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Sample records for aluminium phosphate sulphate

  1. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; R N Yadav

    2000-02-01

    The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  2. Aluminium phosphate sulphate minerals (APS) associated with proterozoic unconformity-type uranium deposits: crystal-chemical characterisation and petrogenetic significance; Les sulfates phosphates d'aluminium hydrates (APS) dans l'environnement des gisements d'uranium associes a une discordance proterozoique: caracterisation cristallochimique et signification petrogenetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaboreau, St

    2005-07-01

    Aluminium phosphate sulfate minerals (APS) are particularly widespread and spatially associated with hydrothermal clay alteration in both the East Alligator River Uranium Field (Northern Territory, Australia) and the Athabasca basin (Saskatchewan, Canada), in the environment of proterozoic unconformity-related uranium deposits (URUD). The purpose of this study is both: 1) to characterize the nature and the origin of the APS minerals on both sides of the middle proterozoic unconformity between the overlying sandstones and the underlying metamorphic basement rocks that host the uranium ore bodies, 2) to improve our knowledge on the suitability of these minerals to indicate the paleo-conditions (redox, pH) at which the alteration processes relative to the uranium deposition operated. The APS minerals result from the interaction of oxidising and relatively acidic fluids with aluminous host rocks enriched in monazite. Several APS-bearing clay assemblages and APS crystal-chemistry have also been distinguished as a function of the distance from the uranium ore bodies or from the structural discontinuities which drained the hydrothermal solutions during the mineralisation event. One of the main results of this study is that the index mineral assemblages, used in the recent literature to describe the alteration zones around the uranium ore bodies, can be theoretically predicted by a set of thermodynamic calculations which simulate different steps of fluid-rock interaction processes related to a downward penetrating of hyper-saline, oxidizing and acidic diagenetic fluids through the lower sandstone units of the basins and then into the metamorphic basement rocks. The above considerations and the fact that APS with different crystal-chemical compositions crystallized in a range of fO{sub 2} and pH at which uranium can either be transported in solution or precipitated as uraninite in the host-rocks make these minerals not only good markers of the degree of alteration of the

  3. Hepatoprotective Effect of Wattakaka volubilis Extract on Aluminium Sulphate Induced Liver Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Usha Rani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Wattakaka volubilis (Linn is used as a phytomedicine for liver diseases. In the present study the effect of methanolic extract of Wattakaka volubilis powder was carried out against the Aluminium toxicity in rat model. Various doses of Wattakaka volubilis extract (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/b.w was given orally for 30 days to Aluminum sulphate toxicity exposed rats. They were observed each hour for 24 h and each day for 30 days for any changes in behavioural activity and mortality. Clinical observation, body weight, organ weight, biochemical enzymatic analysis and histological examination were carried out. The extract was found to possess hepatoprotective activity in a dose dependent manner and the effect was comparable with silymarin, a standard drug. The extract significantly reduce the toxicity of Aluminium sulphate caused in liver due to the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, sterols, tannins, triterpenoids and flavonoids which are known hepatoprotectant.

  4. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H2PO4− ions to HPO32− ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm−2 and 1.77 mW cm−2, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for bioelectronic applications. • Selective

  5. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Gymama, E-mail: gslaught@umbc.edu; Sunday, Joshua; Stevens, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} ions to HPO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm{sup −2} and 1.77 mW cm{sup −2}, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for

  6. Effects of sulphate and pH on the plant-availability of phosphate adsorbed on goethite.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, J.S.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Findenegg, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The adsorption of phosphate on metal (hydr)oxides may be influenced by the pH and by the adsorption of other ions. In this study, the influence of sulphate and pH on phosphate adsorption on goethite and the availability to plants of adsorbed phosphate was examined. Maize plants were grown on suspens

  7. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Elisa; Ninomiya, S.; J. Shamshuddin; Roslan, I.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from ...

  8. Application of phosphating techniques to aluminium and carbon steel surfaces using nitro guanidine as oxidizing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphate coatings are inorganic crystalline deposits laid down uniformly on properly prepared surfaces by a chemical reaction with the treated base metal. The reaction consists in dissolving some surface metal by acid attack and then causing surface neutralization of the phosphate solution with consequent precipitation of the phosphate coating. Phosphate coatings do not provide appreciable corrosion protection in themselves. They are useful mainly as a base for paints, ensuring good adherence of paint to steel and decreasing the tendency for corrosion to under cut the paint film at scratches or other defects. In this work firstly were realized phosphate on standard carbon steel, employing technical of cold phosphate (at 40 Centigrade degrees and with a treatment time of 30 minutes) and hot phosphate (at 88 Centigrade degrees and with a treatment time of 15 minutes), where with this last were obtained the best results. Both methods used phosphate solutions of Zn/Mn and using as catalyst Nitro guanidine. Aluminium surfaces were phosphate used solutions of Cr and as catalyst Sodium bi fluoride. The phosphating on this surface were realized at temperature of 50 Centigrade degrees and with a treatment time of 10 minutes. In this work were obtained a new phosphate coatings on steel surfaces, these coatings were realized with a phosphate solution manufactured with the precipitates gathered during the hot phosphating on carbon steel. These coatings show excellent physical characteristics and of corrosion resistance. Were determined the physical testings of the coatings phosphate obtained on carbon steel and aluminium surfaces. These testing were: roughness, thickness, microhardness and adhesion. The best results were showed in carbon steel phosphate with precipitated solutions. The technical of analysis for activation with thermic neutrons was used to determine the phosphate coatings composition. Finally, corrosion testings were realized by means of two methods

  9. Struvite recovery from solution containing phosphate(V and sulphate(VI ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutnik Nina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research results concerning the application of magnesium and ammonium ions for continuous removal of phosphate(V ions from solution containing 1.0 or 0.20 mass% of PO43– and from 0.10 to 0.50 mass% of SO42– are presented. A continuous struvite MgNH4PO4 × 6H2O reaction crystallization process was carried out both under stoichiometric conditions and using 20% excess of magnesium ions. The research was conducted in a DT MSMPR type crystallizer with internal circulation of suspension driven by a propeller stirrer, in constant temperature 298 K. The pH varied from 9 to 11 and mean residence time of suspension in a crystallizer τ varied from 900 to 3600 s. It was concluded, that sulphate(VI ions influenced product quality disadvantageously. Depending on process parameter combinations struvite crystals of mean size from ca. 18 to ca. 44 μm and of moderate homogeneity: CV 7–95% were produced. Presence of sulphate(VI ions favored crystallization of struvite as prismatic crystals, but tubular forms were also identified. The best shaped struvite crystals were produced at relatively low concentration of sulphate(VI ions, pH 9 and for mean residence time of suspension in a crystallizer elongated up to 3600 s.

  10. Relative Coagulation Effectiveness of Jatropha curcas Press Cake (Physic Nut and Aluminium Sulphate in Purifying Domestic Sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamoru Akanni ADENIRAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted on the relative effectiveness of using press cake of dried Jatropha curcas (Physic nut seed and alum (Aluminium sulphate for the purification of domestic sewage. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD replicated three times. Physical and chemical properties of domestic sewage were investigated before and after the purification exercise. Treatments imposed included: the control culture (no alum and Jatropha, 10 mg/l of Aluminium Sulphate (alum treatment, 80 mg/l of J. curcas treatment, 100 mg/l of J. curcas treatment and 120 mg/l of J. curcas treatment. The results showed that for the total dissolved solids, cultured tanks treated with 80 mg/l of J. curcas reduced the sewage concentration from 30.1 mg/l to 23.20 mg/l, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD was reduced from 30.55 mg/l to 30.10 mg/l, increased acidity from 5.33 mg/l to 5.66 mg/l, reduced alkalinity from 6.35 mg/l to 6.0 mg/l, reduced pH from 7.6 to 6.55, and likewise 10 mg/l of alum also reduced pH from 7.6 to 6.55. The cultured tanks treated with 120 mg/l of J. curcas performed best in reducing turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the sewage. The turbidity was reduced from 5.99 NTU to 5.6 NTU; 120 mg/l of J. curcas also reduced total hardness from 9.6 mg/l to 7.15 mg/l, total solids from 55.6 mg/l to 55.17 mg/l. Cultured tanks treated with 10 mg/l of alum reduced total dissolved solids from 30.1 mg/l to 24.30 mg/l, while those treated with 80 mg/l of J. curcas reduced it from 30.1 mg/l to 23.20 mg/l, 100 mg/l and 120 mg/l of J. curcas reduced it to 25.20 mg/l. Total suspended solids increased from 25.5 mg/l to 30.96 mg/l for 10 mg/l of alum, to 30.22 mg/l for 80 mg/l of J. curcas, 30.26 mg/l for 100 mg/l of J. curcas and 30.38 mg/l for 120 mg/l of J. curcas. Conductivity increased withion the study period from 525 μS/cm to 830 μS/cm for 10 mg/l of alum, to 590 μS/cm for 80 mg/l of J. curcas, 634 μS/cm for 100 mg/l of J

  11. The aluminium effect on the structure of silico-phosphate glasses studied by NMR and FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarz, Maciej; Fojud, Zbigniew; Olejniczak, Zbigniew

    2009-04-01

    Silico-phosphate glasses of NaCaPO 4-SiO 2 and NaCaPO 4-AlPO 4-SiO 2 system have been the subject of the presented investigations. Glasses of these systems are the basis for the preparation of glassy-crystalline biomaterials [R.D. Rawlings, Clin. Mater. 14 (1993) 155]. Detailed knowledge of the precursor glass structure is necessary for proper design of the glassy-crystalline biomaterials preparation procedure. Since there is no long-range ordering in glasses, spectroscopic methods which make it possible to study the short range ordering should be applied. MIR studies carried out in the work have allowed to establish that the glasses of the systems studied show domain composition [L.L. Hench, R.J. Splinter, T.K. Greenlee, W.C. Allen, J. Biol. Res. Symp. 2 (1971) 117; L.L. Hench, R.J. Splinter, W.C. Allen, T.K. Greenlee, J. Biol. Res. 5 (1972) 117]. Domain structure is close to that of the corresponding crystalline phases. It has been shown that even small amount of aluminium in the glass (5 mol.% of AlPO 4) significantly influences both, its texture (microscopic and EDX studies) and its structure (spectroscopic studies). 27Al NMR investigations have made it possible to establish unequivocally that aluminium occurs exclusively in tetrahedral coordination, i.e. it is involved in the formation of glass framework. Presence of aluminium results in significant changes in the [SiO 4] 4- and [PO 4] 3- tetrahedra environment which is reflected in 23Na, 31P and 29Si NMR spectra. Changes in the shapes and positions of the bands in the NMR spectra of glasses belonging to the NaCaPO 4-AlPO 4-SiO 2 system confirm great influence of aluminium on silico-phosphate glasses structure.

  12. Cationic cellulose nanofibers from waste pulp residues and their nitrate, fluoride, sulphate and phosphate adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Mautner, Andreas; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Pfenninger, Numa; Tingaut, Philippe; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNF) having 3 different contents of positively charged quaternary ammonium groups have been prepared from waste pulp residues according to a water-based modification method involving first the etherification of the pulp with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride followed by mechanical disintegration. The cationic nanofibers obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the extent of the reaction was evaluated by conductometric titration, ζ-potential measurements, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cationic CNF had a maximum cationic charge content of 1.2mmolg(-1) and positive ζ-potential at various pH values. Sorption of negatively charged contaminants (fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ions) and their selectivity onto cationic CNF have been evaluated. Maximum sorption of ∼0.6mmolg(-1) of these ions by CNF was achieved and selectivity adsorption studies showed that cationic CNF are more selective toward multivalent ions (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) than monovalent ions (F(-) and NO3(-)). In addition, we demonstrated that cationic CNF can be manufactured into permeable membranes capable of dynamic nitrate adsorption by utilizing a simple paper-making process.

  13. Cationic cellulose nanofibers from waste pulp residues and their nitrate, fluoride, sulphate and phosphate adsorption properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Mautner, Andreas; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Pfenninger, Numa; Tingaut, Philippe; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNF) having 3 different contents of positively charged quaternary ammonium groups have been prepared from waste pulp residues according to a water-based modification method involving first the etherification of the pulp with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride followed by mechanical disintegration. The cationic nanofibers obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the extent of the reaction was evaluated by conductometric titration, ζ-potential measurements, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cationic CNF had a maximum cationic charge content of 1.2mmolg(-1) and positive ζ-potential at various pH values. Sorption of negatively charged contaminants (fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ions) and their selectivity onto cationic CNF have been evaluated. Maximum sorption of ∼0.6mmolg(-1) of these ions by CNF was achieved and selectivity adsorption studies showed that cationic CNF are more selective toward multivalent ions (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) than monovalent ions (F(-) and NO3(-)). In addition, we demonstrated that cationic CNF can be manufactured into permeable membranes capable of dynamic nitrate adsorption by utilizing a simple paper-making process. PMID:26453885

  14. Effect ofAuxiliary Cementing Materials on the SulphateAluminium Cement%辅助凝胶材料对硫铝酸盐水泥性能影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文斌

    2013-01-01

      研究普通硅酸盐水泥、石膏及石灰掺入硫铝酸盐水泥中后对其凝结时间和强度的影响。研究表明:普通硅酸盐水泥掺量增大使得硫铝酸盐水泥凝结时间缩短,强度下降;石灰和石膏的掺入对硫铝酸盐水泥水化有一定的促进作用,且适当的比例对硫铝酸盐水泥的后期强度无不利影响。普通硅酸盐水泥、石灰和石膏的混掺对硫铝酸盐水泥的影响大小则与其掺量的多少有关。%The setting time and strength of sulphate aluminium cement admixed with Portland cement, gypsum and lime were studied. The result indicated that the setting time shortened and the strength declined with Portland cement content increasing. Lime and gypsum could promote hydration of sulphate aluminium cement, and they would be not unfavorable to late strength of sulphate aluminium if there was an appropriate proportion. The performance of sulphate aluminium cement was relevant to their mixing content.

  15. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS) associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marfil, R.; Iglesia, A. la; Estupinan, J.

    2013-10-01

    This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) mineralization that occurs in a classic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein) of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mud stones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the classic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hydroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite- goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba). The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of Ubearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80 degree centigrade), related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.(Author)

  16. Structural and luminescence studies of Ho3+-doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivalent holmium doped zinc-aluminium-sodium-phosphate (ZANP) glasses were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and characterized for their structural and luminescence properties. The amorphous nature, elemental analysis and thermal stability of the glasses were studied by using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum and differential scanning calorimetry analysis, respectively. The absorption and fluorescence spectra have been recorded at room temperature. Based on the absorption spectra, the Judd-Ofelt parameters and radiative parameters such as spontaneous transition probabilities (AR), branching ratios (βR), radiative lifetimes (τR) were calculated and discussed. From the emission spectra emission peak positions (λP), effective bandwidths (Δλeff) and stimulated emission cross-sections (σP) were calculated for the observed emission transitions,5S2 (5F4→5I8) and 5F5→5I8 in all the glass samples. The stimulated emission cross-section is higher for ZANPHo10 glass matrix and so it may be useful for laser excitation

  17. Kinetic and thermodynamics of the removal of Zn2+ and Cu2+ from aqueous solution by sulphate and phosphate-modified Bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modification of pristine Bentonite clay with sulphate and phosphate anions was found to increase its cation-exchange capacity (CEC), adsorption capacity and overall pseudo-second order kinetic rate constant for the adsorption of Cu2+ and Zn2+. Modification with sulphate and phosphate anion decreased the specific surface area of pristine Bentonite clay. Phosphate-modified Bentonite clay was found to give the highest adsorption capacity for both metal ions. The adsorption process was observed to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature for both metal ions with Zn2+ being more adsorbed. Modification with phosphate anion increased the spontaneity of the adsorption process. The effective modification of pristine Bentonite clay with sulphate anion was confirmed from hypochromic shifts in the range of 13-18 cm-1 which is typical of physisorption while modification with phosphate anion was confirmed by its hyperchromic shifts typical of chemisorption in the infrared red region using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Using the model efficiency indicator, kinetic data were found to show very strong fit to the pseudo-second order kinetic model implying that the adsorption of Cu2+ and Zn2+ were basically by chemisorption.

  18. Analytical developments in the measurements of boron, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate isotopes and case examples of discrimination of nitrogen and sulphur sources in pollution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are documented for the analysis of B isotopes, O and N isotopes in nitrates. B isotopes can be measured by negative ion thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. Nitrate is recovered from groundwaters by ion exchange and the resulting silver nitrate combusted for stable isotope gas analysis. Oxygen isotope analysis of phosphates can be determined by generating and analysing CO2 gas from the combustion of silver phosphate produced from aqueous samples. Sulphate in ground and surface waters can be separated and concentrated by ion exchange and precipitated as barium sulphate. This is reacted with graphite to yield CO2 and CO, the latter being spark discharged to CO2 and the total CO2 measured for oxygen isotope analysis. Barium sulphide from this reaction is converted to silver sulphide which is reacted with cuprous oxide to give SO2 gas for sulphur isotope measurements. A case study of the semi-rural Manakau area in New Zealand was conducted to see if nitrate isotopes could be used to detect the source of nitrate contamination (groundwater nitrate -3-N). Nitrogen isotope (+4 to +12 per mille) coupled with oxygen isotope measurements (+5 to +9 per mille) demonstrated that the nitrogen is not sources from fertilisers but from some combination of septic tank and animal waste. For the case study of sulphate isotope use, sulphur and oxygen isotopic compositions of sulphate in river and lake water from seven major catchments of New Zealand were determined. The isotope analyses have allowed the distinction between natural (geological, geothermal and volcanic) and anthropogenic (fertiliser) sulphur sources. (author)

  19. Synthesis and characterization of the aluminium phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum by hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczka Kinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of the aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum were conducted. The influence of process parameters (reactive pressure and molar ratios in the reaction mixture were studied. The contents of the individual components in the products were in the range of: 10.97–17.31 wt% Al, 2.65–13.32 wt% Ca, 0.70–3.11 wt% Mo, 4.36–8.38 wt% NH3, and 35.12–50.54 wt% P2O5. The materials obtained in the experiments were characterized by various physicochemical parameters. The absorption oil number was in the range from 67 to 89 of oil/100 g of product, the surface area was within the range of 4–76 m2/g, whereas the average particle size of products reached 282–370 nm. The Tafel tests revealed comparable anticorrosive properties of aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium, molybdenum in comparison with commercial phosphate.

  20. Electrochemical properties and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORICA M. KACAREVIC-POPOVIC

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium, as well as on electrochemically and chemically modified aluminium were investigated during exposure to 3 % NaCl. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were used for the determination of the protective properties of epoxy coatings on aluminium, anodized aluminium, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium. The protective properties of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium are significantly improved with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminium and phosphatized aluminium: higher values of the pore resitance and charge-transfer resistance, lower values of the coating capacitance, double-layer capacitance and relative permittivity (from EIS smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating (From TGA. On the other hand, the lower values of the ipdt temperature indicate a lower thermal stability of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium.

  1. In situ monitoring of corrosion mechanisms and phosphate inhibitor surface deposition during corrosion of zinc-magnesium-aluminium (ZMA) alloys using novel time-lapse microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James; Cooze, Nathan; Gallagher, Callum; Lewis, Tom; Prosek, Tomas; Thierry, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In situ time-lapse optical microscopy was used to examine the microstructural corrosion mechanisms in three zinc-magnesium-aluminium (ZMA) alloy coated steels immersed in 1% NaCl pH 7. Preferential corrosion of MgZn(2) lamellae within the eutectic phases was observed in all the ZMA alloys followed by subsequent dissolution of Zn rich phases. The total extent and rate of corrosion, measured using time-lapse image analysis and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) estimated mass loss, decreased as Mg and Al alloying additions were increased up to a level of 3 wt% Mg and 3.7 wt% Al. This was probably due to the increased presence of MgO and Al(2)O(3) at the alloy surface retarding the kinetics of cathodic oxygen reduction. The addition of 1 × 10(-2) mol dm(-3) Na(3)PO(4) to 1% NaCl pH 7 had a dramatic influence on the corrosion mechanism for a ZMA with passivation of anodic sites through phosphate precipitation observed using time-lapse image analysis. Intriguing rapid precipitation of filamentous phosphate was also observed and it is postulated that these filaments nucleate and grow due to super saturation effects. Polarisation experiments showed that the addition of 1 × 10(-2) mol dm(-3) Na(3)PO(4) to the 1% NaCl electrolyte promoted an anodic shift of 50 mV in open circuit potential for the ZMA alloy with a reduction in anodic current of 2.5 orders of magnitude suggesting that it was acting primarily as an anodic inhibitor supporting the inferences from the time-lapse investigations. These phosphate additions resulted in a 98% reduction in estimated mass loss as measured by SVET demonstrating the effectiveness of phosphate inhibitors for this alloy system.

  2. Determination of Trace Amount of Aluminium in Ironic Phosphate by Spectrophotometry%分光光度法测定磷酸铁中的微量铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余长艳

    2015-01-01

    After separating most iron by high levels of sodium hydrate,using chromeazurol S as chro-mogenic reagent and using ascorbic acid to mask light ironic,in the acetic acid -sodium acetate buffer solu-tion,the trace amout of aluminium content in ironic phosphate was determined.This method was simple, with high accuracy.The labeled recovery was between 90.1% ~107.5%,The RSD was less than 6.8% .%采用分光光度法测定磷酸铁中微量铝。先通过强碱分离掉绝大部分铁后,再采用铬天青 S 作显色剂,用抗坏血酸掩蔽微量的铁,在乙酸-乙酸钠缓冲溶液中测定磷酸铁中微量的铝。该方法简便易行,准确度高,回收率在90.1%~107.5%之间,相对标准偏差小于6.8%。

  3. Solidification of spent TBP solvent with aluminium chloride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new techniques for processing spent TBP was investigated. It was proved that treatment of TBP containing DBP with aluminium chloride resulted in the formation of aluminium phosphate suitable for long term storage and final disposal

  4. Sulphate radical generation through interaction of peroxymonosulphate with Co(II) for in-line sample preparation aiming at spectrophotometric flow-based determination of phosphate and phosphite in fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Carla C; Kamogawa, Marcos Y; Ferreira, José R; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2016-09-01

    An advanced oxidative process relying on the interaction of peroxymonosulphate and cobalt(II) was implemented for generating the sulphate radicals in flow analysis, in order to accomplish in-line sample preparation thus improving the spectrophotometric determination of phosphate and phosphite in liquid foliar fertilizers. To this end, a flow-batch system with a heated chamber was designed. The sample was handled twice, with and without the step of phosphite oxidation to phosphate, and the formed orthophosphate was quantified after interaction with the vanadate-molybdate reagent. Phosphite was determined as the difference in analytical signals corresponding to sample handling with and without the oxidation step. Influence of Co(II) on the peroxymonosulphate activation, reagent concentrations and added volumes, acidity, temperature and heating time were investigated like aiming at to improve analytical recovery and measurement repeatability, as well as the and system ruggedness. The 6.6-20.0mgL(-1) P2O5 standards were in-line prepared from a single stock solution. Detection limits were estimated as 0.8 and 0.1mgL(-1) for P2O5 and P-PO4. Twenty-four samples are were run per hour, and results are were in agreement with those obtained by the official procedure. PMID:27343605

  5. Removal of phosphate from municipal sewage by high gradient magnetic separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄自力; 胡岳华; 徐竞; 郑春华

    2004-01-01

    The removal of phosphate from municipal sewage by high gradient magnetic separation using aluminium sulphate as precipitating agent and Fe3O4 as seeding material was studied. The effects of aluminium sulphate,Fe3O4, magnetic field intensity, pH value and flow-rate of sewage on phosphorus removal rate were investigated.200 kA/m, pH value of 4.5 - 7.0 and flow-rate of 6.15 cm/s are both efficient and economic technical parameters for removal of phosphate. The pH value has a tremendous effect on the removal of phosphate. In the pH range of 4.5- 7.0, more than 95% phosphate can be removed. Theoretical analysis indicates that the solubility of AlPO4 is minimum at pH 4.0 - 7.0 and the electrostatic attractive force between AlPO4 and Fe3O4 is maximum at pH 4.5 -6.5.

  6. Determination of ammonium sulphate in ammonia alum by formaldehyde reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Chand

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing methods for the estimation of ammonium salts in presence of hydrolysable salts have been reviewed. A new titrimetric method utilizing formaldehyde and potassium fluoride is described for its estimation in presence of aluminium sulphate. The method is accurate and rapid for routine analysis.

  7. Comparison of calcium carbonate and aluminium hydroxide as phosphate binders on biochemical bone markers, PTH(1-84), and bone mineral content in dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, B; Jensen, J D; Nielsen, H K;

    1991-01-01

    Bone mineral content, estimated by single-photon absorptiometry of the forearm, serum values of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH(1-84], osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3), and aluminium were determined during treatment with calcium carbonate (CaCO3...

  8. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Dawson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology.

  9. Epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Zorica Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on modified aluminum surfaces (anodized, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium were monitored during exposure to 3% NaCl solution, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Better protective properties of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminum and phosphatized aluminum were obtained: higher values of Rp and Rct and smaller values of Cc and Cd, from EIS, and a smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating, from TGA. On the other hand, a somewhat lower thermal stability of these coatings was obtained (smaller values of the ipdt temperature. This behavior can be explained by the less porous structure of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum, caused by a lower rate of H2 evolution and better wet ability.

  10. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources. PMID:1542992

  11. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling. PMID:21274747

  12. Automotive Aluminium Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelas, B. des

    2000-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview on the contribution of aluminium recycling in the supply of new aluminium for automotive applications. Based on a presentation on how the global European automotive aluminium supply requirements are met, an analysis of the present and future contribution of automotive aluminium recycling is first presented. Current situation and future developments for automotive aluminium recycling practices are then commented, together with an outline on design principles for easier aluminium recycling. (orig.)

  13. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans.

  14. Origin and nature of the aluminium phosphate-sulfate minerals (APS associated with uranium mineralization in triassic red-beds (Iberian Range, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfil, R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the mineralogical and chemical study of an Aluminium–phosphate–sulphate (APS mineralization that occurs in a clastic sequence from the Triassic (Buntsandstein of the Iberian Range. The deposit is constituted by sandstones, mudstones, and conglomerates with arenaceous matrix, which were deposited in fluvial to shallow-marine environments. In addition to APS minerals, the following diagenetic minerals are present in the clastic sequence: quartz, K-feldspar, kaolinite group minerals, illite, Fe-oxides-hidroxides, carbonate-sulphate cement-replacements and secondary uraniferous minerals. APS minerals were identified and characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and electron microprobe. Microcrystalline APS crystals occur replacing uraniferous minerals, associated with kaolinite, mica and filling pores, in distal fluvial-to-tidal arkoses-subarkoses. Given their Ca, Sr, and Ba contents, the APS minerals can be defined as a solid solution of crandallite-goyacite-gorceixite (0.53 Ca, 0.46 Sr and 0.01 Ba. The chemical composition, low LREE concentration and Sr > S suggest that the APS mineral were originated during the supergene alteration of the Buntsandstein sandstones due to the presence of the mineralizing fluids which causes the development of U-bearing sandstones in a distal alteration area precipitating from partially dissolved and altered detrital minerals. Besides, the occurrence of dickite associated with APS minerals indicates they were precipitated at diagenetic temperatures (higher than 80ºC, related to the uplifting occurred during the late Cretaceous post-rift thermal stage.Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de los minerales fosfato-sulfato alumínicos (APS que se producenen una secuencia clástica del Triásico (Buntsandstein de la Cordillera Ibérica. El depósito está constituido por areniscas, lutitas y conglomerados con matriz arenosa, que fueron depositados en

  15. Effect of aluminium on in vitro rooting of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and poplar (Populus tremula L. x P. alba L. microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bojarczuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplar (Populus tremula L. x P. alba L. and birch (Betula pendula Roth. microcuttings obtained from in vitro cultures on media with aluminium (Al+ or without aluminium (Al- were rooted in perlite saturated with a liquid 1/4 MS medium. Aluminium was added to the rooting medium in the form of aluminium sulphate or aluminium chloride. In the control, i.e. in the medium without aluminium, Al+ and Al- shoots usually developed similarly. Addition of aluminium to the rooting medium had a negative effect on the development of adventitious roots. Poplar and birch shoots obtained from cultures on media with aluminium (AI+ were distinguished by a greater tolerance of aluminium in the medium than shoots obtained from cultures on media without aluminium (A1-.

  16. Aluminium structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Švent, Nejc

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the structural analysis of aluminium structural members in accordance with the SIST EN 1999-1-1 standard. In the introduction, historical development of aluminium is summarized, as well as the processes of structural aluminium production and manufacture. Predominantly, resistance control checks of aluminium structural members are covered, with special attention to the major contrasts between aluminium and steel structural analyses. Finally, fundamental examples of resis...

  17. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  18. Zinc sulphate in rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mattingly, P. C.; Mowat, A G

    1982-01-01

    To assess the antirheumatic activity of zinc sulphate, 27 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis took part in a 6-month, randomised, double-blind, between-group trial of oral zinc sulphate versus placebo. Twelve patients on zinc and 9 on placebo completed the trial, but no significant antirheumatic activity of zinc sulphate was demonstrated.

  19. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković Aleksandra; Tajber Lidia; Paluch Krzysztof J.; Djurić Zorica; Parojčić Jelena; Corrigan Owen I.

    2014-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution ...

  20. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    performed on hundreds of kilograms of glass and showed that 50% of the sulphate initially introduced could be confined in the glass melt. Two alternative ways are possible to confine sulphate-rich wastes in glasses: one should either maximize sulphate incorporation into the glass matrix or let it decompose and free up consequently the generated sulphur-containing gases through the gas-treating apparatus melter. It is thus essential to determine at a laboratory scale the kinetics of sulphate removal from the glass melt for different compositions of glasses (silicate, vanadate or phosphate glasses). (authors)

  1. Sustainable Aluminium Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Ermolli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an analytical presentation of some popular aluminium systems that contribute to sustainability of structures is presented. Special emphasis has been given to the properties of aluminium, while the influence of these systems in the overall performance of the structure regarding environment and economy is described. In particular, characteristics of aluminium elements such as high reflectivity and recyclability and their role in life cycle analysis (LCA are analyzed. The connections between energy efficiency and conservation of buildings and aluminium application are also discussed. Building applications such as curtain walls, window frames and facade sheets are presented and thoroughly investigated, considering their environmental and economic aspects. Furthermore, many innovative techniques that use aluminium elements in collaboration with other systems in order to produce renewable energy, such as solar panels and photovoltaics, are introduced. Finally, environmental innovations such as optimized ventilation mechanisms and light and shade management systems based on aluminium members are presented.

  2. Rows of Dislocation Loops in Aluminium Irradiated by Aluminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.;

    1967-01-01

    Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics......Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  3. Studies on buccoadhesive tablets of terbutaline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhat P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to develop buccoadhesive bilayered tablets comprising of drug containing bioadhesive layer and drug free backing layer to release the drug for extended period of time with reduction in dosing frequency. Tablets of terbutaline sulphate were prepared by direct compression method using bioadhesive polymers like Carbopol 934P, Methocel K4M, Methocel K15M and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose either alone or in combinations with backing layer of ethyl cellulose. The physical characteristics, swelling index, surface pH, in vitro bioadhesion strength, and in vitro release of formulated tablets were shown to be dependent on characteristics and composition of bioadhesive materials used. The modified in vitro assembly was used to measure and compare the bioadhesive strength of tablets with fresh porcine buccal mucosa as a model tissue. The maximum bioadhesive strength was observed in tablets formulated with Carbopol 934P alone and strength decreases with decrease in its content. The tablets were evaluated for in vitro release in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer for 10 h using a standardized dissolution apparatus. In order to determine the mode of release, the data was subjected to Korsmeyer and Peppas diffusion model. All the formulations followed non-Fickian release mechanism. Carbopol 934P and Methocel K4M in the ratio of 1:1 could be used to design effective and stable buccoadhesive tablets of terbutaline sulphate.

  4. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Magee, Laura A; Mitton, Craig;

    2013-01-01

    ,494,500 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium sulphate is administered to patients in whom preterm birth is threatened. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth is imminent is a dominant (i.e. cost-effective) strategy, no matter what cost perspective...... or measure of effectiveness is used. Administration of magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth is threatened is a dominant strategy from a societal perspective and is very likely to be cost-effective from a health system perspective.......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at 

  5. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  6. Aluminium content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyed, Salim M; Yokel, Robert A

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Quality control (QC) samples, with matrices matching the samples, were generated and used to verify the Al determinations. Food product Al content ranged from Cheese in a serving of frozen pizzas had up to 14 mg of Al, from basic sodium aluminium phosphate; whereas the same amount of cheese in a ready-to-eat restaurant pizza provided 0.03-0.09 mg. Many single serving packets of non-dairy creamer had approximately 50-600 mg Al kg(-1) as sodium aluminosilicate, providing up to 1.5 mg Al per serving. Many single serving packets of salt also had sodium aluminosilicate as an additive, but the Al content was less than in single-serving non-dairy creamer packets. Acidic sodium aluminium phosphate was present in many food products, pancakes and waffles. Baking powder, some pancake/waffle mixes and frozen products, and ready-to-eat pancakes provided the most Al of the foods tested; up to 180 mg/serving. Many products provide a significant amount of Al compared to the typical intake of 3-12 mg/day reported from dietary Al studies conducted in many countries. PMID:16019791

  7. Prolonged release terbutaline sulphate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, N C; Puranik, P K; Joshi, S B

    1991-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate microcapsules were prepared by coacervation-phase separation induced by solvent evaporation technique. The cellulose acetate phthalate was employed as coating material alone and in combination with ethyl cellulose. The prepared microcapsules were evaluated for their drug content, particle size distribution (microscopic method), flow properties, bulk density and in vitro dissolution. PMID:1798022

  8. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  9. Sulphate reduction experiment: SURE-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Hallbeck, L.; Johansson, J.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    It was previously concluded that opposing gradients of sulphate and methane, observations of 16S rDNA sequences displaying great similarity to those of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea, and a peak in sulphide concentration in groundwater from a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, indicated proper conditions for methane oxidation with sulphate. In the present research (SURE-1), pressure-resistant, gas-tight circulating systems were constructed to enable the investigation of attached and unattached anaerobic microbial populations from a depth of 327 m in Olkiluoto under in situ pressure (2.4 MPa), diversity, dissolved gas, and hydrochemical conditions of groundwater station ONKPVA6. Three parallel flow cell cabinets were configured to allow observation of the influence on microbial metabolic activity of 11 mM methane, 11 mM methane plus 10 mM H{sub 2}, or 2.1 mM O{sub 2} plus 7.9 mM N{sub 2} (i.e., air). The concentrations of these gases and of organic acids and carbon, sulphur chemistry, pH and E{sub h}, ATP, numbers of cultivable microorganisms, and total numbers of cells and bacteriophages were subsequently recorded under batch conditions for 105 d. The system containing H{sub 2} and methane displayed microbial reduction of 0.7 mM sulphate to sulphide, while the system containing only methane produced 0.2 mM reduced sulphate. The system containing added air became inhibited and displayed no signs of microbial activity. Added H{sub 2} and methane induced increasing numbers of lysogenic bacteriophages per cell. It appears possible that a microbial anaerobic methane-oxidizing process coupled to acetate formation and sulphate reduction may be ongoing in aquifers at a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, but clear evidence of such an AOM process was not obtained. (orig.)

  10. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  11. Substitution of lead salts for aluminium salts in the determination of sucrose content in molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyura Julianna F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the sugar industry analytical practice it is necessary to remove nonsucrose compounds from samples in order to determine sucrose content by polarimetric procedure. These mentioned compounds are removed by sedimentation after adding lead salts. Lead is considered as one of outstandingly strong pollutant of human environment and the living world as a whole. Ways of its environment presence are various. Some industrial branches are very close to this top including on this level even the sugar factories. Toxic effects of lead salts and the intensified concern for protecting the environment imposed the need for finding new sedimentation agents. In this work the influence of molasses quality on nonsucrose compounds sedimentation by aluminium-sulphate was examined. Optimum values of the parameters influencing the sedimentation process were determined. Best results were obtained with aluminium-sulphate at concentration of 0.1227 mol Al/dm3 and pH 6.0.

  12. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geology; Laaksoharju, M. [ed.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetics, Microbiology and Molecular Biology; Rhen, I. [VBB Viak (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Wallin, B. [Geokema AB (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl{sup -} concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs.

  13. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl- concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reduces the body's ability to absorb phosphate and iron. To avoid this interaction, phosphate should be taken at least 2 hours before or after taking iron.MagnesiumPhosphate can combine with magnesium. This reduces ... phosphate and magnesium. To avoid this interaction, phosphate should ...

  15. Recovery in aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X-ray diffraction technique for studies of the evolution of grains within polycrystalline materials. The much smaller volume of the crystallites of interest here in comparison to grains implies that the ...

  16. RAMAN SPECTRUM STUDIES OF THE COORDINATIONS OF ALUMINIUM AND BORON IN Na2O-Al2O3-B2O3-P2O5 GLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Yifen, Yin; Dehua, Jiang; Xiangsheng, Chen; Beiya, Bian; Xihuai, Huang

    1985-01-01

    The coordination states of aluminium and boron in Na2O-Al2O3-B2O3-P2O5 glasses have been studied by means of Raman spectroscopy. The study shows that when boron and aluminium ions exist simultaneously in phosphate glasses, it is possible that boron ions form BO4 tetrahedra prior to aluminium ions, and the former has three and four coordinations while the latter has four and six.

  17. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate. PMID:22099158

  18. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  19. Method of aluminium fluoride manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of aluminium fluoride is based on waste processing in uranium hexafluoride conversion to uranium oxides within the fuel cycle. The conversion is the stoichiometric conversion of uranium hexafluoride with aluminium nitrate to uranyl nitrate. This is extracted from the water phase by phosphoric acid trialkyl ester to an organic solvent and further processed. The discharge water phase is solidified by evaporation to solid aluminium fluoride and nitric acid. (M.S.)

