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Sample records for aluminium foundry workers

  1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, a PAH biomarker in foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, David; Hansen, Åse Marie

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to PAH in foundry workers has been studied by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) levels, quantitatively measured by reversed phase HPLC. Seventy male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure was defined by 17 breathing zone hygi...

  2. Development of risk assessment tool for foundry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, G Madhan; Prasad, P S S; Mokkapati, Anil Kumar; Venkataraman, G

    2008-01-01

    Occupational ill-health and work-related disorders are predominant in manufacturing industries due to the inevitable presence of manual work even after several waves of industrial automation and technological advancements. Ergonomic risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders like low-back symptoms have been noted amongst foundry workers. The purpose of this study was to formulate and develop a Physical Effort Index to assess risk factor. The questionnaire tool applicable to foundry environment has been designed and validated. The data recorded through survey across the foundries has been subjected to regression analysis to correlate between proposed physical effort index and the standard Borg's Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. The physical efforts of sixty seven workers in various foundry shop floors were assessed subjectively. The 'Job factors' and 'Work environment' were the two major parameters considered in assessing the worker discomfort level at workplace. A relation between Borg's RPE scale and the above two parameters were arrived at, through regression analysis. The study demonstrates the prevalence of risk factors amongst foundry workers and the effectiveness of the proposed index in estimating the risk factor levels. RELEVANCE TO THE INDUSTRY: The proposed tool will assist foundry supervisors and managers to assess the risk factors and helps in better understanding of the workplace to avoid work-related disorders, ensuring better output.

  3. Prevalence of job strain among Indian foundry shop floor workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, G Madhan; Elangovan, S; Prasad, P S S; Krishna, P Rama; Mokkapati, Anil Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Global competition in manufacturing sector demand higher productivity levels. In this context, workers in this sector are set with high output targets, leading to job strain. In addition to the strain, hazardous conditions also prevail in some of the manufacturing processes like foundry activities. This paper attempts to appraise the prevalence of job strain among foundry shop floor workers in India with the help of Demands-Control model [8]. In this study, data was collected through a survey using 49-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) [9], a widely used and well-validated test for job strain. Then the data was subjected to statistical analysis after ascertaining the reliability. This survey has revealed that 25% of workers in foundry were experiencing high job strain. Hazardous working conditions, limited decision making authority, etc. appear to be the main contributing factors for the higher levels of strain.

  4. Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Å M

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay...... (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. High and low exposure groups were defined from breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 PAH compounds in particulate and gaseous phase. Mean...... total PAH was 10.40 micrograms/m3 in the breathing zone, and mean dust adsorbed PAH was 0.15 microgram/m. All carcinogenic PAH was adsorbed to dust. Median benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adduct concentrations (10-90% percentiles) were similar in foundry workers (smokers 0.55 (0.27-1.00) and non-smokers 0.58 (0...

  5. Prevalence of Occupational Asthma and Respiratory Symptoms in Foundry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted in a foundry factory to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and occupational asthma in foundry workers. Physical examination, spirometric evaluation, chest radiograph, and a questionnaire related to respiratory symptoms were performed. Monitoring of peak expiratory flow rates, spirometric reversibility test, and high-resolution computed tomographies were performed for the participants having respiratory symptoms and/or impaired respiratory function test. A total of 347 participants including 286 workers from production department and 61 subjects who worked in nonproduction departments were enrolled in this study. It is found that phlegm (n: 71, 20.46% and cough (n: 52, 14.98% were the most frequent symptoms. The other symptoms were breathlessness (n: 28, 8.06%, chest tightness (n: 14, 4.03%, and wheezing (n: 7, 2.01% . The prevalence of occupational asthma was found to be more frequent among the subjects who worked in the production department (n: 48, 16.78% than the other persons who worked in the nonproduction department (n: 3, 4.91% by chi-square test (P: 0.001. To prevent hazardous respiratory effects of the foundry production, an early diagnosis of occupational asthma is very important. Cessation of cigarette smoking and using of protective masks during the working time should be encouraged.

  6. Mushy Zone Properties and Castability of Aluminium Foundry Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The growing application and market share of aluminium castings demand better understanding of the mechanisms of defect formation during casting. Although casting is a cost-effective production route, inadequate reproducibility and quality of the cast structure often restrict the utilization of castings. This doctoral thesis aims to (1) determine how the solidification conditions affect the rheological behaviour in the partially solidified state, (2) to measure how alterations in solidification variables influence castability, and (3) to investigate the relationship between mushy zone rheology and castability. The development of mechanical strength in the mushy zone was measured as a function of chemical composition. Measurements of the dendrite coherency point provided accurate determination of the point where the dendrite network is established. The strength measurements confirm that the dendrites are largely independent and free-floating before dendrite coherency. The point and rate of strength development in the subsequently established interdendritic network strongly depend on the size and morphology of the dendrites and fraction solid. The castability investigation was limited to evaluations of fluidity and feeding. Fluidity measurements showed a complex effect of increased grain refinement. Alterations of the concentration and type of main alloying element gave a direct relationship between mushy zone rheology and fluidity. The range of the operating feeding mechanisms during solidification is directly related to the rheological properties of the mushy zone. 251 refs., 77 refs., 25 tabs.

  7. Energy conservation in flame-heated hearth furnaces in aluminium foundries. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, R

    1981-01-01

    There are two fields for energy saving: The aluminium foundries obtain the electrolytic metal in liquid form and therefore also excessive heat. This must be used. The furnaces must be designed and operated so that they use as little energy as possible. Both subjects are investigated by considering 59 existing plants in Europe. They are compared regarding energy consumption and heat balance. A series of possibilities for improved use of fuel, such as improvement of the burner setting, automatic regulation of excess air and use of combustion with enriched oxygen supply are given.

  8. ESTIMATION OF WORKING CONDITIONS OF FOUNDRY WORKERS BY INFRARED (HEAT RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lazarenkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of infrared radiations, their influence on human organism is given. The results of investigation of infrared (heat radiation intensity on the workers in foundries are given.

  9. Corrosion of immersed ceramic heat exchanger tubes in aluminium foundry baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracho-Troconis, C.B.; Frot, G.; Bienvenu, Y. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux; Frety, N. [Ecole des Mines d`Albi-Carmaux (France); Alliat, I. [CERSTA-Gaz de France, Saint-Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    The corrosion of three non-oxide ceramics by Al-9Si-3Cu baths and by fluxes (mixtures of chlorides and fluorides of sodium and potassium) at about 750 C was studied in a foundry environment. Comparison of results of the metallurgical examination of A, a silicon-nitride-bonded silicon carbide and of B, a reaction-bonded silicon nitride, surface treated to fill all the external porosity provides some insight into the role of the bonding phase and the porosity. Grade C is a graphite bonded silicon carbide with an external protection by a ceramic glazing. The SiC phase in the tubes is inert to the corrosive liquids (attributed to the silicon content in the metal). A and C ceramics react only in the presence of a flux. Sodium and chlorine were identified in the corrosion products as well as AlN (A) and Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} (C), resulting from reaction of the silicon nitride or of the graphite bonding phase with aluminium. This suggests that the fluxes are responsible for the corrosive process, by causing the formation of gaseous aluminium halides which penetrate the porous bonding phase and react with it to form AlN or Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}. (orig.) 13 refs.

  10. Property enhancement by grain refinement of zinc-aluminium foundry alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajewski, W K; Piwowarski, G; Krajewski, P K; Greer, A L

    2016-01-01

    Development of cast alloys with good mechanical properties and involving less energy consumption during their melting is one of the key demands of today's industry. Zinc foundry alloys of high and medium Al content, i.e. Zn-(15-30) wt.% Al and Zn-(8-12) wt.% Al, can satisfy these requirements. The present paper summarizes the work [1-9] on improving properties of sand-cast ZnAl10 (Zn-10 wt.% Al) and ZnAl25 (Zn-25 wt. % Al) alloys by melt inoculation. Special attention was devoted to improving ductility, whilst preserving high damping properties at the same time. The composition and structural modification of medium- and high-aluminium zinc alloys influence their strength, tribological properties and structural stability. In a series of studies, Zn - (10-12) wt. % Al and Zn - (25-26) wt.% Al - (1-2.5) wt.% Cu alloys have been doped with different levels of added Ti. The melted alloys were inoculated with ZnTi-based refiners and it was observed that the dendritic structure is significantly finer already after addition of 50 - 100 ppm Ti to the melted alloys. The alloy's structure and mechanical properties have been studied using: SEM (scanning electron microscopy), LM (light microscopy), dilatometry, pin-on-disc wear, and tensile strength measurements. Grain refinement leads to significant improvement of ductility in the binary high-aluminium Zn-(25-27) Al alloys while in the medium-aluminium alloys the effect is rather weak. In the ternary alloys Zn-26Al-Cu, replacing a part of Cu with Ti allows dimensional changes to be reduced while preserving good tribological properties. Furthermore, the high initial damping properties were nearly entirely preserved after inoculation. The results obtained allow us to characterize grain refinement of the examined high-aluminium zinc alloys as a promising process leading to the improvement of their properties. At the same time, using low melting ZnTi-based master alloys makes it possible to avoid the excessive melt

  11. Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, F; Kristiansen, J; Lauritsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Cast iron products are alloyed with small quantities of manganese, and foundry furnacemen are potentially exposed to manganese during tapping and handling of smelts. Manganese is a neurotoxic substance that accumulates in the central nervous system, where it may cause a neurological disorder...

  12. Lung function and functional capacity among foundry workers using effective risk control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Rosane Andrea Bretas; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Negreiros, Alexandher; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled dust in the environment can trigger specific reactions in the airways and cause various respiratory diseases. Evaluate the lung function and functional capacity of foundry workers who are exposed to metals and use effective control measures. A cross-sectional study was realized with 108 workers at a bronze foundry and machining plant and in maintenance at a private university, both in Brazil. The workers were divided into two groups: the study group exposed to metals but using risk control measues and a control group not exposed to metal work. The Medical Research Council Questionnaire on Respiratory Symptoms and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were administered, and lung function and functional capacity were evaluated. Comparative statistics were used to identify differences in the outcome measures between the two groups. The groups had similar personal and anthropometric characteristics and time on the job. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow presented no significant differences between the groups. And there was also no statistically significant difference between groups in functional capacity as assessed by performance on the six-minute walk test. Foundry industry workers in Brazil who were exposed to metal but used risk control measures had similar lung function and functional capacity when compared to the control group who were not exposed to metal. This is a positive results and maybe related to age, time exposure and control of occupational hazards. However, these workers need to continue being monitored in longitudinal studies.

  13. Serum aluminium levels of workers in the bauxite mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kom, J F; Dissels, H M; van der Voet, G B; de Wolff, F A

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium is produced from the mineral bauxite. Occupational exposure is reported during the industrial processing of aluminium and is associated with pulmonary and neurotoxicity. However, data on exposure and toxicity of workers in the open bauxite mining industry do not exist. Therefore, a study was performed to explore aluminium exposure in employees involved in this bauxite mining process in a Surinam mine. A group of workers occupationally exposed to aluminium in an open bauxite mine were compared with a group of nonexposed wood processors. Serum aluminium was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry Data from the clinical chemistry of the blood and a questionnaire were used to explore determinants for aluminium exposure. No significant difference between serum aluminium in the exposed (4.4 +/- 2.0 micrograms/L, n = 27) and control group (5.1 +/- 1.5 micrograms/L, n = 27) was detected. For the serum concentration of the clinical chemical variables (calcium, citrate, and creatinine), a statistically significant difference was computed (p < or = 0.02) between the exposed and control group. All levels were slightly higher in the exposed group; no statistically significant correlations with serum aluminium were found. In this study, serum aluminium values were in the normal range, no significant difference between the groups could be detected despite long-term occupational exposure.

  14. Interaction of smoking, uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cytochrome P450IA2 activity among foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherson, D; Sigsgaard, T; Overgaard, E

    1992-01-01

    .56-5.24). The same was true for smoking controls and foundry workers (9.10, 95% CI 8.00-10.20 and 8.69, 95% CI 7.37-10.01). Both smoking groups had raised IA2 ratios compared with non-smokers (p less than 0.01). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar hpU concentrations (0.16, 95% CI 0.10-0.22 and 0...... hygienic samples (respirable dust 1.2 to 3.52 mg/m3 (93 samples)) and as total PAH (0.46 micrograms/m3) and pyrene concentrations (0.28 micrograms/m3) (six samples). Non-smoking controls and foundry workers had similar IA2 ratios (5.63, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.56-6.70 and 4.40, 95% CI 3...

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Thermal Insulation of Traditional and Newly Designed Protective Clothing for Foundry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Frydrych

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An objective of the undertaken research was checking the applicability of aluminized basalt fabrics for the production of clothing for foundry workers. The results of flammability, the resistance to contact, convective and radiation heat, as well as the resistance to big molten metal splashes confirmed the thesis of applicability of the packages with the use of aluminized basalt fabric content for the assumed purpose; therefore, such protective clothing was produced. Thermal comfort of foundry workers is very important and related to many factors, i.e., the structure of the protective clothing package, the number of layers, their thickness, the distance between the body and appropriate underwear. In the paper, a comparison of the results of thermal insulation measurement of two kinds of protective clothing is presented: the traditional one made of aluminized glass fabrics and the new one made of aluminized basalt fabrics. Measurements of clothing thermal insulation were conducted using a thermal manikin dressed in the protective clothing and three kinds of underwear products covering the upper and lower part of the manikin.

  16. Cancer risk among workers of a secondary aluminium smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, A; Serra, C; Kogevinas, M

    2016-07-01

    Cancer risk in secondary aluminium production is not well described. Workers in this industry are exposed to potentially carcinogenic agents from secondary smelters that reprocess aluminium scrap. To evaluate cancer risk in workers in a secondary aluminium plant in Spain. Retrospective cohort study of male workers employed at an aluminium secondary smelter (1960-92). Exposure histories and vital status through 2011 were obtained through personal interviews and hospital records, respectively. Standardized mortality (SMRs) and incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. The study group consisted of 98 workers. We found increased incidence and mortality from bladder cancer [SIR = 2.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-5.62; SMR = 5.90, 95% CI 1.58-15.11]. Increased incidence was also observed for prostate cancer and all other cancers but neither were statistically significant. No increased risk was observed for lung cancer. Results of this study suggest that work at secondary aluminium smelters is associated with bladder cancer risk. Identification of occupational carcinogens in this industry is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. High-Strength Aluminium Alloys and Their Use in Foundry Industry of Nickel Superalloys

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    Pysz S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Of great importance in the selection of materials for cast structures is keeping a proper balance between the mechanical and plastic properties, while preserving the relevant casting properties. This study has been devoted to an analysis of the choice and application of high-strength aluminium-based alloys maintaining sufficient level of casting properties. The high level of tensile strength (Rm > 500 MPa matched with satisfactory elongation (A > 3% is important because materials of this type are used for cast parts operating in the aerospace, automotive, and military industries. These beneficial relationships between the high tensile strength and toughness are relatively easy to obtain in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys subjected to plastic forming and proper heat treatment. In gravity cast products, on the other hand, whether poured into sand moulds or metal moulds (dies, obtaining this favourable combination of properties poses a number of research problems (mostly resulting from the alloy chemical composition as well as technical and technological difficulties.

  18. [The genetic component of chronic respiratory diseases in workers of foundry productions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutov, D V; Khamitova, R Ya

    Review of the literature shows that currently there is an accumulation of data on the genetic determination of individual susceptibility to adverse industrial factors. Material of the research were high molecular DNA samples isolated from epithelial mouth scrapings in 99 foundry workers. Study of polymorphic variants of interleukin genes was performed by means of the analysis ofproducts of amplification of specific regions of the genome. Homozygous genotype TNF-a (-308A/G) was established to increase the relative risk of shaping of chronic respiratory diseases: with AA alleles - by 6.4 times and GG alleles - by 2.4 times, while the heterozygous genotype (AG) decreases - by 1. 9 times. Polymorphism of gene IL-1β (+3953 T / C) had no significance for the development of respiratory disease. Genotyping interleukins, involved in the inflammatory responses of the bronchopulmonary tract, can be considered as an element ofprimary prevention in industries with a high risk for shaping of respiratory diseases.

  19. [Association between serum aluminium level and methylation of amyloid precursor protein gene in workers engaged in aluminium electrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X J; Yuan, Y Z; Niu, Q

    2016-04-20

    To investigate the association between serum aluminium level and methylation of the promoter region of amyloid precursor protein (APP)gene in workers engaged in aluminium electrolysis. In 2012, 366 electrolysis workers in an aluminium factory were enrolled as exposure group (working years >10 and age >40 years)and divided into low-exposure group and high-exposure group based on the median serum aluminium level. Meanwhile, 102 workers in a cement plant not exposed to aluminium were enrolled as control group. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to measure serum aluminium level, methylation specific PCR was used to measure the methylation rate of the promoter region of APP gene, and ELI-SA was used to measure the protein expression of APP in lymphocytes in peripheral blood. The exposure group had a significantly higher serum aluminium level than the control group (45.07 μg/L vs 30.51 μg/L, P0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that with reference to the control group, low aluminium exposure (OR=1.86, 95% CI 1.67~3.52)and high aluminium exposure (OR=2.98, 95% CI 1.97~4.15)were risk factors for a reduced methylation rate of the promoter region of APP gene. Reduced methylation of the promoter region of APP gene may be associated with increased serum aluminium level, and downregulated methylation of the promoter region of APP gene may accelerate APP gene transcription.

  20. Correlation between work process-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary levels of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthylamine and 1-hydroxypyrene in iron foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Omland, Øyvind; Poulsen, O M

    1994-01-01

    foundry workers. Hand molders, finishing workers and truck drivers tended to have the highest levels. Concerning alpha-naphthol the highest concentrations were measured in urine from casters and shake-out workers. With regard to epidemiologic studies demonstrating that molders and casters have a higher...

  1. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to dust among aluminium foundry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Choupani

    2018-05-01

    Conclusion ― Determination of AL concentration in urine is not enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of AL nanoparticles in the air and biomarkers that determine the actual absorption rate seems to be an adequate method for occupational exposure monitoring of AL.

  2. 31. Introduction with adjacent production of foundry and rolling department of electrolysis shop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    The introduction with adjacent production of foundry and rolling department of electrolysis shop was conducted. The foundry machine was described. The chemical properties of aluminium for ferrous alloy production were defined.

  3. Lung cancer risk in welders and foundry workers with a history of heavy smoking in the USA: The National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason Y Y; Bassig, Bryan A; Seow, Wei Jie; Hu, Wei; Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T; Lan, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Foundry work is a risk factor for lung cancer; however, the association with welding is unclear, as smoking is common among metalworkers and may mask the relationship. We evaluated whether history of welding and foundry work, independently and jointly, and employment duration were associated with lung cancer risk in heavy smokers. We analysed data from the National Lung Screening Trial, a prospective randomised trial of 53 454 heavy smokers (>30 pack-years) in the USA. Cox regression models were used to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs of medically/histologically confirmed incident lung cancer during the follow-up period (2002-2009) in relation to history and duration of welding and foundry work assessed via questionnaires, adjusted for screening arm, component study, sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status and pack-years, body mass index and personal/family medical history. There were 2034 incident lung cancer cases throughout the follow-up. Increasing years of employment in welding (p-trend =0.039) and foundry work (p-trend =0.005) were related to increased lung cancer risk among heavy smokers. Having ever been employed (≥1 yr) as either a welder or foundry worker alone was associated with non-significant increased risks of lung cancer (HR=1.12 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.37) and HR=1.09 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.39), respectively). Further, there was a joint-effect in that those who were ever employed in both occupations had significantly increased risks (HR=1.48 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.04)). Our findings provide further evidence that exposure to welding/metal fumes may be associated with elevated lung cancer risk. NCT00047385. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Trace elements in blood samples of workers in Atbara railways foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, W. M.

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine trace elements and toxic substances in biological samples (blood samples) of humans. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), (Pb), lead, and zinc (Zn) in biological samples of workers employed in the industrial workshops in the River Nile state to assess the potential impact of exposure to the work environmental factors. For the purpose of comparison biological samples were collected from the same group of workers exposed to the elements of the work environment and workers not exposed to the elements of the work environment. The analysis of all elements in biological samples was done by x-ray fluorescence technique (X RF). There were no statistically significant differences between the analytical results for the exposed group and non-exposed group, using the same technique. The results showed that the concentrations of the four elements copper, lead, iron, and zinc in all biological samples from workers exposed were not much higher than those not exposed, it could be argued that there was a possible link between these elements with different causes of physiological disorder. The results also showed that need for an attention for improvements in hygiene practice in the workplace and industrial ventilation.(Author)

  6. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria, N.; Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a siliceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the siliceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238 U, 232 Th and 235 U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This is

  7. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Natalia; Legarda, Fernando; Herranz, Margarita; Idoeta, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the silicaceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This

  8. Molecular Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    . New Study Indicates Greater Capacity for Carbon Storage in the Earth's Subsurface A team of Foundry minerals which make up the dominant clays in the Earth's deep subsurface. Doubling Down on Energy Storage identify molecular components within small volumes of biological samples, such as blood or urine. Industry

  9. Respirable silica dust exposure amongst foundry workers in Gauteng, South Africa: A task-based risk assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khoza, NN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available /m³ respectively in foundry two. The maximum exposure concentration was 0.835 mg/m³ and minimum exposure was 0.010 mg/m³. Data were analysed by using SPSS version 18. The highest exposed occupations were moulders, sand mixers, furnace operators, shake...

  10. [Health risk assessment of exposure to metals in the workers of the steel foundry and in the general population of Taranto (Italy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleo, Leonardo; Lovreglio, Piero; Panuzzo, Laura; D'Errico, Maria Nicolà; Basso, Antonella; Gilberti, Maria Enrica; Drago, Ignazio; Tomasi, Cesare; Apostoli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    To study the urinary excretion of As, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Ba, Hg, Pb, Sb in workers at the Taranto integrated-cycle steel foundry and in subjects from the general population of Taranto, to assess the health risk posed by occupational exposure and environmental exposure, respectively, to these metals. The study included 49 steel foundry workers (exposed), working in the minerals and agglomerates pools, steel processing plants 1 and 2 and maritime plants, and 50 subjects belonging to the general population of Taranto resident at various distances from the factory (controls), randomly selected from the exposed subjects and controls enrolled in previous research conducted in 2005. A questionnaire was administered to all participants, enquiring into general characteristics, lifestyle, diet, and any medical conditions. Informed written consent to take part in the study was obtained from all subjects before enrolment. The results of environmental monitoring performed in 2005 in the workers' sectors, consisting of determining As, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the respirable dust, revealed by both samplers applied in fixed positions and personal samplers, were considered. Urine samples were obtained from all participants on a Friday, to determine As and Cr by AAS and all the other metal elements by a multielement technique with ICP-MS. Urinary creatinine was also determined to make any necessary adjustments. All urine analyses were performed in 2005 within one month of urine collection. In the respirable dust, As and Cd were always within the LOD, whereas Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the respective TLV-TWA of the ACGIH. Mn was the only metal element that presented significantly higher urinary concentrations in exposed subjects as compared to controls, although the values in both groups were in any case within the Italian reference range. Co, Cu, Zn, Sn and Sb showed significantly higher urinary concentrations in controls than in

  11. The Molecular Foundry (TMF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Founded in 2006 by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Molecular Foundry is a critical part of the DOE's National Nanotechnology Initiative, a multi-agency framework...

  12. Energy conservation in foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natu, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

  13. Recycling of aluminium swarf by direct incorporation in aluminium melts

    OpenAIRE

    Puga, Hélder; Barbosa, J.; Soares, Delfim; Silva, Filipe Samuel; Ribeiro, Carlos Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to recover a standard AlSi12Cu1 alloy from machining chips inside the foundry plant, by using an environmentally friend technique to produce cast ingots with characteristics similar to those of the commercially available 2nd melt raw material. The recyclability of aluminium swarf using different melting techniques and the influence of chips preparation in the aluminium alloy recovery rate and dross production was experimentally studied and evaluated...

  14. Workload assessment on foundry SME to enhance productivity using full time equivalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Amarria Dila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium SME aims to increase the production amount by producing wok as much as 300 Units. The problem is workload analysis of operator on the wok production line in the wok foundry SME as well as the production cycle-making cycle time and analyze the workload received by the operator when producing 300 woks using the full time equivalent (FTE method. This study aims to measure the workload of each division worker in the production process with a total of 13 workers observed. This study provides a work division recommendation based on the workload that has been carefully examined. This research involves percentage of workload effectiveness and the wages of workers. In lathe division have overload workload. While the printing division, melting inspection division, packaging and transportation division including normal workload category and the percentage of good work effectiveness. The result provides recommendations for the addition of 2 workers in each division that includes the category of overload of the lathe division with the number of initial workers as many as 13 workers to 15 workers. In the last stage perform a simulation by comparing the system of prefix work and proposal. The simulation results obtained with the initial work system to get an average of 223 woks / day. Meanwhile, for the proposed work system to get an average output of 291 woks.

  15. Developments in the US aluminium recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolling, R N

    1983-06-01

    In the USA scrap recovery of aluminium has gained in importance since the war. Today its amounts to about 32% of total supply. On the other hand primary production in the US seems to have hardly any expansion possibilities. The development of the aluminium beverage can is the clearest example for recycling growth. The increased use of aluminium in passenger cars has led to very close technical and local relations of aluminium foundries and secondary smelters. The changing nature of the aluminium business caused by the growth of recycling should be recognized and made use of.

  16. MAGNETIC SEPARATORS AND THEIR PLACE IN MODEM FOUNDRY. REFINEMENT OF WASTE (ALUMINIUM SCRAP WITH THE PURPOSE O F FURTHER USING IN OWN PRODUCTION ON BASIS OF PRUP “MINSK MOTOR PLANT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ovchinnikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The types of magnetic separators used in casting are given. The technology of preparation of aluminium chip scrap for further using in domestic manufacture is developed and implemented at Minsk Motor Works.

  17. FOUNDRY WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kosec

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.

  18. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, projectformulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  19. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Space science missions are increasingly challenged today: in ambition, by increasingly sophisticated hypotheses tested; in development, by the increasing complexity of advanced technologies; in budgeting, by the decline of flagship-class mission opportunities; in management, by expectations for breakthrough science despite a risk-averse programmatic climate; and in planning, by increasing competition for scarce resources. How are the space-science missions of tomorrow being formulated? The paper describes the JPL Innovation Foundry, created in 2011, to respond to this evolving context. The Foundry integrates methods, tools, and experts that span the mission concept lifecycle. Grounded in JPL's heritage of missions, flight instruments, mission proposals, and concept innovation, the Foundry seeks to provide continuity of support and cost-effective, on-call access to the right domain experts at the right time, as science definition teams and Principal Investigators mature mission ideas from "cocktail napkin" to PDR. The Foundry blends JPL capabilities in proposal development and concurrent engineering, including Team X, with new approaches for open-ended concept exploration in earlier, cost-constrained phases, and with ongoing research and technology projects. It applies complexity and cost models, project-formulation lessons learned, and strategy analyses appropriate to each level of concept maturity. The Foundry is organizationally integrated with JPL formulation program offices; staffed by JPL's line organizations for engineering, science, and costing; and overseen by senior Laboratory leaders to assure experienced coordination and review. Incubation of each concept is tailored depending on its maturity and proposal history, and its highest-leverage modeling and analysis needs.

  20. Creation of Defects Catalogue for Nonconforming Product Identification in the Foundry Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sütőová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with system of casting defects classification problematics and creation of defects catalogue in the foundry organization. There is described the value of correct defects classification and identification in the literature review and also some tools for defects classification are mentioned. Existing defects classifications and catalogues are often unusable for particular production processes and casting technology. Many foundries therefore create their own defects catalogues. The sample of created catalogue, which classifies and describes defects occuring in the aluminium foundry organization and its benefits are presented in the paper. The created catalogue primarily serves as a visual support for production operators and quality control processes.

  1. European MEMS foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.

    2003-01-01

    According to the latest release of the NEXUS market study, the market for MEMS or Microsystems Technology (MST) is predicted to grow to $68B by the year 2005, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. The latest advances in MST/MEMS technology have enabled the design of a new generation of microsystems that are smaller, cheaper, more reliable, and consume less power. These integrated systems bring together numerous analog/mixed signal microelectronics blocks and MEMS functions on a single chip or on two or more chips assembled within an integrated package. In spite of all these advances in technology and manufacturing, a system manufacturer either faces a substantial up-front R&D investment to create his own infrastructure and expertise, or he can use design and foundry services to get the initial product into the marketplace fast and with an affordable investment. Once he has a viable product, he can still think about his own manufacturing efforts and investments to obtain an optimized high volume manufacturing for the specific product. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of MEMS/MST technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities, including packaging and test. This paper discusses Multi-project wafer (MPW) runs, requirements for foundries and gives some examples of foundry business models. Furthermore, this paper will give an overview on MST/MEMS services that are available in Europe, including pure commercial activities, European project activities (e.g. Europractice), and some academic services.

  2. Foundry Coating Technology: A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2011-01-01

    is important. In this review, a detailed description of these topics and examples are provided where necessary. A potential area of research in foundry coating development, using sol-gel process is suggested. The application of sol-gel technology in the development of foundry coatings is a novel approach....

  3. [Features of the lipid exchange in workers employed in aluminium productions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudaeva, I V; Dyakovich, O A; Masnavieva, L B; Popkova, O V; Abramatets, E A

    Aluminum production can be referred to the category of industries of the increased health hazard for the workers. During technological process of receiving aluminum the air of a working zone is polluted by a large number of harmful substances. Workers are exposed to the complex of toxicants possessing a polytropic impact on the body. The most significant consequences are violations of different types of metabolism in the organism, including lipid metabolism. The purpose of the study is the investigation of the state of lipid metabolism in persons working in the production of aluminum. The object of research was 108 male workers of aluminum production suffering from occupational pathology of airways. The group of comparison was consisted of 103 men, apparently healthy, not exposed to toxicants. There was determined the content of the total cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC and LDLC), triglycerides (TG), phospholipids (PL), atherogenic index (AI). Statistical processing was performed with the use of software «Statistica 6.0». There were established statistically significant differences of indices of lipid exchange in the persons occupied in aluminum production when related to the group of comparison. IA values in persons from the study group proved to be higher than in the comparison group, due to elevated levels of TC and LDLC. The TG and PL level was also higher. The values of IA, TC and TG in workers of aluminum production in more than 50% cases exceeded the reference values. The average concentration of HDL cholesterol in both groups did not differ, and was above the lower reference boundary. Established features of lipid metabolism in workers of aluminum allow us to suggest the distinction in mechanisms of developing proatherogenic disorders from previously established ones for workers exposed to other chemicals. One of the causes of the shaping of these disorders can be oxidative stress, which in turn serves as a response to

  4. Foundries and environmental economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglioti, V

    1974-01-01

    There is a growing emphasis on the recycling of natural resources. For example, the reprocessing of scrap iron involves an average saving of 74% of the energy used in ore reduction and an 84% decrease in pollution output. This calls for an approach to manufacturing that will favor the recycling of raw materials used. A publication of the American Foundrymen's Society lists 450 substances for which there are maximum permissible limits in the foundry work environment. It has been estimated that in Italy, on the average, about 20% of the cost of a manufacturing plant must now be allocated to pollution abatement equipment. Interdisciplinary communication where engineers can converse with physicists, chemists and environmentalists, and vice versa is discussed. Environmentalism also cannot be considered an isolation from the need to regulate the standard of living and to understand and influence human behavior.

  5. JPL Innovation Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent; McCleese, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA supports the community of mission principal investigators by helping them ideate, mature, and propose concepts for new missions. As NASA's Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), JPL is a primary resource for providing this service. The environmental context for the formulation lifecycle evolves continuously. Contemporary trends include: more competitors; more-complex mission ideas; scarcer formulation resources; and higher standards for technical evaluation. Derived requirements for formulation support include: stable, clear, reliable methods tailored for each stage of the formulation lifecycle; on-demand access to standout technical and programmatic subject-matter experts; optimized, outfitted facilities; smart access to learning embodied in a vast oeuvre of prior formulation work; hands-on method coaching. JPL has retooled its provision of integrated formulation lifecycle support to PIs, teams, and program offices in response to this need. This mission formulation enterprise is the JPL Innovation Foundry.

  6. Combinatorial optimization in foundry practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antamoshkin, A. N.; Masich, I. S.

    2016-04-01

    The multicriteria mathematical model of foundry production capacity planning is suggested in the paper. The model is produced in terms of pseudo-Boolean optimization theory. Different search optimization methods were used to solve the obtained problem.

  7. Aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, B.; Ayers, J.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

  8. Qualitative characteristics of foundry dusts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nowacki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling has become a top priority research task in highly developed countries, addressed from the perspective of environmental protection as well as cost-effectiveness of products. In many countries, including Poland, landfilling is still commonly accepted as a method of choice for waste neutralisation. This paper presents results of studies on the environmental impact of iron-bearing foundry waste in the event of its landfill disposal.

  9. Environmental Protection Versus Foundry Engineering Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Maj M.; Werrtz J.; Piekło J.

    2017-01-01

    • Theory and practice of environmental protection in the case of foundries in Europe and Asia • Experience resulting from the cooperation with the foundries in a few European countries, China and India • Phenomena and factors affecting the pollution of the natural environment and the implementation of measures aiming at the environmental protection. Every specialist dealing with foundry processes and their impact on environmental pollution must have encountered in their professional careers n...

  10. Prevention of occupational injuries: Evidence for effective good practices in foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porru, Stefano; Calza, Stefano; Arici, Cecilia

    2017-02-01

    Occupational injuries are a relevant research and practical issue. However, intervention studies evaluating the effectiveness of workplace injury prevention programs are seldom performed. The effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention aimed at reducing occupational injury rates (incidence/employment-based=IR, frequency/hours-based=FR, severity=SR) was evaluated between 2008 and 2013 in 29 Italian foundries (22 ferrous; 7 non-ferrous; 3,460 male blue collar workers/year) of varying sizes. Each foundry established an internal multidisciplinary prevention team for risk assessment, monitoring and prevention of occupational injuries, involving employers, occupational physicians, safety personnel, workers' representatives, supervisors. Targets of intervention were workers, equipment, organization, workplace, job tasks. An interrupted time series (ITS) design was applied. 4,604 occupational injuries and 83,156 lost workdays were registered between 2003 and 2013. Statistical analysis showed, after intervention, a reduction of all injury rates (-26% IR, -15% FR, -18% SR) in ferrous foundries and of SR (-4%) in non-ferrous foundries. A significant (p=0.021) 'step-effect' was shown for IR in ferrous foundries, independent of secular trends (pgood external validity; promotion of effective good practices. Main limitations were the non-randomized nature and a medium length post-intervention period. In conclusion, a multifaceted, pragmatic and accountable intervention is effective in reducing the burden of occupational injuries in small-, medium- and large-sized foundries. Practical Applications: The study poses the basis for feasible good practice guidelines to be implemented to prevent occupational injuries, by means of sector-specific numerical benchmarks, with potentially relevant impacts on workers, companies, occupational health professionals and society at large. Copyright © 2016 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The management of production value stream factors in a foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borkowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Connection of two value streams: production and human resources were proposed as a new approach to the production process. To assess the factors of production value streams the elements of the top of the Toyota's house as well as fourth and sixth Toyota's managing principles were used. On the basis of the feedback from respondents –the foundry workers, there can be determined the validity of series of decisive factors' importance that equalizes the work load and requires the standardization.

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Foundry Sand Mixer Using Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most small foundry shops mix their sand manually which is not efficient since homogenous mix cannot be guaranteed and even when foundry mixer are available most of them are imported costing the nation huge foriegn exchange. A foundry sand mixer capable of mixing foundry sand has been designed and fabricated ...

  13. Health and safety at work in foundry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the identification and analysis of threats in the environment of the foundry at individual stages of the casts manufacturing process. A generalized model of the foundry was created in the system presentation including harmful and dangerous factors in the foundry technical workplace. This model can refer to an iron foundry and cast steel and small non-ferrous foundries, to modern foundries, with automatic moulding lines and to chill and pressure foundries where machines execute the majority of essential operations.

  14. Aluminium bridges, aluminium bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Applications of aluminium have grown considerably in building and civil engineering the last decade. In building and civil engineering the increase of aluminium applications is due to various aspects like light weight, durability and maintenance, use of extrusions, and esthetics. The paper starts

  15. SEARCH OF COMPOSITIONS OF FOUNDRY GRADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative researches of foundry paints showed that the most acceptable basis for them is disthenesillimanite and it is possible to use sodium aluminate solution as a binding agent.

  16. Environmental Protection Versus Foundry Engineering Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available • Theory and practice of environmental protection in the case of foundries in Europe and Asia • Experience resulting from the cooperation with the foundries in a few European countries, China and India • Phenomena and factors affecting the pollution of the natural environment and the implementation of measures aiming at the environmental protection. Every specialist dealing with foundry processes and their impact on environmental pollution must have encountered in their professional careers numerous situations in which the theory of environmental protection confronts the stark reality. The discrepancy between theory and practice can particularly be noticed in foundry engineering in developing countries where the contrasts between different countries and casting plants are extremely striking. The comparison of working conditions in European and Asian foundries provides a vast scope for further observations and analyses. Environmental protection seems not only a concern of manufacturers of castings, but also of their customers whose opinion exerts a significant influence on both the acceptability of working conditions and on the approach to environmental pollution adopted in metal casting industry. The article presents a number of examples of various outlooks on environmental issues in foundries manufacturing a wide range of cast steel and cast iron castings, where different technologies and production processes are applied.

