobiotic with phosphate appears a rarity amongst the routes available for foreign compound metabolism. This is especially true in mammals and may be somewhat surprising as conjugation with sulphate, a seemingly similar moiety, is commonplace. 2. Information from the literature, where xenobiotic phosphate conjugates have been described or suggested, has been collated and presented in this article. By bringing together this diverse material, hopefully interest will be generated in this unusual xenobiotic reaction, and perhaps further research undertaken to better understand and delineate the reasons for its relative absence from the xenobiotic scene. PMID:26611118

  10. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests. PMID:24670353

  11. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO42(Cl2(ciprofloxacin2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  12. Radium removal from aqueous sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for removing radium from an aqueous sulphate solution also containing magnesium is claimed. The pH of the solution is less than 10. A soluble barium salt is added to the solution to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate. The pH of the solution is then raised to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate. The precipitates are separated from the solution. If the sulphate solution contains dissolved magnesium and other impurities at a pH not greater than 7, then the first step in the process involves raising the pH of the solution to a value not greater than 10 to precipitate some of the magnesium and a substantial proportion of the other impurities and separating the precipitate from the solution. The radium removal is a step in the treatment of liquids resulting from the sulphuric acid leaching of uranium ores

  13. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for children 9-18 years of age. Phosphate salts are POSSIBLY UNSAFE if the amount of phosphate consumed (expressed as phosphorous) exceeds the tolerable upper intake level (UL). The ULs are 3 grams per day for children 1-8 years; and 4 grams per day ...

  14. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen in...... aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  15. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Gobade, N. G.; Marina Koland; K H Harish

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist...

  16. Spectrophotometric method development and validatio n for simultaneous estimation of salbutamol sulphate and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in combined dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Salbutamol Sulphate and Ambroxol Hydrochloride is usedfor the treatment of bronchitis, cough and asthma. A simple, economical, accurate and precise method for simultaneous estimation of Salbutamol Sulphate and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in combined dosage form has been developed. Simultaneous equation method based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths i.e. 244 nm and 276 nm, λmaxof Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Salbutamol Sulphate in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer. Both these drugs obeyed Beer Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 2-18 μg/ml for Ambroxol Hydrochloride and 10-100 μg/ml for Salbutamol Sulphate. The high values of correlation coefficient (R2 indicated good linearity of calibration curve for both the drugs. The accuracy and precision of method was determined and the method validated statistically. Result of percentage recovery study confirms the accuracy of proposed method. As per the ICH guidelines, the method validation parameters checked were linearity, accuracy, precision and assay of drug formulation. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the proposed UV-Spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Salbutamol Sulphate and Ambroxol Hydrochloride is rapid, economical, accurate, precise and reproducible. Hence, the proposed method can be employed for quantitative determination ofSalbutamol Sulphate and Ambroxol Hydrochloride in combined dose tablet formulation. Simultaneous equation method can be used to carry out dissolution study in combination tablet formulation of these drugs.

  17. The influence of the type of sulphate bond and degree of sulphation of glycosaminoglycans on their interaction with lysosomal enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, J L

    1978-01-01

    Significant differences occur between the interaction of several sulphated glycosaminoglycans with a particular lysosomal protein, leading to inhibition in the case of lysosomal enzymes. The order of strength of inhibition at pH4 was: heparin greater than chondroitin 4-sulphate = chondroitin 6-sulphate greater than dermatan sulphate. PMID:656058

  18. Uptake of aluminium ion by the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific uptake by the rat liver of 28Al was shown. There was specific uptake of 28Al by liver cell nuclei and DNA. This uptake was blocked by prior treatment with stable aluminium. It is concluded that aluminium enters the liver cell by some specific mechanism and that the reaction of aluminium with DNA inside the hepatocyte nucleus could be a mechanism responsible for the development of aluminium-induced experimental porphyria in the rat

  19. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  20. Sulphation characteristics of paper sludge ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, S.A. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.D. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2007-04-15

    Landfills are no longer a viable solution for the disposal of sludge produced from waste water treatment plants because of the decrease in available space, rising fees and growing environmental concerns. However, thermal utilization of this waste may be an economic and sustainable disposal solution. Co-combustion of low heating value sludge with fossil fuels has a positive effect for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions due to the low sulphur content of biomass fuels and increased sulphur retention in the ash. The sulphur retention is attributed to the formation of sulphates, such as CaSO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The amount of fuel-ash-related sulphur sorption increases during co-combustion. Therefore, sorbents for sulphur reduction may not be required if proper control of the biomass feed is maintained. This paper presented a study in which the sulphation characteristics of calcium-rich paper sludge ash were determined for the use of co-combustion of biomass and coal. The calcium in the paper sludge ash came from the limestone filler used in the manufacturing process to increase the density and whiteness of the paper at 2 paper mills in Korea. A thermobalance reactor along with XRD and SEM-EDX were used for the analysis of sulphated ash to determine the effects of sulphation temperature, particle size and SO{sub 2} concentration on sulphation conversion. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of sulphation reaction of sludge ash were determined based on the uniform-reaction model. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that most of the sulphation compounds were CaSO{sub 4}. The sulphation occurred uniformly throughout the ash and the CaSO{sub 4} did not block the outer pore of the sludge ash. The uniform distributions of CaO and other inert minerals in the ash resulted in uniform sulphation with good penetration of SO{sub 2} into pores of the sludge ash without pore blocking during sulphation of CaO. 13 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  1. Simultaneous measurements of glutathione and activated sulphate (PAPS) synthesis rates and the effects of selective inhibition of glutathione conjugation or sulphation of acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, K; Poulsen, H E

    1993-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the hepatotoxic drug acetaminophen (AA) on the synthesis rates of glutathione (GSH), activated sulphate (PAPS; adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulphate) and the AA metabolites AA-GSH and AA-sulphate after selective inhibition of GSH biosynthesis or sulphation in isolated rat hepatocytes. Selective inhibition of the two interdependent metabolic pathways was accomplished by buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP). The synthesis rates of GSH and PAPS were determined simultaneously by a previously described method based on trapping of radioactivity (35S) in the pre-labelled GSH and PAPS pools. Pre-incubation with 10 mM BSO for 30 min depleted GSH by 38% (P < 0.05) and PAPS by 27% (P < 0.05). The depletion resulted in increased PAPS synthesis at low, non-toxic [5-19 nmol/(10(6) cells.min)] (P < 0.05) and at high, toxic [7-30 nmol/10(6) cells.min)] (P < 0.05) AA concentrations. In both cases sulphur is diverted from GSH biosynthesis to sulphoxidation and PAPS synthesis, thereby maintaining the PAPS pool and preserving the sulphation capacity. This corresponds to the finding that AA sulphation was unaffected by BSO irrespective of AA concentration [6 vs 5 and 20 vs 17 nmol/(10(6) cells.hr), respectively]. Even though the GSH synthesis was halved after BSO pre-incubation, the GSH conjugating capacity of AA was well preserved. Incubation with 200 microM DCNP and 5 mM AA diminished PAPS synthesis from 24 to 10 nmol/(10(6) cells.min) (P < 0.02) and reduced AA-sulphate synthesis by 67% compared to experiments without DCNP incubation [4.8 vs 14.7 nmol/(10(6) cells.hr)] (P < 0.05). GSH and AA-GSH synthesis rates did not change compared to control experiments in which sulphation was not inhibited [1165 vs 1487 nmol/(10(6) cells.min), respectively] and [1.7 vs 1.7 nmol/(10(6) cells.hr), respectively]. This indicates that increased sulphur availability due to decreased PAPS synthesis is unable

  2. Sulphation of the flavonoids quercetin and catechin by rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shali, N A; Curtis, C G; Powell, G M; Roy, A B

    1991-07-01

    1. The isolated perfused rat liver forms three sulphated metabolites from each of the flavonoids, quercetin and catechin: these are secreted into the bile and the perfusate. 2. Quercetin gives two double conjugates, containing sulphate and glucuronic acid, and one sulphate: catechin gives one such double conjugate and two sulphates. 3. This sulphation is not inhibited by 60 microM 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol which almost completely inhibits the sulphation of harmol in this perfused liver system. 4. The sulphation of harmol by the perfused liver is not inhibited by the flavonoids. 5. Unfractionated sulphotransferases from rat liver catalyse sulphate conjugation of quercetin and catechin in vitro by a reaction inhibited by pentachlorophenol or dichloronitrophenol: the flavonoids inhibit the sulphation of 4-nitrophenol by this system. 6. The results with the two systems are discussed and shown to be compatible. PMID:1776264

  3. Elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present work is devoted to elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate. Thus, the isotherms of sorption of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions with amorphous tin phosphate depending on their concentration, ph of solution, sorbent quantity are obtained. The parameters of extraction of potassium microquantities from sodium salts are defined. Ultra pure sodium chloride, sodium iodide, sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate are synthesized.

  4. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  5. Dynamical study of liquid aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent molecular dynamics data of Ebbsjoe et al. in liquid aluminium have been analysed through the memory function formalism. Two forms of the memory functions which have correct asymptotic limit at large wavenumbers but accounts for interatomic correlations in a different manner are considered. The results for ω2s(q, ω) obtained from both models are compared with experimental data. (author)

  6. Aluminium foams. manufacture, properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium foams are porous to have many interesting combinations of physical and mechanical properties, such as high stiffness in conjunction with very low specific weight. The aluminium foam structure, manufacture processes, physical, chemical and mechanical properties and applications are reviewed in this paper. The various manufacturing processes are classified according to the state of matter in which the metal is processed. Liquid aluminium can be foamed directly by injecting gas or gas-releasing blowing agents. Indirect methods include melting of powder compacts which contain a blowing agent. An inert gas entrapped in powder compacts can produce aluminium foams in solid state after heat treatment. Electron-deposition or metal vapour deposition also allow for the production of aluminium foams. Physical, chemical and mechanical properties and the various ways for characterising the aluminium foams are reviewed in second section of this paper. finally, the various application fields for aluminium foams are discussed. They are divided into different industrial sectors. (Author) 75 refs

  7. Kinetic and thermodynamic evaluation of phosphate ions binding onto sevelamer hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Elsiddig, Reem; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor; O’ Reilly, Niall J.; O’Grady, David; McLoughlin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sevelamer hydrochloride is the first non-aluminium, non-calcium-based phosphate binder developed for the management of hyperphosphatemia in end stage renal diseases. It is a synthetic ion-exchange polymer which binds and removes phosphate ions due to the high content of cationic charge associated with protonated amine groups on the polymer matrix. This is the first in-depth study investigating phosphate removal in vitro from aqueous solutions using commercially available sev...

  8. Post traumatic tetanus and role magnesium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetanus is a life threatening disease. Reported mortality for tetanus is 15-39%. Conventional treatment includes heavy sedation and artificial ventilation. Complications resulting from long term heavy sedation and artificial ventilation contribute to 60% of the total mortality caused by tetanus. In this study magnesium sulphate was used to reduce the need for sedation and artificial ventilation. Objectives of this prospective study were to determine the role of magnesium sulphate in post traumatic tetanus. The study was carried out in surgical Intensive Care at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from Jan 2004 to Dec 2007. Forty-four patients presented during this period and 33 patients were included in the study. All patients had tracheostomy done within 48 hours. Every patient was started Magnesium Sulphate therapy for control of spasms after sending baseline investigations. Patients were given ventilatory support when needed. All data was entered in well structured proforma. SPSS-10 was used to analyse data. Thirty-three patients were included in the study and all patients were given magnesium sulphate. Out of these, 45.5% cases were grade 4 tetanus, 73.6% and 63.3% cases did not require artificial ventilation and additional sedation respectively, 51.1% patients remained free of complications of tetanus. Overall mortality was 30.3%. Use of Magnesium Sulphate is safe and reduces the need for sedation and artificial ventilation in high grade tetanus thus contributing to survival benefit in adult post-traumatic tetanus cases. (author)

  9. The biological sulphation of l-tyrosyl peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. G.; Scotland, Sylvia M.; Dodgson, K. S.

    1966-01-01

    1. A rat-liver supernatant preparation can achieve the biological O-sulphation of l-tyrosylglycine and l-tyrosyl-l-alanine at pH7·0. 2. The optimum concentrations of l-tyrosylglycine and l-tyrosyl-l-alanine in this system are 50mm and 60mm respectively. 3. l-Tyrosylglycine yields two sulphated products, whereas l-tyrosyl-l-alanine yields three sulphated products, when used as acceptor for sulphate in the rat-liver system. 4. With both substrates, one of the sulphated products has been identified as the O-sulphate ester of the corresponding parent peptide. PMID:5938633

  10. Sulphation pattern analysis of chemically sulphated polysaccharide LbGp1 from Lycium barbarum by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yujiao; Sun, Wei; Guo, Jiatong; Hu, Xiuting; Gong, Guiping; Huang, Linjuan; Cao, Hongzhi; Wang, Zhongfu

    2015-03-01

    The polysaccharide LbGp1 from Lycium barbarum L. was sulphated with sulphur trioxide-pyridine complex in DMF, yielding two sulphated polysaccharides, which were LbGp1-OL-SL with 13.7% sulphate content, and LbGp1-OL-SH with 27.4% sulphate content. The sulphation patterns were analysed using a GC-MS strategy. After a series of sequential chemical derivatisations, the sulphated polysaccharides were converted to partially methylated alditol acetates. All the sulphate groups were replaced by acetyl groups, maintaining the positional information of the original sulphation pattern. The number and position of sulphate substitutions were deduced by comparing the relative molar ratio from methylation analysis between native polysaccharide and sulphated derivatives. In LbGp1-OL-SL, 12.65% of sulphation located on C-5 of Ara, only 0.69% and 0.34% of sulphation occurred on C-4 and C-6 Gal, respectively; while in LbGp1-OL-SH, 24.96% of sulphate groups were found at C-5 of Ara, and 0.40% and 2.02% of sulphate groups were found at C-4 and C-6 Gal, respectively. PMID:25306313

  11. Removal of radium from aqueous sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium is often present in ores and an aqueous solution associated with the ore may consequently contain dissolved radium. It is frequently necessary to remove radium from such solutions to reduce the total radium content to a prescribed low level before the solution can be returned to the environment. The present invention is based on the discovery that the total radium content can be reduced to a satisfactory level within a reasonable time by adding a soluble barium salt to a radium-containing sulphate solution which also contains dissolved magnesium at a pH not greater than about 0 to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate, raising the pH to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate, and separating substantially all of the precipitates from the solution

  12. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Gobade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  13. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  14. Simultaneous chlorination and sulphation of calcined limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukata, M.; Takeda, K.; Miyatain, T.; Ueyama, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-06-01

    In order to analyze HCl and SO{sub 2} retention in fluidized bed combustors of coal and wastes, chlorination and sulphation of calcined limestone were investigated at 1023 K and atmospheric pressure using thermogravimetry. The rate of chlorination of calcined limestone slightly depended on its particle size and was kept almost constant against the progress of chlorination. In contrast, the rate of sulphation increased with decreasing particle size and steeply decreased with the progress of sulphation as commonly reported. It was found that the sulphation was markedly accelerated in the presence of HCl. Such acceleration of sulphation was remarkable for larger limestone. The level of conversion of CaO to (CaSO{sub 4} + CaCl{sub 2}) always approached 100% in the simultaneous absorption of HCl and SO{sub 2}. It was observed by SEM that in the chlorination a number of spherical aggregates and large voids were formed on the surface of limestone and that large aggregates with very flat surface and large voids have been formed in the course of the simultaneous chlorination and sulphation. The chlorination behavior and the acceleration of SO{sub 2} absorption in the presence of HCl can be due both to the formation of a mobile Cl{sup -} ion-containing phase and to the formation of voids playing a role of the diffusion paths for HCl and SO{sub 2} toward the interior of a limestone particle. Melting of a eutectic mixture of CaCl{sub 2} and CaSO{sub 4} might largely contribute to the promotion of SO{sub 2} absorption in the case of simultaneous absorption of HCl and SO{sub 2}. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Activation of antithrombin III isoforms by heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans and other sulphated polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, T H; Kolman, M R; Piepkorn, M

    1995-07-01

    Antithrombin III occurs naturally as two functionally distinct molecular species that differ in glycosylation at Asn135. Whereas the predominant, glycosylated isoform has high affinity for heparin, a quantitatively minor isoform lacking glycosylation at that site displays relatively higher affinity for both heparins and heparinoids. We characterized the ability of various sulphated polysaccharides to potentiate the rates of thrombin inhibition by the isoforms. High-molecular-weight dextran sulphate was the most effective of those studied, increasing thrombin inhibition by the higher-affinity antithrombin III isoform up to five-fold more efficiently than did heparin fractions with low-affinity for antithrombin III. In addition, dextran sulphate activated the higher-affinity isoform as much as twelve times more effectively than it did the lower-affinity isoform. Pentosan polysulphate was up to three-fold, and some heparan sulphate fractions up to two-fold, more effective with the higher, compared with the lower affinity, isoform. Heparan sulphate preparations less effectively increased the rate of thrombin inhibition than did the other low-affinity polysaccharides. Structure-function studies indicated positive correlations between activity and both polymer length and anionic group density of low-affinity sulphated polysaccharides. The observed effects of the heparan sulphates on this anticoagulant pathway, although of low potency, are consistent with the hypotheses that these substances naturally regulate blood homeostasis in vascular tissues and that much of this function may be mediated by the higher-affinity antithrombin III isoform. PMID:8589216

  16. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  17. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    OpenAIRE

    Conić Vesna T.; Pešovski Branka D.; Cvetkovski Vladimir B.; Stanojević-Šimšić Zdenka S.; Dragulović Suzana S.; Simonović Danijela B.; Dimitrijević Silvana B.

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4) sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It wa...

  18. [Isolation and identification of a novel phosphate-dissolving strain P21].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Fan, Bingquan; Gong, Mingbo; Li, Quanxia

    2008-01-01

    Phosphate-dissolving microorganisms can be applied for better use of insoluble phosphorus as fertilizer., A phosphate-dissolving strain P21 was isolated from soil samples in China. The isolate was identified as Erwinia herbicola var. ananas, based on its 16Sr DNA sequence and physiological characteristics. Its activity was measured in solid media as well as liquid media using different phosphate sources including tricalium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, ferric phosphate, aluminium phosphate, zinc phosphate, and rock phosphates. E. herbicola could strongly dissolve 1206.20 mg tricalium phosphate and 529.67 mg hydroxyapatite in per liter liquid media. The strain showed high phosphate-dissolving ability for rock phosphates from Jinning and Kunyang in Yunnan province, Yaan in Sichuan province and Jinping in Jiangsu province with the capacity of 6.64 mg, 78.46 mg, 67.07 mg and 65.24 mg soluble phosphate respectively per liter medium, whereas the phosphate-dissolving ability to the rest of the eight rock phosphates was weak. According to the experiments, the phosphate-dissolving ability of E. herbicola was specific to different rock phosphates, and phosphate-dissolving ability of E. herbicola was not directly related to pH reduction of liquid media. PMID:18338576

  19. Regeneration of commercial SCR catalysts by washing and sulphation. Effect of sulphate groups on the activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodayari, R.; Ingemar Odenbrand, C.U. [Department of Chemical Engineering II, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2001-10-25

    The use of bio-fuels is becoming more important because of the environmental benefits associated with these fuels. Deactivation of SCR catalysts applied in bio-fuel plants is a major problem due to the high potassium content of bio-fuels and therefore, great potential lies in finding regeneration processes that can be used commercially. Exposing the catalyst surface to sulphate groups generated by SO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is a promising way to rejuvenate the initial activity of the catalyst. The chemical stability of the sulphate groups was investigated by the interaction of the SCR reactant gases with the sulphate-promoted catalysts. Sulphate ions deposited on the surface of the TiO{sub 2}/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/WO{sub 3} were thermally stable at 420C. The introduced sulphate groups were chemically unstable when the catalyst was treated with the SCR reactants at 400C, but were chemically stable when the catalyst was exposed for the SCR reactants at 350C. Sulphation after water treatment provided more chemically stable surface sulphate groups at 400C. The presence of sulphate groups enhanced the number and the strength of the surface acid sites. The amount of ammonia bound to the Broensted acid sites decreased with the potassium content of the catalyst while the amount of ammonia adsorbed on the Lewis acid sites was almost unaffected. Since potassium both retarded the redox potential of the surface vanadia species and decreased the amount of ammonia bound to the Broensted acid sites, it is important to wash the strongly deactivated catalyst before sulphation.

  20. Simulating the galvanic coupling between S-Al2CuMg phase particles and the matrix of 2024 aerospace aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Loïc; Blanc, Christine; Pébère, Nadine; Thompson, George; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Study of the corrosion behaviour of a magnetron sputtered Al–Cu/Al–Cu–Mg model alloy couple in sulphate solutions has been undertaken to gain insight into the galvanic coupling between the matrix and SAl2CuMg particles in the 2024 aluminium alloy (AA2024). Polarisation curves and local electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (LEIS) were performed on the individual alloys and on the model alloy couple. SEM enabled correlation of electrochemical phenomena to the observed damage. The...

  1. Stereoselective sulphate conjugation of racemic terbutaline by human liver cytosol.

    OpenAIRE

    Walle, T; Walle, U K

    1990-01-01

    1. The enantioselectivity of the sulphation of racemic terbutaline by phenolsulphotransferases was examined in vitro using cytosol from human livers (n = 3) and [35S]-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAP35S) as the sulphate donor. 2. The radioactive sulphate conjugate formed was isolated by h.p.l.c. and its enantiomers were separated intact by h.p.l.c. after chiral derivatization. 3. Sulphation of racemic terbutaline occurred with the same apparent Km value for both enantiomers (270 mi...

  2. Formation and Characterization of Ceramic Nanocomposite Crystalline Coatings on Aluminium by Anodization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Mubarak Ali; V.Raj

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic nanocomposite coatings have been synthesized on aluminium by using lithium sulphate electrolyte with zirconium silicate additive by anodization.The effects of current density (CD) on microhardness,structure,composition and surface topography of the oxide layer formed at various CDs (0.1-0.25 A/cm2) have been studied.Crystalline coatings formed at 0.25 A/cm2 have been (width 95 nm) observed with a relatively uniform distribution confirmed by scanning electron microscopy.Additionally,the average microhardness value of ceramic nanocomposite coatings fabricated from lithium sulphate-zirconium silicate bath is approximately 8.5 times higher than that of the as-received aluminium.The surface statistics of the coatings is discussed in detail to explain the roughness and related parameters for better understanding.These observations demonstrate the importance of surface statistics in controlling the morphology of the coatings and its properties.From the X-ray diffraction investigations,it can be concluded that the formed nanocomposite coatings are crystalline in nature and that the crystallinity of the coatings decreases with increasing applied current density.

  3. On the chemical and electrochemical formation of aluminium carbide in aluminium electrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bronislav, Novák

    2013-01-01

    Cathode wear is considered as one of the key factors for limiting the lifetime of aluminium electrolysis cells. This phenomenon has become more important as aluminium smelters have steadily increased the amperage of the cells and shifted towards graphitized cathode materials with higher electrical conductivity. The present work has focused on the fundamentals of the formation of aluminium carbide at the carbon-aluminium interface. The objective was to investigate the mechanism(s) of the forma...

  4. Energy transfer phenomena in lead sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasse, G.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that lead sulphate, PbSO4, shows Pb2+ emission with a large Stokes shift. Energy transfer has been observed from the Pb2+ ions to several luminescent centres, viz., tungstate, molybdate, vanadate and rare earths. No transfer occurs to the Pr3+ ion.

  5. Sulphation capacity of Swedish carbonate rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamer, C.A.

    1983-09-01

    Eight carbonate rocks, which had been evaluated as SO/SUB/2 sorbents by the thermogravimetric analysis method at the Chalmers University of Technology, Goteburg, were evaluated at CANMET in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. Although the absolute values of the sulphation capacity were different for the two methods (the reactor results being lower), the ranking of the carbonate rocks was identical.

  6. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  7. Aluminium Process Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nazatul Aini Abd Majid; Taylor, Mark P; Chen, John J. J.; Brent R. Young

    2015-01-01

    The challenges in developing a fault detection and diagnosis system for industrial applications are not inconsiderable, particularly complex materials processing operations such as aluminium smelting. However, the organizing into groups of the various fault detection and diagnostic systems of the aluminium smelting process can assist in the identification of the key elements of an effective monitoring system. This paper reviews aluminium process fault detection and diagnosis systems and propo...

  8. The Reclamation of Industrial Wastes Inclusive Sulphates by Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Mária Kušnierová; Alena Luptáková

    2004-01-01

    The objective of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of using coal mine drainage and gypsum from the stabilizate (the final product from the combustion desulphurisation) as the source of sulphate for the cultivation of SRB with the prospect of: purging of mine waste waters inclusive sulphates, recycling of desulphurisation agent (limestone) and production of elemental sulphur from hydrogen sulphide. The results confirmed the theoretical assumptions on the use of gypsum, whi...

  9. A bakable aluminium vacuum chamber with an aluminium flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the construction of the vacuum chamber in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings. (author)

  10. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Changes in disaccharide composition of heparan sulphate fractions with increasing degrees of sulphation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, S R; Conrad, H E

    1983-01-01

    Heparan sulphate by-products from the commercial manufacture of pig mucosal heparin were freed of chondroitin sulphate and fractionated according to anionic density. The fractions were treated with HNO2 at pH 1.5, and the resulting mixtures of oligosaccharides were reduced with NaB3H4 and analysed for their disaccharide composition by paper chromatography and by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The results show that the molar ratio of 2-O-sulpho-alpha-L-iduronosylanhydromannose to 6-O-sulpho-(2-O-sulpho-alpha-L-iduronosyl)anhydromannose decreased from 2.5 to 0.04 as the degree of sulphation of the fractions increased. In contrast, the molar ratio of 6-O-sulpho-(beta-D-glucuronosyl)anhydromannose to 6-O-sulpho-(alpha-L-iduronosyl)anhydromannose was approx. 2.4 in all heparan sulphate fractions and decreased to only half of this value in the most highly sulphated heparin fractions. These results are consistent with biosynthetic studies, which have shown that the N-sulpho-(2-O-sulpho-alpha-L-iduronosyl)D-glucosamine disaccharide is the metabolic precursor of the NO-disulpho-(2-O-sulpho-alpha-L-iduronosyl)-D-glucosamine disaccharide in heparin biosynthesis. The high-pressure liquid chromatography of the heparan sulphate oligosaccharides also revealed a number of unidentified oligosaccharides in the deamination mixtures. PMID:6221718

  12. Structural study of Al2O3-Na2O-CaO-P2O5 bioactive glasses as a function of aluminium content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. M.; King, S. P.; Barney, E. R.; Hanna, J. V.; Newport, R. J.; Pickup, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate based biomaterials are extensively used in the context of tissue engineering: small changes in composition can lead to significant changes in properties allowing their use in a wide range of applications. Samples of composition (Al2O3)x(Na2O)0.11-x(CaO)0.445(P2O5)0.445, where x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08, were prepared by melt quenching. The atomic-scale structure has been studied using neutron diffraction and solid state 27Al MAS NMR, and these data have been rationalised with the determined density of the final glass product. With increasing aluminium concentration the density increases initially, but beyond about 3 mol. % Al2O3 the density starts to decrease. Neutron diffraction data show a concomitant change in the aluminium speciation, which is confirmed by 27Al MAS NMR studies. The NMR data reveal that aluminium is present in 4, 5, and 6-fold coordination and that the relative concentrations of these environments change with increasing aluminium concentration. Materials containing aluminium in 6-fold coordination tend to have higher densities than analogous materials with the aluminium found in 4-fold coordination. Thus, the density changes may readily be explained in terms of an increase in the relative concentration of 4-coordinated aluminium at the expense of 6-fold aluminium as the Al2O3 content is increased beyond 3 mol. %.

  13. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ivano eBrunner; Christoph eSperisen

    2013-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion...

  14. Stereoselective sulphate conjugation of racemic terbutaline by human liver cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, T; Walle, U K

    1990-07-01

    1. The enantioselectivity of the sulphation of racemic terbutaline by phenolsulphotransferases was examined in vitro using cytosol from human livers (n = 3) and [35S]-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAP35S) as the sulphate donor. 2. The radioactive sulphate conjugate formed was isolated by h.p.l.c. and its enantiomers were separated intact by h.p.l.c. after chiral derivatization. 3. Sulphation of racemic terbutaline occurred with the same apparent Km value for both enantiomers (270 microM). The extent of sulphation of the (+)-enantiomer was double that of the (-)-enantiomer, solely due to a difference in their apparent Vmax values. 4. Sulphation of racemic prenalterol, a structural analogue of terbutaline, also showed a two-fold preference for the (+)-enantiomer. 5. These findings suggest that enantioselective sulphate conjugation of chiral phenolic sympathomimetic amine drugs may lead to enantioselective pharmacokinetics that should be considered in the clinical use of these drugs. PMID:2390423

  15. Sulphation by cultured cells. Cysteine, cysteinesulphinic acid and sulphite as sources for proteoglycan sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, D E; Silbert, C K; Silbert, J E

    1988-01-01

    Bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, bovine aortic endothelial cells, and IMR-90 human embryonic lung fibroblasts were tested to determine their ability to use cysteine or cysteine metabolites as a source of sulphate (SO4). Cells were incubated in SO4-depleted medium containing [3H]glucosamine plus 0.2 mM-cystine, 0.3 mM-cysteinesulphinic acid or 0.3 mM-sulphite (SO3). The [3H]chondroitin sulphate produced by the different cells was found to vary considerably in degree of sulphation under these conditions. One line of smooth-muscle cells utilized cysteine effectively as a SO4 source and thus produced chondroitin sulphate which was highly sulphated. IMR-90 fibroblasts produced partly sulphated chondroitin sulphate under these conditions, while another smooth-muscle cell line could not utilize cysteine, but could utilize cysteinesulphinic acid as a partial SO4 source. In contrast with the above cells, endothelial cells could not use cysteine or cysteinesulphinic acid as a source of SO4 and produced chondroitin with almost no SO4. All of the cells were able to utilize SO3. Incubation of the cells in the SO4-depleted medium containing [35S]cysteine confirmed that only the first line of smooth-muscle cells could convert significant amounts of [35S]cysteine to 35SO4. Furthermore, the addition of 0.4 mM inorganic SO4 did not inhibit the production of SO4 from cysteine by these cells. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3138971

  16. Effect of Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) on some blood constituents of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly aluminium chloride (PAC) is an urban drinking water purification substance that was introduced recently in Sudan and used to substitute polymer poly diallyl dimethyl aluminium chloride (DADMAC) and aluminium sulphate in water purification treatments. This study was conducted to determine its effects on fish health, which is is considered a biological indicator and an essential component of fresh water ecosystem. In this experiment, PAC was used in three different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ml/1) in experimental tanks to achieve the desirable doses for the study. The tanks were populated by Nile Tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus) with an average weight ranging between 70 and 100 grams. Exposure of this fish to PAC resulted in an immediate signification reduction (P<0.01) in haemoglobin concentration, erythrocytes count, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration of experimental fingerlings blood. The degree of reduction in these parameters was directly proportional to the concentration of PAC used. (Author)

  17. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...

  18. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  19. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conić Vesna T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II sulfate (PbSO4 sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It was found that 100% Pb by leaching can be achieved with NaCl concentration of 250 g/dm3, time 20 min, temperature 353 K and solid:liquid phase ratio =1:20.

  20. Patterns of sulphation in heparan sulphate: polymorphism based on a common structural theme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J T; Turnbull, J E; Lyon, M

    1992-04-01

    HS appears to be a well-organised molecule with a domain structure that is apparently unique amongst the GAG family (Gallagher, 1989). Further refinements in sequence analysis are needed to corroborate the simplified model proposed in Fig. 4. It is still not clear why evolution has favoured a structural motif of widely spaced sulphated domains. Presumably, some advantages must accrue to the organism from this design, and one idea, that we have discussed previously, is that the polysaccharide functions as a "template" for the organisation of structural proteins in the ECM and for the binding and presentation of growth factors within the matrix polymer network. The sulphated regions are likely to display considerable conformational versatility as a result of the presence of the iduronate residues, and this property may be very important for the protein-binding properties of the polysaccharides (Casu et al., 1988). Sulphation patterns within these regions could favour oligosaccharide conformations necessary for specific protein interactions. An important question in this context is why different cells express on their surfaces HS with subtle differences in sulphation pattern. Perhaps the polymorphic features of HS are involved in higher-order tissue- and organ-specific mechanisms controlling cellular recognition and morphogenesis. The consistency with which aberrant sulphation of HS is detected in malignant disease (Gallagher and Lyon, 1989) in which cellular recognition and differentiation are impaired, adds some substance to this view. PMID:1516727

  1. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  2. Shot peening of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shot peening is a process of cold-hammering where a metallic surface is pelted with spherical grains. Each grain bumping into the surface acts as a hammer head and creates a small crater. The overlapping of these craters produces a residual compression layer just underneath the surface. It is well known that cracks cannot spread in a compression zone. In most cases of fatigue rupture and stress corrosion cracks propagate from the surface towards the inside so shot peening allows a longer lifetime of castings. Moreover most materials present a better resistance due to the cold-hammering effect of shot peening. Metallic surfaces can be treated in workshops or directly on site. Typical pieces that undergo shot peening on site are storing tanks, gas and steam turbines, tubes of steam generators and piping in oil or nuclear or chemical industries. This article describes shot peening from a theoretical and general point of view and presents the application to aluminium-lithium alloys. In the case of aluminium alloys shot peening can be used to shape the piece (peen-forming). (A.C.)