  20. Sulphate reducing bacteria in wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Brand, T.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    The depletion of fresh water sources forces to design innovative integral solutions for the urban water cycle. Usual practice in most cities is to use drinking water to transport waste outside the city via sewer system. For toilet flushing the water quality is less important and seawater could be used as alternative to use of drinking water. Due to high sulphate content in seawater it usage for toilet flushing will increase the sulphate content of wastewater. Sulphate enrichment of wastewater...

  1. Radioisotope barium sulphate gauge MZB-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and the gauge for measuring content of barium sulphate are described. The gauge is intended for fast determination of barium sulphate in barite ore and in output products of the enrichment process. The measuring range 60-100% of BaSO4, accuracy ±1% and measuring time 60 s were reached. The barium sulphate gauge is used in barite mine ''Boguszow'' in Poland. (author)

  2. Vibrational spectroscopy of the sulphate mineral sturmanite from Kuruman manganese deposits, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L.; Scholz, Ricardo; López, Andrés; Xi, Yunfei; Lana, Cristiano

    2014-12-01

    The mineral sturmanite is a hydrated calcium iron aluminium manganese sulphate tetrahydroxoborate hydroxide of formula Ca6(Fe, Al, Mn)2(SO4)2(B(OH)4)(OH)12·26H2O. We have studied the mineral sturmanite using a number of techniques, including SEM with EPMA and vibrational spectroscopy. Chemical analysis shows a homogeneous phase, composed by Ca, Fe, Mn, S, Al and Si. B is not determined in this EPMA technique. An intense Raman band at 990 cm-1 is assigned to the SO42- symmetric stretching mode. Raman spectroscopy identifies multiple sulphate symmetric stretching modes in line with the three sulphate crystallographically different sites. Raman spectroscopy also identifies a band at 1069 cm-1 which may be attributed to a carbonate symmetric stretching mode, indicating the presence of thaumasite. Infrared spectra display two bands at 1080 and 1107 cm-1 assigned to the SO42- antisymmetric stretching modes. The observation of multiple bands in this ν4 spectral region offers evidence for the reduction in symmetry of the sulphate anion from Td to C2v or even lower symmetry. The Raman band at 3622 cm-1 is assigned to the OH unit stretching vibration and the broad feature at around 3479 cm-1 to water stretching bands. Infrared spectroscopy shows a set of broad overlapping bands in the OH stretching region. Vibrational spectroscopy enables an assessment of the molecular structure of sturmanite to be made.

  3. LOW DOSE MAGNESIUM SULPHATE REGIME FOR ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal V

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Pre- eclampsia is one of the commonest medical complications seen during pregnancy. It contributes significantly to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Dr.J.A.Pritchard in 1955, introduced magnesium sulphate for control of convulsions in eclampsia and is used worldwide. Considering the low body mass index of indian women, a low dose magnesium sulphate regime has been introduced by some authors. Present study was carried out at tertiary care centre in rural area. Fifty cases of eclampsia were randomly selected to find out the efficacy of low dose magnesium sulphate regime to control eclamptic convulsions. Maternal and perinatal outcome and magnesium toxicity were analyzed. It was observed that 86% cases responded to initial intravenous dose of 4 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate . Eight percent cases, who got recurrence of convulsion, were controlled by additional 2 grams of 20% magnesium sulphate. Six percent cases required shifting to standard Pritchard regime, as they did not respond to low dose magnesium sulphate regime. The average total dose of magnesium sulphate required for control of convulsions was 20 grams ie. 54.4% less than that of standard Pritchard regime. The maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in the present study werecomparable to those of standard Pritchard regime. The study did not find a single case of magnesium related toxicity with low dose magnesium sulphate regime. Low dose magnesium sulphate regime was found to be safe and effective in eclampsia.

  4. First Principles Study of Aluminium Vacancy in Wurtzite Aluminium Nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ting-Ge; YI Jue-Min; ZHOU Zi-Yao; HU Xiao-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ We report that the aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN brings about two impurity levels e and a2 in the band gap, not just one single t2 level The aluminium vacancy carries a magnetic moment of 1 μB in the ground state. The molecule orbit of the aluminium vacancy becomes e↑↑ a2↑ rather than e↑↑ a2↑. The calculation is carried out by using the CASTEP code. The intrinsic symmetry of wurtzite A1N is the driving force for this spin splitting. Finally the symmetry of wurtzite AlN results in an anti-ferromagnetic coupling between the aluminium vacancies, as is predicted. Our findings are helpful to gain a more through understanding of the structural and spin property of aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN.

  5. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  6. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  7. Biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van R.T.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are (1) to study the feasibility of using synthesis gas as electron donor and carbon source for biological sulphate reduction and (2) to develop criteria for design and operation of gas- lift bioreactors for sulphate reduction using immobilized biomass.At appeared that

  8. Phosphate sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Human phosphate homeostasis is regulated at the level of intestinal absorption of phosphate from the diet, release of phosphate through bone resorption, and renal phosphate excretion and involves the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) to maintain circulating phosphate levels within a narrow normal range, which is essential for numerous cellular functions, for the growth of tissues and for bone mineralization. ...

  9. The effect of alginate impressions on the surface of cast gypsum. II. The role of sodium sulphate in incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, R G; Earnshaw, R

    1981-02-01

    Of the materials tested only two alginates, Palginex (D), and Echo (C), show good surface reproduction when Vel-Mix (1), Ainsworth Greenstone (4), and Investo Greenstone (5) are cast against them. The above two alginates were shown to have a potassium and sulphate rich exudate. The reasonable surface produced by CA-37 (A) can be attributed to a proportional decrease in the ratio of potassium to sulphate present in the exudate, compared with Echo (C) and Palginex (D). S.S. White (B), Kromopan (E), and Tissutex (G) produce poor cast surfaces when high strength gypsum products are set against them. The exudates from these alginates were found to consist almost entirely of sodium sulphate. This study suggests that one way to improve the surface compatibility of alginates with gypsum products would be to modify the chemistry of the impression material so that a reactor other than calcium sulphate is used, to eliminate the appearance of sulphate ions in the exudate. Moreover, sources of sodium ions should also be eliminated. Therefore soluble alginates other than sodium alginate should be preferred, and a retarder other than one or other of the forms of sodium phosphate should be used. These changes would ensure that sulphate, particularly sodium sulphate, would not be produced as a by-product of the setting reaction. This in turn would eliminate the effects of incompatibility at present encountered to a greater or lesser extent with most combinations of alginate impression materials and gypsum cast materials. PMID:7018476

  10. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  11. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right circumsta......This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... circumstances both materials show good bonding, but the high purity material is excluded because of recrystallisation and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. The effect of cross stacking and roll bonding pre-strained sheets of the commercial purity material is investigated and some dependence...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  12. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  13. Vibrational spectroscopic study of sulphated silk proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, P.; Freddi, G.; Arosio, C.; Tsukada, M.; Arai, T.; Taddei, P.

    2007-05-01

    Degummed Bombyx mori ( B. m.) silk fibroin fabric and mutant naked pupa cocoons (Nd-s) consisting of almost pure silk sericin were treated with chlorosulphonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Untreated silk fibroin and sericin displayed typical spectral features due to characteristic amino acid composition and molecular conformation (prevailing β-sheet with a less ordered structure in sericin). Upon sulphation, the degree of molecular disorder increased in both proteins and new bands appeared. The IR bands at 1049 and 1014 cm -1 were attributed to vibrations of sulphate salts and that at 1385 cm -1 to the νasSO 2 mode of organic covalent sulphates. In the 1300-1180 cm -1 range various contributions of alkyl and aryl sulphate salts, sulphonamides, sulphoamines and organic covalent sulphates, fell. Fibroin covalently bound sulphate groups through the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine and serine, while sericin through the hydroxyl groups of serine, since the δOH vibrations at 1399 cm -1 in IR and at 1408 cm -1 in Raman disappeared almost completely. Finally, the increase of the I850/ I830 intensity ratio of Raman tyrosine doublet in fibroin suggested a change towards a more exposed state of tyrosine residues, in good agreement with the more disordered conformation taken upon sulphation.

  14. Teor de arsênio e adsorção competitiva arsênio/fosfato e arsênio/sulfato em solos de Minas Gerais, Brasil Arsenate content, and arsenate/phosphate and arsenate/sulphate competitive adsorption in soils from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Lucia Campos

    2013-06-01

    , Melanic Gleysol (GM and Typical Distrophic Red Latosol (LVd collected in Lavras, MG; Quartzenic Neosol (RQ collected in Itutinga, MG, and Typical Distrophic Yellow Latosol (Lad collected in Rosário, MG. Soil samples were dried, ground and sieved through a sieve of 2mm for the test run of adsorption and sieved through a sieve with a mesh of plastic 1.5mm for the As determination. The As content was determined by the method 3051A. The rate 1500µmolL-1As, 1500µmol L-1 As + 1500µmol L-1 P, 1500µmol L-1 As + 750µmol L-1 As were used to evaluate As adsorption, soil solution rate of 1:100, pH 5,5 and ionic force of 15mmol.L-1. The mean As content in the six soils was between 0,14 and 9,3mgkg-1. The adsorpted percentage of As in absence of other anions followed the sequence GM>LVd=RU=LAd=GX=RQ. Phosphate and sulphate addition reduced the percentage of adsorpted arsenic, consequently there was an increase of disponible arsenic in the soil solution.

  15. The toxicity of aluminium in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C

    2016-06-01

    We are living in the 'aluminium age'. Human exposure to aluminium is inevitable and, perhaps, inestimable. Aluminium's free metal cation, Alaq(3+), is highly biologically reactive and biologically available aluminium is non-essential and essentially toxic. Biologically reactive aluminium is present throughout the human body and while, rarely, it can be acutely toxic, much less is understood about chronic aluminium intoxication. Herein the question is asked as to how to diagnose aluminium toxicity in an individual. While there are as yet, no unequivocal answers to this problem, there are procedures to follow to ascertain the nature of human exposure to aluminium. It is also important to recognise critical factors in exposure regimes and specifically that not all forms of aluminium are toxicologically equivalent and not all routes of exposure are equivalent in their delivery of aluminium to target sites. To ascertain if Alzheimer's disease is a symptom of chronic aluminium intoxication over decades or breast cancer is aggravated by the topical application of an aluminium salt or if autism could result from an immune cascade initiated by an aluminium adjuvant requires that each of these is considered independently and in the light of the most up to date scientific evidence. The aluminium age has taught us that there are no inevitabilities where chronic aluminium toxicity is concerned though there are clear possibilities and these require proving or discounting but not simply ignored. PMID:26922890

  16. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  17. Friction surfacing of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diogo Jorge O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Friction surfacing is a solid state joining process that has attracted much interest in the past decades. This technology allows joining dissimilar metallic materials while avoiding the brittle intermetallic formations, involving temperatures bellow melting point and producing like forged metal structures. Much research using different steels has been made but the same does not happen with aluminium alloys, specially using different aluminium alloys. Friction surface coatings using cons...

  18. Radium removal from aqueous sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for removing radium from an aqueous sulphate solution also containing magnesium is claimed. The pH of the solution is less than 10. A soluble barium salt is added to the solution to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate. The pH of the solution is then raised to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate. The precipitates are separated from the solution. If the sulphate solution contains dissolved magnesium and other impurities at a pH not greater than 7, then the first step in the process involves raising the pH of the solution to a value not greater than 10 to precipitate some of the magnesium and a substantial proportion of the other impurities and separating the precipitate from the solution. The radium removal is a step in the treatment of liquids resulting from the sulphuric acid leaching of uranium ores

  19. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Gobade, N. G.; Marina Koland; K H Harish

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist...

  20. Removal of sulphates from South African mine water using coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madzivire, G.; Petrik, L.F. [Western Cape Univ., Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Gitari, W.M. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry; Ojumu, T.V. [Cape Peninsula Univ. of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Misheer, N. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Research and Innovation

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the use of alkaline fly ash (FA) produced by South African power stations as a means of neutralizing acid mine drainage South African mines. The mine water has circumneutral pH, low concentrations of iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al), and is rich in calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}). The FA was used to remove SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} from the mine water. A geochemical modelling tool was used to investigate the effect of Fe and Al on sulphate removal from NMD when reacted with FA. The study also investigated the mineral phases responsible for the removal of sulphates, Fe, Al and Mn from mine water samples. The samples were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma-atomic emission mass spectrometry and ion chromatography for cations and anions. Results of the geochemical modelling study showed that the removal of sulphates, Mg, Mn, Al and Fe was significantly influenced by the final pH of the water. When mine water pH was raised to greater than 6, 8, 9, and 11, approximately 100 percent of Al, Fe, Mn and Mg were removed. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Aluminium nitride: from the powder to the substrate. Le nitrure d'aluminium: de la poudre au substrat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrige, J. (Lab. de Ceramiques Nouvelles, Limoges (France)); Mexmain, J. (Lab. de Ceramiques Nouvelles, Limoges (France)); Oumaloul, M. (Lab. de Ceramiques Nouvelles, Limoges (France)); Bachelard, R. (CRRA ELF ATOCHEM, Pierre Benite (France)); Disson, J.P. (CRRA ELF ATOCHEM, Pierre Benite (France))

    1993-04-01

    The aluminium nitride is a material which should replace alumina or beryllia as substrate for power electronic applications. The powder, prepared by carbothermal nitridation, is dispersed in a butanone-2-ethanol azeotrop solvent with a phosphate ester. Electrical conductivity, sedimentation, viscosity have been used to determine which phenomena take place in the defloculation of the suspension. The stability of AlN suspensions is due mainly to an electrostatic mechanism, with a steric contribution. The aluminium nitride tape-casting slip has been sintered at 1850 C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Removing of the binder and plasticizer can be performed in the same oven at 650 C, due to their nature and low concentration. The thermal conductivity of the substrates has been measured and is in the 160 to 200 W/m.K range. (orig.).

  2. Sulphation characteristics of paper sludge ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, S.A. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S.D. [Environmental Systems Research Center, Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2007-04-15

    Landfills are no longer a viable solution for the disposal of sludge produced from waste water treatment plants because of the decrease in available space, rising fees and growing environmental concerns. However, thermal utilization of this waste may be an economic and sustainable disposal solution. Co-combustion of low heating value sludge with fossil fuels has a positive effect for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions due to the low sulphur content of biomass fuels and increased sulphur retention in the ash. The sulphur retention is attributed to the formation of sulphates, such as CaSO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The amount of fuel-ash-related sulphur sorption increases during co-combustion. Therefore, sorbents for sulphur reduction may not be required if proper control of the biomass feed is maintained. This paper presented a study in which the sulphation characteristics of calcium-rich paper sludge ash were determined for the use of co-combustion of biomass and coal. The calcium in the paper sludge ash came from the limestone filler used in the manufacturing process to increase the density and whiteness of the paper at 2 paper mills in Korea. A thermobalance reactor along with XRD and SEM-EDX were used for the analysis of sulphated ash to determine the effects of sulphation temperature, particle size and SO{sub 2} concentration on sulphation conversion. The activation energy and pre-exponential factor of sulphation reaction of sludge ash were determined based on the uniform-reaction model. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that most of the sulphation compounds were CaSO{sub 4}. The sulphation occurred uniformly throughout the ash and the CaSO{sub 4} did not block the outer pore of the sludge ash. The uniform distributions of CaO and other inert minerals in the ash resulted in uniform sulphation with good penetration of SO{sub 2} into pores of the sludge ash without pore blocking during sulphation of CaO. 13 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  3. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests. PMID:24670353

  4. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO42(Cl2(ciprofloxacin2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  5. Dispersion strengthening of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1970-01-01

    temperature and at 400°C is in agreement with Orowan's theory. The increase in flow stress at room temperature for strain values below 3 per cent was related to the plastic strain by the equation σ-σoy=k1ε 1/2, where σoy is the initial flow stress and where k1 increases for increasing volume fraction......The true stress-true strain curves at room temperature and at 400°C were determined for various types of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products containing from 0.2 to 4.7 weight per cent of aluminium oxide. The effect of particles on the initial flow stress and the flow stress for 0.2% offset at room...

  6. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  7. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen...... in aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  8. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  9. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  10. Removal of radium from aqueous sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radium is often present in ores and an aqueous solution associated with the ore may consequently contain dissolved radium. It is frequently necessary to remove radium from such solutions to reduce the total radium content to a prescribed low level before the solution can be returned to the environment. The present invention is based on the discovery that the total radium content can be reduced to a satisfactory level within a reasonable time by adding a soluble barium salt to a radium-containing sulphate solution which also contains dissolved magnesium at a pH not greater than about 0 to precipitate radium as barium radium sulphate, raising the pH to at least 11 to precipitate an insoluble magnesium compound which collects the barium radium sulphate precipitate, and separating substantially all of the precipitates from the solution

  11. Ionothermal synthesis and crystal structures of metal phosphate chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wragg, D.; Le Ouay, B.; Beale, A.M.; O'Brien, M.G.; Slawin, A.M.Z.; Warren, J.E.; Prior, T.J.; Morris, R.E.

    2013-01-01

    We have prepared isostructural aluminium and gallium phosphate chains by ionothermal reactions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and 1-ethylpyridinium bromide under a variety of conditions. The chains can be prepared as pure phases or along with three dimensional framework phases. The chains ar

  12. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Gobade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  13. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  14. Activation of antithrombin III isoforms by heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans and other sulphated polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, T H; Kolman, M R; Piepkorn, M

    1995-07-01

    Antithrombin III occurs naturally as two functionally distinct molecular species that differ in glycosylation at Asn135. Whereas the predominant, glycosylated isoform has high affinity for heparin, a quantitatively minor isoform lacking glycosylation at that site displays relatively higher affinity for both heparins and heparinoids. We characterized the ability of various sulphated polysaccharides to potentiate the rates of thrombin inhibition by the isoforms. High-molecular-weight dextran sulphate was the most effective of those studied, increasing thrombin inhibition by the higher-affinity antithrombin III isoform up to five-fold more efficiently than did heparin fractions with low-affinity for antithrombin III. In addition, dextran sulphate activated the higher-affinity isoform as much as twelve times more effectively than it did the lower-affinity isoform. Pentosan polysulphate was up to three-fold, and some heparan sulphate fractions up to two-fold, more effective with the higher, compared with the lower affinity, isoform. Heparan sulphate preparations less effectively increased the rate of thrombin inhibition than did the other low-affinity polysaccharides. Structure-function studies indicated positive correlations between activity and both polymer length and anionic group density of low-affinity sulphated polysaccharides. The observed effects of the heparan sulphates on this anticoagulant pathway, although of low potency, are consistent with the hypotheses that these substances naturally regulate blood homeostasis in vascular tissues and that much of this function may be mediated by the higher-affinity antithrombin III isoform. PMID:8589216

  15. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    OpenAIRE

    Conić Vesna T.; Pešovski Branka D.; Cvetkovski Vladimir B.; Stanojević-Šimšić Zdenka S.; Dragulović Suzana S.; Simonović Danijela B.; Dimitrijević Silvana B.

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4) sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It wa...

  16. Mechanism of Nickel-Aluminium Alloy Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of operating conditions on the aluminium content of Ni-Al alloy deposit and the catalytic function of NaF on electrodeposition in the nonaqueous solution containing aluminium are investigated.The results indicate that the plated aluminuim content will be increased with the rise of current density in a given range.When the current density is 2.5A/dm2,nickle-aluminium alloy containing 13.1 wt% aluminium will be deposited.The plated aluminium content will be increased by 2wt% as 0.1mol/L NaF is added to the bath.

  17. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  18. Recovery mechanisms in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5–100C. Hardness...

  19. Constitutive modelling of aluminium foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.M.; Lemmen, P.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an aluminium foam model is proposed for a vehicle crash analysis. The model assumes that there is no coupling between stresses and strains in different principal directions. The stress in each principle direction is then interpolated from an experimental recorded uniaxial stress strain

  20. Microchemistry in aluminium sheet production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Z.J.

    2005-01-01

    The production of aluminium sheet alloys from as-cast ingots is a complex process, involving several rolling operations in combination with various thermal heat treatments. Through their influence on the alloy microchemistry and microstructure, these thermomechanical treatments are all aimed at cont

  1. Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.

    Sulphate action severely affects the durability of marine structures. It is imperative to study precisely the effects of magnesium sulphate on pile foundations in the marine environment. In the present paper an attempt is made to assess and analyse...

  2. Stereoselective sulphate conjugation of racemic terbutaline by human liver cytosol.

    OpenAIRE

    Walle, T; Walle, U K

    1990-01-01

    1. The enantioselectivity of the sulphation of racemic terbutaline by phenolsulphotransferases was examined in vitro using cytosol from human livers (n = 3) and [35S]-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAP35S) as the sulphate donor. 2. The radioactive sulphate conjugate formed was isolated by h.p.l.c. and its enantiomers were separated intact by h.p.l.c. after chiral derivatization. 3. Sulphation of racemic terbutaline occurred with the same apparent Km value for both enantiomers (270 mi...

  3. Energy transfer phenomena in lead sulphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasse, G.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that lead sulphate, PbSO4, shows Pb2+ emission with a large Stokes shift. Energy transfer has been observed from the Pb2+ ions to several luminescent centres, viz., tungstate, molybdate, vanadate and rare earths. No transfer occurs to the Pr3+ ion.

  4. Complexation of labile aluminium species by chelating resins Iontosorb--a new method for Al environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matús, Peter; Kubová, Jana

    2005-09-01

    The utilization of chelating ion-exchange by the method based on binding strength and kinetic discrimination for aluminium fractionation was studied. Two chelating cellulose resins, Iontosorb Oxin (IO) and Iontosorb Salicyl (IS), were used for the determination of quickly reacting labile aluminium species. The possibilities of aluminium fractionation on these chelating resins were investigated by a solid phase extraction technique. The study of the pH (2.5-6.0) influence on the Al complexation by both resins indicates that at low pH the IS has lower sorption capacity but better adsorptive kinetic properties than IO. The optimal resin complexation time for reactive Al species was experimentally found after aluminium sorption study at pH 4.0 in synthetic solutions containing some inorganic and organic ligands, which simulate the composition of analysed acid soil and water samples. The negative influence of sulphate and iron on the Al complexation by IS resin was found and investigated. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used for the aluminium quantification.

  5. Kinetic and thermodynamic evaluation of phosphate ions binding onto sevelamer hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Elsiddig, Reem; Hughes, Helen; Owens, Eleanor; O’ Reilly, Niall J.; O’Grady, David; McLoughlin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sevelamer hydrochloride is the first non-aluminium, non-calcium-based phosphate binder developed for the management of hyperphosphatemia in end stage renal diseases. It is a synthetic ion-exchange polymer which binds and removes phosphate ions due to the high content of cationic charge associated with protonated amine groups on the polymer matrix. This is the first in-depth study investigating phosphate removal in vitro from aqueous solutions using commercially available sev...

  6. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For

  7. Reinvestigation of growth of 'L-valine zinc sulphate' crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Jyai, Rita N

    2014-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the growth of l-valine zinc sulphate crystal is reported. The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate results in the fractional crystallization of l-valine and not the organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical l-valine zinc sulphate crystal, as reported by Puhal Raj and Ramachandra Raja (2012).

  8. Fe2+ and Cu2+ increase the production of hyaluronic acid by lactobacilli via affecting different stages of the pentose phosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sy-Bing; Lew, Lee-Ching; Hor, Kok-Chiu; Liong, Min-Tze

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the production of hyaluronic acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1231 using response surface methodology and evaluating the effects of divalent metal ions along the production pathway using molecular docking. Among different divalent metal ions that were screened, only iron (II) sulphate and copper (II) sulphate significantly (P pentose phosphate pathway.

  9. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  10. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  11. Formation and Characterization of Ceramic Nanocomposite Crystalline Coatings on Aluminium by Anodization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Mubarak Ali; V.Raj

    2013-01-01

    Ceramic nanocomposite coatings have been synthesized on aluminium by using lithium sulphate electrolyte with zirconium silicate additive by anodization.The effects of current density (CD) on microhardness,structure,composition and surface topography of the oxide layer formed at various CDs (0.1-0.25 A/cm2) have been studied.Crystalline coatings formed at 0.25 A/cm2 have been (width 95 nm) observed with a relatively uniform distribution confirmed by scanning electron microscopy.Additionally,the average microhardness value of ceramic nanocomposite coatings fabricated from lithium sulphate-zirconium silicate bath is approximately 8.5 times higher than that of the as-received aluminium.The surface statistics of the coatings is discussed in detail to explain the roughness and related parameters for better understanding.These observations demonstrate the importance of surface statistics in controlling the morphology of the coatings and its properties.From the X-ray diffraction investigations,it can be concluded that the formed nanocomposite coatings are crystalline in nature and that the crystallinity of the coatings decreases with increasing applied current density.

  12. [Isolation and identification of a novel phosphate-dissolving strain P21].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Fan, Bingquan; Gong, Mingbo; Li, Quanxia

    2008-01-01

    Phosphate-dissolving microorganisms can be applied for better use of insoluble phosphorus as fertilizer., A phosphate-dissolving strain P21 was isolated from soil samples in China. The isolate was identified as Erwinia herbicola var. ananas, based on its 16Sr DNA sequence and physiological characteristics. Its activity was measured in solid media as well as liquid media using different phosphate sources including tricalium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, ferric phosphate, aluminium phosphate, zinc phosphate, and rock phosphates. E. herbicola could strongly dissolve 1206.20 mg tricalium phosphate and 529.67 mg hydroxyapatite in per liter liquid media. The strain showed high phosphate-dissolving ability for rock phosphates from Jinning and Kunyang in Yunnan province, Yaan in Sichuan province and Jinping in Jiangsu province with the capacity of 6.64 mg, 78.46 mg, 67.07 mg and 65.24 mg soluble phosphate respectively per liter medium, whereas the phosphate-dissolving ability to the rest of the eight rock phosphates was weak. According to the experiments, the phosphate-dissolving ability of E. herbicola was specific to different rock phosphates, and phosphate-dissolving ability of E. herbicola was not directly related to pH reduction of liquid media. PMID:18338576

  13. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  14. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track.

  15. Stereoselective sulphate conjugation of racemic terbutaline by human liver cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, T; Walle, U K

    1990-07-01

    1. The enantioselectivity of the sulphation of racemic terbutaline by phenolsulphotransferases was examined in vitro using cytosol from human livers (n = 3) and [35S]-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAP35S) as the sulphate donor. 2. The radioactive sulphate conjugate formed was isolated by h.p.l.c. and its enantiomers were separated intact by h.p.l.c. after chiral derivatization. 3. Sulphation of racemic terbutaline occurred with the same apparent Km value for both enantiomers (270 microM). The extent of sulphation of the (+)-enantiomer was double that of the (-)-enantiomer, solely due to a difference in their apparent Vmax values. 4. Sulphation of racemic prenalterol, a structural analogue of terbutaline, also showed a two-fold preference for the (+)-enantiomer. 5. These findings suggest that enantioselective sulphate conjugation of chiral phenolic sympathomimetic amine drugs may lead to enantioselective pharmacokinetics that should be considered in the clinical use of these drugs. PMID:2390423

  16. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    OpenAIRE

    Mărioara Drugă; Alexandru Trif; Mihai Drugă; Ducu Ştef; Ştefan Munteanu

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  17. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  18. A biogeochemical cycle for aluminium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2003-09-15

    The elaboration of biogeochemical cycles for elements which are known to be essential for life has enabled a broad appreciation of the homeostatic mechanisms which underlie element essentiality. In particular they can be used effectively to identify any part played by human activities in element cycling and to predict how such activities might impact upon the lithospheric and biospheric availability of an element in the future. The same criteria were the driving force behind the construction of a biogeochemical cycle for aluminium, a non-essential element which is a known ecotoxicant and a suspected health risk in humans. The purpose of this exercise was to examine the concept of a biogeochemical cycle for aluminium and not to review the biogeochemistry of this element. The cycle as presented is rudimentary and qualitative though, even in this nascent form, it is informative and predictive and, for these reasons alone, it is deserving of future quantification. A fully fledged biogeochemical cycle for aluminium should explain the biospheric abundance of this element and whether we should expect its (continued) active involvement in biochemical evolution.

  19. A bakable aluminium vacuum chamber with an aluminium flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the construction of the vacuum chamber in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings. (author)

  20. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conić Vesna T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II sulfate (PbSO4 sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It was found that 100% Pb by leaching can be achieved with NaCl concentration of 250 g/dm3, time 20 min, temperature 353 K and solid:liquid phase ratio =1:20.

  2. Assessing aluminium toxicity in streams affected by acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, A S; Webster-Brown, J G

    2013-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has degraded water quality and ecology in streams on the Stockton Plateau, the site of New Zealand's largest open-cast coal mining operation. This has previously been attributed largely to the effects of acidity and elevated aluminium (Al) concentrations. However, the toxicity of dissolved Al is dependent on speciation, which is influenced by pH which affects Al hydrolysis, as well as the concentrations of organic carbon and sulphate which complex Al. Methods for the assessment of the toxic fraction of Al, by chemical analysis and geochemical modelling, have been investigated in selected streams on the Stockton Plateau, where dissolved Al concentrations ranged from 0.034 to 27 mg L(-1). Modelling using PHREEQC indicated that between 0.2 and 85% of the dissolved Al was present as the free ion Al(3+), the most toxic Al species, which dominated in waters of pH = 3.8-4.8. Al-sulphate complexation reduced the Al(3+) concentration at lower pH, while Al-organic and -hydroxide complexes dominated at higher pH. Macroinvertebrate richness in the streams identified an Al(3+) 'threshold' of approximately 0.42 mg/L, above which taxa declined rapidly. Colorimetric 'Aluminon' analysis on unpreserved, unfiltered waters provided a better estimation of Al(3+) concentrations than inductively couple plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on filtered, acidified waters. The Aluminon method does not react with particulate Al or strong Al complexes, often registering as little as 53% of the dissolved Al concentration determined by ICP-MS. PMID:23579831

  3. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ivano eBrunner; Christoph eSperisen

    2013-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion...

  4. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  6. Acoustic properties of aluminium foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, L. E.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses normal incidence sound absorption by aluminium foam manufactured with powder metallurgy technology. Aluminium foams with different surface morphologies were obtained by varying the type of precursor and adding filler materials during the foaming process. The sound absorption coefficients found for these aluminium foams were compared to the coefficient for commercial foams marketed under the name ALPORAS. The effect of foam thickness on the absorption coefficient was studied for each sample prepared. The combination of good acoustic and mechanical properties makes aluminium foams particularly attractive products. The study included an analysis of the effect of 2-, 5- and 10-cm air gaps on the sound absorption coefficient. The results showed that such gaps, which are routinely used in construction to reduce the reverberation period in indoor premises, raised the low frequency absorption coefficient significantly. This increase was found to depend on aluminium foam density and thickness and the depth of the air gap. In this same line, we have investigated the absorption coefficient of the aluminium foams combined with a mineral fiber panel.Se presenta un estudio del coeficiente de absorción acústica a incidencia normal de espumas de aluminio fabricadas mediante la técnica pulvimetalúrgica. Se fabricaron espumas de aluminio de distinta morfología superficial variando el tipo de precursor y usando materiales de relleno durante el proceso de espumación. Se muestra un estudio comparativo del coeficiente de absorción acústica de las espumas de aluminio fabricadas y las espumas comerciales conocidas como ALPORAS. Para cada muestra fabricada se estudió la influencia del espesor sobre el valor del coeficiente de absorción.El atractivo de las espumas de aluminio radica en que en ellas se combinan interesantes propiedades acústicas y mecánicas. Se analizó el efecto de una cámara de aire de 2, 5 y 10 cm de anchura sobre el

  7. Mortar and concrete based on calcium sulphate binders

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, J.J.F.; Brouwers, H. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    In this study both hemi-hydrate and anhydrite are tested as calcium sulphate binders for structural mortar and concrete. The advantage of using calcium sulphates instead of cement as a binder is the fact that the production of calcium sulphate is more environmental friendly than that of cement. For the calcinations of Portland cement, temperatures up to 1480 oC are needed, while the calcination of for instance hemihydrate requires a temperature of 170 oC

  8. Electroactive biofilms of sulphate reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordas, Cristina M.; Guerra, L. Tiago; Xavier, Catarina [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Moura, Jose J.G. [Requimte-CQFB, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)], E-mail: jose.moura@dq.fct.unl.pt

    2008-12-01

    Biofilms formed from a pure strain of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans 27774 on stainless steel and graphite polarised surfaces were studied. The polarisation conditions applied were -0.4 V vs. SCE for different times. A cathodic current related with the biofilms growth was observed with a maximum intensity of -270 mA m{sup -2} that remained stable for several days using graphite electrodes. These sulphate reducing bacteria biofilms present electrocatalytic activity towards hydrogen and oxygen reduction reactions. Electrode polarisation has a selective effect on the catalytic activity. The biofilms were also observed by scanning electronic microscopy revealing the formation of homogeneous films on the surfaces.

  9. A Reaction Coating on Aluminium Alloys by Laser Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1993-01-01

    An aluminium oxide layer of 100 µm in thickness has been successfully coated on aluminium alloy 6061 and pure aluminium using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. A strong Al/Al2O3 interface was formed. The exothermic chemical reaction between SiO2 and Al may promote

  10. Shot peening of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shot peening is a process of cold-hammering where a metallic surface is pelted with spherical grains. Each grain bumping into the surface acts as a hammer head and creates a small crater. The overlapping of these craters produces a residual compression layer just underneath the surface. It is well known that cracks cannot spread in a compression zone. In most cases of fatigue rupture and stress corrosion cracks propagate from the surface towards the inside so shot peening allows a longer lifetime of castings. Moreover most materials present a better resistance due to the cold-hammering effect of shot peening. Metallic surfaces can be treated in workshops or directly on site. Typical pieces that undergo shot peening on site are storing tanks, gas and steam turbines, tubes of steam generators and piping in oil or nuclear or chemical industries. This article describes shot peening from a theoretical and general point of view and presents the application to aluminium-lithium alloys. In the case of aluminium alloys shot peening can be used to shape the piece (peen-forming). (A.C.)

  11. Coprecipitation of europium with barium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution behaviour of the trivalent europium ion at a micro-component scale, between barium sulphate and aqueous solution, was studied at ambient temperature. Experiments were carried out using radioactive tracers. Results indicate an enrichment of the micro component in the solid phase relative to the solution. The effects of the concentrations of the micro and macro-elements on the coprecipitation have been examined. Europium distribution coefficient DEu increases from 1.1 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.4 when initial europium concentration decreases from more than 17 x 10-5 to 1.4 x 10-5 M, in sulphuric media with SO42- in excess or CBa2+/CSO42- Eu. The coprecipitation of europium with barium sulphate as a heterovalent solid-solution is described by heterogeneous model obeying the Doerner and Hoskins logarithmic partition law. The weaker partition coefficients lower than unity (λ = 0.25 when CEu(III) ∼ 1.4 x 10-5 M and λ = 0.13 when CBa2+/CSO42- -5 ≤ CEu(III) = 153.5 x 10-5 M) lead to crystals increasingly enriched in the trace element. (orig.)

  12. Refractory oxides containing aluminium and barium

    OpenAIRE

    Davies T.J.; Biedermann M.; Q-G. Chen; Emblem H. G.; Al-Douri W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Oxides containing aluminium and barium, optionally with chromium, are refractory with several possible industrial uses. A gel precursor of an oxide having the formula BaO.n(Al2xCr2yO3), where 1aluminium salt or a solution of an aluminium salt and a chromium III salt, then forming a gel which was fired to obtain the desired oxide. Filaments may be drawn as the gel is forming or extr...

  13. New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L. C. Presl (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna C. F. Teles

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wissadula periplocifolia (L. C. Presl (Malvaceae is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. The antioxidant properties of its extracts have been previously demonstrated, thus justifying a phytochemical investigation for its bioactive phenolic constituents. This has yielded five new sulphated flavonoids: 8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (yannin (1a; 4′-O-methyl-7-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (beltraonin (1b; 7-O-sulphate acacetin (wissadulin (2a; 4′-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (caicoine (2b and 3′-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate hypolaetin (pedroin (3b along with the known flavonoids 7,4′-di-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (4, acacetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein, 4´-O-methyl isoscutellarein, 7,4′-di-O-methylisoscutellarein, astragalin and tiliroside. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR (1H, 13C, HMQC, HMBC and COSY and LC-HRMS. A cell based assay was carried out to evaluate the preliminary cytotoxic properties of the flavonoids against UVW glioma and PC-3M prostate cancer cells as well as non-tumour cell lines. The obtained results showed that acacetin, tiliroside, a mixture of acacetin + apigenin and the sulphated flavonoids 2a + 2b exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the cell lines tested. Among the tested flavonoids acacetin and tiliroside showed lower IC50 values, presenting promising antitumor effects.

  14. New Sulphated Flavonoids from Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Yanna C F; Horta, Carolina Campolina Rebello; de Fátima Agra, Maria; Siheri, Weam; Boyd, Marie; Igoli, John O; Gray, Alexander I; de Fátima Vanderlei de Souza, Maria

    2015-11-09

    Wissadula periplocifolia (L.) C. Presl (Malvaceae) is commonly used in Brazil to treat bee stings and as an antiseptic. The antioxidant properties of its extracts have been previously demonstrated, thus justifying a phytochemical investigation for its bioactive phenolic constituents. This has yielded five new sulphated flavonoids: 8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (yannin) (1a); 4'-O-methyl-7-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (beltraonin) (1b); 7-O-sulphate acacetin (wissadulin) (2a); 4'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (caicoine) (2b) and 3'-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate hypolaetin (pedroin) (3b) along with the known flavonoids 7,4'-di-O-methyl-8-O-sulphate isoscutellarein (4), acacetin, apigenin, isoscutellarein, 4´-O-methyl isoscutellarein, 7,4'-di-O-methylisoscutellarein, astragalin and tiliroside. The compounds were isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR (¹H, 13C, HMQC, HMBC and COSY) and LC-HRMS. A cell based assay was carried out to evaluate the preliminary cytotoxic properties of the flavonoids against UVW glioma and PC-3M prostate cancer cells as well as non-tumour cell lines. The obtained results showed that acacetin, tiliroside, a mixture of acacetin+apigenin and the sulphated flavonoids 2a+2b exhibited inhibitory activity against at least one of the cell lines tested. Among the tested flavonoids acacetin and tiliroside showed lower IC50 values, presenting promising antitumor effects.