  17. International negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the essence of negotiations in general, which could find it’s application in foundry engineering. The paper is the result of long cooperation of the authors with foundry engineering and their participation in negotiations between the domestic and foreign companies. In this paper the essence and the rules of negotiations have been introduced. It presents also the skills and abilities of the negotiators. The cycle of negotiations and the following stages of negotiations have been also described. The authors have presented the characteristics of negotiations led by the partners from different parts of the world with particular emphasize on Asian and European countries as with these partners the negotiations in Polish foundries are mainly led.

  18. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review...

  19. Environmental favourable foundries through maintenance activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saniuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance today contributes to the aim of sustainable development in society, including environmental and energy saving, safety and economical aspects. The main purpose of the paper is to present the role of maintenance in the realization of sustainable developing practices in a foundry industry. Maintenance offers numerous opportunities to reduce the influence of foundry processes on the natural environment and utilize resources more efficiently. Maintenance activities can help to reduce losses and thereby improve the efficiency of the processes used in the production of resources (e.g. raw materials, energy, etc., especially in areas such as: the choice of an appropriate strategy for the maintenance of machinery and equipment (e.g. reactive, preventive, proactive; inventory management of spare parts; lubrication management and management of technology media.

  20. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  1. An investigation of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakis, Recep; Koyuncu, Hakan; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory study regarding the reuse of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete production by replacing a certain portion of aggregate with WFS was undertaken. The results showed that replacement of 10% aggregates with waste foundry sand was found to be the most suitable for asphalt concrete mixtures. Furthermore, the chemical and physical properties of waste foundry sand were analysed in the laboratory to determine the potential effect on the environment. The results indicated that the investigated waste foundry sand did not significantly affect the environment around the deposition

  2. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Strobloy — The New Combined Grain Refiner and Modifier for Hypoeutectic AlSi Foundry Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondhus, Eivind; Sagstad, Trond

    Hydelko presents a new combination alloy for use in hypoeuctectic aluminium silicon foundry alloys. Strobloy simplifies today's addition practice of grain refiner and modifier by reducing the number of additions from two to one. Strobloy is a combination product between the well-established TiBloy, and strontium. The alloy contains nucleating particles in the form of the mixed boride (Al, Ti)B2, which is beneficial regarding settling and grain refining efficiency. Strontium is present as fast-dissolving AL4Sr particles. Trials carried out indicate that Strobloy shows very good performance compared to separate additions of TiBloy/AlTi5B1 and AlSr master alloy. The grain refining efficiency and modification level is the same or better. This paper displays results collected from tests done with different strontium levels in an A356 alloy. Comparisons to separate additions of TiBloy and AlSr are presented.

  4. MEMS/MOEMS foundry services at INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Blanco, Sonia; Ilias, Samir; Williamson, Fraser; Généreux, Francis; Le Noc, Loïc; Poirier, Michel; Proulx, Christian; Tremblay, Bruno; Provençal, Francis; Desroches, Yan; Caron, Jean-Sol; Larouche, Carl; Beaupré, Patrick; Fortin, Benoit; Topart, Patrice; Picard, Francis; Alain, Christine; Pope, Timothy; Jerominek, Hubert

    2010-06-01

    In the MEMS manufacturing world, the "fabless" model is getting increasing importance in recent years as a way for MEMS manufactures and startups to minimize equipment costs and initial capital investment. In order for this model to be successful, the fabless company needs to work closely with a MEMS foundry service provider. Due to the lack of standardization in MEMS processes, as opposed to CMOS microfabrication, the experience in MEMS development processes and the flexibility of the MEMS foundry are of vital importance. A multidisciplinary team together with a complete microfabrication toolset allows INO to offer unique MEMS foundry services to fabless companies looking for low to mid-volume production. Companies that benefit from their own microfabrication facilities can also be interested in INO's assistance in conducting their research and development work during periods where production runs keep their whole staff busy. Services include design, prototyping, fabrication, packaging, and testing of various MEMS and MOEMS devices on wafers fully compatible with CMOS integration. Wafer diameters ranging typically from 1 inch to 6 inches can be accepted while 8-inch wafers can be processed in some instances. Standard microfabrication techniques such as metal, dielectric, and semiconductor film deposition and etching as well as photolithographic pattern transfer are available. A stepper permits reduction of the critical dimension to around 0.4 μm. Metals deposited by vacuum deposition methods include Au, Ag, Al, Al alloys, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mo, MoCr, Ni, Pt, and V with thickness varying from 5 nm to 2 μm. Electroplating of several materials including Ni, Au and In is also available. In addition, INO has developed and built a gold black deposition facility to answer customer's needs for broadband microbolometric detectors. The gold black deposited presents specular reflectance of less than 10% in the wavelength range from 0.2 μm to 100 μm with thickness ranging from

  5. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  6. New EUROPRACTICE microsystem design and foundry services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Patric R.; Beernaert, Dirk; Turner, Rob

    2000-08-01

    The microsystems market for MST is predicted to grow to 38 billion dollars by the year 2002, with systems containing these components generating even higher revenues and growth. One of the barriers to successful exploitation of this technology has been the lack of access to industrial foundries capable of producing certified microsystems devices in commercial quantities. To overcome this problem, the European Commission has started the EUROPRACTICE program in 1996 with the installation of manufacturing clusters and demonstration activities to provide access to microsystems foundry services for European small and medium sized companies (SMEs). Since 1996, there has been a shift form providing 'broad technology offers' and 'raising awareness fro microsystem capabilities' to 'direct support of design needs' and 'focused services' which allow SMEs to use even complex microsystems technologies to implement their products, The third phase of EUROPRACTICE has just been launched, and contains 5 Manufacturing Clusters, 12 Designs Houses, and 7 Competence Centers, each working in different application/technology areas. The EUROPRACTICE program will be presented together with a detail description of the capabilities of the participants and information on how to access their services.

  7. Wafer-shape metrics based foundry lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungtae; Liang, Frida; Mileham, Jeffrey; Tsai, Damon; Bouche, Eric; Lee, Sean; Huang, Albert; Hua, C. F.; Wei, Ming Sheng

    2017-03-01

    As device shrink, there are many difficulties with process integration and device yield. Lithography process control is expected to be a major challenge due to tighter overlay and focus control requirement. The understanding and control of stresses accumulated during device fabrication has becoming more critical at advanced technology nodes. Within-wafer stress variations cause local wafer distortions which in turn present challenges for managing overlay and depth of focus during lithography. A novel technique for measuring distortion is Coherent Gradient Sensing (CGS) interferometry, which is capable of generating a high-density distortion data set of the full wafer within a time frame suitable for a high volume manufacturing (HVM) environment. In this paper, we describe the adoption of CGS (Coherent Gradient Sensing) interferometry into high volume foundry manufacturing to overcome these challenges. Leveraging this high density 3D metrology, we characterized its In-plane distortion as well as its topography capabilities applied to the full flow of an advanced foundry manufacturing. Case studies are presented that summarize the use of CGS data to reveal correlations between in-plane distortion and overlay variation as well as between topography and device yield.

  8. Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony ANDREWS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

  9. Hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzik G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of making hybrid foundry patterns of bevel gears for investment casting process are presented. Rapid prototyping of gears with complex tooth forms is possible with the use of modern methods. One of such methods is the stereo-lithography, where a pattern is obtained as a result of resin curing with laser beam. Patterns of that type are applicable in precision casting. Removing of stereo-lithographic pattern from foundry mould requires use of high temperatures. Resin burning would generate significant amounts of harmful gases. In case of a solid stereo-lithographic pattern, the pressure created during gas burning may cause the mould to crack. A gas volume reduction may be achieved by using patterns of honeycomb structure. However, this technique causes a significant worsening of accuracy of stereo-lithographic patterns in respect of their dimensions and shape. In cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszów, the Machine Design Department of Rzeszow University of Technology carried out research on the design of hybrid stereo-lithographic patterns. Hybrid pattern consists of a section made by stereo-lithographic process and a section made of casting wax. The latter material is used for stereo-lithographic pattern filling and for mould gating system. The hybrid pattern process consists of two stages: wax melting and then the burn-out of stereolithographic pattern. Use of hybrid patterns reduces the costs of production of stereolithographic patterns. High dimensional accuracy remains preserved in this process.

  10. Determining the optimal index of heat stress in foundry, die casting and road construction industries using FAHP_Topsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Dehghanipoor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat stress is one of the harmful risks in casting and die casting industries, which can not only cause work-related diseases but also can impair the performance and safety of workers. Since the indicators that are used to evaluate heat stress are very different, it is very difficult to choose a suitable index. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum heat stress index in foundry, die-cast, and road construction industries using FAHP and Topsis methods. Material and Method: In order to determine optimum heat stress index in foundry, die-cast, and road construction industries, first, the prioritization criteria were defined by experts (including ease of measurement, measurement accuracy, comprehensiveness, time, cost, and correlation. Then, considering these criteria, the best heat stress index was determined based on experts’ opinions and using FAHP and Topsis methods. Result: The results of this study suggest that given the current conditions and criteria, WBGT and P4SR is the best indices for foundry, die casting and construction. Conclusion: The results showed that according to comprehensiveness, accuracy and correlation criteria, the WBGT index is considered as the best indicator of heat stress assessment in foundry, die-cast and road construction industries. Moreover, the HSI ranked in the last place due to the complexity and cost of its calculation.

  11. Commercial negotiations in the foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wojtynek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the process of commercial negotiations paying attention to the negotiation itself as well as to its basic elements. The specificity of the Polish foundries’ main negotiation partners from The European Union, who are the deliverers of diverse casting range, was specified. The most important cultural factors, which determine the process of negotiations conducted by the representatives of various cultural groups, were analysed. The understanding of cultural differences and adapting to them while negotiating are important factors which constitute the parties’ negotiation process. The meaning of price in the commercial negotiation process was described. The elements of sale process and the factors which influence the casts price were enumerated. What is more, the main methods of determining price were characterized. The essential problems connected with conducting the price negotiations in foundries were indicated.

  12. Maintenance system improvement in cast iron foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the issue of technical equipment management in an iron foundry basing on the assumptions of the TPM system (Total Productive Maintenance. Exploitation analysis of automatic casting lines has been carried out and their work’s influence on the whole production system’s functioning has been researched. Within maintenance system improvement, implementation of autonomic service and planned lines’ review have been proposed in order to minimize the time of breakdown stoppages. The SMED method was used to optimize changeover time, and the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness was applied to evaluate the level of resources usage before and after implementing changes. Further, the influence of the maintenance strategy of casting devices’ efficiency on own costs of casting manufac- ture was estimated.

  13. Ion traps fabricated in a CMOS foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, K. K.; Ram, R. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Eltony, A. M.; Chuang, I. L. [Center for Ultracold Atoms, Research Laboratory of Electronics and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bruzewicz, C. D.; Sage, J. M., E-mail: jsage@ll.mit.edu; Chiaverini, J., E-mail: john.chiaverini@ll.mit.edu [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate trapping in a surface-electrode ion trap fabricated in a 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) foundry process utilizing the top metal layer of the process for the trap electrodes. The process includes doped active regions and metal interconnect layers, allowing for co-fabrication of standard CMOS circuitry as well as devices for optical control and measurement. With one of the interconnect layers defining a ground plane between the trap electrode layer and the p-type doped silicon substrate, ion loading is robust and trapping is stable. We measure a motional heating rate comparable to those seen in surface-electrode traps of similar size. This demonstration of scalable quantum computing hardware utilizing a commercial CMOS process opens the door to integration and co-fabrication of electronics and photonics for large-scale quantum processing in trapped-ion arrays.

  14. The restoration of an Argonne National Laboratory foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, T.; Pancake, D.; Shelton, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Environmental Management Operations' Waste Management Department (WMD) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) undertook the restoration of an unused foundry with the goal of restoring the area for general use. The foundry was used in the fabrication of reactor components for ANL's research and development programs; many of the items fabricated in the facility were radioactive, thereby contaminating the foundry equipment. This paper very briefly describes the dismantling and decontamination of the facility. The major challenges associated with the safe removal of the foundry equipment included the sheer size of the equipment, a limited overhead crane capability (4.5 tonne), the minimization of radioactive and hazardous wastes, and the cost-effective completion of the project, the hazardous and radioactive wastes present, and limited process knowledge (the facility was unused for many years)

  15. Web-based expert system for foundry pollution prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2004-02-01

    Pollution prevention is a complex task. Many small foundries lack the in-house expertise to perform these tasks. Expert systems are a type of computer information system that incorporates artificial intelligence. As noted in the literature, they provide a means of automating specialized expertise. This approach may be further leveraged by implementing the expert system on the internet (or world-wide web). This will allow distribution of the expertise to a variety of geographically-dispersed foundries. The purpose of this research is to develop a prototype web-based expert system to support pollution prevention for the foundry industry. The prototype system identifies potential emissions for a specified process, and also provides recommendations for the prevention of these contaminants. The system is viewed as an initial step toward assisting the foundry industry in better meeting government pollution regulations, as well as improving operating efficiencies within these companies.

  16. Foundry based approach for InP based PIC development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Europe is making significant investments in development of generic photonic foundry platform infrastructures for InP-based and Silicon Photonic ICs. Here we present the present status for the InP-based JePPIX platform.

  17. Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

  18. Risk assessment related to manual handling on choosen work possition in foundry Alstom Power Sp. z o. o.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kowal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Manual handling remains one of the different types of transport inside working place, although technological progress and modernorganization of work. Manual transport as a transport inside working place is related to foundry industry. According to polish lawregulations employer has to give consideration to manual handling in professional risk assessment and introduce actions for manualhandling reduction. In Foundry Elblag case there is found that in many processes manual handling are made by workers. For example wecan choose melting processes (additives manual feeding, mixing and pulling metallurgical slag, etc. or fettling processes like grinding.Objective of that analysis was to define level of risk related to manual handling in work stand chosen and define activities impacted onrisk assessment result with biggest range. For risk reduction, technical and organizational solutions were shown (better ergonomically work stand, method of work and worker’s awareness about good practices. In this study methods related to manual handling risk assessment were described, focus on KIM method used in Foundry Elblag. Key Item Method allow to estimate the risk by simple calculation based on key indicators (time rating points, rating points of mass, posture or work condition. Points were chosen based on timekeeping, information from workers and foreman.

  19. Aluminium in Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are used in infrastructures such as pedestrian bridges or parts of it such as handrail. This paper demonstrates that aluminium alloys are in principle also suited for heavy loaded structures, such as decks of traffic bridges and helicopter landing platforms. Recent developments in

  20. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  1. Rows of Dislocation Loops in Aluminium Irradiated by Aluminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.

    1967-01-01

    Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics......Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  2. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.

    2007-09-15

    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give

  3. Risk assessment in a foundry unit by energy trace and barrier analysis method (ETBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Ayati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsAs a Development of Industrial process, human, environment,equipment, material and validity of system has been exposed to hazardous conditions. Regards of32.3 percent of occupations in industries, this study focused on risk assessment of foundry unit byenergy trace and barrier analysis (ETBA method and presented approaches to control of accident.Methodsthe recent study is as a case study one to risk assessment in a foundry unit in Qazvinindustrial city in1387. In this study risks were founded by ETBA method and evaluated by MILSTD-882B. Data were collected by direct observations, interview with workers and supervisorand engineers, walking-talking through method, documents investigation of operationalprocessors, preventive maintenances, equipment technical properties, accidental and medicaldocuments. Finally ETBA worksheets completed.Findingstotally 154 risks has been found. 40 from total are been unacceptable risk, 68unfavorable and also 46 acceptable but with remediation action. Casting workshop had risks morethan other workshops (with 74 identified risks.Potential and heat energies were founded as mosthazardous energies, with respectively 51 and 38 risk cases.ConclusionThis study recommended to be done actions for identification and control risk,such as: safety training, occupation training, preventive maintenance, contract safety, safetycommunication and safety audit group.

  4. Rationalization of foundry processes on the basis of simulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research obtained on the basis of simulation experiment, whose aim was to analyze the performance of cast iron foundry. A simulation model of automobile industry foundry was made. The course of the following processes was analyzedin a computer model: preparation of liquid cast iron, forming and filling the moulds, cooling and stamping the castings, cleaning andfinishing treatment. The sheets of multi-criterion evaluation were prepared, where criteria and variants were assessed by meansof subjective point evaluation and fuzzy character evaluation. The paper presents an analysis example of finishing activities of castings realized in foundry on traditional machines and efficient presses and in cooperation. On the basis of reports from a simulation experiment information was achieved related to activities’ duration, load of accessible resources, the problems of storage and transport, bottle necks in the system and appearing queues in from of workplaces. The research used a universal modelling and simulation packet for productionsystems - ARENA.

  5. The AHP method used in assessment of foundry enterprise position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of activity of a selected foundry enterprise based on a modern AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method has beenpresented. Having defined the areas of analysis, which include: marketing (products, distribution channels, sales organisation and client concentration, personnel (skills, managerial abilities, organisation climate, effectiveness of incentives, personnel fluctuations, production (availability of raw materials, technical level of production, effective use of production capacities, organisation and management (foundry structure, organisation culture, management performance, the analysis was made using the weighted sum of evaluations. The second step consisted in a comparative assessment of Foundry position using Saaty’s scale modified by Weber and the AHP method with examinationof a hierarchy structure involving the main (parent problem and its direct evolution into sub-problems. The assessment of Foundryposition made by AHP enables introducing changes and/or innovations which are expected to improve the overall productioneffectiveness.

  6. Modified polysaccharides as alternative binders for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides constitute a wide group of important polymers with many commercial applications, for example food packaging, fibres, coatings, adhesives etc. This review is devoted to the presentation of polysaccharide application in foundry industry. In this paper the selected properties of foundry moulding sand and core sand containing modified polysaccharides as binders are presented according to foreign literature data. Also, author’s own research about effect of using moulding sand binder consisting of modified polysaccharide (modified starch or its composition with non-toxic synthetic polymers are discussed. Based on technologies taken under consideration in this paper, it could be concluded that polysaccharides are suitable as an alternative for use as binder in foundry moulding applications.

  7. Management of Assortment Inventory Groups in Selected Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymszal J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As experience shows the practical, reliable assessment and optimisation of total costs of logistical processes implemented in supply chains of foundry plants is a quite complex and complicated process, because it requires to enclose all, without exception, performed actions, including them in various reference cross-sections, systematic activities and finally transforming them in a totally homogenous collection. Only solid analysis and assessment of assortment management in logistical supply systems in foundry plants of particular assortment groups allows to lower the supply costs significantly. In the article the analysis and assessment of the newest implemented optimising algorithms are presented in the process stock management of selected material groups used in a production process of a chosen foundry plant. A practical solution to solve a problem of rotary stock cost minimisation is given as well as of costs while creating a stock with the usage of economical volume and value of order.

  8. Implementation of Video Monitoring In Aluminium Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hedlund, Ann; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate results and experiences from development of new technology, a training program and implementation of strategies for the use of a video exposure monitoring method, PIMEX. Starting point of this study is an increased incidence of asthma among workers in the aluminium industry. Exposure peaks of fumes are supposed to play an important role. PIMEX makes it possible to link used work practice, use of control technology, and so forth to peaks. Nine companies participated in ...

  9. Building biological foundries for next-generation synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ran; Yuan, YongBo; Zhao, HuiMin

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that takes top-down approaches to understand and engineer biological systems through design-build-test cycles. A number of advances in this relatively young field have greatly accelerated such engineering cycles. Specifically, various innovative tools were developed for in silico biosystems design, DNA de novo synthesis and assembly, construct verification, as well as metabolite analysis, which have laid a solid foundation for building biological foundries for rapid prototyping of improved or novel biosystems. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art technologies for synthetic biology and discusses the challenges to establish such biological foundries.

  10. Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Shuvra S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, and then automatically constructed and integrated with system level software.

  11. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, J.; Vite T, M.; Diaz C, A.; Carreno de Leon, C.

    1999-01-01

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  12. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  13. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschi, Lin; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Sim, Malcolm R.; del Monaco, Anthony; Macfarlane, Ewan; McKenzie, Dean; Benke, Geza; de Klerk, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Bauxite is a reddish clay that is refined to produce alumina, which is then reduced to aluminium. There have been studies examining the health of workers in aluminium smelters, but not workers in bauxite mining and alumina refining. A cohort of employees of 1 large aluminium company since 1983 was

  14. Using lean methodologies for economically and environmentally sustainable foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Torielli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is often seen as a set of tools that reduce the total cost and improve the quality of manufactured products. The lean management philosophy is one which targets waste reduction in every facet of the manufacturing business; however, only recently have studies linked lean management philosophies with improving environmental sustainability. These studies suggest that lean manufacturing is more than a set of lean tools that can optimize manufacturing efficiencies; it is a process and mindset that needs to be integrated into daily manufacturing systems to achieve sustainability. The foundry industry, as well as manufacturing in general, has significant challenges in the current regulatory and political climate with developing an economically and environmentally sustainable business model. Lean manufacturing has proven itself as a model for both economic sustainability and environmental stewardship. Several recent studies have shown that both lean and green techniques and “zero-waste” policies also lead to reductions in overall cost. While these strategies have been examined for general manufacturing, they have not been investigated in detail for the foundry industry. This paper will review the current literature and describe how lean and green can provide a relevant framework for environmentally and economically sustainable foundries. Examples of lean and green technologies and techniques which can be applied to foundries in a global context will be described.

  15. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Silica sand; Blast Furnace Slag; Mould properties; Ferrous and nonferrous ... raw material for the production of cast components in foundry industries. ... applications for conserving natural resources and reduce the cost of the raw .... in an elevated temperature melting furnace with temperature values of 750 to.

  16. Correlation between airborne manganese concentration at the workstations in the iron foundry and manganese concentration in workers’ blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Manganese (Mn used as raw material for melting process in the ferrous foundry is considered as hazardous neurotoxic substance because it accumulates in the central nervous system and may cause neurological disorders. The furnace-men and melting department workers are potentially exposed to manganese particles or fume in the workplace. The objective of the research has been to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in the foundry by correlation of blood-manganese (B-Mn and air-manganese (air-Mn measurement. Material and Methods: Air-Mn and Mn of blood serum were measured involving workers who worked in a big-sized foundry during 1 year. The standard method of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA ID-121 was used for air and blood assessment and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS was carried out for air and blood sample analysis. Results: The air sampling results have revealed that there is a high exposure to manganese (4.5 mg/m3 in the workplace as compared to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health’s (NIOSH time weighted average (the reference time-weighted average (TWA = 1 mg/m3. The average blood serum Mn concentration was 2.745 μg/l for subjects working for shorter than 3 months and 274.85 μg/l for subjects working 3–12 months. Conclusions: Against the research hypothesis there was no correlation between the air-Mn concentration and the B-Mn (serum level of manganese in the serum of the exposed subjects. It may be due to short time of air sampling of manganese airborne particles, and a real-time monitoring of airborne manganese particles is suggested for any future study. Med Pr 2017;68(4:449–458

  17. Influence of the Mould Cooling Process on the Quality and Properties of Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorie Weiss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the effect on the quality of casting moulds (metal, bentonite mixture on the structure of the alloy AlZn5,5MgCu and selected mechanical properties of the alloy. The effect of foundry moulds can significantly affect formation and range of crystal segregation and the subsequent thermal process of homogenization which has an influence on the final quality of the alloy. The research focuses on the formation and range of crystal segregation and its removal with homogenization annealing, in which the observed influence of individual factors influencing the diffusion process and quality of the aluminium alloy.

  18. Ion nitriding of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, T.

    2002-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism of aluminium nitriding by a technique that employs implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions and diffusional transport of atoms. The nitriding of aluminium is investigated, because this is a method for surface modification of aluminium and has a potential for application in a broad spectrum of fields such as automobile, marine, aviation, space technologies, etc. However, at present nitriding of aluminium does not find any large scale industrial application, due to problems in the formation of stoichiometric aluminium nitride layers with a sufficient thickness and good quality. For the purposes of this study, ion nitriding is chosen, as an ion beam method with the advantage of good and independent control over the process parameters, which thus can be related uniquely to the physical properties of the resulting layers. Moreover, ion nitriding has a close similarity to plasma nitriding and plasma immersion ion implantation, which are methods with a potential for industrial application. (orig.)

  19. Raw materials for aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to to raw materials which used in aluminium production. Therefore, the using of alumina, and fluoride salts in aluminium production was considered. The physical properties of alumina were studied.

  20. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  1. Constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  2. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plionis, Alexander A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dominic S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  3. Foundry fabricated photonic integrated circuit optical phase lock loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Graham, Chris S; Wonfor, Adrian; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2017-07-24

    This paper describes the first foundry-based InP photonic integrated circuit (PIC) designed to work within a heterodyne optical phase locked loop (OPLL). The PIC and an external electronic circuit were used to phase-lock a single-line semiconductor laser diode to an incoming reference laser, with tuneable frequency offset from 4 GHz to 12 GHz. The PIC contains 33 active and passive components monolithically integrated on a single chip, fully demonstrating the capability of a generic foundry PIC fabrication model. The electronic part of the OPLL consists of commercially available RF components. This semi-packaged system stabilizes the phase and frequency of the integrated laser so that an absolute frequency, high-purity heterodyne signal can be generated when the OPLL is in operation, with phase noise lower than -100 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carrier. This is the lowest phase noise level ever demonstrated by monolithically integrated OPLLs.

  4. Environmental characterization foundry sands used in sanitary landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, L.G.F.; Ferreira, G.C.S.; Pires, M.S.G.; Teixeira, I.; Carnin, R.; Sarro, W.S.

    2016-01-01

    The national solid waste policy recommends reducing solid waste generation and reusing them in different applications. Preliminary studies show that the foundry sand generated from cast metal parts undercut, has excellent applicability in grain size stabilization of soils for geotechnical functions, and therefore, should not be discarded as waste. This study aimed at environmental characterization of two lots of waste foundry sand (WFS), from different industries, to the particle size stabilization of a clayey soil for use in coverage of solid waste in landfills. The methodology included physicochemical characterization tests (grain size, permeability, XRF and heavy metals) and environmental (NBR 10004: 2004, NBR 10005: 2004, NBR 10006: 20004 and acute toxicity with Vibrio fischeri). The results prove the environmental viability of using these lots of WFS as functional material in the composition of landfills. (author)

  5. Logistics of Materials Flow in an Iron Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.

  6. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Solenički

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

  7. A novel application of concentrated solar thermal energy in foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, J; Harikesavan, V; Eshwanth, A

    2016-05-01

    Scrap preheating in foundries is a technology that saves melting energy, leading to economic and environmental benefits. The proposed method in this paper utilizes solar thermal energy for preheating scrap, effected through a parabolic trough concentrator that focuses sunlight onto a receiver which carries the metallic scrap. Scraps of various thicknesses were placed on the receiver to study the heat absorption by them. Experimental results revealed the pattern with which heat is gained by the scrap, the efficiency of the process and how it is affected as the scrap gains heat. The inferences from them gave practical guidelines on handling scraps for best possible energy savings. Based on the experiments conducted, preheat of up to 160 °C and a maximum efficiency of 70 % and a minimum efficiency of 40 % could be achieved across the time elapsed and heat gained by the scrap. Calculations show that this technology has the potential to save around 8 % of the energy consumption in foundries. Cumulative benefits are very encouraging: 180.45 million kWh of energy savings and 203,905 t of carbon emissions cut per year across the globe. This research reveals immense scope for this technology to be adopted by foundries throughout the world.

  8. Materials and processing approaches for foundry-compatible transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jan-Kai; Fang, Hui; Bower, Christopher A.; Song, Enming; Yu, Xinge; Rogers, John A.

    2017-07-01

    Foundry-based routes to transient silicon electronic devices have the potential to serve as the manufacturing basis for “green” electronic devices, biodegradable implants, hardware secure data storage systems, and unrecoverable remote devices. This article introduces materials and processing approaches that enable state-of-the-art silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries to be leveraged for high-performance, water-soluble forms of electronics. The key elements are (i) collections of biodegradable electronic materials (e.g., silicon, tungsten, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide) and device architectures that are compatible with manufacturing procedures currently used in the integrated circuit industry, (ii) release schemes and transfer printing methods for integration of multiple ultrathin components formed in this way onto biodegradable polymer substrates, and (iii) planarization and metallization techniques to yield interconnected and fully functional systems. Various CMOS devices and circuit elements created in this fashion and detailed measurements of their electrical characteristics highlight the capabilities. Accelerated dissolution studies in aqueous environments reveal the chemical kinetics associated with the underlying transient behaviors. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility for using foundry-based routes to sophisticated forms of transient electronic devices, with functional capabilities and cost structures that could support diverse applications in the biomedical, military, industrial, and consumer industries.

  9. Statistical and Visualization Data Mining Tools for Foundry Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Perzyk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a rapid development of a new, interdisciplinary knowledge area, called data mining, is observed. Its main task is extracting useful information from previously collected large amount of data. The main possibilities and potential applications of data mining in manufacturing industry are characterized. The main types of data mining techniques are briefly discussed, including statistical, artificial intelligence, data base and visualization tools. The statistical methods and visualization methods are presented in more detail, showing their general possibilities, advantages as well as characteristic examples of applications in foundry production. Results of the author’s research are presented, aimed at validation of selected statistical tools which can be easily and effectively used in manufacturing industry. A performance analysis of ANOVA and contingency tables based methods, dedicated for determination of the most significant process parameters as well as for detection of possible interactions among them, has been made. Several numerical tests have been performed using simulated data sets, with assumed hidden relationships as well some real data, related to the strength of ductile cast iron, collected in a foundry. It is concluded that the statistical methods offer relatively easy and fairly reliable tools for extraction of that type of knowledge about foundry manufacturing processes. However, further research is needed, aimed at explanation of some imperfections of the investigated tools as well assessment of their validity for more complex tasks.

  10. Fly-ash poisoning in the surroundings of foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupka, E

    1955-01-01

    Chronic articular swellings were observed in colts and cattle grazing in the vicinity of two factories. Postmortem findings included an increased synovial content and a detachment of articular cartilage from the underlying bone. Several of the colts also developed roaring due to paralysis of the recurrent nerves. Analysis of fly-ash samples from the two foundries revealed the following: lead, 16.87 percent and 44.79 percent; zinc, 23.41 percent and 5.28 percent; sulfur, 12.53 percent and 8.20 percent; and arsenic, 0.52 percent and 0.22 percent, respectively. Cadmium levels of 2.22 percent were also found in the dust from one of foundries, while cerium (5.00 percent) was detected in the dust from the other foundry. Identical articular lesions were reproduced in two colts receiving dietary rations containing the forge dusts. Manifestations of pharyngoparalysis also appeared, resulting in pneumonia in one case due to pharyngeal dysphagia. Lead poisoning, complicated by other toxic substances, was suggested as the cause. Analyses of several colt livers revealed contents exceeding 0.2 mg/100 g in all cases.

  11. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  12. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  13. Sintered aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, M.G.; Matveev, B.I.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of aluminium powder alloys and the various methods employed to produce them are considered. Data are given on the hardening of the alloys SAP and SPAK-4, as well as the powder-alloy system Al-Cr-Zr. (L.M.)

  14. The role of TiB2 in strengthening TiB2 reinforced aluminium casting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z; Kang, H; Zhao, Y; Zheng, Y; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    With an aim of developing high quality in situ TiB 2 reinforced aluminium foundry alloy based composites, the conventional direct synthesis method was modified into a two-step route. In step one we optimized the halide salt route to fabricate in situ TiB 2 particulate reinforced aluminium matrix composites and in step two we investigated the effects of the Al-5wt.% TiB 2 composite, as a “master composite”, on strengthening the practical foundry alloys. The in situ formed TiB 2 particles play two roles while strengthening the composites: (1) The grain refinement effect that improves the quality of the alloy matrix; and (2) The interactions between the hard particulates and the matrix add extra increment to the material strength. In different alloy systems, TiB 2 may play distinct roles in these two aspects (figure 1). Further analysis of the strengthening mechanisms shows that particle agglomeration behaviour during solidification is responsible for the latter one. The present work details the role of TiB 2 in strengthening TiB 2 reinforced aluminium casting composites. (paper)

  15. Laboratory assessment of the influence of the proportion of waste foundry sand on the geotechnical engineering properties of clayey soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil improvement can be achieved through mechanical stabilisation using industrial byproducts. Clayey soils were blended with waste foundry sand to examine its influence on the geotechnical engineering properties of the soils. The waste foundry sand...

  16. 77 FR 20788 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Second...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... mm (4 inch) sieve, of a kind used in foundries. The foundry coke products subject to the antidumping... purposes, our written description of the scope of the Order is dispositive. Analysis of Comments Received...

  17. design and fabrication of a fou fabrication of a foundry sand mixer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    favourably with the the imported existing one which urably with the the imported existing one which foundry shops will eliminate the use manual effort save the the country of huge save the the country of huge foreign exchange used i foreign exchange used i. Keywords: Keywords:foundry,sand mixer,fabrication,design,bla.

  18. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  19. High Temperature Thermal Properties of Bentonite Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski P.K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of measuring thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bentonite foundry sand in temperature range ambient - 900­­°C. During the experiments a technical purity Cu plate was cast into the green-sand moulds. Basing on measurements of the mould temperature field during the solidification of the casting, the temperature relationships of the measured properties were evaluated. It was confirmed that water vaporization strongly influences thermal conductivity of the moulding sand in the first period of the mould heating by the poured casting.

  20. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from foundry sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vite T, J.

    1996-01-01

    There were extracted valuable metals from foundry sands such as: gold, platinum, silver, cobalt, germanium, nickel and zinc among others, as well as highly toxic metals such as chromium, lead, vanadium and arsenic. The extraction efficiency was up to 100% in some cases. For this reason there were obtained two patents at the United States, patent number 5,356,601, in October 1994, given for the developed process and patent number 5,376,000, in December 1994, obtained for the equipment employed. Therefore, the preliminary parameters for the installation of a pilot plant have also been developed. (Author)

  1. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  2. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  3. Re-usage of waste foundry sand in high-strength concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yucel; Sari, Yasin Dursun; Yalcin, Muhsin; Tuncan, Ahmet; Donmez, Senayi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the potential re-use of waste foundry sand in high-strength concrete production was investigated. The natural fine sand is replaced with waste foundry sand (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%). The findings from a series of test program has shown reduction in compressive and tensile strengths, and the elasticity modulus which is directly related to waste foundry inclusion in concrete. Nevertheless the concrete with 10% waste foundry sand exhibits almost similar results to that of the control one. The slump and the workability of the fresh concrete decreases with the increase of the waste foundry sand ratio. Although the freezing and thawing significantly reduces the mechanical and physical properties of the concrete. The obtained results satisfies the acceptable limits set by the American Concrete Institute (ACI). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

  5. APPLICATION OF ADDITIVELY MANUFACTURED POLYMER COMPOSITE PROTOTYPES IN FOUNDRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Kuczko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method, developed by the authors, for manufacturing polymer composites with the matrix manufactured in a layered manner (via 3D printing – Fused Deposition Modeling out of a thermoplastic material. As an example of practical application of this method, functional prototypes are presented, which were used as elements of foundry tooling – patterns for sand molding. In case of manufacturing prototype castings or short series of products, foundries usually cooperate with modeling studios, which produce patterns by conventional, subtractive manufacturing technologies. If patterns have complex shapes, this results in high manufacturing costs and significantly longer time of tooling preparation. The method proposed by the authors allows manufacturing functional prototypes in a short time thanks to utilizing capabilities of additive manufacturing (3D printing technology. Thanks to using two types of materials simultaneously (ABS combined with chemically hardened resins, the produced prototypes are capable of carrying increased loads. Moreover, the method developed by the authors is characterized by manufacturing costs lower than in the basic technology of Fused Deposition Modeling. During the presented studies, the pattern was produced as a polymer composite and it was used to prepare a mold and a set of metal castings.

  6. Fatigue test on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, van IJ.J.

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge

  7. Advanced shipbuilding in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, H.; Svensson, L.E.; Karlsson, L.

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of two different welding techniques for welding ships in aluminium is discussed. Conventional MIG welding and the recently developed Friction Super Stir Welding (FSSW) are compared concerning weld metal microstructures and mechanical properties. Results from testing of FSSW welds are also presented. It was observed that the grain size was smaller in FSSW welds are also presented. It was observed that the grain size was smaller in FSSW welds than in MIG welds whereas precipitates generally were larger in FSSW welds. The two methods produced welds with comparable mechanical properties. Good fatigue behaviour was obtained for FSSW welds. Advantages of the welding methods are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  8. Health-hazard evaluation report GHETA 83-309-1405, Chrysler Corporation Foundry, Indianapolis, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, A.

    1984-01-01

    In response to a request arising out of employee concerns over the medical surveillance program at the Chrysler Corporation Foundry located in Indianapolis, Indiana, an evaluation was made of chest radiographs evaluated by the program with specific concern directed to disagreement on the radiographic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. The request was made by the Chrysler Corporation and the United Auto Workers National Joint Committee on Health and Safety. Three NIOSH certified B-readers independently interpreted a set of 78 systematically sampled posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs from the system files. These interpretations were compared among themselves and with company interpretations. While none of the radiographs was deemed unreadable, 35% were classified as having poor technical quality. Only one film was found which had a profusion of small opacities, and the company had interpreted the film as positive. Overall, agreement on proportion of positive readings and agreement on individual films was as good between the company and B-readers as it was between any two of the individual B-readers. The author recommends, however, that in order to avoid future complaints of the nature, the company should use standard radiographic equipment and techniques, NIOSH certified B-readers, and current international classifications of radiographs for pneumoconioses in their medical surveillance program

  9. Quantification of aluminium-27 NMR spectra of high-surface-area oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, R.M.; Schramm, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the quantitation of 27 Al NMR spectra. It is showns that the so called 'invisible' aluminium atoms seen by recent workers are completely consistent with known continuous wave NMR studies of the 27 Al NMR spectra of high surface area aluminium oxides. The use of pulsed NMR techniques further complicate the quantitative measurement of 27 Al NMR spectra, especially when high resolution NMR spectrometers are used for this purpose. Methods are described which allow both the estimation of aluminium not seen by continuous wave techniques and the amounts of the NMR spectra lost in pulsed work. (author). 24 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  10. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  11. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikalsky, Paul J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Bahia, Hussain U. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Deng, An [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Snyder, Thomas [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  12. Specificity of SPC Procedures Application in Foundry in Aspect of Data Acquisition and Data Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of SPC (Statistical Process Control procedures usability in foundry engineering. The authors pay particular attention to the processes complexity and necessity of correct preparation of data acquisition procedures. Integration of SPC systems with existing IT solutions in area of aiding and assistance during the manufacturing process is important. For each particular foundry, methodology of selective SPC application needs to prepare for supervision and control of stability of manufacturing conditions, regarding specificity of data in particular “branches” of foundry production (Sands, Pouring, Metallurgy, Quality.

