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Sample records for aluminium chlorides

  1. Solidification of spent TBP solvent with aluminium chloride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new techniques for processing spent TBP was investigated. It was proved that treatment of TBP containing DBP with aluminium chloride resulted in the formation of aluminium phosphate suitable for long term storage and final disposal

  2. Preparation of polymeric aluminium ferric chloride from bauxite tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Ma D; Guo M; Zhang M

    2013-01-01

    Bauxite tailings are the main solid wastes in the ore dressing process. The Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents in bauxite tailings can reach 50% and 13% respectively. The present study proposed a feasible method to use bauxite tailings to prepare polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), a new composite inorganic polymer for water purification. Bauxite tailings roasted reacting with hydrochloric acid under air, pickle liquor which mainly contains Fe3+, Al3+ was generated, then calcium aluminate...

  3. Preparation of polymeric aluminium ferric chloride from bauxite tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauxite tailings are the main solid wastes in the ore dressing process. The Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents in bauxite tailings can reach 50% and 13% respectively. The present study proposed a feasible method to use bauxite tailings to prepare polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC, a new composite inorganic polymer for water purification. Bauxite tailings roasted reacting with hydrochloric acid under air, pickle liquor which mainly contains Fe3+, Al3+ was generated, then calcium aluminate was used to adjust pH value and the basicity of the pickle liquor, the PAFC was subsequently prepared after the polymerization process. The optimal synthesizing parameters for the preparation of PAFC obtained were as follows: the concentration of hydrochloric acid of 24 wt%, ratio of hydrochloric acid to bauxite tailings of 6:1, temperature of 90ºC, leaching time of 2.5 hours, ration of pickle liquor to calcium aluminate of 12:1, polymerization temperature of 90ºC and polymerization time of about 3 hours. The basicity of PAFC was higher than 68%, the sum concentration of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 was beyond 12.5%. The results of flocculation tests indicate that the PAFC has a better performance of removing the turbidity of wastewater compared to PAC, and PAFC prepared by bauxite tailings is a kind of high quality flocculants.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation.

  5. Chromium, aluminium and titanium effect on nickel corrosion resistance in sodium sulfate and chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to determine corrosion resistance of binary nickel alloys, alloyed with aluminium, titanium and chromium, in sodium sulfate and chloride melts. The content of aluminium, titanium and chromium varied from 0 up to 13,2; 21.4 and 36%, respectively. It was estabslished that resistance against slulfide corrosion grows in chromium-alloyed nickel and deoreases in nickel alloyed with aluminium and titanium. Nickel-chronium solid solutions containing > 16 to 17% Cr are characterized by the maximal stability in sodium sulfide melt and Ni3Al and Ni3Ti intermetallics -by the minimal one. Alloying nickel with aluminium titanium (up to 6 to 8%) and chromium (up to 10 to 12%) increases its resistance aginst sodium chloride melt. Binary Ni-Al-, Ni-Ti- and ternary Ni-Al-Ti-alloys possess a lower corrosion resistance in sodium sulfate as compared to sodium chloride

  6. Growth of L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride single crystal for OLED and super-capacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, D.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Theras, J. Elberin Mary; Jayaraman, D.; Joseph, V.

    2015-12-01

    L-Valinium Aluminium Chloride (LVAC), a novel semi-organic material, was grown using slow evaporation under isothermal condition. The single crystal data reveal that the grown crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The SEM micrographs give clear picture about the surface morphology. Further, they confirm the inclusion of aluminium chloride into atomic sites of L-Valine. The compositional elements present in the crystal were identified through EDAX analysis. The mass spectral analysis was carried out to determine the molecular weight of the grown crystal. The optical transparency of the grown crystal was investigated by UV-vis-NIR spectrum. FTIR spectral study was used to identify the functional groups present in the grown material. The luminescence characteristics of grown material were analysed to confirm the effect of metal ion on the ligand. This property makes the material suitable for OLED application. The supercapacitive performance of the grown crystal was finally studied using cyclic voltammetry.

  7. Carbon treated commercial aluminium alloys as anodes for aluminium-air batteries in sodium chloride electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M.; Herranz, D.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2016-09-01

    An easy treatment based in carbon layer deposition into aluminium alloys is presented to enhance the performance of Al-air primary batteries with neutral pH electrolyte. The jellification of aluminate in the anode surface is described and avoided by the carbon covering. Treated commercial Al alloys namely Al1085 and Al7475 are tested as anodes achieving specific capacities above 1.2 Ah g-1vs 0.5 Ah g-1 without carbon covering. The influence of the binder proportion in the treatment as well as different carbonaceous materials, Carbon Black, Graphene and Pyrolytic Graphite are evaluated as candidates for the covering. Current densities of 1-10 mA cm-2 are measured and the influence of the alloy explored. A final battery design of 4 cells in series is presented for discharges with a voltage plateau of 2 V and 1 Wh g-1 energy density.

  8. Effect of the temperature and the chlorine pressure, over the aluminium chlorides obtained by direct chlorination of the 6061 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aluminium chloride is synthesized by direct chlorination of aluminium, in agreement with the following reaction: Al(s) + 3/2 Cl2 AlCl3 (s,g).The present work focuses on the preparation of aluminium chlorides by two methods: (a) Chlorination of 6061 aluminium alloy with gaseous chlorine in sealed containers, filled with different pressures of gas, from 0.8 to 74 Kpa and in the range of temperature between 2000 and 5000C.(b) Chlorination of the same alloy in chlorine flow between 1500 and 4000C.In the sealed systems, the hexahydrated aluminium trichloride predominated over the anhydrous form. For pressures lower than 14 Kpa and temperatures under 2500C, the chloride didn't appear.The residues were rich in aluminium, chlorine and magnesium.In the other systems, the anhydrous chloride was found in the areas of the reactor of temperatures above 1000C, for all the thermal treatments. The waste was composed by CrCl3 and AlCl3.6H2O.The influence of the chlorine pressures and the heating temperature over the characteristics of the product, was studied.The characterization techniques were x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the evolution of the structure was followed by scanning electron microscopy

  9. Investigation of effect of some factors on boron coprecipitaion from magnesium chloride brines by aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions of precipitation of boron with aluminium hydroxide from natural magnesium chloride solutions of different concentration and from artificial solutions of boric acid with the same content of magnesium chloride were investigated. The effect of acidity on precipitation of boron with aluminium hydroxide was investigated over the pH range from 4.5 to 8.0. The dependence of the degree of boron extraction on pH has two maxima and one minimum. For concentrated mother liquors the maximum is at pH=5.0, and for dilute ones, at pH=6.5. The nature of the metal hydroxide and of the anions present in the solutions affects the shift of the maximum and minimum of boron extraction. It has been established that with an increase in temperature from 15 deg C to 45 deg C boron precipitation from weakly acid solutions decreases as a result of destruction of the boron polyanions with the formation of orthoboric acid. In a weakly alkaline medium, however, boron extraction increases due to additional release of magnesium hydroxide

  10. Zinc(II)-Chloride Induced Thioalkylation of Aluminium Enolates : Enantioselective Synthesis of Estradiol-3-Methyl-17-tert-Butyl Diether

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Ulrich; Kohler, Thomas; Taapken, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Zinc(II)-chloride induced thioalkylation of the aluminium enolate 6 generated by conlugate reduction of the enone 5 leads - directly or via its trimethylsilylenol ether 6 - to alkylated hydrindanones 10 which are important intermediates in the synthesis of 19-norsteroids such as the title compound estradiol-3-methyl-17-tert-butyl diether 12

  11. Effects of aluminium chloride and aluminium chlorohydrate on DNA repair in MCF10A immortalised non-transformed human breast epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasani, A; Darbre, P D

    2015-11-01

    Use of underarm aluminium (Al)-based antiperspirant salts may be a contributory factor in breast cancer development. At the 10th Keele meeting, Al was reported to cause anchorage-independent growth and double strand DNA breaks in MCF10A immortalised non-transformed human breast epithelial cells. We now report that exposure of MCF10A cells to Al chloride or Al chlorohydrate also compromised DNA repair systems. Long-term (19-21 weeks) exposure to Al chloride or Al chlorohydrate at a 10(-4) M concentration resulted in reduced levels of BRCA1 mRNA as determined by real-time RT-PCR and BRCA1 protein as determined by Western immunoblotting. Reduced levels of mRNA for other DNA repair genes (BRCA2, CHK1, CHK2, Rad51, ATR) were also observed using real-time RT-PCR. Loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene function has long been associated with inherited susceptibility to breast cancer but these results suggest that exposure to aluminium-based antiperspirant salts may also reduce levels of these key components of DNA repair in breast epithelial cells. If Al can not only damage DNA but also compromise DNA repair systems, then there is the potential for Al to impact on breast carcinogenesis.

  12. Ameliorating Effect of Ginger Extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe on Liver Marker Enzymes, Lipid Profile in Aluminium chloride Induced Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kalaiselvi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, aluminium (Al exposure has been increasing and it has the potential to be toxic in animal and humans. In recent years, ginger has become a subject of interest because of its beneficial effects on human health. The purpose of the present study to investigate the effect of ginger extract on serum biochemical parameters of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 induced male rats. 24 Wistar rats (6 in each group distributed into 4 groups. Control group received distilled water as vehicle; In E1 group, animal received AlCl3 orally (100 mg/kg bw, E2 group received AlCl3 (100 mg/kg bw and simultaneously with ginger extract (50 mg/kg bw and E3 group received ginger extract alone (50 mg/kg bw for 60 days. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected for separating the serum for biochemical analyses. The results showed that oral administration of aluminium revealed a significant increase in the levels of serum glucose, total protein, globulin, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, lipid profile and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP and no change was noted in bilirubin. The extract of ginger decreased the activities serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, lipid profile and all the parameter studied. It was concluded that the consumption of ginger protects the liver and kidney against the Aluminium toxicity. In addition, ginger is capable of improving hyperlipidemia and the impaired kidney functions.

  13. Electrical conduction processes in as-deposited indium phthalocyanine chloride thin films using gold and aluminium electrode combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Mammen; Menon, C S; Unnikrishnan, N V [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam-686 560, Kerala (India)

    2006-01-11

    Sandwich structures of the type (Au-InPcCl-Al) have been fabricated by successive vacuum deposition of indium phthalocyanine chloride (InPcCl) thin films and aluminium (Al) fingers onto Ohmic gold (Au) electrodes on glass substrates. Device characteristics of as-deposited Au/InPcCl/Al are obtained and found to show rectification properties. Current density-voltage characteristics under forward bias (aluminium electrode negative) are found to be due to Ohmic conduction at lower voltages. At higher voltages there is space charge limited conductivity (SCLC) controlled by an exponential trapping distribution above the valence edge. Transport properties of the material at ambient temperature have been obtained from the analysis of the samples in the Ohmic and SCLC regions. Under the reverse bias, Schottky emission is identified at lower voltages.

  14. Surface Morphology and Microstructure of Zinc Deposit From Imidazole with Zinc Chloride Low Temperature Molten Salt Electrolyte in The Presence of Aluminium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasigamani Srinivasan, M. Selvam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature molten salts have variety of applications in organic synthesis, catalytic processing, batteries and electrode position due to their air and water stability. They have wide potential window for their applications in voltage and temperature and hence there is a possibility to deposit metals which could not be deposited from aqueous electrolytes. Our aim and scope of our research was to deposit zinc from low temperature molten salt electrolyte (LTMS containing zinc salt in the presence of aluminium chloride at different current densities and to qualify the nature of deposits. We could identify the effect of current density on the deposit at low temperature molten salt electrolyte by analysing the nature of deposits using different instrumental techniques. Compact, adherent, dense fine grained deposits of zinc with average grain size of 40-150 nm could be obtained from low temperature molten salt electrolyte. (LTMS

  15. Corrosion protection of aluminium pretreated by vinyltriethoxysilane in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion protection of vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) films on aluminium during exposure to 3% NaCl was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potential-time measurements and optical microscopy coupled with image analysis. Composition and thickness of films were analyzed using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with depth profiling. It was shown that films deposited from 5% solution were significantly thicker and exhibited lower porosity and better corrosion stability, as compared to films deposited from 2 vol.% solution. VTES films deposited from 5 vol.% solutions and cured for 30 min exhibited better protection properties than other investigated films.

  16. Inhibitive effect of Ce(III) and La(III) cations for AA2219 aluminium alloy corrosion in sodium chloride medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, G., E-mail: venkatguru_1966@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600119 (India); Sheik Mideen, A. [Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600119 (India); Jha, Abhay K. [Materials Processing Division, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Thiruvananthapuram 695022 (India); Kulandainathan, M. Anbu [Electro Organic Chemistry Division, Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi 630006 (India)

    2014-11-14

    In this paper, the rare earth chlorides were used to mitigate the dealloying of Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic particles in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate exposed to 0.6 M NaCl solution. The negative shift of cathodic branches of potentiodynamic polarisation curves revealed the cathodic inhibition towards intermetallic dealloying. The low and high frequency time constants obtained from electrochemical impedance spectra revealed an increase in the corrosion resistance due to precipitation of rare earth oxides/hydroxides on the porous surface of native oxide film of aluminium alloy. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed that intermetallic inclusions are the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum deposits which suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions between the matrix and Al{sub 2}Cu particles. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal the intermetallic inclusions, the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum oxide/hydroxide precipitates which prevent intermetallic de-alloying, suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate. - Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} and La{sup 3+} act as cathodic inhibitors for AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy in 0.6 M NaCl. • Al{sub 2}Cu intermetallic particles are the sites for the formation of Ce and La precipitates. • The decrease in surface potential by rare earth chlorides confirms their inhibition.

  17. Inhibitive effect of Ce(III) and La(III) cations for AA2219 aluminium alloy corrosion in sodium chloride medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the rare earth chlorides were used to mitigate the dealloying of Al2Cu intermetallic particles in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate exposed to 0.6 M NaCl solution. The negative shift of cathodic branches of potentiodynamic polarisation curves revealed the cathodic inhibition towards intermetallic dealloying. The low and high frequency time constants obtained from electrochemical impedance spectra revealed an increase in the corrosion resistance due to precipitation of rare earth oxides/hydroxides on the porous surface of native oxide film of aluminium alloy. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and atomic force microscopy revealed that intermetallic inclusions are the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum deposits which suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions between the matrix and Al2Cu particles. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal the intermetallic inclusions, the sites for the formation of cerium and lanthanum oxide/hydroxide precipitates which prevent intermetallic de-alloying, suppress copper redeposition and minimise galvanic interactions in aluminium alloy 2219-T87 plate. - Highlights: • Ce3+ and La3+ act as cathodic inhibitors for AA2219-T87 aluminium alloy in 0.6 M NaCl. • Al2Cu intermetallic particles are the sites for the formation of Ce and La precipitates. • The decrease in surface potential by rare earth chlorides confirms their inhibition

  18. Pilot scale treatment of low turbidity water using compound bioflocculant and polymerized aluminium ferrum chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Fang; MENG Lu; PANG Chang-long; JIN Chao; YAO Jie

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the application of compound bioflocculant (CBF) in drinking water treatment at pilot plant, CBF and polymerized aluminiurn ferrum chloride (PAFC) coagulant were used to treat raw water taken from Longhupao Reservoir in Heilongjiang Province for the removal of turbidity, COD, UV254 and residual A1.Coagulation test shows that the coagulation enhanced by CBF and PAFC exhibits more effective performance than that enhanced by the individual of them, and the total combination dosage is lower than that of the individual. The residual AI from PAFC can be removed efficiently by CBF. The removal efficiency of turbidity reaches 76. 6% by combining CBF of 2 mg/L and PAFC of 15 mg/L, COD is decreased from 3. 80 mg/L to 1.62 mg/L, and the concentration of residual AI is only 0. 033 mg/L in the product water. It can be speculated that adsorption-bridging and sweep-coagulation processes are predominant in the flocculation process by the combination of CBF and PAFC.

  19. Role of wheat germ oil on some haematological and biochemical indices in rats treated with aluminium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals possess numerous benefits, it have distinctive effects on biological system. Currently, investigations focus on natural products' administration within environmental contamination and human health. The present study assesses to investigate the effect of wheat germ oil (WGO) on rats contaminated with aluminium chloride (AlCl3). Female albino rats injected intra peritoneal with 20 mg/kg of Alcl3 for 6 weeks and then 200 mg/kg of WGO for two week in another group and group takes the both treatments.The haematological blood indices and biochemical analysis for iron (Fe), folic acid, B12, Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity were investigated. Also thymus and spleen were anticipated for histopathological examination. AlCl3 induced significant increased in total leukocytes (WBCs) and lymphocyte counts and significant decreased in erythrocytes (RBCs) count as well as haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Ht) values. Disturbances in mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) levels as well as platelets counts were also observed in AlCl3 treated animals. Also, AlCl3 induced significant decreased in Fe, folic acid, B12 and Mg concentrations as well as AChE activity. Additionally imbalance between P and Ca was observed. AlCl3 displayed congestion of thymus blood capillaries as well as haemorrhage droplets. In addition, spleen showed marked thickening of splenic capsule associated with inflammatory cells infiltration. WGO administration exhibited an improving in the examined parameters. It could be concluded that supplementation of WGO can protect against free radical damage-induced by AlCl3.

  20. Aluminium chloride impairs long-term memory and downregulates cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological investigations have indicated that aluminium (Al) is an important environmental neurotoxicant that may be involved in the aetiology of the cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, exposure to Al is known to cause neurobehavioural abnormalities in animals. Previous studies demonstrated that Al impaired early-phase long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in vivo and in vitro. Our previous research revealed that Al could impair long-term memory via the impairment of late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in vivo. However, the exact mechanism by which Al impairs long-term memory has been poorly studied thus far. This study was designed not only to observe the effects of subchronic Al treatment on long-term memory and hippocampal ultrastructure but also to explore a possible underlying mechanism (involving the cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling pathway) in the hippocampus of rats.. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to four groups. Neonatal rats were exposed to Al by parental lactation for 3 weeks and then fed with distilled water containing 0, 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.6% Al chloride (AlCl3) for 3 postnatal months. The levels of Al in the blood and hippocampus were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The shuttle–box test was performed to detect long-term memory. The hippocampus was collected for ultrastructure observation, and the level of cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling was examined. The results showed that the Al concentrations in the blood and hippocampus of Al-treated rats were higher than those of the control rats. Al may impair the long-term memory of rats. Hippocampal cAMP, cPKA, pCREB, BDNF and c-jun expression decreased significantly, and the neuronal and synaptic ultrastructure exhibited pathological changes after Al treatment. These results indicated that Al may induce long-term memory damage in rats by inhibiting cAMP-PKA-CREB signalling and altering the synaptic and neuronal ultrastructure in the hippocampus

  1. The role of Mg2+ ions in the corrosion behaviour of AA2024-T3 aluminium alloys immersed in chloride-containing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known the harmful impact of chloride ions in the corrosion behaviour of aluminium and its alloys. The present work investigates the use of Mg2+ ions as corrosion inhibitors of AA2024-T3 samples immersed in chloride-containing electrolytes. AA2024-T3 samples were immersed into an electrolyte containing chloride ions, in absence or presence of Mg2+. The electrochemical behaviour was studied by potentiondynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The results showed the beneficial effects afforded by the Mg2+ ions. First, the open circuit potential was shifted towards more cathodic values and, on the other hand, the impedance values obtained for samples tested in presence of Mg2+ were higher, suggesting a slowdown of the corrosion rate. The morphological characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the presence Mg2+ hinders Mg dealloying of the S phase particles, which delays their change from anodic to cathodic behaviour, so delaying the subsequent Al matrix galvanic attack. An additional protection mechanism is related to the blockage of cathodic areas by the precipitation of Mg(OH)2 in alkaline environments

  2. Mangiferin ameliorates aluminium chloride-induced cognitive dysfunction via alleviation of hippocampal oxido-nitrosative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and acetylcholinesterase level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbe, Prajapati; Jangra, Ashok; Lahkar, Mangala

    2015-01-01

    Mangiferin is a phytochemical primarily present in the stem, leaves and bark of Mangifera indica. It offers neuroprotection mainly through inhibition of oxidative stress, and decreasing proinflammatory cytokines level in the brain. Aluminium has been reported to cause oxidative stress-associated damage in the brain. In the present investigation, protective effect of mangiferin against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment was studied in male Swiss albino mice. AlCl3 (100 mg/kg) was administered once daily through oral gavage for 42 days. Mangiferin (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) was given to mice for last 21 days of the study. We found cognitive dysfunction in AlCl3-treated group, which was assessed by Morris water maze test, and novel object recognition test. AlCl3-treated group showed elevated level of oxidative stress markers, proinflammatory cytokines level and lowered hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) content. Mangiferin (40 mg/kg) prevented the cognitive deficits, hippocampal BDNF depletion, and biochemical anomalies induced by AlCl3-treatment. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that mangiferin offers neuroprotection in AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity and it may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of oxido-nitrosative stress and inflammation-associated neurotoxicity.