  3. Method for aluminium dross utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new hydrometallurgical method has been developed for metal aluminum utilization from secondary aluminum dross. Secondary aluminum dross is a powder product with an average of 35% aluminium content (below 1mm). It is waste from primary aluminum dross pyrometallurgical flux less treatment in rotary DC electric arc furnace. This method is based on aluminum leaching in copper chloride water solution. As a result an aluminum oxychloride solution and solids, consisting of copper and oxides are obtained. In order to copper chloride solution regenerate hydrochloric acid is added to the solids. The process is simple, quick, economic and safe. The aluminum oxychloride solution contains 56 g/l Al2O3. The molar ratios are Al:Cl=0,5; OH:Al=1. The solution has 32 % basicity and 1,1 g/cm3 density. For increasing the molar ratio of aluminium to chlorine aluminum hydroxide is added to this solution at 80oC. Aluminum hydroxide is the final product from the secondary aluminum dross alkaline leaching. As a result aluminum oxychloride solution of the following composition is prepared: Al2O3 - 180 g/l; Al:Cl=1,88; OH:Al=4,64; basicity 82%; density 1,22 g/cm3, pH=4 -4,5. Aluminum oxychloride solution produced by means of this method can be used in potable and wastewater treatment, paper making, in refractory mixture as a binder etc. (Original)

  4. Post-translational processing of progastrin: inhibition of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation by brefeldin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varro, A; Dockray, G J

    1993-11-01

    The precursor for the acid-stimulating hormone gastrin provides a useful model for studies of post-translational processing because defined sites of cleavage, amidation, sulphation and phosphorylation occur within a dodecapeptide sequence. The factors determining these post-translational processing events are still poorly understood. We have used brefeldin A, which disrupts transport from rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, to examine the mechanisms of cleavage, phosphorylation and sulphation of rat progastrin-derived peptides. Biosynthetic products were detected after immunoprecipitation using antibodies specific for the extreme C-terminus of progastrin, followed by reversed-phase and ion-exchange h.p.l.c. Gastrin cells incorporated [3H]tyrosine, [32P]phosphate and [35S]sulphate into both progastrin and its extreme C-terminal tryptic (nona-) peptide. Ion-exchange chromatography resolved four forms of the C-terminal tryptic fragment of progastrin which differed in whether they were phosphorylated at Ser96, sulphated at Tyr103, both or neither. The specific activity of [3H]tyrosine in the peak that was both phosphorylated and sulphated was higher than in the others. Brefeldin A inhibited the appearance of [3H]tyrosine-labelled C-terminal tryptic fragment but there was an accumulation of labelled progastrin and a peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 46 residues of progastrin. Brefeldin A also inhibited incorporation of 32P and 35S into both progastrin and its C-terminal fragment. Thus phosphorylation of Ser96, sulphation of Tyr103 and cleavage at Arg94-Arg95 depend on passage of newly synthesized progastrin along the secretory pathway; as brefeldin A is thought to act proximal to the trans-Golgi, these processing steps would appear to occur distal to this point. The data also indicate that the stores of unphosphorylated C-terminal tryptic fragment are not available for phosphorylation, implying that this modification occurs proximal to the secretory

  5. Cysteic acid and taurine synthesis from sulphate in the chick embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of taurine from sulphate was studied in the chick embryo using the radioisotopes of: sulphur, carbon and hydrogen. The following reactions occur: 1) reduction of sulphate to sulphite; 2) fixation of the sulphite on a carbon chain with an amino group, resulting from desulphydration of L-cysteine, which leads to the formation of L-cysteic acid; 3) decarboxylation of L-cysteic acid. Reaction (1) takes place only in the endo-dermal cells of the yolk sac; reaction (2) in these same cells and in the yolk; reaction (3) is general, localized in the yolk sac, in the yolk as well as in the tissues of the embryo itself. The enzyme which catalyses reaction (2) has been purified; the coenzyme is pyridoxal phosphate. The desulphydration of cysteine by this enzyme is a reversible reaction. In non-physiological conditions of concentration and temperature, pyridoxal phosphate catalyses in the presence of metallic ions, the desulphydration of cysteine and the formation of cysteic acid from sulphite. (author)

  6. Chondroitin sulphate sulphation motif expression in the ontogeny of the intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Hayes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate chains on cell and extracellular matrix proteoglycans play important regulatory roles in developing systems. Specific, developmentally regulated, sulphation motifs within the chondroitin glycosaminoglycan structure may help bind, sequester or present bioactive signalling molecules to cells thus modulating their behaviour. Using monoclonal antibodies 3B3(-, 4C3, 6C3 and 7D4, we have mapped the distribution of different chondroitin sulphation epitopes in a rat intervertebral disc developmental series. The sulphation epitopes had complex, dynamic and specific distributions in the disc and vertebral tissues during their differentiation, growth and ageing. At embryonic day [E]15, prior to disc differentiation, 4C3 and 7D4 occurred within the cellular disc condensations whilst 6C3 was present in the notochordal sheath. At E17, post disc differentiation, 4C3 and 7D4 occurred within the nucleus pulposus, inner annulus and vertebral bodies; 3B3(- in the nucleus, inner annulus, annulus/vertebral body interface and perichondrium; and 6C3, ventrally, within the perichondrium. At E19, 3B3(-, 4C3 and 7D4 became further restricted to the nucleus, inner annulus, annulus/vertebral body interface and perichondrium. Prior to birth, all four epitopes occurred within the inner annulus and nucleus, with 6C3 and 7D4 also occurring within the future end-plate. Postnatal expression of the sulphation epitopes was more widespread in the disc and also within the growth plate. At 4 months, the epitopes were associated with chondrocyte clusters within the nucleus; and at 24 months, with annular lesions. Overall, our data suggests that differential sulphation of chondroitin correlates with significant events in development, growth and aging of the rat intervertebral disc.

  7. Chondroitin sulphate sulphation motif expression in the ontogeny of the intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A J; Hughes, C E; Ralphs, J R; Caterson, B

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate chains on cell and extracellular matrix proteoglycans play important regulatory roles in developing systems. Specific, developmentally regulated, sulphation motifs within the chondroitin glycosaminoglycan structure may help bind, sequester or present bioactive signalling molecules to cells thus modulating their behaviour. Using monoclonal antibodies 3B3(-), 4C3, 6C3 and 7D4, we have mapped the distribution of different chondroitin sulphation epitopes in a rat intervertebral disc developmental series. The sulphation epitopes had complex, dynamic and specific distributions in the disc and vertebral tissues during their differentiation, growth and ageing. At embryonic day [E]15, prior to disc differentiation, 4C3 and 7D4 occurred within the cellular disc condensations whilst 6C3 was present in the notochordal sheath. At E17, post disc differentiation, 4C3 and 7D4 occurred within the nucleus pulposus, inner annulus and vertebral bodies; 3B3(-) in the nucleus, inner annulus, annulus/vertebral body interface and perichondrium; and 6C3, ventrally, within the perichondrium. At E19, 3B3(-), 4C3 and 7D4 became further restricted to the nucleus, inner annulus, annulus/vertebral body interface and perichondrium. Prior to birth, all four epitopes occurred within the inner annulus and nucleus, with 6C3 and 7D4 also occurring within the future end-plate. Postnatal expression of the sulphation epitopes was more widespread in the disc and also within the growth plate. At 4 months, the epitopes were associated with chondrocyte clusters within the nucleus; and at 24 months, with annular lesions. Overall, our data suggests that differential sulphation of chondroitin correlates with significant events in development, growth and aging of the rat intervertebral disc. PMID:21213210

  8. Phase Behaviour of Fatty Alcohol Sulphate and Fatty Alcohol Ether Sulphate from Palm Based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagrams of fatty alcohol sulphates (FAS)/ fatty alcohol ether sulphates (FAES)/ water and mixed FAS:FAES (1:1)/ propylene glycol/ water were constructed at room temperature. Another phase diagram of mixed FAES/ FAS/ soap (4.5:4.5:1.0)/ propylene glycol/ water were established at 60 degree Celsius. Birefringence was observed under cross-polarized light and their phase changes examined under a polarized microscope. The liquid crystalline region for FAES and FAS occurred only in a small region. The optical patterns of lamellar liquid crystal observed were oily streaks and a typical fine cross-striated structure. (author)

  9. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  10. Kinetic behaviour of the adsorption and desorption of phosphorus-32 on aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great amount of phosphate fertilizers are used in agriculture. Soil fertility have been studied using fertilizer labelled with phosphorus 32 to improve agronomic practices by increasing the efficient use of phosphate fertilizer. Previous research work have been published suggesting the potential use of kinetics parameters to characterize phosphorus in soil and to diagnosis the phosphate level. In this work the kinetic behaviour of the absorption and desorption of phosphorus-32 on a synthetic aluminium hydroxide was studied attempting to detect the formation of a precipitated phase on the hydroxide surface. The kinetic data for adsorption was adjusted with the Elovich and Fardeau equations for isotopic exchange. It was verified a change in the kinetic behaviour when the surface was approximately 80% saturated. This change suggested the formation of a precipitate. The kinetic data for desorption was fitted with the Fardeau equation, and it was verified the desorption kinetics slower than the desorption. (B.C.A.). 40 refs, 17 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For the calcinations of Portland cement, temperatures up to 1480 oC are needed, while the calcination of for instance hemihydrate requires a temperature of 170 oC

  12. Biosynthesis of heparin. Relationship between the polymerization and sulphation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidholt, K; Kjellén, L; Lindahl, U

    1989-01-01

    Incubation of a mouse mastocytoma microsomal fraction with UDP-[3H]GlcA and UDP-GlcNAc yielded proteoglycans containing non-sulphated polysaccharide chains. Similar incubations performed in the presence of sulphate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (PAPS) produced both sulphated and non-sulphated proteoglycans, which were separated by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose Analysis by gel chromatography of single polysaccharide chains, released from the proteoglycans by alkali treatment, showed that the non-sulphated chains produced during incubation for 5 min or 25 min, either in the absence or in the presence of PAPS, were of fairly small molecular size, with an average peak Mr of approx. 10 x 10(3)-15 x 10(3). In contrast, the sulphated chains exceeded Mr 100 x 10(3) Pulse-chase experiments suggested that sulphated chains were capable of further elongation. These results indicate that sulphation promotes, by so far unknown mechanisms, further chain elongation. Sulphated proteoglycan (retarded on DEAE-cellulose chromatography) isolated after similar incubation of the microsomal fraction for 1 min only was found to contain a mixture of sulphated and virtually non-sulphated polysaccharide chains. However, when [35S]PAPS was included in the incubations, some 35S was found to be associated, essentially as N-sulphate groups, also with the latter type of chains, preferentially the high-Mr fraction. These results are interpreted in terms of a biosynthetic model by which the heparin proteoglycan is generated through transient interactions of macromolecular intermediates with distinctly separate complexes of membranebound enzymes. PMID:2572219

  13. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid;

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a...... monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of...

  14. Constant current chronopotentiometric stripping of sulphated polysaccharides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strmečki, S.; Plavšić, M.; Ćosović, B.; Ostatná, Veronika; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2009), s. 2032-2035. ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/07/P497; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : sulphated polysaccharides * ióta-carrageenan * catalysis of hydrogen evolution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.243, year: 2009

  15. Structure of sodium alkyl sulphate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micellar aggregation numbers of aggregated sodium octyl, decyl, dodecyl and tetradecyl sulphate molecules obtained from small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements are reported. The surfactant concentration and solution temperature were varied systematically. A survey of the physical models and evaluation algorithms applied for SANS are presented. By utilizing a new least square fitting algorithm, the formation and annihilation parameters of orthopositronium in the micellar pseudophase and in the aqueous solvent is deduced by evaluating positron lifetime spectra measured by conventional technqiues. (R.P.) 157 refs.; 10 figs

  16. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m-2 that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces

  17. Phosphate binding therapy in dialysis patients: focus on lanthanum carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A Mohammed

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ismail A Mohammed, Alastair J HutchisonManchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, UKAbstract: Hyperphosphatemia is an inevitable consequence of end stage chronic kidney disease and is present in the majority of dialysis patients. Recent observational data has associated hyperphosphatemia with increased cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients. Dietary restriction of phosphate and current dialysis prescription practices are not enough to maintain serum phosphate levels within the recommended range so that the majority of dialysis patients require oral phosphate binders. Unfortunately, conventional phosphate binders are not reliably effective and are associated with a range of limitations and side effects. Aluminium-containing agents are highly efficient but no longer widely used because of well established and proven toxicity. Calcium based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcemia and vascular calcification. Sevelamer hydrochloride is associated with fewer adverse effects, but a large pill burden and high cost are limiting factors to its wider use. In addition, the efficacy of sevelamer as a monotherapy in lowering phosphate to target levels in severe hyperphosphatemia remains debatable. Lanthanum carbonate is a promising new non-aluminium, calcium-free phosphate binder. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated a good safety profile, and it appears well tolerated and effective in reducing phosphate levels in dialysis patients. Its identified adverse events are apparently mild to moderate in severity and mostly GI related. It appears to be effective as a monotherapy, with a reduced pill burden, but like sevelamer, it is significantly more expensive than calcium-based binders. Data on its safety profile over 6 years of treatment are now available.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum

  18. Aluminium Process Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazatul Aini Abd Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges in developing a fault detection and diagnosis system for industrial applications are not inconsiderable, particularly complex materials processing operations such as aluminium smelting. However, the organizing into groups of the various fault detection and diagnostic systems of the aluminium smelting process can assist in the identification of the key elements of an effective monitoring system. This paper reviews aluminium process fault detection and diagnosis systems and proposes a taxonomy that includes four key elements: knowledge, techniques, usage frequency, and results presentation. Each element is explained together with examples of existing systems. A fault detection and diagnosis system developed based on the proposed taxonomy is demonstrated using aluminium smelting data. A potential new strategy for improving fault diagnosis is discussed based on the ability of the new technology, augmented reality, to augment operators’ view of an industrial plant, so that it permits a situation-oriented action in real working environments.

  19. Deformation features of aluminium in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented a method to analyse stress-strain curves. Plastic and elastic strains were studied. The strains were done by tensile tests in four types of materials: highly pure aluminium, pure aluminium, commercially pure aluminium and aluminium - uranium. The chemical compositions were obtained by spectroscopy analysis and neutron activation analysis. Tensile tests were carried out at three strain rates, at room temperature, 100,200, 300 and 4000C, with knives extensometer and strain-gages to studied the elastic strain region. A multiple spring model based on two springs model to analyse elastic strain caused by tests without extensometers, taking in account moduli of elasticity and, an interactive analysis system with graphic capability were developed. It was suggested a qualitative model to explain the quantized multielasticity of Bell. (M.C.K.)

  20. Investigation & Analysis of Different Aluminium Alloys t

    OpenAIRE

    Nibedita Sethi*¹,; Ajit Senapati²

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloy LM-29, A-356 AND A-6060 was fabricated in sand casting method. Mach inability of aluminium alloy LM-29, A-356 AND A-6060 was investigated and evaluate the mach inability studying the different parameter such as cutting force, surface roughness, chip thickness, and power consumption during turning at different cutting speed and constant depth of cut and feed rate. In this paper also studies the mechanical properties means hardness, density and tensile strength o...

  1. Coprecipitation of europium with barium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution behaviour of the trivalent europium ion at a micro-component scale, between barium sulphate and aqueous solution, was studied at ambient temperature. Experiments were carried out using radioactive tracers. Results indicate an enrichment of the micro component in the solid phase relative to the solution. The effects of the concentrations of the micro and macro-elements on the coprecipitation have been examined. Europium distribution coefficient DEu increases from 1.1 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.4 when initial europium concentration decreases from more than 17 x 10-5 to 1.4 x 10-5 M, in sulphuric media with SO42- in excess or CBa2+/CSO42- Eu. The coprecipitation of europium with barium sulphate as a heterovalent solid-solution is described by heterogeneous model obeying the Doerner and Hoskins logarithmic partition law. The weaker partition coefficients lower than unity (λ = 0.25 when CEu(III) ∼ 1.4 x 10-5 M and λ = 0.13 when CBa2+/CSO42- -5 ≤ CEu(III) = 153.5 x 10-5 M) lead to crystals increasingly enriched in the trace element. (orig.)

  2. Removal of aluminium from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium in drinking water comes from natural sources and the alum used as coagulant in the water treatment process. Exposure to aluminium has been implicated in dialysis dementia, Parkinson and Alzheimer's disease. Drinking water containing aluminium was considered to be one of the main sources of Al intake into human body. For this reason, the removal of aluminium from drinking water is vital to our health. In this study, removal of aluminium was carried out by using a chelating resin. To achieve the purpose, two chelating resin iontosorb oxin (IO) and poly hydroxamic acid (PHA) were used. The effects of concentration, pH, stirring time and resin amount was investigated. The concentration range varied between 10 and 500 ppb, pH range was between 2 and 12, stirring time between 5 and 60 minutes, and resin amount between 100 and 1500 mg. The optimum conditions of these resins were determined in a batch system. The results obtained showed that the optimum condition to remove aluminium for poly hydroxamic acid and iontosorb was pH 5-8 and pH 4-9; concentration range between 50-500 ppb, and 150-500 ppb, resin amount 200 mg and the stirring time was 20 minutes, respectively. (author)

  3. Ongoing characterization of passivated aluminium nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Q.S.M.; Fouchard, R.C.; Turcotte, A-M.; Abdel-Qader, Z.; Jones, D.E.G. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET, Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    For characterization, the thermal behaviour of two aluminium nanopowders - Alss and Alssef - in air was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), simultaneous thermogravimetry-DTA (TG-DTA) and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Alss and Alssef were found to be less reactive to air than previously determined for Als And Alex, possibly due to their thicker and different type of passivating layer. Stability determination for Alss and Alssef in a wet oxidizing environment was carried out using ARC, whereas outgassing behaviour of mixtures of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and the various aluminium powders was investigated using TG-DTA-FTIR-MS (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry). The addition of various aluminium powders resulted in only minimal effect on the thermal stability of ADN. Electrostatic discharge, friction sensitivities of ADN and its mixtures with various aluminium powders, and thermal stability and sensitivity of mixtures of nano-sized molybdenum trioxide with aluminium nanopowders were also studied. The electrostatic discharge sensitivity of molybdenum trioxide was shown to increase by the addition of aluminium nanopowders. 23 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  5. Characterization of radiative properties of Nd2O3 doped phosphate and silicate glasses for solid state laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nd2O3 doped calcium aluminium phosphate and calcium aluminium silicate glasses prepared to compare their absorption and emission properties. Radiative lifetime of the excited state 4F3/2 derived by Judd-Ofelt theory applied to the absorption spectra. Using the photoluminescence spectrometer the steady state emission and relaxation time from excited energy level recorded under green light excitation. Phosphate glass has higher emission cross-section, higher radiative lifetime but less quantum efficiency due to non-radiative quenching through hydroxyl ions compared to silicate glass for Nd3+:4F3/2→4I9/2 emission

  6. Labelling of gentamicin sulphate with99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of gentamicin sulphate with99mTc and its optimization is shown. The Quality control of gentamicin sulphate -99mTc, and a study about PH and mass variation of SnCl2 are described. (M.J.C)

  7. Stable isotope ratio measurements in atmospheric sulphate studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The isotopic composition of atmospheric sulphate has been determined by a number of workers and the results interpreted in terms of contributing sources and mechanisms of origin. A correlation between the 18O enrichment of atmospheric water airborne particulate sulphate has been observed. Laboratory preparations of sulphate made from sulphur dioxide by two sets of sequential reactions, (1) hydrolysis followed by oxidation and (2) oxidation followed by hydrolysis, yielded products of distinguishable oxygen-isotope composition. Oxygen isotopic analysis of simultaneously collected field samples of ambient sulphate, sulphur dioxide, and water vapour indicated seasonal trends for all of the major constituents of atmospheric sulphation processes. Some isotopic data were also obtained on precipitation and precipitation sulphates. Field results suggest that ambient sulphates collected in the area of Argonne correspond more closely in oxygen isotope composition to a sulphate molecule containing two oxygens originating from sulphur dioxide, one oxygen from air and one oxygen from condensed-phase atmospheric water than to the molecule in which one oxygen originates from vapourphase atmospheric water. (author)

  8. Heat treatment of aluminium strip coils; Gluehbehandlung von Aluminium-Bandbunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Dominik; Dambauer, Georg [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Nowadays, aluminium strip coils are increasingly heat-treated in single-coil lifting hearth furnaces SCL. Flexible, individual heat treatment allows fast reactions to short term requirements for the production of aluminium strip and offers energy saving possibilities. The following report describes the advantages of single-coil hearth furnaces in terms of flexibility, energy consumption and possible configurations. (orig.)

  9. Design of welded aluminium connections (Entwurf und Berechnung von Aluminium Schweissverbindungen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the past two decades considerable research effort has been put into welded aluminium connections in order to better understand their structural behaviour and to up-date the design rules in the existing standards at the time [1]. Since weids in aluminium are more critical compared to steel, the ab

  10. TEM investigation of aluminium containing precipitates in high aluminium doped silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Silicon carbide is a promising semiconductor material for applications in high temperature and high power devices. The successful growth of good quality epilayers in this material has enhanced its potential for device applications. As a novel semiconductor material, there is a need for studying its basic physical properties and the role of dopants in this material. In this study, silicon carbide epilayers were grown on 4H-SiC wafers of (0001) orientation with a miscut angle of 8 deg at a temperature of 1550 deg C. The epilayers contained regions of high aluminium doping well above the solubility of aluminium in silicon carbide. High temperature annealing of this material resulted in the precipitation of aluminium in the wafers. The samples were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Selected area diffraction studies show the presence of aluminium carbide and aluminium silicon carbide phases. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  11. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100oC. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300oC. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130oC, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  12. The sulphation pattern in chondroitin sulphate chains investigated by chondroitinase ABC and ACII digestion and reactivity with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardingham, T E; Fosang, A J; Hey, N J; Hazell, P K; Kee, W J; Ewins, R J

    1994-03-01

    We have used progressive chondroitinase digestion of pig aggrecan in conjunction with ELISA assays and disaccharide analysis to derive information about the pattern of 4- and 6-sulphation in chondroitin sulphate chains. Digestion with chondroitinase ABC resulted in the release of mainly disaccharides from the nonreducing terminal of chondroitin sulphate chains but there was also the release of some tetra- and hexa-saccharides which were degraded to disaccharides with more extensive digestion. Chondroitinase ACII, in contrast, released only disaccharides. Analysis of the disaccharide composition of the intact and digested products at different stages of digestion showed that there was a slight increase in 6-sulphate content of the chains as they were shortened. Reaction of the partially digested proteoglycans with monoclonal antibodies 3-B-3 and 3-D-5 which recognise chains terminating in 6- or 4-sulphated disaccharides, respectively, showed major differences between chondroitinase ABC and ACII products. The results suggested that chondroitinase ABC preferentially cleaved next to 4-sulphated, rather than 6-sulphated disaccharides and this resulted in some oligosaccharides as well as disaccharide being released. Chondroitinase ACII also cleaved an additional disaccharide next to the linkage to protein of chondroitin sulphate, which was not removed by chondroitinase ABC and this disaccharide was mainly nonsulphated. PMID:7514097

  13. Water atomised aluminium alloy powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neikov, O.D.; Vasilieva, G.I.; Sameljuk, A.V.; Krajnikov, A.V

    2004-10-10

    The new rapid solidification (RS) process based on high-pressure water atomisation (WA) of the melt for manufacturing of advanced aluminium alloys was realised in the form of a pilot plant. The problems of safe operation in the course of Al alloy powder production and powder quality were solved by the use of water solutions of inhibitors, by the control of suspension temperature and hydrogen ion exponent (pH), by the hydraulic classification of atomised products, and by the optimisation of dehydration procedure. The rate of powder-water interaction strongly depends on the value of pH. While the rate of room temperature reactions is very slow at pH 3.0-4.0, the increase of pH to 6.0 leads to an intensive powder oxidation. A set of powder metallurgy (PM) alloys for various applications was produced on the base of water atomised powders. The characteristics of tensile strength of such alloys essentially exceed those of cast materials of similar compositions.

  14. Water atomised aluminium alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new rapid solidification (RS) process based on high-pressure water atomisation (WA) of the melt for manufacturing of advanced aluminium alloys was realised in the form of a pilot plant. The problems of safe operation in the course of Al alloy powder production and powder quality were solved by the use of water solutions of inhibitors, by the control of suspension temperature and hydrogen ion exponent (pH), by the hydraulic classification of atomised products, and by the optimisation of dehydration procedure. The rate of powder-water interaction strongly depends on the value of pH. While the rate of room temperature reactions is very slow at pH 3.0-4.0, the increase of pH to 6.0 leads to an intensive powder oxidation. A set of powder metallurgy (PM) alloys for various applications was produced on the base of water atomised powders. The characteristics of tensile strength of such alloys essentially exceed those of cast materials of similar compositions

  15. Differential immunogold localisation of sulphated and unsulphated keratan sulphate proteoglycans in normal and macular dystrophy cornea using sulphation motif-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D; Akama, Tomoya O; Liskova, Petra; Ebenezer, Neil D; Allan, Bruce; Kerr, Briedgeen; Caterson, Bruce; Fukuda, Michiko N; Quantock, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Keratan sulphate (KS) proteoglycans (PGs) are key molecules in the corneal stroma for tissue organisation and transparency. Macular corneal dystrophy (MCD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disease characterised by disturbances in KS expression. MCD is caused by mutations in CHST6, a gene encoding the enzyme responsible for KS sulphation. Sulphated KS is absent in type I disease causing corneal opacity and loss of vision. Genetic studies have highlighted the mutational heterogeneity in MCD, but supportive immunohistochemical studies on corneal KS have previously been limited by the availability of antibodies mostly reactive only with highly sulphated KS epitopes. In this study, we employed four antibodies against specific KS sulphation patterns, including one against unsulphated KS, to investigate their reactivity in a case of MCD compared with normal cornea using high-resolution immunogold electron microscopy. Mutation analysis indicated type I MCD with deletion of the entire open reading frame of CHST6. Contrast enhanced fixation revealed larger PG structures in MCD than normal. Unlike normal cornea, MCD cornea showed positive labelling with antibody to unsulphated KSPG, but was negative with antibodies to sulphated KSPG. These antibodies will thus facilitate high-resolution investigations of phenotypic heterogeneity in support of genetic studies in this disease. PMID:16944190

  16. Aluminium as heating fuel. Tests with aluminium powder prove suitability in principle. Aluminium als Heizungs-Brennstoff. Versuche mit Aluminiumpulver beweisen prinzipielle Eignung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.

    1990-12-01

    Tests prove that aluminium powder is perfectly suited as fuel and storage material for solar energy. The combustion product itself is again the base material for aluminium production, i.e. aluminium can be recycled. There are three problematic areas: 1. flame stability, 2. combustion duration and 3. environmental compatibility. Further development projects will aim at the construction of practice-orientated plants in which combustion, heat extraction and recovery of aluminium oxide is combined. A further aim is the melting burner to which aluminium is supplied in form of wires, cuttings or rods. (BWI).

  17. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  18. Sulphation of hydroxybiphenyls in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, G M; Vannucci, L; Bencini, C; Tusini, G; Mosca, F

    1991-09-01

    1. Sulphotransferase is an important detoxication pathway of hydroxybiphenyls and the kinetics of sulphotransferase activity were studied in human liver, ileum and colon mucosae, lung, kidney, urinary bladder mucosa and brain using 0-, m- and p-hydroxybiphenyl as substrates. 2. Sulphotransferase activity was detectable in all tissues studied, although it showed marked tissue-dependence. The rate of sulphation ranged greater than 100-fold in different tissues and the highest and lowest activities of sulphotransferase were found in liver and brain, respectively. 3. The Km of sulphotransferase was not tissue-dependent but was dependent on the isomer of hydroxybiphenyl. The Km varied over a 500-fold range and the highest and lowest values of Km were found with p-hydroxybiphenyl and m-hydroxybiphenyl, respectively. PMID:1788979

  19. Thermodynamic study of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial molar volumes of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate have been determined in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol (2,4,6 and 8% by weight of propylene glycol at 303.15 K with the help of density measurements. Effect of temperature on the partial molar volumes was also analysed for these salts in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol. Results obtained have been analysed by Masson’s equation and the experimental values of slopes and partial molar volumes of these transition metals sulphates have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion or ion –solvent interactions. Limiting molar expansibilities ( have also been determined which is interpreted in terms of structure making or breaking capacities of transition metal sulphates. The transition metal sulphates have been found as structure promoter in water and binary aqueous mixture of propylene glycol.

  20. Intestinal Phosphate Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporte...

  1. Sulphate removal from industrial effluents through barium sulphate precipitation / Swanepoel H.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Hulde.

    2011-01-01

    The pollution of South Africa’s water resources puts a strain on an already stressed natural resource. One of the main pollution sources is industrial effluents such as acid mine drainage (AMD) and other mining effluents. These effluents usually contain high levels of acidity, heavy metals and sulphate. A popular method to treat these effluents before they are released into the environment is lime neutralisation. Although this method is very effective to raise the pH of the eff...

  2. Fenoterol metabolism in man: sulphation versus glucuronidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, R; Wagner, B; Preiss-Nowzohour, K; Gundert-Remy, U

    1994-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of fenoterol (F) and its conjugate metabolites were determined in healthy female subjects and in pregnant women treated for preterm labour. Sulphate (S) and glucuronide (G) conjugates could be quantified. 2. In the healthy volunteers, AUC of both the metabolites was half that of parent compound (AUC-S/AUC-F: 0.42; 0.14-1.16) (AUC-G/AUC-F: 0.49; 0.18-0.86) during i.v. administration of the drug and was several fold that of parent drug (AUC-S/AUC-F: 116.9; 36.4-353.3, AUC-G/AUC-F: 19.9; 5.1-57.5) after p.o. administration indicating extensive presystemic elimination. 3. In the healthy subjects, the AUC ratio of G:S was 1.1 (0.5-2.6) and 0.16 (0.10-0.27) after i.v. and p.o. administration, respectively, thus indicating that sulphation is the prevailing metabolic pathway in the presystemic elimination. 4. In patients, concentration ratios were used for the analysis. During continuous i.v. treatment, Css-S/Css-F was 3.8 (2.5-4.8) and Css-G/Css-F was 1.5 (0.7-2.1). During p.o. treatment Csstrough S/Csstrough-F was 69.4 (32.1-145.7) and Csstrough-G/Csstrough-F 9.4 (5.6-13.2).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8165823

  3. Studies on the chelation of aluminium for biological application: Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium(111) complexes of ortho-, pyro-, and triphosphate have been studied at 250C and an ionic strength of 0,15 mol dm3, using glass electrode potentiometry. A novel formation function has been used as an aid to the interpretation of the data. A variety of protonated complexes were detected, with very similar results being obtained for the three phosphates { K(M + LH = MLH) = 11,4, 10,5 and 12,9 respectively }. 31P N.m.r. has been used to support the potentiometric study

  4. Characterization of aluminium-based water treatment residual for potential phosphorus removal in engineered wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, A.O.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Burke, A. M.; Morris, M A; Hanrahan, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium-based water treatment residual (Al-WTR) is the most widely generated residual from water treatment facilities worldwide. It is regarded as a by-product of no reuse potential and landfilled. This study assessed Al-WTR as a potential phosphate-removing substrate in engineered wetlands for wastewater treatment. Results indicate the specific surface area ranged from 28.0 m2 g-1 to 41.4 m2 g-1 and this increased with increasing particle size. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform in...

  5. Protection of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy by corrosion resistant phytic acid conversion coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongwei; Han, En-Hou; Liu, Fuchun; Kallip, Silvar

    2013-09-01

    The corrosion protection properties of environmentally friendly phytic acid conversion coatings were studied on 2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The films were prepared under acidic conditions with various pH values and characterised by SEM, EDS, ATR-FTIR and electrochemical techniques. The results indicate that the conversion coatings obtained by immersing the alloy in phytic acid solutions at pH from 3 to 5.5 provide excellent corrosion resistance. ATR-FTIR confirms that the film is formed by deposition of reaction products between Al3+ and phosphate groups in phytic acid molecules. The conformation models of the deposition film are proposed.