  13. Wastes Characterisation from Foundry Activities on European Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, I.; Ruiz, C.; Ibanez, R.; Viguri, J.; Irabien, A.

    1999-01-01

    This work presents The results of the eco toxicological characterisation of 22 defined wastes from steel foundry activities. The wastes have been selected from three processes, steel mill (smelting). sand casting and cleaning and finishing of steel products,with the common characteristics of represent an important industrial activity in the area and generated the wastes considered in this study. The eco toxicological characterisation obtained applying the Spanish regulations on hazardous waste is compared to the hazardous attributions considered by the European Union in order to characterise a waste as hazardous (non hazardous). The results allow to conclude that a acceptable concordance between both methodologies is reached and remark the need to split the broad generic types of wastes given by the Spanish regulation (Eco toxic / non eco toxic) into clearly identifiable specific types of waste

  14. Radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The contributions contain informations concerning the present state and development of radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology as well as their application to the solution of various problems. The development of isotope techniques is briefly described. Major applications of radiometric equipment in industrial measurement are presented together with the use of isotopes to monitor processes of industrial production. This is followed by a short description of numerous laboratory-scale applications. Another contribution deals with fundamental problems and methods of moisture measurement by neutrons. A complex moisture/density measurement device the practical applicability of which has been tested is described here. Possibilities for clay determination in used-up moulding materials are discussed in a further contribution. The clay content can be determined by real-time radiometric density measurement so that the necessary moisture or addition of fresh sand can be controlled. (orig.) With 20 figs., 9 tabs., 178 refs [de

  15. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies, Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This case study provides information on the Molecular Foundry, which incorporates Labs21 principles in its design and construction. The design includes many of the strategies researched at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for energy efficient cleanroom and data centers.

  16. Administrative Record Index for SMA 4 - Former Chemical Plant and SMA 5 - Former Pig Iron Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Record Index lists the documents, data and other technical information that the EPA - Region 4 considered in preparing the Statement of Basis for the Former Chemical Plant and the Former Pig Iron Foundry at ERP Compliant Coke.

  17. Implementation KMES Quality system for acquisition and processing data in chosen foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sika

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, main assumptions, algorithms and functions of author’s KMES Quality system are discussed. Its working version is tested in chosen foundry by near 2 years. This system is applied to enlarge the use of chosen technological data accessible during foundry processes. The data can be introduced by means of keyboard directly in the fields (windows present on the PC screen according to program commands, instead of report-manuscripts containing measured results, or from the automated measurement recording system by direct data import to KMES Quality system. In the paper, a way of technological data acquisition with their further integration into main foundry databases and their processing, with taking into consideration e.g. kind of casting assortment, current time, sequences of measurements, are presented. Also the capabilities of linking KMES Quality system with SAP R/3 system existing in this foundry useful to quality assurance is show.

  18. Aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium can exist in a number of oxyhydroxide mineral phases including corundum, diaspore, boehmite and gibbsite. The stability constants at zero ionic strength reported for Al(OH) 3 (aq) vary linearly with respect to the inverse of absolute temperature. A full suite of thermodynamic parameters is available for all aluminium phases and hydrolysis species. Gallium hydrolyses to a greater extent than aluminium, with the onset of hydrolysis reactions occurring just above a pHof 1. In fact, even though aluminium has the smallest ionic radius of this series of metals, it has the weakest hydrolysis species and oxide/hydroxide phases.This is due to the presence of stabilising d-orbitals in the heavier metals, gallium, indium and thallium(III). There are few available data for the stability constants of indium(III) hydrolysis species. Of those that are available, the range in the proposed stability constants covers many orders of magnitude.

  19. Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohdin, Patrik; Thollander, Patrik; Solding, Petter

    2007-01-01

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies

  20. Identification of Significant Impact of Silicon Foundry Sands Mining on LCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mitterpach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study based on a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment research program of the silicon foundry sand (SFS due to the large quantity of produced waste foundry sand (WFS. The foundry waste is a high priority sector within the growing European foundry industry. It is necessary to understand the full life cycle of the foundry waste in order to correctly identify magnitude and types of impacts it has on the environment. System boundary includes the processes: mining, modification, packing, storage and transport to foundry. Inventory analysis data were analyzed and finally converted to the functional unit, which has been defined as one ton of SFS. The resulting environmental impact of SFS production in endpoint is: consumption of natural resources 70.9%, ecosystem quality 18.2% and human health 10.9%. The following portions, with respective percentages, have the greatest overall effect on these results: diesel fuel consumption 32.4% and natural gas consumption 28.7%, electricity usage 17.2%, transport 12.2%, devastation caused by the SFS 5.35% and oil (engine, gear and hydraulic consumption 4.14%. The highest contributor to the diesel fuel consumption is the SFS exploitation. The overall effect of desiccation was 35.8% and was caused by high consumption of resources and electricity.

  1. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabane, G.; Englander, M.; Lehmann, J.

    1955-01-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase γ, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase α) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl 2 ) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl 2 particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  2. Aluminium intake by INAA of hair: The aerosol intoxication pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Ionescu, A.; Pantelica, A.; Salagean, M.; Rusu, C.; Moldovan, O.; Ghiordunwscu, Vl.; Marusca, D.

    1997-01-01

    Aluminium is present in healthy human organisms in concentrations that appear to be neither useful nor noxious. However, long term higher Al levels can produce severe bone, renal and cerebral troubles. Here we report the results of the first investigation using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis of human hair aimed to assess the Al contamination in workers from aluminium industry due to aerosol inhalation. Seventy five subjects working at 'Alprom' Inc., Slatina, Romania aluminium processing plant were included in this study. The exposed subjects were casters, crane operators and rolling mill operators. Hair samples were washed with acetone-water-water-water-acetone using bi-distilled water and re-distilled-purified p.a. grade acetone and irradiated for 3 min at a thermal neutron flux of 2.3 x 10 12 n/cm 2 s in the VVR-S reactor. Student's t-test showed the arithmetical mean values of all exposed groups to differ of the control group's one with a good statistical confidence level. In most workers the Al concentration in hair is 2 times higher than normal but in one third of the casters and in two of the rolling mill operators it is on average up to 7 times higher. Substantial Al overload can cause severe osteoporosis or encephalopathies even after retirement from activity. Protection filtering masks and medical therapy based on strong chelant drug deferoxamine are recommended, (authors)

  3. Dispersion strengthening of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1970-01-01

    The true stress-true strain curves at room temperature and at 400°C were determined for various types of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products containing from 0.2 to 4.7 weight per cent of aluminium oxide. The effect of particles on the initial flow stress and the flow stress for 0.2% offset at room...... temperature and at 400°C is in agreement with Orowan's theory. The increase in flow stress at room temperature for strain values below 3 per cent was related to the plastic strain by the equation σ-σoy=k1ε 1/2, where σoy is the initial flow stress and where k1 increases for increasing volume fraction...... and decreasing particle size of the dispersed particles. A general expression for k1 was derived for the relationship between the dislocation density and the strain in dispersion-strengthened products...

  4. Modelling and Optimization of Organization of Workplaces in a Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a practical example of improvement of foundry production systems in terms of post-finishing of nodular iron castings produced in the conditions of bulk production for automotive industry. The attention was paid to high labour-intensive efforts, which are difficult to be subjected to mechanization and automation. The times of actions related to grinding processing of castings in three grinding positions connected with a belt conveyor were estimated with the use of a time study method. A bottleneck as well as limiting factors were specified in a system. A number of improvements were proposed, aimed at improving work organization on the castings post-finishing line. An analysis of work ergonomics at the workplace was made in order to eliminate unnecessary and onerous for the employee actions. A model of production system using the Arena software, on which a simulation experiment was conducted, was drawn up in order to visualize the analysed phenomena. The effects of the project were shown on graphs comparing times, costs, work ergonomics and overall efficiency of production equipment indicator.

  5. Biopolimers – structure, properties and applicability in the foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of literature data concerning physicochemical properties and possibilities of practical utilisation of the most important natural biopolymers (proteins, celluloses, starch, chitozan are presented in the paper. Biopolymers being renewable natural polymers characterised by several required physicochemical properties (adhesivity, activity, no toxicity, biodegradability constitute more and more interesting processing raw material for various industrial utilisations including environment friendly binding agents for moulding sands. Protein and starch compositions are used as binding agents for moulding and core sands in the foundry industry. Preliminary tests – performed within own research - of modification and utilisation of biopolymers as binding agents for moulding sands are promising from many aspects: technological (adequate properties of moulding sands, ecological (no toxicity, biodegradability and economic (low price. Starch from the polysaccharide group seems to be especially interesting since it is abundant, easily obtainable, biodegradable and the cheapest polymer. At its actual low price and the possibility of using agricultural wastes in the production, problem of utilising starch in many industry branches can become significant, especially in Poland.

  6. Sustainability innovation foundry - FY13: Merging research and operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizner, Jack Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McNeish, Jerry A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Sullivan, Kristina [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability is a critical national security issue for the U.S. and other nations. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is already a global leader in sustainability science and technology (SS&T) as documented in this report. This report documents the ongoing work conducted this year as part of the Sustainability Innovation Foundry (SIF). The efforts of the SIF support Sandia's national and international security missions related to sustainability and resilience revolving around energy use, water use, and materials, both on site at Sandia and externally. The SIF leverages existing Sandia research and development (R&D) in sustainability science and technology to support new solutions to complex problems. The SIF also builds on existing Sandia initiatives to support transformation of Sandia into a fully sustainable entity in terms of materials, energy, and water use. In the long term, the SIF will demonstrate the efficacy of sustainability technology developed at Sandia through prototyping and test bed approaches and will provide a common platform for support of solutions to the complex problems surrounding sustainability. Highlights from this year include the Sustainability Idea Challenge, improvements in facilities energy use, lectures and presentations from relevant experts in sustainability [Dr. Barry Hughes, University of Denver], and significant development of the Institutional Transformation (IX) modeling tools to support evaluation of proposed modifications to the SNL infrastructure to realize energy savings.

  7. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content; Alliages uranium-aluminium a faible teneur en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabane, G; Englander, M; Lehmann, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase {gamma}, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase {alpha}) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl{sub 2}) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl{sub 2} particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  8. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis...... aluminium content in aluminium hydroxide suspension. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Synthesis and properties of bimetallic aluminium alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyshinskaya, K.I.; Vasil'ev, G.A.; Vishnyakova, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A single stage method of aluminium bimetallic alkoxide synthesis, which consists in activated aluminium reaction with metal salts in the relevant alcohols, has been developed. Properties of the compounds prepared are described

  10. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  11. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen...... in aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  12. Chapter 2. Theoretical aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to theoretical aspects of aluminium production. Thus, the electrochemistry of electrolysis process, calculation of base industrial indicators of aluminium electrolytic cell, and processes occurring on anode and cathode were considered. Factors, which increase the current output and electrolytic cell productivity were studied. The side effects, including anode effect, sodium extraction on cathode, aluminium dissolution in the electrolyte, aluminium carbide formation, and influence of admixtures in the electrolyte were studied as well.

  13. Design and analysis of aluminium brdiges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Applications of aluminium have grown considerably in building and civil engineering the last decade, which is due to various aspects: light weight, durability and maintenance, use of extrusions. The paper starts with a short history of aluminium bridges and then focuses on aluminium bridges in the

  14. Energy efficiency opportunities in the production process of cast iron foundries: An experience in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarin, Renato M.; Noro, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Foundry sector is one of the most energy intensive in industry. Energy audits performed in 5 Italian cast iron foundries allowed to identify energy utilization in the various processes that from the melting of the iron arrive at the finishing of the casting. Main equipment was surveyed, evaluating the influence on the overall energy consumption, producing a detailed analysis of energy use per department and energy performance indexes. A separate study was carried out for foundries with induction furnaces and cold or hot blast cupolas. Possibilities of heat recovery was identified particularly in combustion air preheating, but also for building heating or to power direct cycles to produce electricity. Better insulation and new insulating materials can improve the efficiency and the quality of the processes. Suggestions are supplied in the various foundry departments for energy saving. Possible energy saving actions on the service plants will be dealt with in a separate paper. - Highlights: • The Authors performed energy audits in 5 Italian cast iron foundries. • Main equipment was surveyed, evaluating the influence on the overall energy consumption. • An analysis of energy use per department and energy performance indexes was performed. • Possibilities of heat recovery were identified in combustion air preheating and for building heating. • Better and new insulating materials were analyzed to improve the efficiency and process quality.

  15. Hot workability of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon Chul; Oh, Kyung Jin

    1986-01-01

    Hot Workability of aluminium alloys, 2024, 6061 and 7075, has been studied by hot torsion tests at temperatures from 320 to 515 deg C and at strain rates from 1.26 x 10 -3 to 5.71 x 10 -3 sec -1 . Hot working condition of these aluminium alloys was determined quantitatively from the constitutive equations obtained from flow stress curves in torsion. Experimental data of the logarith of the Zener-Hollomonn parameter showed good linear relationships to the logarith of sinh(ασ-bar)

  16. Simulation by the method of inverse cumulative distribution function applied in optimising of foundry plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses application of computer simulation based on the method of inverse cumulative distribution function. The simulationrefers to an elementary static case, which can also be solved by physical experiment, consisting mainly in observations of foundryproduction in a selected foundry plant. For the simulation and forecasting of foundry production quality in selected cast iron grade, arandom number generator of Excel calculation sheet was chosen. Very wide potentials of this type of simulation when applied to theevaluation of foundry production quality were demonstrated, using a number generator of even distribution for generation of a variable ofan arbitrary distribution, especially of a preset empirical distribution, without any need of adjusting to this variable the smooth theoreticaldistributions.

  17. Drying of water based foundry coatings: Innovative test, process design and optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Johansen, Bjørn Budolph

    on real industrial cases. These tools have been developed in order to simulate and optimize the drying process and reduce drying time and power consumption as well as production process design time and cost of expensive drying equipment. Results show that test methods from other industries can be used...... capacity goals there is a need to understand how to design, control and optimize drying processes. The main focus of this project was on the critical parameters and properties to be controlled in production in order to achieve a stable and predictable drying process. We propose for each of these parameters...... of Denmark with the overall aim to optimize the drying process of water based foundry coatings. Drying of foundry coatings is a relatively new process in the foundry industry that followed the introduction of water as a solvent. In order to avoid moisture related quality problems and reach production...

  18. Comparison of Energy Consumption in the Classical (PID and Fuzzy Control of Foundry Resistance Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziółkowskia E.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry resistance furnaces are thermal devices with a relatively large time delay in their response to a change in power parameters. Commonly used in automation classical PID controllers do not meet the requirements of high-quality control. Developed in recent years, fuzzy control theory is increasingly being used in various branches of economy and industry. Fuzzy controllers allow to introduce new developments in control systems of foundry furnaces as well. Correctly selected fuzzy controller can significantly reduce energy consumption in a controlled thermal process of heating equipment. The article presents a comparison of energy consumption by control system of foundry resistance furnace, equipped with either a PID controller or fuzzy controller optimally chosen.

  19. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail.

  20. Aluminium and energy. An interview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, E R

    1978-06-01

    The interview between METALL and the president of Aluswuisse refers mainly to aspects of energy and deals more closely with the questions whether western Europe in view of relatively high prices for electricity is still competitive and which part can be played by aluminium in overcoming the energy crisis.

  1. Recovery mechanisms in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5–100C. Hardness...

  2. Dynamical study of liquid aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, G.S.; Chaturvedi, D.K.

    1979-09-01

    Recent molecular dynamics data of Ebbsjoe et al. in liquid aluminium have been analysed through the memory function formalism. Two forms of the memory functions which have correct asymptotic limit at large wavenumbers but accounts for interatomic correlations in a different manner are considered. The results for ω 2 s(q, ω) obtained from both models are compared with experimental data. (author)

  3. Technologies for decreasing the tap temperature to save energy in steel foundries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Siddhartha

    Steel foundries are one of the most energy intensive industries. The increasing concerns over volatile energy cost and carbon dioxide emission have pushed foundries to improve efficiency and hence decrease electrical energy consumption. Statistical analysis of industrial survey data was combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate the best industrial practices and opportunities to improve energy efficiency. Reducing tap temperature was identified as one of the important ways of reducing energy consumption. Steel foundries typically tap at 1650-1800°C (3000-3300°F) which is 100-250°C (150-450°F) higher than the pouring temperature. The steel temperature is elevated to compensate for the temperature loss associated with tapping, holding and transporting the liquid steel from the furnace to the pouring floor. Based on experimental investigations and CFD modeling of heat losses during holding in the ladle for different foundry practices, a spreadsheet calculator has been developed to calculate the optimum tap temperature for the specific foundry practices which will eliminate unnecessary superheating. The calculated results were compared and validated with industrial measurements. Improving the lining refractory is one significant way of reducing heat losses during holding of the steel in ladle. Silica sand linings are being used in steel foundries as an inexpensive and convenient material for short holding times and small volumes. The possibilities of improvements of silica sand linings by the addition of lower density cenospheres (hollow spheres), a byproduct of coal fired power plants, was studied through property measurements and laboratory trials.

  4. Effect of Bio char on Plant Growth and Aluminium Form of Soil under Aluminium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lianwen; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Jingwei; Feng, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Aluminium-enriched acid red soils in South China easily cause aluminium toxicity to plants, but biochip can improve soils and eliminate soil contaminations. In this project, biochip was used in potted plant control test to study the effect of biochip on plant growth in soil under acid aluminium stress and the migration and conversion of aluminium in plant-soil system. The fin dings show that the application of biochip increases the pH value of soil under aluminium stress significantly, changes the existing form of aluminium ion in soil, reduces the plants’ absorption of aluminium, and alleviates the aluminium toxicity to plants, but too much biochip may inhibit the growth of plants. In this case, further study should be carried out as regards the volume and way of biochip input in practical applications as well as the timeliness of aluminium toxicity removal.

  5. Optimization of casting defects analysis with supply chain in cast iron foundry process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narayanaswamy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the foundries are in need of meeting production targets and due to the urgency they ignore the rejections. The objective of this paper is to analyze the various defects, [1] from molding process in a cast iron foundry. The Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA in quality control [2-6] with suitable supply chain for mold making process considering rejection rates are identified and analyzed in terms of Risk Priority Number (RPN to prioritize the attention for each of the problem. The optimum levels of selected parameters [7] are obtained in this analysis.

  6. Using sol-gel component as additive to foundry coatings to improve casting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Gravesen, B.

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of foundry coatings to enhance performance is important. This paper investigates the effect of using sol‐gel component as an additive to foundry coatings applied on chemically bonded sand cores. Three parameters at three levels each were investigated using Taguchi experimental...... was evaluated. The results show that the surface quality of castings obtained by adding the sol‐gel component to the coatings for cold box cores has no significant difference from castings produced with coatings without sol‐gel component. On the other hand, the addition of the sol‐gel component in coatings...

  7. Fast Forward: An Upskilling Programme for Ford Motor Company Foundry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Glynis; Pound, Gill

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of an upgrading program for British Ford Motor Company employees was getting trainees back into learning environments and improving communication, listening, calculation, reading, and cooperation. (SK)

  8. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  9. Toxicity of indium arsenide, gallium arsenide, and aluminium gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Akiyo

    2004-01-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium arsenide (InAs), and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) are semiconductor applications. Although the increased use of these materials has raised concerns about occupational exposure to them, there is little information regarding the adverse health effects to workers arising from exposure to these particles. However, available data indicate these semiconductor materials can be toxic in animals. Although acute and chronic toxicity of the lung, reproductive organs, and kidney are associated with exposure to these semiconductor materials, in particular, chronic toxicity should pay much attention owing to low solubility of these materials. Between InAs, GaAs, and AlGaAs, InAs was the most toxic material to the lung followed by GaAs and AlGaAs when given intratracheally. This was probably due to difference in the toxicity of the counter-element of arsenic in semiconductor materials, such as indium, gallium, or aluminium, and not arsenic itself. It appeared that indium, gallium, or aluminium was toxic when released from the particles, though the physical character of the particles also contributes to toxic effect. Although there is no evidence of the carcinogenicity of InAs or AlGaAs, GaAs and InP, which are semiconductor materials, showed the clear evidence of carcinogenic potential. It is necessary to pay much greater attention to the human exposure of semiconductor materials

  10. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  11. The study of heavy metals leaching from waste foundry sands using a one-step extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bożym, Marta

    2017-10-01

    There are a number of leaching test which are used to evaluate the effect of foundry waste disposal on the environment (TCLP, SPLP, ASTM at al.). Because the spent foundry sand are usually deposited at the ground level and they have a similar structure to the soil, survey mobility of metals using the same methods seems appropriate. One-step extraction allows for the evaluation of the mobility and bioavailability of metals in soil and waste. Waste foundry sands have been successfully used as a component in manufactured soils in U.S., but concern over metal contamination must be eliminated before considering this direction of use. The study evaluated the leaching of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni) from deposited waste foundry sands. The overall, as well as heavy metals were extracted by different type of extractants: H2O, CH3COOH, HCl, EDTA, MgCl2 and NaCOOH. These extractants are most commonly used to study the mobility and bioavailability of metals in soil and waste. In the present study applicable standards and methodology described in the literature in analysis were used. The results allowed to evaluate the bioavailability of metals leached from those wastes.

  12. Risk assessment of chemicals in foundries: The International Chemical Toolkit pilot-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcela G.; Filho, Walter R.P.

    2006-01-01

    In Brazil, problems regarding protection from hazardous substances in small-sized enterprises are similar to those observed in many other countries. Looking for a simple tool to assess and control such exposures, FUNDACENTRO has started in 2005 a pilot-project to implement the International Chemical Control Toolkit. During the series of visits to foundries, it was observed that although many changes have occurred in foundry technology, occupational exposures to silica dust and metal fumes continue to occur, due to a lack of perception of occupational exposure in the work environment. After introducing the Chemical Toolkit concept to the foundry work group, it was possible to show that the activities undertaken to improve the management of chemicals, according to its concept, will support companies in fulfilling government legislations related to chemical management, occupational health and safety, and environmental impact. In the following meetings, the foundry work group and FUNDACENTRO research team will identify 'inadequate work situations'. Based on the Chemical Toolkit, improvement measures will be proposed. Afterwards, a survey will verify the efficency of those measures in the control of hazards and consequently on the management of chemicals. This step is now in course

  13. Methodology supporting production control in a foundry applying modern DISAMATIC molding line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology of production control using statistical methods in foundry conditions, using the automatic DISAMATIC molding line. The authors were inspired by many years of experience in implementing IT tools for foundries. The authors noticed that there is a lack of basic IT tools dedicated to specific casting processes, that would greatly facilitate their oversight and thus improve the quality of manufactured products. More and more systems are installed in the ERP or CAx area, but they integrate processes only partially, mainly in the area of technology design and business management from finance and control. Monitoring of foundry processes can generate a large amount of process-related data. This is particularly noticeable in automated processes. An example is the modern DISAMATIC molding line, which integrates several casting processes, such as mold preparation, assembly, pouring or shake out. The authors proposed a methodology that supports the control of the above-mentioned foundry processes using statistical methods. Such an approach can be successfully used, for example, during periodic external audits. The mentioned methodology in the innovative DISAM-ProdC computer tool was implemented.

  14. The study of heavy metals leaching from waste foundry sands using a one-step extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożym Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of leaching test which are used to evaluate the effect of foundry waste disposal on the environment (TCLP, SPLP, ASTM at al.. Because the spent foundry sand are usually deposited at the ground level and they have a similar structure to the soil, survey mobility of metals using the same methods seems appropriate. One-step extraction allows for the evaluation of the mobility and bioavailability of metals in soil and waste. Waste foundry sands have been successfully used as a component in manufactured soils in U.S., but concern over metal contamination must be eliminated before considering this direction of use. The study evaluated the leaching of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni from deposited waste foundry sands. The overall, as well as heavy metals were extracted by different type of extractants: H2O, CH3COOH, HCl, EDTA, MgCl2 and NaCOOH. These extractants are most commonly used to study the mobility and bioavailability of metals in soil and waste. In the present study applicable standards and methodology described in the literature in analysis were used. The results allowed to evaluate the bioavailability of metals leached from those wastes.

  15. Research and application of enterprise resource planning system for foundry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PPDB issues - four aspects of current management issues of foundry enterprises are discussed in this paper, including Production Management, Process Control, Duration Monitoring and Business Intelligence Data Analysis. Also a whole Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP solution for foundry enterprises is proposed. The solution contains many models, four of which are used to solve the PPDB issues. These are called SPDB models, which separately are the Single-piece management model (based on casting lifecycle, Process management model (based on task-driven technology, Duration monitoring model (based on surplus period, and Business intelligence data analysis model (based on data mining. An ERP system for foundry enterprises, named HZERP, was researched and developed, and applied to a sand casting company of single piece and small batch production. Qualitatively and quantitatively comparing the application effect before and after implementing the HZERP system, the result demonstrated that the foundry ERP system based on the SPDB models can help metal casting enterprises achieve the single-piece management, better regulate the production processes, improve production and delivery management, shorten the production cycle, reduce costs, and speed up the capital turnover to a large extent.

  16. Power distribution: conductors in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of aluminium conductors in medium and low-voltage cables. The author discusses how the increasing price of copper has led to the increasing use of aluminium as a material for the production of the conductors used in medium and low-voltage power cables. Aid is provided that is to help purchasers make the correct decisions when buying medium and low-voltage cables. The current market situation is examined and the appropriate norms are looked at. Technical data and economic aspects are discussed, both for medium and low-voltage applications. The electrical characteristics of the type of cable to be used are examined and discussed

  17. Neutron Cross Sections for Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Leif

    1963-08-15

    Total, elastic, inelastic, (n, 2n), (n, {alpha}), (n, p), and (n, {gamma}) cross sections for aluminium have been compiled from thermal to 100 MeV based upon literature search and theoretical interpolations and estimates. Differential elastic cross sections in the centre of mass system are represented by the Legendre coefficients. This method was chosen in order to obtain the best description of the energy dependence of the anisotropy.

  18. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  19. Surface treatments for aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, M.; Lascău, S.; Ardelean, E.; Josan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Typically, in contact with the atmosphere, the aluminium surface is covered with an aluminium oxide layer, with a thickness of less than 1-2μm. Due to its low thickness, high porosity and low mechanical strength, this layer does not protect the metal from corrosion. Anodizing for protective and decorative purposes is the most common method of superficial oxidation processes and is carried out through anodic oxidation. The oxide films, resulted from anodizing, are porous, have a thickness of 20-50μm, and are heat-resistant, stable to water vapour and other corrosion agents. Hard anodizing complies with the same obtains principles as well as decorative and protective anodization. The difference is in that hard anodizing is achieved at low temperatures and high intensity of electric current. In the paper are presented the results of decorative and hard anodization for specimens made from several aluminium alloys in terms of the appearance of the specimens and of the thickness of the anodized.

  20. Detection of aluminium in different culinary media using black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacques Blessing

    The interactions between food and aluminium local kitchen utensils can be a potential source of aluminium released which can ... need to be adopted to preserve consumers' health. ..... Corrosion behaviour of different ... Aluminium beverage.

  1. Introduction. Aluminium production on electrolytic cells with calcined anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter presents the monograph content, which includes the description of physicochemical processes in aluminium electrolytic cells, and mechanism of electrolytic aluminium obtaining. The short description of aluminium electrolytic cells construction is presented in this book as well.

  2. Coprecipitation of yttrium and aluminium hydroxide for preparation of yttrium aluminium garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, J.W.G.A.; Willems, J.W.M.M.; Metselaar, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coprecipitation of yttrium and aluminium hydroxide for the preparation of pure yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) powder with small grain size is the subject of this study. Starting materials are sulphates and chlorides of yttrium and aluminium. To obtain pure YAG (Y3Al5O12), the pH during flocculation

  3. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The wast...

  5. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.

  6. Automação industrial e sistemas informatizados de gestão da produção em fundições de mercado Industrial automation and computerized production management systems in make-to-order foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Cesar F. Fernandes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundição é um processo de fabricação que vem crescendo em importância. O principal objetivo deste artigo é analisar, em termos de automação e sistemas informatizados de gestão da produção (SIGP, as fundições de mercado (fundições que produzem sob encomenda um grande número de pedidos vindos, em geral, de um grande número de clientes no interior do Estado de São Paulo pertencentes aos 5 principais pólos (Piracicaba, Indaiatuba, Limeira, São Carlos e Itu com 10 a 250 trabalhadores. Das 61 empresas do interior de São Paulo, 35 situam-se nesses 5 pólos (ou em suas imediações; entrevistamos pessoalmente os diretores industriais e visitamos o chão de fábrica de 30 fundições dentre essas 35. Analisamos quase 200 tabelas de freqüência e de contingência e extraímos várias conclusões, por exemplo: (i entre os três principais problemas e necessidades relativos à produção, dois deles estão diretamente relacionados com a automação industrial e com os SIGP; (ii são coincidentes os interesses em automação e SIGP.Foundry is a manufacturing process with a growing importance. The main objective of this paper is to analyze, in terms of automation and of computerized production management systems (CPMS, the make-to-order foundry in the interior of the state of São Paulo belonging to 5 main foundry industrial districts (Piracicaba, Indaiatuba, Limeira, São Carlos and Itu with 10 to 250 workers. From the 61 enterprises in the interior of São Paulo State, 35 are situated in these 5 industrial districts (or in their neighborhood; we interviewed personally the industrial executive officer and visited the shop-floor of 30 among this 35 foundries. We have analyzed almost 200 frequency and contingency tables and draw several conclusions, for example: (i among the three main problems and necessities related with production, two of them are directly related with automation and CPMS; (ii automation and CPMS generate coincident

  7. Design process optimization, virtual prototyping of manufacturing, and foundry-portable DFM (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, James; Progler, Christopher; Chatila, Ahmad; Bruggeman, Bert; Heins, Mitchell; Pack, Robert; Boksha, Victor

    2005-05-01

    We consider modern design for manufacturing (DFM) as a manifestation of IC industry re-integration and intensive cost management dynamics. In that regard DFM is somewhat different from so-called design for yield (DFY) which essentially focuses on productivity (yield) management (that is not to say that DFM and DFY do not have significant overlaps and interactions). We clearly see the shaping of a new "full-chip DFM" infrastructure on the background of the "back to basics" design-manufacturing re-integration dynamics. In the presented work we are focusing on required DFM-efficiencies in a "foundry-fabless" link. Concepts of "virtual prototyping of manufacturing", "design process optimization", and "foundry-portable DFM" models are explored. Both senior management of the industry and leading design groups finally realize the need for a radical change of design styles. Some of the DFM super-goals are to isolate designers from process details and to make designs foundry portable. It requires qualification of designs at different foundries. In their turn, foundries specified and are implementing a set of DFM rules: "action-required", "recommended", and "guidelines" while asking designers to provide netlist and testing information. Also, we observe strong signs of innovation coming back to the mask industry. Powerful solutions are emerging and shaping up toward mask-centered IP as a business. While it seems that pure-play foundries have found their place for now in the "IDM+" model (supporting manufacturing capacity of IDMs) it is not obvious how sustainable the model is. Wafer as a production unit is not sufficient anymore; foundries are being asked by large customers to price products in terms of good die. It brings back the notion of the old ASIC business model where the foundry is responsible for dealing with both random and systematic yield issues for a given design. One scenario of future development would be that some of the leading foundries might eventually

  8. Phase transformation of aluminium hydroxide to aα- alumina prepared from different aluminium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masliana Muslimin; Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2006-01-01

    The study intends to look at the most suitable aluminium salt to produce a single-phase a-alumina by the hydrothermal method. In the process to produce alumina from the calcination of aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ), three different aluminium salts namely aluminium sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 2), aluminium nitrate (A(NO 3 ) 3 ) and aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) were tried. The process involved the used of NH 4 OH as the precipitating medium. Aluminium hydroxide produced from each of these salts were characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique to identity the crystalline phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced by all the different aluminium salts is present as boehmite or pseudo-boehmite phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced from Al 2 (SO) 2 , Al(NO) 3 and AlCl 3 shows the transformation of the boehmite phase to a α-alumina phase at 500 0 C. On further heating, the α-alumina continuously formed at 800 o C followed soon at 1000 o C. But for the Al(NO3) 3 salts a different phase transitions occurs on heating especially at 1000 o C. Here it was observed not a single alumina phase is presence but the presence of both α and γ--alumina phases. At 1300 o C, the single α-alumina phase was formed. The study concluded that aluminium sulphate is recommended in order to obtain a single-phase α-alumina with the required characteristics. (Author)

  9. [Comparison of color reappearance between metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using crystaleye spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tao; Zhang, Ning; Kong, Fan-wen; Zhan, De-song

    2010-10-01

    To study the color reappearance effect of metal-ceram restoration and foundry-ceram restoration using Crystaleye spectrophotometer. 58 metal-ceram restorations and 58 foundry-ceram restorations according to the result of the Crystaleye spectrophotometer were made respectively. The deltaE between restorations and natural teeth as referenced were analyzed. And satisfaction of dentists and patients were evaluated. The deltaE between metal-ceram restorations and natural teeth was 7.13 +/- 0.74. The deltaE between foundry-ceram restorations and teeth was 1.47 +/- 0.84. There were statistical differences between the deltaE (P spectrophotometer can provide accurate reference for foundry-ceram restoration, but for metal-ceram restoration it is not accurate.

  10. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  11. Electron Conditioning of Technical Aluminium Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, F

    2004-09-02

    The effect of electron conditioning on commercially aluminium alloys 1100 and 6063 were investigated. Contrary to the assumption that electron conditioning, if performed long enough, can reduce and stabilize the SEY to low values (= 1.3, value of many pure elements [1]), the SEY of aluminium did not go lower than 1.8. In fact, it reincreases with continued electron exposure dose.

  12. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived ...

  13. Characterisation and concentration profile of aluminium during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An aluminium(Al) characterisation study was conducted at a surface water treatment plant (Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Plant (BPWTP) in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada) to understand better the effect of alum coagulant on various Al fractions. The raw water source for BPWTP is Buffalo Pound Lake water. The Al ...

  14. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form γ-Al2O3 at ~ 400°C but the formation of α-Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material ...

  15. Rapidly solidified aluminium for optical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.P.H.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Bosch, A.J.; Senden, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the results of a diamond turning study of a rapidly solidified aluminium 6061 alloy grade, known as RSA6061. It is shown that this small grain material can be diamond turned to smaller roughness values than standard AA6061 aluminium grades. Also, the results are nearly as good as

  16. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  17. Applications of the systems theory to the designing of the sand preparation sub-system in foundry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wrona

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the basic principles for designing the functional structure of manufacturing systems and their components. The analysis of functional values is applied to create the technological and manufacturing model underlying the design of the foundry equipment with machine units and materials handling systems. Quoted examples illustrate the approved procedure to be applied to control the sand preparation process in a foundry.

  18. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in aerospace industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further be converted or transformed...... into functional conversion coatings in order to enhance corrosion resistance and adhesion to paint systems. Chromium based conversion coatings have been extensively used on aluminium alloys to improve adhesion of subsequent paint layers and corrosion resistance. However, the use of hexavalent chromium is strictly...... regulated due to its toxic nature and suspected carcinogenicity. So, it is highly imperative to develop other alternatives for chrome conversion coatings. Treatment of aluminium with natural water at elevated temperatures results in the formation of different forms of aluminium oxide (γ-AlO(OH) , Al(OH)3...

  19. Investigation into the Heat of Hydration and Alkali Silica Reactivity of Sustainable Ultrahigh Strength Concrete with Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Aguayo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the hydration reactivity and alkali silica reaction (ASR of ultrahigh strength concrete (UHSC that has been made more sustainable by using spent foundry sand. Spent foundry sand not only is sustainable but has supplementary cementitious material (SCM characteristics. Two series of UHSC mixtures were prepared using a nonreactive and reactive sand (in terms of ASR to investigate both the impact of a more reactive aggregate and the use of spent foundry sand. Conduction calorimetry was used to monitor the heat of hydration maintained under isothermal conditions, while ASR was investigated using the accelerated mortar bar test (AMBT. Additionally, the compressive strengths were measured for both series of mixtures at 7, 14, and 28 days to confirm high strength requirements. The compressive strengths ranged from 85 MPa (12,345 psi to 181.78 MPa (26,365 psi. This result demonstrates that a UHSC mixture was produced. The calorimetry results revealed a slight acceleration in the heat of hydration flow curve compared to the control from both aggregates indicating increased hydration reactivity from the addition of foundry waste. The combination of foundry sand and reactive sand was found to increase ASR reactivity with increasing additions of foundry sand up to 30% replacement.

  20. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, Tolga; Soutis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  1. Reuse of waste foundry sand through interaction with sodium silicate binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.C.; Chinelatto, A.S.A.; Chinelatto, A.L.; Oliveira, I.L.