  3. Effect of TiN particulate reinforcement on corrosive behaviour of aluminium 6061 composites in chloride medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H C Ananda Murthy; V Bheema Raju; C Shivakumara

    2013-11-01

    In the present investigation, the corrosive behaviour of Al 6061–TiN particulate composites prepared by liquidmetallurgy has been studied in chloride medium using electroanalytical techniques such as Tafel, cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Surface morphology of the sample electrodes was examined using scanning electron micrography and energy dispersive X-ray methods. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm inclusion of TiN particulates in the matrix alloy and identify the alloying elements and intermetallic compounds in the Al 6061 composites. Polarization studies indicate an increase in the corrosion resistance in composites compared to the matrix alloy. EIS study reveals that the polarization resistance (p) increases with increase in TiN content in composites, thus confirming improved corrosion resistance in composites. The observed decrease in corrosion rate in the case of composites is due to decoupling between TiN particles and Al 6061 alloy. It is understood that after the initiation of corrosion, interfacial corrosion products may have decoupled the conducting ceramic TiN from Al 6061 matrix alloy thus eliminating the galvanic effect between them.

  4. Potentiometric determination of trace amounts of aluminium utilizing polyvinyl chloride membrane and coated platinum sensors based on E-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) benzohydrazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Somayeh; Taher, Mohammad Ali; Sheikhshoaie, Iran

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and performance characteristics of novel polyvinyl chloride membrane (PME) and coated platinum (CPtE) aluminium (Al) ion selective electrodes based on E-N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene) benzohydrazide. The electrodes exhibited linear responses with near Nernstian slopes of 19.9 +/- 0.3 (PME) and 20.1 +/- 0.4 (CPtE) mV/decade of activity within the Al3+ ion concentration range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 1.0 x 10(-2) M for the PME and 1.0 x 10(-7)-1.0 x 10(-2) M for the CPtE. These sensors were applicable in a pH range of 3.0 to 7.0. The LODs of the PME and CPtE were 1.7 x 10(-7) and 5.6 x 10(-8) M, respectively. They had a response time of less than 10 s and could be used practically for a period of at least 2 months without measurable divergence in results. The isothermal temperature coefficient of the PME was 1.12 x 10(-3) V/degrees C, and it can tolerate partially nonaqueous media up to 25%. The electrodes showed excellent selectivity towards Al3+ ions in the presence of a wide range of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals ions. They were successfully applied for the direct determination of Al3+ ions in tap water, aqueduct water, mineral water, and Al-Mg syrup and as indicator electrodes in potentiometric titration of Al ions with EDTA.

  5. Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2005-09-01

    Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991

  6. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  7. Automotive Aluminium Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelas, B. des

    2000-07-01

    This paper aims at providing an overview on the contribution of aluminium recycling in the supply of new aluminium for automotive applications. Based on a presentation on how the global European automotive aluminium supply requirements are met, an analysis of the present and future contribution of automotive aluminium recycling is first presented. Current situation and future developments for automotive aluminium recycling practices are then commented, together with an outline on design principles for easier aluminium recycling. (orig.)

  8. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans.

  9. Aluminium structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Švent, Nejc

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the structural analysis of aluminium structural members in accordance with the SIST EN 1999-1-1 standard. In the introduction, historical development of aluminium is summarized, as well as the processes of structural aluminium production and manufacture. Predominantly, resistance control checks of aluminium structural members are covered, with special attention to the major contrasts between aluminium and steel structural analyses. Finally, fundamental examples of resis...

  10. Separation of 35S-sulfate on neutral aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 35S-sulfate chromatography on neutral aluminium oxide (γ-Al2O3) are presented. Possibility of quantitative adsorption of 35S-sulfate on Al2O3 from acidic or neutral potassium chloride solutions of high concentration is shown. Dynamic adsorption capacity of neutral aluminium oxide with respect to sulfate from weakly acidic potassium chloride solution equals near 10 μmol/ml of adsorbent. Optimal parameters for chromatographic isolation of 35S-sulfate without carrier from irradiated KCl target are determined. (author)

  11. Effect of aluminium on in vitro rooting of birch (Betula pendula Roth. and poplar (Populus tremula L. x P. alba L. microcuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Bojarczuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Poplar (Populus tremula L. x P. alba L. and birch (Betula pendula Roth. microcuttings obtained from in vitro cultures on media with aluminium (Al+ or without aluminium (Al- were rooted in perlite saturated with a liquid 1/4 MS medium. Aluminium was added to the rooting medium in the form of aluminium sulphate or aluminium chloride. In the control, i.e. in the medium without aluminium, Al+ and Al- shoots usually developed similarly. Addition of aluminium to the rooting medium had a negative effect on the development of adventitious roots. Poplar and birch shoots obtained from cultures on media with aluminium (AI+ were distinguished by a greater tolerance of aluminium in the medium than shoots obtained from cultures on media without aluminium (A1-.

  12. Sustainable Aluminium Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Ermolli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an analytical presentation of some popular aluminium systems that contribute to sustainability of structures is presented. Special emphasis has been given to the properties of aluminium, while the influence of these systems in the overall performance of the structure regarding environment and economy is described. In particular, characteristics of aluminium elements such as high reflectivity and recyclability and their role in life cycle analysis (LCA are analyzed. The connections between energy efficiency and conservation of buildings and aluminium application are also discussed. Building applications such as curtain walls, window frames and facade sheets are presented and thoroughly investigated, considering their environmental and economic aspects. Furthermore, many innovative techniques that use aluminium elements in collaboration with other systems in order to produce renewable energy, such as solar panels and photovoltaics, are introduced. Finally, environmental innovations such as optimized ventilation mechanisms and light and shade management systems based on aluminium members are presented.

  13. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides prepared from various aluminium salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Temuujin; Ts JADAMBAA; K J D Mackenzie; P Angerer; F Porte; F Riley

    2000-08-01

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived from the sulfate. This contains a higher concentration of anionic impurities related to differences in the solubility of the original aluminium salts. The sulfate is retained in the gel to higher temperatures at which its eventual decomposition may lead to the formation of a reactive pore structure which facilitates the nucleation of -Al2O3.

  14. Rows of Dislocation Loops in Aluminium Irradiated by Aluminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.;

    1967-01-01

    Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics......Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  15. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  16. Chapter 3. Chloric decomposition of aluminosilicate ores. 3.1. Features of chlorination of aluminium containing ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of chlorination of aluminium containing ores are considered in this article. Theoretical aspects of metals, oxides and natural compounds chlorination, specific features of synthesis of various chlorides are considered as well.

  17. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  18. Effect of aluminium on migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, Philippa D; Bakir, Ayse; Iskakova, Elzira

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) has been measured in human breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid and breast cyst fluid, and recent studies have shown that at tissue concentrations, aluminium can induce DNA damage and suspension growth in human breast epithelial cells. This paper demonstrates for the first time that exposure to aluminium can also increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Long-term (32 weeks) but not short-term (1 week) exposure of MCF-7 cells to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate increased motility of the cells as measured by live cell imaging (cumulative length moved by individual cells), by a wound healing assay and by migration in real time through 8 μm pores of a membrane using xCELLigence technology. Long-term exposure (37 weeks) to 10(-4) M aluminium chloride or 10(-4) M aluminium chlorohydrate also increased the ability of MCF-7 cells to invade through a matrigel layer as measured in real time using the xCELLigence system. Although molecular mechanisms remain to be characterized, the ability of aluminium salts to increase migratory and invasive properties of MCF-7 cells suggests that the presence of aluminium in the human breast could influence metastatic processes. This is important because mortality from breast cancer arises mainly from tumour spread rather than from the presence of a primary tumour in the breast.

  19. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical pr

  20. Microscopic observation of pattern attack by aggressive ions on finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a microscopic observation on submerged finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode. Experimental tests were carried out on polished surface aluminium anode exposed to seawater containing aggressive ions in order to observe of pattern corrosion attack on corroding surface of anode. Results have shown, at least under the present testing condition, that surface of sacrificial anode were attack by an aggressive ion such as chloride along grain boundaries. In addition, results of microanalysis showed that the corrosion products on surface of aluminium alloy have Al, Zn and O element for all sample and within the pit was consists of Al, Zn, O and Cl element. (author)

  1. The photophysical properties of tetra-carboxyl-aminohexanoic-sulfonyl phthalocyanine aluminium (Ⅲ)chloride/bovine serum albumin conj ugates%四-(6-氨基己酸磺肽基)铝(Ⅲ)氯酞菁/牛血清白蛋白复合物的光物理性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张甜甜; 林萍萍; 彭亦如; 陈培丰; 陈奎治

    2013-01-01

    采用荧光光谱法和紫外光谱法比较研究了新型含空间链四-(6-氨基己酸磺肽基)铝氯酞菁(AlPc (SO2 NHC5 H10 COOH)4)及AlPc(SO2 NHC5 H10 COOH)4/牛血清白蛋白(BSA)复合物的光物理性质。与无空间链四羧基铝氯酞菁(AlPc(COOH)4)相比较,AlPc (SO2 NHC5 H10 COOH)4不易聚集,荧光强度增强,荧光寿命增长。当 AlPc(SO2 NHC5 H10 COOH)4和 Al-Pc(COOH)4分别与BSA形成复合物后,与相应的自由酞菁相比,AlPc (COOH )4/BSA 和 AlPc (SO2-NHC5 H10 COOH)4/BSA复合物的紫外光谱红移,荧光光谱猝灭,其荧光猝灭原因为静态猝灭。由于空间链效应,AlPc(SO2 NHC5 H10 COOH)4与 BSA 之间的作用明显强于AlPc(COOH)4与BSA之间的作用。%The purpose of this study was to investigate the photophysical properties of 3rd generation photosensi-tizer using in photodynamic therapy.The photophysical properties of tetra-carboxyl-aminohexanoic-sulfonyl phthalocyanine aluminium chloride (AlPc(SO2NHC5 H10COOH)4)-bovine serum albumin (BSA)bioconjugate was studied by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic method. The results indicated AlPc (SO2 NHC5 H10 COOH)4 exhibited lower aggregation,higher fluorescence intensity and longer lifetime compared with tetra-carboxyl phthalocyanine aluminium chloride (AlPc(COOH)4 )which may due to the spacer hindrance effect.When AlPc(SO2NHC5 H10COOH)4 and AlPc(COOH)4 conjugates with BSA,compared with the corre-sponding free phthalocyanine,the UV-Vis spectra of AlPc(COOH)4/BSA and AlPc(SO2 NHC5 H10 COOH)4/BSA was red shift and fluorescence spectra was quenched.Furthermore,AlPc(SO2NHC5 H10COOH)4 conju-gate also showed stronger combining interaction with bovine serum albumin than that of AlPc(COOH)4 due to the spacer hindrance effect.

  2. Recovery in aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X-ray diffraction technique for studies of the evolution of grains within polycrystalline materials. The much smaller volume of the crystallites of interest here in comparison to grains implies that the ...

  3. Aluminium and human breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D; Pugazhendhi, D; Mannello, F

    2011-11-01

    The human breast is exposed to aluminium from many sources including diet and personal care products, but dermal application of aluminium-based antiperspirant salts provides a local long-term source of exposure. Recent measurements have shown that aluminium is present in both tissue and fat of the human breast but at levels which vary both between breasts and between tissue samples from the same breast. We have recently found increased levels of aluminium in noninvasively collected nipple aspirate fluids taken from breast cancer patients (mean 268 ± 28 μg/l) compared with control healthy subjects (mean 131 ± 10 μg/l) providing evidence of raised aluminium levels in the breast microenvironment when cancer is present. The measurement of higher levels of aluminium in type I human breast cyst fluids (median 150 μg/l) compared with human serum (median 6 μg/l) or human milk (median 25 μg/l) warrants further investigation into any possible role of aluminium in development of this benign breast disease. Emerging evidence for aluminium in several breast structures now requires biomarkers of aluminium action in order to ascertain whether the presence of aluminium has any biological impact. To this end, we report raised levels of proteins that modulate iron homeostasis (ferritin, transferrin) in parallel with raised aluminium in nipple aspirate fluids in vivo, and we report overexpression of mRNA for several S100 calcium binding proteins following long-term exposure of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro to aluminium chlorhydrate. PMID:22099158

  4. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  5. Method of aluminium fluoride manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manufacture of aluminium fluoride is based on waste processing in uranium hexafluoride conversion to uranium oxides within the fuel cycle. The conversion is the stoichiometric conversion of uranium hexafluoride with aluminium nitrate to uranyl nitrate. This is extracted from the water phase by phosphoric acid trialkyl ester to an organic solvent and further processed. The discharge water phase is solidified by evaporation to solid aluminium fluoride and nitric acid. (M.S.)

  6. First Principles Study of Aluminium Vacancy in Wurtzite Aluminium Nitride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ting-Ge; YI Jue-Min; ZHOU Zi-Yao; HU Xiao-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ We report that the aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN brings about two impurity levels e and a2 in the band gap, not just one single t2 level The aluminium vacancy carries a magnetic moment of 1 μB in the ground state. The molecule orbit of the aluminium vacancy becomes e↑↑ a2↑ rather than e↑↑ a2↑. The calculation is carried out by using the CASTEP code. The intrinsic symmetry of wurtzite A1N is the driving force for this spin splitting. Finally the symmetry of wurtzite AlN results in an anti-ferromagnetic coupling between the aluminium vacancies, as is predicted. Our findings are helpful to gain a more through understanding of the structural and spin property of aluminium vacancy in wurtzite AIN.

  7. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  8. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge load

  9. Effect of heat treatment on anodic activation of aluminium by trace element indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graver, Brit [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Helvoort, Antonius T.J. van [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Nisancioglu, Kemal, E-mail: kemal.nisancioglu@material.ntnu.n [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Indium segregation activates AlIn alloy surface anodically in chloride solution. {yields} Enrichment of In on Al surface can occur thermally by heat treatment at 300 {sup o}C. {yields} Increasing temperature homogenises indium in aluminium reducing anodic activation. {yields} Indium can activate AlIn surface by segregating through dealloying of aluminium. {yields} Anodic activation is caused by AlIn amalgam formation at aluminium surface. - Abstract: The presence of trace elements in Group IIIA-VA is known to activate aluminium anodically in chloride environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the surface segregation of trace element In by heat treatment and resulting surface activation. Model binary AlIn alloys, containing 20 and 1000 ppm by weight of In, were characterized after heat treatment at various temperatures by use of glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, electron microscopy and electrochemical polarization. Heat treatment for 1 h at 300 {sup o}C gave significant segregation of discrete In particles (thermal segregation), which activated the surface. Indium in solid solution with aluminium, obtained by 1 h heat treatment at 600 {sup o}C, also activated by surface segregation of In on alloy containing 1000 ppm In, resulting from the selective dissolution of the aluminium component during anodic oxidation (anodic segregation). The effect of anodic segregation was reduced by decreasing indium concentration in solid solution; it had negligible effect at the 20 ppm level. The segregated particles were thought to form a liquid phase alloy with aluminium during anodic polarization, which in turn, together with the chloride in the solution destabilized the oxide.

  10. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right circumsta......This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... circumstances both materials show good bonding, but the high purity material is excluded because of recrystallisation and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. The effect of cross stacking and roll bonding pre-strained sheets of the commercial purity material is investigated and some dependence...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  11. The toxicity of aluminium in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C

    2016-06-01

    We are living in the 'aluminium age'. Human exposure to aluminium is inevitable and, perhaps, inestimable. Aluminium's free metal cation, Alaq(3+), is highly biologically reactive and biologically available aluminium is non-essential and essentially toxic. Biologically reactive aluminium is present throughout the human body and while, rarely, it can be acutely toxic, much less is understood about chronic aluminium intoxication. Herein the question is asked as to how to diagnose aluminium toxicity in an individual. While there are as yet, no unequivocal answers to this problem, there are procedures to follow to ascertain the nature of human exposure to aluminium. It is also important to recognise critical factors in exposure regimes and specifically that not all forms of aluminium are toxicologically equivalent and not all routes of exposure are equivalent in their delivery of aluminium to target sites. To ascertain if Alzheimer's disease is a symptom of chronic aluminium intoxication over decades or breast cancer is aggravated by the topical application of an aluminium salt or if autism could result from an immune cascade initiated by an aluminium adjuvant requires that each of these is considered independently and in the light of the most up to date scientific evidence. The aluminium age has taught us that there are no inevitabilities where chronic aluminium toxicity is concerned though there are clear possibilities and these require proving or discounting but not simply ignored. PMID:26922890

  12. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E;

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year....... Two patients had skin biopsies performed from their skin lesions, and 2 patients had the nodules surgically removed. Forty-two children had a patch-test performed with 2% aluminium chloride hexahydrate in petrolatum and 39 of them (92%) had a positive reaction. The persistent skin reactions were...... period 2003 to 2013 we identified 47 children with persistent skin reactions caused by childhood vaccinations. Most patients had a typical presentation of persisting pruritic subcutaneous nodules. Five children had a complex diagnostic process involving paediatricians, orthopaedics and plastic surgeons...

  13. Friction surfacing of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diogo Jorge O. A.

    2012-01-01

    Friction surfacing is a solid state joining process that has attracted much interest in the past decades. This technology allows joining dissimilar metallic materials while avoiding the brittle intermetallic formations, involving temperatures bellow melting point and producing like forged metal structures. Much research using different steels has been made but the same does not happen with aluminium alloys, specially using different aluminium alloys. Friction surface coatings using cons...

  14. Corrosion behaviour of zinc and aluminium in simulated nuclear accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion rates of zinc and aluminium were determined in simulated large pipe break and in severe accident cases. An in situ on fine measurement technique, which is based on the resistance measurement of sample wires, was used. In the large pipe break case the corrosion rates of zinc and aluminium were determined at pH 8 and pH 10 in deaerated and in aerated solutions. Tests were also performed in aerated 0.1 M borate buffer solution at pH 9.2. Temperature range was 130 deg C - 50 deg C. The corrosion of zinc appears to be relatively fast in neutral or mildly alkaline aerated water, while both high pH and deaeration tend to reduce the corrosion rates of zinc. The aeration and pH elevation decrease the corrosion rate of aluminium. The simulation of the severe accident case took place in the pH range 3-11 in chloride containing solutions at 50 deg C temperature. The corrosion rate of aluminium was lower than that of zinc, except for the solution with pH 11, in which the corrosion rate of aluminium was practically identical to that of zinc. Both metals corroded more rapidly in the presence of chlorides in acidic and alkalic conditions than in the absence of chlorides at neutral environment. The solubility of zinc and aluminium and the stability of the corrosion products were estimated using thermodynamical calculations. The experimental results and the thermodynamical calculations were in fair agreement. (8 refs.)