  15. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  16. Differential responses of freshwater wetland soils to sulphate pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, L.P.M.; Dolle, ten G.E.; Berg, van den S.T.G.; Delft, van S.P.J.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate (SO42-) reduction rates are generally low in freshwater wetlands and are regulated by the scarce availability of the ion. Increased concentrations of this electron acceptor due to sulphur (S) pollution of groundwater and surface water may, however, lead to high sulphate reduction rates now

  17. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muyzer, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a seri

  18. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Drugă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  19. Sulphate rocks as an arena for karst development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejchuk V.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The rocks in which karst systems develop are most commonly composed of carbonate sulphate and chloride minerals. The sulphate minerals are quite numerous, but only gypsum and anhydrite form extensive masses in sedimentary sequences. Other minerals, which represent sulphates of K, Mg and Na, normally occur as minor beds (0.1-5.0 m, or as inclusions associated with chloride rocks. However some minerals precipitated in salt-generating basins, such as mirabilite and glauberite (typically formed in the Kara-Bogaz-Gol Gulf, salt lakes of Siberia and in China, form sequences up to 5-10 m thick where karst may develop. Due to the very high solubility of Na -sulphates, karst processes and features occurring in these rocks resemble salt karst. Thus, the term sulphate karst, although not strictly correct, is used mainly to indicate karst developed in gypsum and anhydrite.

  20. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Swedish project for final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible, but copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron(II) is available. The problem was extended to the more general question of the reducibility of sulphur(VI) in dilute aqueous solution. Chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100oC. In experiments on the reduction of sulphates under hydrothermal conditions a reaction only takes place at temperatures above 275-300oC. The oxidising action of sulphuric acid on metals becomes perceptible only at acid concentrations over 45-50%. In experiments on the cathodic reduction of 74% sulphuric acid the formation of hydrogen sulphide and elementary sulphur starts, depending on the current density, at 50-130oC, and polarographic measurements suggest that the reducible species is not the hydrogen sulphate ion but molecular sulphuric acid. The resistance of copper to oxygen-free sulphuric acid up to a concentration of 60% is well-known. Numerous processes in industrial electrochemistry take place in sulphuric acid or sulphate electrolytes. The reversible metal/metal-sulphate electrodes of lead and cadmium are unstable relative to the corresponding metal sulphides. Nevertheless the reversible lead sulphate electrode does not fail from sulphide formation. All these facts confirm that sulphur(VI) in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be almost certainly be ruled out. (author) 5 figs., 85 refs

  1. Aluminium Process Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazatul Aini Abd Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges in developing a fault detection and diagnosis system for industrial applications are not inconsiderable, particularly complex materials processing operations such as aluminium smelting. However, the organizing into groups of the various fault detection and diagnostic systems of the aluminium smelting process can assist in the identification of the key elements of an effective monitoring system. This paper reviews aluminium process fault detection and diagnosis systems and proposes a taxonomy that includes four key elements: knowledge, techniques, usage frequency, and results presentation. Each element is explained together with examples of existing systems. A fault detection and diagnosis system developed based on the proposed taxonomy is demonstrated using aluminium smelting data. A potential new strategy for improving fault diagnosis is discussed based on the ability of the new technology, augmented reality, to augment operators’ view of an industrial plant, so that it permits a situation-oriented action in real working environments.

  2. Deformation features of aluminium in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented a method to analyse stress-strain curves. Plastic and elastic strains were studied. The strains were done by tensile tests in four types of materials: highly pure aluminium, pure aluminium, commercially pure aluminium and aluminium - uranium. The chemical compositions were obtained by spectroscopy analysis and neutron activation analysis. Tensile tests were carried out at three strain rates, at room temperature, 100,200, 300 and 4000C, with knives extensometer and strain-gages to studied the elastic strain region. A multiple spring model based on two springs model to analyse elastic strain caused by tests without extensometers, taking in account moduli of elasticity and, an interactive analysis system with graphic capability were developed. It was suggested a qualitative model to explain the quantized multielasticity of Bell. (M.C.K.)

  3. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    , crystalline nano-particles, role of steam-based treatment on adhesion of industrially applied powder coating, and investigations of a failed painted aluminium window profile due to defects in the extruded profile. Chapters 13 and 14 describe the overall discussion, conclusions and future work based......The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes...... the use of aluminium alloys in the painted form requiring a conversion coating to improve the adhesion. Chromate based conversion coating processes are extremely good for these purposes, however the carcinogenic and toxic nature of hexavalent chromium led to the search for more benign and eco...

  4. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    and growth of oxide film on different intermetallic particles and corrosion behaviour of such alloys.Surface morphology was observed by using FEG-SEM, EDX and FIB-SEM. Metal oxide surface characterization and compositional depth profiling were investigated by using XPS and GD-OES respectively......Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in aerospace industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further be converted or transformed......) depending on the preparation parameters/conditions. Moreover, with the knowledge of factors controlling film growth, composition and morphology, such oxide layers carry huge potential for practical applications. Pure aluminium (AA1090, 99.94 wt. %) and other aluminium alloy surfaces were exposed to high...

  5. Shear Viscosity of Aluminium under Shock Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-Sheng; YANG Mei-Xia; LIU Qi-Wen; CHEN Jun-Xiang; JING Fu-Qian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the Newtonian viscous fluid model and the analytic perturbation theory of Miller and Ahrens for the oscillatory damping of a sinusoidal shock front, a flyer-impact technique is developed to investigate the effecti veviscosity of shocked aluminium.

  6. Bone marrow aluminium storage in renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, M.

    1983-01-01

    Using the staining method for aluminium with the ammonium salt of aurine tricarboxylic acid, aluminon, 18 patients with end stage renal disease gave positive reactions in iliac crest bone biopsies and 11 of these had positive staining in the bone marrow. In one the marrow was positive and the bone negative. The marrow reaction is putatively regarded as caused by aluminium storage in unidentified cells, possibly of the macrophage system which are strongly fluorescent when examined after prior ...

  7. DETERMINATION OF IMPURITY ELEMENTS IN ALUMINIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小琳; 张永保

    1994-01-01

    Twenty five impurity elements in aluminium applied as reactor material are determined.Titanium and nickel are determined with epithermal neutron activation analysis(NAA),magnesium and silicon by inductance coupling plasma emission spectra(ICP),other elements by thermal NAA.The fission coefficient of uranium is given by an experiment,the interferences of uranium to Ce,Nd,Mo,Zr,La,Sm are subtracted.The detection limits of these methods to all of impurity elements in aluminium are calculated.

  8. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  9. Electrical Conductivity of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤仪; 郑海务; 朱震刚; 祖方遒

    2002-01-01

    Closed-cell aluminium alloy foams were produced using the powder metallurgical technique. The effect of porosityand cell diameter on the electrical conductivity of foams was investigated and the results were compared with anumber of models. It was found that the percolation theory can be successfully applied to describe the dependenceof the electrical conductivity of aluminium alloy foams on the relative density. The cell diameter has a negligibleeffect on the electrical conductivity of foams.

  10. Thermodynamic study of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Thakur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial molar volumes of copper sulphate and zinc sulphate have been determined in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol (2,4,6 and 8% by weight of propylene glycol at 303.15 K with the help of density measurements. Effect of temperature on the partial molar volumes was also analysed for these salts in water and binary aqueous mixtures of propylene glycol. Results obtained have been analysed by Masson’s equation and the experimental values of slopes and partial molar volumes of these transition metals sulphates have been interpreted in terms of ion-ion or ion –solvent interactions. Limiting molar expansibilities ( have also been determined which is interpreted in terms of structure making or breaking capacities of transition metal sulphates. The transition metal sulphates have been found as structure promoter in water and binary aqueous mixture of propylene glycol.

  11. Phosphate binding therapy in dialysis patients: focus on lanthanum carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail A Mohammed

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Ismail A Mohammed, Alastair J HutchisonManchester Institute of Nephrology and Transplantation, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester, UKAbstract: Hyperphosphatemia is an inevitable consequence of end stage chronic kidney disease and is present in the majority of dialysis patients. Recent observational data has associated hyperphosphatemia with increased cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients. Dietary restriction of phosphate and current dialysis prescription practices are not enough to maintain serum phosphate levels within the recommended range so that the majority of dialysis patients require oral phosphate binders. Unfortunately, conventional phosphate binders are not reliably effective and are associated with a range of limitations and side effects. Aluminium-containing agents are highly efficient but no longer widely used because of well established and proven toxicity. Calcium based salts are inexpensive, effective and most widely used but there is now concern about their association with hypercalcemia and vascular calcification. Sevelamer hydrochloride is associated with fewer adverse effects, but a large pill burden and high cost are limiting factors to its wider use. In addition, the efficacy of sevelamer as a monotherapy in lowering phosphate to target levels in severe hyperphosphatemia remains debatable. Lanthanum carbonate is a promising new non-aluminium, calcium-free phosphate binder. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated a good safety profile, and it appears well tolerated and effective in reducing phosphate levels in dialysis patients. Its identified adverse events are apparently mild to moderate in severity and mostly GI related. It appears to be effective as a monotherapy, with a reduced pill burden, but like sevelamer, it is significantly more expensive than calcium-based binders. Data on its safety profile over 6 years of treatment are now available.Keywords: hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum

  12. Ongoing characterization of passivated aluminium nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Q.S.M.; Fouchard, R.C.; Turcotte, A-M.; Abdel-Qader, Z.; Jones, D.E.G. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET, Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    For characterization, the thermal behaviour of two aluminium nanopowders - Alss and Alssef - in air was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), simultaneous thermogravimetry-DTA (TG-DTA) and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Alss and Alssef were found to be less reactive to air than previously determined for Als And Alex, possibly due to their thicker and different type of passivating layer. Stability determination for Alss and Alssef in a wet oxidizing environment was carried out using ARC, whereas outgassing behaviour of mixtures of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and the various aluminium powders was investigated using TG-DTA-FTIR-MS (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry). The addition of various aluminium powders resulted in only minimal effect on the thermal stability of ADN. Electrostatic discharge, friction sensitivities of ADN and its mixtures with various aluminium powders, and thermal stability and sensitivity of mixtures of nano-sized molybdenum trioxide with aluminium nanopowders were also studied. The electrostatic discharge sensitivity of molybdenum trioxide was shown to increase by the addition of aluminium nanopowders. 23 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. Study of the sulphate expansion phenomenon in concrete: behaviour of the cemented radioactive wastes containing sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphate attack is one of the major degradation processes of concrete. It is especially important in storing cemented radioactive wastes containing sulphate. In this thesis, we have thoroughly investigated the degradation mechanisms of cemented radioactive wastes by sulphate. The CaO-Al2O3-SO3-H2O systems with and without alkalis are studied. For the system without alkalis, experimental results show that it is the formation of a secondary ettringite under external water supply by steric effect that causes the expansion. For the system with alkalis, the ettringite does not appear while a new mineral called 'U', a sodium-substituted AFm phase is detected. This phase is shown to be responsible for the expansion and destruction of the specimens. The conditions for the formation, the product of solubility and many means of its synthesis are discussed, and a complete list of the inter-reticular distances file is given. The behaviour of the different types of cemented wastes containing sulphate are then studied with a special focus on the U phase on entity which was heretofore very little understood. The following three hypothetical mechanisms of sulphate expansion are proposed: the formation of the secondary U phase, the transformation of the U phase to the ettringite and the topochemical hydration of thenardite into mirabilite. Experiments on a simplified system have demonstrated clearly that the formation of the secondary U phase can induce enormous expansion by steric effect, this justifying the first assumption. Simulation by the mass and volume balances is carried out thereafter and enables us to estimate the expansion induced by the formation of the secondary U phase in the cemented wastes. The second assumption is also well verified by a series of leaching tests in different solutions on mixtures containing the U phase. On the basis of the analysis of the specimens under leaching, it has been assumed that the expansion is associated with the inter

  14. Concrete under sulphate attack: an isotope study on sulphur sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Bauer, Christoph; Klammer, Dietmar; Böttcher, Michael E; Leis, Albrecht; Escher, Peter; Dietzel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The formation of secondary sulphate minerals such as thaumasite, ettringite and gypsum is a process causing severe damage to concrete constructions. A major key to understand the complex reactions, involving concrete deterioration is to decipher the cause of its appearance, including the sources of the involved elements. In the present study, sulphate attack on the concrete of two Austrian tunnels is investigated. The distribution of stable sulphur isotopes is successfully applied to decipher the source(s) of sulphur in the deteriorating sulphate-bearing minerals. Interestingly, δ(34)S values of sulphate in local groundwater and in the deteriorating minerals are mostly in the range from+14 to+27 ‰. These δ(34)S values match the isotope patterns of regional Permian and Triassic marine evaporites. Soot relicts from steam- and diesel-driven trains found in one of the tunnels show δ(34)S values from-3 to+5 ‰, and are therefore assumed to be of minor importance for sulphate attack on the concretes. In areas of pyrite-containing sedimentary rocks, the δ(34)S values of sulphate from damaged concrete range between-1 and+11 ‰. The latter range reflects the impact of sulphide oxidation on local groundwater sulphate. PMID:22321257

  15. Characterization of radiative properties of Nd2O3 doped phosphate and silicate glasses for solid state laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nd2O3 doped calcium aluminium phosphate and calcium aluminium silicate glasses prepared to compare their absorption and emission properties. Radiative lifetime of the excited state 4F3/2 derived by Judd-Ofelt theory applied to the absorption spectra. Using the photoluminescence spectrometer the steady state emission and relaxation time from excited energy level recorded under green light excitation. Phosphate glass has higher emission cross-section, higher radiative lifetime but less quantum efficiency due to non-radiative quenching through hydroxyl ions compared to silicate glass for Nd3+:4F3/2→4I9/2 emission

  16. Heat treatment of aluminium strip coils; Gluehbehandlung von Aluminium-Bandbunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Dominik; Dambauer, Georg [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Nowadays, aluminium strip coils are increasingly heat-treated in single-coil lifting hearth furnaces SCL. Flexible, individual heat treatment allows fast reactions to short term requirements for the production of aluminium strip and offers energy saving possibilities. The following report describes the advantages of single-coil hearth furnaces in terms of flexibility, energy consumption and possible configurations. (orig.)

  17. A preliminary study of the dermal absorption of aluminium from antiperspirants using aluminium-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarend, R; Bin, T; Elmore, D; Hem, S L

    2001-02-01

    Aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), the active ingredient in many antiperspirants, was labeled with the radioisotope 26Al. The labeled ACH was then fractionated into about 100 samples using gel filtration chromatography. Each fraction was analyzed for 26Al and total aluminium content. Aluminium-26 was only detected in the fractions that also contained aluminium, which verified that the ACH was uniformly labeled. 84 mg of the labeled ACH was then applied to a single underarm of two adult subjects with blood and urine samples being collected over 7 weeks. Tape-stripping and mild washings of the skin were also collected for the first 6 days. Results indicate that only 0.012% of the applied aluminium was absorbed through the skin. At this rate, about 4 microg of aluminium is absorbed from a single use of ACH on both underarms. This is about 2.5% of the aluminium typically absorbed by the gut from food over the same time period. Therefore, a one-time use of ACH applied to the skin is not a significant contribution to the body burden of aluminium.

  18. Design of welded aluminium connections (Entwurf und Berechnung von Aluminium Schweissverbindungen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the past two decades considerable research effort has been put into welded aluminium connections in order to better understand their structural behaviour and to up-date the design rules in the existing standards at the time [1]. Since weids in aluminium are more critical compared to steel, the ab

  19. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  20. Calcium sulphate deposition on heated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of undesired matter at heat transfer surfaces (fouling) is a severe problem to industry. The growth of calcium sulphate dihydrate an heated metal surfaces has been examined and a mechanism for the effect of surface roughness on the amount of deposition has been proposed. A novel piece of equipment was designed and constructed in which the growth of crystals on heat transfer surfaces with different surface roughnesses could be observed under controlled solution conditions. The test section was a transparent rectangular channel into which three 25 mm diameter test pieces could be inserted such that the polished faces were planar with the rear face of the channel. The back faces of these test pieces were heated by contact with hot water. Using Reynolds numbers of 300 to 13,500 and calcium sulphate solutions with bulk concentrations from 20 to 50 mM Ca2+, no gross effect due to surface roughness was seen. However a limited effect, which distinguished grit-blasted surfaces from polished surfaces, was found in experiments with a bulk concentration from 28 to 33 mM Ca2+. In all of the experiments it was observed that the presence of bubbles enhanced crystal growth. It was also found that the amount of deposition formed on any surface decreased with decreasing dissolved oxygen content of the bulk solution. It is suggested that a bulk concentration of approximately 33 mM Ca2+ is a critical level of supersaturation, which corresponds with the so-called metastable limit of supersaturation. The surface roughness effect may be associated with two factors. Firstly, as the critical supersaturation is approached crystal growth is enhanced at certain sites, in particular the edges of bubbles. Secondly, very rough surfaces, such as grit-blasted surfaces, more readily support and initiate bubble formation and consequently the grit-blasted surface shows greater growth. Additional work with a different test rig, using a stagnant solution, indicated that suppression of

  1. Water defluoridation by aluminium oxide-manganese oxide composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Sheta; Mulugeta, Eyobel; Zewge, Feleke; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2014-08-01

    In this study, aluminium oxide-manganese oxide (AOMO) composite material was synthesized, characterized, and tested for fluoride removal in batch experiments. AOMO was prepared from manganese(II) chloride and aluminium hydroxide. The surface area of AOMO was found to be 30.7m2/g and its specific density was determined as 2.78 g/cm3. Detailed investigation of the adsorbent by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and ion chromatography (for sulphate only) showed that it is composed of Al, Mn, SO4, and Na as major components and Fe, Si, Ca, and Mg as minor components. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the thermal behaviour of AOMO. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the adsorbent is poorly crystalline. The point of zero charge was determined as 9.54. Batch experiments (by varying the proportion of MnO, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial F concentration, and raw water pH) showed that fluoride removal efficiency ofAOMO varied significantly with percentage of MnO with an optimum value of about I11% of manganese oxide in the adsorbent. The optimum dose of the adsorbent was 4 g/L which corresponds to the equilibrium adsorption capacity of 4.8 mg F-/g. Both the removal efficiency and adsorption capacity showed an increasing trend with an increase in initial fluoride concentration of the water. The pH for optimum fluoride removal was found to be in the range between 5 and 7. The adsorption data were analysed using the Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinirn-Radushkevich models. The minimum adsorption capacity obtained from the non-linear Freundlich isotherm model was 4.94 mg F-/g and the maximum capacity from the Langmuir isotherm method was 19.2mg F-/g. The experimental data of fluoride adsorption on AOMO fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption is well described by a non-linear pseudo-second-order reaction model with an average rate constant of 3

  2. Effect of plating time on growth of nanocrystalline Ni–P from sulphate/glycine bath by electroless deposition method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Latha; V Raj; M Selvam

    2013-08-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel phosphorus (NC-Ni–P) deposits from sulphate/glycine bath using a simple electroless deposition process is demonstrated. In the present investigation, nanoporous alumina films are formed on the aluminium surface by anodization process followed by deposition of nickel onto the pores by electroless plating method. Anodic aluminium oxide surface was first sensitized and activated by using palladium chloride solution before immersing into the electroless nickel bath. Electroless nickel plating was carried out from the optimized bath by changing the deposition time from 20 to 1800 s at a constant temperature of 80 °C and a pH of 4.0. Surface morphology, elemental composition, structure and reflectance of the deposits have been analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible spectroscopic studies, respectively. Electroless nickel deposits formed at an early stage produces dense uniform nanocrystals containing higher percentage of atomic phosphorus with cubic Ni (111) structure. As the deposition time increased, nanocrystalline sharp peak became amorphous and dimension of the crystal size varied from 54 to 72 nm.

  3. Aluminium as heating fuel. Tests with aluminium powder prove suitability in principle. Aluminium als Heizungs-Brennstoff. Versuche mit Aluminiumpulver beweisen prinzipielle Eignung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.

    1990-12-01

    Tests prove that aluminium powder is perfectly suited as fuel and storage material for solar energy. The combustion product itself is again the base material for aluminium production, i.e. aluminium can be recycled. There are three problematic areas: 1. flame stability, 2. combustion duration and 3. environmental compatibility. Further development projects will aim at the construction of practice-orientated plants in which combustion, heat extraction and recovery of aluminium oxide is combined. A further aim is the melting burner to which aluminium is supplied in form of wires, cuttings or rods. (BWI).

  4. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as aluminium exposure varied between diatom species. C. closterium was the most sensitive species (10% inhibition of growth rate (72-h IC10) of 80 (55-100)μg Al/L (95% confidence limits)) while M. polymorphus (540 (460-600)μg Al/L) and P. tricornutum (2100 (2000-2200)μg Al/L) were less sensitive (based on measured total aluminium). Dissolved aluminium was the primary contributor to toxicity in C. closterium, while a combination of dissolved and precipitated aluminium forms contributed to toxicity in M. polymorphus. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the most tolerant diatom P. tricornutum was due predominantly to precipitated aluminium. Preliminary investigations revealed the sensitivity of C. closterium and M. polymorphus to aluminium was influenced by initial cell density with aluminium toxicity significantly (paluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium.

  5. Formulation and evaluation of press coated tablets of salbutamol sulphate for time controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Wasimul Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate a press coated pulsatile drug delivery system of salbutamol sulphate in order to attain a time controlled release for treatment of nocturnal asthma. The core was prepared by direct compression, while press coating technique was used in coating the outer layer there by preparing a press coated tablet. The immediate release core formulations comprised of salbutamol sulphate and disintegrants like crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate in different ratios with the drug. The outer coat formulations were prepared using a hydrophilic (HPMC and hydrophobic (EC polymer of similar viscosity. The polymers were reviewed individually for their influence on lag time further obtaining the lag time using polymer combinations were assessed by employing central composite design. All the preliminary trials were evaluated for various post compression parameters along with the dissolution study that was performed using USP paddle method at 50 rpm in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The formulation containing 300 mg of EC N50 and 75-100 mg of HPMC E50 may be regarded as the minimum quantity required in outer press coat so as to attain a predetermined lag time of 6 h.

  6. Protection of 2024-T3 aluminium alloy by corrosion resistant phytic acid conversion coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongwei; Han, En-Hou; Liu, Fuchun; Kallip, Silvar

    2013-09-01

    The corrosion protection properties of environmentally friendly phytic acid conversion coatings were studied on 2024-T3 aluminium alloy. The films were prepared under acidic conditions with various pH values and characterised by SEM, EDS, ATR-FTIR and electrochemical techniques. The results indicate that the conversion coatings obtained by immersing the alloy in phytic acid solutions at pH from 3 to 5.5 provide excellent corrosion resistance. ATR-FTIR confirms that the film is formed by deposition of reaction products between Al3+ and phosphate groups in phytic acid molecules. The conformation models of the deposition film are proposed.

  7. Acute tocolysis for fetal distress: terbutaline versus magnesium sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magann, E F; Cleveland, R S; Dockery, J R; Chauhan, S P; Martin, J N; Morrison, J C

    1993-11-01

    Forty-six women in active labour who developed fetal distress requiring abdominal delivery were randomized to receive 0.25 mg of terbutaline (subcutaneously) or magnesium sulphate as a 4-g bolus (intravenously) to decrease uterine activity. The terbutaline-treated group in contrast to the magnesium sulphate-treated group had reduced uterine activity as measured by Montevideo units (p terbutaline, 1.8 +/- 0.74 minutes compared to 7.5 +/- 2.1 minutes in the 16 of 23 patients (magnesium sulphate-treated women) in whom a decrease in uterine activity occurred (p terbutaline versus 7 of the 23 in the magnesium sulphate-treated group. We conclude that terbutaline is an effective and more rapid-acting tocolytic agent to arrest uterine activity prior to delivery for fetal distress. PMID:8179541

  8. Leachability of barium-radium sulphate sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results from the first phase of a research program designed to examine the leachability of radium-226 from barium-radium sulphate sludges. Batch leaching tests were performed. Results showed that liquid:solid contact time was relatively unimportant; radium in the sludge was stable in the presence of deionized water with a slight increase in the amount leached per gram of sludge occurring at higher liquid:solid ratios. Not unexpectedly, low and high values of leachant pH increased radium leaching. Both monovalent and divalent salt solutions also increased leaching; however, dissolved radium-226 activity levels in the leachate decreased as leachant molarity increased. For divalent salts this can be explained by the common ion effect; for monovalent salts it is opposite to results expected from solubility considerations. The interpretation of all results is complicated by the fact that in most tests, the amount of radium-226 present in the leachate was lower than the calculated contribution from the mother liquour present with the sludge. This apparent ability of the sludge to absorb radium from solution may be related to dissolution and reprecipitation of the sludge during the leaching tests

  9. Structural colours and applications to anodised aluminium surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede

    This thesis investigates possible ways of creating aluminium with a milky white, metallic appearance for decorative purposes. Since white cannot be obtained through traditional absorption based dyeing of aluminium, optical mechanisms based on scattering by nanostructures are studied in order...

  10. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation o...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  11. Friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bušić; Kožuh, Z.; D. Klobčar; Samardžić, I.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and f...

  12. Intestinal Phosphate Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Yves; Giral, Hector; Caldas, Yupanqui; Levi, Moshe; Schiavi, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed in the small intestine by at least two distinct mechanisms: paracellular phosphate transport which is dependent on passive diffusion and active transport which occurs through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporters. Despite evidence emerging for other ions, regulation of the phosphate specific paracellular pathways remains largely unexplored. In contrast, there is a growing body of evidence that active transport through the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporte...

  13. Demonstration of immunogenic keratan sulphate in commercial chondroitin 6-sulphate from shark cartilage. Implications for ELISA assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J; Møller-Pedersen, T; Damsgaard, T E;

    1995-01-01

    The prototype monoclonal keratan sulphate (KS) antibody 5D4 that is widely used for detection of KS in tissues and biological fluids reacts strongly with commercial low grade shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate. Characterization of the immunogenic material by chondroitinase ABC digestion, ELISA...... inhibition studies, immunoblotting and HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of substantial amounts of KS, probably as a large proteoglycan (> 120 kDa). Commercial and heterogenic glycosaminoglycan preparations therefore must be used with great caution in immunological analyses. On the other hand the shark...... cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate is an easy accessible source of immunogenic KS that can be used as a reference standard and as coating antigen in KS-ELISAs. The concentration of immunogenic KS in synovial fluid measured with an ELISA based solely on reagents of shark cartilage chondroitin 6-sulphate...

  14. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...... examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark....

  15. Stability of aluminium beams in case of fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, O.R. van der; Soetens, F.; Maljaars, J.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is often the dominant design criterion for aluminium structures. Present design rules for aluminium constructions in fire neglect both the decrease in susceptibility to local buckling and the effects of creep, that are intrinsic to aluminium. They may therefore either overestimate or underestim

  16. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  17. Qimingxing Aluminium of Jinma Group Ceases Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Jinma Group announced on December 23 that its subsidiary Meishan Qimingxing Aluminium decided to cease production starting from De- cember 23,and that the company will keep a close eye to the market and will resume pro- duction once the market bounces back.In 2007, Jinma Group took over Meishan Qimingxing’s 40% share by 112 million yuan to enter the aluminium industry.Meishan Qimingxing’s assets include a 125,000-ton production line of aluminium and 168 300KA electrolytic baths. Affected by the state’s macro-regulation policy in early years,the company’s profit fell short of estimates.Net profit of Meishan Qimingxing in 2007 was 10.65 million yuan.

  18. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  19. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  20. Characterization of aluminium-based water treatment residual for potential phosphorus removal in engineered wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babatunde, A.O., E-mail: akintunde.babatunde@ucd.i [Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Architecture, Landscape and Civil Engineering, Newstead Building, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Zhao, Y.Q. [Centre for Water Resources Research, School of Architecture, Landscape and Civil Engineering, Newstead Building, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Burke, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Morris, M.A.; Hanrahan, J.P. [Environmental Research Institute (ERI), University College Cork, Lee Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    Aluminium-based water treatment residual (Al-WTR) is the most widely generated residual from water treatment facilities worldwide. It is regarded as a by-product of no reuse potential and landfilled. This study assessed Al-WTR as potential phosphate-removing substrate in engineered wetlands. Results indicate specific surface area ranged from 28.0 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} to 41.4 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. X-ray Diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopes all indicate Al-WTR is mainly composed of amorphous aluminium which influences its phosphorus (P) adsorption capacity. The pH and electrical conductivity ranged from 5.9 to 6.0 and 0.104 dS m{sup -1} to 0.140 dS m{sup -1} respectively, showing that it should support plant growth. Batch tests showed adsorption maxima of 31.9 mg P g{sup -1} and significant P removal was achieved in column tests. Overall, results showed that Al-WTR can be used for P removal in engineered wetlands and it carries the benefits of reuse of a by-product that promotes sustainability. - Aluminium-based water treatment residual can be used for phosphorus removal in engineered wetlandsexclamation

  1. Stable isotope ratios and sulphate/methane interaction in lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerns sulphate ion and methane from about 50 freshwater aquifers from Poland. Samples have been collected dominantly in the late August and early September 1993. Eutrophic lakes show high δ34S(SO42-) and δ18O(SO42-) values as compared to clean oligotrophic or mesotrophic lakes. All lake sulphates fall into a restricted field and evolve along a positive δ34S(SO42-) and δ18O(SO42-) correlation line (R2 = is 0.4, n = 147). The points behind the field represent rain from Wroclaw downtown (SW Poland) or surficial lakewater collected during or just after heavy rains (Jedrysek 2000). In general, increase both in sulphur and oxygen isotope ratios results from: (i) bacterial reduction of the dissolved sulphate; or/and (ii) presence of oceanic origin sulphate - when δ18O(SO42-) value do not exceed much more than 10 per mille. Lakes and rivers from NE and SE Poland represent mesotrophic conditions and receive the lowermost in Poland acid rain impact. Consequently, they show lowermost δ34S and δ18O values. However, relatively high concentration of sulphate as compared to the low δ34S value suggest that the sulphur, in these systems, comes mostly from acid rain or forms due to oxidation of some reduced forms of sulphur. The low δ18O value evidences the second scenario. Thus, one can believe that the sulphate in the clean lakes is dominantly of natural origin. The relatively high isotope signatures in some of NE Poland lakes result, most probably, from advanced reduction of the sulphate. On the other hand, low δ18O as compared to sulphate concentration may suggest sulphide oxidation. The advanced reduction may result from the fact that the lake is very deep and narrow (width/depth ratio is about 0.1). Thus, the reduction in the bottom zone may proceed simultaneously to an active oxidation in shallower zone. Mountainous lakes (SW and SE Poland) are expected to show strictly oligotrophic parameters. However, all of them show relatively high isotope values

  2. 6-Sulphated chondroitins have a positive influence on axonal regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Lin

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs upregulated in the glial scar inhibit axon regeneration via their sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 (C6ST-1 is upregulated after injury leading to an increase in 6-sulphated GAG. In this study, we ask if this increase in 6-sulphated GAG is responsible for the increased inhibition within the glial scar, or whether it represents a partial reversion to the permissive embryonic state dominated by 6-sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Using C6ST-1 knockout mice (KO, we studied post-injury changes in chondroitin sulphotransferase (CSST expression and the effect of chondroitin 6-sulphates on both central and peripheral axon regeneration. After CNS injury, wild-type animals (WT showed an increase in mRNA for C6ST-1, C6ST-2 and C4ST-1, but KO did not upregulate any CSSTs. After PNS injury, while WT upregulated C6ST-1, KO showed an upregulation of C6ST-2. We examined regeneration of nigrostriatal axons, which demonstrate mild spontaneous axon regeneration in the WT. KO showed many fewer regenerating axons and more axonal retraction than WT. However, in the PNS, repair of the median and ulnar nerves led to similar and normal levels of axon regeneration in both WT and KO. Functional tests on plasticity after the repair also showed no evidence of enhanced plasticity in the KO. Our results suggest that the upregulation of 6-sulphated GAG after injury makes the extracellular matrix more permissive for axon regeneration, and that the balance of different CSs in the microenvironment around the lesion site is an important factor in determining the outcome of nervous system injury.

  3. China’s Aluminium Consumption and the Related Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>China is a major aluminium consumer country in the world. In 2005, China produced 7.81 million tons aluminium and imported 640,000 tons. Meanwhile, China also exported 1.32 million tons aluminium in 2005. China’s apparent consumption of aluminium in 2005 was about 7.1 million tons, which was 9.3 times over that in 1990. China’s aluminium consumption growth has kept at an annual average of 16.1 per cent since 1990, which makes China the

  4. China’s Production and Market of Aluminium Extruded Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chinese aluminium extrusion industry came into existence at the early 1950s with most products used in military industry and national defence.At the beginning of 1980s,the produc- tion of construction aluminium profiles started simultaneously in North and South China.In the following thirty years,the aluminium extru- sion industry entered into a quickly developing stage with a focus on construction aluminium profiles.With the blooming real estate industry, the demand for construction aluminium profiles from the domestic market has a tendency of yearly increase.From 2000,the quick devel- opments of China’s auto and railway vehicle

  5. Irradiation damage in aluminium single crystals produced by 50-keV aluminium and copper ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.;

    1968-01-01

    Aluminium single crystals, thin enough to be examined by electron microscopy, have been irradiated with 50-keV aluminium and copper ions. The irradiation fluxes were in the range 1011–1014 cm−2 s−1 and the doses were from 6 × 1012 to 6 × 1014 cm−2. Irradiation along either a or a direction produces...... rows of dislocation loops all lying parallel to one particular direction. If the aluminium target is quenched from 600 °C and annealed at room temperature prior to irradiation with aluminium ions, the rows of loops are suppressed. The amount of damage observed is considerably less than would...

  6. Aluminium composite casting dispersion reinforced with iron-aluminium and silicon carbide phases

    OpenAIRE

    B. Formanek; J. Piątkowski; J. Szymszal

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium matrix composite with dispersion-reinforced, made by similar to stircasting process was characterised. The mixture of powders was produced by the process of mechanical agglomeration of powdered FexAly and SiC with aluminium. The chemical composition ofagglomerates was selected in a way such as to obtain 25 wt.% reinforcement of the AlSi9Cu4 silumin matrix. Applying thermal analysis ATD, the alloy solidification process was determined, reading out the typical solidification parameter...

  7. STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM ADDITIVE AND FERROUS SULPHATE SOLUTION ON THE MECHANISM OF THE MAGNESIA-BISHOFIT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEREVIANKO V. N.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Phosphogypsum is a very pure raw material [16] with a negative, from a technical point of view, elongated shape of calcium dihydrate crystals (due to the formation conditions, which remains the same after both dehydration in dry air and grinding, this makes technical difficulties relating to further processing of the product into a binder, consequently, water resistance and plasticity of magnesium solutions can be improved by adding primary and secondary phosphates without strength reduction. Famous experts on phosphogypsum Yu. P. Meshcheryakov and N. A. Kolev [8] found, that when adding phosphogypsum instead of natural gypsum during grinding of Portland cement, which is intended to control the setting time of the mixture, there occurred reduction in the initial setting time from 1 h 55 min up to 1 h 36 min (when adding 4 % agent, and the final setting time was decreased from 6 h 15 min up to 6 min. After grinding of phosphogypsum, there appeared a fresh surface, on which the electron emission phenomenon occurs, however, not the entire surface emits, but only the active centres, where field strength reaches 108 V/cm. The positively charged active centres have low CaSO4 2H2O concentration on their surface. Purpose. Specifying the optimal amount of phosphogypsum and ferrous sulphate solution added, studying their impact on the curing mechanism of the magnesia-bishofit composition. Conclusion. To increase the sulphate compound, required for the crystallinity [10] reduction and magnesia stone sealing [4], the ferrous sulphate solution have been added to the composition formulation, ferrous sulphate anions immediately polarize free calcium ions with the formation of CaSO4∙2H2O. P. P. Budkov's experiments [8] prove that the larger the magnesia cement-to-sulphate stone ratio, the lower the setting time of the composition, and the higher the tensile strength of the stone. Moreover, V. V. Shchelyaghin [15] recommended adding ferrous

  8. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  9. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...

  10. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P;

    2005-01-01

    in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...

  11. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  12. Microstructure Development during Solidification of Aluminium Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruvalcaba Jimenez, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    This Thesis demonstrates studies on microstructure development during the solidification of aluminium alloys. New insights of structure development are presented here. Experimental techniques such as quenching and in-situ High-brilliance X-ray microscopy were utilized to study the microstructure evo

  13. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of plant sulphate starvation and resupply provides novel information on transcriptional regulation of metabolism associated with sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus nutritional responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eBielecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Reaching a thorough understanding of the molecular basis for changes in plant metabolism depending on the sulphur-nutritional status at the systems level will advance our basic knowledge and help target future crop improvement. Although the transcriptional responses induced by sulphate starvation have been studied in the past, knowledge of the regulation of sulphur metabolism is still fragmentary. This work focuses on the discovery of candidates for regulatory genes such as transcription factors (TFs using ‘omics technologies. For this purpose a short term sulphate-starvation / re-supply approach was used. ATH1 microarray studies and metabolite determinations yielded 21 TFs which responded more than 2-fold at the transcriptional level to sulphate starvation. Categorization by response behaviors under sulphate-starvation / re-supply and other nutrient starvations such as nitrate and phosphate allowed determination of whether the TF genes are specific for or common between distinct mineral nutrient depletions. Extending this co-behavior analysis to the whole transcriptome data set enabled prediction of putative downstream genes. Additionally, combinations of transcriptome and metabolome data allowed identification of relationships between TFs and downstream responses, namely, expression changes in biosynthetic genes and subsequent metabolic responses. Effect chains on glucosinolate and polyamine biosynthesis are discussed in detail. The knowledge gained from this study provides a blueprint for an integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics and application for the identification of uncharacterized genes.