  6. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans in glia and in the normal and injured CNS: expression of sulphotransferases and changes in sulphation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Francesca; Lin, Rachel; Kwok, Jessica; Naidu, Murali; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Ten Dam, Gerdy B; Camargo, Luiz M; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Furukawa, Yoko; Mikami, Tadahisa; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Fawcett, James W

    2008-02-01

    Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have multiple functions relevant to the control of the CNS injury response, particularly in modulating the effects of growth factors and localizing molecules that affect axon growth. We examined the pattern of expression and glycanation of HSPGs in the normal and damaged CNS, and in astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursors because of their participation in the injury reaction. The composition of HS glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains was analysed by biochemical analysis and by the binding of antibodies that recognize sulphated epitopes. We also measured levels of HS sulphotransferases and syndecans. Compared with oligodendrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursors have more 2-O-sulphation in their HS GAG. This is accompanied by higher expression of the enzyme responsible for 2-O-sulphation, HS 2-O-sulphotransferase (HS2ST) and a fall in syndecan-1. Astrocytes treated with tumour growth factor (TGF)alpha or TGFbeta to mimic the injury response showed upregulation of syndecan-1 and HS2ST correlating with an increase in 2-O-sulphate residues in their HS GAGs. This also correlated with increased staining with AO4B08 anti-GAG antibody that recognizes high sulphation, and reduced staining with RB4EA12 recognizing low sulphation. After injury to the adult rat brain there was an overall increase in the quantity of HSPG around the injury site, mRNA for HS2ST was increased, and the changes in staining with sulphation-specific antibodies were consistent with an increase in 2-O-sulphated HS. Syndecan-1 was upregulated in astrocytes. The major injury-related change, seen in injured brain and cultured glia, was an increase in 2-O-sulphated HS and increased syndecan-1, suggesting novel approaches to modulating scar formation. PMID:18279312

  7. Cartilage tumour progression is characterized by an increased expression of heparan sulphate 6O-sulphation-modifying enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J F; de Andrea, Carlos E; Hamilton, Andrew; van Oosterwijk, Jolieke G; Stringer, Sally E; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2012-10-01

    Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilage-forming tumours that can arise centrally (in the medulla) or peripherally (at the surface) of the bone. They are classified into three histological grades which correspond to the clinical severity. Previous studies by our group have shown altered signal transduction of the fibroblast growth factor and Wnt signalling pathways during peripheral chondrosarcoma progression. Heparan sulphate (HS) is a glycosaminoglycan that facilitates receptor binding of multiple growth factors, in which the sulphation of 6O position plays a pivotal role. 6O-Sulphation occurs through three HS 6O-sulphotransferases (HS6ST1-3) and is fine-tuned by two endosulphatases (SULF1-2) that remove 6O-sulphate groups. We have investigated whether the expression of HS6STs and SULFs changes during chondrosarcoma progression and have determined 6O-sulphation levels in two chondrosarcoma cell lines. Immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays of chondrosarcomas showed that HS6ST3 and SULF1 were highly expressed in most chondrosarcomas, whereas SULF2 expression was absent in most cases. HS6ST1 and HS6ST2 expression are significantly increased during chondrosarcoma progression, which suggest that 6O-sulphation is increased during progression. This was confirmed in one grade III chondrosarcoma cell line, which showed a dramatically increased 6O-sulphation compared to an articular chondrocyte cell line by HPLC; another cell line showed an increased expression of one 6O-sulphated HS disaccharide. In conclusion, our results show increased HS6ST1 and HS6ST2 expression during chondrosarcoma progression and increased HS 6O-sulphation in vitro. As 6O-sulphation plays an important role in signal transduction, altered HS6ST expression might be associated with changes in signal transduction pathways in chondrosarcoma progression. PMID:22903264

  8. 3-dimensional shaped aluminium foam sandwiches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumeister, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung, Bremen (Germany); Baumgaertner, F. [Schunk Sintermetalltechnik, Giessen (Germany); Gers, H. [Honsel AG, Meschede (Germany); Seeliger, W. [Wilhelm Karmann GmbH, Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    3-dimensional shaped sandwich panels with a very high stiffness can be produced in an elegant way by combining aluminium face sheets with an aluminium foam core. For this, a mixture of aluminium powder and a foaming agent is compressed to a semi-finished product of nearly vanishing porosity by extrusion, powder rolling or hot isostatic pressing. The resulting foamable semi-finished aluminium material is roll clad with sheets of conventional sheet or aluminium. As a result a precursor material is obtained consisting of two face sheets which are metallurgically bonded to the foamable core layer. This sandwich precursor material can be shaped into a 3-dimensional part by conventional techniques, e.g. by stamping or deep drawing. In a final step the foamable precursor material is heated up to the melting point of the core layer thus initiating its expansion into the desired 3-dimensional shaped sandwich structure. The porosity of the foamed core layer is in the range from 80-90% so that the integral density of the sandwich structure can be as low as 0,7 g/cm{sup 3}. The sandwich materials combine the low weight and high bending stiffness with the advantages of the face sheets, i.e. the high strength and weldability. The manufacturing process will be described in detail and the material properties will be shown. Current and future possible applications will be outlined as well as concrete parts produced up to date. (orig.)

  9. Concrete under sulphate attack: an isotope study on sulphur sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Bauer, Christoph; Klammer, Dietmar; Böttcher, Michael E; Leis, Albrecht; Escher, Peter; Dietzel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The formation of secondary sulphate minerals such as thaumasite, ettringite and gypsum is a process causing severe damage to concrete constructions. A major key to understand the complex reactions, involving concrete deterioration is to decipher the cause of its appearance, including the sources of the involved elements. In the present study, sulphate attack on the concrete of two Austrian tunnels is investigated. The distribution of stable sulphur isotopes is successfully applied to decipher the source(s) of sulphur in the deteriorating sulphate-bearing minerals. Interestingly, δ(34)S values of sulphate in local groundwater and in the deteriorating minerals are mostly in the range from+14 to+27 ‰. These δ(34)S values match the isotope patterns of regional Permian and Triassic marine evaporites. Soot relicts from steam- and diesel-driven trains found in one of the tunnels show δ(34)S values from-3 to+5 ‰, and are therefore assumed to be of minor importance for sulphate attack on the concretes. In areas of pyrite-containing sedimentary rocks, the δ(34)S values of sulphate from damaged concrete range between-1 and+11 ‰. The latter range reflects the impact of sulphide oxidation on local groundwater sulphate. PMID:22321257

  10. Sulphate Incorporation in Borosilicate Glasses and Melts: a Kinetic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of sulphate departure in a sodium borosilicate melt were studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy. This technique allows the quantification of the amount of sulphate dissolved in a borosilicate glass as a function of heating time by comparison with measurements obtained by microprobe wavelength dispersive spectrometry. To quantify the sulphate content obtained with Raman spectroscopy, the integrated intensity of the sulphate band at 990 cm-1 was scaled to the sum of the integrated bands between 800 and 1200 cm-1, bands that are assigned to Qn silica units on the basis of previous literature. Calibration curves were then determined for two different samples. An evaluation of the kinetics of departure of sulphate could thus be made as a function of the viscosity of the borosilicate glass, showing that the kinetics were controlled by the diffusion of sulphate and its volatilization from the melt. This experimental method allows in situ measurements of sulphate content at high temperature which cannot be obtained by any other simple technique. (authors)

  11. Study of the sulphate expansion phenomenon in concrete: behaviour of the cemented radioactive wastes containing sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphate attack is one of the major degradation processes of concrete. It is especially important in storing cemented radioactive wastes containing sulphate. In this thesis, we have thoroughly investigated the degradation mechanisms of cemented radioactive wastes by sulphate. The CaO-Al2O3-SO3-H2O systems with and without alkalis are studied. For the system without alkalis, experimental results show that it is the formation of a secondary ettringite under external water supply by steric effect that causes the expansion. For the system with alkalis, the ettringite does not appear while a new mineral called 'U', a sodium-substituted AFm phase is detected. This phase is shown to be responsible for the expansion and destruction of the specimens. The conditions for the formation, the product of solubility and many means of its synthesis are discussed, and a complete list of the inter-reticular distances file is given. The behaviour of the different types of cemented wastes containing sulphate are then studied with a special focus on the U phase on entity which was heretofore very little understood. The following three hypothetical mechanisms of sulphate expansion are proposed: the formation of the secondary U phase, the transformation of the U phase to the ettringite and the topochemical hydration of thenardite into mirabilite. Experiments on a simplified system have demonstrated clearly that the formation of the secondary U phase can induce enormous expansion by steric effect, this justifying the first assumption. Simulation by the mass and volume balances is carried out thereafter and enables us to estimate the expansion induced by the formation of the secondary U phase in the cemented wastes. The second assumption is also well verified by a series of leaching tests in different solutions on mixtures containing the U phase. On the basis of the analysis of the specimens under leaching, it has been assumed that the expansion is associated with the inter

  12. Isolation, characterization and properties of the oversulphated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan from squid skin with peculiar glycosaminoglycan sulphation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanos, N K; Aletras, A J; Tsegenidis, T; Tsiganos, C P; Antonopoulos, C A

    1992-03-01

    Oversulphated chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan from squid skin was isolated from 4 M guanidine hydrochloride extract by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography and density gradient centrifugation. The proteoglycan had Mr 3.5 x 10(5), contained on average six oversulphated chondroitin sulphate chains (Mr 4 x 10(4)) bound on a polypeptide of Mr 2.8 x 10(4), and oligosaccharides consisting of both hexosamines, glucuronic acid, sulphates and fucose as the only neutral monosaccharide. The major amino acids of the proteoglycan protein core are glycine (corresponding to about one third of the total amino acids), aspartic acid/asparagine and serine, together amounting to 50% of the total. The proteoglycan was resistant to the proteolytic enzymes V8 protease, trypsin (treated with diphenylcarbamoyl chloride), alpha-chymotrypsin and pronase, while it was completely degraded by papain and to a large extent by collagenase. Pretreated proteoglycan with chondroitinase AC was degraded by pronase to a large extent and slightly by V8 protease and trypsin. The proteoglycan did not interact with hyaluronic acid and did not form self-aggregates. Oversulphated chondroitin sulphate chains were composed of unusual sulphated disaccharide units which were isolated and characterized by HPLC. In particular, it contained 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(alpha-L-threo-4-enopyranosyluronic acid)-D-galactose 4-sulphate (delta di-4S) and disulphated disaccharides (delta di-diS) [90% 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(alpha-L-threo-4-enopyranosyluronic acid 2/3-sulphate)-D-galactose 6-sulphate (delta di-diSD) and 10% 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(alpha-L-threo-4-enopyranosyluronic acid 2/3-sulphate)-D-galactose 4-sulphate (delta di-diSK)] as the major disaccharides, significant amounts of trisulphated disaccharides (delta di-triS) and small amounts of 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(alpha-L-threo-4-enopyranosyluronic acid)-D-galactose 6-sulphate (delta di-6S) and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3-O-(alpha-L-threo-4

  13. Sulphoxidation and sulphation capacity in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M H; Ngong, J M; Pean, A; Vickers, C R; Waring, R H; Elias, E

    1995-05-01

    We have previously reported an association of impaired S-oxidation with primary biliary cirrhosis. In order to confirm and further define this relationship, we retested S-oxidation capacity via three metabolic pathways and sulphation capacity via a fourth pathway. Metabolism of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine is polymorphic -20% of healthy individuals being poor S-oxidisers. We found 26% with primary biliary cirrhosis were poor S-oxidisers, compared with 36% with other liver disease and 25% of healthy controls. Differences were not statistically significant. S-oxidation of ranitidine is dependent upon flavin mono-oxygenases. We showed a non-significant trend toward less S-oxide in primary biliary cirrhosis and other liver disease, compared with healthy controls, with no significant difference between disease groups. Conversion of cysteine to sulphate depends predominantly on cysteine dioxygenase. Impaired activity may be reflected by decreased plasma sulphate and elevated cysteine. We found that the plasma cysteine: sulphate ratio was significantly elevated not only in primary biliary cirrhosis (p < 0.0001), but also in other liver disease (p < 0.0001), compared with healthy individuals. Sulphation capacity was studied by analysing paracetamol metabolism. Paracetamol sulphate and sulphate: glucuronide ratio were reduced in primary biliary cirrhosis compared with normal individuals, (p < 0.05). A trend towards less sulphate in primary biliary cirrhosis compared other liver disease was not significant (p = 0.42). We conclude that although sulphation and some sulphoxidation pathways are impaired in primary biliary cirrhosis, we can currently find no evidence to substantiate the hypothesis that primary biliary cirrhosis is a disease specifically associated with poor S-oxidation, as assessed via these metabolic pathways. PMID:7650336

  14. Steam Assisted Accelerated Growth of Oxide Layer on Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Yuksel, Serkan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys is related to the composition and morphology of the oxide film on the surface of aluminium. In this paper we investigated the use of steam on the surface modification of aluminium to produce boehmite films. The study reveals a detailed investigation of the...... effect of vapour pressure, structure of intermetallic particles and thickness of boehmite films on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys....

  15. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation of...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  16. Friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bušić; Kožuh, Z.; D. Klobčar; Samardžić, I.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and f...

  17. Formulation and evaluation of press coated tablets of salbutamol sulphate for time controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Wasimul Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate a press coated pulsatile drug delivery system of salbutamol sulphate in order to attain a time controlled release for treatment of nocturnal asthma. The core was prepared by direct compression, while press coating technique was used in coating the outer layer there by preparing a press coated tablet. The immediate release core formulations comprised of salbutamol sulphate and disintegrants like crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate in different ratios with the drug. The outer coat formulations were prepared using a hydrophilic (HPMC and hydrophobic (EC polymer of similar viscosity. The polymers were reviewed individually for their influence on lag time further obtaining the lag time using polymer combinations were assessed by employing central composite design. All the preliminary trials were evaluated for various post compression parameters along with the dissolution study that was performed using USP paddle method at 50 rpm in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The formulation containing 300 mg of EC N50 and 75-100 mg of HPMC E50 may be regarded as the minimum quantity required in outer press coat so as to attain a predetermined lag time of 6 h.

  18. Study on hardening mechanisms in aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Mandal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Zn-Mg alloys are most commonly used age-hardenable aluminium alloys. The hardening mechanism is further enhanced in addition of Sc. Sc additions to aluminium alloys are more promising. Due to the heterogeneous distribution of nano-sized Al3Sc precipitates hardening effect can be accelerated. Mainly, highlight on hardening mechanism in Al-Zn-Mg alloys with Sc effect is to study. In addition, several characterisations have been done to age-hardening measurements at elevated temperatures from 120oC to 180 oC. The ageing kinetics has also been calculated from Arrhenius equation. Furthermore, friction stir processing (FSP can be introduced to surface modification process and hardened the cast aluminium alloys. In this study, hardening mechanism can be evaluated by Vicker’s hardness measurement and mechanical testing is present task.

  19. Mechanical characteristics of aluminium / aluminium and aluminium / steel joints used for lightening of automobile bodies; Caracteristiques mecaniques d'assemblages aluminium / aluminium et aluminium / acier utilises pour l'allegement des carrosseries automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuge, Haraga [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Centre de R and D des Technologies Avancees, Dept. des Materiaux et des Eco-Materiaux (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    All the possible solutions used for the steel-aluminium composite bonds are not equal. The riveting, linked or not to the bonding, give the best results. The clinching requires an increase of thicknesses for a mechanical resistance equal to those of homogeneous joints. (O.M.)

  20. Synthesis of TiO2 nano-powders prepared from purified sulphate leach liquor of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, P E; Oustadakis, P; Katsiapi, A; Perraki, M; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2011-10-30

    The research work presented in this paper is focused on the development of a purification process of red mud sulphate leach liquor for the recovery of titanium oxide (TiO(2)) nano-powders in the form of anatase. Initially, titanium was extracted over iron and aluminium from the leach liquor by solvent extraction using Cyanex 272 in toluene, at pH: 0.3 and T: 25°C, with 40% extractant concentration. Stripping of the loaded, with titanium, organic phase was carried out by diluted HCl (3 mol/L) at ambient temperature. Finally, the recovery of titanium nano-powder, in the form of anatase, was performed by chemical precipitation at pH: 6 and T: 95°C, using 10 wt% MgO pulp as neutralizing agent. The produced precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Their morphological characteristics and microstructure were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High grade titanium white precipitate, in the form of anatase, was obtained. Iron concentration in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no aluminium was detected. PMID:21868153

  1. Effect of plating time on growth of nanocrystalline Ni–P from sulphate/glycine bath by electroless deposition method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Latha; V Raj; M Selvam

    2013-08-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel phosphorus (NC-Ni–P) deposits from sulphate/glycine bath using a simple electroless deposition process is demonstrated. In the present investigation, nanoporous alumina films are formed on the aluminium surface by anodization process followed by deposition of nickel onto the pores by electroless plating method. Anodic aluminium oxide surface was first sensitized and activated by using palladium chloride solution before immersing into the electroless nickel bath. Electroless nickel plating was carried out from the optimized bath by changing the deposition time from 20 to 1800 s at a constant temperature of 80 °C and a pH of 4.0. Surface morphology, elemental composition, structure and reflectance of the deposits have been analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible spectroscopic studies, respectively. Electroless nickel deposits formed at an early stage produces dense uniform nanocrystals containing higher percentage of atomic phosphorus with cubic Ni (111) structure. As the deposition time increased, nanocrystalline sharp peak became amorphous and dimension of the crystal size varied from 54 to 72 nm.

  2. Corrosion behaviour of borated aluminium used as neutron absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behaviour of pure and borated aluminium was examined. Measurements were performed in two different electrolytes at 90 C containing different trace-amounts of chloride. For borated aluminium current transients, i.e. metastable depassivation events were found. It is suggested to attribute these transients to less stable passivation layers in comparison to pure aluminium

  3. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bobic; Mitrovic, S.; M. Babic; I. Bobic

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion) was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  4. Internal friction in iron-aluminium alloys having a high aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a torsion pendulum to measure the internal friction of iron-aluminium alloys containing between 25 and 50 atom per cent of aluminium, it has been possible to show the existence of three damping peaks due to interstitial carbon. Their evolution is followed as a function of the carbon content, of the thermal treatment and of the aluminium content. A model based on the preferential occupation of tetrahedral sites is proposed as an interpretation of the results. A study of the Zener peak in these substitution alloys shows also that a part of the short distance disorder existing at high temperatures can be preserved by quenching. (author)

  5. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  6. Calcium sulphate deposition on heated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of undesired matter at heat transfer surfaces (fouling) is a severe problem to industry. The growth of calcium sulphate dihydrate an heated metal surfaces has been examined and a mechanism for the effect of surface roughness on the amount of deposition has been proposed. A novel piece of equipment was designed and constructed in which the growth of crystals on heat transfer surfaces with different surface roughnesses could be observed under controlled solution conditions. The test section was a transparent rectangular channel into which three 25 mm diameter test pieces could be inserted such that the polished faces were planar with the rear face of the channel. The back faces of these test pieces were heated by contact with hot water. Using Reynolds numbers of 300 to 13,500 and calcium sulphate solutions with bulk concentrations from 20 to 50 mM Ca2+, no gross effect due to surface roughness was seen. However a limited effect, which distinguished grit-blasted surfaces from polished surfaces, was found in experiments with a bulk concentration from 28 to 33 mM Ca2+. In all of the experiments it was observed that the presence of bubbles enhanced crystal growth. It was also found that the amount of deposition formed on any surface decreased with decreasing dissolved oxygen content of the bulk solution. It is suggested that a bulk concentration of approximately 33 mM Ca2+ is a critical level of supersaturation, which corresponds with the so-called metastable limit of supersaturation. The surface roughness effect may be associated with two factors. Firstly, as the critical supersaturation is approached crystal growth is enhanced at certain sites, in particular the edges of bubbles. Secondly, very rough surfaces, such as grit-blasted surfaces, more readily support and initiate bubble formation and consequently the grit-blasted surface shows greater growth. Additional work with a different test rig, using a stagnant solution, indicated that suppression of

  7. Rapidly solidified aluminium for optical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gubbels, G.P.H.; Venrooy, B.W.H.; Bosch, A.J.; Senden, R

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the results of a diamond turning study of a rapidly solidified aluminium 6061 alloy grade, known as RSA6061. It is shown that this small grain material can be diamond turned to smaller roughness values than standard AA6061 aluminium grades. Also, the results are nearly as good as nickel plated surfaces, but the RSA6061 has the advantage that no additional production steps are needed and that no bi-metallic bending or delamination can occur in a thermally changing environmen...

  8. Defect generation during solidification of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reason for the frequent occurrence of cell wall defects in metal foams was investigated. Aluminium foams often expand during solidification, a process which is referred as solidification expansion (SE). The effect of SE on the structure of aluminium foams was studied in situ by X-ray radioscopy and ex situ by X-ray tomography. A direct correlation between the magnitude of SE and the number of cell wall ruptures during SE and finally the number of defects in the solidified foams was found.

  9. The dissolution and formation enthalpy of alloys and intermetallics of aluminium-lanthanum and aluminium-cerium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to dissolution and formation enthalpy of alloys and intermetallics of aluminium-lanthanum and aluminium-cerium systems. Therefore the dissolution temperatures of alloys and intermetallics of aluminium-lanthanum and aluminium-cerium systems were defined by means of calorimetry method. The enthalpy of formation of intermetallics of Al-Ce system was defined as well. The regularities in changes of dissolution and formation enthalpy of alloys and intermetallics depending on composition were studied.

  10. Characterization of aluminium-based water treatment residual for potential phosphorus removal in engineered wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium-based water treatment residual (Al-WTR) is the most widely generated residual from water treatment facilities worldwide. It is regarded as a by-product of no reuse potential and landfilled. This study assessed Al-WTR as potential phosphate-removing substrate in engineered wetlands. Results indicate specific surface area ranged from 28.0 m2 g-1 to 41.4 m2 g-1. X-ray Diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopes all indicate Al-WTR is mainly composed of amorphous aluminium which influences its phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity. The pH and electrical conductivity ranged from 5.9 to 6.0 and 0.104 dS m-1 to 0.140 dS m-1 respectively, showing that it should support plant growth. Batch tests showed adsorption maxima of 31.9 mg P g-1 and significant P removal was achieved in column tests. Overall, results showed that Al-WTR can be used for P removal in engineered wetlands and it carries the benefits of reuse of a by-product that promotes sustainability. - Aluminium-based water treatment residual can be used for phosphorus removal in engineered wetlands!

  11. Characterization of aluminium-based water treatment residual for potential phosphorus removal in engineered wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babatunde, A.O., E-mail: akintunde.babatunde@ucd.i [Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Architecture, Landscape and Civil Engineering, Newstead Building, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Zhao, Y.Q. [Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Architecture, Landscape and Civil Engineering, Newstead Building, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Burke, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Morris, M.A.; Hanrahan, J.P. [Environmental Research Institute (ERI), University College Cork, Lee Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Aluminium-based water treatment residual (Al-WTR) is the most widely generated residual from water treatment facilities worldwide. It is regarded as a by-product of no reuse potential and landfilled. This study assessed Al-WTR as potential phosphate-removing substrate in engineered wetlands. Results indicate specific surface area ranged from 28.0 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} to 41.4 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. X-ray Diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopes all indicate Al-WTR is mainly composed of amorphous aluminium which influences its phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity. The pH and electrical conductivity ranged from 5.9 to 6.0 and 0.104 dS m{sup -1} to 0.140 dS m{sup -1} respectively, showing that it should support plant growth. Batch tests showed adsorption maxima of 31.9 mg P g{sup -1} and significant P removal was achieved in column tests. Overall, results showed that Al-WTR can be used for P removal in engineered wetlands and it carries the benefits of reuse of a by-product that promotes sustainability. - Aluminium-based water treatment residual can be used for phosphorus removal in engineered wetlandsexclamation

  12. Age-related changes in the sulphation of the chondroitin sulphate linkage region from human articular cartilage aggrecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, R M; Huckerby, T N; Brown, G M; Bayliss, M T; Nieduszynski, I A

    2001-09-01

    The chondroitin sulphate (CS) linkage regions have been isolated from human articular cartilage aggrecan (from 10- to 72-year-olds) by chondroitin ABC endolyase digestion and size-exclusion chromatography. Linkage region hexasaccharides have been characterized and their abundance estimated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography. The basic structure for the CS linkage region oligosaccharides identified from human aggrecan is as follows: DeltaUA(beta1-3)GalNAc[0S/4S/6S](beta1-4)GlcA(beta1-3)Gal[0S/6S](beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Xyl, where DeltaUA represents 4,5-unsaturated hexuronic acid, 4S and 6S represent an O-ester sulphate group on C-4 and C-6 respectively, and 0S represents zero sulphation. There are significant age-related changes in the abundance of the various N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) sulphation forms identified, occurring up to approx. 20 years old. During the period from 10 to 20 years old the level of GalNAc 6-sulphation at the linkage region increases from approx. 43% to approx. 75%, while there is a corresponding reduction in unsulphated (approx. 30% to approx. 20%) and 4-sulphated (approx. 25% to approx. 6%) GalNAc residues. There is also an increase in the incidence of linkage region galactose 6-sulphation (approx. 2% to approx. 10%) which was only observed in linkage regions with GalNAc 6-sulphation. Beyond 20 years old there are few changes in the relative abundance of these GalNAc sulphation variants; however, there is a slight increase in the abundance of 6-sulphation between approx. 20 years old and approx. 40 years old and a slight decrease in its abundance beyond approx. 40 years old. Our data show that in the majority of chains from tissues of all ages the GalNAc residue closest to the linkage region is 6-sulphated, but the level of GalNAc 6-sulphation within the linkage region is lower than the average level observed within the repeat region. PMID:11513754

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE AND CETIRIZINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Deepak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Salbutamol Sulphate (SAL and Cetirizine HCl (CET is used for the treatment of asthma and allergy. A simple, economical, accurate and precise method for simultaneous estimation of Salbutamol Sulphate (SAL and Cetirizine HCl (CET in combined dosage form has been developed. Simultaneous equation method based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 276 nm and 230 nm, λmax of Salbutamol Sulphate (SAL and Cetirizine HCl (CET in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer. Both these drugs obeyed Beer Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 10-100 µg/ml for SAL and 2-20 µg/ml for CET. The high values of correlation coefficient (R2 indicated good linearity of calibration curve for both the drugs. The accuracy and precision of method was determined and the method validated stastically. Result of percentage recovery study confirms the accuracy of proposed method. The results of validation parameters indicates the accuracy of proposed methods for estimation of SAL and CET. Simultaneous equation method can be employed for routine analysis of SAL and CET in combined dosage form.

  14. Isotopic evolution of aqueous sulphate in northern Chile water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The extremely arid condition of northern Chile is the main obstacle to the present and future development of urban centres and economic activities in the region. The existing water resources are scarce. During the last decade, isotope techniques have been applied to investigate aspects such as the origin and residence time of the groundwater, these being extremely important for water development and water management. This paper presents 18O and 34S data in aqueous sulphate, as well as 18O, 2H, and 3H from springs, rivers and groundwater samples of the Pampa del Tamarugal and Salar de Llamara basins. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the isotope evolution of the sulphate, the origin of the sulphur, the groundwater flow path, and the possibility of using the 18O of the sulphate as a tracer for estimation of the residence time of the groundwater. Springs that have their recharge area in the high Altiplano (Salar del Huasco basin) show δ values between +5.0 per mille and +6.0 per mille for the 18O and +5.0 per mille and +9.0 per mille for the 34S isotope. Springs from lower altitude, show an isotope content between + 8.6 per mille and + 10.6 per mille for 18O and +7.4 per mille and + 11.7 per mille for 34S. The groundwaters in the Pampa aquifers, based on their hydrogen and oxygen isotope composition, are associated with different recharge areas. However, these waters show an isotope range for the sulphate similar to .he one of the springs, and no clear relationships are observed between isotope content, flow path and residence time. This pattern could be related to the poorly defined aquifer systems present in the Pampa. The Llamara groundwaters have a uniform isotope content and are the most enriched in the region (δ18O = -6.0 per mille and δ2H = -50 per mille). The isotope composition of their sulphate compares well with the Pampa groundwater, indicating a similar sulphate source. The isotope composition of gypsum deposits in the

  15. Acute tocolysis for fetal distress: terbutaline versus magnesium sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magann, E F; Cleveland, R S; Dockery, J R; Chauhan, S P; Martin, J N; Morrison, J C

    1993-11-01

    Forty-six women in active labour who developed fetal distress requiring abdominal delivery were randomized to receive 0.25 mg of terbutaline (subcutaneously) or magnesium sulphate as a 4-g bolus (intravenously) to decrease uterine activity. The terbutaline-treated group in contrast to the magnesium sulphate-treated group had reduced uterine activity as measured by Montevideo units (p terbutaline, 1.8 +/- 0.74 minutes compared to 7.5 +/- 2.1 minutes in the 16 of 23 patients (magnesium sulphate-treated women) in whom a decrease in uterine activity occurred (p terbutaline versus 7 of the 23 in the magnesium sulphate-treated group. We conclude that terbutaline is an effective and more rapid-acting tocolytic agent to arrest uterine activity prior to delivery for fetal distress. PMID:8179541

  16. Kinetics of sulphation of limestone and precalcined limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spartinos, D.N.; Vayenas, C.G. (Patras Univ. (Greece). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes)

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics of sulphation of large (2-4 mm) limestone and precalcined limestone particles were investigated at temperatures below the decomposition temperature of CaCO{sub 3}. In both cases it was found that, over a wide range of conditions, the sulphation rate decays with t{sup -1/2}, indicating that diffusion of SO{sub 2} through the product CaSO{sub 4} layer is rate limiting. For the case of limestone sulphation, the effective diffusivity of SO{sub 2} in the product CaSO{sub 4} layer is two to three orders of magnitude higher than in the case of sulphation of precalcined limestone, leading to Ca utilization up to 50%. A simple parallel pore mathematical model was found to provide a semiquantitative fit to the experimental results. (orig.).

  17. Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.

    evaluated on the basis of the relationship between corrosion current, potential, polarization resistance and rate of corrosion. The 0.2 percent concentration of sulphate has yielded maximum rate of corrosion. The potentiodynamic technique analysis appears...

  18. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  20. Chloroquine Phosphate Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroquine phosphate is in a class of drugs called antimalarials and amebicides. It is used to prevent and treat ... Chloroquine phosphate comes as a tablet to take by mouth. For prevention of malaria in adults, one dose is ...

  1. Development of melt compositions for sulphate bearing high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the development and characterization of vitreous matrices for sulphate bearing high level waste. Studies were conducted in sodium borosilicate and lead borosilicate systems with the introduction of CaO, BaO, MgO etc. Lead borosilicate system was found to be compatible with sulphate bearing high level wastes. Detailed product evaluation carried on selected formulations is also described. (author)

  2. Antifungal Activity of Copper Sulphate Against Colletotrichum Gloeosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    Oziengbe E.O; Osazee J.O

    2012-01-01

    Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gleosporioides is the most important post harvest disease of mango. The effect of various concentrations of copper sulphate on the mycelium growth and conidia germination of Colletotrichumgloeosporioides the causal agent of anthracnose disease of mango fruits was studied under in vitro conditions. Copper sulphate at 0.8mg/l gave significantly reduction of C. gloeosporioides growth and conidia germination by 78.2% and 66.3% respectively while 0....

  3. China’s Production and Market of Aluminium Extruded Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chinese aluminium extrusion industry came into existence at the early 1950s with most products used in military industry and national defence.At the beginning of 1980s,the produc- tion of construction aluminium profiles started simultaneously in North and South China.In the following thirty years,the aluminium extru- sion industry entered into a quickly developing stage with a focus on construction aluminium profiles.With the blooming real estate industry, the demand for construction aluminium profiles from the domestic market has a tendency of yearly increase.From 2000,the quick devel- opments of China’s auto and railway vehicle

  4. Leachability of barium-radium sulphate sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results from the first phase of a research program designed to examine the leachability of radium-226 from barium-radium sulphate sludges. Batch leaching tests were performed. Results showed that liquid:solid contact time was relatively unimportant; radium in the sludge was stable in the presence of deionized water with a slight increase in the amount leached per gram of sludge occurring at higher liquid:solid ratios. Not unexpectedly, low and high values of leachant pH increased radium leaching. Both monovalent and divalent salt solutions also increased leaching; however, dissolved radium-226 activity levels in the leachate decreased as leachant molarity increased. For divalent salts this can be explained by the common ion effect; for monovalent salts it is opposite to results expected from solubility considerations. The interpretation of all results is complicated by the fact that in most tests, the amount of radium-226 present in the leachate was lower than the calculated contribution from the mother liquour present with the sludge. This apparent ability of the sludge to absorb radium from solution may be related to dissolution and reprecipitation of the sludge during the leaching tests

  5. Aluminium composite casting dispersion reinforced with iron-aluminium and silicon carbide phases

    OpenAIRE

    B. Formanek; J. Piątkowski; J. Szymszal

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium matrix composite with dispersion-reinforced, made by similar to stircasting process was characterised. The mixture of powders was produced by the process of mechanical agglomeration of powdered FexAly and SiC with aluminium. The chemical composition ofagglomerates was selected in a way such as to obtain 25 wt.% reinforcement of the AlSi9Cu4 silumin matrix. Applying thermal analysis ATD, the alloy solidification process was determined, reading out the typical solidification parameter...

  6. Influence of aluminium alloy type on dissimilar friction stir lap welding of aluminium to copper

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, I; Verdera, D; Gesto, D; Loureiro, A.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    A heat-treatable (AA 6082) and a non-heat treatable (AA 5083) aluminium alloys were friction stir lap welded to copper using the same welding parameters. Macro and microscopic analysis of the welds enabled to detect important differences in welding results, according to the aluminium alloy type. Whereas important internal defects, resulting from ineffective materials mixing, were detected for the AA 5083/copper welds, a relatively uniform material mixing was detected in the AA 6082/copper wel...

  7. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlight Aluminium-induced nitric oxide production enhances the aluminium sensitivity of wheat by decreasing pectin methylation of root cell-wall pectin, resulting in greater aluminium binding in root cell walls.

  8. The effect of substrate concentration and pH on the enzymic sulphation of l-tyrosyl derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattock, P.; Barford, D. J.; Basford, J. M.; Jones, J. G.