  15. Determination of phosphorus in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, K

    1972-04-01

    A reproducible method is described for determination of small amounts of phosphorus (from 0.0005% to 0.02%) in hypereutectic aluminium-silicon complex alloys. The method permits the separate determination of phosphorus in acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Phosphomolybdate is extracted with n-butanol-chloroform solvent mixture and back-extracted with a btannous chloride reducing solution. The phosphorus content of a sample cut into small pieces decreases during storage; loss of phosphorus is negligible on acid dissolution under oxidizing conditions. PMID:18961077

  16. Dispersion strengthening of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1970-01-01

    temperature and at 400°C is in agreement with Orowan's theory. The increase in flow stress at room temperature for strain values below 3 per cent was related to the plastic strain by the equation σ-σoy=k1ε 1/2, where σoy is the initial flow stress and where k1 increases for increasing volume fraction......The true stress-true strain curves at room temperature and at 400°C were determined for various types of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products containing from 0.2 to 4.7 weight per cent of aluminium oxide. The effect of particles on the initial flow stress and the flow stress for 0.2% offset at room...

  17. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  18. Corrosion behaviour of aluminium plates in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of corrosion concerning the aluminium 1050 plate was studied at room temperatures, 45 and 600C in deionized water, the same Argonauta Reactor Water. Beyond the temperature influence, it was verified the effect of chloride ion and oxygen. It ws found that the amount of oxyde formed at room temperatures is almost negligible; at 45 and 600C the samples were covered with bayerita, the quantity of oxide formed at 450C being higher than at 600C. It was observed that there will be risk of corrosion in the case of Reactor Water to undergo contamination with chloride ions. The results have shown that the material can be used since the medium don't be strongly oxidizing. At potentials higher than - 900M sup(V) ess (-280 m sup(V) sub(H)), the material will undergo pitting corrosion. (Author)

  19. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen...... in aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  20. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella.

  1. Buckwheat stomatal traits under aluminium toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium influence on some stomatal parameters of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. was studied. Significant changes in stomatal density, stomatal index and stomatal shape coefficient under aluminium treatment were revealed. Stomatal closure and no difference in total stomatal potential conductance index of treatment plants were suggested as aluminium resistance characteristics.

  2. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jennrich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includes various well-documented pathomechanisms. In the sense of primary and secondary prevention, the cancer-triggering potential of aluminium and its use in anti-perspirant deodorants must be re-evaluated. For the same reason the access to a targeted diagnosis and treatment of aluminium loading must be facilitated.

  3. Mechanism of Nickel-Aluminium Alloy Electroplating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of operating conditions on the aluminium content of Ni-Al alloy deposit and the catalytic function of NaF on electrodeposition in the nonaqueous solution containing aluminium are investigated.The results indicate that the plated aluminuim content will be increased with the rise of current density in a given range.When the current density is 2.5A/dm2,nickle-aluminium alloy containing 13.1 wt% aluminium will be deposited.The plated aluminium content will be increased by 2wt% as 0.1mol/L NaF is added to the bath.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of Aluminium and Lanthanum hydro-complexes by multinuclear NMR; Sintese e caracterizacao de hidroxocomplexos de AI e La por RMN multinuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Sidnei Quezada M.; Dieguez, Lidia C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; San Gil, Rosane A.S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1997-12-31

    Evidence suggest that the presence of Lanthanum ions in aluminium chloride solutions during base addition cause the formation of complexes which can promote the formation of an unknown macro-cation. These compounds when mixed to smectites are supposed to yield materials of high thermal stability. In order to contribute to the study of this phenomenon, aqueous solutions of aluminium and lanthanum were analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance. The methodology is presented. Results are presented 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  6. Electrochemical properties and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORICA M. KACAREVIC-POPOVIC

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium, as well as on electrochemically and chemically modified aluminium were investigated during exposure to 3 % NaCl. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were used for the determination of the protective properties of epoxy coatings on aluminium, anodized aluminium, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium. The protective properties of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium are significantly improved with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminium and phosphatized aluminium: higher values of the pore resitance and charge-transfer resistance, lower values of the coating capacitance, double-layer capacitance and relative permittivity (from EIS smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating (From TGA. On the other hand, the lower values of the ipdt temperature indicate a lower thermal stability of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium.

  7. Recovery mechanisms in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5–100C. Hardness...

  8. Constitutive modelling of aluminium foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.M.; Lemmen, P.P.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an aluminium foam model is proposed for a vehicle crash analysis. The model assumes that there is no coupling between stresses and strains in different principal directions. The stress in each principle direction is then interpolated from an experimental recorded uniaxial stress strain

  9. Microchemistry in aluminium sheet production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Z.J.

    2005-01-01

    The production of aluminium sheet alloys from as-cast ingots is a complex process, involving several rolling operations in combination with various thermal heat treatments. Through their influence on the alloy microchemistry and microstructure, these thermomechanical treatments are all aimed at cont

  10. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONTENT OF ALUMINIUM ON THE BIOCENOSIS OF THE WATERS OF LAKES WITH POORLY URBANIZED RECEPTION BASINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kubiak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research results of the content of aluminium in the waters of the largest lakes situated in the reception basin of the Tywa river. The general content of aluminium and its form: dissolved and non-dissolved was examined. The general content of aluminium in those waters varied from 5.3 to 98.9 μg/l, while the content of dissolved aluminium varied from 3.0 to 57.0 and its non-dissolved form from 1.0 to 54.0 μg/l. The average concentration of the content of aluminium in the waters of examined lakes was similar; Dłużec lake – 42.9, Strzeszowskie lake – 39.2, Dołgie lake 45.7, Swobnickie lake 41.4 μg/l. The prevailing form of aluminium in the examined bodies of water was the dissolved form. The greatest amounts of that metal in waters of the examined lakes were present in autumn and spring, and the smallest amounts in summer and winter, the tendency concerned the entire content of aluminium and its non-dissolved form. The dissolved form of aluminium in the waters of examined lakes was present in the largest amounts in winter (on average – 17.4 μg/l, in the smallest amounts in spring (14.0 μg/l, this seasonal diversity – was weakly marked. The existing concentration of aluminium is typical of non-polluted surface waters, and with the stated reaction and the content of sulfurs, carbonates and chlorides in the examined waters, they were not toxic to the biocenosis.

  12. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  13. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  14. Aluminium in Allergies and Allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is a hot topic in the current debate. Exposure occurs due to environmental, dietary and intentional exposure to aluminium, such as in vaccines where it was introduced in 1926. In spite of the fact that it is a typical Th2 adjuvant, aluminium redirects the immune response in systemic allergen immunotherapy (SIT) upon prolonged immunization. SIT in the US, and SLIT in general, are at present non-adjuvanted therapies, but in Europe aluminium is used as adjuvant in most SIT preparations. It enhances the safety of SIT by local deposition of the allergen. Undesired properties of aluminium adjuvants comprise acute and chronic inflammation at the injection site, its Th2 immune stimulatory capacity, its accumulation besides biodistribution in the body. The adjuvant and safety profile of aluminium adjuvants in allergy vaccines are discussed, as well as the need for putting modern delivery systems and adjuvants on the fast track.

  15. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    OpenAIRE

    Mărioara Drugă; Alexandru Trif; Mihai Drugă; Ducu Ştef; Ştefan Munteanu

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  16. Does Aluminium Trigger Breast Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Jennrich; Claus Schulte-Uebbing

    2016-01-01

    Summary. Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women in the western world. In 90% of breast cancers, environmental factors are among the causes. The frequency with which the tumour occurs in the outer upper part of the breast has risen with above average rates in recent decades. Aluminium salts as ingredients in deodorants and antiperspirants are being absorbed by the body to a greater extent than hitherto assumed. Their toxicity for healthy and diseased breast tissue cells includ...

  17. A biogeochemical cycle for aluminium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2003-09-15

    The elaboration of biogeochemical cycles for elements which are known to be essential for life has enabled a broad appreciation of the homeostatic mechanisms which underlie element essentiality. In particular they can be used effectively to identify any part played by human activities in element cycling and to predict how such activities might impact upon the lithospheric and biospheric availability of an element in the future. The same criteria were the driving force behind the construction of a biogeochemical cycle for aluminium, a non-essential element which is a known ecotoxicant and a suspected health risk in humans. The purpose of this exercise was to examine the concept of a biogeochemical cycle for aluminium and not to review the biogeochemistry of this element. The cycle as presented is rudimentary and qualitative though, even in this nascent form, it is informative and predictive and, for these reasons alone, it is deserving of future quantification. A fully fledged biogeochemical cycle for aluminium should explain the biospheric abundance of this element and whether we should expect its (continued) active involvement in biochemical evolution.

  18. A bakable aluminium vacuum chamber with an aluminium flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the construction of the vacuum chamber in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings. (author)

  19. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources. PMID:1542992

  1. Does aluminium bind to histidine? An NMR investigation of amyloid β12 and amyloid β16 fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Priya; Krishnarjuna, Bankala; Vishwanathan, Vinaya; Jagadeesh Kumar, Dasappa; Babu, Sudhir; Ramanathan, Krishna Venkatachala; Easwaran, Kalpathy Ramaier Katchap; Nagendra, Holenarasipur Gundurao; Raghothama, Srinivasarao

    2013-07-01

    Aluminium and zinc are known to be the major triggering agents for aggregation of amyloid peptides leading to plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease. While zinc binding to histidine in Aβ (amyloid β) fragments has been implicated as responsible for aggregation, not much information is available on the interaction of aluminium with histidine. In the NMR study of the N-terminal Aβ fragments, DAEFRHDSGYEV (Aβ12) and DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQK (Aβ16) presented here, the interactions of the fragments with aluminium have been investigated. Significant chemical shifts were observed for few residues near the C-terminus when aluminium chloride was titrated with Aβ12 and Aβ16 peptides. Surprisingly, it is nonhistidine residues which seem to be involved in aluminium binding. Based on NMR constrained structure obtained by molecular modelling, aluminium-binding pockets in Aβ12 were around charged residues such as Asp, Glu. The results are discussed in terms of native structure propagation, and the relevance of histidine residues in the sequences for metal-binding interactions. We expect that the study of such short amyloid peptide fragments will not only provide clues for plaque formation in aggregated conditions but also facilitate design of potential drugs for these targets. PMID:23464626

  2. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ivano eBrunner; Christoph eSperisen

    2013-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion...

  3. Radiological impact of very slightly radioactive copper and aluminium recovered from dismantled nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is in keeping with a large evaluation of doses likely to be received by public and non nuclear workers when dismantling nuclear installations. A bibliographic study and inquiries are realized, in the nuclear field to evaluate quantities of very slightly radioactive materials, in the conventional copper and aluminium recovery fields: waste recovery, metal refinery and processing, occupational or domestic uses of the metals or their alloys. In fact copper and aluminium waste arising from the dismantling of nuclear installations are mainly electrical cables constituents including insulation material which is mainly polyvinyle chloride (PVC). Estimated quantities are relatively low compared to steel quantities arising from dismantling. The study is based on the hypothesis of two PWRs dismantled per year, estimated quantities are 200 tonnes of copper, 40 tonnes of aluminium and 500 tonnes of PVC. A special case is also studied, which is the dismantling of low and medium uranium enrichment plant in Pierrelatte (France); the plant pipework is mainly made of an aluminium and magnesium alloy: AG3. From these informations, one can define exposure scenarios which may occur with a non negligible probability. The doses likely to be received under the foreseen conditions are calculated. Reference doses are established from recommendations of international organisations as ICRP, IAEA, NEA. Comparing the calculated doses and the reference doses, the activity level of the initial waste can be deduced as to follow the recommendations. The mean specific activity of main beta-gamma emitters in copper, aluminium and PVC are of the same order of magnitude, 10Bq.g-1. In the case of alpha emitters specific activity levels depend on the material and on the radionuclide, from 2 Bq.g-1 to 10 Bq.g-1 in copper, from 10 Bq.g-1 to 50 Bq.g-1 in aluminium

  4. Self-protection of unsealed anodised aluminium exposed to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To confirm or refute the widely held idea that the sealing operation is vital to guarantee the good resistance of anodised aluminium to atmospheric corrosion, unsealed, anodised specimens with three different film thick messes were exposed in 9 atmospheres in Ibero america with salinity values of between 3.9 and 684 mg m''2 day ''-1 of chlorides. Using a wide variety of techniques, from scanning and transmission electron microscopy to direct measurements by gravimetry, and including indirect measurements by electrochemical techniques as well as standard sealing quality control tests, the self-sealing capacity of unsealed anodic coating during atmospheric exposure is demonstrated. Surprisingly, unlike other types of protective coatings, the quality of anodic films improves with ageing. (Author) 15 refs

  5. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  6. Acoustic properties of aluminium foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, L. E.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses normal incidence sound absorption by aluminium foam manufactured with powder metallurgy technology. Aluminium foams with different surface morphologies were obtained by varying the type of precursor and adding filler materials during the foaming process. The sound absorption coefficients found for these aluminium foams were compared to the coefficient for commercial foams marketed under the name ALPORAS. The effect of foam thickness on the absorption coefficient was studied for each sample prepared. The combination of good acoustic and mechanical properties makes aluminium foams particularly attractive products. The study included an analysis of the effect of 2-, 5- and 10-cm air gaps on the sound absorption coefficient. The results showed that such gaps, which are routinely used in construction to reduce the reverberation period in indoor premises, raised the low frequency absorption coefficient significantly. This increase was found to depend on aluminium foam density and thickness and the depth of the air gap. In this same line, we have investigated the absorption coefficient of the aluminium foams combined with a mineral fiber panel.Se presenta un estudio del coeficiente de absorción acústica a incidencia normal de espumas de aluminio fabricadas mediante la técnica pulvimetalúrgica. Se fabricaron espumas de aluminio de distinta morfología superficial variando el tipo de precursor y usando materiales de relleno durante el proceso de espumación. Se muestra un estudio comparativo del coeficiente de absorción acústica de las espumas de aluminio fabricadas y las espumas comerciales conocidas como ALPORAS. Para cada muestra fabricada se estudió la influencia del espesor sobre el valor del coeficiente de absorción.El atractivo de las espumas de aluminio radica en que en ellas se combinan interesantes propiedades acústicas y mecánicas. Se analizó el efecto de una cámara de aire de 2, 5 y 10 cm de anchura sobre el

  7. Inhibitive Behaviour of Corrosion of Aluminium Alloy in NaCl by Mangrove Tannin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticorrosion potential of mangrove tannins on aluminium alloys AA6061 in NaCl solution has been studied using potentiodynamic polarisation method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study was carried out in different pH of corrosive medium in the absence and presence of various concentrations of tannin. The corrosion inhibition behaviour of the mangrove tannin on AA6061 aluminium alloy corrosion was found to be dependant on the pH of NaCl solution. Our results showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing tannins concentration in chloride solution at pH 6. Treatment of aluminium alloy 6061 with all concentrations of mangrove tannins reduced the current density, thus decreased the corrosion rate. Tannins behaved as mixed inhibitors at pH 6 and reduction in current density predominantly affected in cathodic reaction. Meanwhile, at pH 12, addition of tannins shifted the corrosion potential to more cathodic potentials and a passivating effect was observed in anodic potentials. SEM studies have shown that the addition of tannins in chloride solution at pH 12 reduced the surface degradation and the formation of pits. (author)

  8. A Reaction Coating on Aluminium Alloys by Laser Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1993-01-01

    An aluminium oxide layer of 100 µm in thickness has been successfully coated on aluminium alloy 6061 and pure aluminium using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. A strong Al/Al2O3 interface was formed. The exothermic chemical reaction between SiO2 and Al may promote

  9. Shot peening of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shot peening is a process of cold-hammering where a metallic surface is pelted with spherical grains. Each grain bumping into the surface acts as a hammer head and creates a small crater. The overlapping of these craters produces a residual compression layer just underneath the surface. It is well known that cracks cannot spread in a compression zone. In most cases of fatigue rupture and stress corrosion cracks propagate from the surface towards the inside so shot peening allows a longer lifetime of castings. Moreover most materials present a better resistance due to the cold-hammering effect of shot peening. Metallic surfaces can be treated in workshops or directly on site. Typical pieces that undergo shot peening on site are storing tanks, gas and steam turbines, tubes of steam generators and piping in oil or nuclear or chemical industries. This article describes shot peening from a theoretical and general point of view and presents the application to aluminium-lithium alloys. In the case of aluminium alloys shot peening can be used to shape the piece (peen-forming). (A.C.)

  10. Epoxy coatings electrodeposited on aluminium and modified aluminium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Zorica Ž.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour and thermal stability of epoxy coatings electrodeposited on modified aluminum surfaces (anodized, phosphatized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminium were monitored during exposure to 3% NaCl solution, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Better protective properties of the epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum with respect to the same epoxy coatings on aluminum and phosphatized aluminum were obtained: higher values of Rp and Rct and smaller values of Cc and Cd, from EIS, and a smaller amount of absorbed water inside the coating, from TGA. On the other hand, a somewhat lower thermal stability of these coatings was obtained (smaller values of the ipdt temperature. This behavior can be explained by the less porous structure of epoxy coatings on anodized and chromatized-phosphatized aluminum, caused by a lower rate of H2 evolution and better wet ability.

  11. 磷化铝中毒抑制大鼠胆碱酯酶及阿托品和氯解磷啶的作用%Cholinesterase inhibition by aluminium phosphide poisoning in rats and effects of atropine and pralidoxime chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shivani MHrRA; Sharda Shah PESHIN; Shyam Bala LALL

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cholinesterase inhibition and effect of atropine and pralidoxime (PAM) treatment on the survival time in the rat model of aluminium phosphide (ALP) poisoning. METHODS: The rats were treated with AlP (10 mg/kg; 5.55×LD50; ig) and the survival time was noted. The effect of atropine (1 mg/kg, ip) and PAM (5 mg/kg, ip) was noted on the above. Atropine and PAM were administered 5 min after AlP. Plasma cholinesterase levels were measured spectrophotometrically in the control and AlP treated rats 30 min after administration. RESULTS: Treaanent with atropine and PAM increased the survival time by 2.5 fold (1.4 h ±0.3 h vs 3.4 h±2.5 h, P<0.01) in9 out of 15 animals and resulted in total survival of the 6 remaining animals. Plasma cholinesterase levels were inhibited by 47%, (438±74) U/L in AlP treated rats as compared tocontrol (840±90) U/L (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This preliminary study concludes that AlP poisoning causes cholinesterase inhibition and responds to treatment with atropine and PAM.

  12. Refractory oxides containing aluminium and barium

    OpenAIRE

    Davies T.J.; Biedermann M.; Q-G. Chen; Emblem H. G.; Al-Douri W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Oxides containing aluminium and barium, optionally with chromium, are refractory with several possible industrial uses. A gel precursor of an oxide having the formula BaO.n(Al2xCr2yO3), where 1aluminium salt or a solution of an aluminium salt and a chromium III salt, then forming a gel which was fired to obtain the desired oxide. Filaments may be drawn as the gel is forming or extr...

  13. Aluminium Electrodeposition from Ionic Liquid: Effect of Deposition Temperature and Sonication †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Berretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, ionic liquids (ILs have attracted a wide interest for their potential use as a medium for many chemical processes, in particular electrochemistry. As electrochemical media they allow the electrodeposition of elements that are impossible to reduce in aqueous media. We have investigated the electrodeposition of aluminium from 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride ((BmimCl/AlCl3 (40/60 mol % as concerns the effect of deposition parameters on the quality of the deposits. Thick (20 μm aluminium coatings were electrodeposited on brass substrates at different temperatures and mixing conditions (mechanical stirring and sonication. These coatings were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, roughness measurements, and X-ray diffraction to assess the morphology and the phase composition. Finally, electrochemical corrosion tests were carried out with the intent to correlate the deposition parameters to the anti-corrosion properties.

  14. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Drugă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  15. Aluminium Process Fault Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazatul Aini Abd Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges in developing a fault detection and diagnosis system for industrial applications are not inconsiderable, particularly complex materials processing operations such as aluminium smelting. However, the organizing into groups of the various fault detection and diagnostic systems of the aluminium smelting process can assist in the identification of the key elements of an effective monitoring system. This paper reviews aluminium process fault detection and diagnosis systems and proposes a taxonomy that includes four key elements: knowledge, techniques, usage frequency, and results presentation. Each element is explained together with examples of existing systems. A fault detection and diagnosis system developed based on the proposed taxonomy is demonstrated using aluminium smelting data. A potential new strategy for improving fault diagnosis is discussed based on the ability of the new technology, augmented reality, to augment operators’ view of an industrial plant, so that it permits a situation-oriented action in real working environments.