    2012-01-01

    Green sand molds are used in metal casting process. However, after heating, activated bentonite present in green sand lose the binding properties, and part of the foundry sand has to be discarded from the process. The ABNT NBR 15.984/2011 establishes the management of waste foundry sand (WFS) avoiding disposal in landfills. The objective of this work was to investigate the possibility of reusing the WFS from the study of their interaction with sodium silicate binder. Studies with silica sand and new green sand was performed to compare the results obtained with the WFS. The characterizations of the samples were performed by measures the compressive strength, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that there is interaction of the sodium silicate with the WFS as well as with the silica sand and green sand. (author)

  2. EVALUATION OF THE BENTONITE CONTENT IN SPENT FOUNDRY SANDS AS A FUNCTION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY COEFFICIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schirlene Chegatti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the relationship of the bentonite content and hydraulic conductivity coefficient (k of waste foundry sands in tests of hydraulic conductivity in a flexible wall permeameter. The test samples had concentrations of activated sodium bentonite and natural sodium bentonite between 4% and 15%. It was also analyzed chemically the liquid leachate (aluminum, barium, chromium, cadmium, lead, phenols, iron, fluoride, and manganese, following de standard tests of Standard Methods 3111 B e D for the determination of this components in liquid samples. The experiments were supplemented with cation exchange capacity analysis. The results indicate that the values of are is related to the content of bentonite in waste foundry sand and the percolation from this waste disposal.

  3. Method for aluminium dross utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucheva, B.; Petkov, R.; Tzonev, Tz.

    2003-01-01

    A new hydrometallurgical method has been developed for metal aluminum utilization from secondary aluminum dross. Secondary aluminum dross is a powder product with an average of 35% aluminium content (below 1mm). It is waste from primary aluminum dross pyrometallurgical flux less treatment in rotary DC electric arc furnace. This method is based on aluminum leaching in copper chloride water solution. As a result an aluminum oxychloride solution and solids, consisting of copper and oxides are obtained. In order to copper chloride solution regenerate hydrochloric acid is added to the solids. The process is simple, quick, economic and safe. The aluminum oxychloride solution contains 56 g/l Al 2 O 3 . The molar ratios are Al:Cl=0,5; OH:Al=1. The solution has 32 % basicity and 1,1 g/cm 3 density. For increasing the molar ratio of aluminium to chlorine aluminum hydroxide is added to this solution at 80 o C. Aluminum hydroxide is the final product from the secondary aluminum dross alkaline leaching. As a result aluminum oxychloride solution of the following composition is prepared: Al 2 O 3 - 180 g/l; Al:Cl=1,88; OH:Al=4,64; basicity 82%; density 1,22 g/cm 3 , pH=4 -4,5. Aluminum oxychloride solution produced by means of this method can be used in potable and wastewater treatment, paper making, in refractory mixture as a binder etc. (Original)

  4. SYNBIOCHEM Synthetic Biology Research Centre, Manchester – A UK foundry for fine and speciality chemicals production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Feuvre RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Synthetic Biology Research Centre, SYNBIOCHEM, hosted by the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology at the University of Manchester is delivering innovative technology platforms to facilitate the predictable engineering of microbial bio-factories for fine and speciality chemicals production. We provide an overview of our foundry activities that are being applied to grand challenge projects to deliver innovation in bio-based chemicals production for industrial biotechnology.

  5. Moisture diffusion coefficients determination of furan bonded sands and water based foundry coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content in furan bonded sand and water based coatings can be one of the main causes for gas related defects in large cast iron parts. Moisture diffusion coefficients for these materials are needed to precisely predict the possible moisture levels in foundry moulds. In this study, we first...... provide an example on how it is possible to apply this knowledge to estimate moisture variation in a sand mould during production....

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  7. ELABORATION OF MANAGEMENT PLAN OF SOLID WASTE FROM SMALL CAST IRON FOUNDRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Mendes Moraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The foundry industry contributes to society meeting the demand of metal scrap recycling, but, at the same time, it brings a high risk of environmental impact for its many potentially pollutant wastes. Among these, there are slag and used foundry sand (cold cure molding. Through a survey about the production process of a small cast iron company, the collected data was compiled to determine the organizational setting in terms of generation and segregation of waste. From a complete environmental diagnosis carried out in eight small cast iron foundries, one of them was chosen to be a basis for the elaboration of an industrial solid waste management plan, which is becoming necessary to know and manage the generation of wastes qualitatively and quantitatively. A data assessment about the production process was carried out and compiled to determine the actual organizational scenario. As a result of that, it is possible to create a favorable environment to develop tools for environmental impacts prevention, which will permit the migration for more complex actions on the direction of more efficient process, cleaner production, and internal and external recycling of exceeding materials.

  8. Variation in aluminium patch test reactivity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemund, Ingrid; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Hindsén, Monica

    2017-11-01

    Contact allergy to aluminium has been reported more frequently in recent years. It has been pointed out that positive patch test reactions to aluminium may not be reproducible on retesting. To investigate possible variations in patch test reactivity to aluminium over time. Twenty-one adults, who had previously reacted positively to aluminium, were patch tested with equimolar dilution series in pet. of aluminium chloride hexahydrate and aluminium lactate, four times over a period of 8 months. Thirty-six of 84 (43%) serial dilution tests with aluminium chloride hexahydrate and 49 of 84 (58%) serial dilution tests with aluminium lactate gave negative results. The range of reactivity varied between a negative reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 10% and/or to aluminium lactate at 12%, and a positive reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 0.1% and/or to aluminium lactate at 0.12%. The highest individual difference in test reactivity noticed was 320-fold when the two most divergent minimal eliciting concentrations were compared. The patch test reactivity to aluminium varies over time. Aluminium-allergic individuals may have false-negative reactions. Therefore, retesting with aluminium should be considered when there is a strong suspicion of aluminium contact allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Electron beam welding of aluminium components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maajid, Ali; Vadali, S.K.; Maury, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is one of the most widely used materials in industries like transportation, shipbuilding, manufacturing, aerospace, nuclear, etc. The challenges in joining of aluminium are distortion, cleanliness and quality. Main difficulties faced during fusion welding of aluminium components are removal of surface oxide layer, weld porosity, high heat input requirement, distortion, hot cracking, etc. Physical properties of aluminium such as its high thermal conductivity, high coefficient of thermal expansion, no change in colour at high temperature, large difference in the melting points of the metal and its oxide (∼ 1400 °C) compound the difficulties faced during welding. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Plasma Arc Welding (PAW), etc are generally used in industries for fusion welding of aluminium alloys. However in case of thicker jobs the above processes are not suitable due to requirements of elaborate edge preparation, preheating of jobs, fixturing to prevent distortion, etc. Moreover, precise control over the heat input during welding and weld bead penetration is not possible with above processes. Further, if heat sensitive parts are located near the weld joint then high energy density beam welding process like Electron Beam Welding (EBW) is the best possible choice for aluminium welding.This paper discusses EB welding of aluminium components, typical geometry of components, selection/optimization of welding parameters, problems faced during standardization of welding and process parameters and their remedies etc.

  10. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Challenges in LCA modelling of multiple loops for aluminium cans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    considered the case of closed-loop recycling for aluminium cans, where body and lid are different alloys, and discussed the abovementioned challenge. The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) modelling of aluminium processes is traditionally based on a pure aluminium flow, therefore neglecting the presence of alloying...... elements. We included the effect of alloying elements on the LCA modelling of aluminium can recycling. First, we performed a mass balance of the main alloying elements (Mn, Fe, Si, Cu) in aluminium can recycling at increasing levels of recycling rate. The analysis distinguished between different aluminium...... packaging scrap sources (i.e. used beverage can and mixed aluminium packaging) to understand the limiting factors for multiple loop aluminium can recycling. Secondly, we performed a comparative LCA of aluminium can production and recycling in multiple loops considering the two aluminium packaging scrap...

  12. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  13. Confined recrystallization of high-purity aluminium during accumulative roll bonding of aluminium laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekhonin, Paul; Beausir, Benoît; Scharnweber, Juliane; Oertel, Carl-Georg; Hausöl, Tina; Höppel, Heinz Werner; Brokmeier, Heinz-Günter; Skrotzki, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium laminates consisting of high-purity aluminium and commercially pure aluminium have been produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) at ambient temperature for up to 10 cycles. To study the microstructure and texture development of the high-purity aluminium layers with regard to the shrinking layer thickness during ARB, microstructure and texture investigations were carried out by electron backscatter diffraction and neutron and X-ray diffraction, respectively. While the commercially pure aluminium layers develop an ultrafine-grained microstructure, partial discontinuous recrystallization occurs in the high-purity layers. The texture of the high-purity layers mainly consists of Cube and “Tilted Cube” (tilted with respect to the transverse direction) components. The experimental results are discussed with respect to confined recrystallization in the ARB aluminium laminates.

  14. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  15. Net shape powder processing of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost-effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminium powder metallurgy. Net shape processing of aluminium using the classical press-and-sinter powder metallurgy technique is a unique and important metal-forming method which is cost effective in producing complex parts at, or very close to, final dimensions. This paper provides an overview of the net shape powder processing of aluminium. Current research is critically reviewed and the future potential is briefly considered

  16. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition...... of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  17. Aluminium Toxicity Targets in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al is the third most abundant metallic element in soil but becomes available to plants only when the soil pH drops below 5.5. At those conditions, plants present several signals of Al toxicity. As reported by literature, major consequences of Al exposure are the decrease of plant production and the inhibition of root growth. The root growth inhibition may be directly/indirectly responsible for the loss of plant production. In this paper the most remarkable symptoms of Al toxicity in plants and the latest findings in this area are addressed. Root growth inhibition, ROS production, alterations on root cell wall and plasma membrane, nutrient unbalances, callose accumulation, and disturbance of cytoplasmic Ca2+ homeostasis, among other signals of Al toxicity are discussed, and, when possible, the behavior of Al-tolerant versus Al-sensitive genotypes under Al is compared.

  18. Radiological impact of very slightly radioactive copper and aluminium recovered from dismantled nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbay, H.; Chapuis, A.M.; Cahuzac, O.; Guetat, P.; Haristoy, D.; Renaud, P.

    1991-01-01

    This work is in keeping with a large evaluation of doses likely to be received by public and non nuclear workers when dismantling nuclear installations. A bibliographic study and inquiries are realized, in the nuclear field to evaluate quantities of very slightly radioactive materials, in the conventional copper and aluminium recovery fields: waste recovery, metal refinery and processing, occupational or domestic uses of the metals or their alloys. In fact copper and aluminium waste arising from the dismantling of nuclear installations are mainly electrical cables constituents including insulation material which is mainly polyvinyle chloride (PVC). Estimated quantities are relatively low compared to steel quantities arising from dismantling. The study is based on the hypothesis of two PWRs dismantled per year, estimated quantities are 200 tonnes of copper, 40 tonnes of aluminium and 500 tonnes of PVC. A special case is also studied, which is the dismantling of low and medium uranium enrichment plant in Pierrelatte (France); the plant pipework is mainly made of an aluminium and magnesium alloy: AG3. From these informations, one can define exposure scenarios which may occur with a non negligible probability. The doses likely to be received under the foreseen conditions are calculated. Reference doses are established from recommendations of international organisations as ICRP, IAEA, NEA. Comparing the calculated doses and the reference doses, the activity level of the initial waste can be deduced as to follow the recommendations. The mean specific activity of main beta-gamma emitters in copper, aluminium and PVC are of the same order of magnitude, 10Bq.g -1 . In the case of alpha emitters specific activity levels depend on the material and on the radionuclide, from 2 Bq.g -1 to 10 Bq.g -1 in copper, from 10 Bq.g -1 to 50 Bq.g -1 in aluminium

  19. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes...... the use of aluminium alloys in the painted form requiring a conversion coating to improve the adhesion. Chromate based conversion coating processes are extremely good for these purposes, however the carcinogenic and toxic nature of hexavalent chromium led to the search for more benign and eco......, crystalline nano-particles, role of steam-based treatment on adhesion of industrially applied powder coating, and investigations of a failed painted aluminium window profile due to defects in the extruded profile. Chapters 13 and 14 describe the overall discussion, conclusions and future work based...

  20. Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder obtained through wire ... Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology. Madras, Chennai 600 .... pressure developed due to current flow (z-Pinch). Figure 2.

  1. Irradiation effects in magnesium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructure, mechanical properties and swelling of several magnesium and aluminium alloys were studied. The neutron fluences of 2-3 X 10 22 n/cm 2 , >0.2 MeV produced displacement doses of 20 to 45 displacements per atom (dpa). Ductility of the magnesium alloys was severely reduced by irradiation induced recrystallization and precipitation of various forms. Precipitation of transmuted silicon occurred in the aluminium alloys. However, the effect on ductility was much less than for the magnesium alloys. The magnesium and aluminium alloys had excellent resistance to swelling: The best magnesium alloy was Mg/3.0 wt% Al/0.19 wt% Ca; its density decreased by only 0.13%. The best aluminium alloy was 6063, with a density decrease of 0.22%. (Auth.)

  2. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  3. Aluminium reprocessing with local mineral raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    With the purpose of utilization of ice sediment, receiving from mud fields solutions and flotation tails and at using local aluminium and fluorine-containing raw material was elaborated fundamental technologic scheme presented in this chapter of book

  4. Deformation features of aluminium in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, N.F. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a method to analyse stress-strain curves. Plastic and elastic strains were studied. The strains were done by tensile tests in four types of materials: highly pure aluminium, pure aluminium, commercially pure aluminium and aluminium - uranium. The chemical compositions were obtained by spectroscopy analysis and neutron activation analysis. Tensile tests were carried out at three strain rates, at room temperature, 100,200, 300 and 400 0 C, with knives extensometer and strain-gages to studied the elastic strain region. A multiple spring model based on two springs model to analyse elastic strain caused by tests without extensometers, taking in account moduli of elasticity and, an interactive analysis system with graphic capability were developed. It was suggested a qualitative model to explain the quantized multielasticity of Bell. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  6. Characterization of aluminium alloys rapidly solidified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discussed the investigation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the aluminium alloys (3003; 7050; Al-9% Mg) rapidly solidified by melt spinning process (cooling rate 10 4 - 10 6 K/s). The rapidly solidification process of the studied aluminium alloys brought a microcrystallinity, a minimum presence of coarse precipitation and, also, better mechanical properties of them comparing to the same alloys using ingot process. (author) [pt

  7. Structural evolution in nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Emmanuel; Vantelon, Delphine; Reguer, Solenn; Mirambet, François

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous and self-organized layers of aluminium alloys are used in many applications as membranes, templates for nanometric objects or corrosion protection for aluminium alloys. The use of this nanometric structure widely remains empirical, especially in the case of very small pores ( 4 into AlO 6 cluster and a partial release of sulphate ions are an important chemical transformation of the amorphous structure. This structural transformation defines the chemistry (pH and surface charge) inside the nanopores, the ageing behaviour and the possible incorporation or diffusion of chemical species in the nanostructure. Highlights: ► Investigations of local chemical environment of aluminium atoms in anodic aluminium oxide. ► The oxide structure is constituted by 2/3 of aluminium in tetrahedral coordination 1/3 in octahedral coordination. ► In contact with water, AlO 4 clusters are transformed into AlO 6 cluster and the aluminium sulphate bonds are hydrolysed. ► These transformations induce a pH decrease inside the nanostructure.

  8. [Aluminium content in foods with aluminium-containing food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants.

  9. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  10. Strain Measurement in Aluminium Alloy during the Solidification Process Using Embedded Fibre Bragg Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weraneck, Klaus; Heilmeier, Florian; Lindner, Markus; Graf, Moritz; Jakobi, Martin; Volk, Wolfram; Roths, Johannes; Koch, Alexander W

    2016-11-04

    In recent years, the observation of the behaviour of components during the production process and over their life cycle is of increasing importance. Structural health monitoring, for example of carbon composites, is state-of-the-art research. The usage of Fibre Bragg Gratings (FBGs) in this field is of major advantage. Another possible area of application is in foundries. The internal state of melts during the solidification process is of particular interest. By using embedded FBGs, temperature and stress can be monitored during the process. In this work, FBGs were embedded in aluminium alloys in order to observe the occurring strain. Two different FBG positions were chosen in the mould in order to compare its dependence. It was shown that FBGs can withstand the solidification process, although a compression in the range of one percent was measured, which is in agreement with the literature value. Furthermore, different lengths of the gratings were applied, and it was shown that shorter gratings result in more accurate measurements. The obtained results prove that FBGs are applicable as sensors for temperatures up to 740 °C.

  11. Distribution of trace elements in a modified and grain refined aluminium-silicon hypoeutectic alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, M; Katgerman, L

    2010-08-01

    The influence of modifier and grain refiner on the nucleation process of a commercial hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloy (A356) was investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis technique (EPMA). Filtering was used to improve the casting quality; however, it compromised the modification of silicon. Effect of filtering on strontium loss was also studied using the afore-mentioned techniques. EPMA was used to trace the modifying and grain refining agents inside matrix and eutectic Si. This was to help understanding mechanisms of nucleation and modification in this alloy. Using EPMA, the negative interaction of Sr and Al3TiB was closely examined. In modified structure, it was found that the maximum point of Sr concentration was in line with peak of silicon; however, in case of just 0.1wt% added Ti, the peak of Ti concentration was not in line with aluminium, (but it was close to Si peak). Furthermore, EPMA results showed that using filter during casting process lowered the strontium content, although produced a cleaner melt. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Linking energy efficiency and innovation practices: Empirical evidence from the foundry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; Ramirez-Portilla, Andres; Trianni, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The Europe 2020 strategy currently promotes energy efficiency and innovation through disconnected targets focusing on either energy or R&D. Similar policies indicate that in practice, these two concepts are usually perceived as mutually exclusive. Furthermore, evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between R&D and energy efficiency is still highly limited. This exploratory study aims to address this gap by investigating the link between innovation practices and energy efficiency through a multiple case study of 30 foundries in Northern Italy. We analysed the firms' innovativeness, measured by internal R&D and Open Innovation practices (inbound and outbound), and energy efficiency, measured by specific energy consumption, level of adoption of energy-efficient technologies and barriers to energy efficiency. The results seem to show that those foundries complementing internal R&D with inbound practices have a higher level of energy efficiency, a higher level of adoption of available technologies, and a lower perception of barriers to efficiency improvements. This finding suggests that diversifying innovation practices could lead to better performance with respect to all three indicators of energy efficiency analysed. This study contributes to understanding how more innovative firms can be more energy efficient, providing interesting highlights for managers and policymakers. -- Highlights: •The relation between innovation practices and energy efficiency is articulated. •The link between innovation practices and energy efficiency is tested for foundries. •Energy efficiency is measured with three different indicators. •Analyses of the relations between these indicators support the link with innovation. •Concurrent adoption of internal R&D and inbound practices leads to higher efficiency

  13. The Analysis of Foundry Engineering of Copper Alloys Based on the Research of a Metallurgist Settlement in Szczepidło

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbacz-Klempka A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents chosen aspects of foundry engineering of the settlement dwellers, including the archaeometric characteristics and metal science analysis of the artefacts, as well as an attempted reconstruction of the production organization. Discovered in Szczepidło (Greater Poland, the foundry workshop is unique in Central European Bronze Age.

  14. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Use of wasted foundry sand (WFS) as a partial substitute for silica in a soda lime glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.C.; Ueno, O.K.; Folgueras, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    The waste foundry sand (WFS) is the main waste generates in foundry industries. Studies in the literature suggest the use of WFS in different materials, such as concrete, brick or asphalt. This work aims to partially replace the silica of a soda-lime glass by the WFS. The waste foundry sand has in its composition elements such as iron and aluminum that can affect the glass quality, which justifies the residue processing to reduce the impurity content. The treatments, that included mechanical agitation and thermal treatment, resulted in a slight decrease in the percent of iron with consequent increase of the silica content. After treatment, some sands were incorporated into the glass, that showed green color but with lower absorption intensity for the sand with less iron content. It was observed that it's possible to obtain glasses using WFS, however, there is difficulty in color controlling. (author

  16. New sol–gel refractory coatings on chemically-bonded sand cores for foundry applications to improve casting surface quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Stage, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined. The coa......Foundry refractory coatings protect bonded sand cores and moulds from producing defective castings during the casting process by providing a barrier between the core and the liquid metal. In this study, new sol–gel refractory coating on phenolic urethane cold box (PUCB) core was examined......–gel coated cores have better surface quality than those from uncoated cores and comparable surface quality with the commercial coatings. Therefore, the new sol–gel coating has a potential application in the foundry industry for improving the surface finish of castings thereby reducing the cost of fettling...

  17. TEM investigation of aluminium containing precipitates in high aluminium doped silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Leung, J.; FitzGerald, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Silicon carbide is a promising semiconductor material for applications in high temperature and high power devices. The successful growth of good quality epilayers in this material has enhanced its potential for device applications. As a novel semiconductor material, there is a need for studying its basic physical properties and the role of dopants in this material. In this study, silicon carbide epilayers were grown on 4H-SiC wafers of (0001) orientation with a miscut angle of 8 deg at a temperature of 1550 deg C. The epilayers contained regions of high aluminium doping well above the solubility of aluminium in silicon carbide. High temperature annealing of this material resulted in the precipitation of aluminium in the wafers. The samples were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Selected area diffraction studies show the presence of aluminium carbide and aluminium silicon carbide phases. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  18. Free radicals of an aromatic nature in air samples from iron foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerberg, L M

    1982-01-01

    Free radicals of relatively long life were identified as spin adducts of phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone. Pyrolysis studies showed the radicals were oxy-radicals. The hyperfine splitting constants of spin adducts of radicals from the pyrolysis in air of benzo(a)pyrene, coal tar pitch, and moulding sand containing hard coal dust were the same as those of the radicals found in foundry air. Since these radicals can bind to DNA, they must be considered when estimating the hazardous effects of polluted air.

  19. Determination of pollutants in foundry during the manufacture of metal constructions for high buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Irina; Sushko, Elena; Lyshnikova, Anna; Prykina, Larisa

    2018-03-01

    Current developments are devoted to the environmental safety of the foundry. There is a significant amount of pollutants, according to dust, which is released in the working area, during the manufacture of metal structures for high buildings. From the point of dust extraction, the most unfavorable areas are shot blasting, sand-blasting chambers and knockout grills. The weight fraction of dust composition with diameters up to 20 μm reaches 43,8% by mass, according to experimental analysis. This kind of dust is the most dangerous to employees and also it creates problems for dust-cleaning in the air.

  20. Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margraf R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as the observance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of definitely above 99%.

  1. Investigation of aluminium-rich alloy system of aluminium-strontium-silicium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiev, I.N.; Vakhobov, A.B.; Dzhuraev, T.D.; Alidzhanov, F.N.

    1976-01-01

    An area of the solid solution based on aluminium was studied, and the surface was plotted of the liquidus adjoining the apex of the aluminium corner of the strontium-aluminium-silicon system. The investigation was carried out by microstructure and differential thermal analyses and by the measurement of the microhardness of the component phases. A combined solubility of silicon and strontium in aluminium was studied along three radial sections at Sr-to-Si ratios of 1/2, 1/1 and 2/1. The relationships of ''composition vs. Microhardness'', obtained in these sections, made it possible to define the boundaries of the phase regions in the aluminium corner of the strontium-aluminium-silicon system at 500 deg C. The greatest solubility is that along the Al-SrAl 2 Si 2 section at a Sr/Si ratio of 1/2. A further increase in the content of strontium brings about a drop in the solubility of silicon in solid aluminium. The projection of the liquidus surface of the strontium-aluminium-silicon system, rich in aluminium, includes four surfaces of primary crystallization: α-Al, SrAl 4 , SrAl 2 Si 2 and Si. The system comprises a section of Al-SrAl 2 Si 2 representing a quasibinary system of an eutectic type. The eutectic reaction takes place at a temperature of 640 deg C. The quasibinary Al-SrAl 2 Si 2 section divides the aluminium corner of the Sr-Al-Si system into two independent systems Al-SrAl 4 -SrAl 2 Si 2 and Al-Si-SrAl 2 Si 2 of an eutectic type

  2. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  3. Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its species conversion ... of aluminium salt solutions under the moderate slow rate of base injection. ... silicate radical, and organic acid radical on the titration curves and its critical ...

  4. Effect of tempering on corrosion resistance of cast aluminium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.; Klemetti, K.; Haenninen, H.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of this study is corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes, which are copper base alloys containing aluminium up to 12% with additions of nickel, iron and manganese. The main conclutions that can be drawn are: (1) The dealloying corrosion resistance of nickel-aluminium bronze is much better than that of aluminium bronze with iron and manganese additions, but it is not immune; (2) The dealloying corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes can be improved by appropiate heat treatments. The best properties were obtained by temperering between 600 and 800 deg C, depending on the initial microstructure; (3) In crevice conditions, where local acidification can occur, dealloying of aluminium bronzes is a consequence of the preferential attack of aluminium-rich phases. By appropriate tempering, a uniform distribution of aluminium-rich phases is obtained and the continous path for selective corrosion is not formed

  5. Aluminium hydroxide-the carrier for catalysts coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normatov, I.Sh.; Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2003-01-01

    At present time several methods of receiving aluminium hydroxide are exist. But all they differ by much staging of process connected with preliminary receiving of intermediate compounds, with application of expensive metallic aluminium

  6. Replies to Challenges in the Field of Air Pollution Control in Foundry Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Margraf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The solution of applications for air pollution control in foundries for iron and non-ferrous metals may not only be understood as theobservance of requested emission limit values at the stack outlet. An effective environmental protection already starts with the greatest possible capture of pollutants at the source with at the same time minimisation of the volume flow necessary for this. Independent of this, the downstream installed filtration system has to realise a degree of separation of definitely above 99%.Furthermore, when selecting the filter construction, attention has to be paid to a high availability. An even temporarily productionwithout filter will more and more no longer be accepted by residents and authorities. Incidents at the filter lead to a shutdown of the whole production.Additional measures for heat recovery while preparing concepts for filtration plants help to reduce the energy consumption and servefor a sustained conservation of environment.A consequent consideration of the items above is also condition for the fact that environmental protection in foundries remainsaffordable. The lecture deals with the subjects above from the point of view of a plant constructor.

  7. Tools and Strategies for Product Life Cycle Management ñ A Case Study in Foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajashekar; Kumar, S. Mohan; Abhilash, E.

    2012-08-01

    Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have opened new possibilities of collaborations among the customers, suppliers, manufactures and partners to effectively tackle various business challenges. Product Life Cycle Management(PLM) has been a proven approach for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) to increase their productivity, improve their product quality, speed up delivery, and increase their profit and to become more efficient. However, their Tier 2 and Tier 3 suppliers like foundry industries are still in their infancy without adopting PLM. Hence to enhance their understanding, the basic concepts, the tools and strategies for PLM are presented is this paper. By selecting and implementing appropriate PLM strategies in a small foundry, an attempt was also made to understand the immediate benefits of using PLM tools (commercial PLM software and digital manufacturing tools). This study indicated a reduction in lead time and improved utilization of organizational resources in the production of automobile impeller. These observations may be further extrapolated to other multiproduct, multi-discipline and multi-customer companies to realize the advantages of using PLM technology

  8. Waste Foundry Sand Usage for Building Material Production: A First Geopolymer Record in Material Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Doğan-Sağlamtimur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to bring a solution to the problem of waste foundry sand (WFS in the foundry sector and achieve its reuse, geopolymer building material (as a cementless technology was produced from the WFS for the first time in the literature in this study. The physical and mechanical characteristics of this material were determined. In the first part of the experimental step, the sieve analysis, loose/tight unit weight, and loss of ignition of the WFS were obtained as well as the ultimate analysis. In the second step, the water absorption percentage, porosity, unit weight, and compressive strength tests were conducted on the WFS-based geopolymer specimens activated by chemical binders (sodium hydroxide: NaOH and sodium silicate: Na2SiO3. As the unit weights of all the produced samples were lower than 1.6 g/cm3, they may be considered as lightweight building materials. The minimum compressive strength value for building wall materials was accepted as 2.5 MPa by national standards. In this study, the maximum compressive strength value was measured as 12.3 MPa for the mixture incorporation of 30% Na2SiO3 at the curing temperature of 200°C in 28 days. It was concluded that this geopolymer material is suitable for using as a building wall material.

  9. A Production Planning Model for Make-to-Order Foundry Flow Shop with Capacity Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mode of production in the modern manufacturing enterprise mainly prefers to MTO (Make-to-Order; how to reasonably arrange the production plan has become a very common and urgent problem for enterprises’ managers to improve inner production reformation in the competitive market environment. In this paper, a mathematical model of production planning is proposed to maximize the profit with capacity constraint. Four kinds of cost factors (material cost, process cost, delay cost, and facility occupy cost are considered in the proposed model. Different factors not only result in different profit but also result in different satisfaction degrees of customers. Particularly, the delay cost and facility occupy cost cannot reach the minimum at the same time; the two objectives are interactional. This paper presents a mathematical model based on the actual production process of a foundry flow shop. An improved genetic algorithm (IGA is proposed to solve the biobjective problem of the model. Also, the gene encoding and decoding, the definition of fitness function, and genetic operators have been illustrated. In addition, the proposed algorithm is used to solve the production planning problem of a foundry flow shop in a casting enterprise. And comparisons with other recently published algorithms show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Properties of Aluminium-Aluminium Oxide Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Muhammad Nuruzzaman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aluminium-aluminium oxide (Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composites of different weight percentage reinforcements of aluminium oxide were processed at different sintering temperatures. In order to prepare these composite specimens, conventional powder metallurgy (PM method was used. Three types specimens of different compositions such as 95%Al+5%Al2O3, 90%Al+10%Al2O3 and 85%Al+15%Al2O3 were prepared under 20 Ton compaction load. Then, all the specimens were sintered in a furnace at two different temperatures 550oC and 580oC. In each sintering process, two different heating cycles were used. After the sintering process, it was observed that undistorted flat specimens were successfully prepared for all the compositions. The effects of sintering temperature and weight fraction of aluminium oxide particulates on the density, hardness and microstructure of Al-Al2O3 composites were observed. It was found that density and hardness of the composite specimens were significantly influenced by sintering temperature and percentage aluminium oxide reinforcement. Furthermore, optical microscopy revealed that almost uniform distribution of aluminium oxide reinforcement within the aluminium matrix was achieved.

  11. Aluminium and the human breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2016-06-01

    The human population is exposed to aluminium (Al) from diet, antacids and vaccine adjuvants, but frequent application of Al-based salts to the underarm as antiperspirant adds a high additional exposure directly to the local area of the human breast. Coincidentally the upper outer quadrant of the breast is where there is also a disproportionately high incidence of breast cysts and breast cancer. Al has been measured in human breast tissues/fluids at higher levels than in blood, and experimental evidence suggests that at physiologically relevant concentrations, Al can adversely impact on human breast epithelial cell biology. Gross cystic breast disease is the most common benign disorder of the breast and evidence is presented that Al may be a causative factor in formation of breast cysts. Evidence is also reviewed that Al can enable the development of multiple hallmarks associated with cancer in breast cells, in particular that it can cause genomic instability and inappropriate proliferation in human breast epithelial cells, and can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. In addition, Al is a metalloestrogen and oestrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer known to influence multiple hallmarks. The microenvironment is established as another determinant of breast cancer development and Al has been shown to cause adverse alterations to the breast microenvironment. If current usage patterns of Al-based antiperspirant salts contribute to causation of breast cysts and breast cancer, then reduction in exposure would offer a strategy for prevention, and regulatory review is now justified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Steam Assisted Accelerated Growth of Oxide Layer on Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Yuksel, Serkan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys is related to the composition and morphology of the oxide film on the surface of aluminium. In this paper we investigated the use of steam on the surface modification of aluminium to produce boehmite films. The study reveals a detailed investigation...... of the effect of vapour pressure, structure of intermetallic particles and thickness of boehmite films on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys....

  13. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation o...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  14. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  15. Analysis of aluminium in rat following administration of allergen immunotherapy using either aluminium or microcrystalline-tyrosine-based adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stuart A; Heath, Matthew D; Kramer, Matthias F; Skinner, Murray A

    2016-03-01

    Investigation into the absorption, distribution and elimination of aluminium in rat after subcutaneous aluminium adjuvant formulation administration using ICP-MS is described. Assays were verified under the principles of a tiered approach. There was no evidence of systemic exposure of aluminium, in brain or in kidney. Extensive and persistent retention of aluminium at the dose site was observed for at least 180 days after administration. This is the first published work that has quantified aluminium adjuvant retention based on the quantity of aluminium delivered in a typical allergy immunotherapy course. The results indicate that the repeated administration of aluminium-containing adjuvants will likely contribute directly and significantly to an individual's body burden of aluminium.

  16. Aluminium toxicity tolerance in crop plants: Present status of research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tolerance of which genes of the Aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) families are prominent. In this review, the progress of research in identifying aluminium toxicity tolerant genes is discussed. Keywords: Aluminium toxicity, soil acidity, hydroponic screening, ...

  17. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...... examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark....

  18. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in steel with xylenol orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, A.; Javed, N.; Khan, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of Aluminium in steel based on colour reaction between Aluminium and xylenol orange has been carried out. Red coloured complex formed in weak acidic solution is measured for its absorbance at 550 nm. The various optimum experimental conditions for Aluminium xylenol orange (Al-Xo) complex have been studied. (author)

  20. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  1. Corrosion behaviour of borated aluminium used as neutron absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerich, R. [EaglePicher Technologies GmbH, Oehringen (Germany); Ensinger, W.; Enders, B. [Philipps-Univ. of Marburg, Dept. of Chemistry, Material Science Centre (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of pure and borated aluminium was examined. Measurements were performed in two different electrolytes at 90 C containing different trace-amounts of chloride. For borated aluminium current transients, i.e. metastable depassivation events were found. It is suggested to attribute these transients to less stable passivation layers in comparison to pure aluminium.

  2. Internal friction in iron-aluminium alloys having a high aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillairet, J.; Delaplace, J.; Silvent, A.

    1966-01-01

    By using a torsion pendulum to measure the internal friction of iron-aluminium alloys containing between 25 and 50 atom per cent of aluminium, it has been possible to show the existence of three damping peaks due to interstitial carbon. Their evolution is followed as a function of the carbon content, of the thermal treatment and of the aluminium content. A model based on the preferential occupation of tetrahedral sites is proposed as an interpretation of the results. A study of the Zener peak in these substitution alloys shows also that a part of the short distance disorder existing at high temperatures can be preserved by quenching. (author) [fr

  3. Process for the manufacture of plates containing neutron poison from aluminium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Pollmann, E.; Srostlik, P.

    1985-01-01

    A process for guaranteeing sub-critical arrangements of nuclear fuel in tranport and/or storage containers is described, in which a homogeneous distribution of neutron poison in the aluminium matrix is guaranteed. A homogeneous mixture of aluminium powder and neutron poison powder is produced, this is pressed into plates in several stages, dried and made into hollow aluminium profiles of rectangular cross-section. The open ends of the hollow profile are then closed and this is rolled to the required dimension at 470-500 0 C. (orig./HP) [de

  4. TITANIUM CARBON ALUMINIUM : A NOVEL GRAIN REFINER FOR ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Birch , M.; Cowell , A.

    1987-01-01

    This work explores the possibility of achieving grain size control in aluminium-lithium alloys with the titanium carbon aluminium (TiCAl) master alloys invented at the Technical University of Berlin and developed by London and Scandinavian Metallurgical Co Ltd (LSM). Grain refining tests were conducted on a single batch of 8090 alloy using addition rates of 0.2wt% and 0.4wt% of TiCAl and 3/1 titanium boron aluminium (TiBAl). Other tests using 0.4wt% of binary TiAl gave poor results, showing t...

  5. Molybdenum solubility in aluminium nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, X.; Sans, D.; Bertrand, M.; Eysseric, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DRCP, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Brackx, E.; Domenger, R.; Excoffier, E. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DTEC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Valery, J.F. [AREVA-NC, DOR/RDP, Paris - La Defense (France)

    2016-07-01

    For over 60 years, research reactors (RR or RTR for research testing reactors) have been used as neutron sources for research, radioisotope production ({sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc), nuclear medicine, materials characterization, etc... Currently, over 240 of these reactors are in operation in 56 countries. They are simpler than power reactors and operate at lower temperature (cooled to below 100 C. degrees). The fuel assemblies are typically plates or cylinders of uranium alloy and aluminium (U-Al) coated with pure aluminium. These fuels can be processed in AREVA La Hague plant after batch dissolution in concentrated nitric acid and mixing with UOX fuel streams. The aim of this study is to accurately measure the solubility of molybdenum in nitric acid solution containing high concentrations of aluminium. The higher the molybdenum solubility is, the more flexible reprocessing operations are, especially when the spent fuels contain high amounts of molybdenum. To be most representative of the dissolution process, uranium-molybdenum alloy and molybdenum metal powder were dissolved in solutions of aluminium nitrate at the nominal dissolution temperature. The experiments showed complete dissolution of metallic elements after 30 minutes long stirring, even if molybdenum metal was added in excess. After an induction period, a slow precipitation of molybdic acid occurs for about 15 hours. The data obtained show the molybdenum solubility decreases with increasing aluminium concentration. The solubility law follows an exponential relation around 40 g/L of aluminium with a high determination coefficient. Molybdenum solubility is not impacted by the presence of gadolinium, or by an increasing concentration of uranium. (authors)

  6. Defect generation during solidification of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, M.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Banhart, J.