  14. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  15. Study of electrochemical phosphate sensing systems: Spectrometric, potentiometric and voltammetric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivlehan, Francine [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College, Cork (Ireland); Mace, Wade J. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College, Cork (Ireland); Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, University College, Cork (Ireland); Moynihan, Humphrey A. [Department of Chemistry, Analytical and Biological Chemistry Research Facility, University College, Cork (Ireland); Arrigan, Damien W.M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, University College, Cork (Ireland)], E-mail: damien.arrigan@tyndall.ie

    2009-02-28

    Characterization of the interaction of a urea-functionalized calix[4]arene ionophore and phosphate was undertaken by combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, potentiometric selectivity coefficient evaluation and voltammetric ion transfer at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES). NMR revealed that the urea protons were involved in complexation with the target anion and potentiometric separate solution selectivity data indicated selectivity for phosphate over chloride and sulphate. Voltammetry at the ITIES confirmed that the ionophore-facilitated transfer of monohydrogen phosphate occurred in preference to dihydrogen phosphate transfer. The results correlate with previously reported data on the potentiometric evaluation of this calixarene as an anionophore in PVC-membrane electrodes. The data provide the basis for development of amperometric monohydrogen phosphate sensors based on the ion-transfer principle.

  16. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  17. Spectrophotometric Estimation of Abacavir Sulphate in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Raju, N. Appala; Rao, J. Venkateswara; Prakash, K. Vanitha; K.Mukkanti

    2008-01-01

    Two simple, accurate, rapid and sensitive methods (A and B) have been developed for the estimation of abacavir sulphate in its pharmaceutical dosage form. The method A and B are based on the formation of chloroform extractable complex of abacavir sulphate with bromophenol blue (method A) and bromocresol green (method B), which shows absorbance maxima at 460 nm and 469 nm respectively. The absorbance-concentration plot is linear over the range of 1-10 mcg/mL for method A and B respectively. Re...

  18. Sinemet-ferrous sulphate interaction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, N R; Rankine, D; Goodridge, A E; Hasinoff, B B; Kara, M

    1990-01-01

    1. This study examined the effects of administering ferrous sulphate 325 mg with Sinemet (100/25 tablet) on levodopa and carbidopa bioavailability and on signs of Parkinson's disease in nine patients. 2. Ferrous sulphate ingestion with Sinemet resulted in a decrease in levodopa area under the curve (AUC) of 30% (P less than 0.01) and a greater than 75% decrease in carbidopa AUC. Despite a strong relationship between reductions in levodopa AUC and reductions in Sinemet efficacy (r = 0.83, P le...

  19. Microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal sulphate deposits, Haughton impact structure, and implications for sulphates on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, J.; Lee, P.; Cockell, C. S.; Osinski, G. R.

    2004-07-01

    Hydrothermal gypsum deposits in the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canada, contain microbial communities in an endolithic habitat within individual gypsum crystals. Cyanobacterial colonies occur as masses along cleavage planes, up to 5 cm from crystal margins. The crystals are transparent, so allow transmission of light for photosynthesis, while affording protection from dehydration and wind. The colonies appear to have modified their mineral host to provide additional space as they expanded. The colonies are black due to UV-screening pigments. The relative ease with which microbial colonization may be detected and identified in impact-generated sulphate deposits at Haughton suggests that analogous settings on other planets might merit future searches for biosignatures. The proven occurrence of sulphates on the Martian surface suggests that sulphate minerals should be a priority target in the search for life on Mars.

  20. Monitoring of sulphate attack on hardened cement paste studied by synchrotron XRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, J.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2015-10-01

    The complex matter of external sulphate attack on cement-based construction materials is still not completely understood. The concentration of sulphate is a crucial factor for the formation of secondary phases and phase transitions of cement hydrates due to sulphate ingress into the microstructure. The sulphate attack on building materials for high and low sulphate concentrations was monitored by laboratory experiments. Hardened cement paste consisting of ordinary Portland cement (CEM I) were exposed to aqueous solutions of sodium sulphate for 18 months. Three sample compositions were used for this research, including different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM). The phase composition was determined for different time spans by high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Cross sections of exposed cement prisms were investigated as a representation of the microstructural profile. Based on the data, a temporal and spatial determination of the stages of the sulphate attack and the deterioration course was possible. Cement matrices blended with slag showed the highest resistance against sulphate attack.

  1. First wall design of aluminium alloy R-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study of a low-activation D-T tokamak Reacting Plasma Project In Nagoya has been finished. The study emphasizes the vacuum vessel and the bumper limiter. Our choice of materials (aluminium vacuum vessel, copper conductors, aluminium TF coil case and lead shield) results in a radiation level of about 1 x 10-3 times that of a TFTR type design, and 1 x 10-4 times that of JET type design, at 2 weeks after one D-T shot. Thick graphite tiles will be fixed directly on the aluminium vacuum vessel using aluminium spring washers and bolts. With this simplified structure of the bumper limiter, the inner surface temperature of the thick aluminium vacuum vessel will be less than 1200C which is required to reduce the overaging effect of the aluminium alloy. (orig.)

  2. What is the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium is neurotoxic. Its free ion, Al(3+) (aq), is highly biologically reactive and uniquely equipped to do damage to essential cellular (neuronal) biochemistry. This unequivocal fact must be the starting point in examining the risk posed by aluminium as a neurotoxin in humans. Aluminium is present in the human brain and it accumulates with age. The most recent research demonstrates that a significant proportion of individuals older than 70 years of age have a potentially pathological accumulation of aluminium somewhere in their brain. What are the symptoms of chronic aluminium intoxication in humans? What if neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are the manifestation of the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin? How might such an (outrageous) hypothesis be tested?

  3. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention.

  4. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as permeability were observed for any of the three diatoms suggesting that mechanisms of aluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium. PMID:26921729

  5. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  6. Straggling of heavy ions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort has been made to determine the straggling in aluminium of 4He, 16O and 35Cl ions of different energies produced by the tandem Van de Graaff at Harwell. The technique consists of scattering the accelerated and collimated ions in a scattering chamber from a 0.100 mg/cm2 gold foil, allowing the scattered ions to pass through a two aperture collimator, using different aluminium foils over one of the apertures and stopping the two emergent beams in a good quality silicon surface barrier detector the output of which is connected to a 4096 channel analyser. The energy widths obtained in the case of helium ions are in fair agreement with both the Bloch and the recent Tschalar (1968) theory. The measured widths in the case of heavy ions are very large and can be explained only if account is taken of their charge distributions in foils. This study should be useful in ion implantation work. (author)

  7. The effect of water on the sulphation of limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunbo Wang; Lufei Jia; Yewen Tan; E.J. Anthony [North China Electric Power University, Baoding City (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2010-09-15

    A series of tests was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to study the sulphation behaviour of limestone in the presence of water over the temperature range of 800-850{sup o}C. Four different Canadian limestones, all with a particle size range of 75-425 {mu}m, were sulphated using a synthetic flue gas with a composition of 15% CO{sub 2}, 3% O{sub 2}, 0% or 10% H{sub 2}O, 1750 ppm SO{sub 2} and the balance N{sub 2}. Water was shown to have a significant promotional effect on sulphation, especially in the diffusion-controlled stage. However, the effect of water during the kinetic-controlled stage appeared to be much less pronounced. Based on these results, it is proposed that the presence of water leads to the transient formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} as an intermediate, which in turn reacts with SO{sub 2} at a faster rate than CaO does. Alternatively stated, it appears that H{sub 2}O acts as catalyst for the sulphation reaction of CaO. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Chemical and Electrochemical Characterization of Artificial Sulphate Patina on Bronze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yangwu; NIE Dunwei; MOMBELLO Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Copper patinas are generally regarded as aesthetically pleasing and are supposed to protect copper against further corrosion. The preparation of artificial sulphate patina on bronzes has been realized by immersing the bronze into CuSO4 solution. The effect of immersion time on the formation of the patina has been investigated. The sulphate patina obtained with immersion time of 500 h in CuSO4 solution consists of flat area and crystals. The flat area in the patina is mainly made of cuprite, whereas the crystals are mainly composed of brochantite. The electrochemical measurement of sulphate patina in simulated acid rain with pH 3.1 shows that the protective effectiveness of patina decreases with time and the dissolution of patina is the key factor leading to the degradation of patina. The investigation of the formation mechanism of sulphate patina shows that the cuprite layer forms on the surface of bronze in the initial patination. Then, crystal brochantite grows on the surface of cuprite by the oxidation of cuprite and the incorporation of CuSO4 solution.

  9. Endogenous and bioaugmented sulphate reduction in calcareous gypsiferous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfaya, F.; Cuenca-Sanchez, M.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Gypsiferous soils have a high agricultural value, but their utilization is limited by the presence of gypsum that can induce hardpan and vertical crusting. This paper reports on sulphate reduction in this soil type as a basis of a bioremediation technology to remove the gypsum content of calcareous

  10. Microencapsulation of terbutaline sulphate by the solvent evaporation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, N C; Puranik, P K; Joshi, S B

    1992-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate microcapsules were prepared by coacervation-phase separation (solvent evaporation) technique using ethyl cellulose as a coating material. Acetone, ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol were employed as solvents for coating material. Microcapsules were evaluated for their drug content, particle size distribution (microscopic method), flow properties, bulk density, in vitro dissolution, drug release kinetics and surface characteristics (scanning electron microscopy). PMID:1403496

  11. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TERBUTALINE SULPHATE MUCOADHESIVE BUCCAL TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj S.Kulkarni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of developing any new dosage form is reduce the side effects and increase the therapeutic effect of drug in existing dose of dosage form. Mucoadhesive drug delivery system is oral dosage form, where the tablet, gel or patch is attached to the buccal region for direct absorption of drug into blood circulation. This route can prevent the metabolism of drug in G.I tract or liver and side effects of metabolites avoided. In this study, the attempt was made to prepare mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate with natural polymer sodium alginate with one side absorption by backing layer with ethyl cellulose. The buccal tablets of Terbutaline sulphate studied in detail. I R Spectroscopy did the compatible study between polymers and Terbutaline sulphate and No interaction was found between drug and polymers. Different formulations of oral Mucoadhesive buccal tablets of Terbutaline Sulphate (TS were prepared using polymer sodium alginate, in different concentrations by direct compression. Post compressed evaluation studies, hardness, thickness, friability; weight variation and drug content, mucoadhesive strength of tablets were studied. The in-vitro release of TS was studied in buffer pH 6.8 at 370C. All parameters of TS buccal tablets are passed the standard of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. It was found that mucoadhesive natural polymers exhibited better adhesiveness and mucoadhesiveness. The in vitro study of TS exhibited greater drug release profile with release of in the range of 79.25 to 99.85%.

  12. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hans; Hegaard, H K; Greisen, G;

    2012-01-01

    . A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the PubMed database from their inceptions to 1 October, 2010 using the keywords 'magnesium sulphate, children/infant/pre-term/premature and cerebral palsy/mortality/morbidity/adverse effects/outcome' identified 11 reports of observational studies. Two...

  13. China will Reduce Aluminium Export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Starting from January 1, 2005, China eliminated the 8 per cent export tax rebate for aluminium, and further more, the exporters will have to pay 5 per cent export tax. This is beyond the expectations of the producers, for most of them thought only the 8 per cent export tax rebate would be eliminated and it was still too early to add the export tax.

  14. FSW characterization of 6082 aluminium alloys sheets

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mroczka; A. Pietras

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the investigations was to elaborate a set of FSW parameters for connecting 6082 aluminium alloy sheets allowing to produce welds of highest strength.Design/methodology/approach: The FSW was tried at different speeds and at additional cooling. The welds microstructure was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The mechanical properties of produced connections are discussed regarding their tensile test and microhardness measurements.Findings: The FSW we...

  15. Methods of inoculation of pure aluminium structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of investigations was the reduction of grain size and unification of structure for pure Al casting by introduction of small amount of inoculant (less than obligatory standart PN-EN 573-3, which concerning about aluminium purity, with electromagnetic field and variable casting parameters.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations it was used light microscopy and TEM. Surfaces of samples which were prepared for macro- and microstructure analysis were etched with use of solution of: 50g Cu, 400ml HCl, 300ml HNO3 and 300ml H2O. Thin foils for TEM investigations were electropolished with use of 20 ml HClO4 and 80ml CH3OH.Findings: The results of investigations and their analysis show possibility of effective inoculation of pure aluminium structure by use of some factors such as: different materials of the mould, influencing of stirring electromagnetic field into metal during solidification, inoculation by introducing AlTi5B1 inoculant into liquid aluminium and changing the pouring temperature.Research limitations/implications: I further research, authors of this paper are going to application of introduced method of inoculation in industrial tests.Practical implications: The work presents refinement of structure method which are particularly important in continuous and semi – continuous casting where products are used for plastic forming. Large columnar crystals zone result in forces extrusion rate reduction and during the ingot rolling delamination of external layers can occur. Thus, in some cases ingot skinning is needed, which rises the production costs.Originality/value: Contributes to research on size reduction in pure aluminium structure.

  16. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; A. J. Nowak; Nagel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN ...

  17. Softening Behaviour of Selected Commercially Pure Aluminium Model Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sande, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the softening behaviour of four different commercially pure aluminium alloys has been carried out. The work is related to the MOREAL project (Modelling towards value-added recycling friendly aluminium alloys), where the main goal is to quantify the effect of the elements in recyclable aluminium alloys on microstructure and mechanical properties during thermo-mechanical processing. Typical elements are iron (Fe), silicon (Si) and manganese (Mn), and the alloys studied in ...

  18. Un-optimistic Prospects for the Westward Movement of Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The westward movement of aluminium is essential for the industrial development.Up till now,the northwestern area has planned to construct more than 40 aluminium projects with a total production capacity of over 20 million tons.The future rate of progress of newly constructed projects are directly related to the supplies of the aluminium market,having critical guiding meaning for the trends of

  19. Friction factor of CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Vidhya Sagar; K S Anand; A C Mithun; K Srinivasan

    2006-12-01

    Friction factor has been determined for CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys using ring compression test at different temperatures from 303 K to 773 K. It is found that CP aluminium exhibits sticking whereas Al–Zn alloys do not exhibit sticking at elevated temperatures. Hot working of Al–Zn alloy is easier than that of CP aluminium at 773 K. As zinc content increases up to 10 wt% the friction factor decreases up to 0.02.

  20. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cieśla

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method an...

  1. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  2. Tribological characteristics of coatings on aluminium and its alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Mahdi, Fadhil S

    1987-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Hard anodising on aluminium and its alloys has been widely practised for many years in order to improve the resistance of the otherwise poor wear characteristics of aluminium. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in other treatments and coatings, on both aluminium and other base metals. The aim of this investigation is to explain the tribological performance and wear mechanis...

  3. Wearing tests on aluminium coated with diamond by triboadhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.M.RodríguezLelis; B.D.Angulo; J.O.Colín; J.PorcayoCalderón

    2001-01-01

    In this work the results obtained from subjecting aluminium coated with diamond by tri-boadhesion to a wearing process with a plane rider. Here it is shown the ratio of the normal toshearing forces, called friction factor, as an indication of the resistance of the surface. It was foundthat the film of the aluminium coated with diamond resisted three times compared with the oxida-tion film of commercial aluminium, which for the purpose of this work was considered withoutcoating.

  4. Behaviour and design of aluminium alloy structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Meini; 蘇玫妮

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are nonlinear metallic materials with continuous stress-strain curves that are not well represented by the simplified elastic, perfectly plastic material model used in most existing design specifications. The aims of this study are to develop a more efficient design method for aluminium alloy structures by rationally exploiting strain hardening. The key components of this study include laboratory testing, numerical modelling and development of design guidance for aluminium al...

  5. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle

    2008-07-15

    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  6. Aluminium in the rail transportation market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, J. [Alcan Alesa Engineering Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland). Alcan Mass Transportation Systems

    2002-07-01

    Rail-transportation is not, as one might expect, a homogeneous market but extremely fragmented and even with huge differences from continent to continent, i.e. in North America freight transport is dominating whereas in Europe passenger transport prevails. A first segmentation splits infrastructure from vehicles. In a second layer of segmentation we distinguish between light rail vehicles, heavy metros, regional trains, intercity trains, high speed trains with and without tilting, maglev trains, freight vehicles and locomotives. Finally, we find aluminium applications in wheels, suspension parts, brake equipment, traction equipment, body structure, hang on parts and interior trim. On the infrastructure side best use of aluminium is in the field of power supply. In order to have the best solution for each application, all forms of products such as castings, forgings, flat rolled products and extrusions are needed and the engineers are using a broad choice or different alloys for all the requirements such as structural strength, decorative aspect, electrical conductivity, wear resistance, weldability, corrosion resistance etc. Innovation cycles in rail transportation are very slow, mainly because the expected life of vehicles is over 30 years and so no fleet owner will run the risk of getting vehicles with non-proven components, i.e. where a safe life of over 30 years cannot be shown. In the following the most important aluminium applications are shown and discussed. (orig.)

  7. Plasmonic enhancement of photoluminescence from aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Chris; Stewart, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) films were grown on c-plane sapphire wafers by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) under aluminium-rich conditions. The excess aluminium (Al) accumulated on the surface of the films as micro-scale droplets 1-10 μm in size, and as Al nanoparticles with diameters in the range 10-110 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on the AlN samples using a 193 nm Excimer laser as the excitation source. Prior to PL measurements the wafers were cleaved in half. One half of each wafer was submitted to a 10 min treatment in H3PO4 heated to 70 °C to remove the excess Al from the film surface. The remaining half was left in the as-deposited condition. The mean intensities of the near-band-edge PL peaks of the as-deposited samples were 2.0-3.4 times higher compared to the samples subjected to the H3PO4 Al-removal treatment. This observation motivated calculations to determine the optimal Al surface nanosphere size for plasmonic enhancement of PL from AlN. The PL enhancement was found to peak for an Al nanosphere radius of 15 nm, which is within the range of the experimentally-observed Al nanoparticle sizes.

  8. Geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and origin of phosphates from Jandia, Cansa Perna, Itacupim (Para) and Pirocaua and Trauira (Maranhao)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate occurrences of Northeastern Para and Northwestern Maranhao were formed by strong lateritic weathering of phosphorus-rich Precambrian rocks. The rock formation affected by those processes were phyllites and schists of the Gurupi Group in Cansa Perna and Pirocaua, a complex of felsic to mafic and ultramafic rocks metamorphosed in the greenschist facies in Itacupim and Trauira and probably phosphoritic sandstone in Jandia. The geology, the mineralogy of phosphates, oxides, hydroxides and silicates, the geochemistry of element distribution (aluminium, silicon, iron, calcium, etc) and trace elements distribution (strontium, rubidium, barium, rare earths, zirconium, niobium uranium, thorium, etc) and the phosphates origin are studied. (C.G.C.)

  9. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nano-powders prepared from purified sulphate leach liquor of red mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakiridis, P.E., E-mail: ptsakiri@central.ntua.gr [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Oustadakis, P.; Katsiapi, A.; Perraki, M.; Agatzini-Leonardou, S. [School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ti can be recovered from red mud leach liquor by 40% Cyanex 272 in toluene. {yields} 3 stages are required for Ti extraction at pH = 0.3, T = 25 {sup o}C and A/O = 1.5. {yields} Ti can be stripped from loaded Cyanex 272 with diluted HCl at 25 {sup o}C. {yields} TiO{sub 2} is precipitated as anatase at pH = 6 and T = 95 {sup o}C, using MgO pulp. {yields} Fe in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no Al was detected. - Abstract: The research work presented in this paper is focused on the development of a purification process of red mud sulphate leach liquor for the recovery of titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) nano-powders in the form of anatase. Initially, titanium was extracted over iron and aluminium from the leach liquor by solvent extraction using Cyanex 272 in toluene, at pH: 0.3 and T: 25 {sup o}C, with 40% extractant concentration. Stripping of the loaded, with titanium, organic phase was carried out by diluted HCl (3 mol/L) at ambient temperature. Finally, the recovery of titanium nano-powder, in the form of anatase, was performed by chemical precipitation at pH: 6 and T: 95 {sup o}C, using 10 wt% MgO pulp as neutralizing agent. The produced precipitates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Their morphological characteristics and microstructure were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High grade titanium white precipitate, in the form of anatase, was obtained. Iron concentration in the precipitate did not exceed 0.3%, whereas no aluminium was detected.

  10. Aluminium composite casting dispersion reinforced with iron-aluminium and silicon carbide phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Formanek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composite with dispersion-reinforced, made by similar to stircasting process was characterised. The mixture of powders was produced by the process of mechanical agglomeration of powdered FexAly and SiC with aluminium. The chemical composition ofagglomerates was selected in a way such as to obtain 25 wt.% reinforcement of the AlSi9Cu4 silumin matrix. Applying thermal analysis ATD, the alloy solidification process was determined, reading out the typical solidification parameters. The methods of light and scanning microscopy were used to reveal the structure of composite casting. Changes in chemical composition and phase composition of particles of the FeAl intermetallic phase in aluminium matrix were confirmed. The structure of silumin casting with matrix containing microregions of ceramic and intermetallic phases, typical of hybrid reinforcements, was obtained.

  11. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides prepared from various aluminium salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Temuujin; Ts JADAMBAA; K J D Mackenzie; P Angerer; F Porte; F Riley

    2000-08-01

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived from the sulfate. This contains a higher concentration of anionic impurities related to differences in the solubility of the original aluminium salts. The sulfate is retained in the gel to higher temperatures at which its eventual decomposition may lead to the formation of a reactive pore structure which facilitates the nucleation of -Al2O3.

  12. Synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles by arc evaporation of an aluminium cathode surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Gazanfari; M Karimzadeh; S Ghorbani; M R Sadeghi; G Azizi; H Karimi; N Fattahi; Z Karimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium nanoparticles (Al Nps) are synthesized using arc discharge method by applying direct current between aluminium electrodes in liquid environment without any use of vacuum equipment, heat exchangers, high temperatures furnaces and inert gases. After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on the nanoparticles was performed immediately. The effects of media on the yield and morphology of aluminium nanoparticles were investigated. Analysis result of the samples indicated that particle size was less than 30 nm, when 120 A/cm2 arc current was used. In addition, coating agent can affect arc velocity, arc stability, morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. Resultant nanoparticles were identified using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), also their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finally the accuracy of coating was assessed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

  13. Cold-impregnated aluminium. A new source of nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, C

    1994-07-01

    A new technique for finishing anodized aluminium was introduced during the 1980s--cold impregnation with nickel. Nickel is available on the surface of cold-impregnated aluminium, as shown by the dimethylglyoxime test. Chemical analysis with EDXA showed that nickel was in the form of NiSO4. A case of work-related allergic contact dermatitis in an engraver with nickel allergy is reported. It transpired that the patient was exposed to nickel in connection with aluminium. It is concluded that cold-impregnated aluminium is a new source of nickel exposure, probably previously unknown to dermatologists. PMID:7924288

  14. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M.; Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L.; Afshari, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface roughness was also observed.

  15. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  16. Aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal--oxygen -cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, E.

    1975-02-20

    The invention deals with an aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal--oxygen cells. The object of the invention is to improve further an aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal--oxygen cells. In particular, the lifetime is to be increased and the Faraday degree of efficiency is to be improved by suppressing an excessive hydrogen development. The anode is thus constructed so as to have a metal net on both sides with aluminium layers, and the surfaces of the aluminium layers not facing the metal net are lapped or sand-blasted and have an anodized layer on their boundary regions.

  17. Negative aluminium electrode for biogalvanic metal-oxygen cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, E.

    1977-03-24

    The invention deals with an aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal-oxygen cells. The object of the invention is to further improve an aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal-oxygen cells. In particular, the service life is to be increased and the Faraday degree of efficiency is to be improved, by suppressing an excessive hydrogen development. The anode is thus constructed so as to have a metal net on both sides with aluminium layers and the surfaces of the aluminium layers not facing the metal net are lapped or sand-blasted and have an eloxal layer on their boundary regions.

  18. Phosphate metabolism and vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate plays many essential roles in our body. To accomplish these functions, serum phosphate needs to be maintained in a certain range. Serum phosphate level is regulated by intestinal phosphate absorption, renal phosphate handling and equilibrium of extracellular phosphate with that in bone or intracellular fluid. Several hormones such as parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulate serum phosphate by modulating intestinal pho...

  19. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans in glia and in the normal and injured CNS: expression of sulphotransferases and changes in sulphation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Properzi, F.; Lin, R.; Kwok, J.; Naidu, M.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Dam, G.B. ten; Camargo, L.M.; Raha-Chowdhury, R.; Furukawa, Y.; Mikami, T.; Sugahara, K.; Fawcett, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have multiple functions relevant to the control of the CNS injury response, particularly in modulating the effects of growth factors and localizing molecules that affect axon growth. We examined the pattern of expression and glycanation of HSPGs in the normal a

  20. Discussion about magnesium phosphating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results from recently published research focused on production of non-conventional magnesium phosphate Mg3(PO42・4H2O – bobierrite, or MgHPO4・3H2O – newberyite coating for both magnesium alloys and/or mild steel. This new kind of coating is categorized in the context of current state of phosphating technology and its potential advantages and crystal structure is discussed. At the same time, the suitable comparison techniques for magnesium phosphate coating and conventional zinc phosphate coating are discussed.

  1. Determination of Radium 226 in mexican phosphate fertilizers and gypsum by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 226 Ra isotope was determined in 17, 20 and 46% m/m phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The samples of the fertilizers were dissolved in 10% v/v nitric acid solutions. The barium sulphate method was used for the precipitation of 226 Ra. On the other hand, alkaline fusion method was used to separate the 226 Ra from gypsum. The results indicated that 226 Ra was present in the phosphate fertilizers and gypsum. The 226 Ra concentrations present in these materials were between 10 -4 - 10 -5 μg g-1. (Author)

  2. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB;

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  3. A study on the recycling of aluminium alloy 7075 scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, Goekhan [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (TR). Balkan Centre of Advanced Casting Technologies (BACAT); Marsoglu, Muezeyyen [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (Turkey). Dept. for Metal and Materials Science Engineering; Burgucu, Sarp

    2012-07-01

    Aluminium and its alloys have recently become an important metal whose area and amount of usage increase more and more, due to their mechanical properties, recycling ability, and penetrability. If it is considered that the bauxite, which is the raw material of aluminium is rare on earth, and also the area and amount of aluminium usage increases over time, the importance of aluminium recycling goes up. aluminium recycling has become crucial by means of both, the potential of the scrap's dependant increase on usage and the primary aluminium production, as it is providing energy and cost savings. 7xxx grades of scrap are collected with other scrap of aluminium alloys in one turn and recycled all together. As the regain of these alloys is not done by isolation of the various grades, the finally recycled ingots result in lower grades. High value aluminium scrap is regrettably not recovered, as it was anticipated. This study is dealing with 7075 aluminium alloys originated from discharged blow molding tools and the rest piece cuttings of blocks and plates. The material has been subjected to an induction furnace, and has been remelted into small ingots and hardened according to 7075 aluminium alloy parameters (hardening aluminium tooling). [German] Aluminium und seine Legierungen sind in den letzten Jahren aufgrund ihrer mechanischen Eigenschaften, ihrer Recyclingfaehigkeit und ihrer Durchlaessigkeit immer bedeutendere metallische Werkstoffe geworden. Unter Beruecksichtigung, dass Bauxit als Rohmaterial selten auf der Erde vorkommt und der Verbrauch mit der Zeit steigt, waechst die Bedeutung des Recyclings von Aluminium. Aluminiumrecycling, zumal es Energieund Kosteneinsparungen ermoeglicht, ist sowohl fuer die schrottabhaengigen Verwendungspotentiale und die PrimaerAluminiumproduktion gleichermassen bedeutend geworden. Die 7xxxx Schrottlegierungen werden in einem Arbeitsgang mit dem Schrott aus anderen Aluminiumlegierungen gesammelt und recycled. Da die

  4. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  5. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  6. Electrolytic deposition of aluminium-magnesium-alloys from electrolytes containing organo-aluminium complexes; Elektrolytische Abscheidung von Aluminium-Magnesium-Legierungen aus aluminiumorganischen Komplexelektrolyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, H.; Mehler, K.; Bongard, H.; Tesche, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Reinhold, B. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Technische Entwicklung

    2000-10-01

    The galvanic deposition of pure aluminium from fluoride-containing electrolytes has been developed further and for the first time aluminium and magnesium have been deposited from a toluene-solution of a halide-free organo-aluminium complex electrolyte. The rate of incorporation of magnesium can be controlled over a wide range by either adjusting the composition of the aluminium-magnesium anode or by using separate aluminium or magnesium anodic circuits. The current efficiency for both anode and cathode approaches 100%. The resulting coating is optically attractive and, depending upon the magnesium-content or the cathodic current density, can be formed as a dull or polished surface. Investigations using an electron microscope show that the surface, in contrast to that of pure aluminium, consists of spherical particles. The aluminium-magnesium coating provides excellent protection against the corrosion of magnesium components. Electrochemical investigations using, for example 25% by weight magnesium incorporation, indicate a pronounced passivity interval compared to the alloy AZ91hp. In contrast to galvanic zinc-plated and silicate-sealed examples, cyclic corrosion tests on screws simulating 10 years of exposure, show no corrosion. (orig.)

  7. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  8. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  9. Distribution of potentially toxic elements in the Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saueia C. H. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product phosphoric acid and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum as by-product. Phosphoric acid is the raw material for the production of phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP. Phosphogypsum waste is stored in stacks, since its level of impurities (metals and radionuclides among others prevent its safe reutilization. However, part of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils. The main aim of this paper is to determine the levels of potentially toxic elements in phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum produced in Brazil. The elements Co and Cr were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were analyzed by ICP-OES. The results obtained are lower than the limits established by the Brazilian regulatory agency for metals in fertilizers and soil conditioner.

  10. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. PMID:26067895

  11. Gas heat treatment plants for the aluminium industry; Gasbeheizte Waermebehandlungsanlagen fuer die Aluminium-Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olberts, P.; Hanus, A. [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    LOI Thermoprocess has developed new, flexible, innovative furnace designs for heat treatment of aluminium in general (car industry) and particularly for cylinder heads, engine units, chassis components, textured components, wheels, rolled sheet and extrusions. The furnaces are heated by means of radiant tubes (recuperators) and by the more usual open gas heating system (flue gas recirculation). (orig.)

  12. The aluminium body has been promoted in Canada; La carrosserie aluminium promue au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-02-01

    The aluminium vehicles technology is a technology which allows, with an equivalent structure, to decrease the weight of a car of 40%. Presented by the Alcan firm, this technology is one of the technologies of the year 2003. The Alcan firm has, besides, received the 2003 technology price awarded by the magazine Industry Week. (O.M.)

  13. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  14. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium.

  15. New Policies to Control the Aluminium Industry Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Information from China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association (CNIA) shows that new government policies on China’s aluminium industry will be released soon in order to control the rapid expansion of the aluminium industry which consumes large amount of power resources. Based on the new policies, investors of

  16. Chalco Calls for End of More Control Measures on Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> To control the investment rush in electrolyticaluminium in recent years and ensure thehealthy development of China’s aluminium in-dustry, the State Council recently released aseries of adjustment policies and control meas-ures,which effectively prevented theinvestment rush and limited the aluminium out-put growth.

  17. Haemodialysis related osteomalacia: a staining method to demonstrate aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Malcolm RC; Ihle, Benno U; Dunn, Cheryl M

    1981-01-01

    A slight modification in tissue processing and staining technique enables a previously described method for staining aluminium to be used to demonstrate aluminium in osteomalacia associated with haemodialysis. The stain appears to be accurate in diagnosing this condition and may assist in establishing the diagnosis before severe osteomalacia develops.

  18. Developments in finite element simulations of aluminium extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lof, Joeri

    2000-01-01

    Aluminium extrusion is a forming process used to produce profiles. A large variety of profiles can be made by pressing a billet of hot aluminium through a hole that closely resembles the required cross-section of the profie. At the present time, design of extrusion dies and operation in extrusion co

  19. Spark counting technique with an aluminium oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic spark counting of etch-pits on a polycarbonate film produced by nuclear fission fragments is now used for neutron monitoring in several countries. A method was developed using an aluminium oxide film instead of a polycarbonate as the neutron detector. Aluminium oxide films were prepared as follows: A cleaned aluminium plate as an anode and a nickel plate as a cathode were immersed in dilute sulfuric acid solution and electric current flowed between the electrodes at 12degC for 10-30 minutes. Electric current density was about 10 mA/cm2. The aluminium plate was then kept in boiling water for 10-30 minutes for sealing. The thickness of the aluminium oxide layer formed was about 1μm. The aluminium plate attached to a plate of suitable fissionable material, such as uranium or thorium, was irradiated with neutrons and set in a usual spark counter for fission track counting. One electrode was the aluminium plate and the other was an aluminized polyester sheet. Sparked pulses were counted with a usual scaler. The advantage of using spark counting with an aluminium oxide film for neutron monitoring is rapid measurement of neutron exposure, since chemical etching which is indispensable for spark counting with a polycarbonate detector film, is not needed. (H.K.)

  20. CAD implementation of design rules for aluminium extrusion dies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, van Gijs

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium extrusion is an industrial forming process that is used to produce long profiles of a constant cross-section. This cross-section is shaped by the opening in a steel tool known as the die. The understanding of the mechanics of the aluminium extrusion process is still limited. The flow of al

  1. Enhanced corrosion protection by microstructural control of aluminium brazing sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzi Afshar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium brazing sheet is a sandwich material made out of two aluminium alloys (AA4xxx/AA3xxx) and is widely used in automotive heat exchangers. One of the main performance criteria for heat exchanger units is the lifetime of the product. The lifetime of the heat exchanger units is determined by th

  2. Process development for elemental recovery from PGM tailings by thermochemical treatment: Preliminary major element extraction studies using ammonium sulphate as extracting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sameera; van der Merwe, Elizabet M; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Doucet, Frédéric J

    2016-04-01

    Mine tailings can represent untapped secondary resources of non-ferrous, ferrous, precious, rare and trace metals. Continuous research is conducted to identify opportunities for the utilisation of these materials. This preliminary study investigated the possibility of extracting major elements from South African tailings associated with the mining of Platinum Group Metals (PGM) at the Two Rivers mine operations. These PGM tailings typically contain four major elements (11% Al2O3; 12% MgO; 22% Fe2O3; 34% Cr2O3), with lesser amounts of SiO2 (18%) and CaO (2%). Extraction was achieved via thermochemical treatment followed by aqueous dissolution, as an alternative to conventional hydrometallurgical processes. The thermochemical treatment step used ammonium sulphate, a widely available, low-cost, recyclable chemical agent. Quantification of the efficiency of the thermochemical process required the development and optimisation of the dissolution technique. Dissolution in water promoted the formation of secondary iron precipitates, which could be prevented by leaching thermochemically-treated tailings in 0.6M HNO3 solution. The best extraction efficiencies were achieved for aluminium (ca. 60%) and calcium (ca. 80%). 35% iron and 32% silicon were also extracted, alongside chromium (27%) and magnesium (25%). Thermochemical treatment using ammonium sulphate may therefore represent a promising technology for extracting valuable elements from PGM tailings, which could be subsequently converted to value-added products. However, it is not element-selective, and major elements were found to compete with the reagent to form water-soluble sulphate-metal species. Further development of this integrated process, which aims at achieving the full potential of utilisation of PGM tailings, is currently underway. PMID:26923300

  3. Growth morphology of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunil Verma; M K Singh; V K Wadhawan; C H Suresh

    2000-06-01

    The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A computer code is developed for carrying out these calculations. A special procedure is adopted for computing the cohesive energy of a slice of the structure parallel to any rational crystallographic plane. For estimating the cohesive energies, formal charges on the experimentally determined atomic positions in the molecules of ZTS are calculated by ab initio molecular-orbital computations, with wave functions obtained by the Hartree–Fock procedure. Fairly good agreement with the observed crystal morphology is obtained for a model of growth mechanism in which ZTS is assumed to exist in solution as zinc tris(thiourea) ions and sulphate ions.

  4. EQUIVALENT MODEL OF EXPANSION OF CEMENT MORTAR UNDER SULPHATE EROSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jue Zhu; Minqiang Jiaug; Jiankang Chen

    2008-01-01

    The expansion property of cement mortar under the attack of sulfate ions is studied by experimental and theoretical methods.First,cement mortars are fabricated with the ratio of water to cement of 0.4,0.6,and 0.8.Secondly,the expansion of specimen immerged in sulphate solution is measured at different times.Thirdly,a theoretical model of expansion of cement mortar under sulphate erosion is suggested by virtue of represent volume element method.In this model, the damage evolution due to the interaction between delayed ettringite and cement mortar is taken into account.Finally,the numerical calculation is performed.The numerical and experimental results indicate that the model perfectly describes the expansion of the cement mortar.