  16. Deformation features of aluminium in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented a method to analyse stress-strain curves. Plastic and elastic strains were studied. The strains were done by tensile tests in four types of materials: highly pure aluminium, pure aluminium, commercially pure aluminium and aluminium - uranium. The chemical compositions were obtained by spectroscopy analysis and neutron activation analysis. Tensile tests were carried out at three strain rates, at room temperature, 100,200, 300 and 4000C, with knives extensometer and strain-gages to studied the elastic strain region. A multiple spring model based on two springs model to analyse elastic strain caused by tests without extensometers, taking in account moduli of elasticity and, an interactive analysis system with graphic capability were developed. It was suggested a qualitative model to explain the quantized multielasticity of Bell. (M.C.K.)

  17. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    , crystalline nano-particles, role of steam-based treatment on adhesion of industrially applied powder coating, and investigations of a failed painted aluminium window profile due to defects in the extruded profile. Chapters 13 and 14 describe the overall discussion, conclusions and future work based......The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes...... the use of aluminium alloys in the painted form requiring a conversion coating to improve the adhesion. Chromate based conversion coating processes are extremely good for these purposes, however the carcinogenic and toxic nature of hexavalent chromium led to the search for more benign and eco...

  18. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    and growth of oxide film on different intermetallic particles and corrosion behaviour of such alloys.Surface morphology was observed by using FEG-SEM, EDX and FIB-SEM. Metal oxide surface characterization and compositional depth profiling were investigated by using XPS and GD-OES respectively......Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in aerospace industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further be converted or transformed......) depending on the preparation parameters/conditions. Moreover, with the knowledge of factors controlling film growth, composition and morphology, such oxide layers carry huge potential for practical applications. Pure aluminium (AA1090, 99.94 wt. %) and other aluminium alloy surfaces were exposed to high...

  19. Shear Viscosity of Aluminium under Shock Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fu-Sheng; YANG Mei-Xia; LIU Qi-Wen; CHEN Jun-Xiang; JING Fu-Qian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the Newtonian viscous fluid model and the analytic perturbation theory of Miller and Ahrens for the oscillatory damping of a sinusoidal shock front, a flyer-impact technique is developed to investigate the effecti veviscosity of shocked aluminium.

  20. Bone marrow aluminium storage in renal failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, M.

    1983-01-01

    Using the staining method for aluminium with the ammonium salt of aurine tricarboxylic acid, aluminon, 18 patients with end stage renal disease gave positive reactions in iliac crest bone biopsies and 11 of these had positive staining in the bone marrow. In one the marrow was positive and the bone negative. The marrow reaction is putatively regarded as caused by aluminium storage in unidentified cells, possibly of the macrophage system which are strongly fluorescent when examined after prior ...

  1. DETERMINATION OF IMPURITY ELEMENTS IN ALUMINIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯小琳; 张永保

    1994-01-01

    Twenty five impurity elements in aluminium applied as reactor material are determined.Titanium and nickel are determined with epithermal neutron activation analysis(NAA),magnesium and silicon by inductance coupling plasma emission spectra(ICP),other elements by thermal NAA.The fission coefficient of uranium is given by an experiment,the interferences of uranium to Ce,Nd,Mo,Zr,La,Sm are subtracted.The detection limits of these methods to all of impurity elements in aluminium are calculated.

  2. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  3. Electrical Conductivity of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凤仪; 郑海务; 朱震刚; 祖方遒

    2002-01-01

    Closed-cell aluminium alloy foams were produced using the powder metallurgical technique. The effect of porosityand cell diameter on the electrical conductivity of foams was investigated and the results were compared with anumber of models. It was found that the percolation theory can be successfully applied to describe the dependenceof the electrical conductivity of aluminium alloy foams on the relative density. The cell diameter has a negligibleeffect on the electrical conductivity of foams.

  4. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...

  5. Ongoing characterization of passivated aluminium nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Q.S.M.; Fouchard, R.C.; Turcotte, A-M.; Abdel-Qader, Z.; Jones, D.E.G. [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET, Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    For characterization, the thermal behaviour of two aluminium nanopowders - Alss and Alssef - in air was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), simultaneous thermogravimetry-DTA (TG-DTA) and accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Alss and Alssef were found to be less reactive to air than previously determined for Als And Alex, possibly due to their thicker and different type of passivating layer. Stability determination for Alss and Alssef in a wet oxidizing environment was carried out using ARC, whereas outgassing behaviour of mixtures of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and the various aluminium powders was investigated using TG-DTA-FTIR-MS (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry). The addition of various aluminium powders resulted in only minimal effect on the thermal stability of ADN. Electrostatic discharge, friction sensitivities of ADN and its mixtures with various aluminium powders, and thermal stability and sensitivity of mixtures of nano-sized molybdenum trioxide with aluminium nanopowders were also studied. The electrostatic discharge sensitivity of molybdenum trioxide was shown to increase by the addition of aluminium nanopowders. 23 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. A spectroscopic study of uranium species formed in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination of uranium metal or uranium oxides in chloride melts offers an acceptable process for the head-end of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The reactions of uranium metal and ceramic uranium dioxide with chlorine and with hydrogen chloride were studied in the alkali metal chloride melts, NaCl-KCl at 973K, NaCl-CsCl between 873 and 923K and LiCl-KCl at 873K. The uranium species formed therein were characterized from their electronic absorption spectra measured in situ. The kinetic parameters of the reactions depend on melt composition, temperature and chlorinating agent used. The reaction of uranium dioxide with oxygen in the presence of alkali metal chlorides results in the formation of alkali metal uranates. A spectroscopic study, between 723 and 973K, on their formation and their solutions was undertaken in LiCl, LiCl-KCl eutectic and NaCl-CsCl eutectic melts. The dissolution of uranium dioxide in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 923K containing added aluminium trichloride in the presence of oxygen has also been investigated. In this case, the reaction leads to the formation of uranyl chloride species. (author)

  7. Heat treatment of aluminium strip coils; Gluehbehandlung von Aluminium-Bandbunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Dominik; Dambauer, Georg [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Nowadays, aluminium strip coils are increasingly heat-treated in single-coil lifting hearth furnaces SCL. Flexible, individual heat treatment allows fast reactions to short term requirements for the production of aluminium strip and offers energy saving possibilities. The following report describes the advantages of single-coil hearth furnaces in terms of flexibility, energy consumption and possible configurations. (orig.)

  8. A preliminary study of the dermal absorption of aluminium from antiperspirants using aluminium-26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarend, R; Bin, T; Elmore, D; Hem, S L

    2001-02-01

    Aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), the active ingredient in many antiperspirants, was labeled with the radioisotope 26Al. The labeled ACH was then fractionated into about 100 samples using gel filtration chromatography. Each fraction was analyzed for 26Al and total aluminium content. Aluminium-26 was only detected in the fractions that also contained aluminium, which verified that the ACH was uniformly labeled. 84 mg of the labeled ACH was then applied to a single underarm of two adult subjects with blood and urine samples being collected over 7 weeks. Tape-stripping and mild washings of the skin were also collected for the first 6 days. Results indicate that only 0.012% of the applied aluminium was absorbed through the skin. At this rate, about 4 microg of aluminium is absorbed from a single use of ACH on both underarms. This is about 2.5% of the aluminium typically absorbed by the gut from food over the same time period. Therefore, a one-time use of ACH applied to the skin is not a significant contribution to the body burden of aluminium.

  9. Design of welded aluminium connections (Entwurf und Berechnung von Aluminium Schweissverbindungen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the past two decades considerable research effort has been put into welded aluminium connections in order to better understand their structural behaviour and to up-date the design rules in the existing standards at the time [1]. Since weids in aluminium are more critical compared to steel, the ab

  10. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  11. Aluminium as heating fuel. Tests with aluminium powder prove suitability in principle. Aluminium als Heizungs-Brennstoff. Versuche mit Aluminiumpulver beweisen prinzipielle Eignung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.

    1990-12-01

    Tests prove that aluminium powder is perfectly suited as fuel and storage material for solar energy. The combustion product itself is again the base material for aluminium production, i.e. aluminium can be recycled. There are three problematic areas: 1. flame stability, 2. combustion duration and 3. environmental compatibility. Further development projects will aim at the construction of practice-orientated plants in which combustion, heat extraction and recovery of aluminium oxide is combined. A further aim is the melting burner to which aluminium is supplied in form of wires, cuttings or rods. (BWI).

  12. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as aluminium exposure varied between diatom species. C. closterium was the most sensitive species (10% inhibition of growth rate (72-h IC10) of 80 (55-100)μg Al/L (95% confidence limits)) while M. polymorphus (540 (460-600)μg Al/L) and P. tricornutum (2100 (2000-2200)μg Al/L) were less sensitive (based on measured total aluminium). Dissolved aluminium was the primary contributor to toxicity in C. closterium, while a combination of dissolved and precipitated aluminium forms contributed to toxicity in M. polymorphus. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the most tolerant diatom P. tricornutum was due predominantly to precipitated aluminium. Preliminary investigations revealed the sensitivity of C. closterium and M. polymorphus to aluminium was influenced by initial cell density with aluminium toxicity significantly (paluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium.

  13. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  14. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; R N Yadav

    2000-02-01

    The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  15. Structural colours and applications to anodised aluminium surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Villads Egede

    This thesis investigates possible ways of creating aluminium with a milky white, metallic appearance for decorative purposes. Since white cannot be obtained through traditional absorption based dyeing of aluminium, optical mechanisms based on scattering by nanostructures are studied in order...

  16. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation o...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  17. Friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bušić; Kožuh, Z.; D. Klobčar; Samardžić, I.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and f...

  18. Study of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate purification on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate from iron, chromium, manganese and cobalt impurities by sorption on some inorganic collectors are considered in this article. Study was conducted by means of radioactive-tracer technique at concurrent use of several γ-radioactive isotopes. As a collectors were used hydrated aluminium and zirconium oxides. Dependence of effectiveness of precipitation by collectors on ph-value of medium, quantity of collector, nature and concentration of components is studied. Optimal parameters of purification of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate are defined.

  19. Effects of melatonin on aluminium-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, M S; Feriani, A; Saoudi, M; Badraoui, R; Bouoni, Z; Nciri, R; Murat, J C; Elfeki, A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of melatonin (Mel) against aluminium-induced neurodegenerative changes in aging Wistar rats (24-28months old). Herein, aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (50mg/kg BW/day) was administered by gavage, and melatonin (Mel) was co-administered to a group of Al-treated rats by an intra-peritoneal injection at a daily dose of 10mg/kg BW for four months. The findings revealed that aluminium administration induced a significant decrease in body weight associated with marked mortality for the old group of rats, which was more pronounced in old Al-treated rats. Behavioural alterations were assessed by 'open fields', 'elevated plus maze' and 'Radial 8-arms maze' tests. The results demonstrated that Mel co-administration alleviated neurobehavioral changes in both old and old Al-treated rats. Melatonin was noted to play a good neuroprotective role, reducing lipid peroxidation (TBARs), and enhancing enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) activities in the brain organs of old control and old Al-treated rats. Mel treatment also reversed the decrease of AChE activity in the brain tissues, which was confirmed by histological sections. Overall, the results showed that Mel administration can induce beneficial effects for the treatment of Al-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system (CNS).

  20. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...... examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark....

  1. Stability of aluminium beams in case of fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, O.R. van der; Soetens, F.; Maljaars, J.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is often the dominant design criterion for aluminium structures. Present design rules for aluminium constructions in fire neglect both the decrease in susceptibility to local buckling and the effects of creep, that are intrinsic to aluminium. They may therefore either overestimate or underestim

  2. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  3. Qimingxing Aluminium of Jinma Group Ceases Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Jinma Group announced on December 23 that its subsidiary Meishan Qimingxing Aluminium decided to cease production starting from De- cember 23,and that the company will keep a close eye to the market and will resume pro- duction once the market bounces back.In 2007, Jinma Group took over Meishan Qimingxing’s 40% share by 112 million yuan to enter the aluminium industry.Meishan Qimingxing’s assets include a 125,000-ton production line of aluminium and 168 300KA electrolytic baths. Affected by the state’s macro-regulation policy in early years,the company’s profit fell short of estimates.Net profit of Meishan Qimingxing in 2007 was 10.65 million yuan.

  4. Diamond grooving of rapidly solidified optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Hossein, Khaled; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Ghobashy, Sameh; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Mkoko, Zwelinzima

    2015-10-01

    Traditional optical aluminium grades such as Al 6061 are intensively used for making optical components for applications ranging from mould insert fabrication to laser machine making. However, because of their irregular microstructure and relative inhomogeneity of material properties at micro scale, traditional optical aluminium may exhibit some difficulties when ultra-high precision diamond turned. Inhomogeneity and micro-variation in the material properties combined with uneven and coarse microstructure may cause unacceptable surface finish and accelerated tool wear, especially in grooving operation when the diamond tool edge is fully immersed in the material surface. Recently, new grades of optical aluminium that are featured by their ultra-fine microstructure and improved material properties have been developed to overcome the problem of high tool wear rates. The new aluminium grades have been developed using rapid solidification process which results in extremely small grain sizes combined with improved mechanical properties. The current study is concerned with investigating the performance of single-point diamond turning when grooving two grades of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades: RSA905 which is a high-alloyed aluminium grade and RSA443 which has a high silicon content. In this study, two series of experiments employed to create radial microgrooves on the two RSA grades. The surface roughness obtained on the groove surface is measured when different combinations of cutting parameters are used. Cutting speed is varied while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant. The results show that groove surface roughness produced on RSA443 is higher than that obtained on RSA905. Also, the paper reports on the effect of cutting speed on surface roughness for each RSA grade.

  5. Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. III. Water-rich aluminium halide hydrates: AlCl3 · 15H2O, AlBr3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 15H2O, AlI3 · 17H2O and AlBr3 · 9H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Horst; Hennings, Erik; Voigt, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Water-rich aluminium halide hydrate structures are not known in the literature. The highest known water content per Al atom is nine for the perchlorate and fluoride. The nonahydrate of aluminium bromide, stable pentadecahydrates of aluminium chloride, bromide and iodide, and a metastable heptadecahydrate of the iodide have now been crystallized from low-temperature solutions. The structures of these hydrates were determined and are discussed in terms of the development of cation hydration spheres. The pentadecahydrate of the chloride and bromide are isostructural. In AlI(3) · 15H2O, half of the Al(3+) cations are surrounded by two complete hydration spheres, with six H2O in the primary and 12 in the secondary. For the heptadecahydrate of aluminium iodide, this hydration was found for every Al(3+).

  6. New aluminium alloys with high lithium content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemme, K.; Velten, B.

    1989-06-01

    Since the early 80's there have been made great efforts to replace the high strength aluminium alloys for the aircraft and space industry by a new generation of aluminium-lithium alloys. The attractivity of this kind of alloys could be increased by a further reduction of their density, caused by an increasing lithium content (/ge/ 5 wt.% Li). Therefore binary high-lithium containing alloys with low density are produced and metallografically investigated. A survey of their strength and wear behavior is given by using tensile tests and pin abrasing tests. (orig.).

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of trace aluminium content in parenteral solutions by combined cloud point preconcentration-flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombra, L; Luconi, M; Silva, M F; Olsina, R A; Fernandez, L

    2001-07-01

    A cloud point preconcentration and flow injection (FI) analysis methodology for aluminium(III) determination has been developed. The analyte in the initial aqueous solution was complexed with Chrome Azurol S (CAS) in the presence of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BDTAC). The absorption spectroscopic characteristics of the ternary complex [Al(III)-CAS-BDTAC] were examined in detail. The preconcentration step was carried out by means of the non-ionic surfactant polyethylene glycol p-nonylphenyl ether (PONPE 7.5). The enriched analyte solution was injected into an FI system using an HPLC pump. The chemical variables affecting the analytical performance of the combined methodology were studied and optimised. The developed approach was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of aluminium in parenteral solutions without previous treatment. Under the optimum experimental conditions, 99.9% extraction was achieved for a preconcentration factor of 50. The limit of detection was 1.12 x 10(-7) mol(-1). The calibration plot was linear over at least two orders of magnitude of aluminium concentration. The developed coupled methodology, which thoroughly satisfies the typical requirements for pharmaceutical control processes, is appropriate for monitoring the aluminium concentration in parenteral nutrition.

  8. China’s Aluminium Consumption and the Related Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>China is a major aluminium consumer country in the world. In 2005, China produced 7.81 million tons aluminium and imported 640,000 tons. Meanwhile, China also exported 1.32 million tons aluminium in 2005. China’s apparent consumption of aluminium in 2005 was about 7.1 million tons, which was 9.3 times over that in 1990. China’s aluminium consumption growth has kept at an annual average of 16.1 per cent since 1990, which makes China the

  9. China’s Production and Market of Aluminium Extruded Profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Chinese aluminium extrusion industry came into existence at the early 1950s with most products used in military industry and national defence.At the beginning of 1980s,the produc- tion of construction aluminium profiles started simultaneously in North and South China.In the following thirty years,the aluminium extru- sion industry entered into a quickly developing stage with a focus on construction aluminium profiles.With the blooming real estate industry, the demand for construction aluminium profiles from the domestic market has a tendency of yearly increase.From 2000,the quick devel- opments of China’s auto and railway vehicle

  10. Irradiation damage in aluminium single crystals produced by 50-keV aluminium and copper ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.;

    1968-01-01

    Aluminium single crystals, thin enough to be examined by electron microscopy, have been irradiated with 50-keV aluminium and copper ions. The irradiation fluxes were in the range 1011–1014 cm−2 s−1 and the doses were from 6 × 1012 to 6 × 1014 cm−2. Irradiation along either a or a direction produces...... rows of dislocation loops all lying parallel to one particular direction. If the aluminium target is quenched from 600 °C and annealed at room temperature prior to irradiation with aluminium ions, the rows of loops are suppressed. The amount of damage observed is considerably less than would...

  11. Aluminium composite casting dispersion reinforced with iron-aluminium and silicon carbide phases

    OpenAIRE

    B. Formanek; J. Piątkowski; J. Szymszal

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium matrix composite with dispersion-reinforced, made by similar to stircasting process was characterised. The mixture of powders was produced by the process of mechanical agglomeration of powdered FexAly and SiC with aluminium. The chemical composition ofagglomerates was selected in a way such as to obtain 25 wt.% reinforcement of the AlSi9Cu4 silumin matrix. Applying thermal analysis ATD, the alloy solidification process was determined, reading out the typical solidification parameter...

  12. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  13. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...

  14. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P;

    2005-01-01

    in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...