    1970-01-01

    1. The kinetics of the enzymic transfer of sulphate from adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′[35S]-sulphatophosphate to derivatives of l-tyrosine were investigated with a partially purified enzyme preparation from rat liver. 2. At pH7.5 and 37°C the Km values for l-tyrosine methyl ester and adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′[35S]-sulphatophosphate are 0.3mm and 8nm respectively. The Km value for either substrate is independent of the concentration of the other. The available data are consistent with the sulphation reaction proceeding according to a rapid-equilibrium random Bi Bi mechanism. 3. From the effect of pH on the Km and Vmax. values for l-tyrosine methyl ester, tyramine and N-acetyl-l-tyrosine ethyl ester it is concluded that the enzyme is specific for substrate molecules with a free and unprotonated amino group and an un-ionized hydroxyl group. 4. The only ionizing group that can be positively attributed to the enzyme appears to influence the binding of adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′[35S]-sulphatophosphate and has an apparent pK value of approx. 9.5. It is suggested that this group may be an essential thiol. 5. The enzyme is inhibited by iodoacetamide at pH7.5 and 30°C and this inhibition is prevented by the presence of adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′[35S]-sulphatophosphate but not by l-tyrosine methyl ester. PMID:5441370

  9. Vitrification of sulphate bearing high level waste (HLW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indian strategy for the management of spent fuel is based on Reprocessing-Conditioning- Recycle (RCR) option. Reprocessing of spent fuel by the PUREX process leads to the generation of high-level radioactive liquid waste. Strategy for the management of high-level waste in India involves: a) Immobilization of HLW in borosilicate matrices b) Interim storage of vitrified HLW for a period of about 50 years c) Ultimate disposal of vitrified HLW in deep geological repository Borosilicate matrices have found wide acceptance for immobilization of high level wastes. Suitable glass compositions within the borosilicate family have been formulated and characterized for sulphate bearing high-level radioactive waste. Presence of sulphate in HLW, generated earlier, is on account of ferrous sulphamate as a reducing agent, added during partitioning stage of reprocessing. Solubility of sulphur in the form of sodium sulphate is very less (<1% wt) in normally deployed borosilicate melts for vitrification of HLW. The soluble alkali sulphate gets phase separated in the glass melt and its presence is not desirable since this phase is enriched with radio Cs and has high solubility in water. In addition, volatility of sulphates during glass formation is another area of concern. Attempts to address this problem were made and alternative glass forming systems based on lead and barium borosilicate systems were studied for immobilization of this sulphate bearing waste. (author)

  10. Enhancement of indirect sulphation of limestone by steam addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael C; Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J; Macchi, Arturo

    2010-11-15

    The effect of water (H₂O(g)) on in situ SO₂ capture using limestone injection under (FBC) conditions was studied using a thermobalance and tube furnace. The indirect sulphation reaction was found to be greatly enhanced in the presence of H₂O(g). Stoichiometric conversion of samples occurred when sulphated with a synthetic flue gas containing 15% H₂O(g) in under 10 h, which is equivalent to a 45% increase in conversion as compared to sulphation without H₂O(g). Using gas pycnometry and nitrogen adsorption methods, it was shown that limestone samples sulphated in the presence of H₂O(g) undergo increased particle densification without any significant changes to pore area or volume. The microstructural changes and observed increase in conversion were attributed to enhanced solid-state diffusion in CaO/CaSO₄ in the presence of H₂O(g). Given steam has been shown to have such a strong influence on sulphation, whereas it had been previously regarded as inert, may prompt a revisiting of the classically accepted sulphation models and phenomena. These findings also suggest that steam injection may be used to enhance sulfur capture performance in fluidized beds firing low-moisture fuels such as petroleum coke. PMID:20958025

  11. Study of electrochemical phosphate sensing systems: Spectrometric, potentiometric and voltammetric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivlehan, Francine [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College, Cork (Ireland); Mace, Wade J. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College, Cork (Ireland); Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, University College, Cork (Ireland); Moynihan, Humphrey A. [Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, University College, Cork (Ireland); Arrigan, Damien W.M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College, Cork (Ireland)], E-mail: damien.arrigan@tyndall.ie

    2009-02-28

    Characterization of the interaction of a urea-functionalized calix[4]arene ionophore and phosphate was undertaken by combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, potentiometric selectivity coefficient evaluation and voltammetric ion transfer at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES). NMR revealed that the urea protons were involved in complexation with the target anion and potentiometric separate solution selectivity data indicated selectivity for phosphate over chloride and sulphate. Voltammetry at the ITIES confirmed that the ionophore-facilitated transfer of monohydrogen phosphate occurred in preference to dihydrogen phosphate transfer. The results correlate with previously reported data on the potentiometric evaluation of this calixarene as an anionophore in PVC-membrane electrodes. The data provide the basis for development of amperometric monohydrogen phosphate sensors based on the ion-transfer principle.

  12. Study of electrochemical phosphate sensing systems: Spectrometric, potentiometric and voltammetric evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of the interaction of a urea-functionalized calix[4]arene ionophore and phosphate was undertaken by combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, potentiometric selectivity coefficient evaluation and voltammetric ion transfer at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES). NMR revealed that the urea protons were involved in complexation with the target anion and potentiometric separate solution selectivity data indicated selectivity for phosphate over chloride and sulphate. Voltammetry at the ITIES confirmed that the ionophore-facilitated transfer of monohydrogen phosphate occurred in preference to dihydrogen phosphate transfer. The results correlate with previously reported data on the potentiometric evaluation of this calixarene as an anionophore in PVC-membrane electrodes. The data provide the basis for development of amperometric monohydrogen phosphate sensors based on the ion-transfer principle

  13. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    into functional conversion coatings in order to enhance corrosion resistance and adhesion to paint systems. Chromium based conversion coatings have been extensively used on aluminium alloys to improve adhesion of subsequent paint layers and corrosion resistance. However, the use of hexavalent chromium...

  14. Alloys oxidation of aluminium-scandium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloys and compounds of rare earth metals with aluminium thanks to their high corrosion stability, durability and small specific weight find to apply in various new techniques. On the base of carried out investigation it could be recommend as de oxidizing and alloying compositions containing 15-50 % of scandium as in possession of minimal oxidation

  15. Constant structure creep experiments on aluminium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milička, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2011), s. 307-318. ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : mechanical properties * high temperature deformation * creep * aluminium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2011

  16. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g-1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg-1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  17. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P;

    2005-01-01

    adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide was the...

  18. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  19. Demonstration of immunogenic keratan sulphate in commercial chondroitin 6-sulphate from shark cartilage. Implications for ELISA assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Møller-Pedersen, T; Damsgaard, T E;

    1995-01-01

    The prototype monoclonal keratan sulphate (KS) antibody 5D4 that is widely used for detection of KS in tissues and biological fluids reacts strongly with commercial low grade shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate. Characterization of the immunogenic material by chondroitinase ABC digestion, ELISA...... inhibition studies, immunoblotting and HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of substantial amounts of KS, probably as a large proteoglycan (> 120 kDa). Commercial and heterogenic glycosaminoglycan preparations therefore must be used with great caution in immunological analyses. On the other hand the shark...... cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate is an easy accessible source of immunogenic KS that can be used as a reference standard and as coating antigen in KS-ELISAs. The concentration of immunogenic KS in synovial fluid measured with an ELISA based solely on reagents of shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate...

  20. Technology of obtaining of cryolite and aluminium fluoride from alumina- and fluoride containing wastes of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is devoted to technology of obtaining of cryolite and aluminium fluoride from alumina- and fluoride containing wastes of aluminium production. Thus, the investigations on elaboration of technology of obtaining of cryolite and aluminium fluoride from alumina- and fluoride containing wastes of aluminium production by means of sulfuric acid decomposition method are carried out. The optimal parameters of technological processes are found. The physicochemical analysis of fluoride containing wastes is conducted. The flowsheet of obtaining of cryolite, aluminium fluoride and alumina from alumina- and fluoride containing wastes is presented.

  1. Determination of sulphate for measuring magnesium sulphate in pharmaceuticals by flow analysis-fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ovalles, Fernando; Gallignani, Máximo; Rondón, Rebeca; Brunetto, Maria R.; Luna, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The viability of employing flow analysis coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FA-FTIR) as a useful tool for quantitative measuring of magnesium sulphate in pharmaceuticals was explored, developed and validated. The method was based on mid-IR transmittance measurements of the peak-area belonging to the sulphate band around 1110 cm–1 and the use of an external calibration curve. Dynamic range was established over a concentration range from 1 to 50 mg.ml–1 , with a lim...

  2. Sodium to phosphate ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate chemistry is widely used in fossil-fired utility boilers and many of these phosphate programs use the sodium to phosphate ratio as the controlling parameter. This paper steps through the fundamental chemical analyses to determine a systems Na/PO4 ratio. A mathematical equation is introduced to simply calculate the ratio using the pH and phosphate concentration. This equation is also used to build graphs to chart the boiler's phosphate chemistry. By looking at the dynamic nature of the chemistry, boiler health can be determined. (orig.)

  3. Extraction and separation of beryllium (II) and aluminium (III) by di-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphoric acid from sulphate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of Be(II) and Al(III) between aqueous sulphuric acid solutions and organic phases of di-(2-ethyl-hexyl)-phosphoric acid, has been investigated. The dependance of extraction on Psup(H) of aqueous phase, metal and extractant concentration as also on the diluent type, was thoroughly examined. A nuclear grade Be product is finally obtained

  4. Treatment Of Sewage By The Use Of Biofloaters For Cod, Sulphate, Nitrate And Phosphate Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    B. R. Pirgonde; B. L. CHAVAN; S. S Shingadgaon

    2013-01-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is forage weed, because of its ease of propagation, fast growth. This weed is a biotic resource, due to its several properties weed is used for wastewater treatment by Phytoremediation (Root Zone) technology through constructed wetland. In the present investigation, Eichhornia crassipes was used for the treatment of sewage, because of its highest growth near sewage disposal areas. During the study we analysed the sewage sample two times i.e. before treatment ...

  5. Stable isotope ratios and sulphate/methane interaction in lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerns sulphate ion and methane from about 50 freshwater aquifers from Poland. Samples have been collected dominantly in the late August and early September 1993. Eutrophic lakes show high δ34S(SO42-) and δ18O(SO42-) values as compared to clean oligotrophic or mesotrophic lakes. All lake sulphates fall into a restricted field and evolve along a positive δ34S(SO42-) and δ18O(SO42-) correlation line (R2 = is 0.4, n = 147). The points behind the field represent rain from Wroclaw downtown (SW Poland) or surficial lakewater collected during or just after heavy rains (Jedrysek 2000). In general, increase both in sulphur and oxygen isotope ratios results from: (i) bacterial reduction of the dissolved sulphate; or/and (ii) presence of oceanic origin sulphate - when δ18O(SO42-) value do not exceed much more than 10 per mille. Lakes and rivers from NE and SE Poland represent mesotrophic conditions and receive the lowermost in Poland acid rain impact. Consequently, they show lowermost δ34S and δ18O values. However, relatively high concentration of sulphate as compared to the low δ34S value suggest that the sulphur, in these systems, comes mostly from acid rain or forms due to oxidation of some reduced forms of sulphur. The low δ18O value evidences the second scenario. Thus, one can believe that the sulphate in the clean lakes is dominantly of natural origin. The relatively high isotope signatures in some of NE Poland lakes result, most probably, from advanced reduction of the sulphate. On the other hand, low δ18O as compared to sulphate concentration may suggest sulphide oxidation. The advanced reduction may result from the fact that the lake is very deep and narrow (width/depth ratio is about 0.1). Thus, the reduction in the bottom zone may proceed simultaneously to an active oxidation in shallower zone. Mountainous lakes (SW and SE Poland) are expected to show strictly oligotrophic parameters. However, all of them show relatively high isotope values

  6. STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM ADDITIVE AND FERROUS SULPHATE SOLUTION ON THE MECHANISM OF THE MAGNESIA-BISHOFIT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Phosphogypsum is a very pure raw material [16] with a negative, from a technical point of view, elongated shape of calcium dihydrate crystals (due to the formation conditions, which remains the same after both dehydration in dry air and grinding, this makes technical difficulties relating to further processing of the product into a binder, consequently, water resistance and plasticity of magnesium solutions can be improved by adding primary and secondary phosphates without strength reduction. Famous experts on phosphogypsum Yu. P. Meshcheryakov and N. A. Kolev [8] found, that when adding phosphogypsum instead of natural gypsum during grinding of Portland cement, which is intended to control the setting time of the mixture, there occurred reduction in the initial setting time from 1 h 55 min up to 1 h 36 min (when adding 4 % agent, and the final setting time was decreased from 6 h 15 min up to 6 min. After grinding of phosphogypsum, there appeared a fresh surface, on which the electron emission phenomenon occurs, however, not the entire surface emits, but only the active centres, where field strength reaches 108 V/cm. The positively charged active centres have low CaSO4 2H2O concentration on their surface. Purpose. Specifying the optimal amount of phosphogypsum and ferrous sulphate solution added, studying their impact on the curing mechanism of the magnesia-bishofit composition. Conclusion. To increase the sulphate compound, required for the crystallinity [10] reduction and magnesia stone sealing [4], the ferrous sulphate solution have been added to the composition formulation, ferrous sulphate anions immediately polarize free calcium ions with the formation of CaSO4∙2H2O. P. P. Budkov's experiments [8] prove that the larger the magnesia cement-to-sulphate stone ratio, the lower the setting time of the composition, and the higher the tensile strength of the stone. Moreover, V. V. Shchelyaghin [15] recommended adding ferrous

  7. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of plant sulphate starvation and resupply provides novel information on transcriptional regulation of metabolism associated with sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus nutritional responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eBielecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Reaching a thorough understanding of the molecular basis for changes in plant metabolism depending on the sulphur-nutritional status at the systems level will advance our basic knowledge and help target future crop improvement. Although the transcriptional responses induced by sulphate starvation have been studied in the past, knowledge of the regulation of sulphur metabolism is still fragmentary. This work focuses on the discovery of candidates for regulatory genes such as transcription factors (TFs using ‘omics technologies. For this purpose a short term sulphate-starvation / re-supply approach was used. ATH1 microarray studies and metabolite determinations yielded 21 TFs which responded more than 2-fold at the transcriptional level to sulphate starvation. Categorization by response behaviors under sulphate-starvation / re-supply and other nutrient starvations such as nitrate and phosphate allowed determination of whether the TF genes are specific for or common between distinct mineral nutrient depletions. Extending this co-behavior analysis to the whole transcriptome data set enabled prediction of putative downstream genes. Additionally, combinations of transcriptome and metabolome data allowed identification of relationships between TFs and downstream responses, namely, expression changes in biosynthetic genes and subsequent metabolic responses. Effect chains on glucosinolate and polyamine biosynthesis are discussed in detail. The knowledge gained from this study provides a blueprint for an integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics and application for the identification of uncharacterized genes.

  8. Phosphate, inositol and polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Thomas M; Azevedo, Cristina; Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Wilson, Miranda S C; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-02-15

    Eukaryotic cells have ubiquitously utilized the myo-inositol backbone to generate a diverse array of signalling molecules. This is achieved by arranging phosphate groups around the six-carbon inositol ring. There is virtually no biological process that does not take advantage of the uniquely variable architecture of phosphorylated inositol. In inositol biology, phosphates are able to form three distinct covalent bonds: phosphoester, phosphodiester and phosphoanhydride bonds, with each providing different properties. The phosphoester bond links phosphate groups to the inositol ring, the variable arrangement of which forms the basis of the signalling capacity of the inositol phosphates. Phosphate groups can also form the structural bridge between myo-inositol and diacylglycerol through the phosphodiester bond. The resulting lipid-bound inositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, further expand the signalling potential of this family of molecules. Finally, inositol is also notable for its ability to host more phosphates than it has carbons. These unusual organic molecules are commonly referred to as the inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs), due to the presence of high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds (pyro- or diphospho-). PP-IPs themselves constitute a varied family of molecules with one or more pyrophosphate moiety/ies located around the inositol. Considering the relationship between phosphate and inositol, it is no surprise that members of the inositol phosphate family also regulate cellular phosphate homoeostasis. Notably, the PP-IPs play a fundamental role in controlling the metabolism of the ancient polymeric form of phosphate, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). Here we explore the intimate links between phosphate, inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships. PMID:26862212

  9. Chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate sulphation motifs and their proteoglycans are involved in articular cartilage formation during human foetal knee joint development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, James; Isaacs, Marc D; Smith, Susan M; Hughes, Clare E; Little, Christopher B; Caterson, Bruce; Hayes, Anthony J

    2012-09-01

    Novel sulphation motifs within the glycosaminoglycan chain structure of chondroitin sulphate (CS) containing proteoglycans (PGs) are associated with sites of growth, differentiation and repair in many biological systems and there is compelling evidence that they function as molecular recognition sites that are involved in the binding, sequestration or presentation of soluble signalling molecules (e.g. morphogens, growth factors and cytokines). Here, using monoclonal antibodies 3B3(-), 4C3 and 7D4, we examine the distribution of native CS sulphation motifs within the developing connective tissues of the human foetal knee joint, both during and after joint cavitation. We show that the CS motifs have broad, overlapping distributions within the differentiating connective tissues before the joint has fully cavitated; however, after cavitation, they all localise very specifically to the presumptive articular cartilage tissue. Comparisons with the labelling patterns of heparan sulphate (HS), HS-PGs (perlecan, syndecan-4 and glypican-6) and FGF-2, molecules with known signalling roles in development, indicate that these also become localised to the future articular cartilage tissue after joint cavitation. Furthermore, they display interesting, overlapping distributions with the CS motifs, reflective of early tissue zonation. The overlapping expression patterns of these molecules at this site suggests they are involved, or co-participate, in early morphogenetic events underlying articular cartilage formation; thus having potential clinical relevance to mechanisms involved in its repair/regeneration. We propose that these CS sulphation motifs are involved in modulating the signalling gradients responsible for the cellular behaviours (proliferation, differentiation, matrix turnover) that shape the zonal tissue architecture present in mature articular cartilage. PMID:22617995

  10. Carbohydrate microarrays reveal sulphation as a modulator of siglec binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanero-Rhodes, María Asunción; Childs, Robert A; Kiso, Makato; Komba, Shiro; Le Narvor, Christine; Warren, Joanna; Otto, Diana; Crocker, Paul R; Feizi, Ten

    2006-06-16

    Siglecs are receptors on cells of the immune, haemopoietic, and nervous systems that recognize sialyl-glycans with differing preferences for sialic acid linkage and oligosaccharide backbone sequence. We investigate here siglec binding using microarrays of Lewis(x) (Le(x))- and 3'-sialyl-Le(x)-related probes with different sulphation patterns. These include sulphation at position 3 of the terminal galactose of Le(x), position 6 of the galactose of Le(x) and sialyl-Le(x), position 6 of N-acetylglucosamine of Le(x) and sialyl-Le(x), or both positions of sialyl-Le(x). Recombinant soluble forms of five siglecs have been investigated: human Siglec-7, -8, -9, and murine Siglec-F and CD22 (Siglec-2). Each siglec has a different binding pattern. Unlike two C-type lectins of leukocytes, L-selectin and Langerin, which also bind to sulphated analogues of sialyl-Le(x), the siglecs do not give detectable binding signals with sulphated analogues that are lacking sialic acid. The sulphate groups modulate, however, positively or negatively the siglec binding intensities to the sialyl-Le(x) sequence. PMID:16647038

  11. N-sulphation of desipramine in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K O; Wong, K P

    1996-01-01

    1. Amine N-sulphotransferase (NST) activity with desipramine (DMI) as substrate was assayed in vitro in various areas of the rat brain. Biosynthesis of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phospho35sulphate (PAPS) from sodium 35sulphate and ATP was also measured by coupling it to the sulphation of minoxidil by minoxidil sulphotransferase (MST). 2. For the DMI-NST reaction, an apparent Km = 0.5 mM was obtained for DMI and two apparent Kms = 0.3 and 1.7 microM for PAPS, whereas in the PAPS-generating reactions, Km for sodium 35sulphate = 20 microM. 3. Both the enzyme activities were widely distributed in rat brain. The rate of NST activity was 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of PAPS generation. N-sulphoconjugation of DMI, which is proposed as a possible biotransformation pathway of DMI in the rat brain, could conceivably be supported adequately by the 'active sulphate' generated within the same areas of the brain. PMID:8851818

  12. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hans; Hegaard, H K; Greisen, G;

    2012-01-01

    Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies. A comprehe......Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies....... A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the PubMed database from their inceptions to 1 October, 2010 using the keywords 'magnesium sulphate, children/infant/pre-term/premature and cerebral palsy/mortality/morbidity/adverse effects/outcome' identified 11 reports of observational studies. Two...... authors working independently extracted the data. A meta-analysis of the data found an association between magnesium sulphate treatment and a significantly reduced risk of mortality (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.89) and cerebral palsy (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.89). Antenatal treatment with magnesium sulphate...

  13. Platelet sulphotransferase activity, plasma sulphate levels and sulphation capacity in patients with migraine and tension headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Z; Coombes, N; Waring, R H; Williams, A C; Steventon, G B

    1997-11-01

    Activity of both the M- and P-forms of sulphotransferase (ST) was measured in platelets from patients with migraine, tension headache and controls. Mean PST values were 0.065 +/- 0.023 and 0.057 +/- 0.052 nmol/mg protein/min for migraine patients with and without aura. The corresponding values for tension headache and controls were 0.122 +/- 0.059 and 0.127 +/- 0.093 nmol/mg protein/min respectively (p < 0.05). Mean MST values were not different for any of the groups, and MST and PST activities measured in two patients during a migraine attack were not significantly altered from baseline levels. Mean plasma inorganic sulphate concentrations and paracetamol metabolites were not significantly different in any of the groups studied. The results suggest that PST activity may be a factor in the aetiology of migraine. PMID:9399006

  14. Phosphate metabolism and vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate plays many essential roles in our body. To accomplish these functions, serum phosphate needs to be maintained in a certain range. Serum phosphate level is regulated by intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate handling and equilibrium of extracellular phosphate with that in bone or intracellular fluid. Several hormones such as parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulate serum phosphate by modulating intestinal pho...

  15. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    detailed analysis of the structure and morphology of the coating, and interface structure with and without organic top coat. Corrosion performance of the coatings was investigated using electrochemical methods, AASS, and FFC test. The morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, adhesion, and......The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes......-friendly alternative processes. In the present work high temperature steam-based process has been investigated as a possible chromate free conversion coating. Investigations in the thesis includes the effect of alloy type, substrate microstructure, surface finish, and various chemistries on the coating formation, and...

  16. Studies on an aluminium-carbon cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, L. K.

    The current-voltage behaviour of an electrochemical cell that consists of an aluminium anode and a carbon cathode in a medium containing aqueous NH 4SCN has been studied, both in the presence and in the absence of a coating on the carbon electrode. It is found that activation polarization is the main factor that limits the current output when using an untreated carbon electrode. This problem is eliminated by coating the carbon electrode with an in situ deposition of HgI 2. In this condition, the current output is reduced mainly by ohmic polarization. Further studies with a coated HgI 2-carbon cathode and an aluminium anode, in a medium containing SCN - and Cl - ions together with a complexing agent (EDTA, sodium salt), revealed that a cell performance close to ideal, (i.e, showing no appreciable polarization) can be obtained at currents up to 0.6 mA/cm 2 and above.

  17. Straggling of heavy ions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort has been made to determine the straggling in aluminium of 4He, 16O and 35Cl ions of different energies produced by the tandem Van de Graaff at Harwell. The technique consists of scattering the accelerated and collimated ions in a scattering chamber from a 0.100 mg/cm2 gold foil, allowing the scattered ions to pass through a two aperture collimator, using different aluminium foils over one of the apertures and stopping the two emergent beams in a good quality silicon surface barrier detector the output of which is connected to a 4096 channel analyser. The energy widths obtained in the case of helium ions are in fair agreement with both the Bloch and the recent Tschalar (1968) theory. The measured widths in the case of heavy ions are very large and can be explained only if account is taken of their charge distributions in foils. This study should be useful in ion implantation work. (author)

  18. Expression of heparan sulphate L-iduronyl 2-O-sulphotransferase in human kidney 293 cells results in increased D-glucuronyl 2-O-sulphation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, J; Habuchi, H; Kimata, K; Lindahl, U; Kusche-Gullberg, M

    2000-03-01

    Functionally important interactions between heparan sulphate and a variety of proteins depend on the precise location of O-sulphate groups. Such residues occur at C-2 of L-iduronic (IdoA) and D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) units, and at C-3 and C-6 of D-glucosamine (GlcN) units. Stable transfection of human embryonic kidney 293 cells with a cDNA encoding mouse mastocytoma IdoA 2-O-sulphotransferase resulted in an approx. 6-fold increase in O-sulphotransferase activity, compared with control cells, as determined using O-desulphated heparin as an acceptor. Structural analysis of endogenous heparan sulphate in the transfected cells, following metabolic labelling with either [(3)H]GlcN or [(35)S]sulphate, showed appreciable formation of -GlcA(2-OSO(3))-GlcNSO(3)- disaccharide units (6% of total disaccharide units; 17% of total O-sulphated disaccharide units) that were essentially absent from heparan sulphate from control cells. The increase in GlcA 2-O-sulphation was accompanied by a decrease in the amount of IdoA formed, whereas overall 2-O-sulphation or 6-O-sulphation remained largely unaffected. These findings indicate that 2-O-sulphation of IdoA and GlcA residues is catalysed by the same enzyme in heparan sulphate biosynthesis. PMID:10677367

  19. Geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of phosphates from Jandia, Cansa Perna, Itacupim (Para) and Pirocaua and Trauira (Maranhao)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate occurrences of Northeastern Para and Northwestern Maranhao were formed by strong lateritic weathering of phosphorus-rich Precambrian rocks. The rock formation affected by those processes were phyllites and schists of the Gurupi Group in Cansa Perna and Pirocaua, a complex of felsic to mafic and ultramafic rocks metamorphosed in the greenschist facies in Itacupim and Trauira and probably phosphoritic sandstone in Jandia. The geology, the mineralogy of phosphates, oxides, hydroxides and silicates, the geochemistry of element distribution (aluminium, silicon, iron, calcium, etc) and trace elements distribution (strontium, rubidium, barium, rare earths, zirconium, niobium uranium, thorium, etc) and the phosphates origin are studied. (C.G.C.)

  20. A novel heparan sulphate with high degree of N-sulphation and high heparin cofactor-II activity from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavante, S F; Santos, E A; Oliveira, F W; Guerrini, M; Torri, G; Casu, B; Dietrich, C P; Nader, H B

    2000-03-16

    With the aid of heparinase and heparitinases from Flavobacterium heparinum and 13C and IH NMR spectroscopy it was shown that the heparan sulphate isolated from the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana exhibits structural features intermediate between those of mammalian heparins and heparan sulphates. These include an unusually high degree of N-sulphation (with corresponding very low degree of N-acetylation), a relatively high content of iduronic acid residues (both unsulphated and 2-O-sulphated) and a relatively low degree of 6-O-sulphation of the glucosamine residues. The major sequences (glucuronic acid-->N-sulphated glucosamine and glucuronic acid-->N, 6-disulphated glucosamine) are most probably arranged in blocks. Although exhibiting negligible anticlotting activity in the APTT and anti-factor Xa assays the A. franciscana heparan sulphate has a high heparin cofactor-II activity (about 1/3 that of heparin). PMID:10704986

  1. FSW characterization of 6082 aluminium alloys sheets

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mroczka; A. Pietras

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the investigations was to elaborate a set of FSW parameters for connecting 6082 aluminium alloy sheets allowing to produce welds of highest strength.Design/methodology/approach: The FSW was tried at different speeds and at additional cooling. The welds microstructure was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The mechanical properties of produced connections are discussed regarding their tensile test and microhardness measurements.Findings: The FSW we...

  2. Aluminium-based Coatings for Cadmium Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Cardilli , Emanuele

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium electroplating is widely used in the aerospace industry for the corrosion protection of high strength steels. Cadmium is also used as compatible coating to reduce the galvanic corrosion generated in the assembly of components manufactured with different materials. However, environmental and safety concerns over the high toxicity of cadmium has led to the investigation of suitable replacements. Aluminium coatings are promising coatings for the replacement of electropl...

  3. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; A. J. Nowak; Nagel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN ...

  4. Quantitative evaluation of the aluminium titanate formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of aluminium titanate were obtained under isothermal sintering condition in equimolar Al2 O3 Ti O2 powder mixtures at different soaking time intervals. The formation of Al2 Ti O5 and the effect of Si O2 additive in the reaction and densification were analysed. Quantitative evaluation of Al2 Ti O5 was performed by the Rietveld method and by using an internal standard. Both methods were considered appropriated for the presented purpose. (author)

  5. Methods of inoculation of pure aluminium structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of investigations was the reduction of grain size and unification of structure for pure Al casting by introduction of small amount of inoculant (less than obligatory standart PN-EN 573-3, which concerning about aluminium purity, with electromagnetic field and variable casting parameters.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations it was used light microscopy and TEM. Surfaces of samples which were prepared for macro- and microstructure analysis were etched with use of solution of: 50g Cu, 400ml HCl, 300ml HNO3 and 300ml H2O. Thin foils for TEM investigations were electropolished with use of 20 ml HClO4 and 80ml CH3OH.Findings: The results of investigations and their analysis show possibility of effective inoculation of pure aluminium structure by use of some factors such as: different materials of the mould, influencing of stirring electromagnetic field into metal during solidification, inoculation by introducing AlTi5B1 inoculant into liquid aluminium and changing the pouring temperature.Research limitations/implications: I further research, authors of this paper are going to application of introduced method of inoculation in industrial tests.Practical implications: The work presents refinement of structure method which are particularly important in continuous and semi – continuous casting where products are used for plastic forming. Large columnar crystals zone result in forces extrusion rate reduction and during the ingot rolling delamination of external layers can occur. Thus, in some cases ingot skinning is needed, which rises the production costs.Originality/value: Contributes to research on size reduction in pure aluminium structure.

  6. Perforation of aluminium alloy thin plates

    OpenAIRE

    ANTOINAT, Léonard; Kubler, Régis; BAROU, Jean Luc; VIOT, Philippe; BARRALLIER, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Low velocity perforation of aeronautical aluminium alloy sheets 2024 T3 is studied in this paper. After a literature review on recent experiments and models of plate’s perforation, experimental results for 2 thicknesses (2 mm and 4 mm) of plates are presented. Perforation tests are performed with an instrumented drop test. The striker has a large diameter and a conical shape nose. Two models for perforation are presented and calibrated to bring a better understanding of the experiments. The f...

  7. Aluminium phosphide poising: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. (author)

  8. Ion beam analysis of aluminium in thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, M.J.F. E-mail: m.j.f.healy@rmcs.cranfield.ac.uk; Pidduck, A.J.; Dollinger, G.; Gorgens, L.; Bergmaier, A

    2002-05-01

    This work quantifies aluminium in thin surface and near surface layers. In one example, the layer overlies a thin gallium nitride layer on an aluminium oxide substrate and in a second example the aluminium exists just below the surface of an indium arsenide substrate. The technique of non-Rutherford elastic backscattering of protons was used for the samples where aluminum in the layer of interest needed to be resolved from aluminium in the sapphire substrate and the results were corroborated at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. In the second example, where it was unnecessary to isolate the signal of aluminium in the layer of interest (as the substrate contained no aluminium), then the {sup 27}Al(d,p{sub 01}){sup 28} Al nuclear reaction was used. The elastic proton scattering cross section of aluminum was found to vary very rapidly over the energy range of interest.

  9. First wall design of aluminium alloy R-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study of a low-activation D-T tokamak Reacting Plasma Project In Nagoya has been finished. The study emphasizes the vacuum vessel and the bumper limiter. Our choice of materials (aluminium vacuum vessel, copper conductors, aluminium TF coil case and lead shield) results in a radiation level of about 1 x 10-3 times that of a TFTR type design, and 1 x 10-4 times that of JET type design, at 2 weeks after one D-T shot. Thick graphite tiles will be fixed directly on the aluminium vacuum vessel using aluminium spring washers and bolts. With this simplified structure of the bumper limiter, the inner surface temperature of the thick aluminium vacuum vessel will be less than 1200C which is required to reduce the overaging effect of the aluminium alloy. (orig.)

  10. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  11. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as permeability were observed for any of the three diatoms suggesting that mechanisms of aluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium. PMID:26921729

  12. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN AC – AlSi12 aluminum alloy. Stereological and structure investigations of obtained composite materials were made on light microscope. The mechanical properties of obtained composite material were investigated in tensile strength test and hardness test.Findings: It was proved that developed technology of manufacturing of composite materials based on the porous ceramic Al2O3 preforms infiltrated by liquid aluminium alloy ensures expected structure and strength Hardness increased about twice compared to the matrix and this process can be used in practice.Practical implications: The presented metal matrix composites fabrication technology allows to obtain locally reinforced elements and near net shape products.Originality/value: Results show the possibility of obtaining the new aluminium matrix composite materials being the cheaper alternative for other materials based on the ceramic fibers.

  13. Plasmonic enhancement of photoluminescence from aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Chris; Stewart, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) films were grown on c-plane sapphire wafers by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) under aluminium-rich conditions. The excess aluminium (Al) accumulated on the surface of the films as micro-scale droplets 1-10 μm in size, and as Al nanoparticles with diameters in the range 10-110 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on the AlN samples using a 193 nm Excimer laser as the excitation source. Prior to PL measurements the wafers were cleaved in half. One half of each wafer was submitted to a 10 min treatment in H3PO4 heated to 70 °C to remove the excess Al from the film surface. The remaining half was left in the as-deposited condition. The mean intensities of the near-band-edge PL peaks of the as-deposited samples were 2.0-3.4 times higher compared to the samples subjected to the H3PO4 Al-removal treatment. This observation motivated calculations to determine the optimal Al surface nanosphere size for plasmonic enhancement of PL from AlN. The PL enhancement was found to peak for an Al nanosphere radius of 15 nm, which is within the range of the experimentally-observed Al nanoparticle sizes.