  5. Anion exchange kinetics of uranium in sulphate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have shown that the sorption of uranium from acidic sulphate solutions onto strong base-anion exchange resins is particle diffusion controlled in the uranium concentration range 0.0001 to 0.004 M. A simplified diffusion model, based on Fick's Law, fits the kinetic data at each concentration. The rate of sorption falls significantly at lowered solution concentration. This corresponds with a lowered equilibrium loading of uranium and can be predicted with the Nernst-Planck equations using the measured self diffusion coefficient of uranium (1.65 x 10-8 cm2/s) and sulphate ions. The importance of this lowering of uranium sorption on the design of ion exchange equipment is stressed. (author)

  6. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  7. Total sulphate vs. sulphuric acid monomer in nucleation studies

    OpenAIRE

    K. Neitola; Brus, D.; Makkonen, U.; Sipilä, M.; R. L. Mauldin III; N. Sarnela; Jokinen, T; Lihavainen, H.; M. Kulmala

    2014-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is known to be a key component for atmospheric nucleation. Precise determination of sulphuric acid concentration is crucial factor for prediction of nucleation rates and subsequent growth. In our study, we have noticed a substantial discrepancy between sulphuric acid monomer and total sulphate concentrations measured from the same source of sulphuric acid vapour. The discrepancy of about one to two orders of magnitude was found with similar formation rates. To...

  8. Single crystal neutron diffraction study of triglycine sulphate revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajul Ranjan Choudhury; R Chitra

    2008-11-01

    In order to get the exact hydrogen-bonding scheme in triglycine sulphate (TGS), which is an important hydrogen bonded ferroelectric, a single crystal neutron diffraction study was undertaken. The structure was refined to an -factor of [2] = 0.034. Earlier neutron structure of TGS was reported with a very limited data set and large standard deviations. The differences between the present and the earlier reported neutron structure of TGS are discussed.

  9. Methanogens, sulphate and heavy metals: a complex system

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, Da, L.; Stams, A. J. M.; Machado de Sousa, D.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a well-established technology used for the treatment of wastes and wastewaters with high organic content. During AD organic matter is converted stepwise to methane-containing biogasa renewable energy carrier. Methane production occurs in the last AD step and relies on methanogens, which are rather sensitive to some contaminants commonly found in wastewaters (e.g. heavy metals), or easily outcompeted by other groups of microorganisms (e.g. sulphate reducing bacteria...

  10. Sodium sulphate crystallization influence on intergranular destruction of Thassos marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ružička

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sodium sulphate crystallization in pore spaces of Thassos marble and presents the 3D visualization of intergranular fractures causing a deterioration of the specimen by the salt crystallization. Cylindrical marble specimen with diameter 20 mm and length 50 mm has been submitted to 15 cycles of the dipping in 14 % solution of mirabilite (Na2SO4·10 H2O according to the STN EN 12370 standard methodical test. Using electron methods (polarization microscopy, SEM – Scanning electron microscopy, XRD – X-ray diffraction, EMPA – Electron-microprobe analysis and by monitoring of selected physical parameters (changes in weight and changes in P-waves velocities, in first the mineral composition and microstructure of the marble have been characterized and consequently the effects induced by cyclic activity of sodium sulphate with the marble have been analysed. Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP method has been used for specification of the porosity and detail pore structure. After realised 15 cycles of dipping in salt solution the presence of sodium sulphate in EDS spectrum of the marble has been documented. The sample weight has been reduced about 1.3 % and as well the speed of P-waves propagation has been reduced about 20 %. Before and after salt crystallization test the marble has been characterized using a computed microtomography (CMT, allowing to doing the image about intensity and localization of the created micro-fractures in 3D. It was identified that cyclic salt crystallization caused the decay of the marble predominantly along the dominant dolomite crystal boundaries. The hydration and dehydration reactions of the sodium sulphate and its phase transitions with cyclic changes of humidity and temperature are also discussed in the paper.

  11. Effect of terbutaline sulphate in chronic "allergic" cough.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellul-Micallef, R

    1983-01-01

    The effects of terbutaline sulphate were studied in 30 patients who presented with chronic cough at an allergy clinic. After a three week baseline period terbutaline and its placebo were given for two periods of three weeks each in a randomised, double blind, crossover manner. Patients kept a daily record of day and night cough scores and peak expiratory flow readings. Twenty one patients responded to terbutaline; placebo produced no significant effect. Both day and night cough scores (p less...

  12. EFFECT OF SULPHATE ON LOW-TEMPERATURE ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padhraig eMadden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulphate addition on the stability of, and microbial community behaviour in, low-temperature anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed-based bioreactors was investigated at 15°C. Efficient bioreactor performance was observed, with chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies of >90%, and a mean SO42- removal rate of 98.3%. In situ methanogensis appeared unaffected at a COD:SO42- influent ratio of 8:1, and subsequently of 3:1, and was impacted marginally only when the COD: SO42- ratio was 1:2. . Specific methanogenic activity assays indicated a complex set of interactions between sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB, methanogens and homoacetogenic bacteria. SO42- addition resulted in predominantly acetoclastic, rather than hydrogenotrophic, methanogenesis until >600 days of SO42--influenced bioreactor operation. Temporal microbial community development was monitored by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of 16S rRNA genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridisations (FISH, qPCR and microsensor analysis were combined to investigate the distribution of microbial groups, and particularly SRB and methanogens, along the structure of granular biofilms. qPCR data indicated that sulphidogenic genes were present in methanogenic and sulfidogenic biofilms, indicating the potential for sulphate reduction even in bioreactors not exposed to SO42-. Although the architecture of methanogenic and sulphidogenic granules was similar, indicating the presence of SRB even in methanogenic systems, FISH with rRNA targets found that the SRB were more abundant in the sulphidogenic biofilms. Methanosaeta species were the predominant, keystone members of the archaeal community, with the complete absence of the Methanosarcina species in the experimental bioreactor by trial conclusion. Microsensor data suggested the ordered distribution of sulphate reduction and sulphide accumulation, even in methanogenic granules.

  13. CERN: very large magnet with aluminium winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, F.A.

    1984-10-25

    The construction of an octagonal solenoid from trapezoidal plates of Al, 6m long and 6cm thick, assembled by electron beam welding, for installation in a laboratory 50m underground is described. The objective is to create a field of 0.5T in a volume of 1000m/sup 3/ for the L3 particle detector of the LEP accelerator project. Principal dimensions and weights of the structure are given and its three stages of implementation are described, with reference to the contributions from the Swiss aluminium industry.

  14. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.;

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...... of crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate...

  15. Sodium Sulphate Effect on Cement Produced with Building Stone Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Sancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the blended cements produced by using the building stone waste were exposed to sulphate solution and the cement properties were examined. Prepared mortar specimens were cured under water for 28 days and then they were exposed to three different proportions of sodium sulphate solution for 125 days. Performances of cements were determined by means of compressive strength and tensile strength tests. The broken parts of some mortar bars were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM. Besides, they were left under moist atmosphere and their length change was measured and continuously monitored for period of 125 days. In blended cements, solely cements obtained by replacing 10–20% of diatomites gave similar strength values with ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5R at the ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. In all mortar specimens that included either waste andesite (AP or marble powder (MP showed best performance against very severe effective sodium sulphate solutions (13500 mg/L.

  16. Damage model of fresh concrete in sulphate environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬书; 张银华; 冯立平; 金德保; 汪朝成; 董庆友

    2015-01-01

    A model of damage to fresh concrete in a corrosive sulphate environment was formulated to investigate how and why the strength of corroded concrete changes over time. First, a corroded concrete block was divided into three regions:an expanded and dense region;a crack-development region;and a noncorroded region. Second, based on the thickness of the surface corrosion layer and the rate of loss of compressive strength of the corroding region, a computational model of the concrete blocks’ corrosion-resistance coefficient of compressive strength in a sulphate environment was generated. Third, experimental tests of the corrosion of concrete were conducted by immersing specimens in a corrosive medium for 270 d. A comparison of the experimental results with the computational formulae shows that the calculation results and test results are in good agreement. A parameter analysis reveals that the corrosion reaction plays a major role in the corrosion of fresh concrete containing ordinary Portland cement, but the diffusion of the corrosion medium plays a major role in the corrosion of concrete mixtures containing fly ash and sulphate-resistant cement. Fresh concrete with a high water-to-cement ratio shows high performance during the whole experiment process whereas fresh concrete with a low water-to-cement ratio shows poor performance during the late experiment period.

  17. RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation of Abacavir Sulphate in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. LAVANYA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of abacavir sulphate in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form (tablets by using INERTSIL ODS 3V column, C18 (250x4.6 ID mobile phase consisting of a mixture of 10mM phosphate buffer: ACN (60:40 v/v % PH: 4.0 with detection of 287 nm. The retention time was found to be 2.430min and linearity was observed in the range 60-140μg /ml. Still now there were a number of analytical methods were developed for the estimation of abacavir in pharmaceutical dosage form and also in biological samples like spectroscopic methods, chromatographic methods, etc. But the present method was met the validation parameters according ICH guidelines like accuracy, precision, linearity, range, robustness, ruggedness, limit of detection and limit of quantitation, etc. with a short around time. The method was found to be precise as indicated by the repeatability analysis, showing %RSD less than 2.

  18. Porous magnesium loaded with gentamicin sulphate and in vitro release behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiang, Guofeng; Wang, Dong; Wang, Huang; Ding, Liang; He, Guo

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to develop a biocompatible bone repair material that has the advantage of preventing postoperative infections. Finally, the porous magnesium (p-Mg) loaded with gentamicin sulphate (GS-loaded Mg-G) was fabricated. The GS release behavior of the GS-loaded Mg-G in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was investigated. The effective release time of GS reached to 14days. In addition, the effects of porosity and pore diameter of p-Mg on the GS release behavior of the GS-loaded Mg-G were studied. In the initial burst release stage, the GS release rate of the GS-loaded Mg-G increased with the increasing porosity or the increasing pore diameter of p-Mg. The GS-loaded Mg-G with larger original pore diameter has higher burst release of GS. Moreover, the in vitro antibacterial test of the GS-loaded Mg-G indicated that this biomaterial has obvious antibacterial effect. This study can provide information for p-Mg loaded with drug(s) as functional bone repair materials with drug-delivery capabilities. PMID:27612700

  19. Chronomodulated drug delivery system of salbutamol sulphate for the treatment of nocturnal asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A time dependent pulsed release system consisting of an effervescent core surrounded by consecutive layers of swelling and rupturable polymers was prepared and evaluated. The cores containing salbutamol sulphate as bioactive agent were prepared by direct compression method using different ratios of microcrystalline cellulose and effervescent agent and then coated sequentially with an inner swelling layer containing a hydrocolloid, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose E5 and an outer rupturable layer having Eudragit RL/RS (1:1. The effects of various processing and formulative parameters on the performance of system were studied. The rupture and dissolution tests were studied using the USP paddle method at 50 rpm in 0.1 N HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The lag time of the drug release decreased by increasing the inner swelling layer and increased by increasing the rupturing layer level. All the results obtained in the present study suggest that osmotic pumping effect was involved which eventually lead to the drug release.

  20. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  1. New sheet aluminium qualities for low-cost lightweight constructions; Neue Aluminium-Blechqualitaeten fuer den kosteneffizienten Leichtbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloeck, M.; Furrer, P. [Novelis Technology AG, Neuhausen (Switzerland)

    2005-11-01

    Aluminium alloys used for car bodies have a wide range of material characteristics. New developments focus on selective development of material and surface characteristics for obtaining sheet aluminium qualities optimized for specific applications. These and further measures taken by Novelis are to reduce material consumption, simplify process steps in motor car manufacturing and reducing the overall system cost. (orig.)

  2. Design of the lines of aluminium drawing. Part 2; Conception des filieres de filage d'aluminium. Partie 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cescutti, J.P.; Ravaille, N. [Pechiney, Div. Filiage, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-12-15

    This work is the second part of the file 'design of the lines of aluminium drawing'. It gives elements for structuring the analysis of the progress ways in the field of the design of the lines of aluminium extrusion. (O.M.)

  3. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  4. Determination of cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Aguinaga, Nerea; López-García, Ignacio; Hernandez-Córdoba, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Procedures were developed for determining cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and the products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Beer samples were injected into the furnace and solid samples were introduced as suspensions after preparation in a medium containing hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate for cadmium atomization. Calibration was performed with aqueous standards, and characteristic masses and detection limits were, respectively, 1 and 0.3 pg for cadmium, 18 and 5.4 pg for aluminium, and 5.6 and 6.8 pg for copper. Different samples of beer, wort, brewer's yeast, malt, raw grain, and hops were analyzed by the proposed procedures. Cadmium was found in low concentrations (0.001-0.08 microg/g and 0-1.3 ng/mL); copper (3-13 microg/g and 25-137 ng/mL) and aluminium (0.6-9 microg/g and 0.1-2 microg/mL) were found at higher levels. The reliability of the procedure was confirmed by comparing the results obtained with others based on microwave oven sample digestion, and by analyzing several certified reference materials. PMID:12083268

  5. Chemical stabilities of isoetharine hydrochloride, metaproterenol sulphate and terbutaline sulphate after mixing with normal saline for respiratory therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, V; Parasrampuria, J; Gardner, S N

    1988-04-01

    The chemical stabilities of isoetharine hydrochloride inhalation solution, metaproterenol sulphate inhalation solution and terbutaline sulphate injection, after diluting 1 in 10 with sodium chloride 0.9% injection were studied. On storing the solutions in amber-coloured syringes, they were stable for at least 120 days at 5 degrees C. At 25 degrees C they were also stable for 120 days except that isoetharine solution discoloured and lost 7.8% of its potency after 90 days of storage. There was a new peak in the chromatogram from the decomposition product. All other solutions remained clear for 120 days at both temperatures. The initial and final pH values were similar except that after 120 days at both temperatures. The initial and final pH values were similar except that after 120 days at 25 degrees C, the pH value of terbutaline solution had increased from 4.9 to 5.4. PMID:3392129

  6. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  7. Requirements for, and Cytoplasmic Concentrations of, Sulphate and Chloride, and Cytoplasmic Volume Spaces in the Halophilic Bacterium Ectothiorhodospira mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Imhoff, Johannes F.; Riedel, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Ectothiorhodospira mobilis is a halophilic phototrophic bacterium that has been isolated from soda lakes containing high concentrations of sulphate, chloride and carbonates. It utilizes reduced sulphur compounds as photosynthetic electron donors and oxidizes them to sulphate, but can also grow photoheterotrophically with sulphate as sole sulphur source. The requirements for, and the cytoplasmic concentrations of, sulphate and chloride have been determined. High concentrations of sulphate are ...

  8. Aluminium matrix composites: Challenges and opportunities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Surappa

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of light weight high performance aluminium centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibres, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions ranging from a few percent to 70%. Properties of AMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. Presently several grades of AMCs are manufactured by different routes. Three decades of intensive research have provided a wealth of new scientific knowledge on the intrinsic and extrinsic effects of ceramic reinforcement vis-a-vis physical, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and tribological properties of AMCs. In the last few years, AMCs have been utilised in high-tech structural and functional applications including aerospace, defence, automotive, and thermal management areas, as well as in sports and recreation. It is interesting to note that research on particle-reinforced cast AMCs took root in India during the 70’s, attained industrial maturity in the developed world and is currently in the process of joining the mainstream of materials. This paper presents an overview of AMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, microstructure, properties and applications.

  9. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  10. BARIUM SULPHATE ABSORPTION AND THE SERUM DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-02-01

    The so-called syphilitic antibodies can be removed from a serum by means of absorption with barium sulphate. The removal is due either to an adsorption or a mechanical absorption. The activity of the syphilitic antibodies is thereby unimpaired. The readiness with which the absorption is accomplished with barium sulphate varies considerably with different syphilitic sera. That barium sulphate exerts the same absorbing effect upon non-syphilitic serum components is made evident by the interfering property which the latter manifest in the absorption experiment of the syphilitic antibodies. The selective removal of the serum components, other than the syphilitic antibodies, by means of barium sulphate absorption is, therefore, impossible. On the other hand, a partial removal of these components, with but little removal of the syphilitic antibodies, may be effected when the content of a given serum is poor in syphilitic antibodies and comparatively rich in the indifferent serum components. But this is impossible if the conditions are reversed. The main reasons why some negative syphilitic sera may be so modified by the barium sulphate treatment as to give positive reactions, are explained below, but these apply only to those methods in which inactivated serum is employed. The inactivation reduces the antibody content to about one-fourth to one-fifth of the original. When the serum is very rich in antibodies, this does not affect the result of the fixation test. But when the amount of the antibodies is small, the process of inactivation creates conditions quite unexpected. It may produce such a condition that a given amount of the serum contains, after inactivation, only one or two antibody units, while the other serum components remain undiminished. Here one must not lose sight of the vital fact that these apparently indifferent serum constituents are not at all indifferent in the fixation processes. They may possess affinities which are similar to those of complement

  11. Sulphate aerosol size distributions at Mumbai, India, during the INDOEX-FFP (1998)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Chandra; Sinha, Prashant; Bammi, Sachin

    Sulphate size distributions were measured at the coastal station of Mumbai (formerly Bombay) through 1998, during the Indian ocean experiment (INDOEX) first field phase (FFP), to fill current gaps in size-resolved aerosol chemical composition data. The paper examines meteorological, seasonal and source-contribution effects on sulphate aerosol and discusses potential effects of sulphate on regional climate. Sulphate size-distributions were largely trimodal with a condensation mode (mass median aerodynamic diameter or MMAD 0.6 μm), a droplet mode (MMAD 1.9-2.4 μm) and a coarse mode (MMAD 5 μm). Condensation mode sulphate mass-fractions were highest in winter, consistent with the high meteorological potential for gas-to-particle conversion along with low relative humidity (RH). The droplet mode concentrations and MMADs were larger in the pre-monsoon and winter than in monsoon, implying sulphate predominance in larger sized particles within this mode. In these seasons the high RH, and consequently greater aerosol water in the droplet mode, would favour aerosol-phase partitioning and reactions of SO 2. Coarse mode sulphate concentrations were lowest in the monsoon, when continental contribution to sulphate was low and washout was efficient. In winter and pre-monsoon, coarse mode sulphate concentrations were somewhat higher, likely from SO 2 gas-to-particle conversion. Low daytime sulphate concentrations with a large coarse fraction, along with largely onshore winds, indicated marine aerosol predominance. High nighttime sulphate concentrations and a coincident large fine fraction indicated contributions from anthropogenic/industrial sources or from gas-to-particle conversion. Monthly mean sulphate concentrations increased with increasing SO 2 concentrations, RH and easterly wind direction, indicating the importance of gas-to-particle conversion and industrial sources located to the east. Atmospheric chemistry effects on sulphate size distributions in Mumbai, indicated

  12. INTEROGATION OF THE MANUFACTURING ROUTE OF ALUMINIUM AA 1050 USED IN LITHOGRAPHIC APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowska, Malgorzata Danuta

    2013-01-01

    The aluminium AA1050 alloy, known as commercially pure aluminium, contains 99.5% Al, together with Fe and Si as major alloying elements. During fabrication of aluminium substrates for lithographic printing plates in Bridgnorth Aluminium Ltd, the AA 1050 aluminium alloy proceeds through various stages of thermomechanical processing, with the conditions at each processing stage influencing the microstructure of the final coil. Because of its specific gravity, tensile strength, surface performa...

  13. Metal-phosphate binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  14. Preparation of Aluminium Oxynitride by Carbothermal Reduction of Aluminium Oxide in a Flowing N2 Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYa-wei; YUANRun-zhang; 等

    1996-01-01

    Carbothermal reduction of alumina into aluminium oxynitride(AlON) spinel in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere was studied.The effects of Al2O3/C ratio temperature,soaking time,heating rate molding pressure of samples,and nitrogen flow rate on reactions were investigated.Then the stability of AlON was elucidated and AlON wa confirmed as an intermediate compound in reduction of alumina.

  15. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition,...

  16. Aluminium: Aluminij: kovina izbire: the metal of choice:

    OpenAIRE

    Gándara, María Josefa Freiría

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the importance of aluminium as the metal of choice formany applications. Aluminium is a lightweight, durable metal. It is silvery in appearance when freshly cut, is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is easily shaped by moulding and extruding. Aluminium has two main advantages when compared with other metals. Firstly, it has a low density, about one-third that of iron and copper. Secondly, although it reacts rapidly with the oxygen in air, it forms a thin, t...

  17. Optimization of Magnesium Metal into Commercially Pure Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana J Rao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation, involve development of Al-Mg systems by addition of magnesium into commercially pure aluminium. The amounts of magnesium added into commercially pure aluminium are of 1 and 2 wt%. The recoveries of magnesium are around 85-90%.Remaining Mg react with oxygen and float on the liquid aluminium. Presence of magnesium creates two phenomena. One is solid solution hardening and other is intermetallics formation. Both the phenomena checked by microstructural changes and by measuring the electrical conductivity values. By increasing the Mg, content mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength increases and electrical conductivity decreases.

  18. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed...... reactivities was observed due to the formation of the compact oxide layer. Originality/value - This paper reveals a detailed investigation of how pressurized steam can affect the corrosion behaviour of AA1050 aluminium and the structure of Fe-containing intermetallic particles....

  19. Effect of filtration on reoxidation proceses in aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bolibruchova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys. Many of our experimental works pointed out, that using filtration media placed in gating system causes reoxidation of poured aluminium alloy. Main aim of our latest work was to validate our arguments, that filter in gating system can be considered as obstacle for continuous pouring, with help of computer simulations. This article is only a small part of our researches focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys.

  20. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  1. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  2. Radiation-induced creep of copper, aluminium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of creep studies on copper, aluminium and their alloys with and without neutron irradiation are presented. The experiments are carried out at the WWR-K reactor at the neutron fluence of 1.4.1016 n/m2.s (2.5.1016 n/m2.s, E>0.1 MeV). Polycrystalline copper (99.99 and 99.95%), aluminium (99.99%) and the alloys of copper with 4 at% of titanium, of aluminium with 4.2% of copper are studied within the temperature interval 0.31-0.51 Tm. (orig.)

  3. Study of fatigue behaviour of 7475 aluminium alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Verma; J D Atkinson; M Kumar

    2001-04-01

    Fatigue properties of a thermomechanically treated 7475 aluminium alloy have been studied in the present investigation. The alloy exhibited superior fatigue life compared to conventional structural aluminium alloys and comparable stage II crack growth rate. It was also noticed that the fatigue crack initiated from a surface grain and the crack extension was dominated by ductile striations. Analysis also revealed that this alloy possessed fracture toughness and tensile properties superior to that noticed with other structural aluminium alloys. Therefore the use of this alloy can safely reduce the overall weight of the aircraft.

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Neomycin Sulphate Ointment containing Natural Wound Healing Agent Curcuma longa

    OpenAIRE

    Akanksha D; Vikas G; Neetesh K. J; Shailendra S; Neelam B; Dinesh K. J

    2014-01-01

    Present investigation was to develop novel ointment formulation in combination of natural wound healing agent curcuma longa, which is reported to possess wound healing and anti-bacterial activities. Combination of neomycin sulphate and curcuma longa is good rational, where curcuma longa produces synergistic wound healing effect with neomycin sulphate. Formulations containing fixed concentration (0.5 %) of neomycin sulphate and 3 %, 4 % and 5 % of curcuma longa were prepared. To assess the eff...

  5. Feasibility study for removal of sulphate from HLW prior to its immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulphate removal from HLW can improve the waste loading significantly during vitrification using barium borosilicate glass matrix. This paper describes the experimental works carried out to see the feasibility of sulphate removal from HLW by precipitation method using barium nitrate. Various parameters like optimization of stoichiometric amount of barium, extent of sulphate removal, partitioning of radionuclide and feasibility of sludge fixation in cement matrix etc were also studied. (author)

  6. Effectiveness and cost-efficiency of phosphate binders in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsifkovits, Johannes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of chronic renal insufficiency in Germany was 91,718, of which 66,508 patients were on dialysis. The tendency is clearly growing. Scientific background: Chronic renal insufficiency results in a disturbance of the mineral balance. It leads to hyperphosphataemia, which is the strongest independent risk factor for mortality in renal patients. Usually, a reduction in the phosphate intake through nutrition and the amount of phosphate filtered out during dialysis are not sufficient to reduce the serum phosphate values to the recommended value. Therefore, phosphate binders are used to bind ingested phosphate in the digestive tract in order to lower the phosphate concentration in the serum. Four different groups of phosphate binders are available: calcium- and aluminium salts are the traditional therapies. Sevelamer and Lanthanum are recent developments on the market. In varying doses, all phosphate binders are able to effectively lower phosphate concentrations. However, drug therapies have achieved recommended phosphate levels in only 50 percent of patients during the last years. Research questions: How effective and efficient are the different phosphate binders in chronic renal insufficient patients? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,251 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 18 publications were included in the assessment. Results: All studies evaluated conclude that serum phosphate, serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone can be controlled effectively with all phosphate binders. Only the number of episodes of hypercalcaemia is higher when using calcium-containing phosphatebinders compared to Sevelamer and Lanthanum. Regarding the mortality rate, the cardiovascular artery calcification and bone metabolism no definite conclusions can be drawn. In any case, the amount of calcification at study start seems to be crucial for the further

  7. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  8. Amino acid residues of heparin cofactor II required for stimulation of thrombin inhibition by sulphated polyanions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, N S; Grupe, M J; Tollefsen, D M

    1999-04-12

    A variety of sulphated polyanions in addition to heparin and dermatan sulphate stimulate the inhibition of thrombin by heparin cofactor II (HCII). Previous investigations indicated that the binding sites on HCII for heparin and dermatan sulphate overlap but are not identical. In this study we determined the concentrations (IC50) of various polyanions required to stimulate thrombin inhibition by native recombinant HCII in comparison with three recombinant HCII variants having decreased affinity for heparin (Lys-173-->Gln), dermatan sulphate (Arg-189-->His), or both heparin and dermatan sulphate (Lys-185-->Asn). Pentosan polysulphate, sulphated bis-lactobionic acid amide, and sulphated bis-maltobionic acid amide resembled dermatan sulphate, since their IC50 values were increased to a much greater degree (>/=8-fold) by the mutations Arg-189-->His and Lys-185-->Asn than by Lys-173-->Gln (Gln and Lys-185-->Asn (>/=6-fold) than by Arg-189-->His (sulphate and heparin, other polyanions stimulate HCII primarily by an allosteric mechanism requiring the N-terminal acidic domain. PMID:10209287

  9. Interactions between cement grouts and sulphate bearing ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of mixtures of Ordinary Portland cement and blastfurnace slag or pulverized fuel ash, exposed to a sulphate-bearing ground water at different temperatures and pressures, were investigated in order to assess the long term durability of cements for encapsulating radioactive waste and backfilling a repository. The effect of the ground water on the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the cements is minimal. Calcite and C-S-H are present in all the samples and are durable throughout the test. Dimensional changes in the cements during setting and curing may cause weaknesses in the materials which may increase the effects of a percolating ground water. (author)

  10. Ammonium sulphate on maize crops under no tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva; Anny Rosi Mannigel; Antonio Saraiva Muniz; Simone Maria Altoé Porto; Marlene Estevão Marchetti; Antonio Nolla; Rosemary Marques de Almeida Bertani

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to evaluate the management of N and S (as ammonium sulphate) fertilization under no-tillage system on the components of maize productivity and on N and S accumulation in the crop, as well as to evaluate the minimum value of the Nitrogen Sufficiency Index (NSI 0.95) as an indicator for side dressing requirements. The experiment had a completely randomized block design with six treatments and four replications carried out in Red Latosol dystrophic soil (Hapludox...

  11. Adsorption of aluminium by stream particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, E; Ohnstad, M; Woof, C

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the adsorption of aluminium by fine particulates from Whitray Beck, a hill stream in NW England. Adsorption increased with Al(3) activity, pH and concentration of particles, and could be quantitatively described by the empirical equation: [Formula: see text] [particles] where square brackets indicate concentrations, curly brackets, activities, and alpha, beta and gamma are constants with values of 5.14x10(-10) (mol litre(-1))(2.015) (g particles litre(-1))(-1), 0.457, and 1.472, respectively. For the experimental data, the equation gave a correlation ratio of 0.99. The equation accounts reasonably well for the adsorption of Al by particulates from seven other streams. In applying the equation, it must be borne in mind that the desorption kinetics of Al depend on pH, and rapid reversibility (or=10%) of total monomeric Al. PMID:15092454

  12. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Eswara Prasad; A A Gokhale; P Rama Rao

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has been developed of the microstructure-based micromechanisms of strengthening, of fatigue and fracture as well as of anisotropy in mechanical properties. However, these alloys have not yet greatly displaced the conventionally used denser Al alloys on account of their poorer ductility, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue resistance. This review aims to summarise the work pertaining to study of structure and mechanical properties with a view to indicate the directions that have been and can be pursued to overcome property limitations.

  13. Phosphate taxis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, J.; Ito, A.; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H

    1992-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemota...

  14. Genetic disorders of phosphate regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gattineni, Jyothsna; Baum, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of phosphate homeostasis is critical for many biological processes, and both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have adverse clinical consequences. Only a very small percentage (1%) of total body phosphate is present in the extracellular fluid, which is measured by routine laboratory assays and does not reflect total body phosphate stores. Phosphate is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract via the transcellular route [sodium phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b)] and acros...

  15. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud.

  16. COMPARATION BETWEEN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR THE ALUMINIUM BRAZED PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan NIŢOI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper refers to different control methods used in aluminium brazed joining because of possible defects. Low joining complexity permits exact damages position in relation with materials geometry.

  17. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. PMID:26365318

  18. Deposition of aluminium nanoparticles using dense plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma route to nanofabrication has drawn much attention recently. The dense plasma focus (DPF) device is used for depositing aluminium nanoparticles on n-type Si (111) wafer. The plasma chamber is filled with argon gas and evacuated at a pressure of 80 Pa. The substrate is placed at distances 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm from the top of the central anode. The aluminium is deposited on Si wafer at room temperature with two focused DPF shots. The deposits on the substrate are examined for their morphological properties using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images have shown the formation of aluminium nanoparticles. From the AFM images, it is found that the size of aluminium nanoparticles increases with increase in distance between the top of anode and the substrate for same number of DPF shots.

  19. Aluminium dynamics and proton buttering in undistributed samples of acidified forest soils; Aluminium-Dynamik und Protonenpufferung in ungestoerten Proben versauerter Waldboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, E.

    1992-12-31

    In this work non-displaced soil samples were used to test the reaction of acidified forest soils in the aluminium buffering range to different proton concentrations. The examined quantities were the proton buffering rate in the macropore spaces and the correlated rate of aluminium release. Furthermore, the types of aluminium bondage occuring in the soil solution and their influence on the aluminium dynamics within the profile were determined. The significance of species distribution for the interpretation of the toxic potential of aluminium is illuminated. The influence of soil structure on proton buffering, aluminium release and species distribution is described from a global viewpoint. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird an natuerlich gelagerten Bodenproben die Reaktion versauerter Waldboeden im Aluminium-Pufferbereich auf unterschiedlich starke Protonenbelastungen untersucht. Dabei interessiert die Rate der Protonenpufferung im Makroporenraum einhergehend mit der Menge freigesetzten Aluminiums. Darueberhinaus wird untersucht, welche Aluminium-Bindungsformen in der Bodenloesung vorliegen und welchen Einfluss diese auf die Aluminium-Dynamik innerhalb des Profils haben. Die Bedeutung der Speziesverteilung fuer die Interpretation potentieller Aluminium-Toxizitaet wird beleuchtet. Uebergreifend wird der Einfluss der Bodenstruktur auf Protonenpufferung, Aluminium-Freisetzung sowie Speziesverteilung herausgestellt. (orig.)

  20. China’s Export of Fabricated Aluminium Keeps Rising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Affected by the State macro economic adjustment policies, China’s export of primary aluminium has decreased obviously. However, China’s export of fabricated aluminum is increasing rapidly, which has led to the investment rush of the aluminium industry, leading to the serious concern by the government. Market rumors are spreading that the government will soon adjust the export tax rebate rates so as to curb such a trend.

  1. Modeling of aluminium deposition from chloroaluminate ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Schaltin, Stijn; Ganapathi, Murugan; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A finite-element model of the electrodeposition of aluminium from chloroaluminate ionic liquids is introduced. The purpose of this model is to give an explanation for the reasonable current densities that can be achieved in chloroaluminate ionic liquids despite the fact that the electrochemically active Al2Cl7- complexes are transformed into inactive AlCl4- complexes during the electrodeposition of aluminium. The obtainable current density in the electrodeposition from chloroaluminate ionic l...

  2. Metal-Ceramic Interfaces in Laser Coated Aluminium Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1994-01-01

    A novel process was developed to firmly coat an aluminium alloy, Al6061, with α-Al2O3 by means of laser processing. In this approach a mixture of SiO2 and Al powder was used to inject in the laser melted surface of aluminium. A reaction product α-Al2O3 layer of a thickness of 100 µm was created whic

  3. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos; Marilene Morelli Serna; Nelson Batista de Lima; Isolda Costa; Jesualdo Luiz Rossi

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken f...

  4. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreatta

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a negative effect on safety and costs. This PhD thesis investigates the relation between electrochemical behaviour and microstructure of a number of 7xxx aluminium alloys: AA7075, AA7349 and an experime...

  5. Crushing modes of aluminium tubes under axial compression

    OpenAIRE

    Pled, Florent; Yan, Wenyi; Wen, Cui'e

    2014-01-01

    6 pages International audience A numerical study of the crushing of circular aluminium tubes with and without aluminium foam fillers has been carried out to investigate their buckling behaviours under axial compression. A crushing mode classification chart has been established for empty tubes. The influence of boundary conditions on crushing mode has also been investigated. The effect of foam filler on the crushing mode of tubes filled with foam was then examined. The predicted results ...

  6. Melting and solidification of bismuth inclusions in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, N.B.; Bohr, J.; Buras, B.;

    1995-01-01

    Supercooling of crystalline bismuth inclusions in aluminium crystals has been observed and studied with different techniques: x-ray diffraction, in situ Rutherford backscattering/channelling spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the measurements with different experime......Supercooling of crystalline bismuth inclusions in aluminium crystals has been observed and studied with different techniques: x-ray diffraction, in situ Rutherford backscattering/channelling spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the measurements with different...

  7. Geometry Effects at Atomic-Size Aluminium Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Schwingenschloegl, Udo; Schuster, Cosima

    2007-01-01

    We present electronic structure calculations for aluminium nanocontacts. Addressing the neck of the contact, we compare characteristic geometries to investigate the effects of the local aluminium coordination on the electronic states. We find that the Al 3pz states are very sensitive against modifications of the orbital overlap, which has serious consequences for the transport properties. Stretching of the contact shifts states towards the Fermi energy, leaving the system instable against fer...

  8. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  9. Blast Loaded Aluminium Plates : Experiments and numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Melby, Emil Arne; Eide, Hilde Olaug Stakvik

    2013-01-01

    Light and flexible protective constructions in aluminium could be subjected to a blast load. In this thesis the effect of blast loading on aluminium plates of the type 1050A ? H14 was studied through experiments and numerical simulations. The effect of fragmentation was idealized with predrilled holes. The thesis was written at the Structural Impact Laboratory (SIMLab) at NTNU in collaboration with the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency (NDEA).Tensile tests revealed a clearly anisotropic behavi...

  10. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Napachat Tareelap; Kaysinee Sriraksasin; Nakorn Srisukhumbowornchai; Swieng Thuanboon; Choochat Nitipanyawong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB) propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium...

  11. Lake restoration with aluminium, bentonite and Phoslock: the effect on sediment stability and light attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Reitzel, Kasper; Flindt, Mogens

    treatments on aluminium mobility, sediment stability or light climate. A laboratory flume experiment including three shallow Danish lakes was conducted. We measured the effects of aluminium, Phoslock (a commercial product), bentonite, and a combination of bentonite/aluminium. Each treatment caused a varying...... consolidation of the sediment. The largest consolidation occurred using Phoslock- and bentonite-addition followed by bentonite/aluminium-addition, whereas aluminium alone had no effect. Sediment stability thresholds were measured before and after addition. Especially Phoslock, but also bentonite and bentonite....../aluminium increased sediment erosion threshold, with respectively 200%, 43% and 57%. Aluminium, bentonite/aluminium, and Phoslock improved the light conditions in the water phase, with respectively 60%, 57% and 50%, whereas bentonite created higher turbidity. Conclusively aluminium improved the light conditions...

  12. The variation of solubility of strontium sulphate with particle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sulphur was used to study the variation of solubility of strontium sulphate with particle size. Synthetic methods were used to control the particle size (d = 160-1000 A) and the size distribution was determined by electron microscopy. The separation of phases was carried out by sedimentation and the supernatant liquid was examined with the electron microscope to check for existence of peptized particles. The concentration of the dissolved SrSO4 was determined by evaporation of an aliquot of the supernatant and determining the sulphur activity. The results were found to follow the Ostwald-Freundlich equation for solubility with the smallest particles in a given distribution determining the solubility. From the solubility data an interfacial tension of 84±8 erg/cm2 was obtained, a value much lower than previously reported in the literature. The Ostwald-Freundlich equation was extended to crystals of any geometry. Using this extended equation the interfacial tension of tho different faces of strontium sulphate was calculated. The data on variation of solubility with particle size and on the synthesis of particles of SrSO4 were used to determine the size of the nucleus of SrSO4. Semiquantitative observations showed that the rate of solubility is much faster than the rate of growth. (author)

  13. Phosphate control in dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupisti A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamasco Cupisti,1 Maurizio Gallieni,2 Maria Antonietta Rizzo,2 Stefania Caria,3 Mario Meola,4 Piergiorgio Bolasco31Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Territorial Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, ASL Cagliari, Italy; 4Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source

  14. The binding, transport and fate of aluminium in biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mold, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust and yet, paradoxically, it has no known biological function. Aluminium is biochemically reactive, it is simply that it is not required for any essential process in extant biota. There is evidence neither of element-specific nor evolutionarily conserved aluminium biochemistry. This means that there are no ligands or chaperones which are specific to its transport, there are no transporters or channels to selectively facilitate its passage across membranes, there are no intracellular storage proteins to aid its cellular homeostasis and there are no pathways which evolved to enable the metabolism and excretion of aluminium. Of course, aluminium is found in every compartment of every cell of every organism, from virus through to Man. Herein we have investigated each of the 'silent' pathways and metabolic events which together constitute a form of aluminium homeostasis in biota, identifying and evaluating as far as is possible what is known and, equally importantly, what is unknown about its uptake, transport, storage and excretion.