  15. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  16. Microstructure Development during Solidification of Aluminium Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruvalcaba Jimenez, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    This Thesis demonstrates studies on microstructure development during the solidification of aluminium alloys. New insights of structure development are presented here. Experimental techniques such as quenching and in-situ High-brilliance X-ray microscopy were utilized to study the microstructure evo

  17. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  18. Water defluoridation by aluminium oxide-manganese oxide composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Sheta; Mulugeta, Eyobel; Zewge, Feleke; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh

    2014-08-01

    In this study, aluminium oxide-manganese oxide (AOMO) composite material was synthesized, characterized, and tested for fluoride removal in batch experiments. AOMO was prepared from manganese(II) chloride and aluminium hydroxide. The surface area of AOMO was found to be 30.7m2/g and its specific density was determined as 2.78 g/cm3. Detailed investigation of the adsorbent by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and ion chromatography (for sulphate only) showed that it is composed of Al, Mn, SO4, and Na as major components and Fe, Si, Ca, and Mg as minor components. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to study the thermal behaviour of AOMO. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the adsorbent is poorly crystalline. The point of zero charge was determined as 9.54. Batch experiments (by varying the proportion of MnO, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial F concentration, and raw water pH) showed that fluoride removal efficiency ofAOMO varied significantly with percentage of MnO with an optimum value of about I11% of manganese oxide in the adsorbent. The optimum dose of the adsorbent was 4 g/L which corresponds to the equilibrium adsorption capacity of 4.8 mg F-/g. Both the removal efficiency and adsorption capacity showed an increasing trend with an increase in initial fluoride concentration of the water. The pH for optimum fluoride removal was found to be in the range between 5 and 7. The adsorption data were analysed using the Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinirn-Radushkevich models. The minimum adsorption capacity obtained from the non-linear Freundlich isotherm model was 4.94 mg F-/g and the maximum capacity from the Langmuir isotherm method was 19.2mg F-/g. The experimental data of fluoride adsorption on AOMO fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm model. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption is well described by a non-linear pseudo-second-order reaction model with an average rate constant of 3

  19. First wall design of aluminium alloy R-tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design study of a low-activation D-T tokamak Reacting Plasma Project In Nagoya has been finished. The study emphasizes the vacuum vessel and the bumper limiter. Our choice of materials (aluminium vacuum vessel, copper conductors, aluminium TF coil case and lead shield) results in a radiation level of about 1 x 10-3 times that of a TFTR type design, and 1 x 10-4 times that of JET type design, at 2 weeks after one D-T shot. Thick graphite tiles will be fixed directly on the aluminium vacuum vessel using aluminium spring washers and bolts. With this simplified structure of the bumper limiter, the inner surface temperature of the thick aluminium vacuum vessel will be less than 1200C which is required to reduce the overaging effect of the aluminium alloy. (orig.)

  20. What is the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium is neurotoxic. Its free ion, Al(3+) (aq), is highly biologically reactive and uniquely equipped to do damage to essential cellular (neuronal) biochemistry. This unequivocal fact must be the starting point in examining the risk posed by aluminium as a neurotoxin in humans. Aluminium is present in the human brain and it accumulates with age. The most recent research demonstrates that a significant proportion of individuals older than 70 years of age have a potentially pathological accumulation of aluminium somewhere in their brain. What are the symptoms of chronic aluminium intoxication in humans? What if neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are the manifestation of the risk of aluminium as a neurotoxin? How might such an (outrageous) hypothesis be tested?

  1. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention.

  2. Toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminium to marine diatoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Megan L; Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Adams, Merrin S; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-05-01

    Localised aluminium contamination can lead to high concentrations in coastal waters, which have the potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. This research investigated the toxicity of 72-h exposures of aluminium to three marine diatoms (Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium), Minutocellus polymorphus and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) by measuring population growth rate inhibition and cell membrane damage (SYTOX Green) as endpoints. Toxicity was correlated to the time-averaged concentrations of different aluminium size-fractions, operationally defined as permeability were observed for any of the three diatoms suggesting that mechanisms of aluminium toxicity to diatoms do not involve compromising the plasma membrane. These results indicate that marine diatoms have a broad range in sensitivity to aluminium with toxic mechanisms related to both dissolved and precipitated aluminium. PMID:26921729

  3. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  4. Straggling of heavy ions in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effort has been made to determine the straggling in aluminium of 4He, 16O and 35Cl ions of different energies produced by the tandem Van de Graaff at Harwell. The technique consists of scattering the accelerated and collimated ions in a scattering chamber from a 0.100 mg/cm2 gold foil, allowing the scattered ions to pass through a two aperture collimator, using different aluminium foils over one of the apertures and stopping the two emergent beams in a good quality silicon surface barrier detector the output of which is connected to a 4096 channel analyser. The energy widths obtained in the case of helium ions are in fair agreement with both the Bloch and the recent Tschalar (1968) theory. The measured widths in the case of heavy ions are very large and can be explained only if account is taken of their charge distributions in foils. This study should be useful in ion implantation work. (author)

  5. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  6. China will Reduce Aluminium Export in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Starting from January 1, 2005, China eliminated the 8 per cent export tax rebate for aluminium, and further more, the exporters will have to pay 5 per cent export tax. This is beyond the expectations of the producers, for most of them thought only the 8 per cent export tax rebate would be eliminated and it was still too early to add the export tax.

  7. FSW characterization of 6082 aluminium alloys sheets

    OpenAIRE

    K. Mroczka; A. Pietras

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the investigations was to elaborate a set of FSW parameters for connecting 6082 aluminium alloy sheets allowing to produce welds of highest strength.Design/methodology/approach: The FSW was tried at different speeds and at additional cooling. The welds microstructure was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The mechanical properties of produced connections are discussed regarding their tensile test and microhardness measurements.Findings: The FSW we...

  8. Methods of inoculation of pure aluminium structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of investigations was the reduction of grain size and unification of structure for pure Al casting by introduction of small amount of inoculant (less than obligatory standart PN-EN 573-3, which concerning about aluminium purity, with electromagnetic field and variable casting parameters.Design/methodology/approach: To investigations it was used light microscopy and TEM. Surfaces of samples which were prepared for macro- and microstructure analysis were etched with use of solution of: 50g Cu, 400ml HCl, 300ml HNO3 and 300ml H2O. Thin foils for TEM investigations were electropolished with use of 20 ml HClO4 and 80ml CH3OH.Findings: The results of investigations and their analysis show possibility of effective inoculation of pure aluminium structure by use of some factors such as: different materials of the mould, influencing of stirring electromagnetic field into metal during solidification, inoculation by introducing AlTi5B1 inoculant into liquid aluminium and changing the pouring temperature.Research limitations/implications: I further research, authors of this paper are going to application of introduced method of inoculation in industrial tests.Practical implications: The work presents refinement of structure method which are particularly important in continuous and semi – continuous casting where products are used for plastic forming. Large columnar crystals zone result in forces extrusion rate reduction and during the ingot rolling delamination of external layers can occur. Thus, in some cases ingot skinning is needed, which rises the production costs.Originality/value: Contributes to research on size reduction in pure aluminium structure.

  9. Aluminium matrix composites fabricated by infiltration method

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; M. Kremzer; A. J. Nowak; Nagel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to examine the structure and properties of metal matrix composites obtained by infiltration method of porous ceramic preforms by liquid aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: Ceramic preforms were manufactured by the sintering method of ceramic powder. The preform material consists of powder Condea Al2O3 CL 2500, however, as the pore forming the carbon fibers Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS were used. Then ceramic preforms were infiltrated with liquid eutectic EN ...

  10. Softening Behaviour of Selected Commercially Pure Aluminium Model Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Sande, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of the softening behaviour of four different commercially pure aluminium alloys has been carried out. The work is related to the MOREAL project (Modelling towards value-added recycling friendly aluminium alloys), where the main goal is to quantify the effect of the elements in recyclable aluminium alloys on microstructure and mechanical properties during thermo-mechanical processing. Typical elements are iron (Fe), silicon (Si) and manganese (Mn), and the alloys studied in ...

  11. Un-optimistic Prospects for the Westward Movement of Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The westward movement of aluminium is essential for the industrial development.Up till now,the northwestern area has planned to construct more than 40 aluminium projects with a total production capacity of over 20 million tons.The future rate of progress of newly constructed projects are directly related to the supplies of the aluminium market,having critical guiding meaning for the trends of

  12. Friction factor of CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Vidhya Sagar; K S Anand; A C Mithun; K Srinivasan

    2006-12-01

    Friction factor has been determined for CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys using ring compression test at different temperatures from 303 K to 773 K. It is found that CP aluminium exhibits sticking whereas Al–Zn alloys do not exhibit sticking at elevated temperatures. Hot working of Al–Zn alloy is easier than that of CP aluminium at 773 K. As zinc content increases up to 10 wt% the friction factor decreases up to 0.02.

  13. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cieśla

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method an...

  14. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  15. Tribological characteristics of coatings on aluminium and its alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Mahdi, Fadhil S

    1987-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Hard anodising on aluminium and its alloys has been widely practised for many years in order to improve the resistance of the otherwise poor wear characteristics of aluminium. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in other treatments and coatings, on both aluminium and other base metals. The aim of this investigation is to explain the tribological performance and wear mechanis...

  16. Wearing tests on aluminium coated with diamond by triboadhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.M.RodríguezLelis; B.D.Angulo; J.O.Colín; J.PorcayoCalderón

    2001-01-01

    In this work the results obtained from subjecting aluminium coated with diamond by tri-boadhesion to a wearing process with a plane rider. Here it is shown the ratio of the normal toshearing forces, called friction factor, as an indication of the resistance of the surface. It was foundthat the film of the aluminium coated with diamond resisted three times compared with the oxida-tion film of commercial aluminium, which for the purpose of this work was considered withoutcoating.

  17. Behaviour and design of aluminium alloy structural elements

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Meini; 蘇玫妮

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are nonlinear metallic materials with continuous stress-strain curves that are not well represented by the simplified elastic, perfectly plastic material model used in most existing design specifications. The aims of this study are to develop a more efficient design method for aluminium alloy structures by rationally exploiting strain hardening. The key components of this study include laboratory testing, numerical modelling and development of design guidance for aluminium al...

  18. Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Noelle

    2008-07-15

    Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)

  19. Aluminium in the rail transportation market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, J. [Alcan Alesa Engineering Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland). Alcan Mass Transportation Systems

    2002-07-01

    Rail-transportation is not, as one might expect, a homogeneous market but extremely fragmented and even with huge differences from continent to continent, i.e. in North America freight transport is dominating whereas in Europe passenger transport prevails. A first segmentation splits infrastructure from vehicles. In a second layer of segmentation we distinguish between light rail vehicles, heavy metros, regional trains, intercity trains, high speed trains with and without tilting, maglev trains, freight vehicles and locomotives. Finally, we find aluminium applications in wheels, suspension parts, brake equipment, traction equipment, body structure, hang on parts and interior trim. On the infrastructure side best use of aluminium is in the field of power supply. In order to have the best solution for each application, all forms of products such as castings, forgings, flat rolled products and extrusions are needed and the engineers are using a broad choice or different alloys for all the requirements such as structural strength, decorative aspect, electrical conductivity, wear resistance, weldability, corrosion resistance etc. Innovation cycles in rail transportation are very slow, mainly because the expected life of vehicles is over 30 years and so no fleet owner will run the risk of getting vehicles with non-proven components, i.e. where a safe life of over 30 years cannot be shown. In the following the most important aluminium applications are shown and discussed. (orig.)

  20. Plasmonic enhancement of photoluminescence from aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Chris; Stewart, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) films were grown on c-plane sapphire wafers by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) under aluminium-rich conditions. The excess aluminium (Al) accumulated on the surface of the films as micro-scale droplets 1-10 μm in size, and as Al nanoparticles with diameters in the range 10-110 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were performed on the AlN samples using a 193 nm Excimer laser as the excitation source. Prior to PL measurements the wafers were cleaved in half. One half of each wafer was submitted to a 10 min treatment in H3PO4 heated to 70 °C to remove the excess Al from the film surface. The remaining half was left in the as-deposited condition. The mean intensities of the near-band-edge PL peaks of the as-deposited samples were 2.0-3.4 times higher compared to the samples subjected to the H3PO4 Al-removal treatment. This observation motivated calculations to determine the optimal Al surface nanosphere size for plasmonic enhancement of PL from AlN. The PL enhancement was found to peak for an Al nanosphere radius of 15 nm, which is within the range of the experimentally-observed Al nanoparticle sizes.

  1. Aluminium composite casting dispersion reinforced with iron-aluminium and silicon carbide phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Formanek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium matrix composite with dispersion-reinforced, made by similar to stircasting process was characterised. The mixture of powders was produced by the process of mechanical agglomeration of powdered FexAly and SiC with aluminium. The chemical composition ofagglomerates was selected in a way such as to obtain 25 wt.% reinforcement of the AlSi9Cu4 silumin matrix. Applying thermal analysis ATD, the alloy solidification process was determined, reading out the typical solidification parameters. The methods of light and scanning microscopy were used to reveal the structure of composite casting. Changes in chemical composition and phase composition of particles of the FeAl intermetallic phase in aluminium matrix were confirmed. The structure of silumin casting with matrix containing microregions of ceramic and intermetallic phases, typical of hybrid reinforcements, was obtained.

  2. Synthesis of aluminium nanoparticles by arc evaporation of an aluminium cathode surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Gazanfari; M Karimzadeh; S Ghorbani; M R Sadeghi; G Azizi; H Karimi; N Fattahi; Z Karimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Aluminium nanoparticles (Al Nps) are synthesized using arc discharge method by applying direct current between aluminium electrodes in liquid environment without any use of vacuum equipment, heat exchangers, high temperatures furnaces and inert gases. After synthesis of Al Nps, in situ coating process on the nanoparticles was performed immediately. The effects of media on the yield and morphology of aluminium nanoparticles were investigated. Analysis result of the samples indicated that particle size was less than 30 nm, when 120 A/cm2 arc current was used. In addition, coating agent can affect arc velocity, arc stability, morphology and composition of the nanoparticles. Resultant nanoparticles were identified using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), also their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and finally the accuracy of coating was assessed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy.

  3. Cold-impregnated aluminium. A new source of nickel exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, C

    1994-07-01

    A new technique for finishing anodized aluminium was introduced during the 1980s--cold impregnation with nickel. Nickel is available on the surface of cold-impregnated aluminium, as shown by the dimethylglyoxime test. Chemical analysis with EDXA showed that nickel was in the form of NiSO4. A case of work-related allergic contact dermatitis in an engraver with nickel allergy is reported. It transpired that the patient was exposed to nickel in connection with aluminium. It is concluded that cold-impregnated aluminium is a new source of nickel exposure, probably previously unknown to dermatologists. PMID:7924288

  4. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M.; Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L.; Afshari, A.

    2014-03-01

    Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface roughness was also observed.

  5. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  6. Aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal--oxygen -cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, E.

    1975-02-20

    The invention deals with an aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal--oxygen cells. The object of the invention is to improve further an aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal--oxygen cells. In particular, the lifetime is to be increased and the Faraday degree of efficiency is to be improved by suppressing an excessive hydrogen development. The anode is thus constructed so as to have a metal net on both sides with aluminium layers, and the surfaces of the aluminium layers not facing the metal net are lapped or sand-blasted and have an anodized layer on their boundary regions.

  7. Negative aluminium electrode for biogalvanic metal-oxygen cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidlich, E.

    1977-03-24

    The invention deals with an aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal-oxygen cells. The object of the invention is to further improve an aluminium anode for biogalvanic metal-oxygen cells. In particular, the service life is to be increased and the Faraday degree of efficiency is to be improved, by suppressing an excessive hydrogen development. The anode is thus constructed so as to have a metal net on both sides with aluminium layers and the surfaces of the aluminium layers not facing the metal net are lapped or sand-blasted and have an eloxal layer on their boundary regions.

  8. A study on the recycling of aluminium alloy 7075 scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezer, Goekhan [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (TR). Balkan Centre of Advanced Casting Technologies (BACAT); Marsoglu, Muezeyyen [Yildiz Technical Univ., Yildiz (Turkey). Dept. for Metal and Materials Science Engineering; Burgucu, Sarp

    2012-07-01

    Aluminium and its alloys have recently become an important metal whose area and amount of usage increase more and more, due to their mechanical properties, recycling ability, and penetrability. If it is considered that the bauxite, which is the raw material of aluminium is rare on earth, and also the area and amount of aluminium usage increases over time, the importance of aluminium recycling goes up. aluminium recycling has become crucial by means of both, the potential of the scrap's dependant increase on usage and the primary aluminium production, as it is providing energy and cost savings. 7xxx grades of scrap are collected with other scrap of aluminium alloys in one turn and recycled all together. As the regain of these alloys is not done by isolation of the various grades, the finally recycled ingots result in lower grades. High value aluminium scrap is regrettably not recovered, as it was anticipated. This study is dealing with 7075 aluminium alloys originated from discharged blow molding tools and the rest piece cuttings of blocks and plates. The material has been subjected to an induction furnace, and has been remelted into small ingots and hardened according to 7075 aluminium alloy parameters (hardening aluminium tooling). [German] Aluminium und seine Legierungen sind in den letzten Jahren aufgrund ihrer mechanischen Eigenschaften, ihrer Recyclingfaehigkeit und ihrer Durchlaessigkeit immer bedeutendere metallische Werkstoffe geworden. Unter Beruecksichtigung, dass Bauxit als Rohmaterial selten auf der Erde vorkommt und der Verbrauch mit der Zeit steigt, waechst die Bedeutung des Recyclings von Aluminium. Aluminiumrecycling, zumal es Energieund Kosteneinsparungen ermoeglicht, ist sowohl fuer die schrottabhaengigen Verwendungspotentiale und die PrimaerAluminiumproduktion gleichermassen bedeutend geworden. Die 7xxxx Schrottlegierungen werden in einem Arbeitsgang mit dem Schrott aus anderen Aluminiumlegierungen gesammelt und recycled. Da die

  9. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, M., E-mail: mar@sbi.aau.dk [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Fojan, P.; Gurevich, L. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4, DK-9220 Aalborg East (Denmark); Afshari, A. [Department of Energy and Environment, Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Successful surface modification procedures on aluminium samples were performed involving formation of the layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol (PEG) via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. • The groups of surfaces with hydrophobic behavior were found to follow the Wenzel model. • A transition from Cassie–Baxter's to Wenzel's regime was observed due to changing of the surface roughness upon mechanical polishing in aluminium samples. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys are some of the predominant metals in industrial applications such as production of heat exchangers, heat pumps. They have high heat conductivity coupled with a low specific weight. In cold working conditions, there is a risk of frost formation on the surface of aluminium in the presence of water vapour, which can lead to the deterioration of equipment performance. This work addresses the methods of surface modification of aluminium and their effect of the underlying surface morphology and wettability, which are the important parameters for frost formation. Three groups of real-life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types of surface modifications the contact angle of water droplets on aluminium samples can be varied from 12° to more than 120°. A crossover from Cassie–Baxter to Wenzel regime upon changing the surface

  10. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  11. Electrolytic deposition of aluminium-magnesium-alloys from electrolytes containing organo-aluminium complexes; Elektrolytische Abscheidung von Aluminium-Magnesium-Legierungen aus aluminiumorganischen Komplexelektrolyten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, H.; Mehler, K.; Bongard, H.; Tesche, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Reinhold, B. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Technische Entwicklung

    2000-10-01

    The galvanic deposition of pure aluminium from fluoride-containing electrolytes has been developed further and for the first time aluminium and magnesium have been deposited from a toluene-solution of a halide-free organo-aluminium complex electrolyte. The rate of incorporation of magnesium can be controlled over a wide range by either adjusting the composition of the aluminium-magnesium anode or by using separate aluminium or magnesium anodic circuits. The current efficiency for both anode and cathode approaches 100%. The resulting coating is optically attractive and, depending upon the magnesium-content or the cathodic current density, can be formed as a dull or polished surface. Investigations using an electron microscope show that the surface, in contrast to that of pure aluminium, consists of spherical particles. The aluminium-magnesium coating provides excellent protection against the corrosion of magnesium components. Electrochemical investigations using, for example 25% by weight magnesium incorporation, indicate a pronounced passivity interval compared to the alloy AZ91hp. In contrast to galvanic zinc-plated and silicate-sealed examples, cyclic corrosion tests on screws simulating 10 years of exposure, show no corrosion. (orig.)

  12. Self-sealing of unsealed aluminium anodic oxide films in very different atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that the corrosion resistance behaviour of bare aluminium in natural environments is superior to that of unsealed anodised aluminium. However, results obtained in the exposure of unsealed anodised aluminium specimens with three different film thicknesses, in 9 atmospheres of Ibero-America with salinity levels between 3.9 and 517 mg.m-2.d-1 chloride, clearly shows the reverse to be true. After a sufficient time, which is shorter the higher the precipitation rate and the environmental relative humidity, a self-sealing process takes place, leading to coatings that surpass the quality standards demanded in industrial practice. Anodic films, sealed and unsealed, are protective coatings whose quality improves with ageing in most natural environments.