  14. [14C] acetylation of a glycosaminoglycan sulphate: Sulodexide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of [14C] labelled Sulodexide is reported. Sulodexide is a sulphated polysaccharide of the class of glycosaminoglycan, containing a heparin-like fraction (70%), dermatan sulphate (20%) and other minor fractions. The heparin-like fraction, suitably isolated from other components, was partially and selectively N-desulphated, thus making few percent unit -NH2 groups available for the labelling with [14C]-acetic anhydride (specific activity 0.15 μCi/mg). Due to the small extent of modification, the sulphate to carboxylate group ratio remained practically unchanged on the heparin-like fraction. Sulodexide was reconstituted adding to the labelled fraction the suitable amount of the other components; the chemical and biological properties of the final labelled Sulodexide were indistinguishable from those of the starting material. (author)

  15. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  16. Behaviour and design of aluminium alloy structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Meini; 蘇玫妮

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are nonlinear metallic materials with continuous stress-strain curves that are not well represented by the simplified elastic, perfectly plastic material model used in most existing design specifications. The aims of this study are to develop a more efficient design method for aluminium alloy structures by rationally exploiting strain hardening. The key components of this study include laboratory testing, numerical modelling and development of design guidance for aluminium al...

  17. Friction factor of CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Vidhya Sagar; K S Anand; A C Mithun; K Srinivasan

    2006-12-01

    Friction factor has been determined for CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys using ring compression test at different temperatures from 303 K to 773 K. It is found that CP aluminium exhibits sticking whereas Al–Zn alloys do not exhibit sticking at elevated temperatures. Hot working of Al–Zn alloy is easier than that of CP aluminium at 773 K. As zinc content increases up to 10 wt% the friction factor decreases up to 0.02.

  18. Softening Behaviour of Selected Commercially Pure Aluminium Model Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sande, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the softening behaviour of four different commercially pure aluminium alloys has been carried out. The work is related to the MOREAL project (Modelling towards value-added recycling friendly aluminium alloys), where the main goal is to quantify the effect of the elements in recyclable aluminium alloys on microstructure and mechanical properties during thermo-mechanical processing. Typical elements are iron (Fe), silicon (Si) and manganese (Mn), and the alloys studied in ...

  19. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cieśla

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method an...

  20. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle

    2008-07-15

    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  1. Tribological characteristics of coatings on aluminium and its alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Mahdi, Fadhil S

    1987-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Hard anodising on aluminium and its alloys has been widely practised for many years in order to improve the resistance of the otherwise poor wear characteristics of aluminium. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in other treatments and coatings, on both aluminium and other base metals. The aim of this investigation is to explain the tribological performance and wear mechanis...

  2. Wearing tests on aluminium coated with diamond by triboadhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.M.RodríguezLelis; B.D.Angulo; J.O.Colín; J.PorcayoCalderón

    2001-01-01

    In this work the results obtained from subjecting aluminium coated with diamond by tri-boadhesion to a wearing process with a plane rider. Here it is shown the ratio of the normal toshearing forces, called friction factor, as an indication of the resistance of the surface. It was foundthat the film of the aluminium coated with diamond resisted three times compared with the oxida-tion film of commercial aluminium, which for the purpose of this work was considered withoutcoating.

  3. Un-optimistic Prospects for the Westward Movement of Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The westward movement of aluminium is essential for the industrial development.Up till now,the northwestern area has planned to construct more than 40 aluminium projects with a total production capacity of over 20 million tons.The future rate of progress of newly constructed projects are directly related to the supplies of the aluminium market,having critical guiding meaning for the trends of

  4. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  5. Synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles by arc evaporation of an aluminium cathode surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Gazanfari; M Karimzadeh; S Ghorbani; M R Sadeghi; G Azizi; H Karimi; N Fattahi; Z Karimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium nanoparticles (Al Nps) are synthesized using arc discharge method by applying direct current between aluminium electrodes in liquid environment without any use of vacuum equipment, heat exchangers, high temperatures furnaces and inert gases. After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on the nanoparticles was performed immediately. The effects of media on the yield and morphology of aluminium nanoparticles were investigated. Analysis result of the samples indicated that particle size was less than 30 nm, when 120 A/cm2 arc current was used. In addition, coating agent can affect arc velocity, arc stability, morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. Resultant nanoparticles were identified using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), also their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finally the accuracy of coating was assessed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

  6. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides prepared from various aluminium salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Temuujin; Ts JADAMBAA; K J D Mackenzie; P Angerer; F Porte; F Riley

    2000-08-01

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived from the sulfate. This contains a higher concentration of anionic impurities related to differences in the solubility of the original aluminium salts. The sulfate is retained in the gel to higher temperatures at which its eventual decomposition may lead to the formation of a reactive pore structure which facilitates the nucleation of -Al2O3.

  7. Aluminium composite casting dispersion reinforced with iron-aluminium and silicon carbide phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Formanek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composite with dispersion-reinforced, made by similar to stircasting process was characterised. The mixture of powders was produced by the process of mechanical agglomeration of powdered FexAly and SiC with aluminium. The chemical composition ofagglomerates was selected in a way such as to obtain 25 wt.% reinforcement of the AlSi9Cu4 silumin matrix. Applying thermal analysis ATD, the alloy solidification process was determined, reading out the typical solidification parameters. The methods of light and scanning microscopy were used to reveal the structure of composite casting. Changes in chemical composition and phase composition of particles of the FeAl intermetallic phase in aluminium matrix were confirmed. The structure of silumin casting with matrix containing microregions of ceramic and intermetallic phases, typical of hybrid reinforcements, was obtained.

  8. Cold-impregnated aluminium. A new source of nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, C

    1994-07-01

    A new technique for finishing anodized aluminium was introduced during the 1980s--cold impregnation with nickel. Nickel is available on the surface of cold-impregnated aluminium, as shown by the dimethylglyoxime test. Chemical analysis with EDXA showed that nickel was in the form of NiSO4. A case of work-related allergic contact dermatitis in an engraver with nickel allergy is reported. It transpired that the patient was exposed to nickel in connection with aluminium. It is concluded that cold-impregnated aluminium is a new source of nickel exposure, probably previously unknown to dermatologists. PMID:7924288

  9. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M.; Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L.; Afshari, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface roughness was also observed.

  10. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  11. A Reaction Coating on Aluminium Alloys by Laser Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, X.B.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    1993-01-01

    An aluminium oxide layer of 100 µm in thickness has been successfully coated on aluminium alloy 6061 and pure aluminium using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. A strong Al/Al2O3 interface was formed. The exothermic chemical reaction between SiO2 and Al may promote the metal/oxide wetting and the formation of Al2O3 layer. This new approach of ceramic coating on metals using a chemical reaction of other ceramics with metals may be applied to other systems.

  12. Sinemet-ferrous sulphate interaction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, N R; Rankine, D; Goodridge, A E; Hasinoff, B B; Kara, M

    1990-01-01

    1. This study examined the effects of administering ferrous sulphate 325 mg with Sinemet (100/25 tablet) on levodopa and carbidopa bioavailability and on signs of Parkinson's disease in nine patients. 2. Ferrous sulphate ingestion with Sinemet resulted in a decrease in levodopa area under the curve (AUC) of 30% (P less than 0.01) and a greater than 75% decrease in carbidopa AUC. Despite a strong relationship between reductions in levodopa AUC and reductions in Sinemet efficacy (r = 0.83, P le...

  13. Spectrophotometric Estimation of Abacavir Sulphate in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, N. Appala; Rao, J. Venkateswara; Prakash, K. Vanitha; K.Mukkanti

    2008-01-01

    Two simple, accurate, rapid and sensitive methods (A and B) have been developed for the estimation of abacavir sulphate in its pharmaceutical dosage form. The method A and B are based on the formation of chloroform extractable complex of abacavir sulphate with bromophenol blue (method A) and bromocresol green (method B), which shows absorbance maxima at 460 nm and 469 nm respectively. The absorbance-concentration plot is linear over the range of 1-10 mcg/mL for method A and B respectively. Re...

  14. Determination of Radium 226 in mexican phosphate fertilizers and gypsum by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 226 Ra isotope was determined in 17, 20 and 46% m/m phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The samples of the fertilizers were dissolved in 10% v/v nitric acid solutions. The barium sulphate method was used for the precipitation of 226 Ra. On the other hand, alkaline fusion method was used to separate the 226 Ra from gypsum. The results indicated that 226 Ra was present in the phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The 226 Ra concentrations present in these materials were between 10 -4 - 10 -5 μg g-1. (Author)

  15. FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF BUCCOADHESIVE COMPACTS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha Kumar GS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Buccoadhesive compacts(BC?s of Salbutamol sulphate in different concentrations (4mg and 8mg were prepared by direct compression method using polymers like carbopols and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose 4KM(HPMC 4KM in the ratios of 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 0:1. Also two different carbopols i.e. carbopol 934P (CP-934P and carbopol 974P (CP- 974P varying in their molecular weight were used. The compacts were evaluated for weight uniformity, drug content uniformity, swelling index, In vitro bioadhesive strength and In vitro dissolution studies. Maximum bioadhesive strength was observed in compacts formulated with a combination of carbopol-HPMC 4KM (1:1. Formulations containing CP-934P exhibited higher bioadhesive strength as compared with CP-974P. Swelling was increased with an increase in HPMC 4KM contents in compacts. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried out using modified dissolution apparatus in phosphate buffer pH 6.6 for 8 hours. Formulations containing higher concentration of drug (8mg/BC showed a slight higher rate of drug release as compared to the one with lower drug concentration (4mg/BC. The release rate was found to follow first order rate kinetics. The data were evaluated by a simple power equation (Mt/M∞=ktn, it was observed that all the compacts followed non- Fickian release kinetics. From FT-IR spectra it may be concluded that there is no chemical interaction between the drug and polymer. From the results of the present experimental work it may be concluded that buccoadhesive compacts of Salbutamol sulphate can be developed as potential prolonged release formulation with improved dissolution rate, which otherwise undergoes extensive first pass metabolism when administered orally.

  16. A new method for the study of the formation and transformation of calcium phosphate precipitates: effects of several chemical agents and Chinese folk medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, S; Abe, K; Liu, S Y

    1991-01-01

    A simple method of assaying the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate and its transformation to hydroxyapatite using a conventional pH meter and recorder is described. Its validity was confirmed by direct assay of calcium consumption with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The method was used to study substances which influence the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate and its transformation to hydroxyapatite, such as albumin, casein, chondroitin sulphate, phospholipid, ATP, Mg2+, Sr2+, pyrophosphate and several Chinese folk medicines. PMID:1849399

  17. Microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal sulphate deposits, Haughton impact structure, and implications for sulphates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, J.; Lee, P.; Cockell, C. S.; Osinski, G. R.

    2004-07-01

    Hydrothermal gypsum deposits in the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canada, contain microbial communities in an endolithic habitat within individual gypsum crystals. Cyanobacterial colonies occur as masses along cleavage planes, up to 5 cm from crystal margins. The crystals are transparent, so allow transmission of light for photosynthesis, while affording protection from dehydration and wind. The colonies appear to have modified their mineral host to provide additional space as they expanded. The colonies are black due to UV-screening pigments. The relative ease with which microbial colonization may be detected and identified in impact-generated sulphate deposits at Haughton suggests that analogous settings on other planets might merit future searches for biosignatures. The proven occurrence of sulphates on the Martian surface suggests that sulphate minerals should be a priority target in the search for life on Mars.

  18. Distribution of potentially toxic elements in the Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saueia C. H. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product phosphoric acid and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum as by-product. Phosphoric acid is the raw material for the production of phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP. Phosphogypsum waste is stored in stacks, since its level of impurities (metals and radionuclides among others prevent its safe reutilization. However, part of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils. The main aim of this paper is to determine the levels of potentially toxic elements in phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum produced in Brazil. The elements Co and Cr were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were analyzed by ICP-OES. The results obtained are lower than the limits established by the Brazilian regulatory agency for metals in fertilizers and soil conditioner.

  19. Monitoring of sulphate attack on hardened cement paste studied by synchrotron XRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, J.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2015-10-01

    The complex matter of external sulphate attack on cement-based construction materials is still not completely understood. The concentration of sulphate is a crucial factor for the formation of secondary phases and phase transitions of cement hydrates due to sulphate ingress into the microstructure. The sulphate attack on building materials for high and low sulphate concentrations was monitored by laboratory experiments. Hardened cement paste consisting of ordinary Portland cement (CEM I) were exposed to aqueous solutions of sodium sulphate for 18 months. Three sample compositions were used for this research, including different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM). The phase composition was determined for different time spans by high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Cross sections of exposed cement prisms were investigated as a representation of the microstructural profile. Based on the data, a temporal and spatial determination of the stages of the sulphate attack and the deterioration course was possible. Cement matrices blended with slag showed the highest resistance against sulphate attack.

  20. On the existence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) doped zinc sulphate heptahydrate crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2015-01-01

    It is argued that the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) doped zinc sulphate heptahydrate crystal reported by Raja et al Spectrochim Acta 99A (2012) 23 is the well known zinc sulphate heptahydrate.

  1. Corrosion of aluminium alloy test coupons in the TRIGA Mark III Research Reactor of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of corrosion studies developed in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) are presented. The extent of corrosion of the aluminium alloy coupons exposed to the water of ININ TRIGA reactor pool was not significant. Few pits and oxides were observed on the coupon surfaces immersed for different times. This reduced extent of corrosion was similar to those on coupons exposed at other sites as per data obtained by visual inspection, metallographic analysis and image analysis. The water chemistry in the reactor pool was monitored throughout the duration of the project. The main parameters that influence the corrosion of Al alloy fuel cladding were measured. The conductivity of the water in the reactor pool was 1-3 μS/cm, within recommended values to avoid corrosion. The chloride ion concentration was maintained below 1 ppm. Others ions (sulphates, calcium, nitrates) were also below 1 ppm. Another parameter that was measured was the amount of settled solids on coupon surfaces and their influence on corrosion. The sedimentation rate in the TRIGA Reactor pool was 17.66 μg/cm2 and the sediment composition indicated iron oxides, aluminium-silicon compounds and some calcium carbonates. The sedimentation rate was similar in magnitude to that at other storage sites. However, the corrosion racks in the ININ TRIGA Reactor were exposed to high water flow rates, 1324.5 l/min. This high flow rate is considered to reduce the amount of deposited solids on coupon surfaces. The particles deposited on the coupon surfaces influenced pit initiation. (author)

  2. SEM, EDS and vibrational spectroscopic study of the sulphate mineral rostite AlSO₄(OH,F)·5(H₂O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L; Scholz, Ricardo; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes; López, Andrés

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the mineral rostite, a sulphate mineral of aluminium of formula AlSO4(OH,F)·5(H2O). The mineral is formed in mine dumps and wastes. Chemical analysis proves the presence of Al, F and S. A single intense band is observed at 991 cm(-1) and is assigned to the Raman active SO4(2-) ν1 symmetric stretching vibration. Low intensity Raman bands observed at 1070, 1083, 1131 and 1145 cm(-1) are assigned to the SO4(2-) ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibration. Multiple Raman and infrared bands in the OH stretching region are assigned to the stretching vibrations of water. The higher wavenumber band at ∼3400 cm(-1) may be due to the hydroxyl stretching vibrational mode. These multiple bands prove that water is involved in different molecular environments with different hydrogen bond strengths. Vibrational spectroscopy enhances our knowledge of the molecular structure of rostite. PMID:26163784

  3. A study on the recycling of aluminium alloy 7075 scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, Goekhan [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (TR). Balkan Centre of Advanced Casting Technologies (BACAT); Marsoglu, Muezeyyen [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (Turkey). Dept. for Metal and Materials Science Engineering; Burgucu, Sarp

    2012-07-01

    Aluminium and its alloys have recently become an important metal whose area and amount of usage increase more and more, due to their mechanical properties, recycling ability, and penetrability. If it is considered that the bauxite, which is the raw material of aluminium is rare on earth, and also the area and amount of aluminium usage increases over time, the importance of aluminium recycling goes up. aluminium recycling has become crucial by means of both, the potential of the scrap's dependant increase on usage and the primary aluminium production, as it is providing energy and cost savings. 7xxx grades of scrap are collected with other scrap of aluminium alloys in one turn and recycled all together. As the regain of these alloys is not done by isolation of the various grades, the finally recycled ingots result in lower grades. High value aluminium scrap is regrettably not recovered, as it was anticipated. This study is dealing with 7075 aluminium alloys originated from discharged blow molding tools and the rest piece cuttings of blocks and plates. The material has been subjected to an induction furnace, and has been remelted into small ingots and hardened according to 7075 aluminium alloy parameters (hardening aluminium tooling). [German] Aluminium und seine Legierungen sind in den letzten Jahren aufgrund ihrer mechanischen Eigenschaften, ihrer Recyclingfaehigkeit und ihrer Durchlaessigkeit immer bedeutendere metallische Werkstoffe geworden. Unter Beruecksichtigung, dass Bauxit als Rohmaterial selten auf der Erde vorkommt und der Verbrauch mit der Zeit steigt, waechst die Bedeutung des Recyclings von Aluminium. Aluminiumrecycling, zumal es Energieund Kosteneinsparungen ermoeglicht, ist sowohl fuer die schrottabhaengigen Verwendungspotentiale und die PrimaerAluminiumproduktion gleichermassen bedeutend geworden. Die 7xxxx Schrottlegierungen werden in einem Arbeitsgang mit dem Schrott aus anderen Aluminiumlegierungen gesammelt und recycled. Da die

  4. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  5. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  6. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE BUCCAL PATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. DEHGHAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive patches for delivery of salbutalmol sulphate were prepared using hydroxypropylmethylcelluose K4M, hydroxymethylcelluose and carbopol 934P. Gylcerine was used as plasticizer. Mucoadhesive strenght, % swelling, surface pH, film thikness and folding edurance were determined for pain patches. The results of showed Mucoadhesive strength of hydroxypropylmethylcelluose K4M plain and hydroxypropylmethylcelluose K4M combination polymeric patches greater than hydroxyethylecellulose plain and hydroxyethylecellulose combination polymeric patches. It was found that mucoadhesive strength increases with the increase in concentration of carbopol. Percent swelling of patches increase with time and with an increase in concentration of hydrophilic polymer. Incorporation of carbopol increase percent swelling. Percent swelling showed a direct relationship with mucoadhesive strength. The folding endurance of the polymeric patch was found to be 79 to 138. The surface pH of the film was found to be in region of neutral pH. The mean film thickness of the buccal polymeric patches with an increase in the amount of polymer. Drug content uniformity values of Salbutamol sulphate buccal patch were observed to be between 100.18% and 99.18% of the labelled amount. In-vitro release studies of salbutamol sulphate buccal patches showed decrease in percent release with an increase in the amount of polymer. The buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate were found to be stable at 75 +/- 5% RH 45 +/- 2°C when stored for 24 weeks.

  7. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tablets may be preceded by subcutaneous or intramuscular use of the injectable form of the drug. (3) For... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. Endogenous and bioaugmented sulphate reduction in calcareous gypsiferous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaya, F.; Cuenca-Sanchez, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Gypsiferous soils have a high agricultural value, but their utilization is limited by the presence of gypsum that can induce hardpan and vertical crusting. This paper reports on sulphate reduction in this soil type as a basis of a bioremediation technology to remove the gypsum content of calcareous

  9. Magnesium sulphate as an anticonvulsant in the management of eclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the use of magnesium sulphate (MgSO/sub 4/) as an anticonvulsant in the management of eclamptic patients. Patients and Methods: Out of a total of 6050 pregnant women, 31 patients had eclampsia and were managed according to the set protocol. MgSO/sub 4/ 'Nas given to eclamptic patients according to protocol who had no contraindication to this agent. Recurrence of convulsion, side effects of magnesium sulphate, maternal and fetal outcome was noted. Results: Over two years' study period, out of 6050 patients, 31 were admitted with eclampsia (0.51 %). There was no maternal death. Out of 31 eclamptic patients only 5 patients were booked. Twenty-two patients (70.9%) were primigravida and 9 (29%) were multigravida. Seventeen (54%) were less than 20 years of age, 22 (79.9%) patients were admitted with antepartum and 6 (19.35%) had postpartum eclampsia. Magnesium sulphate was effective in 29 (93.54%) patients. Fifteen patients delivered by caesarean (C) section and 16 delivered vaginally. Twenty-nine (93.5%) babies were born alive. Two patients had recurrent convulsion i.e. 6.4%. Only one patient had respiratory depression after the use of magnesium sulphate. Conclusion: Eclampsia was well controlled by the use of MgSO/sub 4/. There were only 2 patients who had recurrence of convulsion. Convulsions were controlled in 29 (93.54%) patients despite lack of monitoring facilities of serum magnesium level. (author)

  10. The effect of water on the sulphation of limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E.J. Anthony [North China Electric Power University, Baoding City (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2010-09-15

    A series of tests was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to study the sulphation behaviour of limestone in the presence of water over the temperature range of 800-850{sup o}C. Four different Canadian limestones, all with a particle size range of 75-425 {mu}m, were sulphated using a synthetic flue gas with a composition of 15% CO{sub 2}, 3% O{sub 2}, 0% or 10% H{sub 2}O, 1750 ppm SO{sub 2} and the balance N{sub 2}. Water was shown to have a significant promotional effect on sulphation, especially in the diffusion-controlled stage. However, the effect of water during the kinetic-controlled stage appeared to be much less pronounced. Based on these results, it is proposed that the presence of water leads to the transient formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} as an intermediate, which in turn reacts with SO{sub 2} at a faster rate than CaO does. Alternatively stated, it appears that H{sub 2}O acts as catalyst for the sulphation reaction of CaO. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate with natural polymer sodium alginate with one side absorption by backing layer with ethyl cellulose. The buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate studied in detail. I R Spectroscopy did the compatible study between polymers and Terbutaline sulphate and No interaction was found between drug and polymers. Different formulations of oral Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate (TS were prepared using polymer sodium alginate, in different concentrations by direct compression. Post compressed evaluation studies, hardness, thickness, friability; weight variation and drug content, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were studied. The in-vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 6.8 at 370C. All parameters of TS buccal tablets are passed the standard of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. It was found that mucoadhesive natural polymers exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness. The in vitro study of TS exhibited greater drug release profile with release of in the range of 79.25 to 99.85%.

  12. Microencapsulation of terbutaline sulphate by the solvent evaporation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, N C; Puranik, P K; Joshi, S B

    1992-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate microcapsules were prepared by coacervation-phase separation (solvent evaporation) technique using ethyl cellulose as a coating material. Acetone, ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol were employed as solvents for coating material. Microcapsules were evaluated for their drug content, particle size distribution (microscopic method), flow properties, bulk density, in vitro dissolution, drug release kinetics and surface characteristics (scanning electron microscopy). PMID:1403496

  13. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  14. Synthesis of TiO2 nano-powders prepared from purified sulphate leach liquor of red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Ti can be recovered from red mud leach liquor by 40% Cyanex 272 in toluene. → 3 stages are required for Ti extraction at pH = 0.3, T = 25 oC and A/O = 1.5. → Ti can be stripped from loaded Cyanex 272 with diluted HCl at 25 oC. → TiO2 is precipitated as anatase at pH = 6 and T = 95 oC, using MgO pulp. → Fe in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no Al was detected. - Abstract: The research work presented in this paper is focused on the development of a purification process of red mud sulphate leach liquor for the recovery of titanium oxide (TiO2) nano-powders in the form of anatase. Initially, titanium was extracted over iron and aluminium from the leach liquor by solvent extraction using Cyanex 272 in toluene, at pH: 0.3 and T: 25 oC, with 40% extractant concentration. Stripping of the loaded, with titanium, organic phase was carried out by diluted HCl (3 mol/L) at ambient temperature. Finally, the recovery of titanium nano-powder, in the form of anatase, was performed by chemical precipitation at pH: 6 and T: 95 oC, using 10 wt% MgO pulp as neutralizing agent. The produced precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Their morphological characteristics and microstructure were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High grade titanium white precipitate, in the form of anatase, was obtained. Iron concentration in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no aluminium was detected.

  15. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nano-powders prepared from purified sulphate leach liquor of red mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakiridis, P.E., E-mail: ptsakiri@central.ntua.gr [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Oustadakis, P.; Katsiapi, A.; Perraki, M.; Agatzini-Leonardou, S. [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ti can be recovered from red mud leach liquor by 40% Cyanex 272 in toluene. {yields} 3 stages are required for Ti extraction at pH = 0.3, T = 25 {sup o}C and A/O = 1.5. {yields} Ti can be stripped from loaded Cyanex 272 with diluted HCl at 25 {sup o}C. {yields} TiO{sub 2} is precipitated as anatase at pH = 6 and T = 95 {sup o}C, using MgO pulp. {yields} Fe in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no Al was detected. - Abstract: The research work presented in this paper is focused on the development of a purification process of red mud sulphate leach liquor for the recovery of titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nano-powders in the form of anatase. Initially, titanium was extracted over iron and aluminium from the leach liquor by solvent extraction using Cyanex 272 in toluene, at pH: 0.3 and T: 25 {sup o}C, with 40% extractant concentration. Stripping of the loaded, with titanium, organic phase was carried out by diluted HCl (3 mol/L) at ambient temperature. Finally, the recovery of titanium nano-powder, in the form of anatase, was performed by chemical precipitation at pH: 6 and T: 95 {sup o}C, using 10 wt% MgO pulp as neutralizing agent. The produced precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Their morphological characteristics and microstructure were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High grade titanium white precipitate, in the form of anatase, was obtained. Iron concentration in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no aluminium was detected.

  16. Role of sulphation in post-translational processing of rat salivary mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slomiany, B L; Liau, Y H; Li, Q; Fekete, Z; Slomiany, A

    1991-01-01

    Segments of rat submandibular salivary gland were incubated in MEM supplemented with 10-800 microM sulphate in the presence of [3H]-glucosamine, [3H]-proline and [35S]-Na2SO4, with 0-8 mM chlorate, an inhibitor of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate formation. Incorporation of glucosamine and sulphate depended upon the sulphate content of the medium and reached a maximum at 400 microM sulphate. The introduction of chlorate into the medium, while having no effect on the protein synthesis as shown by [3H]-proline incorporation, caused, at its optimal concentration of 4 mM, a 90% decrease in mucin sulphation and a 29% drop in mucin glycosylation. At low sulphate content in the medium and in the presence of chlorate the incorporation of sulphate and glucosamine was mainly into the low molecular-weight form of mucin. An increase in sulphate in the medium caused an increase in the high molecular-weight form of mucin and in the extent of sulphation in its carbohydrate chain. This effect of sulphate was, however, inhibited by chlorate. The results suggest that sulphation takes place at an early stage of mucin assembly and that sulphate availability is essential for the formation of the high molecular-weight mucin. PMID:1763975

  17. Gas heat treatment plants for the aluminium industry; Gasbeheizte Waermebehandlungsanlagen fuer die Aluminium-Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olberts, P.; Hanus, A. [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    LOI Thermoprocess has developed new, flexible, innovative furnace designs for heat treatment of aluminium in general (car industry) and particularly for cylinder heads, engine units, chassis components, textured components, wheels, rolled sheet and extrusions. The furnaces are heated by means of radiant tubes (recuperators) and by the more usual open gas heating system (flue gas recirculation). (orig.)

  18. The aluminium body has been promoted in Canada; La carrosserie aluminium promue au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-02-01

    The aluminium vehicles technology is a technology which allows, with an equivalent structure, to decrease the weight of a car of 40%. Presented by the Alcan firm, this technology is one of the technologies of the year 2003. The Alcan firm has, besides, received the 2003 technology price awarded by the magazine Industry Week. (O.M.)

  19. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  20. Enhanced corrosion protection by microstructural control of aluminium brazing sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzi Afshar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium brazing sheet is a sandwich material made out of two aluminium alloys (AA4xxx/AA3xxx) and is widely used in automotive heat exchangers. One of the main performance criteria for heat exchanger units is the lifetime of the product. The lifetime of the heat exchanger units is determined by th

  1. Thermoelectric power of multilayer compositions of aluminium and carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changing the thermoelectric power monolayer and multilayer aluminium foil and multilayer foils compositions of aluminium and carbon nanotubes is the deformation ε < 60% due to the scattering of conduction electrons at dislocations and ε=(70 ...96)% - due to their scattering on the boundaries between the layers (thermoelectric size effect)

  2. Phase analysis of nickel surface layer implanted by aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental result of study of microstructure and phase composition in the surface zone of nickel target under intensive implantation of aluminium ions on a vacuum-arc and plasma flow source Raduga-5 are presented. It was established that the fine dispersed intermetallic precipitates Ni3Al and NiAl and the variable composition solid solution of aluminium in nickel are formed

  3. CAD implementation of design rules for aluminium extrusion dies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, van Gijs

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium extrusion is an industrial forming process that is used to produce long profiles of a constant cross-section. This cross-section is shaped by the opening in a steel tool known as the die. The understanding of the mechanics of the aluminium extrusion process is still limited. The flow of al

  4. Spark counting technique with an aluminium oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic spark counting of etch-pits on a polycarbonate film produced by nuclear fission fragments is now used for neutron monitoring in several countries. A method was developed using an aluminium oxide film instead of a polycarbonate as the neutron detector. Aluminium oxide films were prepared as follows: A cleaned aluminium plate as an anode and a nickel plate as a cathode were immersed in dilute sulfuric acid solution and electric current flowed between the electrodes at 12degC for 10-30 minutes. Electric current density was about 10 mA/cm2. The aluminium plate was then kept in boiling water for 10-30 minutes for sealing. The thickness of the aluminium oxide layer formed was about 1μm. The aluminium plate attached to a plate of suitable fissionable material, such as uranium or thorium, was irradiated with neutrons and set in a usual spark counter for fission track counting. One electrode was the aluminium plate and the other was an aluminized polyester sheet. Sparked pulses were counted with a usual scaler. The advantage of using spark counting with an aluminium oxide film for neutron monitoring is rapid measurement of neutron exposure, since chemical etching which is indispensable for spark counting with a polycarbonate detector film, is not needed. (H.K.)

  5. The peculiarities of scandium and yttrium dissolution in aluminium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation results of dissolution of scandium and yttrium in liquid aluminium at 973-1173 K are presented in this work. It was shown that coefficient value of yttrium diffusion in aluminium melt equals to 3,566-17,9070 m2/sec, and scandium 9,692-4,072 m2/sec.

  6. Haemodialysis related osteomalacia: a staining method to demonstrate aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Malcolm RC; Ihle, Benno U; Dunn, Cheryl M

    1981-01-01

    A slight modification in tissue processing and staining technique enables a previously described method for staining aluminium to be used to demonstrate aluminium in osteomalacia associated with haemodialysis. The stain appears to be accurate in diagnosing this condition and may assist in establishing the diagnosis before severe osteomalacia develops.

  7. Sulphation of proteins secreted by a human hepatoma-derived cell line. Sulphation of N-linked oligosaccharides on alpha 2HS-glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortin, G; Green, E D; Baenziger, J U; Strauss, A W

    1986-01-01

    Several human glycoproteins, including alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, transferrin, caeruloplasmin and alpha 2HS-glycoprotein, synthesized by the hepatoma-derived cell line HepG2 were observed to contain covalently linked sulphate. These proteins were estimated to contain about 0.1 mol of sulphate/mol of protein. The most abundant of the sulphated glycoproteins, alpha 2HS-glycoprotein, was analysed in detail. All of the sulphate on this protein was attached to N-linked oligosaccharides which contained sialic acid and resisted release by endoglycosidase H. Several independent analytical approaches established that approx. 10% of the molecules of alpha 2HS-glycoprotein contained sulphate. Our results suggest that a number of human plasma proteins contain small amounts of sulphate linked to oligosaccharides. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3017304

  8. Aluminium Alloy Cast Shell Development for Torpedoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sand-cast aluminium alloy cylindrical shells were developed for the advanced experimental torpedo applications. The components had intricate geometry, thin-walled sections, and stringent property requirements. The casting defects, such as shrinkage, porosity, incomplete filling of thin sections, cold shuts, inclusions and dimensional eccentricity, etc were found inthe initial castings trials. improvements in casting quality were achieved through modified methodology, selective chilling, risering, and by introducing ceramic-foam filters in the gatingsystem. The heat-treated and machined components met radiographic class I grade C/E standards, mechanical properties to BS1490 specifications, and leakage and hydraulic pressure testrequirements relevant for such applications.

  9. Dissolved aluminium in the Southern Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Middag, R.; Slooten van, C.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) occurs in a wide range of concentrations in the world oceans. The concentrations of Al in the Southern Ocean are among the lowest ever observed. An all-titanium CTD sampling system makes it possible to study complete deep ocean sections of Al and other trace elements with the same high vertical resolution of 24 depths as normal for traditional CTD/Rosette sampling. Overall, 470 new data points of Al are reported for 22 full depth stations and 24 surface sampling posit...

  10. Roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T; M. Mtsuo; D. Kunigo; Hatanaka, Y; R. Nakamuta; H. Watari; S. Kumai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is investigation of the ability of the high speed roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy. Appropriate twin roll caster to cast the 5182 strip was researched.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was an unequal diameter twin roll caster and a vertical type high speed twin roll caster equipped with mild steel rolls without parting material.Findings: are that the vertical type high speed twin roll caster was effective to cast 5182 strip at high speed....

  11. On the Crystallization of Terbium Aluminium Garnet

    OpenAIRE

    Ganschow, S.; Klimm, D.; Reiche, P.; Uecker, R.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to grow terbium aluminium garnet (Tb3Al5O12, TAG) by the Czochralski method lead to crystals of millimeter scale. Larger crystals could not be obtained. DTA measurements within the binary system showed that TAG melts incongruently at 1840 deg. C. The perovskite (TbAlO3, TAP) with a congruent melting point of 1930 deg. C is the most stable phase in this system. The region for primary crystallization of TAP covers the chemical composition of TAG and suppresses the primary crystallizati...