    2010-01-01

    The reason for the frequent occurrence of cell wall defects in metal foams was investigated. Aluminium foams often expand during solidification, a process which is referred as solidification expansion (SE). The effect of SE on the structure of aluminium foams was studied in situ by X-ray radioscopy and ex situ by X-ray tomography. A direct correlation between the magnitude of SE and the number of cell wall ruptures during SE and finally the number of defects in the solidified foams was found.

  7. An aluminium evaporation source for ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley, P.A.; Cross, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    Ion plating with aluminium is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of anti-corrosion surface passivation, the usual requirements being for a layer between 12 and 50 microns in thickness, (0.0005 to 0.002). The evaporation system described here offers a number of advantages over high power electron beam sources when used for aluminium ion plating. The source consists of a resistively heated, specially shaped, boron nitride-titanium diboride boat and a metering feed system. Its main features are small physical size, soft vacuum compatibility, low power consumption and metered evaporation output. (author)

  8. The determination of trace oxygen in aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloy by helium-3 activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.; Goethals, P.; Kieffer, R.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of oxygen in aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloy by helium-3 activation is studied. The 18 F formed from oxygen is separated by distillation followed by precipitation of leadfluorochloride. The chemical yield is determined by activation in an isotopic neutron source. Concentrations of resp. 27 and 64 ng.g -1 with a precision for a single determination of resp. 30 and 13% are found in 99.5% aluminium and in aluminium-silicon (3%) alloy. (author)

  9. Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…

  10. Mortality of workers in an automobile engine and parts manufacturing complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, J E; Sultz, H A; Fiedler, R C; Barnes, R E

    1985-01-01

    A proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) study was conducted using data on workers from three local unions representing an integrated automobile factory composed of forge, foundry, and engine (machine and assembly) plants. Ninety four percent of the death certificates were obtained for all active and non-active workers who died during the period 1 January 1970 to 31 December 1979 and were vested in union and company benefit programmes. Observed numbers of deaths were compared with expected numbers based on two standards, the proportionate mortality among men in the United States 1970-9 and among men in Erie County 1975. There was close agreement between the number of observed and expected deaths by either standard of comparison among white auto workers in the forge and foundry plants. Valid analyses of cause specific mortality among non-whites could be conducted for the foundry plant only. Although there was raised PMR for deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system using the Erie County standard, none of the other cause specific PMRs was significant. Although based on small numbers, the risk of cancer of the lung was significantly high in non-whites under age 50 in the foundry (PMR = 2.6; p less than 0.05). The cause specific PMRs for whites in the engine plant were statistically significant for malignant neoplasms (1.2) and all external causes (0.62) based on the US white male standard. Analysis of cancer specific mortality among white men in the machining/assembly plant showed significant excesses for cancer of the digestive system (PMR=1.5), particularly of the liver (PMR=2.6) and pancreas (PMR=1.9); cancers of the respiratory system (PMR=1.4 using the Erie County standard); and cancer of the urinary bladder (PMR=2.3). Workers employed for more than 20 years showed statistically increased mortality ratios for cancers of the digestive system (1.9), particularly cancer of the pancreas (2.3) and cancer of the rectum (2.8). Individuals whose employment began

  11. Durability of bare and anodised aluminium in atmosphere of very different corrosivities I. Bare aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Escudero, E.; Lopez, V.; Simancas, J.; Morcillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of bare aluminium is studied in atmospheric exposure at 11 natural testing stations with salinity levels ranging between 2.1 and 684 mg Cl''- m''-2 d''-1. In atmospheres of low or moderate aggressivity aluminium behaves as a passive material, though the insignificant corrosion that is produced is sufficient to spoil its appearance. In contrast, at salinity levels of 50 mg Cl''- m''-2 ''-1 or above, aluminium is susceptible to pitting corrosion even in the first year of atmospheric exposure, or in the second year at salinities of ≤ 10 mg Cl''- m''-2 d''-1. For comparative purposes, results are included for aluminium protected with an anodic film of 28 μm thickness exposed at the same testing stations. A 28 μm anodic film, correctly sealed, prevents the risk of localised corrosion even in the most unfavourable situations. (Author) 23 refs

  12. Irradiation damage in aluminium single crystals produced by 50-keV aluminium and copper ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.

    1968-01-01

    Aluminium single crystals, thin enough to be examined by electron microscopy, have been irradiated with 50-keV aluminium and copper ions. The irradiation fluxes were in the range 1011–1014 cm−2 s−1 and the doses were from 6 × 1012 to 6 × 1014 cm−2. Irradiation along either a or a direction produces...... rows of dislocation loops all lying parallel to one particular direction. If the aluminium target is quenched from 600 °C and annealed at room temperature prior to irradiation with aluminium ions, the rows of loops are suppressed. The amount of damage observed is considerably less than would...

  13. The Synthetic Aperture Radar Science Data Processing Foundry Concept for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hua, H.; Norton, C. D.; Little, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and the Advanced Information Systems Technology Program have invested in two technology evolutions to meet the needs of the community of scientists exploiting the rapidly growing database of international synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. JPL, working with the science community, has developed the InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE), a next-generation interferometric SAR processing system that is designed to be flexible and extensible. ISCE currently supports many international space borne data sets but has been primarily focused on geodetic science and applications. A second evolutionary path, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) science data system, uses ISCE as its core science data processing engine and produces automated science and response products, quality assessments and metadata. The success of this two-front effort has been demonstrated in NASA's ability to respond to recent events with useful disaster support. JPL has enabled high-volume and low latency data production by the re-use of the hybrid cloud computing science data system (HySDS) that runs ARIA, leveraging on-premise cloud computing assets that are able to burst onto the Amazon Web Services (AWS) services as needed. Beyond geodetic applications, needs have emerged to process large volumes of time-series SAR data collected for estimation of biomass and its change, in such campaigns as the upcoming AfriSAR field campaign. ESTO is funding JPL to extend the ISCE-ARIA model to a "SAR Science Data Processing Foundry" to on-ramp new data sources and to produce new science data products to meet the needs of science teams and, in general, science community members. An extension of the ISCE-ARIA model to support on-demand processing will permit PIs to leverage this Foundry to produce data products from accepted data sources when they need them. This paper will describe each of the elements of the SAR SDP Foundry and describe their

  14. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has ...

  15. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  16. Warm Deep Drawing of Aluminium Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium sheet drawing processes can be improved by manipulating local flow behaviour by means of elevated temperatures and temperature gradients in the tooling. Forming tests showed that a substantial improvement is possible not only for 5xxx but also for 6xxx series alloys. Finite element method

  17. Complexes of alkylphenols with aluminium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golounin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Interaction of aluminium halides with alkylphenols is studied through the NMR method. The peculiarity of complex formation of pentamethylphenol with AlI 3 is revealed. By AlI 3 action on the pentamethylphenol the complexes are formed both of keto- and oxy form [ru

  18. Plasma metallization of aluminium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.I.; Petrunichev, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering ability of cermets of metallized granulas of aluminium and matrix materials, such as chromium, nickel and nichrome is studied. Deformation tests of samples of cermets with molybdenum coated granules show satisfactory results at normal and high temperatures without fracture of metall-oxide interfaces [ru

  19. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  20. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  1. Constant structure creep experiments on aluminium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milička, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2011), s. 307-318 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : mechanical properties * high temperature deformation * creep * aluminium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2011

  2. Creep properties of aluminium processed by ECAP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Jäger, Aleš; Kvapilová, Marie; Horita, Z.; Sklenička, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2016), s. 441-451 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) * aluminium * ultrafine-grained microstructure * creep Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  3. Design and production of a novel sand materials strength testing machine for foundry applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Hansen, K. S.; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2012-01-01

    testing machine was designed and built for both green sand and chemically-bonded sand materials. This machine measures and presents the loading response as a force-displacement profile from which the mechanical properties of the moulding materials can be deduced. The system was interfaced to a computer......In the foundry, existing strength testing machines are used to measure only the maximum fracture strength of mould and core materials. With traditionally used methods, the loading history to ascertain deformation of the material is not available. In this paper, a novel moulding material strength...... with a commercial PC based-control and data acquisition software. The testing conditions and operations are specified in the user interface and the data acquisition is made according to specifications. The force and displacements were calibrated to ensure consistency and reliability of the measurement data...

  4. Exploitation of the residue of foundry exhauster powder in ceramics for covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentina, Luiz Veriano Oliveira Dalla; Folgueras, Marilena Valadares; Knop, Wanessa Rejane; Semptikovski, Simone Claudiano

    2010-01-01

    The work evaluates the possibility of the use the exhauster powder generated in the foundry process in ceramic mass atomized semigre type. This residue was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffractometry and thermal analysis (DSC, TG). Formulations were prepared with different exhauster powder content. The sintered materials between 1000°C at 1 200 deg C. The results showed of the scanning electron microscopy and the characterization of the technological properties (water absorption, linear shrinkage and apparent density) had demonstrated the viability of the use of this residue. Through experiments it was observed that the exhauster powder promoted an increment in the sintering degree, and raised texts of this they increase of the porosity and intensification in the color of the new material. That is, it is possible to incorporate small amounts of the exhauster powder in substitution the substances cousins of natural origin. (author)

  5. The effect of main alloying elements on the physical properties of Al–Si foundry alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, F.; Antrekowitsch, H.; Fragner, W.; Kaufmann, H.; Pinatel, E.R.; Uggowitzer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we describe the effect of the main alloying elements Si, Cu and Ni on the thermal properties of hypoeutectic and near-eutectic Al–Si foundry alloys. By means of systematic variations of the chemical composition, the influence of the amount of ‘second phases’ on the thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, and thermal shock resistance is evaluated. Thermodynamic calculations predicting the phase formation in multi-component Al–Si cast alloys were carried out and verified using SEM, EDX and XRD analysis. The experimentally obtained data are discussed on a systematic basis of thermodynamic calculations and compared to theoretical models for the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of heterogeneous solids.

  6. MODERN RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN FOUNDRY PRODUCTION OF JSC «MINSK TRAKTOR PLANT»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Domotenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the main world tendencies of development of the production technology of sandy cores and value of this production in complex technology of manufacture of castings are considered. It is established that the most rational way of production technically and economically is manufacture of wafer sandy cores using the Cold-box-amin technology. Scientific, technical, technological and economic aspects of modernization of foundry production of JSC MTZ with complete transition to production of sandy cores on the resource-saving Cold-box-amin technology are provided. The main distinctive feature of this reequipment – all planned works are based on the domestic technological developments and the equipment created in the cooperation by specialists of JSC BELNIILIT and JSC MTZ. Within GNTP essential support to the provided works was given by the state.

  7. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  8. Environmental impact of some trace elements emission from the work environment of Atbara Cement Factory and Atbara Railway Foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimir, S A.M. [University of Khartoum, Faculty of Education, Department of Chemistry, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2006-06-15

    This work was performed to evaluate the chemical pollution level by some trace elements at the work environment of Atbara Cement Factory (ACF) and Atbara Railway Foundry (ARF). Samples of soil and air were collected from the two sites study, ACF and ARF. To assess the environmental impact of these industrial complexes, the samples were collected from sites expected to be free from industrial emission to serve as control. Plant samples were also collected from (ACF) and the control site. The samples were analyzed and the concentrations of K, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Pb were determined using three analytical techniques: Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray fluorescence (X RF), and flame emission photometry (FEP). Soil samples were chemically fractionated using separation methods and the solutions were analyzed using AAS methods and FEP to determine the chemical form of the elements. The quality of the data was achieved through the analysis of certified reference materials. The results of this study were compared with previous literature. The data were treated by calculating enrichment factor and statistically by multivariate analysis such as, principle component analysis and cluster analysis. The findings of the study were concluded as follows. The effect of emission from both sites is very clear when the concentrations of the studied trace elements in soil and air samples are compared with the respective concentrations at the control site. Higher values of these elements are found at ARF and slightly high at ACF. The elements which can be attributed to industrial emission are noticeably higher at ARF, for example Cu is forty times as higher as compared to the control site. While Zn is slightly high and Pb is very high. The same remarks are further confirmed by enrichment factor calculation. For soil samples enrichment factor was obtained for two groups of elements, the enriched group includes the elements Pb, Cu and Zn which have enrichment factors higher in

  9. Environmental impact of some trace elements emission from the work environment of Atbara Cement Factory and Atbara Railway Foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimir, S.A.M.

    2006-06-01

    This work was performed to evaluate the chemical pollution level by some trace elements at the work environment of Atbara Cement Factory (ACF) and Atbara Railway Foundry (ARF). Samples of soil and air were collected from the two sites study, ACF and ARF. To assess the environmental impact of these industrial complexes, the samples were collected from sites expected to be free from industrial emission to serve as control. Plant samples were also collected from (ACF) and the control site. The samples were analyzed and the concentrations of K, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Pb were determined using three analytical techniques: Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray fluorescence (X RF), and flame emission photometry (FEP). Soil samples were chemically fractionated using separation methods and the solutions were analyzed using AAS methods and FEP to determine the chemical form of the elements. The quality of the data was achieved through the analysis of certified reference materials. The results of this study were compared with previous literature. The data were treated by calculating enrichment factor and statistically by multivariate analysis such as, principle component analysis and cluster analysis. The findings of the study were concluded as follows. The effect of emission from both sites is very clear when the concentrations of the studied trace elements in soil and air samples are compared with the respective concentrations at the control site. Higher values of these elements are found at ARF and slightly high at ACF. The elements which can be attributed to industrial emission are noticeably higher at ARF, for example Cu is forty times as higher as compared to the control site. While Zn is slightly high and Pb is very high. The same remarks are further confirmed by enrichment factor calculation. For soil samples enrichment factor was obtained for two groups of elements, the enriched group includes the elements Pb, Cu and Zn which have enrichment factors higher in

  10. Photochemical preparation of aluminium oxide layers via vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of a polymeric hexanoato aluminium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennrich, L.; Khalil, H.; Bundesmann, C.; Decker, U.; Gerlach, J.W.; Helmstedt, U.; Manova, D.; Naumov, S.; Prager, L.

    2013-01-01

    By means of photochemical conversion of thin layers of a polymeric hexanoato aluminium complex as the precursor, thin aluminium oxide layers were prepared onto silicon wafers. The precursor compound was synthesized and characterized by several analytical techniques like NMR, FTIR, XPS, ICP, and found to be a polymeric aluminium-containing coordination compound which has been proposed to be a hydroxo-bridged aluminium chain with pendant hexanoyl side-chains ascertained as catena-poly[{di(κ-O,O-hexanoato)aluminium}(μ-hydroxo)] (PHAH). Thin layers deposited from a solution of PHAH in toluene onto silicon wafers were irradiated using VUV radiation from a xenon excimer lamp. The layers were characterized by XPS, XRD, XRR, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. VUV radiation with a radiant exposure of E = 36 J cm −2 led to almost carbon-free amorphous layers with a composition close to that of alumina having a density of about 2.1 g cm −3 . Thus, using the example of a polymeric aluminium complex, the potential of the photochemical conversion of metal complexes into oxides could be shown as an alternative method, in addition to sol–gel techniques, for the generation of thin plane metal-oxide layers at normal temperature and pressure. Highlights: ► A polymeric aluminium complex was synthesized and characterized by NMR, FTIR, XPS and ICP. ► Thin layers of the compound were irradiated using vacuum-UV radiation and converted to AlO x . ► Quantum-chemical calculations explain the conversion mechanism.

  11. Aluminium in brain tissue in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Ambreen; King, Andrew; Troakes, Claire; Exley, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    The genetic predispositions which describe a diagnosis of familial Alzheimer's disease can be considered as cornerstones of the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Essentially they place the expression and metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein as the main tenet of disease aetiology. However, we do not know the cause of Alzheimer's disease and environmental factors may yet be shown to contribute towards its onset and progression. One such environmental factor is human exposure to aluminium and aluminium has been shown to be present in brain tissue in sporadic Alzheimer's disease. We have made the first ever measurements of aluminium in brain tissue from 12 donors diagnosed with familial Alzheimer's disease. The concentrations of aluminium were extremely high, for example, there were values in excess of 10μg/g tissue dry wt. in 5 of the 12 individuals. Overall, the concentrations were higher than all previous measurements of brain aluminium except cases of known aluminium-induced encephalopathy. We have supported our quantitative analyses using a novel method of aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy to visualise aluminium in all lobes of every brain investigated. The unique quantitative data and the stunning images of aluminium in familial Alzheimer's disease brain tissue raise the spectre of aluminium's role in this devastating disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as aluminium exposure varied between diatom species. C. closterium was the most sensitive species (10% inhibition of growth rate (72-h IC10) of 80 (55-100)μg Al/L (95% confidence limits)) while M. polymorphus (540 (460-600)μg Al/L) and P. tricornutum (2100 (2000-2200)μg Al/L) were less sensitive (based on measured total aluminium). Dissolved aluminium was the primary contributor to toxicity in C. closterium, while a combination of dissolved and precipitated aluminium forms contributed to toxicity in M. polymorphus. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the most tolerant diatom P. tricornutum was due predominantly to precipitated aluminium. Preliminary investigations revealed the sensitivity of C. closterium and M. polymorphus to aluminium was influenced by initial cell density with aluminium toxicity significantly (paluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

  14. Formation of aluminium nitride and segregation of Cu impurity atoms in aluminium implanted by high dose nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chenglu; Hemment, P.L.F.; Li Jinhua; Zou Shichang

    1994-01-01

    Aluminium films with a thickness of 7000 A (containing 0.85% copper) were deposited on silicon substrates. 400 keV N 2 + or 350 keV N + ions were implanted into the aluminium films or at the interface between the aluminium and silicon, respectively. Automatic spreading resistance (ASR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and channelling were used to characterize the formation of aluminium nitride and the depth distribution of the Cu impurity in the aluminium films after ion implantation and post-annealing. The formation of a stoichiometric AlN layer with high resistance was evident from ASR, RBS analysis and FTIR measurements by the presence of the absorption band at 650 cm -1 . When the implanted nitrogen is near the interface between the aluminium and silicon, a multilayer structure can be obtained, which consists of aluminium, aluminium nitride and the silicon substrate. Cu, which is a background impurity in the deposited aluminium films, segregated into the synthesised aluminium nitride during high dose nitrogen ion implantation. This is due to irradiation-induced segregation during ion implantation. (orig.)

  15. High temperature internal friction in pure aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboagye, J.K.; Payida, D.S.

    1982-05-01

    The temperature dependence of internal friction of nearly pure aluminium (99.99% aluminium) has been carefully measured as a function of annealing temperature and hence grain size. The results indicate that, provided the frequency and annealing temperature are held constant, the internal friction increases with temperature until some maximum value is attained and then begins to go down as the temperature is further increased. It is also noted that the internal friction decreases with annealing temperature and that annealing time has the same effect as annealing temperature. It is also noted that the internal friction peak is shifted towards higher temperatures as annealing temperature is increased. It is surmised that the grain size or the total grain boundary volume determines the height of the internal friction curve and that the order-disorder transitions at the grain boundaries induced by both entropy and energy gradients give rise to internal friction peaks in polycrystals. (author)

  16. Mechanical properties of aluminium honeycomb impact limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maji, A.K.; Satpathi, D.; Donald, S.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminium honeycombs have been extensively used as impact limiters in nuclear waste transport casks. The mechanical behaviour of these shock absorbing materials was studied to develop an extensive experimental database. A series of tests were performed along various loading paths. Different densities of aluminium honeycombs were tested in different orientations. Static tests included uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression and torsion. Dynamic tests were conducted at different strain rates of up to 100 s -1 , to generate experimental data relevant to accident situations. Dynamic studies included the effects of specimen size and confinement. The purpose of using different loading paths was to generate an extensive experimental database which may also be used to develop constitutive models for these materials. Design charts were constructed which can be accessed by various cask designers to optimise and economise on cask development. (Author)

  17. Diagnostics of ytterbium/aluminium laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.; Lee, R.W.; Landen, O.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lewis, C.L.; Busquet, M.

    1986-11-01

    Microdot spectroscopy was used to study the x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas consisting of 10% ytterbium, 90% aluminium. Spectra were recorded with a space-resolving flat crystal (PET) mini-spectrometer in the 4.0-8.0 A range. The Janus research laser at LLNL irradiated the targets with green (0.53 μm) light in a 1 nsec pulse. The power density was varied between 4x10 13 and 3x10 14 W/cm 2 . The plasma electron density and temperature were determined from the aluminium XI, XII and XIII line emission. By examining correlations between changes in the plasma conditions with changes in the ytterbium spectra, we will determine the potential for using ytterbium line emission as a plasma diagnostic

  18. Characterization of nitrogen-ion-implanted aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Breuer, K.; Leonhardt, G.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminium has been implanted with nitrogen ions at different temperatures. The implanted samples have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Deconvolution procedures are needed to separate the influence of the ion sputter profiling by AES and XPS from the nitrogen-ion-beam-induced effects. The chemical state of Al, N, O and C was identified by deconvolution of the measured spectra. In general, there were double-peak structures observed for N 1s and O 1s, identified as contributions from nitrides and weakly bound nitrogen, and oxides and weakly bound oxygen, respectively. Auger analysis confirms the influence of the nitrogen ion fluence on the shape of the concentration distribution. The influence of temperature on the chemical state of implanted aluminium and on the concentration distribution is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Swedish research on aluminium reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsen, Bjoern

    1960-02-01

    A historical survey of the work done in Sweden this subject is given in the first part of the paper. The second part is elevated to a brief outline of the authors view of the present status of corrosion theories for aluminium in high temperature water. A theory where the crystallization of boehemite from the barrier layer is considered as an important control of the corrosion reaction is presented

  20. Simulation of aluminium STIR casting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafizal Yazid; Mohd Harun; Hanani Yazid; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Muhammad Rawi Muhammad Zain; Zaiton Selamat; Mohd Shariff Sattar; Muhamad Jalil; Ismail Mustapha; Razali Kasim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the objective is to determine the optimum impeller speed correlated with holding time to achieve homogeneous reinforcement distribution for a particular set of experimental condition. Attempts are made to simulate the flow behaviourof the liquid aluminium using FLUENT software. Stepwise impeller speed ranging from 50 to 300 rpm.with 2 impeller angle blades of 45 and 90 degree with respect to the rotational plane were used

  1. Swedish research on aluminium reactor technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsen, Bjoern

    1960-02-15

    A historical survey of the work done in Sweden this subject is given in the first part of the paper. The second part is elevated to a brief outline of the authors view of the present status of corrosion theories for aluminium in high temperature water. A theory where the crystallization of boehemite from the barrier layer is considered as an important control of the corrosion reaction is presented.

  2. Aluminium phosphide poising: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirani, S.A.A.; Rahman, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the case of a family in which three children were presented at Emergency Room (ER) with poisoning after the use of a pesticide at home. Initially, the cases were managed as routine cases of organophosphorus poisoning; however, the death of two children made the health team members realise that the poison's effects were delayed and devastating. Later, the compound was identified as Aluminium Phosphide (ALP), and the life of the last surviving child in the family was saved. (author)

  3. Complexometric determination of scandium and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    Described is the complexometric determination of scandium and aluminium by the method of reverse titration of EDTA excess by indium salt solution in the presence of the xylenol orange indicator. For the method selectivity increase fluorides are used as a camouflage substance at low pH values (2.5-3.0). The excess fluoride-ions preventing titration are bound by boric acid. Y, Tb, Ti, Zr, Cu, Zn, V, Mo, Co, Cr prevent the determination of Sc and Al

  4. Helium behaviour in aluminium under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokurskij, Yu.N.; Tebus, V.N.; Zudilin, V.A.; Tumanova, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Effect of hydrostatic compression on equilibrium helium bubbles in low aluminium-lithium alloy irradiated in reactor at 570 K is investigated. Measurements of hydrostatic density and electron-microscopic investigations have shown, that application of up to 2 GPa pressure reduces equilibrium size of helium bubbles and reduces helium swelling. Kinetics and thermodynamics of the process are considered with application of 'rigid sphere' equation which describes helium state in bubbles

  5. Ion beam analysis of aluminium in thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, M.J.F.; Pidduck, A.J.; Dollinger, G.; Gorgens, L.; Bergmaier, A.

    2002-01-01

    This work quantifies aluminium in thin surface and near surface layers. In one example, the layer overlies a thin gallium nitride layer on an aluminium oxide substrate and in a second example the aluminium exists just below the surface of an indium arsenide substrate. The technique of non-Rutherford elastic backscattering of protons was used for the samples where aluminum in the layer of interest needed to be resolved from aluminium in the sapphire substrate and the results were corroborated at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis. In the second example, where it was unnecessary to isolate the signal of aluminium in the layer of interest (as the substrate contained no aluminium), then the 27 Al(d,p 01 ) 28 Al nuclear reaction was used. The elastic proton scattering cross section of aluminum was found to vary very rapidly over the energy range of interest

  6. What is the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium is neurotoxic. Its free ion, Al(3+) (aq), is highly biologically reactive and uniquely equipped to do damage to essential cellular (neuronal) biochemistry. This unequivocal fact must be the starting point in examining the risk posed by aluminium as a neurotoxin in humans. Aluminium is present in the human brain and it accumulates with age. The most recent research demonstrates that a significant proportion of individuals older than 70 years of age have a potentially pathological accumulation of aluminium somewhere in their brain. What are the symptoms of chronic aluminium intoxication in humans? What if neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are the manifestation of the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin? How might such an (outrageous) hypothesis be tested?

  7. Modelling of heterogeneous clustering in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.E.; Bourgeois, L.; Nie, J.-F.; Muddle, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Ab initio modelling of heterogeneous clustering in aluminium has been carried out in order to study the precipitation hardening of alloys. This process is based on the addition of small amounts of solute element to the pure metal. With increasing computational power, atomic scale effects can now be better simulated to determine the nature of the hardening mechanism. Comparisons are made between results obtained from two computational packages. These are the Linear Augmented Plane Wave WEEN2K and the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory package fhi98md. The study of the optimal geometry of very small size clusters inside aluminium has begun with the testing of initial convergence conditions by determination of binding energies for a variety of super cell sizes of the aluminium host crystal. These are compared with total energy calculations for small size precipitates of copper and transition metals of fixed geometry. Such local optimal determinations are seen as precursors to full Monte Carlo calculations of the notional best local geometry for larger precipitates

  8. Grain distinct stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donatus, U., E-mail: uyimedonatus@yahoo.com [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E.; Zhou, X.; Alias, J. [School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, England (United Kingdom); Tsai, I.-L. [Oxford Instruments NanoAnalysis, HP12 2SE, High Wycombe (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-15

    The grains of aluminium alloys have stratified nanolayers which determine their mechanical and chemical responses. In this study, the nanolayers were revealed in the grains of AA6082 (T6 and T7 conditions), AA5083-O and AA2024-T3 alloys by etching the alloys in a solution comprising 20 g Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 30 ml HPO{sub 3} in 1 L H{sub 2}O. Microstructural examination was conducted on selected grains of interest using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction technique. It was observed that the nanolayers are orientation dependent and are parallel to the {100} planes. They have ordered and repeated tunnel squares that are flawed at the sides which are aligned in the <100> directions. These flawed tunnel squares dictate the tunnelling corrosion morphology as well as appearing to have an affect on the arrangement and sizes of the precipitation hardening particles. The inclination of the stratified nanolayers, their interpacing, and the groove sizes have significant influence on the corrosion behaviour and seeming influence on the strengthening mechanism of the investigated aluminium alloys. - Highlights: • Stratified nanolayers in aluminium alloy grains. • Relationship of the stratified nanolayers with grain orientation. • Influence of the inclinations of the stratified nanolayers on corrosion. • Influence of the nanolayers interspacing and groove sizes on hardness and corrosion.

  9. A Study of the Cold Resistance of Pipe Coiled Stock Produced at Foundry-Rolling Works. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagmet, O. A.; Naumenko, V. V.; Smetanin, K. S.

    2018-03-01

    Results of a study of coiled stock from low-carbon steels alloyed with manganese and silicon and different additives of niobium and titanium are presented. The coiled stock is produced at foundry-rolling works by the method of direct rolling of thin slabs right after their continuous casting. The microdeformation of the crystal lattice and the crystallographic texture are determined. The conditions of formation of the most favorable structure and texture in the steels are specified.

  10. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  11. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle

    2008-07-15

    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  12. The aluminium content of infant formulas remains too high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuchu, Nancy; Patel, Bhavini; Sebastian, Blaise; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    Recent research published in this journal highlighted the issue of the high content of aluminium in infant formulas. The expectation was that the findings would serve as a catalyst for manufacturers to address a significant problem of these, often necessary, components of infant nutrition. It is critically important that parents and other users have confidence in the safety of infant formulas and that they have reliable information to use in choosing a product with a lower content of aluminium. Herein, we have significantly extended the scope of the previous research and the aluminium content of 30 of the most widely available and often used infant formulas has been measured. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were subjected to microwave digestion in the presence of 15.8 M HNO3 and 30% w/v H2O2 and the aluminium content of the digests was measured by TH GFAAS. Both ready-to-drink milks and milk powders were contaminated with aluminium. The concentration of aluminium across all milk products ranged from ca 100 to 430 μg/L. The concentration of aluminium in two soya-based milk products was 656 and 756 μg/L. The intake of aluminium from non-soya-based infant formulas varied from ca 100 to 300 μg per day. For soya-based milks it could be as high as 700 μg per day. All 30 infant formulas were contaminated with aluminium. There was no clear evidence that subsequent to the problem of aluminium being highlighted in a previous publication in this journal that contamination had been addressed and reduced. It is the opinion of the authors that regulatory and other non-voluntary methods are now required to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas and thereby protect infants from chronic exposure to dietary aluminium.

  13. Improvement of photodynamic activity of aluminium sulphophthalocyanine due to biotinylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerovich, Irina G.; Jerdeva, Victoria V.; Derkacheva, Valentina M.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Lukyanets, Eugeny A.; Kogan, Eugenia A.; Savitsky, Alexander P.

    2003-09-01

    The photodynamic activity of dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine in vitro and in vivo were studied. It was obtained that in vitro dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine provides the effective damage of small cell lung carcinoma OAT-75. In vivo dibiotinylated aluminium sulphophthalocyanine causes destruction of tumor (Erlich carcinoma), results in total necrosis of tumor tissue and expresses vascular damage (trombosis and destruction of vascular walls) even in concentration 0.25 mg/kg of a body weight.

  14. Remediation of phosphate-contaminated water by electrocoagulation with aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Subramanyan; Lakshmi, Jothinathan; Jayaraj, Jeganathan; Sozhan, Ganapathy

    2009-05-30

    The present study provides an electrocoagulation process for the remediation of phosphate-contaminated water using aluminium, aluminium alloy and mild steel as the anodes and stainless steel as the cathode. The various parameters like effect of anode materials, effect of pH, concentration of phosphate, current density, temperature and co-existing ions, and so forth, and the adsorption capacity was evaluated using both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The adsorption of phosphate preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules. The results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of 99% was achieved with aluminium alloy anode at a current density of 0.2 A dm(-2), at a pH of 7.0. The adsorption process follows second-order kinetics.

  15. Suitability of a South African silica sand for three-dimensional printing of foundry moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, Kasongo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Applications of three-dimensional printing (3DP to metal casting include, among other things, the direct manufacturing of foundry moulds and cores in refractory materials such as silica sand. The main properties of silica sand that are essentially related to the traditional moulding and core-making processes are: size distribution, clay content, pH, acid demand, and refractoriness. The silica sand used for 3DP must also be appropriately selected for the layer-based manufacturing process involved in 3DP. Properties such as grain size distribution, grain surface morphology, angularity, flowability, and recoating abilities have a particular importance when determining sand suitability. Because of these extra requirements, only a limited range of available foundry silica sands can be used for 3DP processes. The latter situation explains the scarcity and high cost of suitable silica sands, thus contributing to the relatively high operational costs of the 3DP processes for the production of sand moulds and cores. This research paper investigates the suitability of a locally-available silica sand for use in a Voxeljet VX1000 3DP machine. The local silica sand was assessed and compared with an imported silica sand recommended by the manufacturer of 3DP equipment in terms of foundry characteristics and recoating behaviour. The study shows that, despite the differences between the characteristics of the two silica sands, the local sand could be considered a suitable alternative to imported sand for rapid sand casting applications.

  16. Argon-arc welding of heat resisting aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryazantsev, V.I.; Fedoseev, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Welding of aluminium heat resisting alloys of the Al-Cu-Mg system is studied. The hot-shortness of heat-resistant alloys M40, 1150 and 1151 are at the level of aluminium alloys 1201 and by 2-3 times lower as compared to the aluminium alloy AMg6. The M40, 1150 and 1151 alloys have unquestionable advantages against other know aluminium alloys only at temperatures of welded structures operation, beginning with 150-2000 deg C and especially at 250 deg C

  17. Beryllium electrodeposition on aluminium cathode from chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichkov, I.F.; Novikov, E.A.; Serebryakov, G.A.; Kanashin, Yu.P.; Sardyko, G.N.

    1980-01-01

    Cathodic processes during beryllium deposition on liquid and solid aluminium cathodes are investigated. Mixture of sodium, potassium and beryllium chloride melts served as an lectrolyte. Beryllium ion discharge at the expense of alloy formation takes place at more positive potentials than on an indifferent cathode at low current densities ( in the case of liquid aluminium cathode). Metallographic analysis and measurements of microhardness have shown, that the cathodic product includes two phases: beryllium solid solution in aluminium and metallic beryllium. It is concluded, that aluminium-beryllium alloys with high cathodic yield by current can be obtained by the electrolytic method

  18. [Determination of aluminium in flour foods with photometric method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Shuang; Yang, Dajin

    2012-05-01

    To establish a determination method for aluminium in flour foods with photometric method. After samples being treated with microwave digestion and wet digestion, aluminium in staple flour foods was determined by photometric method. There was a good linearity of the result in the range of 0.25 - 5.0 microg/ml aluminium, r = 0.9998; limit of detection (LOD) : 2.3 ng/ml; limit of quantitation (LOQ) : 7 ng/ml. This method of determining aluminium in flour foods is simple, rapid and reliable.

  19. Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, V.R.; Dykhno, I.S.; Deev, G.F.; Karikh, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of armco-iron and 12 Kh18N10T steel is studied. It is stated that in smelt aluminium and aluminium alloy contact with armco-iron the sample ductility is decreased. Corrosion effect of smelt alluminium on (18Kh15N5AM3) steel in the form of reinforced wire in aluminium-steel KAS-1A composite material is investigted. It is stated in experiment that during smelt alluminium-steel contact interaction of heterogeneous phases takes place

  20. Investigation process of alcoholysis of hydride aluminium-adobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numanov, M.I.; Normatov, I.Sh.; Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2001-01-01

    Considering of that process of acid treatment of aluminium-adobe hydride realizes in the ethyl alcohol media it was necessary study the process of alcoholysis of AlH 3 and aluminium additives. In the end of article authors became to conclusion that deficiency of spontaneous alcoholysis of AlH 3 in adobe caused by protective action of fiber; solvate ability of LiCl and alkoxy aluminium hydride of lithium-LiCl·CO 2 H 5 OH, Li Al(OC 2 H 5 ) 4 ·nC 2 H 5 OH decreasing the expectancy of responding of alcohol with aluminium hydride

  1. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  2. Combining optimisation and simulation in an energy systems analysis of a Swedish iron foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardan, Nawzad; Klahr, Roger

    2012-01-01

    To face global competition, and also reduce environmental and climate impact, industry-wide changes are needed, especially regarding energy use, which is closely related to global warming. Energy efficiency is therefore an essential task for the future as it has a significant impact on both business profits and the environment. For the analysis of possible changes in industrial production processes, and to choose what changes should be made, various modelling tools can be used as a decision support. This paper uses two types of energy analysis tool: Discrete Event Simulation (DES) and Energy Systems Optimisation (ESO). The aim of this study is to describe how a DES and an ESO tool can be combined. A comprehensive five-step approach is proposed for reducing system costs and making a more robust production system. A case study representing a new investment in part of a Swedish iron foundry is also included to illustrate the method's use. The method described in this paper is based on the use of the DES program QUEST and the ESO tool reMIND. The method combination itself is generic, i.e. other similar programs can be used as well with some adjustments and adaptations. The results from the case study show that when different boundary conditions are used the result obtained from the simulation tools is not optimum, in other words, the result shows only a feasible solution and not the best way to run the factory. It is therefore important to use the optimisation tool in such cases in order to obtain the optimum operating strategy. By using the optimisation tool a substantial amount of resources can be saved. The results also show that the combination of optimisation and simulation tools is useful to provide very detailed information about how the system works and to predict system behaviour as well as to minimise the system cost. -- Highlights: ► This study describes how a simulation and an optimisation tool can be combined. ► A case study representing a new

  3. Dielectric aluminium phosphate thin films. Couches minces dielectriques de phosphate d'aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daviero, S. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Avinens, C. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Ibanez, A. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France)); Giuntini, J.C. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 -Montpellier (France)); Philippot, E. (Lab. Physicochimie des Materiaux Solides, 34 - Montpellier (France))

    1993-04-01

    Aluminium phosphate thin films on silicium substrate have been carried out from tributylphosphate and aluminium acetylacetonate precursors in solution through the ''pyrosol'' process. It can be observed a large range of chemical analysis in terms of experimental conditions. These thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrometry. Their electrical characteristics, defined from direct current and alternative current measurements, are quite different to those of the crystallized phosphate and can be explained by P-O and Al-O ''dangling bond'' existence. (orig.).

  4. Aluminium cables in automotive applications : Prestudy of aluminium cable uses in Scania products&Failure analysis and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of light constructed vehicles as well as soaring price of copper metal owing to limited nature resources have been promoting the use of aluminium metal as an alternative conductor of automotive cables. This thesis work is to lay theoretical foundations for further research and development regarding the introduction of new automotive cables i.e. aluminium cables. Current application of automotive aluminium cables in automotive industry as well as failure analysis and eval...