    Está muy difundida la idea de que el comportamiento del aluminio es superior al del aluminio anodizado y sin sellar, desde el punto de vista de la resistencia a la corrosión, en los ambientes naturales. Sin embargo, los resultados obtenidos en la exposición de anodizados sin sellar, de tres espesores diferentes, a 9 atmósferas de Iberoamérica, con salinidades comprendidas entre 3,9 y 517 mg.m-2.d-1 de cloruros, muestran, sin lugar a dudas, lo contrario. Con tiempo suficiente, tanto más rápidamente cuanto mayor sean las precipitaciones y la humedad relativa ambiental, tiene lugar un proceso de autosellado que conduce a recubrimientos que superan las normas de calidad exigidas en la práctica industrial. Los anodizados, sellados y sin sellar, son recubrimientos protectores que mejoran su calidad, en la mayoría de los ambientes naturales, con el envejecimiento.

  13. Gas heat treatment plants for the aluminium industry; Gasbeheizte Waermebehandlungsanlagen fuer die Aluminium-Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olberts, P.; Hanus, A. [LOI Thermprocess GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    LOI Thermoprocess has developed new, flexible, innovative furnace designs for heat treatment of aluminium in general (car industry) and particularly for cylinder heads, engine units, chassis components, textured components, wheels, rolled sheet and extrusions. The furnaces are heated by means of radiant tubes (recuperators) and by the more usual open gas heating system (flue gas recirculation). (orig.)

  14. The aluminium body has been promoted in Canada; La carrosserie aluminium promue au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-02-01

    The aluminium vehicles technology is a technology which allows, with an equivalent structure, to decrease the weight of a car of 40%. Presented by the Alcan firm, this technology is one of the technologies of the year 2003. The Alcan firm has, besides, received the 2003 technology price awarded by the magazine Industry Week. (O.M.)

  15. Combined Corrosion and Wear of Aluminium Alloy 7075-T6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in engineering. In some applications, like slurry transport, corrosion and abrasion occur simultaneously, resulting in early material failure. In the present work, we investigated the combined effect of corrosion and wear on the aluminium alloy 7075-T6. We

  16. Aluminium removal from water after defluoridation with the electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Richa; Mathur, Sanjay; Brighu, Urmila

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride is the most electronegative element and has a strong affinity for aluminium. Owing to this fact, most of the techniques used for fluoride removal utilized aluminium compounds, which results in high concentrations of aluminium in treated water. In the present paper, a new approach is presented to meet the WHO guideline for residual aluminium concentration as 0.2 mg/L. In the present work, the electrocoagulation (EC) process was used for fluoride removal. It was found that aluminium content in water increases with an increase in the energy input. Therefore, experiments were optimized for a minimum energy input to achieve the target value (0.7 mg/L) of fluoride in resultant water. These optimized sets were used for further investigations of aluminium control. The experimental investigations revealed that use of bentonite clay as coagulant in clariflocculation brings down the aluminium concentration of water below the WHO guideline. Bentonite dose of 2 g/L was found to be the best for efficient removal of aluminium.

  17. New Policies to Control the Aluminium Industry Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Information from China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association (CNIA) shows that new government policies on China’s aluminium industry will be released soon in order to control the rapid expansion of the aluminium industry which consumes large amount of power resources. Based on the new policies, investors of

  18. Chalco Calls for End of More Control Measures on Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> To control the investment rush in electrolyticaluminium in recent years and ensure thehealthy development of China’s aluminium in-dustry, the State Council recently released aseries of adjustment policies and control meas-ures,which effectively prevented theinvestment rush and limited the aluminium out-put growth.

  19. Haemodialysis related osteomalacia: a staining method to demonstrate aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Malcolm RC; Ihle, Benno U; Dunn, Cheryl M

    1981-01-01

    A slight modification in tissue processing and staining technique enables a previously described method for staining aluminium to be used to demonstrate aluminium in osteomalacia associated with haemodialysis. The stain appears to be accurate in diagnosing this condition and may assist in establishing the diagnosis before severe osteomalacia develops.

  20. Developments in finite element simulations of aluminium extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lof, Joeri

    2000-01-01

    Aluminium extrusion is a forming process used to produce profiles. A large variety of profiles can be made by pressing a billet of hot aluminium through a hole that closely resembles the required cross-section of the profie. At the present time, design of extrusion dies and operation in extrusion co

  1. Spark counting technique with an aluminium oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic spark counting of etch-pits on a polycarbonate film produced by nuclear fission fragments is now used for neutron monitoring in several countries. A method was developed using an aluminium oxide film instead of a polycarbonate as the neutron detector. Aluminium oxide films were prepared as follows: A cleaned aluminium plate as an anode and a nickel plate as a cathode were immersed in dilute sulfuric acid solution and electric current flowed between the electrodes at 12degC for 10-30 minutes. Electric current density was about 10 mA/cm2. The aluminium plate was then kept in boiling water for 10-30 minutes for sealing. The thickness of the aluminium oxide layer formed was about 1μm. The aluminium plate attached to a plate of suitable fissionable material, such as uranium or thorium, was irradiated with neutrons and set in a usual spark counter for fission track counting. One electrode was the aluminium plate and the other was an aluminized polyester sheet. Sparked pulses were counted with a usual scaler. The advantage of using spark counting with an aluminium oxide film for neutron monitoring is rapid measurement of neutron exposure, since chemical etching which is indispensable for spark counting with a polycarbonate detector film, is not needed. (H.K.)

  2. CAD implementation of design rules for aluminium extrusion dies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwerkerk, van Gijs

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium extrusion is an industrial forming process that is used to produce long profiles of a constant cross-section. This cross-section is shaped by the opening in a steel tool known as the die. The understanding of the mechanics of the aluminium extrusion process is still limited. The flow of al

  3. Enhanced corrosion protection by microstructural control of aluminium brazing sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norouzi Afshar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium brazing sheet is a sandwich material made out of two aluminium alloys (AA4xxx/AA3xxx) and is widely used in automotive heat exchangers. One of the main performance criteria for heat exchanger units is the lifetime of the product. The lifetime of the heat exchanger units is determined by th

  4. Aluminium Electroplating on Steel from a Fused Bromide Electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat Tripathy; Laura Wurth; Eric Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven Frank; Guy Fredrickson; J Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBr-KBr-CsBr-AlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminium on steel substrates. The electrolyte was prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBr-KBr-CsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminium coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminium coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggest that the coatings did display good corrosion-resistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminium coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminium coating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  5. CERN: very large magnet with aluminium winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgenstein, F.A.

    1984-10-25

    The construction of an octagonal solenoid from trapezoidal plates of Al, 6m long and 6cm thick, assembled by electron beam welding, for installation in a laboratory 50m underground is described. The objective is to create a field of 0.5T in a volume of 1000m/sup 3/ for the L3 particle detector of the LEP accelerator project. Principal dimensions and weights of the structure are given and its three stages of implementation are described, with reference to the contributions from the Swiss aluminium industry.

  6. Friction stir welding of single crystal aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonda, Richard Warren; Wert, John A.; Reynolds, A.P.;

    2007-01-01

    Friction stir welds were prepared in different orientations in an aluminium single crystal. The welds were quenched to preserve the microstructure surrounding the tool and then electron backscattered diffraction was used to reveal the generation of grain boundaries and the evolution...... of crystallographic texture around the tool in each weld. The extent of both dynamic recrystallisation and conventional recrystallisation varied considerably as a function of weld orientation. As the base plate begins to interact with the deformation field surrounding the tool, regions of the single crystal rotate...

  7. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  8. New sheet aluminium qualities for low-cost lightweight constructions; Neue Aluminium-Blechqualitaeten fuer den kosteneffizienten Leichtbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloeck, M.; Furrer, P. [Novelis Technology AG, Neuhausen (Switzerland)

    2005-11-01

    Aluminium alloys used for car bodies have a wide range of material characteristics. New developments focus on selective development of material and surface characteristics for obtaining sheet aluminium qualities optimized for specific applications. These and further measures taken by Novelis are to reduce material consumption, simplify process steps in motor car manufacturing and reducing the overall system cost. (orig.)

  9. Design of the lines of aluminium drawing. Part 2; Conception des filieres de filage d'aluminium. Partie 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cescutti, J.P.; Ravaille, N. [Pechiney, Div. Filiage, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-12-15

    This work is the second part of the file 'design of the lines of aluminium drawing'. It gives elements for structuring the analysis of the progress ways in the field of the design of the lines of aluminium extrusion. (O.M.)

  10. Effects of Hard Surface Grinding and Activation on Electroless-Nickel Plating on Cast Aluminium Alloy Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Olarewaju Ajibola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work examined effects of hard surface polishing grits and activation on electroless-nickel (EN plating on cast aluminium alloy substrates in sodium hypophosphite baths. As-received aluminium alloy sample sourced from automobile hydraulic brake master cylinder piston was melted in electric furnace and sand cast into rod. The cast samples were polished using different grits (60 μm–1200 μm before plating. The effects on adhesion, appearance, and quantity of EN deposits on substrates were studied. Observation shows that the quantity of EN deposit is partly dependent on the alloy type and roughness of the surface of the substrates, whereas the adhesion and brightness are not solely controlled by the degree of surface polishing. The best yield in terms of adhesion and appearance was obtained from the activation in zincate and palladium chloride solutions. Higher plating rates (g/mm2/min of 3.01E-05, 2.41E-05, and 2.90E-05 were obtained from chromate, zincate, and chloride than 8.49E-06, 8.86E-06, and 1.69E-05 as obtained from HCl etched, NaOH, and H2O activated surfaces, respectively.

  11. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  12. Aluminium matrix composites: Challenges and opportunities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Surappa

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium matrix composites (AMCs) refer to the class of light weight high performance aluminium centric material systems. The reinforcement in AMCs could be in the form of continuous/discontinuous fibres, whisker or particulates, in volume fractions ranging from a few percent to 70%. Properties of AMCs can be tailored to the demands of different industrial applications by suitable combinations of matrix, reinforcement and processing route. Presently several grades of AMCs are manufactured by different routes. Three decades of intensive research have provided a wealth of new scientific knowledge on the intrinsic and extrinsic effects of ceramic reinforcement vis-a-vis physical, mechanical, thermo-mechanical and tribological properties of AMCs. In the last few years, AMCs have been utilised in high-tech structural and functional applications including aerospace, defence, automotive, and thermal management areas, as well as in sports and recreation. It is interesting to note that research on particle-reinforced cast AMCs took root in India during the 70’s, attained industrial maturity in the developed world and is currently in the process of joining the mainstream of materials. This paper presents an overview of AMC material systems on aspects relating to processing, microstructure, properties and applications.

  13. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section....

  15. INTEROGATION OF THE MANUFACTURING ROUTE OF ALUMINIUM AA 1050 USED IN LITHOGRAPHIC APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Witkowska, Malgorzata Danuta

    2013-01-01

    The aluminium AA1050 alloy, known as commercially pure aluminium, contains 99.5% Al, together with Fe and Si as major alloying elements. During fabrication of aluminium substrates for lithographic printing plates in Bridgnorth Aluminium Ltd, the AA 1050 aluminium alloy proceeds through various stages of thermomechanical processing, with the conditions at each processing stage influencing the microstructure of the final coil. Because of its specific gravity, tensile strength, surface performa...

  16. Preparation of Aluminium Oxynitride by Carbothermal Reduction of Aluminium Oxide in a Flowing N2 Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYa-wei; YUANRun-zhang; 等

    1996-01-01

    Carbothermal reduction of alumina into aluminium oxynitride(AlON) spinel in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere was studied.The effects of Al2O3/C ratio temperature,soaking time,heating rate molding pressure of samples,and nitrogen flow rate on reactions were investigated.Then the stability of AlON was elucidated and AlON wa confirmed as an intermediate compound in reduction of alumina.

  17. Aluminium: Aluminij: kovina izbire: the metal of choice:

    OpenAIRE

    Gándara, María Josefa Freiría

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the importance of aluminium as the metal of choice formany applications. Aluminium is a lightweight, durable metal. It is silvery in appearance when freshly cut, is a good conductor of heat and electricity, and is easily shaped by moulding and extruding. Aluminium has two main advantages when compared with other metals. Firstly, it has a low density, about one-third that of iron and copper. Secondly, although it reacts rapidly with the oxygen in air, it forms a thin, t...

  18. Optimization of Magnesium Metal into Commercially Pure Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana J Rao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation, involve development of Al-Mg systems by addition of magnesium into commercially pure aluminium. The amounts of magnesium added into commercially pure aluminium are of 1 and 2 wt%. The recoveries of magnesium are around 85-90%.Remaining Mg react with oxygen and float on the liquid aluminium. Presence of magnesium creates two phenomena. One is solid solution hardening and other is intermetallics formation. Both the phenomena checked by microstructural changes and by measuring the electrical conductivity values. By increasing the Mg, content mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength increases and electrical conductivity decreases.

  19. Effect of pressurized steam on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect of pressurized steam on surface changes, structures of intermetallic particles and corrosion behavior of AA1050 aluminium. Design/methodology/approach - Industrially pure aluminium (AA1050, 99.5 per cent) surfaces were exposed...... reactivities was observed due to the formation of the compact oxide layer. Originality/value - This paper reveals a detailed investigation of how pressurized steam can affect the corrosion behaviour of AA1050 aluminium and the structure of Fe-containing intermetallic particles....

  20. Effect of filtration on reoxidation proceses in aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bolibruchova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys. Many of our experimental works pointed out, that using filtration media placed in gating system causes reoxidation of poured aluminium alloy. Main aim of our latest work was to validate our arguments, that filter in gating system can be considered as obstacle for continuous pouring, with help of computer simulations. This article is only a small part of our researches focused on reoxidation processes during filtration of aluminium alloys.

  1. Corrosion issues of powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Valgarðsson, Smári; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;

    2015-01-01

    In this study detailed microstructural investigation of the reason for unexpected corrosion of powder coated aluminium alloy AA6060 windows profiles has been performed. The results from this study reveals that the failure of the window profiles was originated from the surface defects present...... on the extruded AA6060 aluminium profile after metallurgical process prior to powder coating. Surface defects are produced due to intermetallic particles in the alloy, which disturb the flow during the extrusion process. The corrosion mechanism leading to the failure of the powder coated AA6060 aluminium profiles...

  2. Thickness Evaluation of Aluminium Plate Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpartap; Bapat, Harsh Madhukar; Singh, Bhanu Pratap; Bandyopadhyay, Manojit; Puri, Rakesh Kumar; Badodkar, Deepak Narayanrao

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a pulsed eddy current (PEC) based non-destructive testing system used for detection of thickness variation in aluminium plate. A giant magneto-resistive sensor has been used instead of pick up coil for detecting resultant magnetic field. The PEC response signals obtained from 1 to 5 mm thickness change in aluminium plate were investigated. Two time domain features, namely peak value and time to peak, of PEC response were used for extracting information about thickness variation in aluminium plate. The variation of peak value and time to peak with thickness was compared. A program was developed to display the thickness variation of the tested sample.

  3. Radiation-induced creep of copper, aluminium and their alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of creep studies on copper, aluminium and their alloys with and without neutron irradiation are presented. The experiments are carried out at the WWR-K reactor at the neutron fluence of 1.4.1016 n/m2.s (2.5.1016 n/m2.s, E>0.1 MeV). Polycrystalline copper (99.99 and 99.95%), aluminium (99.99%) and the alloys of copper with 4 at% of titanium, of aluminium with 4.2% of copper are studied within the temperature interval 0.31-0.51 Tm. (orig.)

  4. Study of fatigue behaviour of 7475 aluminium alloy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Verma; J D Atkinson; M Kumar

    2001-04-01

    Fatigue properties of a thermomechanically treated 7475 aluminium alloy have been studied in the present investigation. The alloy exhibited superior fatigue life compared to conventional structural aluminium alloys and comparable stage II crack growth rate. It was also noticed that the fatigue crack initiated from a surface grain and the crack extension was dominated by ductile striations. Analysis also revealed that this alloy possessed fracture toughness and tensile properties superior to that noticed with other structural aluminium alloys. Therefore the use of this alloy can safely reduce the overall weight of the aircraft.

  5. Aluminium content of some foods and food products in the USA, with aluminium food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyed, Salim M; Yokel, Robert A

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed for Al using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Quality control (QC) samples, with matrices matching the samples, were generated and used to verify the Al determinations. Food product Al content ranged from Cheese in a serving of frozen pizzas had up to 14 mg of Al, from basic sodium aluminium phosphate; whereas the same amount of cheese in a ready-to-eat restaurant pizza provided 0.03-0.09 mg. Many single serving packets of non-dairy creamer had approximately 50-600 mg Al kg(-1) as sodium aluminosilicate, providing up to 1.5 mg Al per serving. Many single serving packets of salt also had sodium aluminosilicate as an additive, but the Al content was less than in single-serving non-dairy creamer packets. Acidic sodium aluminium phosphate was present in many food products, pancakes and waffles. Baking powder, some pancake/waffle mixes and frozen products, and ready-to-eat pancakes provided the most Al of the foods tested; up to 180 mg/serving. Many products provide a significant amount of Al compared to the typical intake of 3-12 mg/day reported from dietary Al studies conducted in many countries. PMID:16019791

  6. The effect of environmental and meteorological variables on atmospheric corrosion of carbon steel, copper, zinc and aluminium in a limited geographic zone with different types of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon steel, copper, zinc and aluminium test pieces were exposed to a large variety of environmental conditions in a reduced geographic area close to the coastline in order to ascertain the degree of deterioration of the same due to environmental corrosion. Calculations of corrosion rates were made via loss of weight (in the case of carbon steel, zinc and copper) and analysis of surface deterioration (in the case of aluminium) together with X-ray diffraction analyses. The levels of chlorides, SO2 and time of wetness were also registered in order to be able to correlate the data with respect to corrosion rate with the environmental and meteorological parameters, using the potential law and a modified version of the same

  7. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  8. Adsorption of aluminium by stream particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, E; Ohnstad, M; Woof, C

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study was made of the adsorption of aluminium by fine particulates from Whitray Beck, a hill stream in NW England. Adsorption increased with Al(3) activity, pH and concentration of particles, and could be quantitatively described by the empirical equation: [Formula: see text] [particles] where square brackets indicate concentrations, curly brackets, activities, and alpha, beta and gamma are constants with values of 5.14x10(-10) (mol litre(-1))(2.015) (g particles litre(-1))(-1), 0.457, and 1.472, respectively. For the experimental data, the equation gave a correlation ratio of 0.99. The equation accounts reasonably well for the adsorption of Al by particulates from seven other streams. In applying the equation, it must be borne in mind that the desorption kinetics of Al depend on pH, and rapid reversibility (or=10%) of total monomeric Al. PMID:15092454

  9. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Eswara Prasad; A A Gokhale; P Rama Rao

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has been developed of the microstructure-based micromechanisms of strengthening, of fatigue and fracture as well as of anisotropy in mechanical properties. However, these alloys have not yet greatly displaced the conventionally used denser Al alloys on account of their poorer ductility, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue resistance. This review aims to summarise the work pertaining to study of structure and mechanical properties with a view to indicate the directions that have been and can be pursued to overcome property limitations.

  10. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud.

  11. COMPARATION BETWEEN NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR THE ALUMINIUM BRAZED PIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan NIŢOI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper refers to different control methods used in aluminium brazed joining because of possible defects. Low joining complexity permits exact damages position in relation with materials geometry.

  12. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud. PMID:26365318

  13. Deposition of aluminium nanoparticles using dense plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma route to nanofabrication has drawn much attention recently. The dense plasma focus (DPF) device is used for depositing aluminium nanoparticles on n-type Si (111) wafer. The plasma chamber is filled with argon gas and evacuated at a pressure of 80 Pa. The substrate is placed at distances 4.0 cm, 5.0 cm and 6.0 cm from the top of the central anode. The aluminium is deposited on Si wafer at room temperature with two focused DPF shots. The deposits on the substrate are examined for their morphological properties using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images have shown the formation of aluminium nanoparticles. From the AFM images, it is found that the size of aluminium nanoparticles increases with increase in distance between the top of anode and the substrate for same number of DPF shots.