  12. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.;

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution of...... crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate to...

  13. Durability of Lacquered Aluminium Profile Considering Tropical Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Marrero Águila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Searching for solutions against the degradation of materials by corrosion effect, is a common practice to use alloys such as aluminium instead of steel due to the advantages obtained. The lacquered aluminium profiles can substitute other materials like wood, in the carpentry production, becoming an economic saving. There is an increasingly use of aluminium replacing other traditional materials in the constructions in process, but its quality has been reduced in a considerable amount of installations. In this research, aluminium profiles from five different sources were submitted to a trial in natural exposition conditions at the Tropical weather condition Testing Lab, in order to evaluate their behaviour and establish, for the first time in our country, standing rules for lacquered aluminium profiles to be strictly fulfilled by manufacturers and importers. The results will allow modifying thickness standards of this type of coating, to guaranty its durability and to eliminate the failures provoked by our high severe weather conditions.

  14. Sulphation of colonic and rectal mucin in inflammatory bowel disease: reduced sulphation of rectal mucus in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouf, A H; Tsai, H H; Parker, N; Hoffman, J; Walker, R J; Rhodes, J M

    1992-11-01

    1. Normal colonic mucin is heavily sulphated and this increases its resistance to degradation by bacterial enzymes. Any defect in mucus sulphation could therefore be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. 2. Rectal biopsies taken at colonoscopy from patients with ulcerative colitis (n = 9), patients with Crohn's disease (n = 6) and control subjects (n = 16) were cultured for 24 h in the presence of N-[3H]acetylglucosamine and [35S]sulphate. Mucin was then extracted and purified, and the ratio of [35S]sulphate to N-[3H]acetylglucosamine incorporated into pure mucin was assessed. 3. The ratio of [35S]sulphate to N-[3H]acetylglucosamine incorporated into mucin was significantly reduced in rectal biopsies taken from patients with ulcerative colitis (0.463, 0.305-0.703, geometric mean and 95% confidence intervals) compared with control subjects (0.857, 0.959-1.111, P < 0.01). In patients with Crohn's disease the reduction in this ratio (0.559, 0.378-0.829) did not quite reach statistical significance (P = 0.06). There was no difference between the ratio of [35S]sulphate to N-[3H]acetylglucosamine incorporated into mucin in Crohn's disease and that in ulcerative colitis (P = 0.26). 4. In control subjects the ratio of [35S]sulphate to N-[3H]acetylglucosamine incorporated into mucin was higher in the rectal biopsies (0.882, 0.618-1.022) than in their paired proximal colonic biopsies (0.602, 0.421-0.861; P < 0.01), but this regional variation was not observed in either ulcerative colitis (rectum: 0.450, 0.262-0.773; right colon: 0.470, 0.321-0.690, P = 0.3) or Crohn's disease (rectum: 0.459, 0.260-0.815; right colon: 0.492, 0.260-0.929, P = 0.8).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1335401

  15. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. ► The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. ► Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. ► 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  16. New sheet aluminium qualities for low-cost lightweight constructions; Neue Aluminium-Blechqualitaeten fuer den kosteneffizienten Leichtbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloeck, M.; Furrer, P. [Novelis Technology AG, Neuhausen (Switzerland)

    2005-11-01

    Aluminium alloys used for car bodies have a wide range of material characteristics. New developments focus on selective development of material and surface characteristics for obtaining sheet aluminium qualities optimized for specific applications. These and further measures taken by Novelis are to reduce material consumption, simplify process steps in motor car manufacturing and reducing the overall system cost. (orig.)

  17. Design of the lines of aluminium drawing. Part 2; Conception des filieres de filage d'aluminium. Partie 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cescutti, J.P.; Ravaille, N. [Pechiney, Div. Filiage, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-12-15

    This work is the second part of the file 'design of the lines of aluminium drawing'. It gives elements for structuring the analysis of the progress ways in the field of the design of the lines of aluminium extrusion. (O.M.)

  18. Patterns of uronosyl epimerization and 4-/6-O-sulphation in chondroitin/dermatan sulphate from decorin and biglycan of various bovine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, F; Heinegård, D; Malmström, A; Schmidtchen, A; Yoshida, K; Fransson, L A

    1994-10-01

    Dermatan sulphate is a co-polymer of two types of disaccharide repeats: D-glucuronate-N-acetylgalactosamine and L-iduronate-N-acetylgalactosamine. The former can be O-sulphated at C-4 or C-6 of the galactosamine, whereas the latter contains almost exclusively 4-O-sulphated galactosamine. A minor proportion of the L-iduronate may be O-sulphated at C-2. Chondroitin sulphate has no L-iduronate-containing repeats. We have used our recently developed methods for sequence analysis of galactosaminoglycans to investigate the structure of dermatan/chondroitin sulphates of the proteoglycans decorin and biglycan derived from various bovine tissues, like dermis, sclera, tendon, aorta, cartilage and bone. The glycan chains, radioiodinated at the reducing end, were partially cleaved with specific enzymes (chondroitin lyases), and subjected to high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, blotting and autoradiography to identify fragments extending from the labelled reducing end to the point of cleavage. We used chondroitin B lyase to identify the location of L-iduronate, chondroitin AC-I lyase to locate D-glucuronate and chondroitin C lyase to cleave where D-glucuronate residues were succeeded by 6-O-sulphated N-acetylgalactosamine. We could demonstrate tissue-specific, periodic and wave-like patterns of distribution for the two epimeric uronic acids, as well as specific patterns of sulphation in dermatan sulphates derived from either decorin or biglycan. For example, some dermatan sulphates contained D-glucuronate-rich domains that were always 6-sulphated (scleral decorin), others were always 4-sulphated (decorin from bovine dermis, cartilage and bone; biglycan from aorta) or 6-sulphated near the linkage region, but 4-sulphated in more distal domains (decorin from porcine dermis and bovine tendon). Decorin from bone and articular cartilage, as well as biglycan from articular and nasal cartilage, carried largely chondroitin sulphate chains, but also some dermatan sulphate

  19. Determination of cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Aguinaga, Nerea; López-García, Ignacio; Hernandez-Córdoba, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Procedures were developed for determining cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and the products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Beer samples were injected into the furnace and solid samples were introduced as suspensions after preparation in a medium containing hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate for cadmium atomization. Calibration was performed with aqueous standards, and characteristic masses and detection limits were, respectively, 1 and 0.3 pg for cadmium, 18 and 5.4 pg for aluminium, and 5.6 and 6.8 pg for copper. Different samples of beer, wort, brewer's yeast, malt, raw grain, and hops were analyzed by the proposed procedures. Cadmium was found in low concentrations (0.001-0.08 microg/g and 0-1.3 ng/mL); copper (3-13 microg/g and 25-137 ng/mL) and aluminium (0.6-9 microg/g and 0.1-2 microg/mL) were found at higher levels. The reliability of the procedure was confirmed by comparing the results obtained with others based on microwave oven sample digestion, and by analyzing several certified reference materials. PMID:12083268

  20. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  1. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  2. Aluminium and its alloys: weldability, welding metallurgy; L'aluminium et ses alliages: soudabilite, metallurgie du soudage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher, Ch.

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this book is to give technological and use elements of the welding processes as well as the knowledge in weldability and metallurgy required for a better control of the welding of aluminium alloys. In the first part are detailed the generalities on aluminium alloys, their properties and uses sectors. The bases of the physical metallurgy of the aluminium alloys are dealt with too. The second part concerns the welding and the related techniques as well as the properties of the assemblies. Several supplements give useful data for the construction with aluminium alloys. This book is particularly devoted to engineers and technicians using or having to use for the first time the welding of aluminium alloys. (O.M.)

  3. Hearing conservation in the primary aluminium industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, N.; Dixon-Ernst, C.; Chesson, B. J.; Cullen, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Noise-induced hearing loss has been an intractable problem for heavy industry. Aims To report our experience in reducing the incidence of age-corrected confirmed 10 dB hearing shifts (averaged over 2, 3 and 4kHz) in employees in the primary aluminium industry in Australia over the period 2006–13. Methods We analysed annual audiometric data to determine the number of permanent hearing shifts that occurred in employees in two bauxite mines, three alumina refineries and two aluminium smelters. Annual hearing shift rates were calculated based on the number of employees tested per year. Hearing conservation initiatives undertaken during the study period are described. An assessment of similar exposure group noise exposures was also undertaken to determine the magnitude of noise exposure reduction during the study period. Results Across all operations, hearing shift rates declined from 5.5% per year in 2006 to 1.3% per year in 2013 (P < 0.001). The decline in shift rates was greater in mines and refineries, where baseline shift rates were higher, than in smelter workers. Modest reductions in noise exposure occurred during the study period. Conclusions We observed a substantial decline in hearing shift rates during the study period. We describe the hearing conservation initiatives that were collectively associated with this decline. We suspect these initiatives could be deployed relatively easily and at modest cost in other industries with noise-exposed employees. PMID:26470945

  4. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Study on aluminium-based single films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, G S; García-Moreno, F; Babcsán, N; Brothers, A H; Murty, B S; Banhart, J

    2007-12-28

    In the present paper the authors studied isolated metallic films made from the same material used for making metallic foams, and then characterised their properties. Metal films were made from a liquid aluminium alloy reinforced with ceramic particles of known concentration. Melts without such particles were also investigated. It is shown that stable films could not be made from Al-Si alloy having no particles, and just extremely thin and fragile films could be made from commercially-pure Al. In contrast, aluminium alloys containing particles such as SiC and TiB(2) allowed pulling thin, stable films, which did not rupture. Significant thinning of films was observed when the particle concentration in the melt decreased. By in situ X-ray monitoring of liquid films during pulling, film thickness and drainage effects within the liquid film could be studied. The morphology and microstructure of films was characterised after solidification. Our work shows that the question of how foams are stabilised can be studied using a simplified system such as a film, instead of having to deal with the multitude of different structural elements present in a foam. PMID:18060172

  6. Aluminium matrix composites: Challenges and opportunities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Surappa

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of light weight high performance aluminium centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibres, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions ranging from a few percent to 70%. Properties of AMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. Presently several grades of AMCs are manufactured by different routes. Three decades of intensive research have provided a wealth of new scientific knowledge on the intrinsic and extrinsic effects of ceramic reinforcement vis-a-vis physical, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and tribological properties of AMCs. In the last few years, AMCs have been utilised in high-tech structural and functional applications including aerospace, defence, automotive, and thermal management areas, as well as in sports and recreation. It is interesting to note that research on particle-reinforced cast AMCs took root in India during the 70’s, attained industrial maturity in the developed world and is currently in the process of joining the mainstream of materials. This paper presents an overview of AMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, microstructure, properties and applications.

  7. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  8. Inhibition of N-glycosylation induces tyrosine sulphation of hybridoma immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeuerle, P A; Huttner, W B

    1984-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) secreted by the hybridoma line M 31 was found to contain covalently linked sulphate. The sulphate was bound to the heavy chain which existed in several isoelectric variants. All variants were sulphated, the more acidic ones being more highly sulphated. Within the heavy chain the sulphate was not linked to tyrosine, threonine or serine residues, but appeared to be bound to N-linked oligosaccharides located in the Fab-portion. In contrast, the N-linked oligosaccharides in the Fc-portion were unsulphated. Surprisingly, the unglycosylated IgG secreted in the presence of tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-glycosylation, was not unsulphated, but contained four times as much sulphate on the heavy chain as control IgG. All isoelectric variants of the non-glycosylated heavy chain contained sulphate. This sulphate was localized in the Fc-portion and was largely bound to tyrosine residues. These results show that, upon inhibition of N-glycosylation, the IgG is not simply secreted in non-glycosylated form, but has undergone a different post-translational modification, tyrosine sulphation. We discuss the possibility that tyrosine sulphate residues functionally compensate for the absence of N-linked (sulphated) oligosaccharides in IgG. One common function for these two protein modifications could be to serve as signals for the secretion of IgG. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:6437807

  9. Types of oligosaccharide sulphation, depending on mucus glycoprotein source, corpus or antral, in rat stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goso, Y; Hotta, K

    1989-01-01

    Radiolabelled mucus glycoprotein was obtained from tissue and a culture medium each of the corpus and antrum of rat stomach incubated with [35S]sulphate in vitro. Gel-filtration analysis of oligosaccharides liberated by alkaline-borohydride treatment from glycoproteins indicated that 35S-labelled oligosaccharides from the corpus vary considerably with respect to chain length whereas those from antral mucus glycoprotein are composed of small oligosaccharides. Examination of the reduced radiolabelled products obtained by HNO2 cleavage of the hydrazine-treated oligosaccharides indicated sulphate esters of N-acetylglucosamine to be present at three locations on a carbohydrate unit: [35S]sulphated monosaccharide (2,5-anhydromannitol 6-sulphate), [35S]sulphated disaccharide [galactosyl(beta 1-4)-2,5-anhydromannitol 6-sulphate] and [35S]sulphated trisaccharide [fucosyl(alpha 1-2)-galactosyl(beta 1-4)-2,5-anhydromannitol 6-sulphate]. Sulphated disaccharide and trisaccharide, possibly originating from the N-acetyl-lactosamine and fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine sequences respectively, were detected in the corpus, especially as large oligosaccharides, but were present in the antrum in only very small amounts. The sulphated monosaccharide, however, most probably originating from 6-sulphated N-acetylglucosamine residues at non-reducing termini, was present in all oligosaccharide fractions in both the corpus and antrum. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2695066

  10. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  11. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. PMID:26067895

  12. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition,...

  13. Process development for elemental recovery from PGM tailings by thermochemical treatment: Preliminary major element extraction studies using ammonium sulphate as extracting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sameera; van der Merwe, Elizabet M; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Doucet, Frédéric J

    2016-04-01

    Mine tailings can represent untapped secondary resources of non-ferrous, ferrous, precious, rare and trace metals. Continuous research is conducted to identify opportunities for the utilisation of these materials. This preliminary study investigated the possibility of extracting major elements from South African tailings associated with the mining of Platinum Group Metals (PGM) at the Two Rivers mine operations. These PGM tailings typically contain four major elements (11% Al2O3; 12% MgO; 22% Fe2O3; 34% Cr2O3), with lesser amounts of SiO2 (18%) and CaO (2%). Extraction was achieved via thermochemical treatment followed by aqueous dissolution, as an alternative to conventional hydrometallurgical processes. The thermochemical treatment step used ammonium sulphate, a widely available, low-cost, recyclable chemical agent. Quantification of the efficiency of the thermochemical process required the development and optimisation of the dissolution technique. Dissolution in water promoted the formation of secondary iron precipitates, which could be prevented by leaching thermochemically-treated tailings in 0.6M HNO3 solution. The best extraction efficiencies were achieved for aluminium (ca. 60%) and calcium (ca. 80%). 35% iron and 32% silicon were also extracted, alongside chromium (27%) and magnesium (25%). Thermochemical treatment using ammonium sulphate may therefore represent a promising technology for extracting valuable elements from PGM tailings, which could be subsequently converted to value-added products. However, it is not element-selective, and major elements were found to compete with the reagent to form water-soluble sulphate-metal species. Further development of this integrated process, which aims at achieving the full potential of utilisation of PGM tailings, is currently underway. PMID:26923300

  14. Uranium from phosphate ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate rock, the major raw material for phosphate fertilizers, contains uranium that can be recovered when the rock is processed. This makes it possible to produce uranium in a country that has no uranium ore deposits. The author briefly describes the way that phosphate fertilizers are made, how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry, and how to detect uranium recovery operations in a phosphate plant. Uranium recovery from the wet-process phosphoric acid involves three unit operations: (1) pretreatment to prepare the acid; (2) solvent extraction to concentrate the uranium; (3) post treatment to insure that the acid returning to the acid plant will not be harmful downstream. There are 3 extractants that are capable of extracting uranium from phosphoric acid. The pyro or OPPA process uses a pyrophosphoric acid that is prepared on site by reacting an organic alcohol (usually capryl alcohol) with phosphorous pentoxide. The DEPA-TOPO process uses a mixture of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO). The components can be bought separately or as a mixture. The OPAP process uses octylphenyl acid phosphate, a commercially available mixture of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids. All three extractants are dissolved in kerosene-type diluents for process use

  15. Response of sulphur dynamics in European catchments to decreasing sulphate deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prechtel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the decline in sulphur deposition in Europe, sulphate dynamics of catchments and the reversibility of anthropogenic acidification of soils and freshwaters became of major interest. Long-term trends in sulphate concentrations and fluxes in precipitation/throughfall and freshwaters of 20 European catchments were analysed to evaluate catchment response to decreasing sulphate deposition. Sulphate deposition in the catchments studied declined by 38-82% during the last decade. Sulphate concentrations in all freshwaters decreased significantly, but acidification reversal was clearly delayed in the German streams. In Scandinavian streams and Czech/Slovakian lakes sulphate concentrations responded quickly to decreased input. Sulphate fluxes in run-off showed no clear trend in Germany and Italy but decreased in Scandinavia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The decrease, however, was less than the decline in input fluxes. While long-term sulphate output fluxes from catchments were generally correlated to input fluxes, most catchments started a net release of sulphate during the early 1990s. Release of stored sulphate leads to a delay of acidification reversal and can be caused by four major processes. Desorption and excess mineralisation were regarded as the most important for the catchments investigated, while oxidation and weathering were of lesser importance for the long-term release of sulphate. Input from weathering has to be considered for the Italian catchments. Sulphate fluxes in German catchments, with deeply weathered soils and high soil storage capacity, responded more slowly to decreased deposition than catchments in Scandinavia and the Czech Republic/Slovakia, which have thin soils and relatively small sulphate storage. For predictions of acidification reversal, soil characteristics, sulphur pools and their dynamics have to be evaluated in future research. Keywords: acidification reversal, sulphur, sulphate release, Europe

  16. Sensibility to X-ray irradiation of human lymphoblastoid cells cultured in media supplemented by nickel sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human leukeamic cells of the established line REH, cultured in media supplemented by nickel sulphate have been irradiated by X-rays. The nickel sulphate and the X-rays have toxic effects that appear as independent or interdependent effects according to the X-ray doses, the nickel sulphate concentration and the nickel sulphate action endurances

  17. RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation of Abacavir Sulphate in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LAVANYA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of abacavir sulphate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form (tablets by using INERTSIL ODS 3V column, C18 (250x4.6 ID mobile phase consisting of a mixture of 10mM phosphate buffer: ACN (60:40 v/v % PH: 4.0 with detection of 287 nm. The retention time was found to be 2.430min and linearity was observed in the range 60-140μg /ml. Still now there were a number of analytical methods were developed for the estimation of abacavir in pharmaceutical dosage form and also in biological samples like spectroscopic methods, chromatographic methods, etc. But the present method was met the validation parameters according ICH guidelines like accuracy, precision, linearity, range, robustness, ruggedness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation, etc. with a short around time. The method was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis, showing %RSD less than 2.

  18. Chronomodulated drug delivery system of salbutamol sulphate for the treatment of nocturnal asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A time dependent pulsed release system consisting of an effervescent core surrounded by consecutive layers of swelling and rupturable polymers was prepared and evaluated. The cores containing salbutamol sulphate as bioactive agent were prepared by direct compression method using different ratios of microcrystalline cellulose and effervescent agent and then coated sequentially with an inner swelling layer containing a hydrocolloid, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose E5 and an outer rupturable layer having Eudragit RL/RS (1:1. The effects of various processing and formulative parameters on the performance of system were studied. The rupture and dissolution tests were studied using the USP paddle method at 50 rpm in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The lag time of the drug release decreased by increasing the inner swelling layer and increased by increasing the rupturing layer level. All the results obtained in the present study suggest that osmotic pumping effect was involved which eventually lead to the drug release.

  19. Porous magnesium loaded with gentamicin sulphate and in vitro release behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiang, Guofeng; Wang, Dong; Wang, Huang; Ding, Liang; He, Guo

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to develop a biocompatible bone repair material that has the advantage of preventing postoperative infections. Finally, the porous magnesium (p-Mg) loaded with gentamicin sulphate (GS-loaded Mg-G) was fabricated. The GS release behavior of the GS-loaded Mg-G in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was investigated. The effective release time of GS reached to 14days. In addition, the effects of porosity and pore diameter of p-Mg on the GS release behavior of the GS-loaded Mg-G were studied. In the initial burst release stage, the GS release rate of the GS-loaded Mg-G increased with the increasing porosity or the increasing pore diameter of p-Mg. The GS-loaded Mg-G with larger original pore diameter has higher burst release of GS. Moreover, the in vitro antibacterial test of the GS-loaded Mg-G indicated that this biomaterial has obvious antibacterial effect. This study can provide information for p-Mg loaded with drug(s) as functional bone repair materials with drug-delivery capabilities. PMID:27612700

  20. Growth morphology of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil Verma; M K Singh; V K Wadhawan; C H Suresh

    2000-06-01

    The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A computer code is developed for carrying out these calculations. A special procedure is adopted for computing the cohesive energy of a slice of the structure parallel to any rational crystallographic plane. For estimating the cohesive energies, formal charges on the experimentally determined atomic positions in the molecules of ZTS are calculated by ab initio molecular-orbital computations, with wave functions obtained by the Hartree–Fock procedure. Fairly good agreement with the observed crystal morphology is obtained for a model of growth mechanism in which ZTS is assumed to exist in solution as zinc tris(thiourea) ions and sulphate ions.

  1. EQUIVALENT MODEL OF EXPANSION OF CEMENT MORTAR UNDER SULPHATE EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jue Zhu; Minqiang Jiaug; Jiankang Chen

    2008-01-01

    The expansion property of cement mortar under the attack of sulfate ions is studied by experimental and theoretical methods.First,cement mortars are fabricated with the ratio of water to cement of 0.4,0.6,and 0.8.Secondly,the expansion of specimen immerged in sulphate solution is measured at different times.Thirdly,a theoretical model of expansion of cement mortar under sulphate erosion is suggested by virtue of represent volume element method.In this model, the damage evolution due to the interaction between delayed ettringite and cement mortar is taken into account.Finally,the numerical calculation is performed.The numerical and experimental results indicate that the model perfectly describes the expansion of the cement mortar.

  2. Anion exchange kinetics of uranium in sulphate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have shown that the sorption of uranium from acidic sulphate solutions onto strong base-anion exchange resins is particle diffusion controlled in the uranium concentration range 0.0001 to 0.004 M. A simplified diffusion model, based on Fick's Law, fits the kinetic data at each concentration. The rate of sorption falls significantly at lowered solution concentration. This corresponds with a lowered equilibrium loading of uranium and can be predicted with the Nernst-Planck equations using the measured self diffusion coefficient of uranium (1.65 x 10-8 cm2/s) and sulphate ions. The importance of this lowering of uranium sorption on the design of ion exchange equipment is stressed. (author)

  3. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, J.; Ito, A.; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemota...

  4. Genetic disorders of phosphate regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of phosphate homeostasis is critical for many biological processes, and both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have adverse clinical consequences. Only a very small percentage (1%) of total body phosphate is present in the extracellular fluid, which is measured by routine laboratory assays and does not reflect total body phosphate stores. Phosphate is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract via the transcellular route [sodium phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b)] and acros...

  5. Effect of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Pillared Montmorillonite To Its Surface Acidity Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Is Fatimah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium pillared montmorillonites from Indonesian natural montmorillonite has been prepared using Al13 Keggin ion pillaring precursor in varied concentrations. Herein we studied their characterization and catalysis application for esterification reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX, and BET gas sorption analysis were employed to characterize the prepared materials besides the characterization on surface acidity by pyridine and n-butylammine adsorptions and FTIR analysis. The result showed that significant improvement on physicochemical character data was obtained by a pillarization process. Such a process also provided improvements on catalytic activities in esterification reactions. The effect of aluminium content on material characters was discussed in this paper. It was observed from the catalytic activity tests that pillared montmorillonite samples demonstrated higher activity in esterification reaction relative to the raw montmorillonite. It was found that surface profile of materials consist of specific surface area, pore volume and Lewis acidity were significantly affect the catalyst activity.

  6. Total sulphate vs. sulphuric acid monomer in nucleation studies

    OpenAIRE

    K. Neitola; Brus, D.; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M.; R. L. Mauldin III; N. Sarnela; Jokinen, T; Lihavainen, H.; M. Kulmala

    2014-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is known to be a key component for atmospheric nucleation. Precise determination of sulphuric acid concentration is crucial factor for prediction of nucleation rates and subsequent growth. In our study, we have noticed a substantial discrepancy between sulphuric acid monomer and total sulphate concentrations measured from the same source of sulphuric acid vapour. The discrepancy of about one to two orders of magnitude was found with similar formation rates. To...

  7. Sulphate and desertification signals in Middle Eastern temperature trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of Middle Eastern annual temperature anomalies over the past 40 years reveals statistically significant warming over this time period of 0.07 C per decade. The warming is most pronounced over the spring season and least apparent in the winter season. Spatial analysis reveals a positive relationship between Middle Eastern warming and the degree of human-induced desertification and a negative relationship between local warming and the atmospheric concentration of sulphate

  8. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  9. Unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after morphine sulphate intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanan, R.; Stockhausen, H.B. von; Petersen, B. [Children' s Hospital, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Solymosi, L.; Warmuth-Metz, M. [Department for Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    We report a 14-year-old girl with an unusual pattern of leukoencephalopathy after intentional intoxication with morphine sulphate tablets. Toxicological analysis showed exceedingly high levels of morphine and its metabolites. MRI disclosed a leukoencephalopathy with high signal from the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and cerebellar white matter on T2-weighted images. These findings could be only partially explained by a hypoxic-ischaemic event; neurotoxic effects must be considered in this atypical leukoencephalopathy. (orig.)

  10. Methanogens, sulphate and heavy metals: a complex system

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, Da, L.; Stams, A. J. M.; Machado de Sousa, D.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a well-established technology used for the treatment of wastes and wastewaters with high organic content. During AD organic matter is converted stepwise to methane-containing biogasa renewable energy carrier. Methane production occurs in the last AD step and relies on methanogens, which are rather sensitive to some contaminants commonly found in wastewaters (e.g. heavy metals), or easily outcompeted by other groups of microorganisms (e.g. sulphate reducing bacteria...

  11. Sodium sulphate crystallization influence on intergranular destruction of Thassos marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ružička

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sodium sulphate crystallization in pore spaces of Thassos marble and presents the 3D visualization of intergranular fractures causing a deterioration of the specimen by the salt crystallization. Cylindrical marble specimen with diameter 20 mm and length 50 mm has been submitted to 15 cycles of the dipping in 14 % solution of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10 H2O according to the STN EN 12370 standard methodical test. Using electron methods (polarization microscopy, SEM – Scanning electron microscopy, XRD – X-ray diffraction, EMPA – Electron-microprobe analysis and by monitoring of selected physical parameters (changes in weight and changes in P-waves velocities, in first the mineral composition and microstructure of the marble have been characterized and consequently the effects induced by cyclic activity of sodium sulphate with the marble have been analysed. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP method has been used for specification of the porosity and detail pore structure. After realised 15 cycles of dipping in salt solution the presence of sodium sulphate in EDS spectrum of the marble has been documented. The sample weight has been reduced about 1.3 % and as well the speed of P-waves propagation has been reduced about 20 %. Before and after salt crystallization test the marble has been characterized using a computed microtomography (CMT, allowing to doing the image about intensity and localization of the created micro-fractures in 3D. It was identified that cyclic salt crystallization caused the decay of the marble predominantly along the dominant dolomite crystal boundaries. The hydration and dehydration reactions of the sodium sulphate and its phase transitions with cyclic changes of humidity and temperature are also discussed in the paper.

  12. Effect of terbutaline sulphate in chronic "allergic" cough.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellul-Micallef, R

    1983-01-01

    The effects of terbutaline sulphate were studied in 30 patients who presented with chronic cough at an allergy clinic. After a three week baseline period terbutaline and its placebo were given for two periods of three weeks each in a randomised, double blind, crossover manner. Patients kept a daily record of day and night cough scores and peak expiratory flow readings. Twenty one patients responded to terbutaline; placebo produced no significant effect. Both day and night cough scores (p less...

  13. EFFECT OF SULPHATE ON LOW-TEMPERATURE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhraig eMadden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulphate addition on the stability of, and microbial community behaviour in, low-temperature anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed-based bioreactors was investigated at 15°C. Efficient bioreactor performance was observed, with chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies of >90%, and a mean SO42- removal rate of 98.3%. In situ methanogensis appeared unaffected at a COD:SO42- influent ratio of 8:1, and subsequently of 3:1, and was impacted marginally only when the COD: SO42- ratio was 1:2. . Specific methanogenic activity assays indicated a complex set of interactions between sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB, methanogens and homoacetogenic bacteria. SO42- addition resulted in predominantly acetoclastic, rather than hydrogenotrophic, methanogenesis until >600 days of SO42--influenced bioreactor operation. Temporal microbial community development was monitored by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of 16S rRNA genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridisations (FISH, qPCR and microsensor analysis were combined to investigate the distribution of microbial groups, and particularly SRB and methanogens, along the structure of granular biofilms. qPCR data indicated that sulphidogenic genes were present in methanogenic and sulfidogenic biofilms, indicating the potential for sulphate reduction even in bioreactors not exposed to SO42-. Although the architecture of methanogenic and sulphidogenic granules was similar, indicating the presence of SRB even in methanogenic systems, FISH with rRNA targets found that the SRB were more abundant in the sulphidogenic biofilms. Methanosaeta species were the predominant, keystone members of the archaeal community, with the complete absence of the Methanosarcina species in the experimental bioreactor by trial conclusion. Microsensor data suggested the ordered distribution of sulphate reduction and sulphide accumulation, even in methanogenic granules.

  14. Single crystal neutron diffraction study of triglycine sulphate revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajul Ranjan Choudhury; R Chitra

    2008-11-01

    In order to get the exact hydrogen-bonding scheme in triglycine sulphate (TGS), which is an important hydrogen bonded ferroelectric, a single crystal neutron diffraction study was undertaken. The structure was refined to an -factor of [2] = 0.034. Earlier neutron structure of TGS was reported with a very limited data set and large standard deviations. The differences between the present and the earlier reported neutron structure of TGS are discussed.

  15. Preparation of Aluminium Oxynitride by Carbothermal Reduction of Aluminium Oxide in a Flowing N2 Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYa-wei; YUANRun-zhang; 等

    1996-01-01

    Carbothermal reduction of alumina into aluminium oxynitride(AlON) spinel in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere was studied.The effects of Al2O3/C ratio temperature,soaking time,heating rate molding pressure of samples,and nitrogen flow rate on reactions were investigated.Then the stability of AlON was elucidated and AlON wa confirmed as an intermediate compound in reduction of alumina.

  16. Testosterone sulphation and glucuronidation in the human liver: interindividual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, G M; Gucci, A; Giuliani, L

    1997-01-01

    Presystemic sulphation and glucuronidation at OH-C17 limits the bioavailability of testosterone; the aim of this investigation was to describe the variability in testosterone sulphation and glucuronidation rates in the human liver. Liver samples were obtained from 61 women and 40 men of similar age (mean 53 and 55 years, respectively) submitted to surgery. The mean rate of testosterone sulphation was significantly (P = 0.002) higher in men (22.4 pmol/min/mg) than in women (17.5 pmol/min/mg), was not age-dependent, followed bimodal distribution and varied over 7-fold in men and women. There was a weak, but significant negative correlation (r = -0.380; P = 0.003), between the rate of testosterone glucuronidation and age in the liver of women but not in that of men. The mean rate (pmol/min/mg) of testosterone glucuronidation was 155 (men) and 105 (women) (NS) and varied over 20-fold. When the rate of testosterone glucuronidation was expressed on the basis of g liver equivalent, the mean estimates were significantly (P = 0.003) greater in men (3323 pmol/min/g) than in women (1841 pmol/min/g). The present findings are consistent with the view that the hepatic activities of sulphotransferase and glucuronosyltransferase are higher in men than in women and that they vary in the human liver. PMID:9358207

  17. Damage model of fresh concrete in sulphate environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬书; 张银华; 冯立平; 金德保; 汪朝成; 董庆友

    2015-01-01

    A model of damage to fresh concrete in a corrosive sulphate environment was formulated to investigate how and why the strength of corroded concrete changes over time. First, a corroded concrete block was divided into three regions:an expanded and dense region;a crack-development region;and a noncorroded region. Second, based on the thickness of the surface corrosion layer and the rate of loss of compressive strength of the corroding region, a computational model of the concrete blocks’ corrosion-resistance coefficient of compressive strength in a sulphate environment was generated. Third, experimental tests of the corrosion of concrete were conducted by immersing specimens in a corrosive medium for 270 d. A comparison of the experimental results with the computational formulae shows that the calculation results and test results are in good agreement. A parameter analysis reveals that the corrosion reaction plays a major role in the corrosion of fresh concrete containing ordinary Portland cement, but the diffusion of the corrosion medium plays a major role in the corrosion of concrete mixtures containing fly ash and sulphate-resistant cement. Fresh concrete with a high water-to-cement ratio shows high performance during the whole experiment process whereas fresh concrete with a low water-to-cement ratio shows poor performance during the late experiment period.

  18. INTEROGATION OF THE MANUFACTURING ROUTE OF ALUMINIUM AA 1050 USED IN LITHOGRAPHIC APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowska, Malgorzata Danuta

    2013-01-01

    The aluminium AA1050 alloy, known as commercially pure aluminium, contains 99.5% Al, together with Fe and Si as major alloying elements. During fabrication of aluminium substrates for lithographic printing plates in Bridgnorth Aluminium Ltd, the AA 1050 aluminium alloy proceeds through various stages of thermomechanical processing, with the conditions at each processing stage influencing the microstructure of the final coil. Because of its specific gravity, tensile strength, surface performa...