  5. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  6. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  7. Long-term effects of aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin; de Klerk, Nicholas; Musk, A W Bill

    2013-12-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s, aluminium dust inhalation was used as a potential prophylaxis against silicosis in underground miners, including in Australia. We investigated the association between aluminium dust inhalation and cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and Alzheimer's diseases in a cohort of Australian male underground gold miners. We additionally looked at pneumoconiosis mortality to estimate the effect of the aluminium therapy. SMRs and 95% CI were calculated to compare mortality of the cohort members with that of the Western Australian male population (1961-2009). Internal comparisons on duration of aluminium dust inhalation were examined using Cox regression. Aluminium dust inhalation was reported for 647 out of 1894 underground gold miners. During 42 780 person-years of follow-up, 1577 deaths were observed. An indication of increased mortality of Alzheimer's disease among miners ever exposed to aluminium dust was found (SMR=1.38), although it was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.69 to 2.75). Rates for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular death were above population levels, but were similar for subjects with or without a history of aluminium dust inhalation. HRs suggested an increasing risk of cardiovascular disease with duration of aluminium dust inhalation (HR=1.02, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04, per year of exposure). No difference in the association between duration of work underground and pneumoconiosis was observed between the groups with or without aluminium dust exposure. No protective effect against silicosis was observed from aluminium dust inhalation. Conversely, exposure to aluminium dust may possibly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia of the Alzheimer's type.

  8. Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete Made with Used Foundry Sand as Fine Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ganesh Prabhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the construction industry has been faced with a decline in the availability of natural sand due to the growth of the industry. On the other hand, the metal casting industries are being forced to find ways to safely dispose of waste foundry sand (FS. With the aim of resolving both of these issues, an investigation was carried out on the reuse of waste FS as an alternative material to natural sand in concrete production, satisfied with relevant international standards. The physical and chemical properties of the FS were addressed. The influence of FS on the behaviour of concrete was evaluated through strength and durability properties. The test results revealed that compared to the concrete mixtures with a substitution rate of 30%, the control mixture had a strength value that was only 6.3% higher, and this enhancement is not particularly high. In a similar manner, the durability properties of the concrete mixtures containing FS up to 30% were relatively close to those of control mixture. From the test results, it is suggested that FS with a substitution rate of up to 30% can be effectively used in concrete production without affecting the strength and durability properties of the concrete.

  9. Properties of made by different methods of RP impeller foundry patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the tests of properties of foundry patterns of turbocharger turbine impeller. Impellers prototypes were predestinated for casting by method losing patterns. There were carried out tests of these prototypes made by different methods of Rapid Prototyping (RP. Two impeller were made by growth methods: stereolitography (SLA and three dimensional printing (3DP. One prototype was made by the method of Vacuum Casting as a wax casting. Tests were executed in the Department of Machine Design of Rzeszow University of Technology in cooperation with WSK PZL Rzeszow and Car Technology Krakow. First impeller was carried out by method of stereolitography on SLA 250 plant. That pattern was also used to carry out silicon matrix for casting of wax pattern. Next pattern was printed by three dimensional printer Z510 from the powder ZP14. Good removability of the pattern from the mould is particularly essential for impellers of small turbines with blades of small thickness of their section. All pattern were tested on their removability from the ceramic mould. The best melting properties had the wax pattern. Patterns made from resin SL5170 (SLA and powder ZP14 (3DP were removed in the process of burning but about 1% of soot was left in the mould.

  10. Methods of Computational Intelligence in the Context of Quality Assurance in Foundry Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojek G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One way to ensure the required technical characteristics of castings is the strict control of production parameters affecting the quality of the finished products. If the production process is improperly configured, the resulting defects in castings lead to huge losses. Therefore, from the point of view of economics, it is advisable to use the methods of computational intelligence in the field of quality assurance and adjustment of parameters of future production. At the same time, the development of knowledge in the field of metallurgy, aimed to raise the technical level and efficiency of the manufacture of foundry products, should be followed by the development of information systems to support production processes in order to improve their effectiveness and compliance with the increasingly more stringent requirements of ergonomics, occupational safety, environmental protection and quality. This article is a presentation of artificial intelligence methods used in practical applications related to quality assurance. The problem of control of the production process involves the use of tools such as the induction of decision trees, fuzzy logic, rough set theory, artificial neural networks or case-based reasoning.

  11. Modeling of the influence of coarsening on viscoplastic behavior of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, R.; Russier, V.; Couzinié, J.P.; Guillot, I.; Cailletaud, G.

    2013-01-01

    Both metallurgical and mechanical behaviors of a 319 foundry aluminum alloy have been modeled by means of a multiscale approach. The nano-scale, represented by the coarsening of Al 2 Cu precipitates, has been modeled according to the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) law in a range of temperature going from 23 °C to 300 °C up to 1000 h aging time. Results were then compared to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The model allows us to know the critical radius, the volume fraction and the number of particles per μm 3 in a α-phase representative volume element (RVE). The increase in yield stress generated by the interaction of dislocations with precipitates, lattice and solid solution, is modeled on the microscale. The yield stress becomes thus a function of the precipitation state, and is time/temperature dependent. These two models were then combined into a mechanical macroscale model in order to represent the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) behavior of the material. An elasto-viscoplastic law has been used and all the material parameters were experimentally determined with LCF stress/strain loops for the first cycle and for the mechanical steady state. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experiments.

  12. Effects of waste glass and waste foundry sand additions on reclaimed tiles containing sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Kuo-Liang; Liu, Zhe-Kun

    2017-07-01

    Applying sewage sludge ash (SSA) to produce reclaimed tiles is a promising recycling technology in resolving the increasing sludge wastes from wastewater treatment. However, performance of such reclaimed tiles is inferior to that of original ceramic tiles. Many researchers have therefore tried adding various industrial by-products to improve reclaimed tile properties. In this study, multiple materials including waste glass and waste foundry sand (WFS) were added in an attempt to improve physical and mechanical properties of reclaimed tiles with SSA. Samples with various combinations of clay, WFS, waste glass and SSA were made with three kiln temperatures of 1000°C, 1050°C, and 1100°C. A series of tests on the samples were next conducted. Test results showed that waste glass had positive effects on bending strength, water absorption and weight loss on ignition, while WFS contributed the most in reducing shrinkage, but could decrease the tile bending strength when large amount was added at a high kiln temperature. This study suggested that a combination of WFS from 10% to 15%, waste glass from 15% to 20%, SSA at 10% at a kiln temperature between 1000°C and 1050°C could result in quality reclaimed tiles with a balanced performance.

  13. The Implementation of Computer Platform for Foundries Cooperating in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilk-Kołodziejczyk D.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a practical solution in the form of implementation of agent-based platform for the management of contracts in a network of foundries. The described implementation is a continuation of earlier scientific work in the field of design and theoretical system specification for cooperating companies [1]. The implementation addresses key design assumptions - the system is implemented using multi-agent technology, which offers the possibility of decentralisation and distributed processing of specified contracts and tenders. The implemented system enables the joint management of orders for a network of small and medium-sized metallurgical plants, while providing them with greater competitiveness and the ability to carry out large procurements. The article presents the functional aspects of the system - the user interface and the principle of operation of individual agents that represent businesses seeking potential suppliers or recipients of services and products. Additionally, the system is equipped with a bi-directional agent translating standards based on ontologies, which aims to automate the decision-making process during tender specifications as a response to the request.

  14. The Use of Some Forecasting Methods and SWOT Analysis in the Selected Processes of Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymszal J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting and analysis SWOT are helping tools in the business activity, because under conditions of dynamic changes in both closer and more distant surroundings, reliable, forward-looking information and trends analysis are playing a decisive role. At present, the ability to use available data in forecasting and other analyzes according with changes in business environment are the key managerial skills required, since both forecasting and SWOT analysis are a integral part of the management process, and the appropriate level of forecasting knowledge is increasingly appreciated. Examples of practical use of some forecasting methods in optimization of the procurement, production and distribution processes in foundries are given. The possibilities of using conventional quantitative forecasting methods based on econometric and adaptive models applying the creep trend and harmonic weights are presented. The econometric models were additionally supplemented with the presentation of error estimation methodology, quality assessment and statistical verification of the forecast. The possibility of using qualitative forecasts based on SWOT analysis was also mentioned.

  15. Mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed layers of aluminium and aluminium alloy on AZ 91

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Ctibor, Pavel; Mušálek, Radek; Janata, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2017), s. 323-327 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-31538P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying of aluminium * adhesion of coating * wear * magnesium alloy AZ91 Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016

  16. Irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of aluminium and the structural integrity of aluminium reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.P.; McDonald, N.R.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Hellier, A.K.; Stathers, P.A.; Carr, D.G.; Ripley, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The results of micro-structural and mechanical property studies on aluminum after being exposed to large fluences of neutrons are presented. These property changes are of importance in determining the structural integrity of the Australian HIFAR reactor aluminium tank, which in turn determines the lifetime of the reactor. (author)

  17. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  18. Sol gel synthesis for preparation of yttrium aluminium garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, J.W.G.A.; Willems, J.W.M.M.; Metselaar, R.; With, de G.; Terpstra, R.A.; Metselaar, R.

    1989-01-01

    Sol-gel—synthesis for preparation of pure yttrium aluminium garnet powder with small grain size is subject of this ongoing study. Starting materials were sulfates and chlorides of yttrium and aluminium. To obtain pure YAG (Y3A1SO1Z) pH during hydrolysis as well as temperature during calcination and

  19. Three body abrasion of laser surface alloyed aluminium AA1200

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabhali, Luyolo AB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying of aluminium AA1200 was performed with a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser to improve the abrasion wear resistance. Aluminium surfaces reinforced with metal matrix composites and intermetallic phases were achieved. The phases present depended...

  20. The effects of aluminium and selenium supplementation on brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This in vivo study was designed to investigate the potential of aluminium (Al), in the absence of added iron, to participate in either antioxidant or pro-oxidant events. Some markers of oxidative stress were determined in liver and brain of rats exposed to aluminium lactate, either alone or in the presence of dietary supplements ...

  1. Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease: the science that describes the link

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Exley, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    ... that has been encircled is the gene for the amyloid precursor protein. (Thanks to Walter Lukiw for supplying this information.) Aluminium and Alzheimer's Disease: The Science that Describes the LinkAluminium and Alzheimer's Disease The Science that Describes the Link Edited by Christopher Exley Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Scienc...

  2. An interesting and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for aluminium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interesting and efficient green corrosion inhibitor for aluminium from extracts of ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2014) > ... possible applications in metal surface anodizing and surface coating in industries. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aluminium, Hydrochloric acid, Langmuir isotherm, Plant extracts, Corrosion inhibition ...

  3. Synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles by arc evaporation of an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Aluminium nanoparticles (Al Nps) are synthesized using arc discharge method by applying direct current between aluminium electrodes in liquid environment without any use of vacuum equipment, heat exchangers, high temperatures furnaces and inert gases. After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on.

  4. Anodization of Aluminium using a fast two-step process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    283.6 eV. Keywords. Anodization; phosphoric acid; anodization time; anodized aluminium oxide; aluminium. ... of anodization.5–7 The AAO layer has a large band gap, good ..... transmittance increases as the anodised membrane is heated to ...

  5. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium.

  6. Spark counting technique with an aluminium oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, H.; Koga, T.; Morishima, H.; Niwa, T.; Nishiwaki, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Automatic spark counting of etch-pits on a polycarbonate film produced by nuclear fission fragments is now used for neutron monitoring in several countries. A method was developed using an aluminium oxide film instead of a polycarbonate as the neutron detector. Aluminium oxide films were prepared as follows: A cleaned aluminium plate as an anode and a nickel plate as a cathode were immersed in dilute sulfuric acid solution and electric current flowed between the electrodes at 12degC for 10-30 minutes. Electric current density was about 10 mA/cm 2 . The aluminium plate was then kept in boiling water for 10-30 minutes for sealing. The thickness of the aluminium oxide layer formed was about 1μm. The aluminium plate attached to a plate of suitable fissionable material, such as uranium or thorium, was irradiated with neutrons and set in a usual spark counter for fission track counting. One electrode was the aluminium plate and the other was an aluminized polyester sheet. Sparked pulses were counted with a usual scaler. The advantage of using spark counting with an aluminium oxide film for neutron monitoring is rapid measurement of neutron exposure, since chemical etching which is indispensable for spark counting with a polycarbonate detector film, is not needed. (H.K.)

  7. Neutron activation analysis of baths forming conversion layer on aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, Istvan; Maleczki, Emil; Bodizs, Denes

    1988-01-01

    Chromate layers were formed on the surface of aluminium using yellow and green chromating solutions. For the determination of the aluminium content neutron activation method was used. Nuclear effects disturbing the determination were eliminated by double irradiation technique. (author) 8 refs.; 4 figs

  8. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...... of crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate...

  9. Structure of the aluminium-uranium eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Vieira, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    The authors discuss the factors which might effect the eutectic structure, including external conditions during solidification as well as factors peculiar to each individual system. They studied the structure of the A1-U eutectic, consisting of the solid solution of uranium in aluminium and UA1 4 , as obtained in ingot moulds and by unidirectional solidification, and found a tendency for the structure to develop in a spiral, in the form of a rhombus. They discuss this structure in terms of certain variables with emphasis on the growth characteristics of the phases comprising the eutectic, the velocity of growth and thermal gradient in the liquid [pt

  10. Convenient synthesis of deuterated aluminium hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawelke, Roland H.; Felderhoff, Michael; Weidenthaler, Claudia [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Schueth, Ferdi [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)], E-mail: schueth@mpi-muelheim.mpg.de

    2008-09-15

    We describe the ball-milling synthesis of alkali metal deuterides from commercial lithium aluminium deuteride. This reaction principle was exemplified by the mechanochemical synthesis of NaAlD{sub 4} and KAlD{sub 4}. NaAlD{sub 4} was prepared on the multi-gram scale by this procedure and purified by standard wet-chemical separation. Pure NaAlD{sub 4} was obtained and used for the synthesis of Ca(AlD{sub 4}){sub 2}. The formation of all products was verified by X-ray diffraction.

  11. Calculation of electron transmission through aluminium foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abroyan, M.A.; Mel'ker, A.I.; Mikhajlin, A.I.; Sirotinkin, V.V.; Tokmakov, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    Calculated by Monte Carlo method energy and angular distributions of electrons transmitted through aluminium foil with 50 μm thickness are presented. 200-500 electron energy ranges and angles of electron incidence on foil from 0 to 40 deg C are considered. That allows to use results for more universal accelerator group, for example, for accelerators with scanning beam used in industry. The received values of angular and energy characteristics allow to increase essentially estimation accuracy of accelerator extraction devices and dose distribution on irradiating item

  12. Deviatoric response of the aluminium alloy, 5083

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby-Thomas, Gareth; Hazell, Paul; Millett, Jeremy; Bourne, Neil

    2009-06-01

    Aluminium alloys such as 5083 are established light weight armour materials. As such, the shock response of these materials is of great importance. The shear strength of a material under shock loading provides an insight into its ballistic performance. In this investigation embedded manganin stress gauges have been employed to measure both the longitudinal and lateral components of stress during plate impact experiments over a range of impact stresses. In turn, these results were used to determine the shear strength and to investigate the time dependence of lateral stress behind the shock front to give an indication of material response.

  13. CERN: very large magnet with aluminium winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, F.A.

    1984-10-25

    The construction of an octagonal solenoid from trapezoidal plates of Al, 6m long and 6cm thick, assembled by electron beam welding, for installation in a laboratory 50m underground is described. The objective is to create a field of 0.5T in a volume of 1000m/sup 3/ for the L3 particle detector of the LEP accelerator project. Principal dimensions and weights of the structure are given and its three stages of implementation are described, with reference to the contributions from the Swiss aluminium industry.

  14. Morphology of the aluminium-uranium eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Vieira, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The factors which might affect the eutectic structure including external condition during solidification as well as factors peculiar to each individual system is discussed. The structure of the Al-U eutectic, consisting of the solid solution of uranium in aluminium and UAl 4 , as obtained in ingot moulds and by unidirectional solidification. The extructure in terms of certain variables with emphasis on the growth characteristics of the phases comprising the eutectic the velocity of growth and thermal gradient in the liquid is also presented [pt

  15. The failure of aluminium nitride under shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, I.M.; Bourne, N.K.

    2002-01-01

    The shear strength of aluminium nitride has been measured over a range of impact stresses by measuring lateral stresses in plate impact experiments. The range of impact stress spanned several key shock thresholds for the material, pre and post Hugoniot elastic limit and up to values where the hexagonal to cubic phase transition starts. The shear strength measurements indicate significant inelastic damage at stress levels in excess of the HEL, but a significant recovery of strength at the highest impact stress was observed. This stress equates to the phase transition stress. The shear strength behaviour is compared to that of silicon carbide, which does not exhibit a phase change at these impact velocities

  16. Aluminium/iron reinforced polyfurfuryl alcohol resin as advanced biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium and iron are widely used in construction sectors for the preparation of advanced composites with epoxy resins as matrices. In recent times, there are several reports on the polymerization of polyfufuryl alcohol (PFA a thermoset bioresins from furfuryl alcohol (FA. FA is obtained from waste of sugarcane bagasse. In this work, first the possibility of curing PFA from FA in the presence of aluminium or iron has been explored. Absorbance results from colorimeter/spectrophotometerindicated that the curing of FA to PFA in presence of aluminium started easily while in presence of iron the curing of FA to PFA could not start. Based on the above results, aluminium wire reinforced composites were successfully prepared with three different weight fractions (0.13, 0.09 and 0.07 of aluminium wire. The mechanical properties of these composites were determined theoretically and reported.

  17. Usage of neural network to predict aluminium oxide layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A · dm(-2) and 3 A · dm(-2) for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  18. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A·dm−2 and 3 A·dm−2 for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  19. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  20. Study of corrosion in aluminium using neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Alam, M.K.; Saklayen, M.A.; Ahsan, M.H.; Islam, S.M.A.; Zaman, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Neutron radiography technique has been adopted for detection of corrosion in aluminium by filling artificially made holes on aluminium slab with Al(OH) 3 . The contrast between the optical densities of corrosion products and aluminium slab was assessed from the densitometric measurements. Variation of optical density difference with sample thickness has also been studied. The results confirm that approximately 0.039 mm thick corrosion products having diameter 10 mm can easily be detected in 2 cm thick aluminium slab. The linear attenuation coefficient of Al(OH) 3 has been obtained as 0.9447. From the present investigation it is confirmed that film neutron radiography (NR) technique is helpful for investigation of Al(OH) 3 type corrosion product in aluminium. (author)

  1. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. ► The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. ► Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. ► 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  2. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  3. Precipitate strengthening of nanostructured aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawer, Kinga; Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2012-11-01

    Grain boundaries and precipitates are the major microstructural features influencing the mechanical properties of metals and alloys. Refinement of the grain size to the nanometre scale brings about a significant increase in the mechanical strength of the materials because of the increased number of grain boundaries which act as obstacles to sliding dislocations. A similar effect is obtained if nanoscale precipitates are uniformly distributed in coarse grained matrix. The development of nanograin sized alloys raises the important question of whether or not these two mechanisms are "additive" and precipitate strengthening is effective in nanostructured materials. In the reported work, hydrostatic extrusion (HE) was used to obtain nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. Nanosized precipitates were obtained by post-HE annealing. It was found that such annealing at the low temperatures (100 degrees C) results in a significant increase in the microhardness (HV0.2) and strength of the nanostructured 7475 aluminium alloy. These results are discussed in terms of the interplay between the precipitation and deformation of nanocrystalline metals.

  4. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriou, H.; Fournier, R.; Grall, L.; Hure, J.; Herenguel, J.; Lelong, P.

    1958-01-01

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  6. Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutouquet, C.; Le Bihan, O.; Dermigny, A.; Frejafon, E.; Gallou, G.; Sirven, J.B.; Torralba, B.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment.Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. (authors)

  7. Engineering properties of concrete with partial utilization of used foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Thiruvenkitam; Laksmanan, Dhamothiran; Mylsamy, Kaliyannan; Sivakumar, Pandian; Sircar, Anirbid

    2018-01-01

    Solid wastes generated from manufacturing industries are increasing at an alarming rate and it is consistently increasing. One such industrial solid waste is Used Foundry Sand (UFS). On the other hand, fine aggregates involved in the concrete are generally river sand, which is scarce, high cost and excavation of the river sand that promote environmental degradation. So, there is an urge to find some alternative solution to dispose UFS and to limit the use of river sand. In this research work, river sand was partially replaced by UFS. The percentage replacements were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt% respectively. Experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the mechanical, durability and micro-structural properties of M20 concrete at the age of 7, 28 and 91 day. XRD (X-ray Diffraction), EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) and optical-microscopic imaging analysis were performed to identify the presence of various compounds and micro cracks in the concrete with UFS. Comparative studies on control mix against trial mix were carried out. It was found that compression strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were approximately constant up to 20 wt% UFS and decreased with further addition. Whereas, split tensile strength was increased after 20 wt% addition but it affects the other properties of concrete. The durability test results showed that the resistance of concrete against abrasion and rapid chloride permeability of the concrete mixture containing UFS up to 20 wt% were almost similar to the values of control mix. The findings suggest that UFS can effectively replace river sand. However, it is recommended that the replacement should not exceed 20 wt%. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Monitoring of heavy metal particle emission in the exhaust duct of a foundry using LIBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutouquet, C; Gallou, G; Le Bihan, O; Sirven, J B; Dermigny, A; Torralba, B; Frejafon, E

    2014-09-01

    Heavy metals have long been known to be detrimental to human health and the environment. Their emission is mainly considered to occur via the atmospheric route. Most of airborne heavy metals are of anthropogenic origin and produced through combustion processes at industrial sites such as incinerators and foundries. Current regulations impose threshold limits on heavy metal emissions. The reference method currently implemented for quantitative measurements at exhaust stacks consists of on-site sampling of heavy metals on filters for the particulate phase (the most prominent and only fraction considered in this study) prior to subsequent laboratory analysis. Results are therefore known only a few days after sampling. Stiffer regulations require the development of adapted tools allowing automatic, on-site or even in-situ measurements with temporal resolutions. The Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique was deemed as a potential candidate to meet these requirements. On site experiments were run by melting copper bars and monitoring emission of this element in an exhaust duct at a pilot-scale furnace in a French research center dedicated to metal casting. Two approaches designated as indirect and direct analysis were broached in these experiments. The former corresponds to filter enrichment prior to subsequent LIBS interrogation whereas the latter entails laser focusing right through the aerosol for detection. On-site calibration curves were built and compared with those obtained at laboratory scale in order to investigate possible matrix and analyte effects. Eventually, the obtained results in terms of detection limits and quantitative temporal monitoring of copper emission clearly emphasize the potentialities of the direct LIBS measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical and toxicological evaluation of concrete artifacts containing waste foundry sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastella, Miguel Angelo; Gislon, Edivelton Soratto; Pelisser, Fernando; Ricken, Cláudio; da Silva, Luciano; Angioletto, Elídio; Montedo, Oscar Rubem Klegues

    2014-08-01

    The creation of metal parts via casting uses molds that are generally made from sand and phenolic resin. The waste generated after the casting process is called waste foundry sand (WFS). Depending on the mold composition and the casting process, WFS can contain substances that prevent its direct emission to the environment. In Brazil, this waste is classified according to the Standard ABNT NBR 10004:2004 as a waste Class II (Non-Inert). The recycling of this waste is limited because its characteristics change significantly after use. Although the use (or reuse) of this byproduct in civil construction is a technically feasible alternative, its effects must be evaluated, especially from mechanical and environmental points of view. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of WFS in the manufacture of cement artifacts, such as masonry blocks for walls, structural masonry blocks, and paving blocks. Blocks containing different concentrations of WFS (up to 75% by weight) were produced and evaluated using compressive strength tests (35 MPa at 28 days) and toxicity tests on Daphnia magna, Allium cepa (onion root), and Eisenia foetida (earthworm). The results showed that there was not a considerable reduction in the compressive strength, with values of 35 ± 2 MPa at 28 days. The toxicity study with the material obtained from leaching did not significantly interfere with the development of D. magna and E. foetida, but the growth of the A. cepa species was reduced. The study showed that the use of this waste in the production of concrete blocks is feasible from both mechanical and environmental points of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring Mission Concepts with the JPL Innovation Foundry A-Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, John K.; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared

    2013-01-01

    The JPL Innovation Foundry has established a new approach for exploring, developing, and evaluating early concepts called the A-Team. The A-Team combines innovative collaborative methods with subject matter expertise and analysis tools to help mature mission concepts. Science, implementation, and programmatic elements are all considered during an A-Team study. Methods are grouped by Concept Maturity Level (CML), from 1 through 3, including idea generation and capture (CML 1), initial feasibility assessment (CML 2), and trade space exploration (CML 3). Methods used for each CML are presented, and the key team roles are described from two points of view: innovative methods and technical expertise. A-Team roles for providing innovative methods include the facilitator, study lead, and assistant study lead. A-Team roles for providing technical expertise include the architect, lead systems engineer, and integration engineer. In addition to these key roles, each A-Team study is uniquely staffed to match the study topic and scope including subject matter experts, scientists, technologists, flight and instrument systems engineers, and program managers as needed. Advanced analysis and collaborative engineering tools (e.g. cost, science traceability, mission design, knowledge capture, study and analysis support infrastructure) are also under development for use in A-Team studies and will be discussed briefly. The A-Team facilities provide a constructive environment for innovative ideas from all aspects of mission formulation to eliminate isolated studies and come together early in the development cycle when they can provide the biggest impact. This paper provides an overview of the A-Team, its study processes, roles, methods, tools and facilities.

  11. [Risk and features of occupational diseases in nonferrous metallurgy workers of Kolsky Transpolar area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siurin, S A; Chashchin, V P; Frolova, N M

    2015-01-01

    The study covered data on 977 cases of occupational diseases in 615 workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area. Findings are high risk of occupational diseases in workers engaged into electrolysis production of aluminium, all nickel reprocessing and pyrometallic copper reprocessing (GR 7.02-10.0). Electrolysis operators and anode operators of aluminium production are more prone to occupational diseases, with bone and muscular disorders (46.8%) prevalent in the morbidity structure. Respiratory diseases are more prevalent (68.2-100%) in the occupational morbidity structure of copper-nickelindustry workers. Conclusion is made on mandatory improvement of the work conditions and more effective individual protective means against occupational hazards in workers of nonferrous metallurgy in Kolsky Transpolar area.

  12. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Mardan, Nawzad; Karlsson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic

  13. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aondona IHOM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

  14. Recovery of tritium from lithium-sintered aluminium product (SAP) and lithium-aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.B.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The tritium release rates of irradiated samples of lithium-containing aluminium (Li-Al) and sintered aluminium product (Li-SAP) were investigated to evaluate the potential application of both materials in fusion reactors. The observed release rates followed the pattern expected for bulk diffusion of tritium in a solid. Therefore, diffusion coefficients for tritium in Li-SAP were determined over a temperature range of 383 and 500 0 C and tritium in Li-Al at 450 0 C. At 450 0 C, the diffusion coefficients of tritium in Li-SAP and Li-Al are 2.988 x 10 -10 cm 2 sec -1 and 1.462 x 10 -6 cm 2 sec -1 , respectively. (author)

  15. The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters–much more than aluminium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony J.; Baker, Alison; Muench, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    The ALMT (aluminium-activated malate transporter) family comprises a functionally diverse but structurally similar group of ion channels. They are found ubiquitously in plant species, expressed throughout different tissues, and located in either the plasma membrane or tonoplast. The first family member identified was TaALMT1, discovered in wheat root tips, which was found to be involved in aluminium resistance by means of malate exudation into the soil. However, since this discovery other family members have been shown to have many other functions such as roles in stomatal opening, general anionic homoeostasis, and in economically valuable traits such as fruit flavour. Recent evidence has also shown that ALMT proteins can act as key molecular actors in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) signalling, the first evidence that GABA can act as a signal transducer in plants. PMID:27284052

  16. The varied functions of aluminium-activated malate transporters-much more than aluminium resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony J; Baker, Alison; Muench, Stephen P

    2016-06-15

    The ALMT (aluminium-activated malate transporter) family comprises a functionally diverse but structurally similar group of ion channels. They are found ubiquitously in plant species, expressed throughout different tissues, and located in either the plasma membrane or tonoplast. The first family member identified was TaALMT1, discovered in wheat root tips, which was found to be involved in aluminium resistance by means of malate exudation into the soil. However, since this discovery other family members have been shown to have many other functions such as roles in stomatal opening, general anionic homoeostasis, and in economically valuable traits such as fruit flavour. Recent evidence has also shown that ALMT proteins can act as key molecular actors in GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) signalling, the first evidence that GABA can act as a signal transducer in plants. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. Characterization and extraction of gold contained in foundry industrial wastes; Caracterizacion y extraccion de oro contenido en matrices de desechos industriales de fundicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vite T, J; Vite T, M; Diaz C, A; Carreno de Leon, C [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Depto. de Estudios del Ambiente, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Gold was characterized and leached in foundry sands. These wastes are product among others of the automotive industry where they are used as molds material which are contaminated by diverse metals during the foundry. To fulfil the leaching process four coupled thermostat columns were used. To characterize the solid it was used the X-ray diffraction technique. For the qualitative analysis it was used the Activation analysis technique. Finally, for the study of liquors was used the Plasma diffraction spectroscopy (Icp-As) technique. The obtained results show that the process which was used the thermostat columns was more efficient, than the methods traditionally recommended. (Author)

  18. Cold forming of aluminium - State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The ongoing development of cold forging technology has been manifested lately by the increasing application of components in cold forged aluminium alloys. Applying precipitation hardening alloys components with great strength/weight ratio can be produced with a strength comparable...... to that of unalloyed steel. After description of the different types of alloys and their individual properties and applications, the special requirements for tool design by cold forging in aluminium is discussed. Finally, a large number of industrial examples on cold forged aluminium components are presented. (C) 1997...

  19. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed...... reactivities was observed due to the formation of the compact oxide layer. Originality/value - This paper reveals a detailed investigation of how pressurized steam can affect the corrosion behaviour of AA1050 aluminium and the structure of Fe-containing intermetallic particles....

  20. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  1. Experimental Realisation of Elusive Multiple-bonded Aluminium Compounds: A New Horizon in the Aluminium Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Shigeyoshi; Bag, Prasenjit; Weetman, Catherine

    2018-05-23

    Synthesis and isolation of stable main group compounds featuring multiple bonds has been of keen interest for the last several decades. Multiply bonded complexes were obtained using sterically demanding substituents that provide kinetic and thermodynamic stability. Many of these compounds have unusual structural and electronic properties that challenges the classical concept of covalent multiple bonding. In contrast, analogous aluminium compounds are scarce in spite of its high natural abundance. The parent dialumene (Al2H2) has been calculated to be extremely weak, thus making Al multiple bonds a challenging synthetic target. This review provides an overview of these recent advances in the cutting edge synthetic approaches used to obtain aluminium homo- and heterodiatomic multiply bonded complexes. Additionally, the reactivity of these novel compounds towards various small molecules and reagents will be discussed herein. This review provides an overview on the current progress in aluminium multiple bond chemistry and the careful ligand design required to stabilise these reactive species. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Application of radioactivation analysis for determination of impurities in aluminium, raw materials and in samples from aluminium production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    Trace elements in aluminium, raw materials and in the samples from different stages of aluminium production were determined by nondestructive neutron radioactivation analysis. The samples were taken from the Bayer's process of alumina production (bauxite, red sludge and alumina), from the components of the reduction cell (anode, criolyte and AlF 3 ) and of the final product - aluminium (purity 99.5-99.7%). Under given set of conditions ten trace elements (V,La,Ga,Mn,Co,Cr,Sc,Sb,Zn and Fe) were determined in aluminium and followed through the production process. It was found that the main impurities in aluminium are iron (0.15%) and zinc (0.O6%). It has been concluded that the purity of produced aluminium depends mainly on the purity of used alumina. The second important source of contamination of aluminium is anode. The results obtained by radioactivation analysis for V, Mn, Cr and Fe fall within the ranges of concentrations of these elements determined by use of other methods (volumetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption). Higher values for zinc were obtained by radioactivation analysis, probably due to unsatisfactory irradiation and measuring conditions for this element. The possibilities of application of radioactivation analysis to these kinds of samples are also disscused

  3. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength...... is an uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  4. Heat of solution of hydrogen in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.; Prakash, S.

    1984-01-01

    The heat of solution of hydrogen in aluminium is investigated accounting for both, the lattice dilation and its relaxation. The lattice contribution is evaluated using a linearly screened local model potential for the ions. The non-linear screening in the density functional formalism along with the exchange and correlation corrections in the jellium model is used to evaluate the proton contribution. The dilation enhances the lattice contribution by about 12 % and decreases the protonic contribution by about 5 %. The relaxation energy is reduced by about 40 % for the dilated lattice. Adding all the contributions, the heat of solution is found to be 20 % larger for the dilated lattice than that for the undilated lattice. The calculated heat of solution is found in good agreement with the experimental value. Comparing the results with the calculations of Perrot and Rasolt, the spherical solid model correction is estimated and it is found that it further improves the results. (author)

  5. Solidification microstructures of aluminium-uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozio Filho, F.; Vieira, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The solidification of microstrutures of aluminium-uranium alloys in the range of 4 to 20% uranium is investigated. The solidification was obtained both in ingot molds and under controlled directional solidification. The conditions for the presence of primary crystals and eutectic are discussed and an analysis of the influence of variables (growth rate and thermal gradient in the liquid) on the alloy structure is made. The effect of cooling rate on the alloy structures has been determined. It is found that the resulting structure can be derived from the kinectics concept, as required by the coupled-zone theory. Suggestions on the qualitative intervals of composition and temperatures with eutectic growth are presented [pt

  6. Slag corrosion of gamma aluminium oxynitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xidong; Li Wen Chao [Beijing Univ. of Science and Technology, BJ (China). Dept. of Physical Chemistry of Metals; Sichen Du; Seetharaman, S. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    2002-03-01

    Corrosion of {gamma}-aluminium oxynitride (AlON) by CaO-MgO-''FeO''-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} melts corresponding to blast furnace slag was examined from 1693 to 1753 K under static and forced convection conditions. An intermediate layer was observed between the unreacted oxynitride and slag. After a certain time interval, the rate of the growth of this layer was found to be equal to the rate of the dissolution of the layer. Slag corrosion of AlON is a strongly thermally activated process, the overall activation energy being 1002 kJ/mol. The rate of corrosion was found to be significantly enhanced by the addition of ''FeO''. (orig.)

  7. Study of hydrogen implanted in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugeat, J.P.; Chami, A.C.; Danielou, R.; Ligeon, E.

    1976-01-01

    An aluminium sample was implanted with deuterium and hydrogen at 5keV and 10keV respectively. The 1 H( 11 B,α) 8 Be* and D( 3 He,p) 4 He reactions were used for the analysis of H and D respectively. The implanted deuterium was shown to be as a whole in a tetrahedral site as far as the implantation temperature is lower than 175K, beyond that temperature the deuterium is randomly located. When the implantation temperature increases from 33K up to 275K the tetrahedral siting remains during annealing. The migration temperatures of hydrogen (or temperature of transition from the tetrahedral siting to a random distribution) experimentally observed during annealing (300K) and for increased implantation temperatures, show that the tetrahedral site is associated with a monovacancy migrating at 300K, the diffusion temperature of hydrogen being lower than 180K [fr

  8. Orbital friction stir welding of aluminium pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhard, G.; Hillers, T.

    2002-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) was originally developed for flat plates. This contribution shows how it can be applied to the welding of aluminium pipes. Pipes made of AlMG 3 (EN5754), AlMg 4.5Mn (EN5083) and AlMgSi 0.5 (EN6106) with dimensions of Da 600 and 520 x 10-8 mm were welded. The FSW orbital system comprises an annular cage with integrated FSW head, a hydraulic system, and a control unit. The welds were tested successfully according to EN 288. The mechanical and technical properties of the welds were somewhat better than with the TIG orbital process, and welding times were about 40 percent shorter [de

  9. COMPARATION BETWEEN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR THE ALUMINIUM BRAZED PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan NIŢOI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper refers to different control methods used in aluminium brazed joining because of possible defects. Low joining complexity permits exact damages position in relation with materials geometry.

  10. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  11. Ultraviolet sensing properties of polyvinyl alcohol-coated aluminium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electrochemical; aluminium-doped zinc oxide; PVA-coated; UV sensing. 1. Introduction ... Metal oxides having good optical and structural proper- ties also require good .... close to the calculated defect level due to zinc interstitial. PL spectra of ...

  12. Oxygen–induced barrier height changes in aluminium – amorphous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Se) films by exposing the samples to oxygen before the aluminium contacts were deposited. Current – voltage (I-V) measurements were carried out on the samples. The results show that the application of voltage causes charge exchange ...

  13. Aluminium effect on the physical properties of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazimov, O.P.; Il'in, A.A.; Zvonova, L.N.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of aluminium on the physical properties of titanium was investigated. Within the framework of the configuration model of matter it is shown that a change in physical properties with an aluminium content of up to 7.5 wt.% in alloys depends on the phase composition and electron structure. In interacting with titanium, aluminium exhibits acceptor properties, causing d→s electron transitions. The electrons which have shifted to the s-state are partly collectivized and partly localized into quasistable sp 3 configurations, with the resulting increase of the interatomic forces. An intensification of d→s transitions in alloying of titanium with aluminium stabilizes the α-phase. Predominance of d 1 configurations in the intermediate spectrum in the region of the α-solution increases the ratio of the axes of the HCP lattice and determines the electron type of conduction of alloys of the Ti-Al system

  14. Analogy and differences between aluminium and titanium electrowinning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Vuuren, DS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available larger market. The authors have tested this route experimentally, but could not produce pure titanium. The failure of electrowinning pure, molten titanium has been interpreted in terms of the analogy and differences between aluminium and titanium...