  14. Polyaluminium chloride as an alternative to alum for the direct filtration of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Idit; Friedler, Eran; Rebhun, Menahem

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of various polyaluminium chloride coagulants (PACls) was compared to the efficiency of aluminium sulfate (alum) in the coagulation-flocculation process preceding direct filtration in drinking water treatment. The comparative study consisted of two separate yet complementary series of experiments: the first series included short (5-7 h) and long (24 h) filter runs conducted at a pilot filtration plant equipped with large filter columns that simulated full-scale filters. Partially treated surface water from the Sea of Galilee, characterized by very low turbidity (-1 NTU), was used. In the second series of experiments, speciation of aluminium in situ was investigated using the ferron assay method. Results from the pilot-scale study indicate that most PACls were as or more efficient a coagulant as alum for direct filtration of surface water without requiring acid addition for pH adjustment and subsequent base addition for re-stabilizing the water. Consequently, cost analysis of the chemicals needed for the process showed that treatment with PACl would be significantly less costly than treatment with alum. The aluminium speciation experiments revealed that the performance of the coagulant is more influenced by the species present during the coagulation process than those present in the original reagents. PMID:24191453

  15. Aluminium dynamics and proton buttering in undistributed samples of acidified forest soils; Aluminium-Dynamik und Protonenpufferung in ungestoerten Proben versauerter Waldboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, E.

    1992-12-31

    In this work non-displaced soil samples were used to test the reaction of acidified forest soils in the aluminium buffering range to different proton concentrations. The examined quantities were the proton buffering rate in the macropore spaces and the correlated rate of aluminium release. Furthermore, the types of aluminium bondage occuring in the soil solution and their influence on the aluminium dynamics within the profile were determined. The significance of species distribution for the interpretation of the toxic potential of aluminium is illuminated. The influence of soil structure on proton buffering, aluminium release and species distribution is described from a global viewpoint. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird an natuerlich gelagerten Bodenproben die Reaktion versauerter Waldboeden im Aluminium-Pufferbereich auf unterschiedlich starke Protonenbelastungen untersucht. Dabei interessiert die Rate der Protonenpufferung im Makroporenraum einhergehend mit der Menge freigesetzten Aluminiums. Darueberhinaus wird untersucht, welche Aluminium-Bindungsformen in der Bodenloesung vorliegen und welchen Einfluss diese auf die Aluminium-Dynamik innerhalb des Profils haben. Die Bedeutung der Speziesverteilung fuer die Interpretation potentieller Aluminium-Toxizitaet wird beleuchtet. Uebergreifend wird der Einfluss der Bodenstruktur auf Protonenpufferung, Aluminium-Freisetzung sowie Speziesverteilung herausgestellt. (orig.)

  16. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  17. China’s Export of Fabricated Aluminium Keeps Rising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Affected by the State macro economic adjustment policies, China’s export of primary aluminium has decreased obviously. However, China’s export of fabricated aluminum is increasing rapidly, which has led to the investment rush of the aluminium industry, leading to the serious concern by the government. Market rumors are spreading that the government will soon adjust the export tax rebate rates so as to curb such a trend.

  18. Modeling of aluminium deposition from chloroaluminate ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Schaltin, Stijn; Ganapathi, Murugan; Binnemans, Koen; Fransaer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    A finite-element model of the electrodeposition of aluminium from chloroaluminate ionic liquids is introduced. The purpose of this model is to give an explanation for the reasonable current densities that can be achieved in chloroaluminate ionic liquids despite the fact that the electrochemically active Al2Cl7- complexes are transformed into inactive AlCl4- complexes during the electrodeposition of aluminium. The obtainable current density in the electrodeposition from chloroaluminate ionic l...

  19. Metal-Ceramic Interfaces in Laser Coated Aluminium Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1994-01-01

    A novel process was developed to firmly coat an aluminium alloy, Al6061, with α-Al2O3 by means of laser processing. In this approach a mixture of SiO2 and Al powder was used to inject in the laser melted surface of aluminium. A reaction product α-Al2O3 layer of a thickness of 100 µm was created whic

  20. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos; Marilene Morelli Serna; Nelson Batista de Lima; Isolda Costa; Jesualdo Luiz Rossi

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken f...

  1. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    F. Andreatta

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a negative effect on safety and costs. This PhD thesis investigates the relation between electrochemical behaviour and microstructure of a number of 7xxx aluminium alloys: AA7075, AA7349 and an experime...

  2. Crushing modes of aluminium tubes under axial compression

    OpenAIRE

    Pled, Florent; Yan, Wenyi; Wen, Cui'e

    2014-01-01

    6 pages International audience A numerical study of the crushing of circular aluminium tubes with and without aluminium foam fillers has been carried out to investigate their buckling behaviours under axial compression. A crushing mode classification chart has been established for empty tubes. The influence of boundary conditions on crushing mode has also been investigated. The effect of foam filler on the crushing mode of tubes filled with foam was then examined. The predicted results ...

  3. Melting and solidification of bismuth inclusions in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft, N.B.; Bohr, J.; Buras, B.;

    1995-01-01

    Supercooling of crystalline bismuth inclusions in aluminium crystals has been observed and studied with different techniques: x-ray diffraction, in situ Rutherford backscattering/channelling spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the measurements with different experime......Supercooling of crystalline bismuth inclusions in aluminium crystals has been observed and studied with different techniques: x-ray diffraction, in situ Rutherford backscattering/channelling spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. The results of the measurements with different...

  4. Geometry Effects at Atomic-Size Aluminium Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Schwingenschloegl, Udo; Schuster, Cosima

    2007-01-01

    We present electronic structure calculations for aluminium nanocontacts. Addressing the neck of the contact, we compare characteristic geometries to investigate the effects of the local aluminium coordination on the electronic states. We find that the Al 3pz states are very sensitive against modifications of the orbital overlap, which has serious consequences for the transport properties. Stretching of the contact shifts states towards the Fermi energy, leaving the system instable against fer...

  5. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  6. Blast Loaded Aluminium Plates : Experiments and numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Melby, Emil Arne; Eide, Hilde Olaug Stakvik

    2013-01-01

    Light and flexible protective constructions in aluminium could be subjected to a blast load. In this thesis the effect of blast loading on aluminium plates of the type 1050A ? H14 was studied through experiments and numerical simulations. The effect of fragmentation was idealized with predrilled holes. The thesis was written at the Structural Impact Laboratory (SIMLab) at NTNU in collaboration with the Norwegian Defence Estates Agency (NDEA).Tensile tests revealed a clearly anisotropic behavi...

  7. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Napachat Tareelap; Kaysinee Sriraksasin; Nakorn Srisukhumbowornchai; Swieng Thuanboon; Choochat Nitipanyawong

    2014-01-01

    Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB) propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium...

  8. Lake restoration with aluminium, bentonite and Phoslock: the effect on sediment stability and light attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egemose, Sara; Reitzel, Kasper; Flindt, Mogens

    treatments on aluminium mobility, sediment stability or light climate. A laboratory flume experiment including three shallow Danish lakes was conducted. We measured the effects of aluminium, Phoslock (a commercial product), bentonite, and a combination of bentonite/aluminium. Each treatment caused a varying...... consolidation of the sediment. The largest consolidation occurred using Phoslock- and bentonite-addition followed by bentonite/aluminium-addition, whereas aluminium alone had no effect. Sediment stability thresholds were measured before and after addition. Especially Phoslock, but also bentonite and bentonite....../aluminium increased sediment erosion threshold, with respectively 200%, 43% and 57%. Aluminium, bentonite/aluminium, and Phoslock improved the light conditions in the water phase, with respectively 60%, 57% and 50%, whereas bentonite created higher turbidity. Conclusively aluminium improved the light conditions...

  9. The binding, transport and fate of aluminium in biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mold, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust and yet, paradoxically, it has no known biological function. Aluminium is biochemically reactive, it is simply that it is not required for any essential process in extant biota. There is evidence neither of element-specific nor evolutionarily conserved aluminium biochemistry. This means that there are no ligands or chaperones which are specific to its transport, there are no transporters or channels to selectively facilitate its passage across membranes, there are no intracellular storage proteins to aid its cellular homeostasis and there are no pathways which evolved to enable the metabolism and excretion of aluminium. Of course, aluminium is found in every compartment of every cell of every organism, from virus through to Man. Herein we have investigated each of the 'silent' pathways and metabolic events which together constitute a form of aluminium homeostasis in biota, identifying and evaluating as far as is possible what is known and, equally importantly, what is unknown about its uptake, transport, storage and excretion.

  10. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  11. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  12. China Rescinds the Export Tax on Aluminium Alloys Made by Scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>According to an official from the Tax Regulations Office under China’s State Council, from July 1st 2005, China will rescind the 5 per cent export tax on the aluminium alloys produced by using aluminium alloys scrap. An official from the State Council’s office said that through investigation they found that most aluminium alloys produced from aluminium scrap are not that energy consuming compared to primary aluminium. Starting from January 1st 2005, China decided to collect 5 per cent export tax on aluminium so as to control the industry development connected with high energy cost.

  13. Optimasi Proses Koagulasi Dalam Penjernihan Air Limbah Di Pt. Sinar Oleochemical International (Soci) Medan Berdasarkan Pengaruh Konsentrasi Penambahan Poli Aluminium Klorida Untuk Menurunkan Turbiditas Air Limbah

    OpenAIRE

    Yolven

    2011-01-01

    One of the wastewater treatments at PT. Sinar Oleochemical International (SOCI) is Coagulation and Flocculation. Coagulation process is conducted by adding Poly Aluminium Chloride (PAC) as coagulant which has to be added under certain circumstances. One of the factors affecting the work of PAC is pH-level of wastewater, and due to the fact of that, Natrium Hydroxide should be added to control the pH-level of wastewater. With the help of NaOH to keep the pH-level remain at 8, the concentration...

  14. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti+2Cr Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr containing two regions of a Ni3(Si,Ti single-phase of L12 structure and a mixture phase of of (L12 +Niss was investigated as function of chloride concentrations by using a polarization method, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy in neutral sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with and without the addition of aluminium and type C276 alloy were also studied under the same experimental condition for the comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potentials and the pitting potentials were decreased in the order of C276 alloy > Ni3(Si,Ti > Ni3(Si,Ti + 2Cr > Ni3(Si,Ti + 4Al, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr was higher than Ni3(Si,Ti with 4 at% Al, but lower than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.  A critical chloride concentration of Ni3(Si,Ti with 2 at% Cr was found to be higher than that of Ni3(Si,Ti with at% Al. In addition, the presence of high concentration for oxygen indicates the occurrence of pit formation.

  15. Bioaccumulation of Aluminium in Hydromacrophytes in Polish Coastal Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senze Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research on aluminium content was conducted in water and on aquatic flora of Polish lakes in the central part of the coast. The study included the lakes Sarbsko, Choczewskie, Bia.e, K.odno, D.brze and Salino investigated in the summer of 2013. The examined lakes belong mainly to the direct basin of the Baltic Sea. Samples of aquatic plants and lake waters were collected. In the water samples pH and electrolytic conductivity were measured. The aluminium content was determined both in water and aquatic plants. Submerged hydromacrophyte studies included Myriophyllum alterniflorum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L. and Ceratophyllum demersum L. Emergent hydromacrophyte studies included Phragmites australis (Cav. Trin. ex Steud., Juncus bulbosus L., Iris pseudacorus L., Eleocharis palustris (L. Roem. % Schult., Phalaris arundinacea L., Carex riparia Curt., Mentha aquatic L., Stratiotes aloides L., Alisma plantago-aquatica L., Glyceria maxima (Hartman Holmb., Sagittaria sagittifolia L., Scirpus lacustris L. and Typha angustifolia L. The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the aluminium content in submerged and emergent hydromacrophytes and also the definition of their bioaccumulative abilities. The average concentration of aluminium in water was 2.68 fęg Al dm.3. The average content of aluminium in plants was 2.8015 mg Al kg.1. The bioaccumulation factor ranged from BCF=19.74 to BCF=16619. On the basis of the analysis of the aluminium content in water and aquatic plants results show that both water and plants were characterized by a moderate level of aluminium. The recorded concentrations indicate a mid-range value and are much lower than those which are quoted for a variety of surface waters in various parts of the world.

  16. Acute aluminium phosphide poisoning, what is new?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide that is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently generated interest with increasing number of cases in the past four decades because of its increased use for agricultural and nonagricultural purposes, and also its easy availability in the markets has led to its increased misuse to commit suicide. Ingestion is usually suicidal in intent, uncommonly accidental and rarely homicidal. The poison affects all systems, shock, cardiac arrhythmias with varied ECG changes and gastrointestinal features being the most prominent. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical suspicion, a positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination of coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Unfortunately, the lack of a specific antidote Results in very high mortality and the key to treatment lies in rapid decontamination and institution of resuscitative measures. This article aims to identify the salient features and mechanism of AlP poisoning along with its management strategies and prognostic variables.

  17. Low cost aluminium metal matrix composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Withers, G.

    2007-03-15

    Low cost, light weight Ultalite{reg_sign} is an Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AL-MMC) which utilises wear resistant ceramic particles derived from flyash. Ultalite AL-MMC typically contains between 10 and 30 per cent ceramic particles, and is formulated for the manufacture of wear resistant automotive components. Due to its low density and ease of processing into net shape die casting, Ultalite AL-MMC provides weight savings of up to 60 per cent over components fabricated from cast iron, thereby providing improved fuel efficiency with reduced greenhouse emissions. The original flyash material was sourced from a black coal power station in Queensland, where it contained a wide range of particles sizes. To narrow the size range and to remove impurities, a proprietary pretreatment developed by Dr Thomas Robl and co-researchers at the University of Kentucky was employed. The University of Kentucky developed the technology for the classification and benefaction of flyash to produce high-grade Pozzolan, which is used in Portland Cement product. This technology is now being applied to the production of Ultalite AL-MMC. Testing performed by Dr Robl has shown that the proprietary technology can eliminate the hollow particles, extract detrimental carbon-based impurities and remove the extremely fine and coarse particles. All that remains are dense ceramic particles with an average particle size of approximately 30 {mu}m. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Eu(III)-doped aluminium yttrium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we report the synthesis and the photoluminescence features of Eu(III)-doped yttrium-aluminium oxide obtained by non-hydrolytic sol-gel routes. After heating the powders above 600 deg C the XRD patterns show the presence of the Y4Al2O9 (YAM) and Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phases. At 800 and at 1500 deg C the PL spectra display the Eu(III) lines characteristic of the YAM monoclinic phase. The 5D0→7F2 transition is favored relatively to the 5D0→7F1 lines. However, at 1100 deg C the cubic YAG is the preferential phase and the 5D0→7F1 transition dominates the spectrum. The Eu(III) ions lie in a centro symmetrical site. The different solvents used in the sol-gel synthesis also change the relative proportion between these two phases. This is monitored analyzing the modifications in the relative intensity between the 5D0→7F2 and the 5D0→7F1 transitions. (author)

  19. Role of phytohormones in aluminium rhizotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopittke, Peter M

    2016-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of soluble aluminium (Al) reduce root growth in acid soils, but much remains unknown regarding the toxicity of this Al as well as the mechanisms by which plants respond. This review examines changes in phytohormones in Al-stressed plants. Al often results in a rapid 'burst' of ethylene in root apical tissues within 15-30 min, with this regulating an increase in auxin. This production of ethylene and auxin seems to be a component of a plant-response to toxic Al, resulting in cell wall modification or regulation of organic acid release. There is also evidence of a role of auxin in the expression of Al toxicity itself, with Al decreasing basipetal transport of auxin, thereby potentially decreasing wall loosening as required for elongation. Increasingly, changes in abscisic acid in root apices also seem to be involved in plant-responses to toxic Al. Changes in cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonates following exposure to Al are also examined, although little information is available. Finally, although not a phytohormone, concentrations of nitric oxide change rapidly in Al-exposed tissues. The information presented in this review will assist in focusing future research efforts in examining the importance of phytohormones in plant tissues exposed to toxic levels of Al. PMID:27352002

  20. Fuzzy Multicriteria Ranking of Aluminium Coating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, A. F.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with multicriteria ranking of aluminium coating methods. The alternatives used are: sulfuric acid anodization, A1; oxalic acid anodization, A2; chromic acid anodization, A3; phosphoric acid anodization, A4; integral color anodizing, A5; chemical conversion coating, A6; electrostatic powder deposition, A7. The criteria used are: cost of production, f1; environmental friendliness of production process, f2; appearance (texture), f3; reflectivity, f4; response to coloring, f5; corrosion resistance, f6; abrasion resistance, f7; fatigue resistance, f8. Five experts coming from relevant industrial units set grades to the criteria vector and the preference matrix according to a properly modified Delphi method. Sensitivity analysis of the ranked first alternative A1 against the `second best', which was A3 at low and A7 at high resolution levels proved that the solution is robust. The dependence of anodized products quality on upstream processes is presented and the impact of energy price increase on industrial cost is discussed.

  1. Anomalous Diffusion of Mo Implanted into Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张通和; 吴瑜光; 邓志威; 钱卫东

    2001-01-01

    Mo ions are implanted into aluminium with a high ion flux and high dose at elevated temperatures of 300℃, 400℃ and 500℃ . X-ray diffraction spectra show that the Al12Mo phases are formed. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy indicates that a profile of Mo appears in Al around the depth of 550nm and with an atomic concentration of ~7%, when Mo is implanted to the dose of 3 × 1017/cm2 with an ion flux of 45μA/cm2 (400℃).If the dose increases to 1 × 1018/cm2 at the same ion flux, the penetration of Mo ions in Al can reach a depth of 2μm, which is greater than the ion project range Rp (52.5nm). The results show that anomalous diffusion takes place. Owing to the intense atom collision cascades, the diffusion coefficient increases greatly with the increase of the ion flux and dose. The Mo diffusion coefficients in Al are calculated. The Mo retained dose in A1 increases obviously with the increase of the ion flux.

  2. Aluminium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Co-continuous Interlaced Phases Aluminium-alumina Needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio de Napole Gregolin

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available An Al-5SiO2 (5 wt% of SiO2 aluminium matrix fiber composite was produced where the reinforcement consists of fossil silica fibers needles. After being heat-treated at 600 °C, the original fiber morphology was retained but its microstructure changed from solid silica to an interconnected (Al-Si/Al2O3 interlaced structure named co-continuous composite. A technique of powder metallurgy, using commercial aluminium powder and the silica fibers as starting materials, followed by hot extrusion, was used to produce the composite. The co-continuous microstructure was obtained partially or totally on the fibers as a result of the reaction, which occurs during the heat treatment, first by solid diffusion and finally by the liquid Al-Si in local equilibrium, formed with the silicon released by reaction. The internal structure of the fibers was characterized using field emission electron microscope (FEG-SEM and optical microscopy on polished and fractured samples.

  3. Fabrication experience of aluminium clad aluminium matrix dispersion fuels at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluminium clad, aluminium matrix plate type dispersion fuels have been fabricated in BARC in recent years as part of fuel development programme for small non-power research reactors. The present paper describes the flowsheet developed for fabrication of Al-UAlx, Al-U3Si2 and Al-U3O8 fuels at BARC. The Al-20% U alloy fuel for KAMINI neutron radiography reactor was prepared by 'melting and casting' route, followed by picture framing and roll-bonding. For higher 'U' density fuels namely, Al-UAlx, Al-U3O8 and Al-U3Si2 the 'powder metallurgy' route was followed for preparation of fuel meat. The novel features in fabrication route were: addition of Zr for stabilizing UAl3 phase in Al-20% U alloy; x-ray radiography and microdensitometric scanning of radiographs for location of fuel outline inside fuel element and for confirming homogeneous distribution of fissile atoms; immersion ultrasonic testing for confirming good bonding between mating Al surface of the fuel plate. (author)

  4. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  5. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  6. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  7. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q.; Shi, C; Schutter, G. de; Audenaert, K.; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  8. The General Situation of the Scale and Layout of Aluminium Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>Since 2002, aluminium industry has become a key industry under the macro control of the country, for which the reason is the aluminium industry in China has seen "repeated construc-tion", "blind investment", "excessive capacity",

  9. PREDICTION OF PLASTIC ANISOTROPY IN ALUMINIUM EXTRUDED TUBES BY FINITE ELEMENT POLYCRYSTAL MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulation of extrusion process of aluminium tube is dealt with using the finite element polycrystal model. The non-uniformity in plastic anisotropies of aluminium extruded tubes through the wall thickness is investigated.