  19. Effect of filtration on reoxidation proceses in aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bolibruchova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys. Many of our experimental works pointed out, that using filtration media placed in gating system causes reoxidation of poured aluminium alloy. Main aim of our latest work was to validate our arguments, that filter in gating system can be considered as obstacle for continuous pouring, with help of computer simulations. This article is only a small part of our researches focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys.

  20. Aluminium: Aluminij: kovina izbire: the metal of choice:

    OpenAIRE

    Gándara, María Josefa Freiría

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the importance of aluminium as the metal of choice formany applications. Aluminium is a lightweight, durable metal. It is silvery in appearance when freshly cut, is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is easily shaped by moulding and extruding. Aluminium has two main advantages when compared with other metals. Firstly, it has a low density, about one-third that of iron and copper. Secondly, although it reacts rapidly with the oxygen in air, it forms a thin, t...

  1. Cold forming of aluminium - State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The ongoing development of cold forging technology has been manifested lately by the increasing application of components in cold forged aluminium alloys. Applying precipitation hardening alloys components with great strength/weight ratio can be produced with a strength comparable to that of...... unalloyed steel. After description of the different types of alloys and their individual properties and applications, the special requirements for tool design by cold forging in aluminium is discussed. Finally, a large number of industrial examples on cold forged aluminium components are presented. (C) 1997...

  2. Radiation-induced creep of copper, aluminium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of creep studies on copper, aluminium and their alloys with and without neutron irradiation are presented. The experiments are carried out at the WWR-K reactor at the neutron fluence of 1.4.1016 n/m2.s (2.5.1016 n/m2.s, E>0.1 MeV). Polycrystalline copper (99.99 and 99.95%), aluminium (99.99%) and the alloys of copper with 4 at% of titanium, of aluminium with 4.2% of copper are studied within the temperature interval 0.31-0.51 Tm. (orig.)

  3. 59Fe distribution in continuously cast aluminium strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems are discussed of the homogeneity of continuously cast aluminium strips by horizontal casting. Theoretically discussed are phenomena present during primary solidification, namely the nonhomogeneous distribution of admixtures and impurities in primary solidified dendritic cells. A survey is given of the distribution of coefficients of basic admixtures and impurities in aluminium. Experimental investigation was carried out within the verification of theoretical research results, of the distribution of iron in continuously cast aluminium strips using radioactive iron 59Fe in form of radioactive foundry alloy containing 1.8% 59Fe. (author). 13 figs., 1 tab

  4. Optimization of Magnesium Metal into Commercially Pure Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana J Rao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation, involve development of Al-Mg systems by addition of magnesium into commercially pure aluminium. The amounts of magnesium added into commercially pure aluminium are of 1 and 2 wt%. The recoveries of magnesium are around 85-90%.Remaining Mg react with oxygen and float on the liquid aluminium. Presence of magnesium creates two phenomena. One is solid solution hardening and other is intermetallics formation. Both the phenomena checked by microstructural changes and by measuring the electrical conductivity values. By increasing the Mg, content mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength increases and electrical conductivity decreases.

  5. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  6. Study of fatigue behaviour of 7475 aluminium alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Verma; J D Atkinson; M Kumar

    2001-04-01

    Fatigue properties of a thermomechanically treated 7475 aluminium alloy have been studied in the present investigation. The alloy exhibited superior fatigue life compared to conventional structural aluminium alloys and comparable stage II crack growth rate. It was also noticed that the fatigue crack initiated from a surface grain and the crack extension was dominated by ductile striations. Analysis also revealed that this alloy possessed fracture toughness and tensile properties superior to that noticed with other structural aluminium alloys. Therefore the use of this alloy can safely reduce the overall weight of the aircraft.

  7. Mechanical alloying of aluminium-lithium-magnesium alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of high-purity aluminium-lithium-magnesium alloy powders, by mechanical alloying through grinding in a vibratory mill under high vacuum at room temperature, is described in details. The source materials for the grinding mixture were: aluminium-lithium alloy powder obtained by thermal vacuum-dehydrogenization of AlLiH4 hydride; magnesium metal powder; and chemically deoxidized aluminium metal powder. The implications which arose from the high reactivity of the component elements are discussed, and the measures taken to overcome them are described. The procedures used for the chemical analysis and powder characterization are given. (orig.)

  8. Chemical stability of hydroxysulphate green rust synthetised in the presence of foreign anions: carbonate, phosphate and silicate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruby, C., E-mail: ruby@lcpme.cnrs-nancy.fr; Gehin, A.; Aissa, R.; Ghanbaja, J.; Abdelmoula, M.; Genin, J.-M. R. [UMR 7564 CNRS-Universite Henri Poincare-Nancy 1, Equipe Microbiologie et Physique and Departement Materiaux et Structures, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (France)

    2006-01-15

    Hydroxysulphate green rust {l_brace}GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}){r_brace} species were precipitated in the presence of various anions. GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) is stable at {approx}pH 7 and is transformed into a mixture of magnetite and ferrous hydroxide when the pH raised at {approx}12. In the presence of carbonate species, GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) is partially transformed into a mixture of magnetite and siderite at {approx}pH 8.5. This transformation is stopped when silicate anions are present in the solution. As already observed for phosphate anions, the adsorption of silicate anions on the lateral faces of the GR(SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) crystals may explain this stabilization effect. Sulphate anions are easily exchanged by carbonate species at {approx}pH 10.5. In contrast, anionic exchange between sulphate and phosphate anions was not observed.

  9. Subcellular localization of the sulphation reaction of heparan sulphate synthesis and transport of the proteoglycan to the cell surface in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J M; Winterbourne, D J

    1988-01-01

    We report on the incorporation of radiolabelled sulphate into proteoglycan in the 'in situ'-perfused rat liver. After 5 min virtually all of the [35S]sulphate was incorporated into heparan sulphate; no partially sulphated precursors were detected. Pulse-chase experiments, followed by centrifugation in gradients of sucrose and metrizamide, showed that, at 5 min, the heparan sulphate was associated predominantly with the Golgi membranes. Over the next 20 min, intact proteoglycan appeared at the plasma membrane. At intermediate times the heparan sulphate was detected simultaneously in two distinct populations of membrane vesicles. Whether the heparan sulphate in these two populations has two different destinies (e.g. plasma membrane or secretion) is not yet clear. Subfractionation of the Golgi membranes showed that the N-sulphotransferase co-purified with the heparan [35S]sulphate and was separable from the galactosyltransferase of glycoprotein synthesis, confirming that the Golgi membrane system is functionally segregated. Subfractionation also permitted an almost 100-fold purification of the N-sulphotransferase over the homogenate: this will provide an excellent starting material for isolation and further characterization of the enzyme. PMID:2970845

  10. Requirements for, and Cytoplasmic Concentrations of, Sulphate and Chloride, and Cytoplasmic Volume Spaces in the Halophilic Bacterium Ectothiorhodospira mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Imhoff, Johannes F.; Riedel, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Ectothiorhodospira mobilis is a halophilic phototrophic bacterium that has been isolated from soda lakes containing high concentrations of sulphate, chloride and carbonates. It utilizes reduced sulphur compounds as photosynthetic electron donors and oxidizes them to sulphate, but can also grow photoheterotrophically with sulphate as sole sulphur source. The requirements for, and the cytoplasmic concentrations of, sulphate and chloride have been determined. High concentrations of sulphate are ...

  11. Chemical stabilities of isoetharine hydrochloride, metaproterenol sulphate and terbutaline sulphate after mixing with normal saline for respiratory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, V; Parasrampuria, J; Gardner, S N

    1988-04-01

    The chemical stabilities of isoetharine hydrochloride inhalation solution, metaproterenol sulphate inhalation solution and terbutaline sulphate injection, after diluting 1 in 10 with sodium chloride 0.9% injection were studied. On storing the solutions in amber-coloured syringes, they were stable for at least 120 days at 5 degrees C. At 25 degrees C they were also stable for 120 days except that isoetharine solution discoloured and lost 7.8% of its potency after 90 days of storage. There was a new peak in the chromatogram from the decomposition product. All other solutions remained clear for 120 days at both temperatures. The initial and final pH values were similar except that after 120 days at both temperatures. The initial and final pH values were similar except that after 120 days at 25 degrees C, the pH value of terbutaline solution had increased from 4.9 to 5.4. PMID:3392129

  12. Orbital friction stir welding of aluminium pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was originally developed for flat plates. This contribution shows how it can be applied to the welding of aluminium pipes. Pipes made of AlMG 3 (EN5754), AlMg 4.5Mn (EN5083) and AlMgSi 0.5 (EN6106) with dimensions of Da 600 and 520 x 10-8 mm were welded. The FSW orbital system comprises an annular cage with integrated FSW head, a hydraulic system, and a control unit. The welds were tested successfully according to EN 288. The mechanical and technical properties of the welds were somewhat better than with the TIG orbital process, and welding times were about 40 percent shorter

  13. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A method of preparing an aluminum mold for injection molding is provided, the method comprises the steps of providing an aluminum mold having a least one surface, subjecting the at least one surface to a gas or liquid phase silane to thereby form an anti-stiction coating, the anti-stiction coating...... comprising a chemically bonded monolayer of silane compounds on the at least one surface wherein the silane is a halogenated silane. The at least one surface coated with the anti-stiction coating may be configured to withstand an injection molding process at a pressure above 100 MPa. Furthermore, a mold...... having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding of...

  14. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Eswara Prasad; A A Gokhale; P Rama Rao

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has been developed of the microstructure-based micromechanisms of strengthening, of fatigue and fracture as well as of anisotropy in mechanical properties. However, these alloys have not yet greatly displaced the conventionally used denser Al alloys on account of their poorer ductility, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue resistance. This review aims to summarise the work pertaining to study of structure and mechanical properties with a view to indicate the directions that have been and can be pursued to overcome property limitations.

  15. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength is an...... uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  16. Adsorption of aluminium by stream particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, E; Ohnstad, M; Woof, C

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the adsorption of aluminium by fine particulates from Whitray Beck, a hill stream in NW England. Adsorption increased with Al(3) activity, pH and concentration of particles, and could be quantitatively described by the empirical equation: [Formula: see text] [particles] where square brackets indicate concentrations, curly brackets, activities, and alpha, beta and gamma are constants with values of 5.14x10(-10) (mol litre(-1))(2.015) (g particles litre(-1))(-1), 0.457, and 1.472, respectively. For the experimental data, the equation gave a correlation ratio of 0.99. The equation accounts reasonably well for the adsorption of Al by particulates from seven other streams. In applying the equation, it must be borne in mind that the desorption kinetics of Al depend on pH, and rapid reversibility (or=10%) of total monomeric Al. PMID:15092454

  17. A comparison of glycosaminoglycan distributions, keratan sulphate sulphation patterns and collagen fibril architecture from central to peripheral regions of the bovine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Leona T Y; Harris, Anthony M; Tanioka, Hidetoshi; Yagi, Naoto; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Caterson, Bruce; Quantock, Andrew J; Young, Robert D; Meek, Keith M

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated changes in collagen fibril architecture and the sulphation status of keratan sulphate (KS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) epitopes from central to peripheral corneal regions. Freshly excised adult bovine corneal tissue was examined as a function of radial position from the centre of the cornea outwards. Corneal thickness, tissue hydration, hydroxyproline content, and the total amount of sulphated GAG were all measured. High and low-sulphated epitopes of keratan sulphate were studied by immunohistochemistry and quantified by ELISA. Chondroitin sulphate (CS) and dermatan sulphate (DS) distributions were observed by immunohistochemistry following specific enzyme digestions. Electron microscopy and X-ray fibre diffraction were used to ascertain collagen fibril architecture. The bovine cornea was 1021±5.42 μm thick at its outer periphery, defined as 9-12 mm from the corneal centre, compared to 844±8.10 μm at the centre. The outer periphery of the cornea was marginally, but not significantly, more hydrated than the centre (H=4.3 vs. H=3.7), and was more abundant in hydroxyproline (0.12 vs. 0.06 mg/mg dry weight of cornea). DMMB assays indicated no change in the total amount of sulphated GAG across the cornea. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of both high- and low-sulphated epitopes of KS, as well as DS, throughout the cornea, and CS only in the peripheral cornea before the limbus. Quantification by ELISA, disclosed that although both high- and low-sulphated KS remained constant throughout stromal depth at different radial positions, high-sulphated epitopes remained constant from the corneal centre to outer-periphery, whereas low-sulphated epitopes increased significantly. Both small angle X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis revealed that collagen fibril diameter remained relatively constant until the outer periphery was reached, after which fibrils became more widely spaced (from small angle x-ray diffraction analysis) and of larger diameter

  18. Interleukin-1 induced nitric oxide inhibits sulphation of glycosaminoglycan chains in human articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickery, M S; Bayliss, M T

    1998-10-23

    Incubation of human articular cartilage explants with interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) inhibited the rate of [35S]sulphate incorporation into glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains concomitant with an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. Measurement of the [35S]sulphate showed that IL-1alpha inhibited the synthesis of both keratan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate (CS) chains to a similar extent. This effect was reversed by the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-iminoethyl-l-ornithine (l-NIO). Analysis of alkali borohydride cleaved GAG chains showed that IL-1alpha had no effect on their size. Similarly when GAG chains were coupled to xyloside the size of the GAG chains attached to the exogenous acceptor decreased but IL-1alpha had no further effect on hydrodynamic size. IL-1alpha did, however, inhibit [35S]sulphate incorporation into xyloside-linked CS chains. In both experiments l-NIO reversed the inhibitory effect on sulphation. Disaccharide analysis of the [35S]GAG chains showed that IL-1alpha preferentially inhibited sulphation of the 6-sulphated isomer and that l-NIO reversed this effect. Thus, IL-1alpha-induced NO mediates the inhibition of sulphate incorporation and alters the sulphation pattern of newly synthesised GAG chains. PMID:9795242

  19. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, S.; Simojoki, A.; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 466, January (2014), s. 663-672. ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/1570; GA MŠk LC06066 Grant ostatní: GAJU(CZ) GAJU 138/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : acid sulphate soil * carbon * CARD-FISH * microorganisms * nitrogen * PLFA Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.099, year: 2014

  20. Uranium production from phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to estimates of the world's uranium consumption, exploitation of most rich sources is expected by the 1980's. Forecasts show that the rate of uranium consumption will increase towards the end of the century. It is therefore desirable to exploit poor sources not yet in use. In the near future, the most reasonable source for developing uranium is phosphate rock. Uranium reserves in phosphates are estimated at a few million tons. Production of uranium from phosphates is as a by-product of phosphate rock processing and phosphoric acid production; it will then be possible to save the costs incurred in crushing and dissolving the rock when calculating uranium production costs. Estimates show that the U.S. wastes about 3,000 tons of uranium per annum in phosphoric acid based fertilisers. Studies have also been carried out in France, Yugoslavia and India. In Israel, during the 1950's, a small plant was operated in Haifa by 'Chemical and Phosphates'. Uranium processes have also been developed by linking with the extraction processes at Arad. Currently there is almost no activity on this subject because there are no large phosphoric acid plants which would enable production to take place on a reasonable scale. Discussions are taking place about the installation of a plant for phosphoric acid production utilising the 'wet process', producing 200 to 250,000 tons P2O5 per annum. It is necessary to combine these facilities with uranium production plant. (author)

  1. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. PMID:26365318

  2. Corrosion of spent nuclear fuel aluminium cladding in ordinary water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion of aluminium alloy cladding of spent nuclear fuel elements in ordinary water is examined in the spent fuel storage pool of the RA research reactor at the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Experimental examinations are carried out within framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Project (CRP) 'Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium-Clad Spent Fuel in Water', Phase II. Racks with coupons made of different aluminium alloys were exposed to water influence for period of six months to six years. The project comprises also activities on monitoring of the water chemistry and radioactivity in the storage pool. Visual and microscopic examinations of surfaces of aluminium coupons of the test racks have been done recently and results were presented in this paper confirming strong influence of water quality and exposition time to corrosion process. (author)

  3. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation of...... anode. The oxide layer can be removed by e.g. amalgamation but this will result in accelerated corrosion and poor shelf life. These difficulties have been successfully overcome by developing alloying elements and electrolyte additives in the recent years. The literature review also includes various...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  4. Deposition of aluminium nanoparticles using dense plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma route to nanofabrication has drawn much attention recently. The dense plasma focus (DPF) device is used for depositing aluminium nanoparticles on n-type Si (111) wafer. The plasma chamber is filled with argon gas and evacuated at a pressure of 80 Pa. The substrate is placed at distances 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm from the top of the central anode. The aluminium is deposited on Si wafer at room temperature with two focused DPF shots. The deposits on the substrate are examined for their morphological properties using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images have shown the formation of aluminium nanoparticles. From the AFM images, it is found that the size of aluminium nanoparticles increases with increase in distance between the top of anode and the substrate for same number of DPF shots.

  5. Aluminium foam sandwich panels: manufacture, metallurgy and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banhart, J. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut, TU Berlin (Germany); Seeliger, H.W. [Alm GmbH, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Sandwich panels consisting of a highly porous aluminium foam core and aluminium alloy face sheets are manufactured by roll-bonding aluminium alloy sheets to a densified mixture of metal powders - usually Al-Si or Al-Si-Cu alloys with 6-8% Si and 3-10% Cu - and titanium hydride, and foaming the resulting three-layer structure by a thermal treatment. We review the various processing steps of aluminium foam sandwich (AFS) and the metallurgical processes during foaming, compare the process to alternative ways to manufacture AFS, e.g. by adhesive bonding, and give an overview of the available literature. Two ways to treat AFS after foaming are presented, namely forging and age-hardening. Some current and potential applications are described and the market potential of AFS is assessed. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreatta

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a negative effect on safety and costs. This PhD thesis investigates the relation between electrochemical behaviour and microstructure of a number of 7xxx aluminium alloys: AA7075, AA7349 and an experime...

  8. Crushing modes of aluminium tubes under axial compression

    OpenAIRE

    Pled, Florent; Yan, Wenyi; Wen, Cui'e

    2014-01-01

    6 pages International audience A numerical study of the crushing of circular aluminium tubes with and without aluminium foam fillers has been carried out to investigate their buckling behaviours under axial compression. A crushing mode classification chart has been established for empty tubes. The influence of boundary conditions on crushing mode has also been investigated. The effect of foam filler on the crushing mode of tubes filled with foam was then examined. The predicted results ...

  9. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  10. Modeling of aluminium deposition from chloroaluminate ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Schaltin, Stijn; Ganapathi, Murugan; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A finite-element model of the electrodeposition of aluminium from chloroaluminate ionic liquids is introduced. The purpose of this model is to give an explanation for the reasonable current densities that can be achieved in chloroaluminate ionic liquids despite the fact that the electrochemically active Al2Cl7- complexes are transformed into inactive AlCl4- complexes during the electrodeposition of aluminium. The obtainable current density in the electrodeposition from chloroaluminate ionic l...

  11. TORSIONAL DEFORMATION AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    OpenAIRE

    Marini Marno; Ahmad Badri Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Torsional deformation and fatigue behaviour of both solid and thin-walled tubular specimens were made from as-received and heat treated 6061 aluminium alloy were studied. 6061 aluminium alloy have been widely used as a candidate material in automobile, aerospace, aircraft and structural application because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength to weight ratio, good ductility and others. The differences in cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviours between round and soli...

  12. Ball Pad Mold Electromagnetic Forming Process for Aluminium Alloy Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wen-ping; Wu, Xiang-Dong; Wan, Min; Chen, Xiao-wei; Xiong, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet requirements of lightweight technology in the field of aerospace, the new forming technology for aluminium alloy skin parts and integral panel are brought to more attention. Based on the principle of electromagnetic forming (EMF) and energy distribution, a new electromagnetic forming process using ball as pad mold for aluminium alloy sheet forming was suggested and test apparatus was designed. The new method was verified by the finite element simulation and exp...

  13. Blast Loaded Aluminium Plates : Experiments and numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Melby, Emil Arne; Eide, Hilde Olaug Stakvik

    2013-01-01

    Light and flexible protective constructions in aluminium could be subjected to a blast load. In this thesis the effect of blast loading on aluminium plates of the type 1050A ? H14 was studied through experiments and numerical simulations. The effect of fragmentation was idealized with predrilled holes. The thesis was written at the Structural Impact Laboratory (SIMLab) at NTNU in collaboration with the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency (NDEA).Tensile tests revealed a clearly anisotropic behavi...

  14. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Michalec; Milan Marônek

    2013-01-01

    Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  15. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Napachat Tareelap; Kaysinee Sriraksasin; Nakorn Srisukhumbowornchai; Swieng Thuanboon; Choochat Nitipanyawong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB) propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium...

  16. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos; Marilene Morelli Serna; Nelson Batista de Lima; Isolda Costa; Jesualdo Luiz Rossi

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken f...

  17. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulphation in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Sanaa; Eley, Adrian

    2004-02-01

    Sulphated glycosaminoglycans, such as heparan sulphate, have been shown to be essential for the infectivity of many organisms. The aims of this study were to verify the role of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in chlamydial infection and to investigate whether they are present on chlamydia or chlamydial host cells. The effect of undersulphation of host cells and chlamydial elementary bodies was examined using sodium chlorate. Also studied was whether any inhibitory effect was reversible. The results strongly suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis does not produce heparan sulphate and that heparan sulphate of the host cell is necessary and sufficient to mediate chlamydial infection. The essential role played by the sulphate constituents of the host-cell glycosaminoglycan in the infectivity of LGV serovars, and to a lesser extent of serovar E, was also confirmed. PMID:14729927

  18. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy. PMID:22749723

  19. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  20. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  1. Formulation and Evaluation of Neomycin Sulphate Ointment containing Natural Wound Healing Agent Curcuma longa

    OpenAIRE

    Akanksha D; Vikas G; Neetesh K. J; Shailendra S; Neelam B; Dinesh K. J

    2014-01-01

    Present investigation was to develop novel ointment formulation in combination of natural wound healing agent curcuma longa, which is reported to possess wound healing and anti-bacterial activities. Combination of neomycin sulphate and curcuma longa is good rational, where curcuma longa produces synergistic wound healing effect with neomycin sulphate. Formulations containing fixed concentration (0.5 %) of neomycin sulphate and 3 %, 4 % and 5 % of curcuma longa were prepared. To assess the eff...

  2. The Metal And Sulphate Removal From Mine Drainage Waters By Biological-Chemical Ways

    OpenAIRE

    Jenčárová Jana; Luptáková Alena

    2015-01-01

    Mine drainage waters are often characterized by high concentrations of sulphates and metals as a consequence of the mining industry of sulphide minerals. The aims of this work are to prove some biological-chemical processes utilization for the mine drainage water treatment. The studied principles of contamination elimination from these waters include sulphate reduction and metal bioprecipitation by the application of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Other studied process was metal sorption b...

  3. Ritodrine sulphation in the human liver and duodenal mucosa: interindividual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, G M; Quilici, M C; Giulianetti, B; Spisni, R; Nervi, M; Giuliani, L; Gomeni, R

    1998-01-01

    The beta2-adrenoceptor agonist ritodrine has a bioavailability of 30% due to its presystemic metabolism and sulphation is an important metabolic route. The interindividual variability in the rate of ritodrine sulphation in 100 specimens of human liver and duodenum is reported. The final concentrations of ritodrine were 2 mM (duodenum) and 20 mM (liver). The mean estimates of ritodrine sulphation rate were 490 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) (duodenum) and 140 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) (liver). There was a 4-5-fold variation within +/- 2 SD units in the hepatic and duodenal rates of ritodrine sulphation. Statistical analysis revealed the presence of at least two subgroups of ritodrine sulphation. In the liver, 30% and 70% of the population fell into two subgroups with the mean estimates of ritodrine sulphation rate of 114 and 149 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). In the duodenum, 25% and 75% of the population fell into two subgroups and the mean estimates of ritodrine sulphation rate were 332 and 538 pmol x min(-1) x mg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). The rates of ritodrine and 4-nitrophenol sulphation correlated highly in the liver (r = 0.865; P < 0.001) and the rates of ritodrine and dopamine sulphation correlated highly (r = 0.914; P < 0.001) in the duodenum. In both tissues, the rates of ritodrine and (-)-salbutamol sulphation underwent a similar extent of variation and correlated highly. The intrinsic clearance of ritodrine sulphation was over one order of magnitude higher in the duodenum than in the liver suggesting that the duodenum is an important site of ritodrine sulphation. PMID:9625275

  4. Feasibility study for removal of sulphate from HLW prior to its immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphate removal from HLW can improve the waste loading significantly during vitrification using barium borosilicate glass matrix. This paper describes the experimental works carried out to see the feasibility of sulphate removal from HLW by precipitation method using barium nitrate. Various parameters like optimization of stoichiometric amount of barium, extent of sulphate removal, partitioning of radionuclide and feasibility of sludge fixation in cement matrix etc were also studied. (author)

  5. Research on Uncrystallized Phosphating Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG En-jun; XING Ze-kuan

    2004-01-01

    This article excogitated a kind of uncrystallized phosphating film bears wearing capacity goodly by adding Ca2 + in normal phosphating solution. This technology is very useful to protect steel parts working in oil from abrasion.

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  7. Amino acid residues of heparin cofactor II required for stimulation of thrombin inhibition by sulphated polyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, N S; Grupe, M J; Tollefsen, D M

    1999-04-12

    A variety of sulphated polyanions in addition to heparin and dermatan sulphate stimulate the inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II (HCII). Previous investigations indicated that the binding sites on HCII for heparin and dermatan sulphate overlap but are not identical. In this study we determined the concentrations (IC50) of various polyanions required to stimulate thrombin inhibition by native recombinant HCII in comparison with three recombinant HCII variants having decreased affinity for heparin (Lys-173-->Gln), dermatan sulphate (Arg-189-->His), or both heparin and dermatan sulphate (Lys-185-->Asn). Pentosan polysulphate, sulphated bis-lactobionic acid amide, and sulphated bis-maltobionic acid amide resembled dermatan sulphate, since their IC50 values were increased to a much greater degree (>/=8-fold) by the mutations Arg-189-->His and Lys-185-->Asn than by Lys-173-->Gln (Gln and Lys-185-->Asn (>/=6-fold) than by Arg-189-->His (sulphate and heparin, other polyanions stimulate HCII primarily by an allosteric mechanism requiring the N-terminal acidic domain. PMID:10209287

  8. Isotopic modelling of the significance of bacterial sulphate reduction for phenol attenuation in a contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michael J.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Thornton, Steven F.; Lerner, David N.

    2001-12-01

    A Triassic sandstone aquifer polluted with a mixture of phenolic hydrocarbons has been investigated by means of high-resolution groundwater sampling. Samples taken at depth intervals of 1 m have revealed the presence of a diving pollutant plume with a sharply defined upper margin. Concentrations of pollutant phenols exceed 4 g/l in the plume core, rendering it sterile but towards the diluted upper margin evidence for bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR) has been obtained. Groundwaters have been analysed for both δ34S-SO 4 and δ18O-SO 4. Two reservoirs have been identified with distinct sulphate-oxygen isotope ratios. Groundwater sulphate ( δ18O-SO 4=3-5‰) outside the plume shows a simple linear mixing trend with an isotopically uniform pollutant sulphate reservoir ( δ18O-SO 4=10-12‰) across the plume margin. The sulphur isotope ratios do not always obey a simple mixing relation, however, at one multilevel borehole, enrichment in 34SO 4 at the plume margin is inversely correlated with sulphate concentration. This and the presence of 34S-depleted dissolved sulphide indicate that enrichment in 34SO 4 is the result of bacterial sulphate reduction. δ34S analysis of trace hydrogen sulphide within the plume yielded an isotope enrichment factor ( ɛ) of -9.4‰ for present-day bacterial sulphate reduction. This value agrees with a long-term estimate (-9.9‰) obtained from a Rayleigh model of the sulphate reduction process. The model was also used to obtain an estimate of the pre-reduction sulphate concentration profile with depth. The difference between this and the present-day profiles then gave a mass balance for sulphate consumption. The organic carbon mineralisation that would account for this sulphate loss is shown to represent only 0.1‰ of the phenol concentration in this region of the plume. Hence, the contribution of bacterial sulphate reduction to biodegradation has thus far been small. The highest total phenolic concentration (TPC) at which there is

  9. A New Turbidimetric method for the Determination of Sulphate in Brackish Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Chaudhuri

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available A New turbidimetric method for the determination of sulphate in brackish waters is described. A suspension of barium sulphate is product in an acidified medium of glycerine d-glucose solution by the addition of barium chloride solution and the turbidity measured with the help of Bausch & Lomb Spectronic '20' Colorimeter. Concentrations upto 160 ppm of sulphate, mate ions do not interfere, nor do Cu/Sup2+, Fe/Sup3+, Co/Sup2+, Ni/Sup2+, and Cr/Sup3+. The method has been applied to the determination of sulphate in desert soils as well.

  10. Anilinium dihydrogen phosphate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaman, Ondřej; Smrčok, L.; Gyepes, R.; Havlíček, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 2 (2012), "o57"-"o60". ISSN 0108-2701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anilinium * dihydrogen phosphate * crystal structure * hydrogen bonds Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.492, year: 2012 http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?S0108270111054874

  11. Identification of the hydrate gel phases present in phosphate-modified calcium aluminate binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates to cubic phases in hydrated calcium aluminate cements (CAC) can involve undesirable porosity changes and loss of strength. Modification of CAC by phosphate addition avoids conversion, by altering the nature of the reaction products, yielding a stable amorphous gel instead of the usual crystalline hydrate products. Here, details of the environments of aluminium and phosphorus in this gel were elucidated using solid-state NMR and complementary techniques. Aluminium is identified in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination states, and phosphorus is present in hydrous environments with varying, but mostly low, degrees of crosslinking. A 31P/27Al rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiment showed the existence of aluminium–phosphorus interactions, confirming the formation of a hydrated calcium aluminophosphate gel as a key component of the binding phase. This resolves previous disagreements in the literature regarding the nature of the disordered products forming in this system

  12. Identification of the hydrate gel phases present in phosphate-modified calcium aluminate binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Mehul A.; Bernal, Susan A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Apperley, David C. [Solid-State NMR Group, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kinoshita, Hajime [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    The conversion of hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates to cubic phases in hydrated calcium aluminate cements (CAC) can involve undesirable porosity changes and loss of strength. Modification of CAC by phosphate addition avoids conversion, by altering the nature of the reaction products, yielding a stable amorphous gel instead of the usual crystalline hydrate products. Here, details of the environments of aluminium and phosphorus in this gel were elucidated using solid-state NMR and complementary techniques. Aluminium is identified in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination states, and phosphorus is present in hydrous environments with varying, but mostly low, degrees of crosslinking. A {sup 31}P/{sup 27}Al rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiment showed the existence of aluminium–phosphorus interactions, confirming the formation of a hydrated calcium aluminophosphate gel as a key component of the binding phase. This resolves previous disagreements in the literature regarding the nature of the disordered products forming in this system.