  15. Deposition of aluminium nanoparticles using dense plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Naorem Bilasini; Srivastava, M P; Roy, Savita

    2010-01-01

    Plasma route to nanofabrication has drawn much attention recently. The dense plasma focus (DPF) device is used for depositing aluminium nanoparticles on n-type Si (111) wafer. The plasma chamber is filled with argon gas and evacuated at a pressure of 80 Pa. The substrate is placed at distances 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm from the top of the central anode. The aluminium is deposited on Si wafer at room temperature with two focused DPF shots. The deposits on the substrate are examined for their morphological properties using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images have shown the formation of aluminium nanoparticles. From the AFM images, it is found that the size of aluminium nanoparticles increases with increase in distance between the top of anode and the substrate for same number of DPF shots.

  16. Manufacturing and Machining Challenges of Hybrid Aluminium Metal Matix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baburaja, Kammuluri; Sainadh Teja, S.; Karthik Sri, D.; Kuldeep, J.; Gowtham, V.

    2017-08-01

    Manufacturing which involves material removal processes or material addition processes or material transformation processes. One or all the processes to obtain the final desired properties for a material with desired shape which meets the required precision and accuracy values for the expected service life of a material in working conditions. Researchers found the utility of aluminium to be the second largest after steel. Aluminium and its metal matrix composite possess wide applications in various applications in aerospace industry, automobile industry, Constructions and even in kitchen utensils. Hybrid Al-MMCconsist of two different materials, and one will be from organic origin along with the base material. In this paper an attempt is made to bring out the importance of utilization of aluminium and the challenges concerned in manufacturing and machining of hybrid aluminium MMC.

  17. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting tempera...... to the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume.......We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...

  18. Verification of Some Vegetable Oils as Cutting Fluid for Aluminium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    kerosene (due to the gummy nature of aluminium metal). The parameters ... In the cutting of metals, work is done in the plastic deformation of the layer being cut at the primary shear ... Lathe machine – Model: Metalx WARSZAWA,. Serial No.

  19. Spectrographic determination of trace impurities in reactor grade aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Machado, I.J.

    1975-01-01

    A spectrographic method enabling the determination of 21 trace impurities in aluminium oxide is described. The technique involves mixing the sample with graphite buffer in the ratio 1:1, loading it in a graphite electrode and arcing it for 30 sec. in a dc arc to 10 A current against a pointed graphite cathode. The spectra are photographed on Ilford N.30 emulsion employing a large quartz spectrograph. The aluminium line at 2669.2 A 0 serves as the internal standard. The impurities determined are Ag, B, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, Mg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Si, Sn, Ti, V and Zn. The sensitivity varies from 5 to 100 ppm and the precision from +- 5 to +- 22% for different elements. A method for converting aluminium metal to aluminium oxide is described. It is found that boron is not lost during this conversion. (author)

  20. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-26

    Oct 26, 2012 ... Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth inhibition in rice (Oryza sativa ... growth of this cultivar when submitted to Al3+ stress. Moreover ..... Caiapó. Previous work has shown the IAC cultivar to be.

  2. Irradiation of aluminium alloy materials with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Osamu; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi

    1982-01-01

    It is a theme with a room for discussion to employ the stainless steel composed of longer half-life materials for the vacuum system of accelerators, from the viewpoint of radiation exposure. Therefore, it is desirable to use aluminium of shorter half-life in place of stainless steel. As a result of investigation on the above theme in the 1.2 GeV electron linac project in Tohoku University, it has been concluded that aluminium alloy vacuum chambers can reduce exposure dose by about one or two figures as compared with stainless steel ones. Of course, aluminium alloy contains trace amounts of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu and others. Therefore, four kinds of aluminium alloy considered to be usable have been examined for induced radioactivity by electron beam irradiation. Stainless steel SUS 304 has been also irradiated for comparison. Radiation energy has been 30 MeV and 200 MeV. When stainless steel and aluminium alloy were compared, aluminium alloy was very effective for reducing surface dose in low energy irradiation. In 200 MeV irradiation, the dose ratio of aluminium alloy to stainless steel became 1/30 to 1/100 after one week, though the dose difference between these two materials became smaller in 100 days or more after irradiation. If practical inspection and repair are implemented during the period from a few days to one week after shutdown, the aluminium alloy is preferable for exposure dose reduction even in high energy irradiation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  4. Purity and surface roughness of vacuum deposited aluminium films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, N G; Arsenio, T P [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Patnaik, B K [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Assuncao, F C.R.; de Souza, A M [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais e Metalurgia

    1975-04-01

    The authors studied the purity, surface roughness and grain size of vacuum-deposited aluminium films, using an intermetallic crucible and a continuous feed of pure aluminium wire. The grain size and roughness were studied by electron difraction, X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope. Purity was determined by X-ray fluorescence produced by proton bombardment in the Van de Graaff accelerator and by X-ray and optical emission spectrometry.

  5. Aluminium-rich corner in Al-Cu-La system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunusov, I.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminium corner of Al-Cu-La system are investigated by means of microstructural and differential thermal analysis. Existence of LaCu 2 Al 10 and LaCu 0.5 Al 3.5 ternary compounds in the system is confirmed and it is shown, as well, both compounds are in two-phase equilibrium with aluminium solid solution and form with it and between each other eutectic type state diagrams. State diagrams for quasibinary sections are plotted

  6. Twenty years of isotope applications in the Hungarian aluminium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujdoso, E.

    1982-01-01

    After a short review of the isotope techniques applied in the Hungarian aluminium industry some special applications and their results are briefly outlined. Industrial and laboratory scale trace constituent determinations, isotope and activation analytical methods and the application of sealed radiation sources are discussed. It has been shown that the related R+D activity followed closely the development trends of the aluminium industry. The references given is a comprehensive bibliography of Hungarian publications in this field. (author)

  7. Effect of iron and silicon in aluminium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, I.

    1990-01-01

    The iron and silicon are the main impurities in aluminium, they are always present in alloys made from commercially pure base material. The solid solubility of iron in aluminium is very low, therefore its largest amount forms intermetallic compounds the kind of which depends strongly on the other impurities of alloying elements. Although the solid solubility of silicon is much larger than that of the iron, it is the constituent of both the primary and the secondary particles, the structure of which depends in general on the iron-silicon concentration ratio. These Fe and Si containing particles can cause various and basic changes in the macroscopic properties of the alloy. Since commercially pure aluminium has extensive consumer and industrial use, it is very important to know, not only from scientific but also from practical point of view, the effect of iron and silicon on the physical and mechanical properties of aluminium and its alloys. The aim of the ''International Workshop on the Effect of Iron and Silicon in Aluminium and its Alloys'' was to clarify the present knowledge on this subject. The thirty papers presented at the Workshop and collected in this Proceedings cover many important fields of the subject. I hope that they will contribute to both the deeper understanding of the related phenomena and the improvement of technologies for producing better aluminium alloys

  8. Investigation of different anode materials for aluminium rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Torrero, David; Leung, Puiki; García-Quismondo, Enrique; Ventosa, Edgar; Anderson, Marc; Palma, Jesús; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2018-01-01

    In order to shed some light into the importance of the anodic reaction in reversible aluminium batteries, we investigate here the electrodeposition of aluminium in an ionic liquid electrolyte (BMImCl-AlCl3) using different substrates. We explore the influence of the type of anodic material (aluminium, stainless steel and carbon) and its 3D geometry on the reversibility of the anodic reaction by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge. The shape of the CVs confirms that electrodeposition of aluminium was feasible in the three materials but the highest peak currents and smallest peak separation in the CV of the aluminium anode suggested that this material was the most promising. Interestingly, carbon-based substrates appeared as an interesting alternative due to the high peak currents in CV, moderate overpotentials and dual role as anode and cathode. 3D substrates such as fiber-based carbon paper and aluminium mesh showed significantly smaller overpotentials and higher efficiencies for Al reaction suggesting that the use of 3D substrates in full batteries might result in enhanced power. This is corroborated by polarization testing of full Al-batteries.

  9. Compressive Behaviour and Energy Absorption of Aluminium Foam Sandwich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endut, N. A.; Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Sidek, A. A.; Adesta, E. T. Y.; Ibrahim, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Development of materials in automotive industries plays an important role in order to retain the safety, performance and cost. Metal foams are one of the idea to evolve new material in automotive industries since it can absorb energy when it deformed and good for crash management. Recently, new technology had been introduced to replace metallic foam by using aluminium foam sandwich (AFS) due to lightweight and high energy absorption behaviour. Therefore, this paper provides reliable data that can be used to analyze the energy absorption behaviour of aluminium foam sandwich by conducting experimental work which is compression test. Six experiments of the compression test were carried out to analyze the stress-strain relationship in terms of energy absorption behavior. The effects of input variables include varying the thickness of aluminium foam core and aluminium sheets on energy absorption behavior were evaluated comprehensively. Stress-strain relationship curves was used for energy absorption of aluminium foam sandwich calculation. The result highlights that the energy absorption of aluminium foam sandwich increases from 12.74 J to 64.42 J respectively with increasing the foam and skin thickness.

  10. The binding, transport and fate of aluminium in biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mold, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust and yet, paradoxically, it has no known biological function. Aluminium is biochemically reactive, it is simply that it is not required for any essential process in extant biota. There is evidence neither of element-specific nor evolutionarily conserved aluminium biochemistry. This means that there are no ligands or chaperones which are specific to its transport, there are no transporters or channels to selectively facilitate its passage across membranes, there are no intracellular storage proteins to aid its cellular homeostasis and there are no pathways which evolved to enable the metabolism and excretion of aluminium. Of course, aluminium is found in every compartment of every cell of every organism, from virus through to Man. Herein we have investigated each of the 'silent' pathways and metabolic events which together constitute a form of aluminium homeostasis in biota, identifying and evaluating as far as is possible what is known and, equally importantly, what is unknown about its uptake, transport, storage and excretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Aluminium Sulfate on Cadmium Accumulation in Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamvarn, Vararas; Boontanon, Narin; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Cadmium accumulation in Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 rice cultivars was investigated upon treatment with aluminium sulfate as a precipitant. Rice was grown hydroponically in a medium containing 4 ppm cadmium nitrate with or without 4 ppm aluminium sulfate. Root, stem with leaves and grain samples were collected and analyzed for cadmium content using atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Without the addition of aluminium sulfate, Pathum Thani 1 and Suphan Buri 60 accumulated 24.71∫ 3.14 ppm and 34.43 ∫ 4.51 ppm (dry weight of whole plant) of cadmium, respectively. With aluminium sulfate, cadmium accumulation increased to 40.66 ∫ 2.47 ppm and 62.94 ∫ 10.69 ppm, respectively. The addition of aluminium sulfate to the planting medium did not reduce cadmium accumulation but caused the rice to accumulate more cadmium especially in the shoots and grains. This observation might serve as the basis for future research on the management of agricultural areas that are contaminated with cadmium and aluminium

  12. Lake restoration with aluminium, bentonite and Phoslock: the effect on sediment stability and light attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Reitzel, Kasper; Flindt, Mogens

    treatments on aluminium mobility, sediment stability or light climate. A laboratory flume experiment including three shallow Danish lakes was conducted. We measured the effects of aluminium, Phoslock (a commercial product), bentonite, and a combination of bentonite/aluminium. Each treatment caused a varying...... consolidation of the sediment. The largest consolidation occurred using Phoslock- and bentonite-addition followed by bentonite/aluminium-addition, whereas aluminium alone had no effect. Sediment stability thresholds were measured before and after addition. Especially Phoslock, but also bentonite and bentonite....../aluminium increased sediment erosion threshold, with respectively 200%, 43% and 57%. Aluminium, bentonite/aluminium, and Phoslock improved the light conditions in the water phase, with respectively 60%, 57% and 50%, whereas bentonite created higher turbidity. Conclusively aluminium improved the light conditions...

  13. Investigation of aluminium state in some popular food, which are cooked in aluminium vessels, using spectroscopic analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shahneh, M.; Saheune, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium and lead elements were determined in drinking water and salt solution from chick-pea and faba-bean cooked in aluminium vessels and others from teflon for comparison using atomic absorption spectroscopy by graphite furnace. The relationship between heating time and aluminium quantities transferred to these food solutions was investigated. The lead element was determined taking into consideration the fact that this element may enter in these vessels somehow during the manufacturing process. Results show that the highest value of aluminium quantities was recorded in salt solution ( 17.022 μg/ml) without heating , followed by chick-pea solution (9.95 μg/ml), then faba-bean solution (2.81 μg/ml) when the heated period was 120 minutes. (author)

  14. Wear behavior of carbon fiber/aluminium-composites during abrasive loading; Verschleissverhalten von Kohlenstoffaser/Aluminium-Verbunden unter abrasiver Beanspruchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielage, B.; Dorner, A. [Technische Univ. Chemnitz (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbundwerkstoffe

    1998-07-01

    Abrasive wear resistance of aluminium is significantly improved by the reinforcement with a high volume percentage of carbon fibres. The wear of unreinforced aluminium after scratching by a diamond indenter can be described as pure microgrooving without any micro-chipping. After integration of 70 vol.-% carbon fibers the damage mechanism is considerably altered and a great amount of micro-chipping occurs. The abrasive wear is strongly influenced by the fiber orientation. The best wear resistance is observed when the fibers are orientated perpendicular to the wear surface. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verstaerkung von Aluminium mit einem hohen Volumengehalt endloser Kohlenstoffasern verbessert erkennbar dessen Resistenz gegenueber Abrasionsverschleiss. Der Verschleiss von unverstaerktem Aluminium infolge des Ritzens mit einem Diamantindenter erfolgt in Form von reinem Mikrofurchen ohne Spanbildung. Aufgrund der Integration von 70 Vol.-% Kohlenstoffasern wird eine erhebliche Zunahme des Schaedigungsmechanismus Mikrospanen festgestellt. Die Faserorientierung hat merklichen Einfluss auf die Sensibilitaet gegenueber Abrasion. Orientierung der anisotropen Kohlenstoffasern senkrecht zur Verschleissoberflaeche bedingt den geringsten Abrasionsverschleiss. (orig.)

  15. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  16. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  17. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala D.B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37 Orthogonal Arrays (OA with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering “Nominal the better” situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  18. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, D. B.; Raviraj, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37) Orthogonal Arrays (OA) with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering "Nominal the better" situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  19. Electrical connection for aluminium conductors in automotive applications : Prestudy of available solutions for electrical connection methods of aluminium cables

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedi, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing weight of electrical component and wiring harnesses in a vehicle contrary to the demand of light constructed vehicles as well as the constantly increasing and fluctuating price of copper compared to aluminium’s stable and far lower price, the use of aluminium conductors as an alternative have been promoted.  This thesis work lay theoretical research of the available methods used for electrical connection of aluminium conductors in order to increase the knowledge about the av...

  20. Aluminium-27 n.m.r. studies of aluminium fluoro complexes in dichloromethane solution: evidence for tetrafluoroaluminate anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, R.; Eller, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    Mixed aluminium chloro/fluoro anions are formed in dichloromethane solution by the interaction of AlCl 3 and [Ph 3 PhCH 2 P] [H 2 F 3 ]. Aluminium-27 n.m.r. studies are restricted to the stoichiometric ranges F/Al from 1:1 to 3:1 and F/Al>8:1. Between these limits rapid precipitation reactions occur. In the fluoride-rich stoichiometric range there is rapid exchange on the n.m.r. time scale between the aluminium fluoro anion and free fluoride, so that a direct identification of the species by the multiplicity of the resonance is not possible. Indirect evidence strongly suggests that the aluminium species is [AlF 4 ] - . In the F/Al stoichiometry range from 1:1 to 3:1 aluminium-27 resonances were observed for all the other possible [AlCl χ F 4-χ ] - species. Studies on the aluminium iodo/fluoro system support the identification of [AlF 4 ] - , but the system is labile and the mixed iodo/fluoro species undergo rapid disproportionation. 12 refs., 1 fig

  1. Irradiation effects on aluminium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten (The Netherlands) is a 45 MW light water cooled and moderated research reactor. The vessel was replaced in 1984 after more than 20 years of operation because doubts had arisen over the condition of the aluminium alloy construction material. Data on the mechanical properties of the aluminium alloy Al 5154 with and without neutron irradiation are necessary for the safety analysis of the new HFR vessel which is constructed from the same material as the old vessel. Fatigue, fracture mechanics (crack growth and fracture toughness) and tensile properties have been obtained from several experimental testing programmes with materials of the new and the old HFR vessel. 1) Low-cycle fatigue testing has been carried out on non-irradiated specimens from stock material of the new HFR vessel. The number of cycles to failure ranges from 90 to more than 50,000 for applied strain from 3.0% to 0.4%; 2) Fatigue crack growth rate testing has been conducted: - with unirradiated specimens from stock material of the new vessel; - with irradiated specimens from the remnants of the old core box. Irradiation has a minor effect on the sub-critical fatigue crack growth rate. The ultimate increase of the mean crack growth rate amounts to a factor of 2. However crack extension is strongly reduced due to the smaller crack length for crack growth instability (reduction of K IC ). - Irradiated material from the core box walls of the old vessel has been used for fracture toughness testing. The conditional fracture toughness values K IQ ranges from 30.3 down to 16.5 MPa√m. The lowermost meaningful 'K IC ' is 17.7 MPa√m corresponding to the thermal fluence of 7.5 10 26 n/m 2 for the End of Life (EOL) of the old vessel. - Testing carried out on irradiated material from the remnants of the old HFR core box shows an ultimate neutron irradiation hardening of 35 points increase of HSR 15N and an ultimate tensile yield stress of 589 MPa corresponding to the

  2. Trace aluminium determination and sampling problems of archeological bone employing destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.; Recker, R.R.; Leffler, J.A.; Teitelbaum, S.

    1978-01-01

    A destructive neutron activation analysis procedure was developed for determining trace aluminium content in bone. The method is based on a carefully planned sample preparation, irradiation at a neutron flux for 3.1x10 11 nxcm -2 xs -1 for 5 minutes, and chemical separation based on ion exchange. It was found that bone samples soaked in aluminium containing soil gave highly elevated aluminium values as a result of the aluminium adsorption into the bone matrix. The maximum aluminium content values for prehistoric bones are larger than those of modern bones and comparable to aluminium levels present in bone from renal patients. (T.G.)

  3. Use of Solid Waste (Foundry Slag) Mortar and Bamboo Reinforcement in Seismic Analysis for Single Storey Masonry Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Husain, A.; Ghani, F.; Alam, M. N.

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of large amount of solid waste (foundry slag) into alternate source of building material will contribute not only as a solution to growing waste problem, but also it will conserve the natural resources of other building material and thereby reduce the cost of construction. The present work makes an effort to safe and economic use of recycle mortar (1:6) as a supplementary material. Conventional and recycled twelve prisms were casted with varying percentage of solid waste (foundry slag) added (0, 10, 20, 30 %) replacing cement by weight and tested under compression testing machine. As the replacement is increasing, the strength is decreasing. 10 % replacement curve is very closed to 0 % whereas 20 % is farther and 30 % is farthest. 20 % replacement was chosen for dynamic testing as its strength is within permissible limit as per IS code. A 1:4 scale single storey brick model with half size brick was fabricated on shake table in the lab for dynamic testing using pure friction isolation system (coarse sand as friction material µ = 0.34). Pure friction isolation technique can be adopted economically in developing countries where low-rise building prevails due to their low cost. The superstructure was separated from the foundation at plinth level, so as to permit sliding of superstructure during severe earthquake. The observed values of acceleration and displacement responses compare fairly with the analytical values of the analytical model. It also concluded that 20 % replacement of cement by solid waste (foundry slag) could be safely adopted without endangering the safety of the masonry structures under seismic load.To have an idea that how much energy is dissipated through this isolation, the same model with fixed base was tested and results were compared with the isolated free sliding model and it has been observed that more than 60 % energy is dissipated through this pure friction isolation technique. In case of base isolation, no visible cracks

  4. Aluminium based amorphous and nanocrystalline structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, Jozef; Degmova, Jarmila, E-mail: jarmila.degmova@stuba.sk [Slovak University of Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (Slovakia)

    2005-09-15

    Aluminium based rapidly quenched alloys of nominal composition Al{sub 90}Fe{sub 7}Nb{sub 3} and Al{sub 94}Fe{sub 2}V{sub 4} were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Samples annealed up to 573 K showed amorphous structure represented by quadrupole doublet. From corrected spectra areas the values of f-factor were calculated. In the case of AlFeNb samples f-factor was estimated as f = 0.26 and for AlFeV f = 0.31. The corresponding Debye temperatures were also calculated. Higher temperature annealing at 773 and 873 K induced deformation of nano- and microcrystalline state. Moessbauer spectra of samples of both compositions (with vanadium as well as with niobium) annealed at 773 K showed superposition of crystalline phases with dominant role of Al{sub 3}Fe alloy. During annealing at 873 K, phases with large grains and small amount of FeAl metastable phase were developed (Das et al. Mat. Sci. Eng., A304-A306, 159, 2001; Illekova et al. Mat. Sci. Eng., A375-A377, 946, 2004).

  5. Aluminium based amorphous and nanocrystalline structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, Jozef; Degmova, Jarmila

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium based rapidly quenched alloys of nominal composition Al 90 Fe 7 Nb 3 and Al 94 Fe 2 V 4 were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Samples annealed up to 573 K showed amorphous structure represented by quadrupole doublet. From corrected spectra areas the values of f-factor were calculated. In the case of AlFeNb samples f-factor was estimated as f = 0.26 and for AlFeV f = 0.31. The corresponding Debye temperatures were also calculated. Higher temperature annealing at 773 and 873 K induced deformation of nano- and microcrystalline state. Moessbauer spectra of samples of both compositions (with vanadium as well as with niobium) annealed at 773 K showed superposition of crystalline phases with dominant role of Al 3 Fe alloy. During annealing at 873 K, phases with large grains and small amount of FeAl metastable phase were developed (Das et al. Mat. Sci. Eng., A304-A306, 159, 2001; Illekova et al. Mat. Sci. Eng., A375-A377, 946, 2004).

  6. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  7. Corrosion of aluminium in soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruga, M; Hasenay, D

    1996-04-01

    The corrosion of aluminium (Al) in several brands of soft drinks (cola- and citrate-based drinks) has been studied, using an electrochemical method, namely potentiodynamic polarization. The results show that the corrosion of Al in soft drinks is a very slow, time-dependent and complex process, strongly influenced by the passivation, complexation and adsorption processes. The corrosion of Al in these drinks occurs principally due to the presence of acids: citric acid in citrate-based drinks and orthophosphoric acid in cola-based drinks. The corrosion rate of Al rose with an increase in the acidity of soft drinks, i.e. with increase of the content of total acids. The corrosion rates are much higher in the cola-based drinks than those in citrate-based drinks, due to the facts that: (1) orthophosphoric acid is more corrosive to Al than is citric acid, (2) a quite different passive oxide layer (with different properties) is formed on Al, depending on whether the drink is cola or citrate based. The method of potentiodynamic polarization was shown as being very suitable for the study of corrosion of Al in soft drinks, especially if it is combined with some non-electrochemical method, e.g. graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).

  8. Oxidation of {phi}'-aluminium oxynitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xolin, E. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 20, av Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Jorand, Y., E-mail: Yves.Jorand@insa-lyon.f [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 20, av Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Olagnon, C.; Gremillard, L. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 20, av Albert Einstein, F-69621 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: Oxidation of {phi}'-AlON has been studied for the first time. First corrosion products are {gamma}-alumina. Low density {alpha}-alumina is formed at high temperature. Grains are extensively cracked after oxidation. The low density of the {alpha}-alumina is due to a network of nanometric porosities. - Abstract: The oxidation in air of single crystal {phi}'-aluminium oxynitride (AlON) grains has been characterized by thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction in the 1273-1673 K range. Two oxidation stages have been observed, suggesting the formation of a transitional phase. Below 1473 K, oxidation results in the apparition of platelets and noodle-like crystals on the surface of the initially faceted single crystals. Above 1473 K, low density {alpha}-alumina polycrystals start forming on the grain surface and grow towards the grain core with increasing temperature or time. Their low density is mainly due to the presence of a network of nano-porosities.

  9. Development and applications of ultrafine aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 20 years or so, a variety of new technologies has been developed to produce sub-micron powders. Among the products attracting interest is nanoaluminium which is being evaluated in specialist propulsion and exothermic end-uses. This paper examines the advances made in 'nanopowder' production in the context of the existing aluminium powder industry where finest commercial grades have a median size of ∼6 μm (one or two orders of magnitude coarser than nanopowders) and which today supplies the markets being targeted by nanopowders with coarser, but effective products. Are there genuine market opportunities for nanoaluminium and if so, how will they be produced? One the one hand there are the novel nanopowder production methods which are high yielding but generally slow and costly, while on the other, there is the very fine fraction from conventional atomising routes which generate a very low yield of sub-micron powder but which nevertheless can translate into a meaningful rate as part of the bulk production. Can conventional routes ever hope to make sufficient volumes of nanopowders cost effectively and which will be the favoured routes in future? Moreover, what of the 'ultrafine' size range (∼0.5-5 μm) which is of more immediate potential interest to today's powder users. This paper seeks to identify the near term opportunities for application of low volume/high value ultrafine and nano powders

  10. Design of Grain Refiners for Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronche, A.; Greer, A. L.

    The efficiency of a grain refiner can be quantified as the number of grains per nucleant particle in the solidified product. Even for effective refiners in aluminium, such as Al-5Ti-1B, it is known from experiments that efficiencies are very low, at best 10-3 to 102. It is of interest to explore the reasons for such low values, and to assess the prospects for increased efficiency though design of refiners. Recently it has been shown [1] that a simple recalescence-based model can make quantitative predictions of grain size as a function of refiner addition level, cooling rate and solute content. In the model, the initiation of grains is limited by the free growth from nucleant particles, the size distribution of which is very important. The present work uses this model as the basis for discussing the effect of particle size distribution on grain refiner performance. Larger particles (of TiB2 in the case of present interest) promote greater efficiency, as do narrower size distributions. It is shown that even if the size distribution could be exactly specified, compromises would have to be made to balance efficiency (defined as above) with other desirable characteristics of a refiner.

  11. Bioaccumulation of Aluminium in Hydromacrophytes in Polish Coastal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senze Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on aluminium content was conducted in water and on aquatic flora of Polish lakes in the central part of the coast. The study included the lakes Sarbsko, Choczewskie, Bia.e, K.odno, D.brze and Salino investigated in the summer of 2013. The examined lakes belong mainly to the direct basin of the Baltic Sea. Samples of aquatic plants and lake waters were collected. In the water samples pH and electrolytic conductivity were measured. The aluminium content was determined both in water and aquatic plants. Submerged hydromacrophyte studies included Myriophyllum alterniflorum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Emergent hydromacrophyte studies included Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Juncus bulbosus L., Iris pseudacorus L., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. % Schult., Phalaris arundinacea L., Carex riparia Curt., Mentha aquatic L., Stratiotes aloides L., Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Glyceria maxima (Hartman Holmb., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Scirpus lacustris L. and Typha angustifolia L. The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the aluminium content in submerged and emergent hydromacrophytes and also the definition of their bioaccumulative abilities. The average concentration of aluminium in water was 2.68 fęg Al dm.3. The average content of aluminium in plants was 2.8015 mg Al kg.1. The bioaccumulation factor ranged from BCF=19.74 to BCF=16619. On the basis of the analysis of the aluminium content in water and aquatic plants results show that both water and plants were characterized by a moderate level of aluminium. The recorded concentrations indicate a mid-range value and are much lower than those which are quoted for a variety of surface waters in various parts of the world.

  12. Emerging melt quality control solution technologies for aluminium melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pascual, Jr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed “MTS 1500” Melt Treatment System is performing the specifi cally required melt treatment operations like degassing, cleaning, modification and/or grain refinement by an automated process in one step and at the same location. This linked process is saving time, energy and metal losses allowing - by automated dosage of the melt treatment agents - the production of a consistent melt quality batch after batch. By linking the MTS Metal Treatment System with sensors operating on-line in the melt, i.e., with a hydrogen sensor “Alspek H”, a fully automated control of parts of the process chain like degassing is possible. This technology does guarantee a pre-specifi ed and documented melt quality in each melt treatment batch. Furthermore, to ensure that castings are consistent and predictable there is a growing realization that critical parameters such as metal cleanliness must be measured prior to casting. There exists accepted methods for measuring the cleanliness of an aluminum melt but these can be both slow and costly. A simple, rapid and meaningful method of measuring and bench marking the cleanliness of an aluminum melt has been developed to offer the foundry a practical method of measuring melt cleanliness. This paper shows the structure and performance of the integrated MTS melt treatment process and documents achieved melt quality standards after degassing, cleaning, modifi cation and grain refi nement operations under real foundry conditions. It also provides an insight on a melt cleanliness measuring device “Alspek MQ” to provide foundry men better tools in meeting the increasing quality and tighter specifi cation demand from the industry.

  13. No evidence of increased risk of soft tissue sarcomas in the neighborhood of a steel foundry in Verona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benedetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas in Verona (Italy and residence near a steel foundry, whose emissions of dioxin-like compounds may be relevant. Exposure to total suspended particulate (TSP emitted from the plant as estimated by ADMS-urban dispersion model was used as an indirect index of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Verona municipality was divided in six subareas according to the decreasing levels of estimated TSP exposure, and soft tissue sarcomas cases were mapped according to residence at time of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios were computed. No statistically significant departures between observed and expected cases were detected as illustrated by trend-test results.

  14. Recuperative aluminium recycling plant. A demonstration at J. McIntyre (Aluminium) Ltd. [Nottingham (GB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    Direct energy savings worth up to 470,000 pounds/year are being achieved by J McIntyre (Aluminium) Ltd in the United Kingdom as a result of the development of a recuperative aluminium recycling plant. The overall design incorporates a novel version of a closed-well furnace coupled with a radically improved design of dry hearth furnace. The plant not only treats clean scrap more efficiently than at present, but will also treat contaminated scrap which has not previously been recycled in an environmentally acceptable way. This is because the plant incorporates fume pyrolysis, afterburning of organics, recuperation and fume treatment. At 1987 prices the total installed plant cost was 1.3M.pounds. The direct energy saving at 1987 fuel prices was between 294,000 and 470,000pounds/year. Also, the improved melting technique has reduced metal lost as dross by 2 - 8% (420 -1,680 tonnes/year) when compared to other furnace operations. The improved metal recovery (1987 prices) was worth a further 400,000 pounds - 1,600,000 pounds. Taking median figures for the total fuel-plus-metal savings results in a payback on the project of only 14 months, some six months less than anticipated. Other consequential benefits which have also helped in reducing operating costs have been improvements in output per man, reductions in sickness and absenteeism, and reduced down-time for maintenance and repair. (author).

  15. Microstructure and properties of aluminium-aluminium oxide graded composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruzaman, F. F.; Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Ismail, N. M.; Hamedon, Z.; Iqbal, A. K. M. A.; Azhari, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research works, four-layered aluminium-aluminium oxide (Al-Al2O3) graded composite materials were fabricated using powder metallurgy (PM) method. In processing, metal-ceramic graded composite materials of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% weight percentage of ceramic concentration were prepared under 30 ton compaction load using a cylindrical die-punch set made of steel. After that, two-step pressureless sintering was carried out at sintering temperature and time 600°C and 3 hours respectively. It was observed that the sintered cylindrical specimens of 30 mm diameter were prepared successfully. The graded composite specimens were analysed and the properties such as density, microstructure and hardness were measured. It was found that after sintering process, the diameter of the graded cylindrical structure was decreased. Using both Archimedes method and rule of mixture (ROM), he density of structure was measured. The obtained results revealed that the microvickers hardness was increased as the ceramic component increases in the graded layer. Moreover, it was observed that the interface of the graded structure is clearly distinguished within the multilayer stack and the ceramic particles are almost uniformly distributed in the Al matrix.

  16. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel; Alliages d'aluminium contenant du fer et du nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H.; Fournier, R.; Grall, L.; Hure, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Departement de Metallurgie et de Chimie Appliquee (France); Herenguel, J.; Lelong, P. [Centre de Recherches d' Antony, des Trefileries et Laminoirs du Havre (France)

    1958-07-01

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  17. Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Co-continuous Interlaced Phases Aluminium-alumina Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio de Napole Gregolin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Al-5SiO2 (5 wt% of SiO2 aluminium matrix fiber composite was produced where the reinforcement consists of fossil silica fibers needles. After being heat-treated at 600 °C, the original fiber morphology was retained but its microstructure changed from solid silica to an interconnected (Al-Si/Al2O3 interlaced structure named co-continuous composite. A technique of powder metallurgy, using commercial aluminium powder and the silica fibers as starting materials, followed by hot extrusion, was used to produce the composite. The co-continuous microstructure was obtained partially or totally on the fibers as a result of the reaction, which occurs during the heat treatment, first by solid diffusion and finally by the liquid Al-Si in local equilibrium, formed with the silicon released by reaction. The internal structure of the fibers was characterized using field emission electron microscope (FEG-SEM and optical microscopy on polished and fractured samples.

  18. Influence of nanoporous structure on mechanical strength of aluminium and aluminium alloy adhesive structural joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, C; Dispenza, C; Sunseri, C

    2006-01-01

    The influence of surface treatments on the mechanical strength of adhesive joints was investigated. The attention was focused on AA2024 alloy because it is extensively used in both the automotive and aerospace industries. Adhesive joints fabricated with pure aluminium were also investigated in order to evidence possible differences in the surface features after identical treatments. Before joining with a commercial epoxy adhesive, metal substrates were subjected to different kinds of treatment and the surfaces were characterized by SEM analysis. The formation of a microporous surface in the AA2024 alloy, upon etching and anodizing, is discussed on the basis of the role of the intermetallic particles and their electrochemical behaviour with respect to the aluminium matrix. Moreover, nanostructured porous oxide layers on both type of substrate were also formed, as a consequence of the anodizing process. Differences in their morphologies were revealed as a function of both the applied voltage and the presence of alloying elements. On this basis, an explanation of the different values of fracture energy measured by means of T-peel tests carried out on the corresponding joints was attempted

  19. Monolithic silicon photonics in a sub-100nm SOI CMOS microprocessor foundry: progress from devices to systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Miloš A.; Wade, Mark T.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Sun, Chen; Georgas, Michael; Moss, Benjamin; Kumar, Rajesh; Alloatti, Luca; Pavanello, Fabio; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Nammari, Kareem; Notaros, Jelena; Atabaki, Amir; Leu, Jonathan; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2015-02-01

    We review recent progress of an effort led by the Stojanović (UC Berkeley), Ram (MIT) and Popović (CU Boulder) research groups to enable the design of photonic devices, and complete on-chip electro-optic systems and interfaces, directly in standard microelectronics CMOS processes in a microprocessor foundry, with no in-foundry process modifications. This approach allows tight and large-scale monolithic integration of silicon photonics with state-of-the-art (sub-100nm-node) microelectronics, here a 45nm SOI CMOS process. It enables natural scale-up to manufacturing, and rapid advances in device design due to process repeatability. The initial driver application was addressing the processor-to-memory communication energy bottleneck. Device results include 5Gbps modulators based on an interleaved junction that take advantage of the high resolution of the sub-100nm CMOS process. We demonstrate operation at 5fJ/bit with 1.5dB insertion loss and 8dB extinction ratio. We also demonstrate the first infrared detectors in a zero-change CMOS process, using absorption in transistor source/drain SiGe stressors. Subsystems described include the first monolithically integrated electronic-photonic transmitter on chip (modulator+driver) with 20-70fJ/bit wall plug energy/bit (2-3.5Gbps), to our knowledge the lowest transmitter energy demonstrated to date. We also demonstrate native-process infrared receivers at 220fJ/bit (5Gbps). These are encouraging signs for the prospects of monolithic electronics-photonics integration. Beyond processor-to-memory interconnects, our approach to photonics as a "More-than- Moore" technology inside advanced CMOS promises to enable VLSI electronic-photonic chip platforms tailored to a vast array of emerging applications, from optical and acoustic sensing, high-speed signal processing, RF and optical metrology and clocks, through to analog computation and quantum technology.

  20. Aluminium concentration versus the base cation to aluminium ratio as predictors for aluminium toxicity in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöll, van L.; Keltjens, W.G.; Hoffland, E.; Breemen, van N.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is considered an important factor in forest deterioration caused by soil acidification. A ratio of base cations (BC) to Al in the soil solution lower than 1 is widely used as an indicator for potentially adverse effects on tree health. In our view, the validity of the

  1. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  2. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W George

    2009-01-01

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  3. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  4. AE Monitoring of Diamond Turned Rapidly Soldified Aluminium 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onwuka, G; Abou-El-Hossein, K; Mkoko, Z

    2017-01-01

    The fast replacement of conventional aluminium with rapidly solidified aluminium alloys has become a noticeable trend in the current manufacturing industries involved in the production of optics and optical molding inserts. This is as a result of the improved performance and durability of rapidly solidified aluminium alloys when compared to conventional aluminium. Melt spinning process is vital for manufacturing rapidly solidified aluminium alloys like RSA 905, RSA 6061 and RSA 443 which are common in the industries today. RSA 443 is a newly developed alloy with few research findings and huge research potential. There is no available literature focused on monitoring the machining of RSA 443 alloys. In this research, Acoustic Emission sensing technique was applied to monitor the single point diamond turning of RSA 443 on an ultrahigh precision lathe machine. The machining process was carried out after careful selection of feed, speed and depths of cut. The monitoring process was achieved with a high sampling data acquisition system using different tools while concurrent measurement of the surface roughness and tool wear were initiated after covering a total feed distance of 13km. An increasing trend of raw AE spikes and peak to peak signal were observed with an increase in the surface roughness and tool wear values. Hence, acoustic emission sensing technique proves to be an effective monitoring method for the machining of RSA 443 alloy. (paper)

  5. Photodynamic effect of aluminium and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma cancer cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines were activated with a 672nm wavelength laser to investigate the photodynamic effects on melanoma cancer, dermal fibroblast and epidermal keratinocyte cells. Aluminium tetrasulfophthalocyanine was more...