  15. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  16. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Phase Behavior and Rheology of Fatty Alcohol Sulphate, Fatty Alcohol Ether Sulphate from Palm based and Mixtures with other Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase diagrams of fatty alcohol sulphate (FAS)/ fatty alcohol ether sulphate (FAES)/ soap (4.5:4.5:1.0)/ propylene glycol/ water mixtures were established at 60 degree Celsius. The birefringence was observed under cross polarizers and their phases changes examined under a polarized microscope. The results showed that the liquid crystalline region for FAS and FAES occurred only in a small region. The optical patterns of lamellar liquid crystal were identified as oily streaks structure. The rheological tests of lamellar liquid crystal were carried out in the region of 4.5/ 4.5/ 1 FAES/ FAS/ soap with 0 % PG and 10 % of water. The rheological tests used were flow curve, 3 interval thixotropy test (3ITT), oscillation (dynamic test) stress sweep test and frequency sweep test measurement done using a cone-plate sensor (25 mm, 1 degree). The flow curve was fitted to a Casson model to obtain values for the consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index. The lamellar liquid crystal show typical flow behavior and stress influenced the recovery of the structure. Linear visco-elastic (LVE) range analysis show the critical stress value at 0.475%, and elastic modulus was dominant over an angular frequency range studied. (author)

  18. Coagulation effect and floc properties of polyferric silicate sulphate and polyferric sulphate in the Yellow River water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Two inorganic polymer coagulants,polyferric silicate sulphate(PFSS) and polyferric sulphate(PFS),were comparatively evaluated in the Yellow River water treatment.The removal efficiency of turbidity and UV254 were investigated,and the zeta potential was measured.An online laser scatter instrument was used to determine the size distribution of flocs formed in the coagulation processes.Compared with PFS,PFSS forms flocs with higher growth rates and larger sizes.The formed flocs were exposed to a series of shear forces,and the floc strength was measured from the relationship between the applied shear speed and the resulting floc size.The flocs formed by PFSS had a higher strength.The floc breakage(expressed as breakage factor,Bf) and re-growth ability(expressed as breakage factor,Rf) under different shear forces and different shear periods were investigated,and it was found that larger Bf and Rf appeared after exposure to stronger shear force and longer shear period.Under the same shear condition,the flocs formed by PFSS showed a larger Bf while the flocs formed by PFS had better re-growth ability.

  19. Removal of Pb (II from Aqueous Solutions Using Mixtures of Bamboo Biochar and Calcium Sulphate, and Hydroxyapatite and Calcium Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption characteristics of Pb(II from aqueous solutions through a low-cost adsorbent mixture comprising of Bamboo biochar (BB and Calcium Sulphate (CS, and a more expensive mixture of Hydroxyapatite (HAP and Calcium Sulphate (CS, were investigated. The effects of equilibrium contact time, and adsorbate concentration conducted in batch experiments were studied. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 40 (min. The adsorption mechanism of Pb(II from these two adsorbent mixtures was carried out through a kinetic rate order. A pseudo second-order kinetic model was applied for the adsorption processes. The model yielded good correlation (R2 >0.999 of the experimental data. Adsorption of Pb(II using (BB&CS and (HAP&CS correlated well (R2 >0.99 with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations under the concentration range studied. Hence, the effectiveness of an inexpensive natural material (BB&CS mixture in Pb(II removal is established, and is promising for use in other heavy metal adsorptions.

  20. China Rescinds the Export Tax on Aluminium Alloys Made by Scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>According to an official from the Tax Regulations Office under China’s State Council, from July 1st 2005, China will rescind the 5 per cent export tax on the aluminium alloys produced by using aluminium alloys scrap. An official from the State Council’s office said that through investigation they found that most aluminium alloys produced from aluminium scrap are not that energy consuming compared to primary aluminium. Starting from January 1st 2005, China decided to collect 5 per cent export tax on aluminium so as to control the industry development connected with high energy cost.

  1. The chemistry and expansion of limestone - Portland cement mortars exposed to sulphate containing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some concretes in sulphate-bearing groundwaters can deteriorate slowly through chemical reactions which cause expansion and stress. The overall process involves diffusion of sulphate into the concrete, chemical reaction with some cement constituents, internal expansion and, finally, physical disruption of the reacted zone. This work addresses the chemical reactions and the expansion resulting from them so that the overall process of sulphate attack can be modelled eventually. The extent and rate of reaction of calcium sulphate with ordinary and sulphate resisting Portland cements (OPC and SRPC) have been measured under various conditions. Additionally, mortar bars were fabricated from OPC, OPC/BFS (blast furnace slag) and SRPC cements with carboniferous limestone and exposed to various sulphate-containing solutions. The linear expansion of the bars was continuously monitored over a period of about 200 days and, after exposure, the bars were analysed in detail. The results show that the bulk expansion during sulphate attack is proportional to sulphur taken up in insoluble ettringite and magnesium (when present) precipitated as brucite. The results are used to rationalise the behaviour of concretes in sulphate-bearing environments. (author)

  2. Sulphate reduction and calcite precipitation in relation to internal eutrophication of groundwater fed alkaline fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirkel, D.G.; Beek, van C.G.E.M.; Witte, J.P.M.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Although in Europe atmospheric deposition of sulphur has decreased considerably over the last decades, groundwater pollution by sulphate may still continue due to pyrite oxidation in the soil as a result of excessive fertilisation. Inflowing groundwater rich in sulphate can change biogeochemical cyc

  3. Massive Volcanic SO2 Oxidation and Sulphate Aerosol Deposition in Cenozoic North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. SO2 is oxidized to sulphate and can subsequently form sulphate aerosol, which can affect the Earth's radiation balance, biologic productivity and high-altitude ozone co...

  4. Performance of cement solidification with barium for high activity liquid waste including sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target liquid waste to be solidified is generated from PWR primary loop spent resin treatment with sulphate acid, so, its main constituent is sodium sulphate and the activity of this liquid is relatively high. Waste form of this liquid waste is considered to be a candidate for the subsurface disposal. The disposed waste including sulphate is anticipated to rise a concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water around the disposal facility and it may cause degradation of materials such as cement and bentonite layer and comprise the disposal facility. There could be two approaches to avoid this problem, the strong design of the disposal facility and the minimization of sulphaste ion migration from the solidified waste. In this study, the latter approach was examined. In order to keep the low concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water, it is effective to make barium sulphate by adding barium compound into the liquid waste in solidification. However, adding equivalent amount of barium compound with sulphate ion causes difficulty of mixing, because production of barium sulphate causes high viscosity. In this study, mixing condition after and before adding cement into the liquid waste was estimated. The mixing condition was set with consideration to keep anion concentration low in the ground water and of mixing easily enough in practical operation. Long term leaching behavior of the simulated solidified waste was also analyzed by PHREEQC. And the concentration of the constitution affected to the disposal facility was estimated be low enough in the ground water. (author)

  5. Optimisation of sulphate reduction in a methanol-fed thermophilic bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Bots, E.A.A.; Tandlinger, G.; Stams, A.J.M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    Several methods were tested to optimise sulphate reduction and minimise methane formation in thermophilic (65°) expanded granular sludge bed reactors fed with a medium containing sulphate and methanol. Lowering the pH from 7.5 to 6.75 resulted in a rapid decrease of methane formation and a concomita

  6. Stability-indicating HPLC method for simultaneous determination of terbutaline sulphate, bromhexine hydrochloride and guaifenesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Porel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0 and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 ml. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R 2 >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup.

  7. Stability-indicating HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Terbutaline Sulphate, Bromhexine Hydrochloride and Guaifenesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porel, A; Haty, Sanjukta; Kundu, A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the development and subsequent validation of a simple, precise and stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin, terbutaline sulphate and bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of their potential impurities in a single run. The photolytic as well as hydrolytic impurities were detected as 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 1-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-ethanone from terbutaline, 2-methoxyphenol and an unknown impurity identified as (2RS)-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol from guaifenesin. The chromatographic separation of all the three active components and their impurities was achieved on Wakosil II column, using phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase which was delivered initially in the ratio of 80:20 (v/v) for 18 min, then changed to 60:40 (v/v) for next 12 min, and finally equilibrated back to 80:20 (v/v) for 10 min. Other HPLC parameters were: Flow rate at 1.0 ml/min, detection wavelengths 248 and 280 nm, injection volume 10 μl. The calibration graphs plotted with five concentrations of each component were linear with a regression coefficient R(2) >0.9999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were estimated for all the five impurities. The established method was then validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity and demonstrated to be applicable to the determination of the active ingredients in commercial and model cough syrup. No interference from the formulation excipients was observed. These results suggest that this LC method can be used for the determination of multiple active ingredients and their impurities in a cough and cold syrup. PMID:22131621

  8. Formulation and Evaluation of Chronomodulated Pulsatile Drug Delivery System of Salbutamol Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronotherapy denotes the therapy in which the release of the drug in the body is allowed to match with the circadian rhythm of the disease, such that the required action of the drug is shown with minimal side effects. The main interesting fact of chronotherapy is its ability to deliver the drug in required concentrations during the time of its greatest need such that synchronizing circadian rhythm of diseases or symptoms. Pulsatile drug delivery system for Salbutamol sulphate was formulated initially as core tablets followed by formulation of pulsatile tablets using press-coated technology. Core tablets were formulated using various concentrations of superdisintegrant (Sodium starch glycolate, cross povidone and diluents (MCC & Dicalcium phosphate. The core tablets were then compressed into pulsatile tablets using combinations of HPMC K 100M and Eudragit L 100, Eudragit S 100 in various concentrations. Core tablets were evaluated and based on the dissolution studies trial T3was optimized as it shows lower disintegration time and faster drug release. Then the pulsatile tablets were evaluated for various tests and drug release studies were conducted for 2 hours in 0.1N HCl followed by pH 6.8 buffer and the trial S6 was optimized which showed satisfactory greater lag time of about 6 hours with satisfactory drug release which contains a combination of HPMC K15M (20mg, Eudragit L 100 (50mg, Eudragit S100 (60mg. Pulsatile tablets were formulated utilizing press coated technology and the combination of polymers provided required lag time with satisfactory dissolution profile.

  9. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique, E-mail: torres@udc.es; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sulphate effect on cadmium toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii Gerloff. • Cadmium increases the sulphur requirements in Chlamydomonas moewusii. • Kinetic coefficients for sulphate utilization and cadmium effect on them. • Sulphate and cadmium influence on the biosynthesis of low-molecular mass thiols. • Cadmium toxicity reduction by sulphate due to higher biosynthesis of thiols. - Abstract: Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu–Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1 mM sulphate. The maximum EC{sub 50} value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1 m

  10. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Philip J; Tilmes, Simone; Turco, Richard P; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-11-13

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of 'acid rain' that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  11. Ammonium sulphate on maize crops under no tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anita Gonçalves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to evaluate the management of N and S (as ammonium sulphate fertilization under no-tillage system on the components of maize productivity and on N and S accumulation in the crop, as well as to evaluate the minimum value of the Nitrogen Sufficiency Index (NSI 0.95 as an indicator for side dressing requirements. The experiment had a completely randomized block design with six treatments and four replications carried out in Red Latosol dystrophic soil (Hapludox, in Campo Mourão, Paraná State, where the following treatments in summer growth maize were applied: T1- 120 kg ha-1 N in seeding; T2- 120 kg ha-1 N in side dressing; T3- 40 kg ha-1 N in seeding and 80 kg ha-1 N in side dressing; T4- 30 kg ha-1 N in seeding and 90 kg ha-1 N in side dressing, monitored by a chlorophyll meter using the Nitrogen Sufficiency Index (NSI; T5- 120 kg ha-1 N anticipated in wheat seeding; T6- without nitrogen fertilization. NSI was determined by the relationship between the leaf chlorophyll index (ICF average of T4 plants and that one in the plot fertilized with 120 kg ha-1 N at the maize seed sowing (T1. During two years, ammonium sulphate was applied to the maize crop after wheat under no tillage system. In the first year, with adequate rainfall, the maize yield was similar to the one in which the complete ammonium sulphate dose application was done in maize seeding and side dressing. The anticipated fertilization to wheat seed sowing resulted in maize yield without difference from the parceled form. In the second year, with irregular rainfall, all treatments with N were similar and they increased maize yield compared to that without N fertilization. NSI of 0.95 was not efficient to evaluate maize N requirements in side dressing, and resulted in lower maize yield. N was accumulated mainly in the grains unlike S that accumulated in the plant shoots; both were highly correlated to maize productivity.

  12. Synthesis, structural and optical properties, ferromagnetic behaviour, cytotoxicity and NLO activity of lithium sulphate doped L-threonine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Kalaivani, D.; Mani, J. Arul Martin; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2016-09-01

    Lithium Sulphate doped L-threonine (Li2SO4-LT), a semi-organic crystal, has been synthesised and grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Li2SO4-LT crystal belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system (a=7.66 Å, b=5.11 Å, c=13.60 Å) with space group P212121. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) study was carried out to quantify the concentration of lithium element in the grown crystal. The results show that 0.07 mol of lithium sulphate has been incorporated into the parent system. The grown material has been found to possess wide transparency in the range 240-1100 nm with lower cut-off wavelength at 240 nm. The optical band gap was calculated as 4.92 eV using optical absorption spectrum and Tauc's relation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the grown crystal. The surface features of the grown crystal were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. The magnetic property was studied with the help of Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The coercivity and retentivity of the material were measured from the hysteresis curve as 550.06 G and 79.50×10-6 emu respectively. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method was performed to understand the cytotoxicity or anticancer activity of the sample. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of the sample against MCF-7 cells were estimated as 49.41% and 50.59% respectively at a concentration of 250 μg. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was measured by the Kurtz powder technique using Nd:YAG laser and was found to be 1.46 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  13. Sulphation reactions of oxidic dust particles in waste heat boiler environment. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranki, T.

    1999-09-01

    Sulphation of metal oxides has an important role in many industrial processes. In different applications sulphation reactions have different aims and characteristics. In the flash smelting process sulphation of oxidic flue dust is a spontaneous and inevitable phenomena, which takes place in the waste heat boiler (WHB) when cooling down hot dust laden off-gases from sulphide smelters. Oxidic dust particles (size 0 - 50 {mu}m) react with O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} in a certain temperature range (500 - 800 deg C). Sulphation reactions are highly exothermic releasing large amount of heat, which affects the gas cooling and thermal performance of the boiler. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the system have to be known to improve the process and WHB operation. The rate of sulphation is affected by the prevailing conditions (temperature, gas composition) and particle size and microstructure (porosity, surface area). Some metal oxides (CuO) can react readily with SO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and act as self-catalysts, but others (NiO) require the presence of an external catalyst to enhance the SO{sub 3} formation and sulphation to proceed. Some oxides (NiO) sulphate directly, some (CuO) may form first intermediate phases (basic sulphates) depending on the reaction conditions. Thus, the reaction mechanisms are very complex. The aim of this report was to search information about the factors affecting the dust sulphation reactions and suggested reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Many investigators have studied sulphation thermodynamics and reaction kinetics and mechanisms of macroscopical metal oxide pieces, but only few articles have been published about sulphation of microscopical particles, like dust. All the found microscale studies dealt with sulphation reactions of calcium oxide, which is not present in the flash smelting process, but used as an SO{sub 2} absorbent in the combustion processes. However, also these investigations may give some hints about the sulphation

  14. Bioaccumulation of Aluminium in Hydromacrophytes in Polish Coastal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senze Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on aluminium content was conducted in water and on aquatic flora of Polish lakes in the central part of the coast. The study included the lakes Sarbsko, Choczewskie, Bia.e, K.odno, D.brze and Salino investigated in the summer of 2013. The examined lakes belong mainly to the direct basin of the Baltic Sea. Samples of aquatic plants and lake waters were collected. In the water samples pH and electrolytic conductivity were measured. The aluminium content was determined both in water and aquatic plants. Submerged hydromacrophyte studies included Myriophyllum alterniflorum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Emergent hydromacrophyte studies included Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Juncus bulbosus L., Iris pseudacorus L., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. % Schult., Phalaris arundinacea L., Carex riparia Curt., Mentha aquatic L., Stratiotes aloides L., Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Glyceria maxima (Hartman Holmb., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Scirpus lacustris L. and Typha angustifolia L. The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the aluminium content in submerged and emergent hydromacrophytes and also the definition of their bioaccumulative abilities. The average concentration of aluminium in water was 2.68 fęg Al dm.3. The average content of aluminium in plants was 2.8015 mg Al kg.1. The bioaccumulation factor ranged from BCF=19.74 to BCF=16619. On the basis of the analysis of the aluminium content in water and aquatic plants results show that both water and plants were characterized by a moderate level of aluminium. The recorded concentrations indicate a mid-range value and are much lower than those which are quoted for a variety of surface waters in various parts of the world.

  15. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  16. Research on Uncrystallized Phosphating Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG En-jun; XING Ze-kuan

    2004-01-01

    This article excogitated a kind of uncrystallized phosphating film bears wearing capacity goodly by adding Ca2 + in normal phosphating solution. This technology is very useful to protect steel parts working in oil from abrasion.

  17. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D

    2016-01-01

    A small group of cell surface receptors are proteoglycans, possessing a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. They are virtually ubiquitous and their chains are major sites at which protein ligands of many types interact. These proteoglycans can signal and regulate important cell processes, such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Since many protein ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, and cytokines, are also implicated in tumour progression, it is increasingly apparent that cell surface proteoglycans impact tumour cell behaviour. Here, we review some recent advances, emphasising that many tumour-related functions of proteoglycans are revealed only after their modification in processes subsequent to synthesis and export to the cell surface. These include enzymes that modify heparan sulphate structure, recycling of whole or fragmented proteoglycans into exosomes that can be paracrine effectors or biomarkers, and lateral interactions between some proteoglycans and calcium channels that impact the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27408707

  18. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Santos Costa de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina, and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS. It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  19. Recent Insights into Cell Surface Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couchman, John R; Multhaupt, Hinke; Sanderson, Ralph D.

    2016-01-01

    A small group of cell surface receptors are proteoglycans, possessing a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. They are virtually ubiquitous and their chains are major sites at which protein ligands of many types interact. These proteoglycans can signal and regulate important cell processes, such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Since many protein ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, and cytokines, are also implicated in tumour progression, it is increasingly apparent that cell surface proteoglycans impact tumour cell behaviour. Here, we review some recent advances, emphasising that many tumour-related functions of proteoglycans are revealed only after their modification in processes subsequent to synthesis and export to the cell surface. These include enzymes that modify heparan sulphate structure, recycling of whole or fragmented proteoglycans into exosomes that can be paracrine effectors or biomarkers, and lateral interactions between some proteoglycans and calcium channels that impact the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27408707

  20. Bronchography in dogs. Comparative study with two barium sulphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two solutions of barium sulphate, 60 and 30% w/v, were compared with the ''overflow'' Bronchographic method. Two groups of eight healthy adult does of both sexes, weighing 7 to 18 kg were used for the study. The dogs were anaesthetised with thiopentone sodium 2% (20 mg/kg iv). After intubation, each dog received contrast medium by a catheter connected to a syringe, in a 9 mi dose. Two series of two x-rays plates were taken in left lateral recumbent, 3 and 6 min after administering the contrast medium and in ventrodorsal projection, 30 sec. later. The x-ray plates obtained were analysed and compared intra and inter group considering the advance speed of the contrast medium, the radiographic density and outlines. Adverse reactions were controlled

  1. Liposomes of terbutaline sulphate: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M R; Misra, A N

    1999-09-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to understand the comparative drug diffusion pattern, across artificial membrane, of the drug and of the prepared liposomes of different liposomal membrane composition. In vivo studies were carried out to determine the extent and time-course of pulmonary tissue uptake of administered liposomes containing terbutaline sulphate(TER) on rat lungs. In vitro studies revealed that the drug released from the prepared liposomes obeys Higuchi's diffusion controlled model. Different loading doses and release patterns of drug from the liposomes can be obtained by altering the PC:CHOL ratio and incorporation of cholesterol was found to reduce permeability of the membrane. Similarly drug absorption in vivo in rat's lung following intratracheal instillation, prolonged over 12 hr by liposomal entrapment of TER. The findings of present investigation indicated that liposomally encapsulated TER can be used for pulmonary delivery for maximizing the therapeutic efficacy and reducing undesirable side effects. PMID:10687283

  2. Low cost aluminium metal matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, G.

    2007-03-15

    Low cost, light weight Ultalite{reg_sign} is an Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AL-MMC) which utilises wear resistant ceramic particles derived from flyash. Ultalite AL-MMC typically contains between 10 and 30 per cent ceramic particles, and is formulated for the manufacture of wear resistant automotive components. Due to its low density and ease of processing into net shape die casting, Ultalite AL-MMC provides weight savings of up to 60 per cent over components fabricated from cast iron, thereby providing improved fuel efficiency with reduced greenhouse emissions. The original flyash material was sourced from a black coal power station in Queensland, where it contained a wide range of particles sizes. To narrow the size range and to remove impurities, a proprietary pretreatment developed by Dr Thomas Robl and co-researchers at the University of Kentucky was employed. The University of Kentucky developed the technology for the classification and benefaction of flyash to produce high-grade Pozzolan, which is used in Portland Cement product. This technology is now being applied to the production of Ultalite AL-MMC. Testing performed by Dr Robl has shown that the proprietary technology can eliminate the hollow particles, extract detrimental carbon-based impurities and remove the extremely fine and coarse particles. All that remains are dense ceramic particles with an average particle size of approximately 30 {mu}m. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Eu(III)-doped aluminium yttrium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report the synthesis and the photoluminescence features of Eu(III)-doped yttrium-aluminium oxide obtained by non-hydrolytic sol-gel routes. After heating the powders above 600 deg C the XRD patterns show the presence of the Y4Al2O9 (YAM) and Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phases. At 800 and at 1500 deg C the PL spectra display the Eu(III) lines characteristic of the YAM monoclinic phase. The 5D0→7F2 transition is favored relatively to the 5D0→7F1 lines. However, at 1100 deg C the cubic YAG is the preferential phase and the 5D0→7F1 transition dominates the spectrum. The Eu(III) ions lie in a centro symmetrical site. The different solvents used in the sol-gel synthesis also change the relative proportion between these two phases. This is monitored analyzing the modifications in the relative intensity between the 5D0→7F2 and the 5D0→7F1 transitions. (author)

  4. Role of phytohormones in aluminium rhizotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopittke, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of soluble aluminium (Al) reduce root growth in acid soils, but much remains unknown regarding the toxicity of this Al as well as the mechanisms by which plants respond. This review examines changes in phytohormones in Al-stressed plants. Al often results in a rapid 'burst' of ethylene in root apical tissues within 15-30 min, with this regulating an increase in auxin. This production of ethylene and auxin seems to be a component of a plant-response to toxic Al, resulting in cell wall modification or regulation of organic acid release. There is also evidence of a role of auxin in the expression of Al toxicity itself, with Al decreasing basipetal transport of auxin, thereby potentially decreasing wall loosening as required for elongation. Increasingly, changes in abscisic acid in root apices also seem to be involved in plant-responses to toxic Al. Changes in cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonates following exposure to Al are also examined, although little information is available. Finally, although not a phytohormone, concentrations of nitric oxide change rapidly in Al-exposed tissues. The information presented in this review will assist in focusing future research efforts in examining the importance of phytohormones in plant tissues exposed to toxic levels of Al. PMID:27352002

  5. Fuzzy Multicriteria Ranking of Aluminium Coating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with multicriteria ranking of aluminium coating methods. The alternatives used are: sulfuric acid anodization, A1; oxalic acid anodization, A2; chromic acid anodization, A3; phosphoric acid anodization, A4; integral color anodizing, A5; chemical conversion coating, A6; electrostatic powder deposition, A7. The criteria used are: cost of production, f1; environmental friendliness of production process, f2; appearance (texture), f3; reflectivity, f4; response to coloring, f5; corrosion resistance, f6; abrasion resistance, f7; fatigue resistance, f8. Five experts coming from relevant industrial units set grades to the criteria vector and the preference matrix according to a properly modified Delphi method. Sensitivity analysis of the ranked first alternative A1 against the `second best', which was A3 at low and A7 at high resolution levels proved that the solution is robust. The dependence of anodized products quality on upstream processes is presented and the impact of energy price increase on industrial cost is discussed.

  6. Anomalous Diffusion of Mo Implanted into Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通和; 吴瑜光; 邓志威; 钱卫东

    2001-01-01

    Mo ions are implanted into aluminium with a high ion flux and high dose at elevated temperatures of 300℃, 400℃ and 500℃ . X-ray diffraction spectra show that the Al12Mo phases are formed. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy indicates that a profile of Mo appears in Al around the depth of 550nm and with an atomic concentration of ~7%, when Mo is implanted to the dose of 3 × 1017/cm2 with an ion flux of 45μA/cm2 (400℃).If the dose increases to 1 × 1018/cm2 at the same ion flux, the penetration of Mo ions in Al can reach a depth of 2μm, which is greater than the ion project range Rp (52.5nm). The results show that anomalous diffusion takes place. Owing to the intense atom collision cascades, the diffusion coefficient increases greatly with the increase of the ion flux and dose. The Mo diffusion coefficients in Al are calculated. The Mo retained dose in A1 increases obviously with the increase of the ion flux.

  7. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Jaana; Karjalainen, Anna K; Schultz, Eija; Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. PMID:25506908

  8. Speciation and solubility control of aluminium in soils developed from slates of the River Sor watershed (Galicia, NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanjurjo, M.J.; Alvarez, E.; Garcia-Rodeja, E. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola

    1998-04-01

    Soil aluminium chemistry was studied in the Sor Watershed (Galicia, NW Spain) which lies within a 20 km radius from the As Pontes 1400 MW lignite-fuelled power plants. The Al species in the solid and liquid phases were studied in eight soils developed from slates in a watershed subjected to acid deposition. From soil solution data the mechanisms possibly controlling Al solubility are also discussed. The soils are acidic, organic matter rich and with an exchange complex saturated with Al. In the solid phase, more than 75% of non-crystalline Al was organo-Al complexes, mostly highly stable. In the soil solutions, monomeric inorganic Al forms were predominant and fluoro-Al complexes were the most abundant species, except in soil solutions of pH {lt} 4.8 and Al L/F ratio {gt} 3, in which Al{sup 3+} predominated and sulphato-Al complexes were relatively abundant. The most stable phases were kaolinite, gibbsite and non-crystalline Al hydroxides. In most samples, Al solubility was controlled by Al-hydroxides. Only in a few cases (solutions of pH 4-5, Al{sup 3+} activity {gt} 40 {mu}mol L{sup -1} and SO{sub 4} content {gt} 200 {mu}mol L{sup -1}), Al-sulphates such as jurbanite also could exert some control over Al solubility. In addition to these minerals, a possible role of organo-Al complex or the influence of adsorption reactions of sulphate is considered, especially for samples with very low Al{sup 3+} content ({lt} 0.5 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Characterization of phosphate/sulfate waste grout cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1993-09-01

    As part of efforts to clean up federal production sites, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is treating selected low-level liquid wastes by incorporating them into cementitious waste forms. At the Hanford Site, low-level radioactive liquid wastes will be mixed with a blend of Portland cement, fly ash, clays, and other ingredients in a continuous process at the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). The resulting grout slurry will be pumped to lined, underground concrete vaults where the grout will harden, thereby immobilizing contaminants. Physical property measurements and American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leach tests have been completed on 45 samples obtained from five cores from the phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) grout vault. A summary of the compressive strength, bulk density, and sonic velocity data is compared with data from other PSW grout samples. Results of moisture content, thermal conductivity, and the leaching of aluminium, calcium, sodium, sulfate, cobalt-60, and cesium-137 are given.

  10. Leachability of Natural Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements in Brazilian Phosphate Fertilizers and Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian phosphate fertilizers are obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product phosphoric acid and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum - PG) as by-product. The level of impurities (metals and radionuclides, among others) present in the phosphate rock used as raw material is distributed among products and by-products. In Brazil, PG has been used for many years in agriculture as a soil amendment. The characterization of natural radionuclides elements in Brazilian PG and the most used phosphate fertilizers, single super phosphate (SSP), triple super phosphate (TSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) has been already published by the same authors. However, for a long-term safe application of these fertilizers and PG it is important to study the availability of these elements to the environment. For this purpose, the evaluation of radionuclides and rare earth elements concentration in the labile fraction is more suitable than the total concentration, since this fraction is more available for the absorption by plants and water contamination. In order to evaluate the available fraction of these elements to the environment, PG and phosphate fertilizers samples were leached with water and EDTA solution. The total and leached concentrations of radionuclides (226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb) were determined by using high-resolution gamma spectrometry and by measuring the gross alpha and beta counting after a radiochemical separation of the elements of interest, respectively. The concentration of rare earth elements - REEs (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Sm, Tb and Yb), U and Th were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results obtained using the methodology with mild leaching with EDTA and with water showed that the radionuclides and REEs although present in the PG are not available to the environment. (author)

  11. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šimek, Miloslav, E-mail: misim@upb.cas.cz [Biology Centre AS CR, v. v. i., Institute of Soil Biology, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko [Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav [Biology Centre AS CR, v. v. i., Institute of Soil Biology, 370 05 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Yli-Halla, Markku [Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg C g{sup − 1} h{sup − 1}, as compared to 2.71 μg C g{sup − 1} h{sup − 1} in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng N g{sup − 1}d{sup − 1}). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming. - Highlights: •Boreal acid sulphate soils contain large amounts of organic C and N in subsoils. •Microbial communities throughout the acid

  12. Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Co-continuous Interlaced Phases Aluminium-alumina Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio de Napole Gregolin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Al-5SiO2 (5 wt% of SiO2 aluminium matrix fiber composite was produced where the reinforcement consists of fossil silica fibers needles. After being heat-treated at 600 °C, the original fiber morphology was retained but its microstructure changed from solid silica to an interconnected (Al-Si/Al2O3 interlaced structure named co-continuous composite. A technique of powder metallurgy, using commercial aluminium powder and the silica fibers as starting materials, followed by hot extrusion, was used to produce the composite. The co-continuous microstructure was obtained partially or totally on the fibers as a result of the reaction, which occurs during the heat treatment, first by solid diffusion and finally by the liquid Al-Si in local equilibrium, formed with the silicon released by reaction. The internal structure of the fibers was characterized using field emission electron microscope (FEG-SEM and optical microscopy on polished and fractured samples.

  13. Fabrication experience of aluminium clad aluminium matrix dispersion fuels at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium clad, aluminium matrix plate type dispersion fuels have been fabricated in BARC in recent years as part of fuel development programme for small non-power research reactors. The present paper describes the flowsheet developed for fabrication of Al-UAlx, Al-U3Si2 and Al-U3O8 fuels at BARC. The Al-20% U alloy fuel for KAMINI neutron radiography reactor was prepared by 'melting and casting' route, followed by picture framing and roll-bonding. For higher 'U' density fuels namely, Al-UAlx, Al-U3O8 and Al-U3Si2 the 'powder metallurgy' route was followed for preparation of fuel meat. The novel features in fabrication route were: addition of Zr for stabilizing UAl3 phase in Al-20% U alloy; x-ray radiography and microdensitometric scanning of radiographs for location of fuel outline inside fuel element and for confirming homogeneous distribution of fissile atoms; immersion ultrasonic testing for confirming good bonding between mating Al surface of the fuel plate. (author)

  14. Determination of ultra-trace amounts of uranium and thorium in high-purity aluminium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive method is described for the simultaneous determination of ultra-trace amounts of uranium and thorium in high-purity aluminium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Uranium and thorium were separated from a sample solution of 10 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid by extraction with a 10% v/v solution of tributyl phosphate in cyclohexane. The internal standard method was used for quantification by ICP-MS. For a sample mass of 10 g, the detection limits for uranium and thorium are 7 and 8 pg g--1, respectively. (Author)

  15. The General Situation of the Scale and Layout of Aluminium Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Since 2002, aluminium industry has become a key industry under the macro control of the country, for which the reason is the aluminium industry in China has seen "repeated construc-tion", "blind investment", "excessive capacity",

  16. PREDICTION OF PLASTIC ANISOTROPY IN ALUMINIUM EXTRUDED TUBES BY FINITE ELEMENT POLYCRYSTAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation of extrusion process of aluminium tube is dealt with using the finite element polycrystal model. The non-uniformity in plastic anisotropies of aluminium extruded tubes through the wall thickness is investigated.

  17. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  18. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  19. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Aluminium and Concrete Composite Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Polus Łukasz; Szumigała Maciej

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a numerical analysis of the resistance and stiffness of the aluminium and concrete composite beam is presented. Composite aluminium and concrete structures are quite new and they have not been thoroughly tested. Composite structures have a lot of advantages. The composite aluminium and concrete beam is more corrosion-resistant, fire-resistant and stiff than the aluminium beam. The contemporary idea of sustainable buildings relies on new solutions which are more environmentally f...

  20. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    OpenAIRE

    Zauzi, N. S. Ahmad; M. Z. H. Zakaria; Baini, R.; Rahman, M. R.; N. Mohamed Sutan; Hamdan, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipita...

  1. The determination of boron in high-purity aluminium metal by spark-source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the determination of boron in high-purity aluminium metal. Both isotopic boron lines (10B+1 and 11B+1) are used for the analysis. As there are no low-abundance isotopic lines for aluminium, measurements were made direct without reference to aluminium as an internal standard. The boron concentration values of eight aluminium samples analysed by this method compared favourably with results obtained from other techniques

  2. Low Speed Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys Using Single-Mode Fiber Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Jay; Paleocrassas, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, topics related to extending fiber laser welding of aluminium in the low speed range were discussed. General topics, such as the properties of aluminium and welding defects, review of high speed laser welding of aluminium, and fiber laser characteristics and optical setups for safety, were first reviewed. Recent research results on the modelling and validation of laser welding of aluminium, experimental characterization of low speed welding processes, and the instability pheno...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  4. Nanocrosses of lead sulphate as the negative active material of lead acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Gao, Pengran; Bu, Xianfu; Kuang, Guizhi; Liu, Wei; Lei, Lixu

    2014-10-01

    Lead sulphate transforms into PbO2 and Pb in the positive and negative electrodes, respectively, when a lead acid battery is charged, thus, it is an active material. It is also generally acknowledged that sulphation results in the failure of lead acid batteries; therefore, it is very interesting to find out how to make lead sulphate more electrochemically active. Here, we demonstrate that nanocrystalline lead sulphate can be used as excellent negative active material in lead acid batteries. The lead sulphate nanocrystals, which are prepared by a facile chemical precipitation of aqueous lead acetate and sodium sulphate in a few minutes, look like crosses with diameter of each arm being 100 nm to 3 μm. The electrode is effectively formed in much shorter time than traditional technique, yet it discharges a capacity of 103 mA h g-1 at the current density of 120 mA g-1, which is 24% higher than that discharged by the electrode made from leady oxide under the same condition. During 100% DOD cycles, more than 80% of that capacity remains in 550 cycles. These results show that lead sulphate can be a nice negative active material in lead acid batteries.

  5. Development of a glass matrix for vitrification of sulphate bearing high level radioactive liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In the earlier reprocessing flow sheet ferrous sulphamate has been used for valancy adjustment of Pu from IV to III for effective separation. This has resulted in generation of HLW containing significance amount of sulphate. Internationally borosilicate glass matrix has been adopted for vitrification of HLW. The first Indian vitrification facility at Waste Immobilislition Plant (WIP), Tarapur a five component borosilicate matrix (SiO2 :B2O3 :Na2O : MnO : TiO2) has been used for vitrification of waste. However at Trombay HLW contain significant amount of sulphate which is not compatible with standard borosilicate formulation. Extensive R and D efforts were made to develop a glass formulation which can accommodate sulphate and other constituents of HLW e.g., U, Al, Ca, etc. This report deals with development work of a glass formulations for immobilization of sulphate bearing waste. Different glass formulations were studied to evaluate the compatibility with respect to sulphate and other constituents as mentioned above. This includes sodium, lead and barium borosilicate glass matrices. Problems encountered in different glass matrices for containment of sulphate have also been addressed. A glass formulation based on barium borosilicate was found to be effective and compatible for sulphate bearing high level waste. (author)

  6. Recovery of nickel, cobalt, copper and zinc in sulphate and chloride solutions using synergistic solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yong Cheng; Keith R. Barnard; Wensheng Zhang; Zhaowu Zhu; Yoko Pranolo

    2016-01-01

    A number of synergistic solvent extraction (SSX) systems have been developed to recover nickel, cobalt, zinc and copper from sulphuric and chloride leach solutions by the solvent extraction team of CSIRO, Australia. These in-clude (1) Versatic 10/CLX50 system for the separation of Ni from Ca in sulphate solutions, (2) Versatic 10/4PC system for the separation of Ni and Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (3) Cyanex 471X/HRJ-4277 system for the separation of Zn from Cd in sulphate solutions, (4) Versatic 10/LIX63 system for the separation of Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (5) Versatic 10/LIX63/TBP system for separation of Ni and Co from Mn/Mg/Ca in sulphate solutions, (6) Versatic 10/LIX63 system for the separation of cobalt from nickel in sulphate solutions by difference in kinetics, (7) Cyanex 272/LIX84 system for the separation of Cu/Fe/Zn from Ni/Co in sulphate solutions, (8) Versatic 10/LIX63/TBP system to recover Cu/Ni from strong chloride solutions, and (9) Versatic 10/LIX63 system to separate Cu from Fe in strong chloride solutions. The synergistic effect on metal separation and efficiency is presented and possible industrial applications are demonstrated. The chemical stability of selected SSX systems is also reported.