  13. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  14. Irradiation effects on aluminium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherlands) is a 45 MW light water cooled and moderated research reactor. The vessel was replaced in 1984 after more than 20 years of operation because doubts had arisen over the condition of the aluminium alloy construction material. Data on the mechanical properties of the aluminium alloy Al 5154 with and without neutron irradiation are necessary for the safety analysis of the new HFR vessel which is constructed from the same material as the old vessel. Fatigue, fracture mechanics (crack growth and fracture toughness) and tensile properties have been obtained from several experimental testing programmes with materials of the new and the old HFR vessel. 1) Low-cycle fatigue testing has been carried out on non-irradiated specimens from stock material of the new HFR vessel. The number of cycles to failure ranges from 90 to more than 50,000 for applied strain from 3.0% to 0.4%; 2) Fatigue crack growth rate testing has been conducted: - with unirradiated specimens from stock material of the new vessel; - with irradiated specimens from the remnants of the old core box. Irradiation has a minor effect on the sub-critical fatigue crack growth rate. The ultimate increase of the mean crack growth rate amounts to a factor of 2. However crack extension is strongly reduced due to the smaller crack length for crack growth instability (reduction of KIC). - Irradiated material from the core box walls of the old vessel has been used for fracture toughness testing. The conditional fracture toughness values KIQ ranges from 30.3 down to 16.5 MPa√m. The lowermost meaningful 'KIC' is 17.7 MPa√m corresponding to the thermal fluence of 7.5 1026 n/m2 for the End of Life (EOL) of the old vessel. - Testing carried out on irradiated material from the remnants of the old HFR core box shows an ultimate neutron irradiation hardening of 35 points increase of HSR15N and an ultimate tensile yield stress of 589 MPa corresponding to the ductility of 1

  15. Interactions between cement grouts and sulphate bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mixtures of Ordinary Portland cement and blastfurnace slag or pulverized fuel ash, exposed to a sulphate-bearing ground water at different temperatures and pressures, were investigated in order to assess the long term durability of cements for encapsulating radioactive waste and backfilling a repository. The effect of the ground water on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the cements is minimal. Calcite and C-S-H are present in all the samples and are durable throughout the test. Dimensional changes in the cements during setting and curing may cause weaknesses in the materials which may increase the effects of a percolating ground water. (author)

  16. Leachability of Natural Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements in Brazilian Phosphate Fertilizers and Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian phosphate fertilizers are obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product phosphoric acid and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum - PG) as by-product. The level of impurities (metals and radionuclides, among others) present in the phosphate rock used as raw material is distributed among products and by-products. In Brazil, PG has been used for many years in agriculture as a soil amendment. The characterization of natural radionuclides elements in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers, single super phosphate (SSP), triple super phosphate (TSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) has been already published by the same authors. However, for a long-term safe application of these fertilizers and PG it is important to study the availability of these elements to the environment. For this purpose, the evaluation of radionuclides and rare earth elements concentration in the labile fraction is more suitable than the total concentration, since this fraction is more available for the absorption by plants and water contamination. In order to evaluate the available fraction of these elements to the environment, PG and phosphate fertilizers samples were leached with water and EDTA solution. The total and leached concentrations of radionuclides (226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb) were determined by using high-resolution gamma spectrometry and by measuring the gross alpha and beta counting after a radiochemical separation of the elements of interest, respectively. The concentration of rare earth elements - REEs (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Sm, Tb and Yb), U and Th were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained using the methodology with mild leaching with EDTA and with water showed that the radionuclides and REEs although present in the PG are not available to the environment. (author)

  17. Distribution of natural radionuclides in the production and use of phosphate fertilizers in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-products. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphate rock used as raw material presents in its composition radionuclides of the U and Th natural series. Taking this into account, the main aim of this paper is to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclides and radioactive disequilibria involved in the Brazilian industrial process of phosphoric acid production; to determine the content of radioactivity in several commercial fertilizers produced by this industry; to estimate their radiological impact in crop soils and the long term exposure due to their application. Radiological characterization of phosphate rock, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The fertilizer samples, which are derived directly from phosphoric acid, MAP and DAP, presented in their composition low activity concentrations for 226Ra, 228Ra and 21Pb. As for U and Th, the concentrations found in MAP and DAP are more significant, up to 822 and 850 Bq kg-1, respectively. SSP and TSP, which are obtained by mixing phosphoric acid with different amounts of phosphate rock, presented higher concentrations of radionuclides, up to 1158 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 1167 Bq kg-1 for 234U, 1169 Bq kg-1 for 23Th, 879 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 1255 Bq kg-1 for 21Pb, 521 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 246 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra and 302 Bq kg-1 for 228Th. Long term exposure due to successive fertilizer applications was evaluated. Internal doses due to the application of phosphate fertilizer for 10, 50 and 100 years were below 1 mSv y-1, showing that the radiological impact of such practice is negligible

  18. Characterization of phosphate/sulfate waste grout cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1993-09-01

    As part of efforts to clean up federal production sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is treating selected low-level liquid wastes by incorporating them into cementitious waste forms. At the Hanford Site, low-level radioactive liquid wastes will be mixed with a blend of Portland cement, fly ash, clays, and other ingredients in a continuous process at the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). The resulting grout slurry will be pumped to lined, underground concrete vaults where the grout will harden, thereby immobilizing contaminants. Physical property measurements and American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leach tests have been completed on 45 samples obtained from five cores from the phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) grout vault. A summary of the compressive strength, bulk density, and sonic velocity data is compared with data from other PSW grout samples. Results of moisture content, thermal conductivity, and the leaching of aluminium, calcium, sodium, sulfate, cobalt-60, and cesium-137 are given.

  19. Bioaccumulation of Aluminium in Hydromacrophytes in Polish Coastal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senze Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on aluminium content was conducted in water and on aquatic flora of Polish lakes in the central part of the coast. The study included the lakes Sarbsko, Choczewskie, Bia.e, K.odno, D.brze and Salino investigated in the summer of 2013. The examined lakes belong mainly to the direct basin of the Baltic Sea. Samples of aquatic plants and lake waters were collected. In the water samples pH and electrolytic conductivity were measured. The aluminium content was determined both in water and aquatic plants. Submerged hydromacrophyte studies included Myriophyllum alterniflorum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Emergent hydromacrophyte studies included Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Juncus bulbosus L., Iris pseudacorus L., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. % Schult., Phalaris arundinacea L., Carex riparia Curt., Mentha aquatic L., Stratiotes aloides L., Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Glyceria maxima (Hartman Holmb., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Scirpus lacustris L. and Typha angustifolia L. The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the aluminium content in submerged and emergent hydromacrophytes and also the definition of their bioaccumulative abilities. The average concentration of aluminium in water was 2.68 fęg Al dm.3. The average content of aluminium in plants was 2.8015 mg Al kg.1. The bioaccumulation factor ranged from BCF=19.74 to BCF=16619. On the basis of the analysis of the aluminium content in water and aquatic plants results show that both water and plants were characterized by a moderate level of aluminium. The recorded concentrations indicate a mid-range value and are much lower than those which are quoted for a variety of surface waters in various parts of the world.

  20. Oxidation of φ'-aluminium oxynitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: Oxidation of φ'-AlON has been studied for the first time. First corrosion products are γ-alumina. Low density α-alumina is formed at high temperature. Grains are extensively cracked after oxidation. The low density of the α-alumina is due to a network of nanometric porosities. - Abstract: The oxidation in air of single crystal φ'-aluminium oxynitride (AlON) grains has been characterized by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction in the 1273-1673 K range. Two oxidation stages have been observed, suggesting the formation of a transitional phase. Below 1473 K, oxidation results in the apparition of platelets and noodle-like crystals on the surface of the initially faceted single crystals. Above 1473 K, low density α-alumina polycrystals start forming on the grain surface and grow towards the grain core with increasing temperature or time. Their low density is mainly due to the presence of a network of nano-porosities.

  1. Eu(III)-doped aluminium yttrium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report the synthesis and the photoluminescence features of Eu(III)-doped yttrium-aluminium oxide obtained by non-hydrolytic sol-gel routes. After heating the powders above 600 deg C the XRD patterns show the presence of the Y4Al2O9 (YAM) and Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phases. At 800 and at 1500 deg C the PL spectra display the Eu(III) lines characteristic of the YAM monoclinic phase. The 5D0→7F2 transition is favored relatively to the 5D0→7F1 lines. However, at 1100 deg C the cubic YAG is the preferential phase and the 5D0→7F1 transition dominates the spectrum. The Eu(III) ions lie in a centro symmetrical site. The different solvents used in the sol-gel synthesis also change the relative proportion between these two phases. This is monitored analyzing the modifications in the relative intensity between the 5D0→7F2 and the 5D0→7F1 transitions. (author)

  2. Anomalous Diffusion of Mo Implanted into Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通和; 吴瑜光; 邓志威; 钱卫东

    2001-01-01

    Mo ions are implanted into aluminium with a high ion flux and high dose at elevated temperatures of 300℃, 400℃ and 500℃ . X-ray diffraction spectra show that the Al12Mo phases are formed. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy indicates that a profile of Mo appears in Al around the depth of 550nm and with an atomic concentration of ~7%, when Mo is implanted to the dose of 3 × 1017/cm2 with an ion flux of 45μA/cm2 (400℃).If the dose increases to 1 × 1018/cm2 at the same ion flux, the penetration of Mo ions in Al can reach a depth of 2μm, which is greater than the ion project range Rp (52.5nm). The results show that anomalous diffusion takes place. Owing to the intense atom collision cascades, the diffusion coefficient increases greatly with the increase of the ion flux and dose. The Mo diffusion coefficients in Al are calculated. The Mo retained dose in A1 increases obviously with the increase of the ion flux.

  3. Fuzzy Multicriteria Ranking of Aluminium Coating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with multicriteria ranking of aluminium coating methods. The alternatives used are: sulfuric acid anodization, A1; oxalic acid anodization, A2; chromic acid anodization, A3; phosphoric acid anodization, A4; integral color anodizing, A5; chemical conversion coating, A6; electrostatic powder deposition, A7. The criteria used are: cost of production, f1; environmental friendliness of production process, f2; appearance (texture), f3; reflectivity, f4; response to coloring, f5; corrosion resistance, f6; abrasion resistance, f7; fatigue resistance, f8. Five experts coming from relevant industrial units set grades to the criteria vector and the preference matrix according to a properly modified Delphi method. Sensitivity analysis of the ranked first alternative A1 against the `second best', which was A3 at low and A7 at high resolution levels proved that the solution is robust. The dependence of anodized products quality on upstream processes is presented and the impact of energy price increase on industrial cost is discussed.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  5. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  6. The variation of solubility of strontium sulphate with particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sulphur was used to study the variation of solubility of strontium sulphate with particle size. Synthetic methods were used to control the particle size (d = 160-1000 A) and the size distribution was determined by electron microscopy. The separation of phases was carried out by sedimentation and the supernatant liquid was examined with the electron microscope to check for existence of peptized particles. The concentration of the dissolved SrSO4 was determined by evaporation of an aliquot of the supernatant and determining the sulphur activity. The results were found to follow the Ostwald-Freundlich equation for solubility with the smallest particles in a given distribution determining the solubility. From the solubility data an interfacial tension of 84±8 erg/cm2 was obtained, a value much lower than previously reported in the literature. The Ostwald-Freundlich equation was extended to crystals of any geometry. Using this extended equation the interfacial tension of tho different faces of strontium sulphate was calculated. The data on variation of solubility with particle size and on the synthesis of particles of SrSO4 were used to determine the size of the nucleus of SrSO4. Semiquantitative observations showed that the rate of solubility is much faster than the rate of growth. (author)

  7. Simplified model for the rate of sulphation of limestone particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    An analytical solution to the diffraction reaction equations for the sulphation of calcined limestone particles has been developed. The form of the equation for the rate of reaction of a particle, subject to a concentration of SO/sub 2/ is particularly simple. It includes a time factor, the time at which the pores become plugged with CaSO/sub 4/ at their entrances and the reaction ceases. There are two parameters: the first is determined by the initial rate of reaction of a particle and the other by how much the reaction rate decreases as the CaSO/sub 4/ builds up on the pores within the calcine. It is demonstrated that these parameters can be evaluated from the results of simple experiments in which batches of pre-sized sorbent particles are sulphated in a bed of sand fluidised by simulated flue gases containing SO/sub 2/. It is clear that the simple form of the rate equation would readily lend itself to incorporation in a model to describe the desulphurisation of a fluidised bed coal combustor.

  8. Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Co-continuous Interlaced Phases Aluminium-alumina Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio de Napole Gregolin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Al-5SiO2 (5 wt% of SiO2 aluminium matrix fiber composite was produced where the reinforcement consists of fossil silica fibers needles. After being heat-treated at 600 °C, the original fiber morphology was retained but its microstructure changed from solid silica to an interconnected (Al-Si/Al2O3 interlaced structure named co-continuous composite. A technique of powder metallurgy, using commercial aluminium powder and the silica fibers as starting materials, followed by hot extrusion, was used to produce the composite. The co-continuous microstructure was obtained partially or totally on the fibers as a result of the reaction, which occurs during the heat treatment, first by solid diffusion and finally by the liquid Al-Si in local equilibrium, formed with the silicon released by reaction. The internal structure of the fibers was characterized using field emission electron microscope (FEG-SEM and optical microscopy on polished and fractured samples.

  9. Fabrication experience of aluminium clad aluminium matrix dispersion fuels at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium clad, aluminium matrix plate type dispersion fuels have been fabricated in BARC in recent years as part of fuel development programme for small non-power research reactors. The present paper describes the flowsheet developed for fabrication of Al-UAlx, Al-U3Si2 and Al-U3O8 fuels at BARC. The Al-20% U alloy fuel for KAMINI neutron radiography reactor was prepared by 'melting and casting' route, followed by picture framing and roll-bonding. For higher 'U' density fuels namely, Al-UAlx, Al-U3O8 and Al-U3Si2 the 'powder metallurgy' route was followed for preparation of fuel meat. The novel features in fabrication route were: addition of Zr for stabilizing UAl3 phase in Al-20% U alloy; x-ray radiography and microdensitometric scanning of radiographs for location of fuel outline inside fuel element and for confirming homogeneous distribution of fissile atoms; immersion ultrasonic testing for confirming good bonding between mating Al surface of the fuel plate. (author)

  10. Determination of ultra-trace amounts of uranium and thorium in high-purity aluminium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive method is described for the simultaneous determination of ultra-trace amounts of uranium and thorium in high-purity aluminium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Uranium and thorium were separated from a sample solution of 10 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid by extraction with a 10% v/v solution of tributyl phosphate in cyclohexane. The internal standard method was used for quantification by ICP-MS. For a sample mass of 10 g, the detection limits for uranium and thorium are 7 and 8 pg g--1, respectively. (Author)

  11. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  12. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature for...... those at T(opt). Short-term incubations of exponentially growing cultures showed that the highest sulphate reduction rates occurred 2-9 degrees C above T(opt). In contrast to growth and sulphate reduction rates, growth yields of strains ASv26, LSv54 and PSv29 were almost constant between -1.8 degrees C...... and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields at...

  13. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB; Stahl, DA

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization is a...... between 18% and 25% to the prokaryotic rRNA pool. The dominant SRB were related to complete oxidizing genera (Desulphococcus, Desulphosarcina and Desulphobacterium), while Desulpho-bacter could not be detected. The vertical profile and quantity of rRNA from SRB was compared with sulphate reduction rates...... (SRR) measured with (SO42-)-S-35 tracer in whole-core incubations. While SRB abundance was highest near the surface, peaking at around 1.5cm, measured sulphate reduction rates were lowest in this region. A second peak of SRB rRNA was observed at the transition zone from oxidized to reduced sediment...

  14. Layered metal uranyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUO2PO4·4H2O (HUP) forms a laminar intercalate with butylamine, c = 29.30(5) angstrom, which accepts cationic metals in exchange for the n-butylammonium ions. Hydrated uranyl metal phosphates M(UO2PO4)2·nH2O (M=Mn,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,Cd) are obtained by ionic exchange and were studied by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal structures of all these product compounds are derived from HUP. The diffuse electronic reflectance spectra of every sample show characteristic UO22+ absorption bands. In the spectra of the Co, Ni and Cu phosphates there are other bands in the 500-800 nm zone compatible with their observed aquocation transitions

  15. Stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of terbutaline sulphate, bromhexine hydrochloride and guaifenesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Porel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 ml. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R 2 >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup.

  16. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate, Bromhexine Hydrochloride and Guaifenesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porel, A; Haty, Sanjukta; Kundu, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS)-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v) for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v) for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v) for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 μl. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R(2) >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup. PMID:22131621

  17. Formulation and Evaluation of Chronomodulated Pulsatile Drug Delivery System of Salbutamol Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronotherapy denotes the therapy in which the release of the drug in the body is allowed to match with the circadian rhythm of the disease, such that the required action of the drug is shown with minimal side effects. The main interesting fact of chronotherapy is its ability to deliver the drug in required concentrations during the time of its greatest need such that synchronizing circadian rhythm of diseases or symptoms. Pulsatile drug delivery system for Salbutamol sulphate was formulated initially as core tablets followed by formulation of pulsatile tablets using press-coated technology. Core tablets were formulated using various concentrations of superdisintegrant (Sodium starch glycolate, cross povidone and diluents (MCC & Dicalcium phosphate. The core tablets were then compressed into pulsatile tablets using combinations of HPMC K 100M and Eudragit L 100, Eudragit S 100 in various concentrations. Core tablets were evaluated and based on the dissolution studies trial T3was optimized as it shows lower disintegration time and faster drug release. Then the pulsatile tablets were evaluated for various tests and drug release studies were conducted for 2 hours in 0.1N HCl followed by pH 6.8 buffer and the trial S6 was optimized which showed satisfactory greater lag time of about 6 hours with satisfactory drug release which contains a combination of HPMC K15M (20mg, Eudragit L 100 (50mg, Eudragit S100 (60mg. Pulsatile tablets were formulated utilizing press coated technology and the combination of polymers provided required lag time with satisfactory dissolution profile.

  18. The solvent extraction of cerium from sulphate solution - mini plant trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Mt. Weld deposit in Western Australia has a complex rare earth mineralisation. The rare earth phosphate minerals, which include monazite, are amenable to conventional caustic cracking followed by hydrochloric acid dissolution of the trivalent rare earths. The presence of the mineral cerianite in the ore, which is unaffected by the alkali attack, results in rejection of a considerable proportion of the cerium to the acid leach residue. The recovery of cerium from a sulphate solution, resulting from the processing of such a residue, is the subject of the current paper. The liquor treated by solvent extraction contained 63 g L-1 rare earths and the cerium to total rare earth ratio was 75%. Other impurities, including Fe and Th, totalled 2000 ppm. A solvent mixture of commercially available extractants in a low aromatic content diluent was used to extract Ce4+ selectively over the trivalent rare earths. Partial co-extraction of Fe and Th occurred but it was found that these elements were not easily stripped and therefore selective back extraction of cerium was possible. The cerium was stripped from the organic phase by hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. In continuous counter-current trials two extraction stages and three strip stages were used. In order to produce two grades of strip liquor, stripping was divided into two circuits. The first strip circuit consisting of a single stage, contained proportionally more of the trivalent rare earths. The second strip circuit, consisting of two stages, removed the remaining cerium with proportionally less of the rare earths. A bleed solvent stream was treated for removal of impurities to prevent build-up in the solvent. In the continuous counter current trials, 95% Ce4+ extraction was achieved and the Ce to total rare earth ratio was upgraded to > 99%

  19. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  20. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  1. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  2. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  3. Synthesis, structural and optical properties, ferromagnetic behaviour, cytotoxicity and NLO activity of lithium sulphate doped L-threonine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Kalaivani, D.; Mani, J. Arul Martin; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2016-09-01

    Lithium Sulphate doped L-threonine (Li2SO4-LT), a semi-organic crystal, has been synthesised and grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Li2SO4-LT crystal belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system (a=7.66 Å, b=5.11 Å, c=13.60 Å) with space group P212121. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) study was carried out to quantify the concentration of lithium element in the grown crystal. The results show that 0.07 mol of lithium sulphate has been incorporated into the parent system. The grown material has been found to possess wide transparency in the range 240-1100 nm with lower cut-off wavelength at 240 nm. The optical band gap was calculated as 4.92 eV using optical absorption spectrum and Tauc's relation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the grown crystal. The surface features of the grown crystal were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The magnetic property was studied with the help of Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The coercivity and retentivity of the material were measured from the hysteresis curve as 550.06 G and 79.50×10-6 emu respectively. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method was performed to understand the cytotoxicity or anticancer activity of the sample. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of the sample against MCF-7 cells were estimated as 49.41% and 50.59% respectively at a concentration of 250 μg. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was measured by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd:YAG laser and was found to be 1.46 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  4. The chemistry and expansion of limestone - Portland cement mortars exposed to sulphate containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some concretes in sulphate-bearing groundwaters can deteriorate slowly through chemical reactions which cause expansion and stress. The overall process involves diffusion of sulphate into the concrete, chemical reaction with some cement constituents, internal expansion and, finally, physical disruption of the reacted zone. This work addresses the chemical reactions and the expansion resulting from them so that the overall process of sulphate attack can be modelled eventually. The extent and rate of reaction of calcium sulphate with ordinary and sulphate resisting Portland cements (OPC and SRPC) have been measured under various conditions. Additionally, mortar bars were fabricated from OPC, OPC/BFS (blast furnace slag) and SRPC cements with carboniferous limestone and exposed to various sulphate-containing solutions. The linear expansion of the bars was continuously monitored over a period of about 200 days and, after exposure, the bars were analysed in detail. The results show that the bulk expansion during sulphate attack is proportional to sulphur taken up in insoluble ettringite and magnesium (when present) precipitated as brucite. The results are used to rationalise the behaviour of concretes in sulphate-bearing environments. (author)

  5. Composition and structure of an iron-bearing, layered double hydroxide (LDH) - Green rust sodium sulphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Petit, P. O.;

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-valent Fe(II),Fe(III)-layered hydroxide, known as green rust, was synthesized from slightly basic, sodium sulphate solutions in an oxygen-free glove box. Solution conditions were monitored with pH and Eh electrodes and optimized to ensure a pure sulphate green-rust phase. The solid was char...

  6. Impaired sulphation of phenol by the colonic mucosa in quiescent and active ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, B S; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Pannall, P R; Roediger, W E

    1991-01-01

    Substantial amounts of phenols are produced in the human colon by bacterial fermentation of protein. In the colonic mucosa of animals, phenols are inactivated predominantly by conjugation with sulphate. The purpose of this study was to confirm sulphation of phenols by isolated colonocytes from man and to evaluate mucosal sulphation in inflammatory bowel disease using the phenol, paracetamol, in rectal dialysis bags. The incubation of paracetamol with colonocytes isolated from resected colon specimens (n = 7) yielded a mean (SE) value of 7.0 (0.9) mumols/g dry weight of paracetamol sulphate after 60 minutes but virtually undetectable values of paracetamol glucuronide. Paracetamol sulphate was detected in rectal dialysates from all control subjects, with a mean (SE) value of 4.2 (0.8) nmol/hour. Sulphation was significantly impaired (p less than 0.01) in 19 patients with active ulcerative colitis (0.6 (0.2) nmol/hour) and in 17 patients with ulcerative colitis in remission (1.1 (0.4) nmol/hour). Sulphation in eight patients with Crohn's colitis (4.3 (2.1) nmol/hour) was similar to that in control subjects. Impairment of the capacity of the mucosa to sulphate phenols in quiescent and active ulcerative colitis may pose a metabolic burden on colonic epithelial cells, which are continuously exposed to endogenous phenols from the colonic lumen. PMID:1991638

  7. Performance of cement solidification with barium for high activity liquid waste including sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target liquid waste to be solidified is generated from PWR primary loop spent resin treatment with sulphate acid, so, its main constituent is sodium sulphate and the activity of this liquid is relatively high. Waste form of this liquid waste is considered to be a candidate for the subsurface disposal. The disposed waste including sulphate is anticipated to rise a concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water around the disposal facility and it may cause degradation of materials such as cement and bentonite layer and comprise the disposal facility. There could be two approaches to avoid this problem, the strong design of the disposal facility and the minimization of sulphaste ion migration from the solidified waste. In this study, the latter approach was examined. In order to keep the low concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water, it is effective to make barium sulphate by adding barium compound into the liquid waste in solidification. However, adding equivalent amount of barium compound with sulphate ion causes difficulty of mixing, because production of barium sulphate causes high viscosity. In this study, mixing condition after and before adding cement into the liquid waste was estimated. The mixing condition was set with consideration to keep anion concentration low in the ground water and of mixing easily enough in practical operation. Long term leaching behavior of the simulated solidified waste was also analyzed by PHREEQC. And the concentration of the constitution affected to the disposal facility was estimated be low enough in the ground water. (author)

  8. Optimisation of sulphate reduction in a methanol-fed thermophilic bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Bots, E.A.A.; Tandlinger, G.; Stams, A.J.M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods were tested to optimise sulphate reduction and minimise methane formation in thermophilic (65°) expanded granular sludge bed reactors fed with a medium containing sulphate and methanol. Lowering the pH from 7.5 to 6.75 resulted in a rapid decrease of methane formation and a concomita

  9. Coagulation effect and floc properties of polyferric silicate sulphate and polyferric sulphate in the Yellow River water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Two inorganic polymer coagulants,polyferric silicate sulphate(PFSS) and polyferric sulphate(PFS),were comparatively evaluated in the Yellow River water treatment.The removal efficiency of turbidity and UV254 were investigated,and the zeta potential was measured.An online laser scatter instrument was used to determine the size distribution of flocs formed in the coagulation processes.Compared with PFS,PFSS forms flocs with higher growth rates and larger sizes.The formed flocs were exposed to a series of shear forces,and the floc strength was measured from the relationship between the applied shear speed and the resulting floc size.The flocs formed by PFSS had a higher strength.The floc breakage(expressed as breakage factor,Bf) and re-growth ability(expressed as breakage factor,Rf) under different shear forces and different shear periods were investigated,and it was found that larger Bf and Rf appeared after exposure to stronger shear force and longer shear period.Under the same shear condition,the flocs formed by PFSS showed a larger Bf while the flocs formed by PFS had better re-growth ability.

  10. Removal of Pb (II from Aqueous Solutions Using Mixtures of Bamboo Biochar and Calcium Sulphate, and Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption characteristics of Pb(II from aqueous solutions through a low-cost adsorbent mixture comprising of Bamboo biochar (BB and Calcium Sulphate (CS, and a more expensive mixture of Hydroxyapatite (HAP and Calcium Sulphate (CS, were investigated. The effects of equilibrium contact time, and adsorbate concentration conducted in batch experiments were studied. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 40 (min. The adsorption mechanism of Pb(II from these two adsorbent mixtures was carried out through a kinetic rate order. A pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied for the adsorption processes. The model yielded good correlation (R2 >0.999 of the experimental data. Adsorption of Pb(II using (BB&CS and (HAP&CS correlated well (R2 >0.99 with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations under the concentration range studied. Hence, the effectiveness of an inexpensive natural material (BB&CS mixture in Pb(II removal is established, and is promising for use in other heavy metal adsorptions.

  11. Investigation on Intermolecular Interaction in Supersaturation State of Cadmium Sulphate Mixed Zinc tris-THIOUREA Sulphate Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muley, G. G.; Naik, A. B.; Gambhire, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    Zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) is a well known nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal widely used for various NLO applications. The NLO, physical and chemical properties can be modified by adding impurities and/or modifying crystal growth conditions. The impurities present in the growth solution and growth conditions can affect the crystal growth parameters at great extent. Thus, the study on the nature of intermolecular interaction with the dopant in the solution during crystal growth process becomes important. In the present investigation, the ultrasonic velocity was measured in the aqueous solutions of pure and cadmium sulphate mixed ZTS in the supersaturation state at 313.15 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, inter molecular free length, acoustic impedance and relative associations have been calculated from the ultrasonic data and densities of water and solutions at 313.15 K, and the nature of intermolecular interaction has been discussed. FT-IR spectra of all mixtures in the solid form at room temperature were recorded and the shifts in the absorption peaks corresponding to the functional groups of ZTS have been reported.

  12. Phase Behavior and Rheology of Fatty Alcohol Sulphate, Fatty Alcohol Ether Sulphate from Palm based and Mixtures with other Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagrams of fatty alcohol sulphate (FAS)/ fatty alcohol ether sulphate (FAES)/ soap (4.5:4.5:1.0)/ propylene glycol/ water mixtures were established at 60 degree Celsius. The birefringence was observed under cross polarizers and their phases changes examined under a polarized microscope. The results showed that the liquid crystalline region for FAS and FAES occurred only in a small region. The optical patterns of lamellar liquid crystal were identified as oily streaks structure. The rheological tests of lamellar liquid crystal were carried out in the region of 4.5/ 4.5/ 1 FAES/ FAS/ soap with 0 % PG and 10 % of water. The rheological tests used were flow curve, 3 interval thixotropy test (3ITT), oscillation (dynamic test) stress sweep test and frequency sweep test measurement done using a cone-plate sensor (25 mm, 1 degree). The flow curve was fitted to a Casson model to obtain values for the consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index. The lamellar liquid crystal show typical flow behavior and stress influenced the recovery of the structure. Linear visco-elastic (LVE) range analysis show the critical stress value at 0.475%, and elastic modulus was dominant over an angular frequency range studied. (author)

  13. Sultr4;1 mutant seeds of Arabidopsis have an enhanced sulphate content and modified proteome suggesting metabolic adaptations to altered sulphate compartmentalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belghazi Maya

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sulphur is an essential macronutrient needed for the synthesis of many cellular components. Sulphur containing amino acids and stress response-related compounds, such as glutathione, are derived from reduction of root-absorbed sulphate. Sulphate distribution in cell compartments necessitates specific transport systems. The low-affinity sulphate transporters SULTR4;1 and SULTR4;2 have been localized to the vacuolar membrane, where they may facilitate sulphate efflux from the vacuole. Results In the present study, we demonstrated that the Sultr4;1 gene is expressed in developing Arabidopsis seeds to a level over 10-fold higher than the Sultr4;2 gene. A characterization of dry mature seeds from a Sultr4;1 T-DNA mutant revealed a higher sulphate content, implying a function for this transporter in developing seeds. A fine dissection of the Sultr4;1 seed proteome identified 29 spots whose abundance varied compared to wild-type. Specific metabolic features characteristic of an adaptive response were revealed, such as an up-accumulation of various proteins involved in sugar metabolism and in detoxification processes. Conclusions This study revealed a role for SULTR4;1 in determining sulphate content of mature Arabidopsis seeds. Moreover, the adaptive response of sultr4;1 mutant seeds as revealed by proteomics suggests a function of SULTR4;1 in redox homeostasis, a mechanism that has to be tightly controlled during development of orthodox seeds.

  14. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  15. Sulphation reactions of oxidic dust particles in waste heat boiler environment. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki, T.

    1999-09-01

    Sulphation of metal oxides has an important role in many industrial processes. In different applications sulphation reactions have different aims and characteristics. In the flash smelting process sulphation of oxidic flue dust is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomena, which takes place in the waste heat boiler (WHB) when cooling down hot dust laden off-gases from sulphide smelters. Oxidic dust particles (size 0 - 50 {mu}m) react with O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} in a certain temperature range (500 - 800 deg C). Sulphation reactions are highly exothermic releasing large amount of heat, which affects the gas cooling and thermal performance of the boiler. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the system have to be known to improve the process and WHB operation. The rate of sulphation is affected by the prevailing conditions (temperature, gas composition) and particle size and microstructure (porosity, surface area). Some metal oxides (CuO) can react readily with SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and act as self-catalysts, but others (NiO) require the presence of an external catalyst to enhance the SO{sub 3} formation and sulphation to proceed. Some oxides (NiO) sulphate directly, some (CuO) may form first intermediate phases (basic sulphates) depending on the reaction conditions. Thus, the reaction mechanisms are very complex. The aim of this report was to search information about the factors affecting the dust sulphation reactions and suggested reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Many investigators have studied sulphation thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and mechanisms of macroscopical metal oxide pieces, but only few articles have been published about sulphation of microscopical particles, like dust. All the found microscale studies dealt with sulphation reactions of calcium oxide, which is not present in the flash smelting process, but used as an SO{sub 2} absorbent in the combustion processes. However, also these investigations may give some hints about the sulphation

  16. Residual stress in 7449 aluminium alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The through thickness residual stress distributions within three 120 mm thick rectilinear forgings, made from the high strength aluminium alloy 7449 have been measured using both neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling. Neutron diffraction measurements were made on two instruments, one using a pulsed spallation neutron source, the other a steady state reactor source. Heat treatment of the forgings included a rapid quench into cold water and it was the residual stresses arising from this step that were initially measured. Neutron diffraction measurements indicated large magnitude (>250 MPa) tensile residual stresses in the centre of an as quenched forging, balanced by surface regions stressed in compression (<-200 MPa). Sufficient measurements were made to permit the description of the residual stress distribution using area maps. Two forgings were stress relieved by cold compression immediately after quenching. The degree of plastic strain was either 2.5% or 4%, and was applied by a single application of force in the short transverse direction. Cold compressed forgings were found to have far lower residual stress when compared to the as quenched condition. The amount of cold compression was found to cause an insignificant difference in the final residual stress distribution. The neutron diffraction results are compared to measurements made by deep hole drilling and a new incremental variation of the technique. The deep hole was drilled through the centre of the forgings in the short transverse direction. Multiple neutron diffraction measurements were also made on the extracted cores from the deep hole measurements to assess the variation of the unstrained lattice parameter through the thickness of the forgings.

  17. PEMBINAAN PENGERAJIN BOKOR ALUMINIUM DI DESA MENYALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GDE ANTARA, dkk.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluminium bowl craft industrial center is located in Menyali village Sawan district Buleleng regency of Bali province. In this business development, they faced some problems such as increasingly expensive alluminium plate raw materials, decreasing selling product prices due to competition among craftsmen, difficulty in extending the marketing, lack of capital, lack of knowledge in business management, and lack of technical capacity and production innovation. Currently the organization has been formed aluminum bowl craftsmen groups, they are “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya”. This organization is still limited to tradisional associations such as a community organization, has not led to organize in a micro-enterprise or cooperation. Their organization management should not be arranged. Therefore, they need helps from the government and other institutions to build this bowl craftsmen in developing their businesses through a group of micro-enterprises or cooperations. Wishly, with formal business entity that would facilitate access to a variety of coaching and help governments andother institutions. From the SWOT analysis, it is found some problems and solutions that should be done. Alluminium bowl craftsmen groups, named “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya” is not in the form of business entity or cooperation yet, so that the results of coaching have agreed to form a cooperation. Venture capital assistance for the development and production are still needed and to be an absolute given, but a way to market more absolute yield is given, through participation in various events exhibition to introduce the product is expected to expandits market share up to overseas or exports. In the production process it has been introduced that is appropriate technology for instant a rolling tool to make a wiring groove on the outside of the bowl, so that it will simplify and speed up the process, especially by aged mothers.Keywords: aluminium bowl, Menyali

  18. Low Speed Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys Using Single-Mode Fiber Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Jay; Paleocrassas, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, topics related to extending fiber laser welding of aluminium in the low speed range were discussed. General topics, such as the properties of aluminium and welding defects, review of high speed laser welding of aluminium, and fiber laser characteristics and optical setups for safety, were first reviewed. Recent research results on the modelling and validation of laser welding of aluminium, experimental characterization of low speed welding processes, and the instability pheno...

  19. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    OpenAIRE

    Zauzi, N. S. Ahmad; M. Z. H. Zakaria; Baini, R.; Rahman, M. R.; N. Mohamed Sutan; Hamdan, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipita...

  20. The determination of boron in high-purity aluminium metal by spark-source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the determination of boron in high-purity aluminium metal. Both isotopic boron lines (10B+1 and 11B+1) are used for the analysis. As there are no low-abundance isotopic lines for aluminium, measurements were made direct without reference to aluminium as an internal standard. The boron concentration values of eight aluminium samples analysed by this method compared favourably with results obtained from other techniques