  6. Study of ionic movements during anodic oxidation of nitrogen-implanted aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwagne, G.; Lucas, S.; Bodart, F.; Sorensen, G.; Jensen, H.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a considerable interest in synthesizing aluminium nitrides by ion implantation in order to modify the tribological properties of aluminium. The growth of an oxide layer by anodic process on these synthesized aluminium nitrides gives an interesting oxide-on-semiconductor material with surprising dynamic and decorative properties. During the anodic oxidation, ionic movements are involved in the near-surface region of the aluminium material; these ionic movements have been studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) on thin aluminium foils (7000 A) preimplanted with nitrogen and post-oxidized in an ammonium pentaborate solution. The growth of the oxide layer is reduced when the aluminium is preimplanted with nitrogen: the speed of oxidation depends on the implantation conditions (energy and fluence). Moreover, the aluminium nitride can be dissolved when all metallic aluminium staying between the surface and the AlN are consumed by the anodic process. (orig.)

  7. PEMBINAAN PENGERAJIN BOKOR ALUMINIUM DI DESA MENYALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GDE ANTARA, dkk.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluminium bowl craft industrial center is located in Menyali village Sawan district Buleleng regency of Bali province. In this business development, they faced some problems such as increasingly expensive alluminium plate raw materials, decreasing selling product prices due to competition among craftsmen, difficulty in extending the marketing, lack of capital, lack of knowledge in business management, and lack of technical capacity and production innovation. Currently the organization has been formed aluminum bowl craftsmen groups, they are “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya”. This organization is still limited to tradisional associations such as a community organization, has not led to organize in a micro-enterprise or cooperation. Their organization management should not be arranged. Therefore, they need helps from the government and other institutions to build this bowl craftsmen in developing their businesses through a group of micro-enterprises or cooperations. Wishly, with formal business entity that would facilitate access to a variety of coaching and help governments andother institutions. From the SWOT analysis, it is found some problems and solutions that should be done. Alluminium bowl craftsmen groups, named “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya” is not in the form of business entity or cooperation yet, so that the results of coaching have agreed to form a cooperation. Venture capital assistance for the development and production are still needed and to be an absolute given, but a way to market more absolute yield is given, through participation in various events exhibition to introduce the product is expected to expandits market share up to overseas or exports. In the production process it has been introduced that is appropriate technology for instant a rolling tool to make a wiring groove on the outside of the bowl, so that it will simplify and speed up the process, especially by aged mothers.Keywords: aluminium bowl, Menyali

  8. Stimulation of eryptosis by aluminium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemoeller, Olivier M.; Kiedaisch, Valentin; Dreischer, Peter; Wieder, Thomas; Lang, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Aluminium salts are utilized to impede intestinal phosphate absorption in chronic renal failure. Toxic side effects include anemia, which could result from impaired formation or accelerated clearance of circulating erythrocytes. Erythrocytes may be cleared secondary to suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the erythrocyte surface. As macrophages are equipped with PS receptors, they bind, engulf and degrade PS-exposing cells. The present experiments have been performed to explore whether Al 3+ ions trigger eryptosis. The PS exposure was estimated from annexin binding and cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis. Exposure to Al 3+ ions (≥ 10 μM Al 3+ for 24 h) indeed significantly increased annexin binding, an effect paralleled by decrease of forward scatter at higher concentrations (≥ 30 μM Al 3+ ). According to Fluo3 fluorescence Al 3+ ions (≥ 30 μM for 3 h) increased cytosolic Ca 2+ activity. Al 3+ ions (≥ 10 μM for 24 h) further decreased cytosolic ATP concentrations. Energy depletion by removal of glucose similarly triggered annexin binding, an effect not further enhanced by Al 3+ ions. The eryptosis was paralleled by release of hemoglobin, pointing to loss of cell membrane integrity. In conclusion, Al 3+ ions decrease cytosolic ATP leading to activation of Ca 2+ -permeable cation channels, Ca 2+ entry, stimulation of cell membrane scrambling and cell shrinkage. Moreover, Al 3+ ions lead to loss of cellular hemoglobin, a feature of hemolysis. Both effects are expected to decrease the life span of circulating erythrocytes and presumably contribute to the development of anemia during Al 3+ intoxication

  9. Decomposition of pre calcined aluminium silicate ores of Afghanistan by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomidi, A.K.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of pre calcined aluminium silicate ores of Afghanistan by hydrochloric acid. The physicochemical properties of initial aluminium silicate ores were studied by means of X-ray phase, differential thermal and silicate analysis. The chemical composition of aluminium containing ores was determined. The optimal conditions of interaction of initial and pre calcined siallites with hydrochloric acid were defined. The kinetics of acid decomposition of aluminium silicate ores was studied as well.

  10. IEC 61267: Feasibility of type 1100 aluminium and a copper/aluminium combination for RQA beam qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Zhao, Wei; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    In the course of performance acceptance testing, benchmarking or quality control of X-ray imaging systems, it is sometimes necessary to harden the X-ray beam spectrum. IEC 61267 specifies materials and methods to accomplish beam hardening and, unfortunately, requires the use of 99.9% pure aluminium (Alloy 1190) for the RQA beam quality, which is expensive and difficult to obtain. Less expensive and more readily available filters, such as Alloy 1100 (99.0% pure) aluminium and copper/aluminium combinations, have been used clinically to produce RQA series without rigorous scientific investigation to support their use. In this paper, simulation and experimental methods are developed to determine the differences in beam quality using Alloy 1190 and Alloy 1100. Additional simulation investigated copper/aluminium combinations to produce RQA5 and outputs from this simulation are verified with laboratory tests using different filter samples. The results of the study demonstrate that although Alloy 1100 produces a harder beam spectrum compared to Alloy 1190, it is a reasonable substitute. A combination filter of 0.5 mm copper and 2 mm aluminium produced a spectrum closer to that of Alloy 1190 than Alloy 1100 with the added benefits of lower exposures and lower batch variability. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sinter aluminium as cladding material for fuel elements; Aluminium fritte comme materiau de gainage pour les elements combustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, K E; Boudouresques, M B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Otto Fuchs, Meinerzhagen, Westfalen (Germany)

    1961-07-01

    1. Survey of the production process of sinter aluminium. 2. Description of the forming processes (extrusion, forging and rolling), whereby the production of tubing for atom piles will be explained in detail. 3. Production of ribbed tubes and tubes with close tolerances of sizes. 4. The different SAP-qualities and their properties under special consideration of the properties at elevated temperatures and the creep properties. 5. Diffusion behaviour of SAP with Be, Mg, Al, U and UO{sub 2}. 6. Corrosion behaviour in CO{sub 2} atmosphere at high temperature and in water. 7. Weldability. 8. Effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties. 9. Superiority of SAP compared with normal wrought alloys of the same composition. (author) [French] 1. Apercu des processus de production de l'aluminium fritte. 2. Expose des operations de transformation (filageries, forgeage et laminage), avec explication detaillee de la fabrication de gaine pour reacteurs. 3. Fabrication de tubes canneles et de tubes avec de faibles tolerances. 4. Diverses proprietes de l'aluminium fritte SAP, notamment proprietes aux temperatures elevees et proprietes de fluage. 5. Diffusion de l'aluminium fritte SAP en presence de Be, Mg, Al, U et UO{sub 2}. 6. Resistance a la corrosion dans une atmosphere de CO{sub 2} a temperature elevee et dans l'eau. 7. Possibilites de soudage. 8. Effet de l'irradiation sur les proprietes mecaniques. 9. Superiorite de l'aluminium fritte SAP sur les alliages forges normaux de meme composition. (auteur)

  12. Determination of ultratrace amounts of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization/ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Kakurai, Yousuke

    1993-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the 0.01 ng g -1 level of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization (ETV)/ICP-MS. This method was found to be significantly interfered with any matrices or other elements contained. An ion-exchange technique was therefore applied to separate uranium and thorium from aluminium and other elements. It was known that uranium are adsorbed on an anion-exchange resin and thorium are adsorbed on cation-exchange resin. However, aluminium and copper were eluted with 6 M hydrochloric acid. Dissolve the sample with hydrochloric acid containing copper which was added for analysis of pure aluminium, and oxidize with hydrogen peroxide. Concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution was adjusted to 6 M, and then passed the solution through the mixed ion-exchange resin column. After the uranium and thorium were eluted with 1 M hydrofluoric acid-0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the solution was evaporated to dryness. It was then dissolved with 1 M hydrochloric acid. Uranium and thorium were analyzed by ETV/ICP-MS using tungsten and molybdenum boats, respectively, since the tungsten boat contained high-level thorium and the molybdenum boat contained uranium. The determination limit of uranium and thorium were 0.003 and 0.005 ng g -1 , respectively. (author)

  13. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling.

  14. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    potential differences in the microstructure, and protection from the network of the Al3Ti phases precipitated during the heat treatment. Laser surface cladding of aluminium containing up to 20 wt. % Ti6Al4V were studied focusing on the microstructure and the alkaline corrosion properties. Due......The current project investigated the possibility of designing aluminium based coatings focusing on the effect of composition and surface finish on the optical appearance and on the alkaline corrosion properties using titanium as the main alloying element. The main results and discussions...... that the roughness after etching increases with higher amounts of alloying elements (especially iron and silicon). Proper polishing requires some alloy hardness, while alloy purity is required for a glossy appearance after anodisation. Magnetron sputtered aluminium based coatings containing up to 18 wt. % titanium...

  15. Comparative performance of aluminium copper and iron solar stills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioha, I.J.; Nwagbo, E.E.; Gulma, N.A.

    1990-12-01

    Three different metal sheets have been used in the fabrication of three different single sloping solar stills of the same surface geometry. The metals were galvanized iron, aluminium and copper. This paper presents the performance of the different stills operating under the same environmental conditions. The observed distillate yields was greatest for copper, then aluminium and lastly, iron still. The differences in the yields is attributed to the differences in the thermal conductivities of the metals. The equivalent local costs for the fabrication of the copper, aluminium and iron stills are respectively $160, $95 and $60. Taking the long run costs into consideration, the copper still is preferred because of its availability, durability, weldability and relatively higher conductivity of 380Wm -1 K -1 value. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  16. Application of Anodization Process for Cast Aluminium Surface Properties Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarczyk-Fligier A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An huge interest is observed in last years in metal matrix composite, mostly light metal based, which have found their applications in many industry branches, among others in the aircraft industry, automotive-, and armaments ones, as well as in electrical engineering and electronics, where one of the most important issue is related to the corrosion resistance, especially on the surface layer of the used aluminium alloys. This elaboration presents the influence of ceramic phase on the corrosion resistance, quality of the surface layer its thickness and structure of an anodic layer formed on aluminium alloys. As test materials it was applied the aluminium alloys Al-Si-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg, for which heat treatment processes and corrosion tests were carried out. It was presented herein grindability test results and metallographic examination, as well. Hardness of the treated alloys with those ones subjected to corrosion process were compared.

  17. Effect of microcrystallization on pitting corrosion of pure aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Guozhe; Wei Liyan; Zhang Tao; Shao Yawei; Wang Fuhui; Dong Chaofang; Li Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    A microcrystalline aluminium film with grain size of about 400 nm was prepared by magnetron sputtering technique. Its corrosion behaviour was investigated in NaCl containing acidic solution by means of potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical noise (EN). The polarization results indicated that the corrosion potential of the sample shifted towards more positive direction, while its corrosion current density decreased compared with that of pure coarse-grain Al. The EN analysis based on stochastic model demonstrated that there existed two kinds of effect of microcrystallization on the pitting behaviour of pure aluminium: (1) the rate of pit initiation is accelerated, (2) the pit growth process was impeded. This leads to the enhancement of pitting resistance for the microcrystallized aluminium.

  18. Modelling of micro- and macrosegregation for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, K; M'Hamdi, M; Mortensen, D

    2015-01-01

    Realistic predictions of macrosegregation formation during casting of aluminium alloys requires an accurate modeling of solute microsegregation accounting for multicomponent phase diagrams and secondary phase formation. In the present work, the stand alone Alstruc model, a microsegregation model for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys, is coupled with the continuum model ALSIM which calculates the macroscopic transport of mass, enthalpy, momentum, and solutes as well as stresses and deformation during solidification of aluminium. Alstruc deals with multicomponent alloys accounting for temperature dependent partition coefficients, liquidus slopes and the precipitation of secondary phases. The challenge associated with computation of microsegregation for multicomponent alloys is solved in Alstruc by approximating the phase diagram data by simple, analytical expressions which allows for a CPU-time efficient coupling with the macroscopic transport model. In the present work, the coupled model has been applied in a study of macrosegregation including thermal and solutal convection, solidification shrinkage and surface exudation on an industrial DC-cast billet. (paper)

  19. Different Approach to the Aluminium Oxide Topography Characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poljacek, Sanja Mahovic; Gojo, Miroslav; Raos, Pero; Stoic, Antun

    2007-01-01

    Different surface topographic techniques are being widely used for quantitative measurements of typical industrial aluminium oxide surfaces. In this research, specific surface of aluminium oxide layer on the offset printing plate has been investigated by using measuring methods which have previously not been used for characterisation of such surfaces. By using two contact instruments and non-contact laser profilometer (LPM) 2D and 3D roughness parameters have been defined. SEM micrographs of the samples were made. Results have shown that aluminium oxide surfaces with the same average roughness value (Ra) and mean roughness depth (Rz) typically used in the printing plate surface characterisation, have dramatically different surface topographies. According to the type of instrument specific roughness parameters should be used for defining the printing plate surfaces. New surface roughness parameters were defined in order to insure detailed characterisation of the printing plates in graphic reproduction process

  20. Quantitative electron probe microanalysis of borides in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karduck, P.; Schuerhoff, H.J.; Burchard, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of borides in aluminium was introduced. For this purpose the optimal apparative boundary conditions for the EPMA of boron were worked out. With these conditions a satisfactory peak to background ratio of 57 could be achieved for B-Kα-radiation. By application of this method the following conclusion should be drawn concerning the kind of nuclei during grain refinement of aluminium with titanium and boron: For grain refinement of aluminium with titanium and boron in the hypoperitectic region of the binary system Al-Ti TiB 2 -particles in clusters provide the high efficiency of refinement. This entails that the TiB 2 -particles already present in the master alloy remain inert in the melt. Hence, the good efficiency of refinement in this region cannot be attributed to the presence of particles like Al 3 Ti, AlB 2 or (Al, Ti) B 2 . (Author)

  1. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, V.A.; Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Chukin, A.V.; Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V.; Osipenko, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  2. Thermodynamic properties of uranium in gallium–aluminium based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkovich, V.A., E-mail: v.a.volkovich@urfu.ru [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Maltsev, D.S.; Yamshchikov, L.F. [Department of Rare Metals and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Chukin, A.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Applied Mathematics, Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation); Smolenski, V.V.; Novoselova, A.V. [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry UD RAS, Ekaterinburg, 620137 (Russian Federation); Osipenko, A.G. [JSC “State Scientific Centre - Research Institute of Atomic Reactors”, Dimitrovgrad, 433510 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium-aluminium alloys containing 1.6 (eutectic), 5 and 20 wt.% aluminium. Additionally, activity of uranium was determined in aluminium and Ga–Al alloys containing 0.014–20 wt.% Al. Experiments were performed up to 1073 K. Intermetallic compounds formed in the alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of U in the studied alloys were calculated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamics of uranium is determined in Ga–Al alloys of various compositions. • Uranium in the mixed alloys interacts with both components, Ga and Al. • Interaction of U with Al increases with decreasing temperature. • Activity and solubility of uranium depend on Al content in Ga–Al alloys.

  3. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cieśla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method and a graphical method. Choosing the best offer and prioritizing suppliers allows not only the most rational decision in the field of supply logistics to be taken but also the quality of service in the metallurgical industry to be improved.

  4. Light-weight aluminium bridges and bridge decks. An overview of recent applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Kluyver, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The last decades have shown a large increase in the application of aluminium alloys for light-weight bridges. For bridge construction, aluminium alloys have some specific advantages, but also some points of attention. This paper deals with some recent projects of aluminium bridges, and for these

  5. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regnier, M.; Metz, B.; Tilstra, W.; Hendriksen, C.; Jiskoot, W.; Norde, W.; Kersten, G.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide

  6. Simultaneous determination of aluminium and phosphorus by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatschke, W.; Gawlik, D.

    1980-01-01

    With the use of the pneumatic tube system of the BER II reactor, the irradiation position of which is equipped with a movable cadmium shield, the aluminium and phosphorus levels in bone powder and in human bone biopsies were determined. The contribution of aluminium and phosphorus to the 28 Al activity could be separated mathematically after the samples had been irradiated with and without cadmium shielding. The sensitivity and limit of quantitative determination of the analytical procedure were determined using the addition method and the fact that the levels of each element measured was independent of the amount of the other element was proved. (author)

  7. Electrochemical noise from corroding carbon steel and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.R.; Gaonkar, K.B.; De, P.K.; Banerjee, S.

    1997-05-01

    Electrochemical noise measurements were conducted on carbon steel and aluminium in sodium chloride solutions. Noise parameters like standard deviation of potential and current, noise resistance, pitting index, noise power were studied for the purpose of measuring corrosion rate. These parameters compared well with the corrosion rate. Pitting index was not very reliable. Current noise was more close to the corrosion rates. General corrosion gave rise to white noise type of power spectrum while flicker noise type of spectrum was obtained from pitting attack. Sodium nitrite is shown to inhibit the corrosion of carbon steel. Aluminium corrodes in the early period of exposure and passivates during long exposure

  8. Spectrofluorimetric determination of microquantities of aluminium in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomiero, L.A.; Nascimento, M.R.L. do; Abraao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the separation and spectrofluorimetric determination of microamounts of aluminium in uranium compounds is described. In sodium carbonate solution at pH 9.5-10.0, the uranyl ion forms a very stable anionic complex with the carbonate ion. In these conditions, uranium is not extracted by a chloroform oxine solution, while alumium is isolated as the tris(oxinate)aluminium(III) form. The interferences are previously extracted with chloroform as diethylditiocarbomates in the same tris(oxinate)aluminum(III) pH extraction. The sensitivity is 0,005 μ Al/ml of organic phase and the relative standard deviation is 10% [pt

  9. Determination of cadmium in aluminium by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batistoni, D.A.; Erlijman, L.H.

    1978-12-01

    A direct method for the determination of cadmium in elemental aluminium is described. Metal samples are dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid and cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in an air-acetylene flame. Interference by non-specific absorption observed at the analytical wavelength incorrected for by means of a non-absorbing line emitted by the hollow-cathode lamp. Relatively large amounts of arsenic do not interfere. The minimun determinable concentration of cadmium for this procedure is 2-3 ppm, expressed on aluminium basis. (author) [es

  10. Materials and ceramics on the base of aluminium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamova, D.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of the doping and technological parameters on the thermodynamical stability of the aluminium titanate is investigated. The condition necessary to make aluminium titanate stable and established. it is shown, how the condition of the synthesis and the content of the admixture phases affect the stability of the solid solutions. The technology of obtaining the ceramics stable with respect to decay (with thermal expansion coefficient CTE = 26x10/sup -6/ grad/sup -1/ and thermoresistancy > 80 heating cycles, sigma curve equal or greater than 80 Mpa) is worked out. (author)

  11. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  12. Towards an understanding of the adjuvant action of aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrack, Philippa; McKee, Amy S.; Munks, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of vaccines depends on the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the antigen. Of these adjuvants, the ones that contain aluminium, which were first discovered empirically in 1926, are currently the most widely used. However, a detailed understanding of their mechanism of action has only started to be revealed. In this Timeline article, we briefly describe the initial discovery of aluminium adjuvants and discuss historically important advances. We also summarize recent progress in the field and discuss their implications and the remaining questions on how these adjuvants work. PMID:19247370

  13. Silver coated aluminium microrods as highly colloidal stable SERS platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Borke, Tina; Andreeva, Daria V; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2011-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of a novel material with the ability to remain in solution even under the very demanding conditions required for structural and dynamic characterization of biomacromolecule assays. This stability is provided by the increase in surface area of a low density material (aluminium) natively coated with a very hydrophilic surface composed of aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) and metallic silver nanoparticles. Additionally, due to the dense collection of active hot spots on their surface, this material offers higher levels of SERS intensity as compared with the same free and aggregated silver nanoparticles. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. High-purity aluminium creep under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajtsev, V.I.; Lyafer, E.I.; Tokij, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the rate of steady-state creep of high-purity aluminium was investigated. It is shown that the hydrostatic pressure inhibits the creep. The activation volume of the creep is independent of the direction in the range of (4.7-6.2) kg/mm 2 and of the pressure in the range of (1-7.8000) atm. It is concluded that self-diffusion does not control the creep of high-purity aluminium at room temperature in the investigated stress and pressure range

  15. Bioactive type glass-ceramics within incorporated aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volzone, C.; Stabile, F.M.; Ortiga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics are used as biomaterials for the reparation of bone tissue. They are prepared, generally, by bioglass of specific composition for each particular use. The aluminium addition in the formulation at very small quantities influences on the structural properties. Two glass-ceramics obtained by P 2 O 5 -Na 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 formulation within aluminium (0.5 % in Al 2 O 3 base) added through a reactive alumina and purified feldspar were analyzed. The results showed structural differences between both glass-ceramics. (author)

  16. Do oral aluminium phosphate binders cause accumulation of aluminium to toxic levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Norman B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminium (Al toxicity was frequent in the 1980s in patients ingesting Al containing phosphate binders (Alucaps whilst having HD using water potentially contaminated with Al. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of Al toxicity in HD patients receiving Alucaps but never exposed to contaminated dialysate water. Methods HD patients only treated with Reverse Osmosis(RO treated dialysis water with either current or past exposure to Alucaps were given standardised DFO tests. Post-DFO serum Al level > 3.0 μmol/L was defined to indicate toxic loads based on previous bone biopsy studies. Results 39 patients (34 anuric were studied. Mean dose of Alucap was 3.5 capsules/d over 23.0 months. Pre-DFO Al levels were > 1.0 μmol/L in only 2 patients and none were > 3.0 μmol/L. No patients had a post DFO Al levels > 3.0 μmol/L. There were no correlations between the serum Al concentrations (pre-, post- or the incremental rise after DFO administration and the total amount of Al ingested. No patients had unexplained EPO resistance or biochemical evidence of adynamic bone. Conclusions Although this is a small study, oral aluminium exposure was considerable. Yet no patients undergoing HD with RO treated water had evidence of Al toxicity despite doses equivalent to 3.5 capsules of Alucap for 2 years. The relationship between the DFO-Al results and the total amount of Al ingested was weak (R2 = 0.07 and not statistically significant. In an era of financial prudence, and in view of the recognised risk of excess calcium loading in dialysis patients, perhaps we should re-evaluate the risk of using Al-based phosphate binders in HD patients who remain uric.

  17. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  18. Corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent fuel in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes research performed in ten laboratories within the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water. The project consisted of exposure of standard racks of corrosion coupons in the spent fuel pools of the participating research reactor laboratories and the evaluation of the coupons after predetermined exposure times, along with periodic monitoring of the storage water. A group of experts in the field contributed a state of the art review and provided technical supervision of the project. Localized corrosion mechanisms are notoriously difficult to understand, and it was clear from the outset that obtaining consistency in the results and their interpretation from laboratory to laboratory would depend on the development of an excellent set of experimental protocols. These experimental protocols are described in the report together with guidelines for the maintenance of optimum water chemistry to minimize the corrosion of aluminium clad research reactor fuel in wet storage. A large database on corrosion of aluminium clad materials has been generated from the CRP and the SRS corrosion surveillance programme. An evaluation of these data indicates that the most important factors contributing to the corrosion of the aluminium are: (1) High water conductivity (100-200 μS/cm); (2) Aggressive impurity ion concentrations (Cl - ); (3) Deposition of cathodic particles on aluminium (Fe, etc.); (4) Sludge (containing Fe, Cl - and other ions in concentrations greater than ten times the concentrations in the water); (5) Galvanic couples between dissimilar metals (stainless steel-aluminium, aluminium-uranium, etc); (6) Scratches and imperfections (in protective oxide coating on cladding); (7) Poor water circulation. These factors operating both independently and synergistically may cause corrosion of the aluminium. The single most important key to preventing corrosion is maintaining good

  19. Environmental characterization foundry sands used in sanitary landfills; Caracterizacao ambiental de areias descartadas de fundicao utilizadas na cobertura de residuos em aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, L.G.F.; Ferreira, G.C.S.; Pires, M.S.G.; Teixeira, I.; Carnin, R.; Sarro, W.S., E-mail: lucienegferrari@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The national solid waste policy recommends reducing solid waste generation and reusing them in different applications. Preliminary studies show that the foundry sand generated from cast metal parts undercut, has excellent applicability in grain size stabilization of soils for geotechnical functions, and therefore, should not be discarded as waste. This study aimed at environmental characterization of two lots of waste foundry sand (WFS), from different industries, to the particle size stabilization of a clayey soil for use in coverage of solid waste in landfills. The methodology included physicochemical characterization tests (grain size, permeability, XRF and heavy metals) and environmental (NBR 10004: 2004, NBR 10005: 2004, NBR 10006: 20004 and acute toxicity with Vibrio fischeri). The results prove the environmental viability of using these lots of WFS as functional material in the composition of landfills. (author)

  20. Metallurgy and foundry practice. German-English. With 40,000 citations. Metallurgie und Giessereitechnik. Deutsch-Englisch. Mit etwa 40,000 Wortstellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoelzel, K [ed.

    1986-01-01

    The dictionary represents the German-English terminology of the broad field of metallurgy (the dressing of ores and fluxes, pig iron and steel making, powder and nonferrous metallurgy, forming processes etc.) as well as of the broad field of foundry practice. Apart from the theoretical fundamental principles emphasis is on the problems of materials working and materials testing. Moreover, the dictionary considers a number of technical terms concerning the hardening, surface treatment and corrosion of materials.

  1. Experimental weathering rates of aluminium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudbrandsson, Snorri

    2013-01-01

    The chemical weathering of primary rocks and minerals in natural systems has a major impact on soil development and its composition. Chemical weathering is driven to a large extent by mineral dissolution. Through mineral dissolution, elements are released into groundwater and can readily react to precipitate secondary minerals such as clays, zeolites, and carbonates. Carbonates form from divalent cations (e.g. Ca, Fe and Mg) and CO 2 , and kaolin clay and gibbsite formation is attributed to the weathering of aluminium-rich minerals, most notably the feldspars. The CarbFix Project in Hellisheidi (SW-Iceland) aims to use natural weathering processes to form carbonate minerals by the re-injection of CO 2 from a geothermal power plant back into surrounding basaltic rocks. This process is driven by the dissolution of basaltic rocks, rich in divalent cations, which can combine with injected CO 2 to form and precipitate carbonates. This thesis focuses on the dissolution behaviour of Stapafell crystalline basalt, which consists of three major phases (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine) and is rich in divalent cations. Steady-state element release rates from crystalline basalt at far-from-equilibrium conditions were measured at pH from 2 to 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75 C in mixed-flow reactors. Steady-state Si and Ca release rates exhibit a U-shaped variation with pH, where rates decrease with increasing pH at acid condition but increase with increasing pH at alkaline conditions. Silicon release rates from crystalline basalt are comparable to Si release rates from basaltic glass of the same chemical composition at low pH and temperatures ≥25 C but slower at alkaline pH and temperatures ≥50 C. In contrast, Mg and Fe release rates decrease continuously with increasing pH at all temperatures. This behaviour is interpreted to stem from the contrasting dissolution behaviours of the three major minerals comprising the basalt: plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. Element

  2. Deformation twinning in zinc-aluminium single crystals after slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, P.; Kral, F.; Trojanova, Z.; Kral, R.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation twinning in Zn-Al single crystals deformed by slip in the basal system is examined. The influence of temperature and the content of aluminium in zinc on the twinning stress is investigated in the temperature range from 198 to 373 K. It is shown that the twinning stress rises with increasing temperature and increases with the concentration of Al atoms. (orig.)

  3. Ultraviolet sensing properties of polyvinyl alcohol-coated aluminium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Undoped and aluminium (Al)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have been synthesized by electrochemical route. The synthesized materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible spectrometer and scanning electron microscope. The Al-doped ZnO nanorods have been coated with polyvinyl alcohol.

  4. Oxygen–induced barrier height changes in aluminium – amorphous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the application of voltage causes charge exchange between the surface states and the semiconductor leading to a change in the height of the potential barrier for electrons passing from aluminium into the a-Se films. The empirically determined values of barrier height of Al/a-Se diodes with thin and ...

  5. Microstructure and defect chemistry of yttrium aluminium garnet ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, L.H.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes basic aspects concerning the defect chemistry and the microstructure of yttrium aluminium garnet ceramics. The work consists of three parts: a literature study, an experimental part and a section giving computer simulation data of defects. (author). 320 refs.; 68 figs.; 72 schemes; 32 tabs

  6. Optimization of aluminium stressed skin panels in offshore applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, van B.W.E.M.; Soetens, F.; Songmene, V.

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Eurocode 9 specific design rules for the calculation of aluminium stressed skin panels are available. These design rules have been used for optimization of two extrusions: one for explosions and wind loading governing and one for explosions and floor loading governing. The

  7. Pressurized air ionization chamber with aluminium walls for radiometric dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.G.S.; Pela, C.A.; Netto, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized air ionization chamber with 23 cm 3 and aluminium walls is evaluated concerning its sensitiveness in low exposure rate. Considering conventional ionization chambers, this chamber shows a better performance since the air pressure of 2500 kPa minimizes the energy dependence to less than 5% between 40 and 1.250 keV

  8. Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... and Maroon (Al tolerant) were grown on hydroponic solution (non modified Hoagland) containing AlCl3 (0-100-200-300 μM). Factorial ...

  9. Novel package for inhibition of aluminium corrosion in alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M.; Khamis, E.; Abo-Eldahab, H.; Adeel, Sh.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of aluminium corrosion in 2 M sodium hydroxide solution by a package composed of the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and lupine seed extract has been investigated employing different electrochemical techniques and chemical gasometry measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements showed that lupine seed extract controls both the anodic dissolution of aluminium and the hydrogen gas evolved at the cathodic sites of aluminium surface. Nyquist plots showed two capacitive semicircles in the high and low frequency regions separated by an inductive loop at intermediate frequencies. The inductive loop may be explained by the occurrence of adsorbed intermediates on the surface. A proposed equivalent circuit was used to analyse the impedance spectra for aluminium in NaOH solutions. The corrosion inhibition data have been analysed using different isotherms. The results showed excellent agreement between the kinetic-thermodynamic model and Flory-Huggins isotherm. Gasometry measurements showed that the Inhibitive effect of the surfactant increases at a composition around its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The presence of both the surfactant and lupine seed extract did not indicate synergistic action between them. The mode of adsorption of the surfactant molecules corresponding to their structure is also discussed.

  10. Determination of parameters in elasto-plastic models of aluminium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.H.H.; Oomens, C.W.J.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Petterson, R.; Janssen, J.D.; Sol, H.; Oomens, C.W.J.

    1997-01-01

    A mixed numerical-experimental method is used to determine parameters in elasto-plastic constitutive models. An aluminium plate of non-standard geometry is mounted in a uniaxial tensile testing machine at which some adjustments are made to carry out shear tests. The sample is loaded and the total

  11. Effects of Aluminium in Forest. Results of a pilot experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, J; Wit, H de; Nygaard, P H

    1996-01-01

    This conference paper deals with an Norwegian pilot project which started in 1995 and finishing early 1999, investigates the solubility and phyto-toxicity of aluminium (Al) in mature forest ecosystems. The project consists of three major parts, including field manipulation study of Norwegian spruce stands, laboratory experiments and modelling Al chemistry in the root zone. 15 refs.

  12. Establishment of Integrated Information Displays in Aluminium Surfaces Using Nanomanufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen has been working with a method for manufacturing ultra-thin structures in Aluminium that can be penetrated by light. This has resulted in a patent describing how to obtain this effect by etching of local areas in a solid material. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum......-short pulses, selective etching + anodizing, and electrochemical machining....

  13. Superhydrophobic coatings for aluminium surfaces synthesized by chemical etching process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Varshney

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the superhydrophobic coatings on aluminium surfaces were prepared by two-step (chemical etching followed by coating and one-step (chemical etching and coating in a single step processes using potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Besides, surface immersion time in solutions was varied in both processes. Wettability and surface morphologies of treated aluminium surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurement technique and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Microstructures are formed on the treated aluminium surfaces which lead to increase in contact angle of the surface (>150°. Also on increasing immersion time, contact angle further increases due to increase in size and depth of microstructures. Additionally, these superhydrophobic coatings show excellent self-cleaning and corrosion-resistant behavior. Water jet impact, floatation on water surface, and low temperature condensation tests assert the excellent water-repellent nature of coatings. Further, coatings are to be found mechanically, thermally, and ultraviolet stable. Along with, these coatings are found to be excellent regeneration ability as verified experimentally. Although aforesaid both processes generate durable and regenerable superhydrophobic aluminium surfaces with excellent self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, and water-repellent characteristics, but one-step process is proved more efficient and less time consuming than two-step process and promises to produce superhydrophobic coatings for industrial applications.

  14. Novel package for inhibition of aluminium corrosion in alkaline solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M., E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Khamis, E.; Abo-Eldahab, H.; Adeel, Sh. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2010-11-01

    Inhibition of aluminium corrosion in 2 M sodium hydroxide solution by a package composed of the cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and lupine seed extract has been investigated employing different electrochemical techniques and chemical gasometry measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization curve measurements showed that lupine seed extract controls both the anodic dissolution of aluminium and the hydrogen gas evolved at the cathodic sites of aluminium surface. Nyquist plots showed two capacitive semicircles in the high and low frequency regions separated by an inductive loop at intermediate frequencies. The inductive loop may be explained by the occurrence of adsorbed intermediates on the surface. A proposed equivalent circuit was used to analyse the impedance spectra for aluminium in NaOH solutions. The corrosion inhibition data have been analysed using different isotherms. The results showed excellent agreement between the kinetic-thermodynamic model and Flory-Huggins isotherm. Gasometry measurements showed that the Inhibitive effect of the surfactant increases at a composition around its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The presence of both the surfactant and lupine seed extract did not indicate synergistic action between them. The mode of adsorption of the surfactant molecules corresponding to their structure is also discussed.

  15. AC-Conductivity measurements on γ-aluminium oxynitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, H.X.; Hal, van P.F.; Metselaar, R.; With, de G.

    1995-01-01

    AC-conductivity measurements were performed on aluminium oxynitrides (Alons) because of their interesting defect structure. Although it became apparent that these Alons are not stable in the temperature range used, the electrical properties of the materials could be measured with impedance

  16. Sol–gel preparation of selected lanthanide aluminium garnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubnikova, N.; Garskaite, E.; Pinkas, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Beganskiene, A.; Kareiva, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2010), s. 213-219 ISSN 0928-0707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : lanthanide aluminium garnets * sol-gel processing Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.525, year: 2010

  17. Hydrogen evolution from aluminium in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlberg, G.; Sundvall, S.-B.

    1982-01-01

    Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to conditions similar to BWR and PWR containment spray waters at 50, 100 and 150 0 C. BWR deionized water gives corrosion rates of at most 0.05 mm/year and hydrogen concentrations less than 0.1-1%. On the contrary PWR alkaline solutions give very high corrosion rates and hydrogen contents. (Auth.)

  18. Hydrogen generation from aluminium corrosion in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, W.; Karlberg, G.; Sundvall, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    The aluminium corrosion experiments in reactor containment spray solutions, under the conditions expected to prevail during LOCA in BWR and PWR, were performed in order to investigate relationships between temperature, pH and hydrogen production rates. In order to simulate the conditions in a BWR containment realistic ratios between aluminium surface and water volume and between aluminium surface and oxygen volume were used. Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to spray solutions: AA 1050, AA 5052 and AA 6082. The corrosion rates were measured for BWR solutions (deaerated and aerated) with pH 5 and 9 at 50, 100 and 150 0 C. The pressure was constantly 0.8 MPa. The hydrogen production rate was measured by means of gas chromatography. In deionized BWR water the corrosion rates did not exceed about 0.05 mm/year in all cases, i.e. were practically independent of temperature and pH. Hydrogen concentrations were less than 0.1 vol.% in cooled dry gas. Corrosion rates and hydrogen production in PWR alkaline solution measured at pH 9.7 and 150 0 C were very high. AA 5052 alloy was the best material

  19. Contribution to comprehensive study of aluminium alloy Aa 5083 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Corrosion induced by elemental mercury in aqueous media of industrial Aluminium alloys AA5083 used in heat exchanger industries of natural gas liquefaction has been studied by linear sweep voltammétry on ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. Aluminium Structures in Building and Civil Engineering Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.

    2010-01-01

    Structural applications of aluminium are considered in this paper. Although the discussion is mainly devoted to Europe, the paper also refers, where possible, to developments in other parts of the world. The problems faced by a designer in creating an optimum design are described, followed by a