  7. Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials: An Update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Current calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials for bone repair, substitution, augmentation and regeneration include hydroxyapatite ( HA ) from synthetic or biologic origin, beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β-TCP ) , biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), and are available as granules, porous blocks, components of composites (CaP/polymer) cements, and as coatings on orthopedic and dental implants. Experimental calcium phosphate biomaterials include CO3- and F-substituted apatites, Mg-and Zn-substituted β-TCP, calcium phosphate glasses. This paper is a brief review of the different types of CaP biomaterials and their properties such as bioactivity, osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity.

  8. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regnier, M.; Metz, B.; Tilstra, W.; Hendriksen, C.; Jiskoot, W.; Norde, W.; Kersten, G.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide p

  9. The Prospect of China’s Alumin-ium Extrusion Product Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>China’s aluminium extrusion industry can be dated back to the 1950s-70s,when the North- east 101 Plant was established in 1956,the Northwest Aluminium and Southwest Alumin- ium were completed and put into operation in 1968-1969.The three plants’ extrusion assem- bly lines were designed to produce aluminium

  10. The Net Exporting Trends Remains for China’s Aluminium Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The oversupply of China’s raw aluminium has caused the continuing net exporting for China’s aluminium products.As the situation is wors- ened due to the growing raw aluminium pro- duction and curbed demand,it is estimated that the continuation of net exporting of China’s

  11. Bakable aluminium vacuum chamber and bellows with an aluminum flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber and bellows (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the assemblies of the vacuum chambers in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings

  12. Energy efficiency improvement and GHG abatement in the global production of primary aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Ter Weer, Peter Hans; Crijns - Graus, Wina; Worrell, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Primary aluminium production is a highly energy-intensive and greenhouse gas (GHG)-emitting process responsible for about 1 % of global GHG emissions. In 2009, the two most energy-intensive processes in primary aluminium production, alumina refining and aluminium smelting consumed 3.1 EJ, of which 2

  13. Determination of ultratrace amounts of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization/ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for determining the 0.01 ng g-1 level of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization (ETV)/ICP-MS. This method was found to be significantly interfered with any matrices or other elements contained. An ion-exchange technique was therefore applied to separate uranium and thorium from aluminium and other elements. It was known that uranium are adsorbed on an anion-exchange resin and thorium are adsorbed on cation-exchange resin. However, aluminium and copper were eluted with 6 M hydrochloric acid. Dissolve the sample with hydrochloric acid containing copper which was added for analysis of pure aluminium, and oxidize with hydrogen peroxide. Concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution was adjusted to 6 M, and then passed the solution through the mixed ion-exchange resin column. After the uranium and thorium were eluted with 1 M hydrofluoric acid-0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the solution was evaporated to dryness. It was then dissolved with 1 M hydrochloric acid. Uranium and thorium were analyzed by ETV/ICP-MS using tungsten and molybdenum boats, respectively, since the tungsten boat contained high-level thorium and the molybdenum boat contained uranium. The determination limit of uranium and thorium were 0.003 and 0.005 ng g-1, respectively. (author)

  14. PEMBINAAN PENGERAJIN BOKOR ALUMINIUM DI DESA MENYALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GDE ANTARA, dkk.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluminium bowl craft industrial center is located in Menyali village Sawan district Buleleng regency of Bali province. In this business development, they faced some problems such as increasingly expensive alluminium plate raw materials, decreasing selling product prices due to competition among craftsmen, difficulty in extending the marketing, lack of capital, lack of knowledge in business management, and lack of technical capacity and production innovation. Currently the organization has been formed aluminum bowl craftsmen groups, they are “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya”. This organization is still limited to tradisional associations such as a community organization, has not led to organize in a micro-enterprise or cooperation. Their organization management should not be arranged. Therefore, they need helps from the government and other institutions to build this bowl craftsmen in developing their businesses through a group of micro-enterprises or cooperations. Wishly, with formal business entity that would facilitate access to a variety of coaching and help governments andother institutions. From the SWOT analysis, it is found some problems and solutions that should be done. Alluminium bowl craftsmen groups, named “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya” is not in the form of business entity or cooperation yet, so that the results of coaching have agreed to form a cooperation. Venture capital assistance for the development and production are still needed and to be an absolute given, but a way to market more absolute yield is given, through participation in various events exhibition to introduce the product is expected to expandits market share up to overseas or exports. In the production process it has been introduced that is appropriate technology for instant a rolling tool to make a wiring groove on the outside of the bowl, so that it will simplify and speed up the process, especially by aged mothers.Keywords: aluminium bowl, Menyali

  15. Residual stress in 7449 aluminium alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The through thickness residual stress distributions within three 120 mm thick rectilinear forgings, made from the high strength aluminium alloy 7449 have been measured using both neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling. Neutron diffraction measurements were made on two instruments, one using a pulsed spallation neutron source, the other a steady state reactor source. Heat treatment of the forgings included a rapid quench into cold water and it was the residual stresses arising from this step that were initially measured. Neutron diffraction measurements indicated large magnitude (>250 MPa) tensile residual stresses in the centre of an as quenched forging, balanced by surface regions stressed in compression (<-200 MPa). Sufficient measurements were made to permit the description of the residual stress distribution using area maps. Two forgings were stress relieved by cold compression immediately after quenching. The degree of plastic strain was either 2.5% or 4%, and was applied by a single application of force in the short transverse direction. Cold compressed forgings were found to have far lower residual stress when compared to the as quenched condition. The amount of cold compression was found to cause an insignificant difference in the final residual stress distribution. The neutron diffraction results are compared to measurements made by deep hole drilling and a new incremental variation of the technique. The deep hole was drilled through the centre of the forgings in the short transverse direction. Multiple neutron diffraction measurements were also made on the extracted cores from the deep hole measurements to assess the variation of the unstrained lattice parameter through the thickness of the forgings.

  16. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cieśla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method and a graphical method. Choosing the best offer and prioritizing suppliers allows not only the most rational decision in the field of supply logistics to be taken but also the quality of service in the metallurgical industry to be improved.

  17. [Photophysical properties and photodynamic activity of nanostructured aluminium phthalocyanines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udartseva, O O; Lobanov, A V; Andeeva, E R; Dmitrieva, G S; Mel'nikov, M Ia; Buravkova, L B

    2014-01-01

    We developed water-soluble supramolecular complexes of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles and polyvinylpirrolidone containing rare photoactive nanoaggregates. Radiative lifetimes, extinction coefficients and energy of electronic transitions of isolated and associated metal phthalocyanine complexes were calculated. Nontoxic concentrations of synthesized nanocomposite photosensibilizers were in vitro determined. In present study we compared photodynamic treatment efficacy using different modifications of aluminium phthalocyanine (Photosens®, AlPc-nSiO2 and AlPc-PVP). Mesenchymal stromal cells were used as a model for photodynamic treatment. Intracellular accumulation of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles AlPc-nSiO2 was the most efficient. Illumination of phthalocyanine-loaded cells led to reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Silica nanoparticles provided a significant decrease of effective phthalocyanine concentration and enhanced cytotoxicity of photodynamic treatment.

  18. Reflection of infrared radiation from thin aluminium layers

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    The thermal shielding of the LHC magnets cryostats will make use of Multi-Layer Insulation. This is a sandwich of several Mylar (polyester) foils 6 µm thick coated with a thin film of aluminium, having a thickness of some 30 nm. The thickness of the aluminium film must be kept at a minimum to minimise lateral thermal conduction. The outer layer of this sandwich stays at a temperature of 20 K or below, and receives IR radiation from surfaces at 77 K (wavelength of 37.6 µm at the peak of blackbody radiation), which should be reflected with the highest efficiency. The minimum thickness for the aluminium layer to avoid transmission of the radiation can be calculated by making use of the skin effect theory, taking into account the changes in electrical properties that are due to the extremely low thickness of the film.

  19. Langmuir-Blodgett Films from Schiff Base Aluminium ( Ⅲ ) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the LB films of Schiff base aluminium( Ⅲ ), tris(2-hydroxy-5-nitro N-dodecyl-benzylideneaminato) aluminium ( Ⅲ ) [Al (TA 12) 3], were studied. The surface pres sure-area(r-A) isotherm of Al(TA12)3 in the pure water subphase was investigated. The molec ular area, 0.48 nm2, is one-third of the expected value that indicates the formation of an aggre gate. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of Al(TA12) 3 were transferred and characterized. The UV-Vis spectra and the AFM image both confirmed that the J-aggregates formed. The polarized UV-Vis spectra indicated that the complex plane had to be oriented with an angle of about 30° to the substrate surface. The IR spectra suggested that the complexation took place between aluminium ions and the oxygen atoms of the ligand rather than the nitrogen atom.

  20. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as the nuclei of brain cells. (orig.)

  1. Constitutive modelling of aluminium alloy sheet at warm forming temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukuri, S.; Worswick, M. J.; Winkler, S.

    2016-08-01

    The formability of aluminium alloy sheet can be greatly improved by warm forming. However predicting constitutive behaviour under warm forming conditions is a challenge for aluminium alloys due to strong, coupled temperature- and rate-sensitivity. In this work, uniaxial tensile characterization of 0.5 mm thick fully annealed aluminium alloy brazing sheet, widely used in the fabrication of automotive heat exchanger components, is performed at various temperatures (25 to 250 °C) and strain rates (0.002 and 0.02 s-1). In order to capture the observed rate- and temperature-dependent work hardening behaviour, a phenomenological extended-Nadai model and the physically based (i) Bergstrom and (ii) Nes models are considered and compared. It is demonstrated that the Nes model is able to accurately describe the flow stress of AA3003 sheet at different temperatures, strain rates and instantaneous strain rate jumps.

  2. Pressureless sintered silicon carbide tailored with aluminium nitride sintering agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the influence of aluminium nitride on the pressureless sintering of cubic phase silicon carbide nanoparticles (β-SiC). Pressureless sintering was achieved at 2000 degrees C for 5 min with the additions of boron carbide together with carbon of 1 wt% and 6 wt%, respectively, and a content of aluminium nitride between 0 and 10 wt%. Sintered samples present relative densities higher than 92%. The sintered microstructure was found to be greatly modified by the introduction of aluminium nitride, which reflects the influence of nitrogen on the β-SiC to α-SiC transformation. The toughness of sintered sample was not modified by AlN incorporation and is relatively low (around 2.5 MPa m1/2). Materials exhibited transgranular fracture mode, indicating a strong bonding between SiC grains. (authors)

  3. Layered metal uranyl phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUO2PO4·4H2O (HUP) forms a laminar intercalate with butylamine, c = 29.30(5) angstrom, which accepts cationic metals in exchange for the n-butylammonium ions. Hydrated uranyl metal phosphates M(UO2PO4)2·nH2O (M=Mn,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,Cd) are obtained by ionic exchange and were studied by thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal structures of all these product compounds are derived from HUP. The diffuse electronic reflectance spectra of every sample show characteristic UO22+ absorption bands. In the spectra of the Co, Ni and Cu phosphates there are other bands in the 500-800 nm zone compatible with their observed aquocation transitions

  4. Characterisation of Ga-coated and Ga-brazed aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchaud, E. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Christien, F., E-mail: frederic.christien@univ-nantes.fr [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Barnier, V. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, MPI, CNRS UMR5146, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Paillard, P. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-05-15

    This work is devoted to the brazing of aluminium using liquid gallium. Gallium was deposited on aluminium samples at {approx} 50 Degree-Sign C using a liquid gallium 'polishing' technique. Brazing was undertaken for 30 min at 500 Degree-Sign C in air. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) characterisation of Ga-coated samples has shown that the Ga surface layer thickness is of ten (or a few tens of) nanometres. Furthermore, aluminium oxide layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was shown to be 'descaled' during Ga deposition, which ensures good conditions for further brazing. Cross-section examination of Ga-coated samples shows that liquid gallium penetrates into the aluminium grain boundaries during deposition. The thickness of the grain boundary gallium film was measured using an original EDS technique and is found to be of a few tens of nanometres. The depth of gallium grain boundary penetration is about 300 {mu}m at the deposition temperature. The fracture stress of the brazed joints was measured from tensile tests and was determined to be 33 MPa. Cross-section examination of brazed joints shows that gallium has fully dissolved into the bulk and that the joint is really autogenous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium can be brazed using liquid gallium deposited by a 'polishing' technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminium oxide layer is 'descaled' during liquid Ga 'polishing' deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS can be used for determination of surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness is of a few tens of nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface and grain boundary gallium dissolves in the bulk during brazing.

  5. Formation of ammonium sulphate in water droplets exposed to gaseous sulphur dioxide and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Heuvel, A.P.; Mason, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    The rate of formation of ammonium sulphate in water drops exposed to air containing known concentrations of gaseous sulphur dioxide and ammonia has been measured. The mass of sulphate formed is proportional to the product of the surface area of the drops and the time of exposure. Extrapolation of the laboratory results to the atmosphere suggests that the large condensation nuclei 0.2 micronsulphate, are formed by the absorption of SO/sub 2/ and NH/sub 3/ in cloud and fog droplets.

  6. The impact of acid sulphate soils on water bodies and fish deaths in Finland; Happamien sulfaattimaiden aiheuttamat vesistoevaikutukset ja kalakuolemat Suomessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutela, T.; Vuori, K.-M.; Louhi, P. [and others

    2012-05-15

    We have compiled in this review a comprehensive presentation of the impacts of acid sulphate soils (ASS) on water quality, biota, and fish kills in Finnish water bodies. This review is a result of extensive collaboration among research scientists in connection with the CATERMASS project co-ordinated by the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE). Acid sulphate soils were formed in the eutrophic coastal waters of the Baltic Sea 4,000-8,000 years ago as microbes reduced the sulphate contained in saline seawater into sulphide. Sulphide clay soils emerging through land uplift have since been reclaimed and drained for cultivation use. Sulphur released in the resultant oxidation process reacted with soil water to form sulphuric acid, which draws toxic metals such as aluminium, cadmium, and copper from the soil. Heavy rains and the waters of springtime thawing transported acids and metals to the water bodies. In recent decades, the drainage depth of fields has increased because of the growing popularity of subterranean drainage methods, thus exacerbating the adverse ASS impacts on water bodies. Acidity and the attendant proliferation of toxic forms of metals induce changes in all organism groups of water biota, among them fish, macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, and bottom algae. On the specimen level, malformations have been discovered, such as structural pupae impairment in aquatic insects. The defence mechanism employed by fish against harmful substances in the surrounding water is to increase mucus exudation in the gills, which results in reduced respiration function. Exposure to acidity and metals harms the reproduction cycle of fish by delaying the development of follicles into mature eggs and by hindering eggs' fertilisation and embryo development. On the biota level, the manifestation of ASS impact is often the absence of the species or species groups most vulnerable to acidity. The species of river fish that are vulnerable to acidity include, for example

  7. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  8. Determination of bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate and sulphate by ion chromatography: comparisons of methodologies for rainfall, cloud water and river waters at the Plynlimon catchments of mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate and sulphate using ion chromatography (IC are compared with those obtained by colorimetric and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICPOES for rainfall, cloud water and stream waters in the Plynlimon experimental catchments of mid-Wales. For bromide, the concentrations determined by IC are lower than those for the colorimetric method used; the colorimetric method probably determined bromide plus organo-bromine compounds. It is suggested that the values determined by the colorimetric method be termed dissolved labile bromine (DLBr. The study shows that sulphate is the overriding form of sulphur in the waters. For chloride and nitrate, measurements by both methods approach a 1:1 relationship that is barely statistically significantly different from unity. For fluoride, the IC method gives lower values than the colorimetric, especially for the stream waters. However, the colorimetric method determines total fluorine so that a difference is to be expected (for example, fluoride strongly complexes with aluminium that is present, especially in the streamwater.

  9. Washery tailings from coal preparation used as aluminium feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, L.; Schieder, T.; Belsky, M.; Lotze, J.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-06-01

    Kaolinite clays and washery tailings of coal mines are the major feedstocks of the West German aluminium industry. Statistics are given in order to assess the amount of washery tailings available and their suitability as feedstocks for aluminium production. The chemical and mineralogical composition are similar for washery tailings from different mines; accordingly, also their behaviour regarding decomposition by acids will be almost identical. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ extraction yields are satisfactory with strongly precalcinated material using concentrated sulphuric acid or azeotropic hydrochloric acid - in the latter case, however, only if fluoride is added to the acid.

  10. Aging of maraging steel welds during aluminium alloy die casting

    OpenAIRE

    Klobčar, Damjan; Pleterski, Matej; Taljat, Boštjan; Kosec, Ladislav; Tušek, Janez

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate precipitation annealing of 18% Ni maraging steel repair welds during aluminium die casting and to predict the prolonged in-service tool life. The emphasis of this study is the influence ofpost-weld precipitation annealing heat treatment and aluminium die casting thermal cycling on metallurgical and mechanical properties. A series of specimens of 1.2344 tool steel is prepared to which 1.6356 maraging steel is GTA weld cladded. Analysis of weld microstructur...

  11. Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 μmol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

  12. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.;

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...... to the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume....

  13. Aluminium Price Looks Down Due To Increased Capacities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Speaking at a recent forum on China’S alumin- ium industry,Wen Xianjun,director of the aluminium branch under China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association,said that the alu- minium price in 2007 looks going downward due to the production capacity expansion out of the high market price last year.He estimates that the downward development of the alumin- ium price in China will be more obvious than that in the rest part of the world.He predicts that in 2007 the average aluminium price in

  14. Power quality results in energy efficient aluminium smelter operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiestner, Max

    2010-09-15

    New aluminium smelters consume up to 2400MW of electrical energy making the energy efficiency aspect most important. Power quality, optimised power conversion systems and well engineered power plant interfaces are essential for highest energy efficiency. An early optimisation of the power system design will reduce the capital investment cost for the power plant and smelter substation as well as results in most energy efficient aluminium production. This paper describes and intends to discuss the power quality improvement concepts and designs as well as energy cost reduction opportunities which a high power quality system can achieve.

  15. The hydrolysis of aluminium, a mass spectrometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpola, A.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This thesis is focused on the hydrolysis of aluminium, the polymerisation of the hydrolysis products, and how these can be monitored by mass spectrometric methods. The main aim of this research is to figure out how the aqueous speciation of aluminium changes as a function of pH (3.2–10), concentration (1–100 mM), reaction time (1s–14d), and counter anion (Cl-, SO42-, HCOO-). The method used was electrospray mass spectrometry. The results showed more variable speciation than those ...

  16. Research of Properties of Sprayed Coatings on the Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In article the cathodic cleaning processes of aluminum alloyAW 5754 and cleaned substrate surface coating by plasmawith Ni-Cr-Fe-Si powder were researched. Aluminium substrateroughness after cathodic treatment at different cathodic treatmentparameters was established during the experiments. During theinvestigation a comparison of the calculated medium power1.6 to 9 kW plasma torch voltage-current characteristics withthe experimental results was made. The optimized parametersof aluminium cathode substrate cleaning process were selected;porosity and morphology of plasma sprayed nickel-based coatingwere determined.

  17. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  18. Sulphate-reducing bacteria associated with biocorrosion: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania C. de Araujo-Jorge

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion means any process of corrosion in wich microorganisms are somehow involved. As far as the petroleum industry is concerned, the anaerobic type is the more important, with Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB accouting for half of the described processes. SRB are obligate anaerobs that use sulphur, sulphate or other oxidized sulphur compounds as oxidizing agents when decomposing organic material. A typical product of SRB metabolism, hydrogen sulphide -H2S-, is extremely toxic. In the present work we review the literature on mechanisms underlying biocorrosive process in wich SRB are involved and summarize some of the ultrastructural and eletrochemical work developed using SRB obtained from water injection flow in wells located on PETROBRAS offshore marine plataforms, sampled directly in the field over metallic probes, or cultured under laboratory conditions. Biofilms develop when SRB adhere to inert surfaces. A high diversity of morphological types is found inside these biofilms. Their extracellular matrix is highly hydrated and mainly anionic, as shown by its avid reaction with cationic compounds like ruthenium red. We have noted that variations in iron contet lead to interesting changes in the ultrastructure of the bacterial cell coat and also in the rate of corrosion induced in metallic test cupons. Since routine methods to prevent and treat SRB contamination and biodeterioration involve the use of biocides that are toxic and always have some environmental impact, an accurate diagnosis of biocorrosion is always required prior to a treatment decision. We developed a method that detects and semi-quantifies the presence of living or dead SRB by using free silver potentials as an indicator of corrosive action by SRB-associated sulphides. We found a correlation between sulphide levels (determined either by spectrophotometry, or using a silver electrode -E(Ag- that measured changes in free potentials induced by the presence of exogeneously

  19. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg (AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si (Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-1000C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a complete absence of voids or bubbles in the grain interiors of the aluminium and the aluminium-alloys. Bubbles were clearly visible by TEM at grain boundaries in pure Al and the AlMg3 alloy; but bubbles were not visible in the Al6061 alloy. The bubble density in the AlMg3 alloy was considerably higher than in pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure. (orig.)

  20. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  1. Carbon treated commercial aluminium alloys as anodes for aluminium-air batteries in sodium chloride electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M.; Herranz, D.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2016-09-01

    An easy treatment based in carbon layer deposition into aluminium alloys is presented to enhance the performance of Al-air primary batteries with neutral pH electrolyte. The jellification of aluminate in the anode surface is described and avoided by the carbon covering. Treated commercial Al alloys namely Al1085 and Al7475 are tested as anodes achieving specific capacities above 1.2 Ah g-1vs 0.5 Ah g-1 without carbon covering. The influence of the binder proportion in the treatment as well as different carbonaceous materials, Carbon Black, Graphene and Pyrolytic Graphite are evaluated as candidates for the covering. Current densities of 1-10 mA cm-2 are measured and the influence of the alloy explored. A final battery design of 4 cells in series is presented for discharges with a voltage plateau of 2 V and 1 Wh g-1 energy density.

  2. New Investment Rush Brings up Concern for China’s Aluminium Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Although the blind construction of the electro-lytic aluminium industry has been restricted inChina this year,an investment rush in aluminaand aluminium processing has started,whichhas brought up new concern for the industry.Whether this will follow the route of the much-heated electrolytic aluminium industry remainsa question to be answered.According to someindustry analysts,under the pressure of themacro control measures of the State on theelectrolytic aluminium industry expansion,some producers of aluminium have shiftedtheir interests to the upper and lower fields soas to raise their competitiveness over the mar-

  3. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Aluminium and Concrete Composite Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polus, Łukasz; Szumigała, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a numerical analysis of the resistance and stiffness of the aluminium and concrete composite beam is presented. Composite aluminium and concrete structures are quite new and they have not been thoroughly tested. Composite structures have a lot of advantages. The composite aluminium and concrete beam is more corrosion-resistant, fire-resistant and stiff than the aluminium beam. The contemporary idea of sustainable buildings relies on new solutions which are more environmentally friendly. Aluminium is lighter and more resistant to corrosion than steel, which is often used in composite structures.

  4. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Aluminium and Concrete Composite Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polus Łukasz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a numerical analysis of the resistance and stiffness of the aluminium and concrete composite beam is presented. Composite aluminium and concrete structures are quite new and they have not been thoroughly tested. Composite structures have a lot of advantages. The composite aluminium and concrete beam is more corrosion-resistant, fire-resistant and stiff than the aluminium beam. The contemporary idea of sustainable buildings relies on new solutions which are more environmentally friendly. Aluminium is lighter and more resistant to corrosion than steel, which is often used in composite structures.

  5. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate is an essential nutrient for plant growth, and inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored largely in the vacuole of plant cells. Thus, vacuolar Pi maintains homeostasis of cytosolic Pi to ensure an optimal Pi supply for plants under variable Pi status in the soil. This study uncovered in Arabidopsis a vacuolar phosphate transporter, VPT1, that mediates vacuolar Pi sequestration. Lack of VPT1 caused growth defects under both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, implicating VPT1 in plant adaptation...

  6. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J P Bhatt; M S Sajwan

    2001-06-01

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified sub-fraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways.

  7. The Metal And Sulphate Removal From Mine Drainage Waters By Biological-Chemical Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenčárová Jana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage waters are often characterized by high concentrations of sulphates and metals as a consequence of the mining industry of sulphide minerals. The aims of this work are to prove some biological-chemical processes utilization for the mine drainage water treatment. The studied principles of contamination elimination from these waters include sulphate reduction and metal bioprecipitation by the application of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Other studied process was metal sorption by prepared biogenic sorbent. Mine drainage waters from Slovak localities Banská Štiavnica and Smolník were used to the pollution removal examination. In Banská Štiavnica water, sulphates decreased below the legislative limit. The elimination of zinc by sorption experiments achieved 84 % and 65 %, respectively.

  8. Durability of Laterite/Sand Hollow Blocks in Magnesium Sulphate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATA Olugbenga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exposure of laterite/sand block to magnesium suphate environment were studied. Change in compressive strength of machine compacted hollow block specimens of mix 1:6 and 10% laterite content were measured after 56 days of continuous immersion in 1%, 3% and 5% of magnesium sulphate solutions. Test results showed that the compressive strength significantly reduced with increase in magnesium sulphate concentration and immersion period. Laterite/sand block made with ordinary Portland cement cannot be recommended for use in sulphate-laden environment since it produced a compressive strength of less than 2.07N/mm2 , as required by the Nigerian Standards, after 28 days of immersion in magnesium sulphate solution.

  9. Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiya N. Parshina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB are able to use carbon monoxide (CO as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide as an electron donor.

  10. Thermal and structural studies on barium borosilicate glasses containing sulphate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borosilicate glasses having composition SiO2)0.416(B2O3)0.208 (Na2O)0.218(BaO)0.157 containing up to 4 mol % sulphate ions were prepared by conventional melt-quench method. Incorporation of sulphate ions in the glass has been found to weaken the glass network as revealed by the decrease in the glass transition temperatures. Based on 29Si and 11B magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) studies, it has been established that the silicate network undergoes slight depolymerisation while the boron structural units remained unaffected with sulphate addition in the glass. Above 4 mol % incorporation of sulphate ions resulted in the devitrification of the glass. (author)

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Shirdavani, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vanadium compounds are insulin like drugs which are accompanied with nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity as their major side effects. Aerobic exercise is well known as an approach to reduce the side effects of many drugs. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the role of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I had aerobic exercise on a treadmill 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Group II received vanadyl sulphate (50 mg/kg/week; i.p.) for 6 weeks. Group III had combination of exercise and vanadyl sulphate therapy as groups 1 and 2. At the end of study, blood samples were obtained, and the animals were sacrificed for the tissues injury determination. Results: Vanadyl sulphate alone increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and kidney weight (KW) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (Pdrug.

  12. Analytical role of sodium dodecyl sulphate in icp-aes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) on sample transport efficiency, nebulisation and overall contribution in analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) for different analytes has been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on the quality of aerosols results in enhancement or depression of the final analyte signals The SDS is anionic in nature, has been added to set of standards containing Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb in the presence of 0.01% - 2.0% HNO/sub 3/. Typical property of surfactants i.e. lowering of surface tension has been exploited to modify the analytical procedures for analysis through ICP-AES. Determinations were carried out using 5 ppm analytes under a set of conditions i.e. below Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) at CMC and above CMC of the surfactant used. All glass Meinhard pneumatic nebuliser was used for the nebulisation processes. The results have been explained on the basis of a mild action of the surfactants to modify the plasma analytical conditions due to the change in the overall physical parameters. (author)

  13. Magnesium stearate increases salbutamol sulphate dispersion: what is the mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Tracy; Das, Shyamal; Stewart, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to understand the mechanism of enhancement in salbutamol sulphate (SS) respiratory deposition through addition of magnesium stearate (MgSt). The mixing of MgSt with micronized SS occurred using a Turbula mixer (101 rpm), whilst varying mixing time and MgSt concentration and size. Deposition of SS was determined by a twin-stage impinger. Particle size distributions were obtained using the Malvern Mastersizer 2000. Morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy and surface energy determined using inverse gas chromatography. Mixing of SS with increasing concentrations of MgSt improved dispersion (FPF of 3.3% using 1% w/w MgSt, 4.5% using 5% w/w MgSt and 7.8% using 10% w/w MgSt compared with 1.4% of pure SS for 20mg doses) when mixed for 0.5h; SS dispersion improved further after 3.5h of mixing. In addition to the action of the MgSt in coating SS particles, a greater understanding of the function of MgSt particles in acting as micro-carriers and in changing the mixture structure through incorporation into agglomerates has been achieved. The mechanistic understanding of improvement in drug deposition using MgSt will allow more directed strategies to be employed in designing powder formulations for inhalation. PMID:19748561

  14. Particle engineering using sonocrystallization: salbutamol sulphate for pulmonary delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumal, Ravindra S; Biradar, Shailesh V; Paradkar, Anant R; York, Peter

    2009-02-23

    The aim of present work was to produce fine elongated crystals of salbutamol sulphate (SS) by sonocrystallization for pulmonary delivery and compare with micronized and spray dried SS (SDSS) for in vitro aerosolization behavior. Application of ultrasound during anti-solvent crystallization resulted in fine elongated crystals (sonocrystallized SS; SCSS) compared to aggregates of large irregular crystals obtained without sonication. Higher sonication amplitude, time, concentration and lower processing temperatures favored formation of smaller crystals with narrow particle size distribution (PSD). SCSS was separated from dispersion by spray drying in the form of loose aggregates (SD-SCSS). The fine particle fraction (FPF) of formulations with coarse lactose carrier in cascade impactor increased from 16.66% for micronized SS to 31.12% for SDSS (obtained by spray drying aqueous SS solution) and 44.21% for SD-SCSS, due to reduced cohesive/adhesive forces and aerodynamic size by virtue of elongated shape of crystals. SD-SCSS was stable without any change in crystallinity and aerodynamic behavior for 3 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH, but amorphous SDSS showed recrystallization with poor aerosolization performance on storage. Sonocrystallization, a rapid and simple technique is reported for production of SS crystals suitable for inhalation delivery. PMID:18996462

  15. Indoxyl sulphate and kidney disease: Causes, consequences and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert J; Small, David M; Vesey, David A; Johnson, David W; Francis, Ross; Vitetta, Luis; Gobe, Glenda C; Morais, Christudas

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as reduced renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) kidney damage (typically manifested as albuminuria) for at least 3 months, has become one of the fastest-growing public health concerns worldwide. CKD is characterized by reduced clearance and increased serum accumulation of metabolic waste products (uremic retention solutes). At least 152 uremic retention solutes have been reported. This review focuses on indoxyl sulphate (IS), a protein-bound, tryptophan-derived metabolite that is generated by intestinal micro-organisms (microbiota). Animal studies have demonstrated an association between IS accumulation and increased fibrosis, and oxidative stress. This has been mirrored by in vitro studies, many of which report cytotoxic effects in kidney proximal tubular cells following IS exposure. Clinical studies have associated IS accumulation with deleterious effects, such as kidney functional decline and adverse cardiovascular events, although causality has not been conclusively established. The aims of this review are to: (i) establish factors associated with increased serum accumulation of IS; (ii) report effects of IS accumulation in clinical studies; (iii) critique the reported effects of IS in the kidney, when administered both in vivo and in vitro; and (iv) summarize both established and hypothetical therapeutic options for reducing serum IS or antagonizing its reported downstream effects in the kidney.

  16. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BUCCAL FILMS OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAMSHI KRISHNA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For systemic drug delivery, the buccal region offers an attractive route of drug administration. The main objective of the study is to formulate buccal patches of salbutamol sulphate. Salbutamol sulfate is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It’s oral bioavailability is 40% due to extensive first pass metabolism. Salbutamol sulfate patches were prepared using HPMC, SCMC and Carbopol 934 in various proportions and combinations using Glycerol and tween-80 as plasticizers. Patches were laminated on one side with a water impermeable backing layer using ethyl cellulose for unidirectional drug release. The thickness of medicated patches were ranged between 0.402 and 0.431 mm and mass varied between 0.0312 and 0.0352 g. The surface-pH of patches ranged between 6 and 7. All formulations showed good folding endurance. Formulations F9 showed good drug content and Residence time of the tested patches ranged between 108 and 174 min. The maximum in vitro release was found to be 93.89% over a period of 150 min for formulation F9. Data of in vitro release from patches were fitted to different kinetic models such as Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas models to explain the release profile. Formulations F9 were best fitted to the non-Fickian kinetics and zero order release was observed.

  17. Pyridoxal phosphate-dependent neonatal epileptic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bagci, S.; Zschocke, J.; Hoffmann, G F; Bast, T.; Klepper, J; Müller, A.; Heep, A; Bartmann, P.; Franz, A R

    2009-01-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase converts pyridoxine phosphate and pyridoxamine phosphate to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in many metabolic reactions, including neurotransmitter synthesis. A family with a mutation in the pyridox(am)ine-5′-phosphate oxidase gene presenting with neonatal seizures unresponsive to pyridoxine and anticonvulsant treatment but responsive to pyridoxal phosphate is described. Pyridoxal phosphate should be considered in neonatal epileptic encephalopathy unrespons...

  18. Integrated assessment of the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphate industry in the United States includes three major activities, namely, mining and milling of phosphate rock, phosphate product manufacture, and phosphate product use. Phosphatic materials contain uranium, thorium, and their decay products in greater than background amounts. This assessment of the radiological impacts associated with the redistribution of radioactive components of phosphate materials may provide insight into the effects of uranium extraction from phosphate materials for use in the nuclear fuel cycle

  19. Kinetics of barium sulphate reaction crystallization in crystallizers with internal circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Koralewska, J.; Piotrowski, K; B. Wierzbowska; A. Matynia

    2008-01-01

    Kinetic calculation results describing the observed nucleation and growth rates of barium sulphate crystals precipitated in an integrated reaction-crystallization process in a barium sulphate-ammonium chloride-water system are presented and analyzed. The scope of experiments included two continuous model DTM-type crystallizers (Draft Tube Magma) with internal circulation of the suspension forced by a liquid jet-pump device responsible for stable and intensive enough ascending/descending flow ...

  20. Treatment of industrial effluents for neutralization and sulphate removal / Johannes Philippus Maree

    OpenAIRE

    Maree, Johannes Philippus

    2006-01-01

    1.1 Background: Acid mine water containing sulphate and high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals, including iron(II), can have pH values as low as 2.5. Environmental pollution caused by such effluents are major contributors to the salinisation of receiving water, and may prove toxic to both fauna and flora. Acid, sulphate-rich solutions are produced bacteriologically from pyrite present in waste dumps from mining and metallurgical operations and from spent sulphuric acid u...

  1. Rejection and Critical Flux of Calcium Sulphate in a Ceramic Titanium Dioxide Nanofiltration Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Amer Naji

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis thesis describes the rejection efficiency and the fouling behaviour of calcium sulphate solutes in a 1 nm tubular ceramic titanium dioxide nanofiltration membrane.Calcium sulphate is considered as one of the greatest scaling potential inorganic salts that responsible for membrane fouling which represents a main challenge in the expansion of membrane processes for desalination of brackish and saline water. The surface charge type and magnitude for the composite amphoteric TiO_2 me...

  2. Growth and characterization of pure and Ferrous sulphate doped Bis thiourea zinc chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs.M.Jaya Brabha; Sr.A.MotchaRakkini

    2015-01-01

    Non linear optical material has wide applications in the area of optical devices. That device mainly used to measure electromagnetic radiation. Single crystals of pure Bis thiourea Zinc chloride and Ferrous sulphate doped Bis thiourea Zinc chloride were grown by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals have been subjected to powder X-ray diffraction to determine the crystalline size and unit cell parameter. The incorporation of ferrous sulphate in BTZC was confirmed by the E...

  3. The effect of ferrous sulphate on the absorption of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehto, P; Kivistö, K T; Neuvonen, P J

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ferrous sulphate on the absorption of norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was studied in three separate, two-period crossover trials, each involving eight healthy volunteers. After an overnight fast, a single dose of norfloxacin (400 mg), ciprofloxacin (500 mg) or ofloxacin (400 mg) was administered with and without ferrous sulphate (corresponding to 100 mg elemental iron). The absorption of all the fluoroquinolones studied was significantly reduced when they were co-admini...

  4. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T; Diepen, van, F.N.J.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  5. Formulation and evaluation of press coated tablets of salbutamol sulphate for time controlled release

    OpenAIRE

    M D Wasimul Hasan; Komuravelly Someshwar; Patha Chaitanya; Abdul Bari Mohd; Ande Pratyusha; Vattikuti Uma Maheshwara Rao

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate a press coated pulsatile drug delivery system of salbutamol sulphate in order to attain a time controlled release for treatment of nocturnal asthma. The core was prepared by direct compression, while press coating technique was used in coating the outer layer there by preparing a press coated tablet. The immediate release core formulations comprised of salbutamol sulphate and disintegrants like crospovidone, croscarmellose sodiu...

  6. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid;

    2014-01-01

    of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  7. Cold forming of aluminium - State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The ongoing development of cold forging technology has been manifested lately by the increasing application of components in cold forged aluminium alloys. Applying precipitation hardening alloys components with great strength/weight ratio can be produced with a strength comparable to that of unal...... Elsevier Science S.A....

  8. STRUCTURE OF ECAP ALUMINIUM AFTER DIFFERENT NUMBER OF PASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ilucová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of high purity (99.99% aluminium processed by equal channel angular pressing in the as pressed state after different number of passes was examined using various stereological methods. An extreme inhomogeneity and complicated anisotropy was observed along the body of rod-like specimens.

  9. Zonal distribution of dissolved aluminium in the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolison, J. M.; Middag, R.; Stirling, C. H.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) is an important tracer of atmospheric dust input to the oceans. The GEOTRACES expedition to the highly dust impacted Mediterranean Sea afforded the opportunity to study the distribution of dissolved Al in the Mediterranean Sea in detail. Interestingly, the elevated concentra

  10. Development of an aluminium stabilized reinforced superconducting conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, D. [PTR Praezisionstechnik GmbH Maintal (Germany); Horvath, I.L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland); Harzenmoser, M.; Neuenschwander, J. [Swiss Federal Labs. for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Wittgenstein, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    For high performance superconducting magnets as used in large detectors for the High Energy Physics or for magnets of magnetic storage devices (SMES) the mechanical stresses on the conductor go beyond the yield stress level of the high purity matrix stabilizer, specially if aluminium is used. Therefore, a novel method is proposed to join high strength aluminium strips to high purity aluminium stabilizer by using the electron beam (EB) welding. The proposed EB-welding, combined with roll-pressing under vacuum, provides the minimum heat input on the conductor in comparison with other welding techniques. This method provides the advantage to allow the production of very long conductor lengths and includes the potentiality of repairing without losing expensive material. As this process has to be adapted to the high purity aluminium on the one side and to the high strength material on the other, the authors started in a first step with investigation and development of the process, using standard laboratory machines together with laboratory-size tooling. In this report the development program is described and first results of the quality control measurements are presented.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Aluminium (aluminum) Tolerance in Rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to utilize moisture and nutrients by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of ...

  12. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S. A.; Eshghi, H.; Scudino, S.; Vyalikh, A.; Vanpoucke, D. E. P.; Gruner, W.; Oswald, S.; Kiani Rashid, A. R.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scheler, U.; Eckert, J.

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN. PMID:27650956

  13. Silicon Carbide Tiles for Sidewall Lining in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUANBo; ZHAOJunguo; 等

    1999-01-01

    The paper introduces the nitride bonded silicon carbide used for sidewall lining in aluminium eletrolysis cells ,including technical process,main properties and application results.Comparison tests on various physical properties of silicon carbide products made by LIRR and other producers worldwide have also been conducted in an independent laboratory.

  14. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreatta, F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a neg

  15. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S. A.; Eshghi, H.; Scudino, S.; Vyalikh, A.; Vanpoucke, D. E. P.; Gruner, W.; Oswald, S.; Kiani Rashid, A. R.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scheler, U.; Eckert, J.

    2016-09-01

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN.

  16. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S A; Eshghi, H; Scudino, S; Vyalikh, A; Vanpoucke, D E P; Gruner, W; Oswald, S; Kiani Rashid, A R; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M; Scheler, U; Eckert, J

    2016-09-21

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN.

  17. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S A; Eshghi, H; Scudino, S; Vyalikh, A; Vanpoucke, D E P; Gruner, W; Oswald, S; Kiani Rashid, A R; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M; Scheler, U; Eckert, J

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN. PMID:27650956

  18. A vector valued Stefan problem from aluminium industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.; Vuik, C.

    1998-01-01

    Dissolution of stoichiometric multi-component particles in ternary alloys is an important process occurring during the heat treatment of as-cast aluminium alloys prior to hot-extrusion. A mathematical model is proposed to describe such a process. In this model an equation is given to determine the p

  19. Modelling of aluminium sheet material at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaren, L.; Boogaard, van den A.H.; Huetink, J.

    2004-01-01

    The formability of Al–Mg sheet can be improved considerably, by increasing the temperature. At elevated temperatures, the mechanical response of the material becomes strain rate dependent. To accurately simulate warm forming of aluminium sheet, a material model is required that incorporates the temp

  20. Modelling of contact and friction in aluminium extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Rooij, de M.B.; Schipper, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A physical model capable of predicting the friction and sticking/slipping lengths in the bearing channel during unlubricated aluminium extrusion processes is presented. The model takes into account the pressure build up in the extrusion direction in relation with the bearing–extrudate friction and h

  1. Modelling aluminium wire bond reliability in high power OMP devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Yuan, C.A.; Xiao, A.; Bruijn, F. de

    2011-01-01

    In a RF power application such as the OMP, the wires are subjected to high current (because of the high power) and high temperature (because of the heat from IC and joule-heating from the wire itself). Moreover, the wire shape is essential to the RF performance. Hence, the aluminium wire is preferre

  2. Modelling of friction for high temperature extrusion of aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, finite-element (FE) simulations have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial practice to analyse the extrusion process. A basic issue of FE simulations is the accuracy of the results, which is mainly determined by the viscoplastic material behaviour of aluminium

  3. Hydrogen evolution from aluminium in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to conditions similar to BWR and PWR containment spray waters at 50, 100 and 1500C. BWR deionized water gives corrosion rates of at most 0.05 mm/year and hydrogen concentrations less than 0.1-1%. On the contrary PWR alkaline solutions give very high corrosion rates and hydrogen contents. (Auth.)

  4. Establishment of Integrated Information Displays in Aluminium Surfaces Using Nanomanufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen has been working with a method for manufacturing ultra-thin structures in Aluminium that can be penetrated by light. This has resulted in a patent describing how to obtain this effect by etching of local areas in a solid material. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum co...... ultra-short pulses, selective etching + anodizing, and electrochemical machining....

  5. Examples on cold forged aluminium components in automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Kolsgaard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes the possibilites of applying cold forging for manufacturing of light weight components in aluminium. A short description of the basic cold forming processes forms the basis for describing the great variety in design of cold forged components. Examples are mainly taken...... from automotive industry but in a few cases also from other industrial sectors to show the possibilities....

  6. Waste treatment of fission product solutions containing aluminium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Rossendorf molybdenum-99 production facility AMOR short-term irradiated aluminium clad fuel elements from the Rossendorf Research Reactor are reprocessed. Following extractive recovery of the enriched uranium the facility system has to be disposed of the fission product-Al(NO3)3 solution. Investigations on waste conditioning of such solutions are presented. (author)

  7. Hydrogen generation from aluminium corrosion in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aluminium corrosion experiments in reactor containment spray solutions, under the conditions expected to prevail during LOCA in BWR and PWR, were performed in order to investigate relationships between temperature, pH and hydrogen production rates. In order to simulate the conditions in a BWR containment realistic ratios between aluminium surface and water volume and between aluminium surface and oxygen volume were used. Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to spray solutions: AA 1050, AA 5052 and AA 6082. The corrosion rates were measured for BWR solutions (deaerated and aerated) with pH 5 and 9 at 50, 100 and 1500C. The pressure was constantly 0.8 MPa. The hydrogen production rate was measured by means of gas chromatography. In deionized BWR water the corrosion rates did not exceed about 0.05 mm/year in all cases, i.e. were practically independent of temperature and pH. Hydrogen concentrations were less than 0.1 vol.% in cooled dry gas. Corrosion rates and hydrogen production in PWR alkaline solution measured at pH 9.7 and 1500C were very high. AA 5052 alloy was the best material

  8. Electrochemical Characterisation of Filiform Corrosion on Aluminium Rolled Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisert, M.

    2001-01-01

    When aluminium is protected by an organic coating a special form of corrosion can occur underneath the organic coating; filiform corrosion. This form of corrosion manifests itself as threadlike filaments under the coating, it causes local delamination of the coating and the coating cannot protect th

  9. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the conditi

  10. Effects of Aluminium in Forest. Results of a pilot experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, J.; Wit, H. de; Nygaard, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This conference paper deals with an Norwegian pilot project which started in 1995 and finishing early 1999, investigates the solubility and phyto-toxicity of aluminium (Al) in mature forest ecosystems. The project consists of three major parts, including field manipulation study of Norwegian spruce stands, laboratory experiments and modelling Al chemistry in the root zone. 15 refs.

  11. Experimental weathering rates of aluminium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical weathering of primary rocks and minerals in natural systems has a major impact on soil development and its composition. Chemical weathering is driven to a large extent by mineral dissolution. Through mineral dissolution, elements are released into groundwater and can readily react to precipitate secondary minerals such as clays, zeolites, and carbonates. Carbonates form from divalent cations (e.g. Ca, Fe and Mg) and CO2, and kaolin clay and gibbsite formation is attributed to the weathering of aluminium-rich minerals, most notably the feldspars. The CarbFix Project in Hellisheidi (SW-Iceland) aims to use natural weathering processes to form carbonate minerals by the re-injection of CO2 from a geothermal power plant back into surrounding basaltic rocks. This process is driven by the dissolution of basaltic rocks, rich in divalent cations, which can combine with injected CO2 to form and precipitate carbonates. This thesis focuses on the dissolution behaviour of Stapafell crystalline basalt, which consists of three major phases (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine) and is rich in divalent cations. Steady-state element release rates from crystalline basalt at far-from-equilibrium conditions were measured at pH from 2 to 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75 C in mixed-flow reactors. Steady-state Si and Ca release rates exhibit a U-shaped variation with pH, where rates decrease with increasing pH at acid condition but increase with increasing pH at alkaline conditions. Silicon release rates from crystalline basalt are comparable to Si release rates from basaltic glass of the same chemical composition at low pH and temperatures ≥25 C but slower at alkaline pH and temperatures ≥50 C. In contrast, Mg and Fe release rates decrease continuously with increasing pH at all temperatures. This behaviour is interpreted to stem from the contrasting dissolution behaviours of the three major minerals comprising the basalt: plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. Element

  12. The reducibility of sulphuric acid and sulphate in aqueous solution (translated from German)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the Swedish project for the final storage of spent fuel elements it was necessary to assess whether dissolved sulphate can corrode the copper canister without the intervention of sulphate-reducing bacteria. A simple reaction between copper and sulphate is thermodynamically impossible. On the other hand, copper can react to give copper sulphide if an additional electron donor such as iron is available. Because little specific information is available about this subject the problem was extended to the much more general question of the reducibility of sulphur in dilute aqueous solution. It is a part of the general knowledge of chemistry, and there is also unanimity about it in the geochemical literature, that purely chemical reduction of sulphate does not take place in dilute solution at temperatures below 100 degrees C. This fact is, however, poorly documented and it was therefore necessary to substantiate it by drawing on numerous individual findings from different areas of pure and applied chemistry. The investigation confirms that sulphur in dilute solution is completely inert towards chemical reducing agents and also to cathodic reduction. Thus corrosion of copper by sulphate under final-storage conditions and in the absence of sulphate reducing bacteria can be ruled out with a probability verging on certainty. (85 refs.)

  13. Preparation and Evaluation of Veterinary 0.1% Injectable Solution of Atropine Sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F K Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the know-how of preparing a multiple injection form atropine sulphate solution. An injectable aqueous solution of atropine sulphate at a concentration of 0.1%. was prepared under aseptic conditions in dark glass bottles each containing 50 ml. The preparation was intended for animal use only. It contained 1g atropine sulphate, 9 g sodium chloride as a normal saline, benzyl alcohol 15 ml as a preservative and water for injection up to 1000 ml. The pH of the solution was adjusted to 4.2 (range 3.0-6.5. The preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution was clear colorless solution free from undesired particles. It complied with the requirements for injectable solutions. Further, the preparation was safe when used under laboratory conditions in chicks, rats and donkeys. It was also effective in preventing dichlorvos (an organophosphate insecticide-induced poisoning in chicks in a manner comparable to a commercial preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate. In conclusion, the know-how of a preparation of 0.1% atropine sulphate solution is presented for veterinary use. [Vet. World 2012; 5(3.000: 145-149

  14. A microbial method using whole cells of Thiobacillus thiooxidans for measuring sulphate in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K.; Yudiarto, M.A.; Kaneko, N.; Kurosawa, H.; Amano, Y. [Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Yamanashi Univ. (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A microbial method to determine sulphate concentration in water was developed on the basis of sulphate-dependent acid phosphatase (APase) in whole cells of Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The activity of the APase was determined colorimetrically by using p-nitrophenylphosphate as substrate. The APase was activated by sulphate. A linear relationship was obtained between the activity of the APase and the concentration of sulphate in the range 0-0.06 mM. Therefore, the sulphate concentration was estimated from the APase activity, represented by the absorbance (A{sub 400}). The microbial method was applied to the determination sulphate in water. The lower limit of detection was 0.02 mM, the relative standard deviation being 2% for 10 measurements on a standard sample. As for practical samples, which were taken from rain, river and tap water, good agreement was obtained between the values measured by the microbial method and those given by a conventional barium chloranilate method. The relative standard deviation was 2.1% for 12 measurements of tap water. The activity of the APase was stable over a period of more than 100 days when the cells were stored in 0.1 M sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer (pH 5.0) at 4 C. (orig.)

  15. The use of sulphate-reducing bacteria in bioremediation of ex-coal mining soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious impact after exploiting coal by opened peat mining is acid mine drainage phenomenon. This is an oxidation of sulphide minerals by releasing sulphate that generate the environment acidity. This study was aimed to observe the ability of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB isolated of sludge paper mills in decreasing the ex-coal mining sulphate content. Before inoculating onto the soil, SRB was incubated in the sterilized organic matter for 4 days. Organic matter inhabited SRB mix with ex-coal mining soil (1:3 v/v. As a control was a series ex-coal mining mixed with non inoculated organic matter (1:3 v/v. The experiment is carried out in randomized complete design in 3 replications, each consist of 5 buckets. All buckets were maintained in saturated water content. Every 5 days for 20 days the sulphate content, pH and Eh were assessed to observe the bioremediation progress. The result shown that SRB was able to reduce 84.25% ex-coal mining sulphate content in 20 days. In consequence, the soil pH was increased from 4.15 to 6.66 during the process. It is recommended that SRB is prospective to be further developed as a sulphate bioremediation agents on ex-coal mining soil.

  16. Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

  17. Comparison of physical and inhalation properties of spray-dried and micronized terbutaline sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Thanh Huong Hoang; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc; Flament, Marie-Pierre

    2008-09-01

    Terbutaline sulphate particles, for use in dry powder inhaler formulations, were prepared by spray-drying, using a Büchi 190 mini spray dryer. Spray-drying conditions were chosen to allow the production of spray-dried terbutaline sulphate with a size similar to micronized terbutaline sulphate, that is to say about 2.9 microm of volume mean diameter. The physical properties and in vitro inhalation behaviour of micronized and spray-dried terbutaline sulphate were compared. X-ray diffraction, DSC, SEM and laser size analysis were investigated. Spray-dying produced spherically shaped particles with amorphous structure. After blending with different lactoses, adhesion and aerodynamic properties were investigated. Evaluation of adhesion was carried out with a mechanical sieve and an Alpine air-jet sieve. The adhesion of terbutaline sulphate on the lactoses tested was lower in the case of the spray-dried drug. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle dose and emitted dose was conducted using a twin stage impactor. The emitted doses and the fine particle doses were higher with the spray-dried terbutaline sulphate. The Alpine air-jet sieve assays showed that there was a correlation between drug separation from a carrier by sieving and that obtained from longer in vitro deposition studies. There was a linear relationship between the adhesion characteristics and the fine particle dose. PMID:18504120

  18. Development of an inhaled sustained release dry powder formulation of salbutamol sulphate, an antiasthmatic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kumaresan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of salbutamol sulphate. The salbutamol sulphate microparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polymer poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid to produce salbutamol sulphate microparticle mixed with carrier respirable grade lactose for oral inhalation of dry powder. The drug content were estimated to produce 1 mg sustained release salbutamol sulphate per dose. Total four formulations K1, K2, K3 and K4 were prepared with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid. The developed formulations were studied for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug relase and Anderson cascade impaction studies. The prepared formulations effectively releases drug for 12 h in diffusion bag studies. Based on dissolution performance the 1:1 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid produces in vitrorelease 92.57% at 12 h and having particle size of microparticles (D0.5μm 5.02±0.6 and the pulmonary deposition of dry powder 34.5±3.21 (respiratory fraction in percentage.

  19. Phosphate Test 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Stalder, Etienne; Zumbuehl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the phosphate content of a liposomal suspension is important when working with differential scanning calorimetry. Standard phosphate tests date back several decades and require extended hands-on time. Here, we present a rapid version of a phosphate test taking advantage of microwave-assisted chemical digestion and multiwell plate reading technology allowing for the fast and accurate testing of many samples in parallel.

  20. Aluminium in allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy--a German perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Matthias F; Heath, Matthew D

    2014-07-16

    We are living in an "aluminium age" with increasing bioavailability of the metal for approximately 125 years, contributing significantly to the aluminium body burden of humans. Over the course of life, aluminium accumulates and is stored predominantly in the lungs, bones, liver, kidneys and brain. The toxicity of aluminium in humans is briefly summarised, highlighting links and possible causal relationships between a high aluminium body burden and a number of neurological disorders and disease states. Aluminium salts have been used as depot-adjuvants successfully in essential prophylactic vaccinations for almost 100 years, with a convincing positive benefit-risk assessment which remains unchanged. However, allergen-specific immunotherapy commonly consists of administering a long-course programme of subcutaneous injections using preparations of relevant allergens. Regulatory authorities currently set aluminium limits for vaccines per dose, rather than per treatment course. Unlike prophylactic vaccinations, numerous injections with higher proportions of aluminium-adjuvant per injection are applied in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and will significantly contribute to a higher cumulative life dose of aluminium. While the human body may cope robustly with a daily aluminium overload from the environment, regulatory cumulative threshold values in immunotherapy need further addressing. Based on the current literature, predisposing an individual to an unusually high level of aluminium, such as through subcutaneous immunotherapy, has the potential to form focal accumulations in the body with the propensity to exert forms of toxicity. Particularly in relation to longer-term health effects, the safety of aluminium adjuvants in immunotherapy remains unchallenged by health authorities - evoking the need for more consideration, guidance, and transparency on what is known and not known about its safety in long-course therapy and what measures can be taken to prevent or

  1. Design of the lines of aluminium drawing. Part 1; Conception des filieres de filage d'aluminium. Partie 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cescutti, J.P.; Ravaille, N. [Pechiney, Div. Filiage, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-12-15

    After a general presentation, the second paragraph gives the main reasons of the complexity of the problem to be solved. Coming from the 'sciences of design', these aspects give valuable data to structure the analysis of the progress ways in the field of the design of the lines of aluminium extrusion. (O.M.)

  2. Decreased toxicity of aluminium when the ionic strength increases in water; Blir aluminium mindre toksisk naar ionestyrken i vannet oeker?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstad, E.W. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper evaluates the acute mortality of fish caused by the toxicity of aluminium in water. The evaluation is based on the polymerization hypothesis. According to the author, the level of toxicity decreases when the concentration and charge of ions increase. The paper presents the preliminary results from the executed experiment. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Sodium lauryl sulphate/ultrasound combination for transcutaneous vaccine delivery: effect of changing sodium lauryl sulphate concentration on antigen permeation, cavitation and skin damage

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlan, A.; Murdan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low frequency ultrasound in combination with Sodium Lauryl Sulphate (SLS), a known transdermal chemical enhancer has been found to enhance delivery of molecules through the skin. In this abstract, we report the effects of changing SLS concentration on cavitation, protein permeation through the skin and skin damage.

  4. Effects of Nano-Aluminium on The Combustion of A PolyNIMMO-Based Propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clive Woodley; Peter Henning

    2014-01-01

    Propellants containing micro-aluminium particles have been shown to produce faster burn rates than conventional gun propellants.However,they are also more abrasive than conventional propellants.Nano-material propellants have been reported to give similar benefits to micron-material propellants but without the disadvantage of increased abrasion.Tests were conducted to compare the burn rates,ignitability and wear rates of a propellant loaded with 0% aluminium,15% micro-aluminium and 15%nano-aluminium.Closed vessel tests showed a burn rate increase of 39% in the range 30-250 MPa,and 70% at low pressure (50-100 MPa)for the nano-aluminium propellant compared with the baseline propellant.The micro-aluminium propellant showed only a 10% increase in the burn rate compared with the standard propellant.The ignition delay for the nano-aluminium propellant was slightly shorter than that of the baseline propellant.Substantially increased wear rates were measured for the micro-aluminium propellant.The nano-aluminium propellant showed reduced wear rates compared with the micro-aluminium propellant but these were still substantially greater than those for the baseline propellant.

  5. Local silico-aluminophosphate interfaces within phosphated H-ZSM-5 zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bij, Hendrik E; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2014-06-01

    In order to elucidate phosphorus-zeolite H-ZSM-5 interactions, a variety of phosphorus-modified zeolite H-ZSM-5 materials were studied in a multi-spectroscopic manner. By deploying single pulse (27)Al, (31)P MAS NMR, 2D heteronuclear (27)Al-(31)P correlation (HETCOR), (27)Al MQ MAS NMR spectroscopy, TPD of pyridine monitored by FT-IR spectroscopy, and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) the interplay and influence of acidity, thermal treatment and phosphorus on the structure and acidity of H-ZSM-5 were established. It was found that while acid treatment did not affect the zeolite structure, thermal treatment leads to the breaking of Si-OH-Al bonds, a decrease in the strong acid site number and the formation of terminal Al-OH groups. No extra-framework aluminium species was observed. Phosphorus precursors interact with the zeolitic framework through hydrogen bonds and physical coordination, as phosphorus species can be simply washed out with hot water. After phosphatation and thermal treatment two effects occur simultaneously, namely (i) phosphorus species transform into water insoluble condensed poly-phosphoric acid and (ii) phosphoric acid binds irreversibly to the terminal Al-OH groups of partially dislodged four-coordinated framework aluminium, forming local silico-aluminophosphate interfaces. These interfaces are potentially the promoters of hydrothermal stability in phosphated zeolite H-ZSM-5.

  6. Sulphation of calcium-based sorbents in circulating fluidised beds under oxy-fuel combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Alberto Abad; Pilar Gayan; Margarita de las Obras-Loscertales; Aranzazu Rufas; Juan Adanez [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. Energy and Environment

    2009-07-01

    Sulphur Retention (SR) by calcium-based sorbents is a process highly dependent on the temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. In circulating fluidised beds combustors (CFBC's) operating under oxy-fuel conditions, the sulphation process takes place in atmospheres enriched in CO{sub 2} with bed concentrations that can vary from 40 to 95%. Under so high CO{sub 2} concentrations, very different from that in conventional coal combustion atmosphere with air, the calcination and sulphation behaviour of the sorbent must be defined to optimise the SR process in the combustor. The objective of this work was to determine the SO{sub 2} retention capacity of a Spanish limestone at typical oxy-fuel conditions in CFBC's. Long term duration tests of sulphation (up to 24 h), to simulate the residence time of sorbents in CFBC's, were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Clear behaviour differences were found under calcining and non-calcining conditions. Especially relevant was the result obtained at calcining conditions but close to the thermodynamic temperature given for sorbent calcination. This situation must be avoided in CFBC's because the CO{sub 2} produced inside the particle during calcination can destroy the particles if a non-porous sulphate product layer has been formed around the particle. The effect of the main variables on the sorbent sulphation such as SO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and particle size were analysed in the long term TGA tests. These data were also used to determine the kinetic parameters for the sulphation under oxy-fuel combustion conditions, which were able to adequately predict the sulphation conversion values in a wide range of operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effects of varying sulphate and nitrogen supply on DMSP and glycine betaine levels in Spartina anglica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, M. M.; Otte, M. L.

    2000-08-01

    The relationship between sulphate, dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), and glycine betaine concentrations as well as the interaction with nitrogen supply in Spartina anglica Hubbard was investigated. Several studies have already shown that nitrogen affects levels of DMSP and glycine betaine in Spartina. It has further been suggested that sulphate is important to the growth of the salt marsh grass Spartina. We hypothesised that DMSP might be involved in a high sulphur requirement. It was further hypothesised that the effect of sulphate would depend on nitrogen supply. S. anglica shoots were treated with a range of nutrient solutions containing four different sulphate treatments, 0, 80, 800 or 1600 μM and two different nitrogen levels, 0 or 2 mM ammonium nitrate. Plant parts were analysed for DMSP and glycine betaine, as well as total nitrogen and total sulphur. Plants were analysed for proline as well but levels were very low or non-detectable and patterns were not consistent. Total sulphur was affected by both the nitrogen and sulphate treatments while total nitrogen was affected by the nitrogen treatments only. Sulphate had no effect on growth (leaf length or biomass), but nitrogen increased growth of S. anglica shoots. Levels of DMSP and glycine betaine were unaffected by increased sulphate supply. Nitrogen significantly decreased concentrations of DMSP and glycine betaine. However, due to increased biomass production, total amounts of DMSP and glycine betaine per plant were significantly higher in the 2 mM nitrogen treatments. The data suggest that pools of DMSP in roots and stems are more important than previously thought.

  8. Numerical and experimental investigations of aluminium powder compaction; Numerische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Pulverpressen von Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanini, K.; Doege, E.; Schmidt-Juergensen, R. [Institut fuer Umformtechnik und Umformmaschinen, (IFUM) Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1A, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    The FEM simulation is a powerful means which can drastically reduce the time to production and costs in the optimization of powder forming processes. The current paper investigates experimentally and numerically die compaction of aluminium powder. The plastic deformation is formulated by using the Drucker-Prager-Cap-model. This yield criterion describes the compressibility of porous bodies and allows the prediction of crack formation in the green compact. Axial compaction tests have been performed to determine material parameters for hardening. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the ability of the model to compute the distribution of the relative density. Furthermore, the compaction of an axisymmetric workpiece was simulated in order to determine optimal tools kinematics and to avoid crack formation. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Auslegung und Optimierung pulvertechnologischer Umformverfahren basiert bisher zu einem grossen Teil auf Erfahrungswissen. Die numerische Simulation bietet hierbei eine kosten- und zeitsparende Alternative. Besonders hat sich die Finite-Elemente-Methode (FEM) als leistungsfaehiges Simulationsverfahren bewaehrt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird das Pulverpressen von Aluminiumpulver numerisch und experimentell untersucht. Hierbei wird das Drucker-Prager-Cap-Modell verwendet, um das kompressible Verhalten des Pulvers abzubilden und moegliche Rissbildungen waehrend des Pressvorgangs vorherzusagen. Durch Pressversuche werden die Materialkennwerte fuer dieses Modell hinsichtlich der Verdichtung und Verfestigung des Aluminiumpulvers ermittelt. Der Pressvorgang wird anhand ausgewaehlter Referenzbauteile simuliert. Von besonderem Interesse ist hierbei die Berechnung der Verteilung der relativen Dichte und die Vermeidung der Rissbildung durch Optimierung der Stempelkinematik. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples. PMID:27092423

  10. Steel sheet composite materials with foamed aluminium; Stahlblechverbundwerkstoffe mit geschaeumtem Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumeister, J.; Weber, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Materialforschung, Bremen (Germany); Bleck, W.; Hagen, H. von [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1999-07-01

    Sandwich structured steel sheets with a core of foamed aluminium can be produced by roll-bonding and glueing. Results of corrosion tests and laser welding tests so far were positive. Several applications have been proposed but none of them has been implemented as yet. The material is recommended for applications with a profile of requirements comprising structurally and functionally relevant characteristics. Recycling is unproblematic. [German] Zur Herstellung von Stahlblechsandwichverbunden mit einem Aluminiumschaumkern lassen sich die Verfahren Walzplattieren und Kleben einsetzen. Es sind Sandwichverbunde mit Gesamtdichten von 0,7 bis 2,0 g/cm{sup 3} und Gesamtdicken zwischen 10 und 32 mm darstellbar. Die Tafelgroessen fuer die vielversprechendsten Verfahren liegen derzeit bei ueber DIN A3 (konventionell geschaeumt) oder 160 mm x mehrere m (kontinuierlich im Banddurchlaufofen geschaeumt) und 2 m x 600 mm (geklebt). Es lassen sich gute mechanische Eigenschaften des Sandwichverbundes (Biegesteifigkeit) und hohe Versagensreserven bei Druck- und Biegebeanspruchungen sowie interessante funktionelle Eigenschaften (z.B. hohe Energieaufnahme) erzielen. Aus Tastversuchen zu Korrosionseigenschaften und Fuegeverfahren (Laserschweissen) konnten positive Resultate gewonnen werden. Vorschlaege zu Anwendungen bestehen, aber ein direkter Einsatz ist noch nicht realisiert worden. Ein Einsatz des Werkstoffverbundes ist sinnvoll in Gebieten, in denen ein Anforderungsprofil von strukturell und funktionell relevanten Eigenschaften vorherrscht. Das Recycling der rein metallischen Verbunde ist problemlos. (orig.)

  11. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  12. Phosphate adsorption from wastewater using zirconium (IV) hydroxide: Kinetics, thermodynamics and membrane filtration adsorption hybrid system studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johir, M A H; Pradhan, M; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2016-02-01

    Excessive phosphate in wastewater should be removed to control eutrophication of water bodies. The potential of employing amorphous zirconium (Zr) hydroxide to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater was studied in batch adsorption experiments and in a submerged membrane filtration adsorption hybrid (MFAH) reactor. The adsorption data satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Langmuir adsorption maxima at 22 °C and pHs of 4.0, 7.1, and 10.0 were 30.40, 18.50, and 19.60 mg P/g, respectively. At pH 7.1 and temperatures of 40 °C and 60 °C, they were 43.80 and 54.60 mg P/g, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔG° and ΔS° were negative and ΔH° was positive. FTIR, zeta potential and competitive phosphate, sulphate and nitrate adsorption data showed that the mechanism of phosphate adsorption was inner-sphere complexation. In the submerged MFAH reactor experiment, when Zr hydroxide was added at doses of 1-5 g/L once only at the start of the experiment, the removal of phosphate from 3 L of wastewater containing 10 mg P/L declined after 5 h of operation. However, when Zr hydroxide was repeatedly added at 5 g/L dose every 24 h, satisfactory removal of phosphate was maintained for 3 days.

  13. Light weight phosphate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  14. Titrimetric and Spectrophotometric Assay of Ganciclovir in Pharmaceuticals Using Cerium(IV) Sulphate as the Oxidimetric Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Pavagada J. Ramesh; Kanakapura Basavaiah; Cijo M. Xavier; Prashanth, Kudige N.; Raghu, Madihalli S.; Kanakapura B. Vinay

    2012-01-01

    Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assay of ganciclovir (GNC) is described using cerium(IV) sulphate as the oxidimetric reagent. The methods are based on the oxidation of GNC with a measured excess of cerium(IV) sulphate in acid medium followed by determination of the unreacted oxidant by two different reaction schemes. In titrimetry, the unreacted oxidant was determined by back titration with ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS) in sulphuric acid medium, and spectrophotometry involves the reactio...

  15. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvat...

  16. Genetic Determinants of Phosphate Response in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens Bergwitz; Wee, Mark J.; Sumi Sinha; Joanne Huang; Charles DeRobertis; Mensah, Lawrence B.; Jonathan Cohen; Adam Friedman; Meghana Kulkarni; Yanhui Hu; Arunachalam Vinayagam; Michael Schnall-Levin; Bonnie Berger; Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Mohr, Stephanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate is required for many important cellular processes and having too little phosphate or too much can cause disease and reduce life span in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying homeostatic control of extracellular phosphate levels and cellular effects of phosphate are poorly understood. Here, we establish Drosophila melanogaster as a model system for the study of phosphate effects. We found that Drosophila larval development depends on the availability of phosphate in the medium. ...

  17. Sulphate, nitrogen and base cation budgets at 21 forested catchments in Canada, the United States and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmough, Shaun A; Aherne, Julian; Alewell, Christine; Arp, Paul; Bailey, Scott; Clair, Tom; Dillon, Peter; Duchesne, Louis; Eimers, Catherine; Fernandez, Ivan; Foster, Neil; Larssen, Thorjorn; Miller, Eric; Mitchell, Myron; Page, Stephen

    2005-10-01

    To assess the concern over declining base cation levels in forest soils caused by acid deposition, input-output budgets (1990s average) for sulphate (SO(4)), inorganic nitrogen (NO(3)-N; NH(4)-N), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) were synthesised for 21 forested catchments from 17 regions in Canada, the United States and Europe. Trend analysis was conducted on monthly ion concentrations in deposition and runoff when more than 9 years of data were available (14 regions, 17 sites). Annual average SO(4) deposition during the 1990s ranged between 7.3 and 28.4 kg ha(-1) per year, and inorganic nitrogen (N) deposition was between 2.8 and 13.8 kg ha(-1) per year, of which 41-67% was nitrate (NO(3)-N). Over the period of record, SO(4) concentration in deposition decreased in 13/14 (13 out of 14 total) regions and SO(4) in runoff decreased at 14/17 catchments. In contrast, NO(3)-N concentrations in deposition decreased in only 1/14 regions, while NH(4)-N concentration patterns varied; increasing at 3/14 regions and decreasing at 2/14 regions. Nitrate concentrations in runoff decreased at 4/17 catchments and increased at only 1 site, whereas runoff levels of NH(4)-N increased at 5/17 catchments. Decreasing trends in deposition were also recorded for Ca, Mg, and K at many of the catchments and on an equivalent basis, accounted for up to 131% (median 22%) of the decrease in acid anion deposition. Base cation concentrations in streams generally declined over time, with significant decreases in Ca, Mg and K occurring at 8, 9 and 7 of 17 sites respectively, which accounted for up to 133% (median 48%) of the decrease in acid anion concentration. Sulphate export exceeded input at 18/21 catchments, likely due to dry deposition and/or internal sources. The majority of N in deposition (31-100%; median 94%) was retained in the catchments, although there was a tendency for greater NO(3)-N leaching at sites receiving higher (export of Ca and Mg in runoff exceeds input at

  18. Distribution of natural radionuclides and rare earth elements in the production and use of phosphate fertilizers in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saueia, C.H.R.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Div. de Radiometria Ambiental, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product phosphoric acid and dihydrate calcium sulphate or phosphogypsum as by-product. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphate rock used as raw material is enriched in radionuclides of the U and Th natural series. Taking this into account, the main aim of this paper is: to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclides and radioactive disequilibria involved in the industrial process of phosphoric acid production, and from these data to estimate the radioactivity released annually to the environment by this industrial complex; and to determine the content of radioactivity in several commercial fertilizers produced by this industry, in order to estimate their radiological impact in crop soils. Radiological and elemental characterization of phosphate rock, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers was performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and by gamma spectrometry. The fertilizers samples which are derived directly from phosphoric acid, MAP and DAP, presented in its composition low activity concentrations for Ra-226, Ra- 228 and Pb-210. As for U and Th, the concentrations found in MAP and DAP are more significant, up to 374 and 250 Bq/kg respectively. SSP and TSP, which are obtained by mixing phosphoric acid with different amounts of phosphate rock, presented higher concentrations of radionuclides, up to 409 Bq/kg for U-238, 871 Bq/kg for Ra-226, 1255 Bq/kg for Pb-210, 722 Bq/kg for Th-232 and 717 Bq/kg for Ra- 228. From the results obtained for the radiological characterization of Brazilian phosphate fertilizers and the application of a single model, it was concluded that the dilution factor is high and, therefore, no environmental radiological impact can be predicted from this

  19. Batch Cooling Crystallization of Potassium Sulphate from Water Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalšan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch cooling crystallization, at the rotation speed of 700 min–1, of an aqueous solution of a potassium sulphate has been investigated on a laboratory scale. The effect of hydrodynamics conditions on the crystallization process were investigated by using different type of impellers. Two types of impellers were investigated; the four-pitched blade impeller which generates axi-al flow and the six-blades Rusthon turbine which generates radial flow. The experiments were performed at four different linear cooling rates in the range from 8-20 °C h–1 for both types of impeller.The influence of the cooling rates on the metastable zone width, the crystallization kinetics and the granulometric properties of the obtained crystals were investigated. The experimental data show that higher cooling rate expands the metastable zone for all the types of impeller (Fig. 2 and influences the crystal size distribution (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.At low cooling rates, supersaturation was kept at a constant value for a longer period. It resulted in improved conditions for mass transfer and the crystals grew. Bigger crystals were obtained at lower cooling rates (Fig. 7.It is stated that radial flow (Rusthon turbine is particularly inappropriate for the nucleation process, and for crystallization. Nucleation started at a lower temperature and higher supersaturation (Fig. 3. These conditions resulted in a high nucleation’s rate and large number of nucleation centres.Also, the obtained crystals settled on the wall of the reactor, baffles and stirrer. A great part of the obtained crystals was agglomerated. The nucleation order, n and coefficient of nucleation, kn were determined for different cooling rates (Fig. 5a. The nucleation order is higher at radial flow (nucleation started at higher supersaturation. The relation between the rate of concentration drop in a solution and supersaturation has beenapproximated with a power low equation (Fig. 5b. For the used impellers

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of protection of thymine from sulphate radical anion under anoxic conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sudha Swaraga; M Adinarayana

    2003-04-01

    The rates of photooxidation of thymine in presence of peroxydisulphate (PDS) have been determined by measuring the absorbance of thymine at 264 nm spectrophotometrically. The rates and the quantum yields () of oxidation of thymine by sulphate radical anion have been determined in the presence of different concentrations of caffeic acid. Increase in [caffeic acid] is found to decrease the rate of oxidation of thymine suggesting that caffeic acid acts as an efficient scavenger of SO$^{\\bullet -}_{4}$ and protects thymine from it. Sulphate radical anion competes for thymine as well as for caffeic acid. The rate constant of sulphate radical anion with caffeic acid has been calculated to be 1.24 × 1010 dm3 mol-1 s-1. The quantum yields of photooxidation of thymine have been calculated from the rates of oxidation of thymine and the light intensity absorbed by PDS at 254 nm, the wavelength at which PDS is activated to sulphate radical anion. From the results of experimentally determined quantum yields (exptl) and the quantum yields calculated (cl) assuming caffeic acid acting only as a scavenger of SO$^{\\bullet -}_{4}$ radicals show that exptl values are lower than cl values. The ' values, which are experimentally found quantum yield values at each caffeic acid concentration and corrected for SO$^{\\bullet-}_{4}$ scavenging by caffeic acid, are also found to be greater than exptl values. These observations suggest that the thymine radicals are repaired by caffeic acid in addition to scavenging of sulphate radical anions.