  10. Improving Efficiency of Aluminium Sacrificial Anode Using Cold Work Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmara, Y. P.; Siregar, J. P.; Tezara, C.; Ann, Chang Tai

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium is one of the preferred materials to be used as sacrificial anode for carbon steel protection. The efficiency of these can be low due to the formation of oxide layer which passivate the anodes. Currently, to improve its efficiency, there are efforts using a new technique called surface modifications. The objective of this research is to study corrosion mechanism of aluminium sacrificial anode which has been processed by cold work. The cold works are applied by reducing the thickness of aluminium sacrificial anodes at 20% and 40% of thickness reduction. The cathodic protection experiments were performed by immersion of aluminium connected to carbon steel cylinder in 3% NaCl solutions. Visual inspections using SEM had been conducted during the experiments and corrosion rate data were taken in every week for 8 weeks of immersion time. Corrosion rate data were measured using weight loss and linear polarization technique (LPR). From the results, it is observed that cold worked aluminium sacrificial anode have a better corrosion performance. It shows higher corrosion rate and lower corrosion potential. The anodes also provided a long functional for sacrificial anode before it stop working. From SEM investigation, it is shown that cold works have changed the microstructure of anodes which is suspected in increasing corrosion rate and cause de-passivate of the surface anodes.

  11. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  12. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Aluminium and Concrete Composite Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Polus Łukasz; Szumigała Maciej

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a numerical analysis of the resistance and stiffness of the aluminium and concrete composite beam is presented. Composite aluminium and concrete structures are quite new and they have not been thoroughly tested. Composite structures have a lot of advantages. The composite aluminium and concrete beam is more corrosion-resistant, fire-resistant and stiff than the aluminium beam. The contemporary idea of sustainable buildings relies on new solutions which are more environmentally f...

  13. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    OpenAIRE

    Zauzi, N. S. Ahmad; M. Z. H. Zakaria; Baini, R.; Rahman, M. R.; N. Mohamed Sutan; Hamdan, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipita...

  14. The determination of boron in high-purity aluminium metal by spark-source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the determination of boron in high-purity aluminium metal. Both isotopic boron lines (10B+1 and 11B+1) are used for the analysis. As there are no low-abundance isotopic lines for aluminium, measurements were made direct without reference to aluminium as an internal standard. The boron concentration values of eight aluminium samples analysed by this method compared favourably with results obtained from other techniques

  15. Low Speed Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys Using Single-Mode Fiber Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Jay; Paleocrassas, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, topics related to extending fiber laser welding of aluminium in the low speed range were discussed. General topics, such as the properties of aluminium and welding defects, review of high speed laser welding of aluminium, and fiber laser characteristics and optical setups for safety, were first reviewed. Recent research results on the modelling and validation of laser welding of aluminium, experimental characterization of low speed welding processes, and the instability pheno...

  16. Determination of aluminium in groundwater samples by GF-AAS, ICP-AES, ICP-MS and modelling of inorganic aluminium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin; Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Kurzyca, Iwona; Novotný, Karel; Vaculovič, Tomas; Kanický, Viktor; Siepak, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water samples of the Miocene aquifer from the area of the city of Poznań (Poland). The determined aluminium content amounted from aluminium determinations were performed using three analytical techniques: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of aluminium determinations in groundwater samples for particular analytical techniques were compared. The results were used to identify the ascent of ground water from the Mesozoic aquifer to the Miocene aquifer in the area of the fault graben. Using the Mineql+ program, the modelling of the occurrence of aluminium and the following aluminium complexes: hydroxy, with fluorides and sulphates was performed. The paper presents the results of aluminium determinations in ground water using different analytical techniques as well as the chemical modelling in the Mineql+ program, which was performed for the first time and which enabled the identification of aluminium complexes in the investigated samples. The study confirms the occurrence of aluminium hydroxy complexes and aluminium fluoride complexes in the analysed groundwater samples. Despite the dominance of sulphates and organic matter in the sample, major participation of the complexes with these ligands was not stated based on the modelling. PMID:21274747

  17. Structural perturbation of diphtheria toxoid upon adsorption to aluminium hydroxide adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regnier, M.; Metz, B.; Tilstra, W.; Hendriksen, C.; Jiskoot, W.; Norde, W.; Kersten, G.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium-containing adjuvants are often used to enhance the potency of vaccines. In the present work we studied whether adsorption of diphtheria toxoid to colloidal aluminium hydroxide induces conformational changes of the antigen. Diphtheria toxoid has a high affinity for the aluminium hydroxide p

  18. The Prospect of China’s Alumin-ium Extrusion Product Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>China’s aluminium extrusion industry can be dated back to the 1950s-70s,when the North- east 101 Plant was established in 1956,the Northwest Aluminium and Southwest Alumin- ium were completed and put into operation in 1968-1969.The three plants’ extrusion assem- bly lines were designed to produce aluminium

  19. The Net Exporting Trends Remains for China’s Aluminium Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The oversupply of China’s raw aluminium has caused the continuing net exporting for China’s aluminium products.As the situation is wors- ened due to the growing raw aluminium pro- duction and curbed demand,it is estimated that the continuation of net exporting of China’s

  20. Bakable aluminium vacuum chamber and bellows with an aluminum flange and metal seal for ultrahigh vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bakable (2000C) aluminium alloy vacuum chamber and bellows (6063-T6) with an aluminium alloy (2219-T87) flange and metal seal (Helicoflex-HN: aluminium O-ring) has been constructed. Such components may be used in the assemblies of the vacuum chambers in proton synchrotrons and electron storage rings

  1. Energy efficiency improvement and GHG abatement in the global production of primary aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermeli, Katerina; Ter Weer, Peter Hans; Crijns - Graus, Wina; Worrell, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Primary aluminium production is a highly energy-intensive and greenhouse gas (GHG)-emitting process responsible for about 1 % of global GHG emissions. In 2009, the two most energy-intensive processes in primary aluminium production, alumina refining and aluminium smelting consumed 3.1 EJ, of which 2

  2. Determination of ultratrace amounts of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization/ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for determining the 0.01 ng g-1 level of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization (ETV)/ICP-MS. This method was found to be significantly interfered with any matrices or other elements contained. An ion-exchange technique was therefore applied to separate uranium and thorium from aluminium and other elements. It was known that uranium are adsorbed on an anion-exchange resin and thorium are adsorbed on cation-exchange resin. However, aluminium and copper were eluted with 6 M hydrochloric acid. Dissolve the sample with hydrochloric acid containing copper which was added for analysis of pure aluminium, and oxidize with hydrogen peroxide. Concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution was adjusted to 6 M, and then passed the solution through the mixed ion-exchange resin column. After the uranium and thorium were eluted with 1 M hydrofluoric acid-0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the solution was evaporated to dryness. It was then dissolved with 1 M hydrochloric acid. Uranium and thorium were analyzed by ETV/ICP-MS using tungsten and molybdenum boats, respectively, since the tungsten boat contained high-level thorium and the molybdenum boat contained uranium. The determination limit of uranium and thorium were 0.003 and 0.005 ng g-1, respectively. (author)

  3. PEMBINAAN PENGERAJIN BOKOR ALUMINIUM DI DESA MENYALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I NYOMAN GDE ANTARA, dkk.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluminium bowl craft industrial center is located in Menyali village Sawan district Buleleng regency of Bali province. In this business development, they faced some problems such as increasingly expensive alluminium plate raw materials, decreasing selling product prices due to competition among craftsmen, difficulty in extending the marketing, lack of capital, lack of knowledge in business management, and lack of technical capacity and production innovation. Currently the organization has been formed aluminum bowl craftsmen groups, they are “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya”. This organization is still limited to tradisional associations such as a community organization, has not led to organize in a micro-enterprise or cooperation. Their organization management should not be arranged. Therefore, they need helps from the government and other institutions to build this bowl craftsmen in developing their businesses through a group of micro-enterprises or cooperations. Wishly, with formal business entity that would facilitate access to a variety of coaching and help governments andother institutions. From the SWOT analysis, it is found some problems and solutions that should be done. Alluminium bowl craftsmen groups, named “Sumber Urip” and “Sumur Jaya” is not in the form of business entity or cooperation yet, so that the results of coaching have agreed to form a cooperation. Venture capital assistance for the development and production are still needed and to be an absolute given, but a way to market more absolute yield is given, through participation in various events exhibition to introduce the product is expected to expandits market share up to overseas or exports. In the production process it has been introduced that is appropriate technology for instant a rolling tool to make a wiring groove on the outside of the bowl, so that it will simplify and speed up the process, especially by aged mothers.Keywords: aluminium bowl, Menyali

  4. Residual stress in 7449 aluminium alloy forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The through thickness residual stress distributions within three 120 mm thick rectilinear forgings, made from the high strength aluminium alloy 7449 have been measured using both neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling. Neutron diffraction measurements were made on two instruments, one using a pulsed spallation neutron source, the other a steady state reactor source. Heat treatment of the forgings included a rapid quench into cold water and it was the residual stresses arising from this step that were initially measured. Neutron diffraction measurements indicated large magnitude (>250 MPa) tensile residual stresses in the centre of an as quenched forging, balanced by surface regions stressed in compression (<-200 MPa). Sufficient measurements were made to permit the description of the residual stress distribution using area maps. Two forgings were stress relieved by cold compression immediately after quenching. The degree of plastic strain was either 2.5% or 4%, and was applied by a single application of force in the short transverse direction. Cold compressed forgings were found to have far lower residual stress when compared to the as quenched condition. The amount of cold compression was found to cause an insignificant difference in the final residual stress distribution. The neutron diffraction results are compared to measurements made by deep hole drilling and a new incremental variation of the technique. The deep hole was drilled through the centre of the forgings in the short transverse direction. Multiple neutron diffraction measurements were also made on the extracted cores from the deep hole measurements to assess the variation of the unstrained lattice parameter through the thickness of the forgings.

  5. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  6. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general d

  7. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cieśla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method and a graphical method. Choosing the best offer and prioritizing suppliers allows not only the most rational decision in the field of supply logistics to be taken but also the quality of service in the metallurgical industry to be improved.

  8. [Photophysical properties and photodynamic activity of nanostructured aluminium phthalocyanines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udartseva, O O; Lobanov, A V; Andeeva, E R; Dmitrieva, G S; Mel'nikov, M Ia; Buravkova, L B

    2014-01-01

    We developed water-soluble supramolecular complexes of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles and polyvinylpirrolidone containing rare photoactive nanoaggregates. Radiative lifetimes, extinction coefficients and energy of electronic transitions of isolated and associated metal phthalocyanine complexes were calculated. Nontoxic concentrations of synthesized nanocomposite photosensibilizers were in vitro determined. In present study we compared photodynamic treatment efficacy using different modifications of aluminium phthalocyanine (Photosens®, AlPc-nSiO2 and AlPc-PVP). Mesenchymal stromal cells were used as a model for photodynamic treatment. Intracellular accumulation of aluminium phthalocyanine based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles AlPc-nSiO2 was the most efficient. Illumination of phthalocyanine-loaded cells led to reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Silica nanoparticles provided a significant decrease of effective phthalocyanine concentration and enhanced cytotoxicity of photodynamic treatment.

  9. Reflection of infrared radiation from thin aluminium layers

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    The thermal shielding of the LHC magnets cryostats will make use of Multi-Layer Insulation. This is a sandwich of several Mylar (polyester) foils 6 µm thick coated with a thin film of aluminium, having a thickness of some 30 nm. The thickness of the aluminium film must be kept at a minimum to minimise lateral thermal conduction. The outer layer of this sandwich stays at a temperature of 20 K or below, and receives IR radiation from surfaces at 77 K (wavelength of 37.6 µm at the peak of blackbody radiation), which should be reflected with the highest efficiency. The minimum thickness for the aluminium layer to avoid transmission of the radiation can be calculated by making use of the skin effect theory, taking into account the changes in electrical properties that are due to the extremely low thickness of the film.

  10. Langmuir-Blodgett Films from Schiff Base Aluminium ( Ⅲ ) Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of the LB films of Schiff base aluminium( Ⅲ ), tris(2-hydroxy-5-nitro N-dodecyl-benzylideneaminato) aluminium ( Ⅲ ) [Al (TA 12) 3], were studied. The surface pres sure-area(r-A) isotherm of Al(TA12)3 in the pure water subphase was investigated. The molec ular area, 0.48 nm2, is one-third of the expected value that indicates the formation of an aggre gate. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of Al(TA12) 3 were transferred and characterized. The UV-Vis spectra and the AFM image both confirmed that the J-aggregates formed. The polarized UV-Vis spectra indicated that the complex plane had to be oriented with an angle of about 30° to the substrate surface. The IR spectra suggested that the complexation took place between aluminium ions and the oxygen atoms of the ligand rather than the nitrogen atom.

  11. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as the nuclei of brain cells. (orig.)

  12. Constitutive modelling of aluminium alloy sheet at warm forming temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukuri, S.; Worswick, M. J.; Winkler, S.

    2016-08-01

    The formability of aluminium alloy sheet can be greatly improved by warm forming. However predicting constitutive behaviour under warm forming conditions is a challenge for aluminium alloys due to strong, coupled temperature- and rate-sensitivity. In this work, uniaxial tensile characterization of 0.5 mm thick fully annealed aluminium alloy brazing sheet, widely used in the fabrication of automotive heat exchanger components, is performed at various temperatures (25 to 250 °C) and strain rates (0.002 and 0.02 s-1). In order to capture the observed rate- and temperature-dependent work hardening behaviour, a phenomenological extended-Nadai model and the physically based (i) Bergstrom and (ii) Nes models are considered and compared. It is demonstrated that the Nes model is able to accurately describe the flow stress of AA3003 sheet at different temperatures, strain rates and instantaneous strain rate jumps.

  13. Pressureless sintered silicon carbide tailored with aluminium nitride sintering agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the influence of aluminium nitride on the pressureless sintering of cubic phase silicon carbide nanoparticles (β-SiC). Pressureless sintering was achieved at 2000 degrees C for 5 min with the additions of boron carbide together with carbon of 1 wt% and 6 wt%, respectively, and a content of aluminium nitride between 0 and 10 wt%. Sintered samples present relative densities higher than 92%. The sintered microstructure was found to be greatly modified by the introduction of aluminium nitride, which reflects the influence of nitrogen on the β-SiC to α-SiC transformation. The toughness of sintered sample was not modified by AlN incorporation and is relatively low (around 2.5 MPa m1/2). Materials exhibited transgranular fracture mode, indicating a strong bonding between SiC grains. (authors)

  14. Influence of chloride ion concentration on immersion corrosion behaviour of plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; Balasubramanian, V

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion attack of aluminium and magnesium based alloys is a major issue worldwide. The corrosion degradation of an uncoated and atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina (APS) coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy was investigated using immersion corrosion test in NaCl solutions of different chloride ion concentrations viz., 0.01 M, 0.2 M, 0.6 M and 1 M. The corroded surface was characterized by an optical microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the corrosion deterioration of uncoate...

  15. Characterisation of Ga-coated and Ga-brazed aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferchaud, E. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Christien, F., E-mail: frederic.christien@univ-nantes.fr [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Barnier, V. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, MPI, CNRS UMR5146, Centre SMS, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint Etienne (France); Paillard, P. [Universite de Nantes, Polytech' Nantes, Laboratoire Genie des Materiaux et Procedes Associes, Rue Christian Pauc, 44306 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2012-05-15

    This work is devoted to the brazing of aluminium using liquid gallium. Gallium was deposited on aluminium samples at {approx} 50 Degree-Sign C using a liquid gallium 'polishing' technique. Brazing was undertaken for 30 min at 500 Degree-Sign C in air. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) and AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy) characterisation of Ga-coated samples has shown that the Ga surface layer thickness is of ten (or a few tens of) nanometres. Furthermore, aluminium oxide layer (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was shown to be 'descaled' during Ga deposition, which ensures good conditions for further brazing. Cross-section examination of Ga-coated samples shows that liquid gallium penetrates into the aluminium grain boundaries during deposition. The thickness of the grain boundary gallium film was measured using an original EDS technique and is found to be of a few tens of nanometres. The depth of gallium grain boundary penetration is about 300 {mu}m at the deposition temperature. The fracture stress of the brazed joints was measured from tensile tests and was determined to be 33 MPa. Cross-section examination of brazed joints shows that gallium has fully dissolved into the bulk and that the joint is really autogenous. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium can be brazed using liquid gallium deposited by a 'polishing' technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aluminium oxide layer is 'descaled' during liquid Ga 'polishing' deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDS can be used for determination of surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface and grain boundary Ga film thickness is of a few tens of nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface and grain boundary gallium dissolves in the bulk during brazing.

  16. Treatment of Highly Turbid Water by Polyaluminum Ferric Chloride (PAFCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Fazel Mohammadi-Moghaddam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: In some situation like rainfall seasons raw water become very turbid so it affected the water treatment plant processes and quality of produced water. Treatment of very high turbid water has some concerns like precursors for disinfection by-products and very loading rate of particle on filter's media and consequently increases in water consumption for filter backwash. This paper investigates the performance of a composite inorganic polymer of aluminium and ferric salt, Polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFCl, for the removal of turbidity, color and natural organic matter (NOM from high turbid water. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out by Jar test experiment by synthetic water samples with 250 and 500 NTU turbidity that prepared in laboratory. Results: The results of conventional jar test showed that the optimum pH for coagulation of water sample was 7.5 to 8 and optimum dosage of the coagulant was 10 mg/L. Removal efficiency of turbidity, color and UV adsorbent at 254 nm at optimum dose and pH without filtration was 99.92%, 100% and 80.6% respectively for first sample (250 NTU and 99.95%, 99.49% and 84.77 for second sample (500 NTU respectively. Conclusion: It concluded that polyaluminium ferric chloride has a very good efficiency for the removal of turbidity, color and organic matter in high turbid water. Also it can be select as a coagulant for high turbid water and some waste water from water treatment plant like filter backwash water.

  17. Washery tailings from coal preparation used as aluminium feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, L.; Schieder, T.; Belsky, M.; Lotze, J.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-06-01

    Kaolinite clays and washery tailings of coal mines are the major feedstocks of the West German aluminium industry. Statistics are given in order to assess the amount of washery tailings available and their suitability as feedstocks for aluminium production. The chemical and mineralogical composition are similar for washery tailings from different mines; accordingly, also their behaviour regarding decomposition by acids will be almost identical. Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ extraction yields are satisfactory with strongly precalcinated material using concentrated sulphuric acid or azeotropic hydrochloric acid - in the latter case, however, only if fluoride is added to the acid.

  18. Aging of maraging steel welds during aluminium alloy die casting

    OpenAIRE

    Klobčar, Damjan; Pleterski, Matej; Taljat, Boštjan; Kosec, Ladislav; Tušek, Janez

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate precipitation annealing of 18% Ni maraging steel repair welds during aluminium die casting and to predict the prolonged in-service tool life. The emphasis of this study is the influence ofpost-weld precipitation annealing heat treatment and aluminium die casting thermal cycling on metallurgical and mechanical properties. A series of specimens of 1.2344 tool steel is prepared to which 1.6356 maraging steel is GTA weld cladded. Analysis of weld microstructur...

  19. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.;

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...... to the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume....

  20. Aluminium Price Looks Down Due To Increased Capacities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Speaking at a recent forum on China’S alumin- ium industry,Wen Xianjun,director of the aluminium branch under China Nonferrous Metals Industry Association,said that the alu- minium price in 2007 looks going downward due to the production capacity expansion out of the high market price last year.He estimates that the downward development of the alumin- ium price in China will be more obvious than that in the rest part of the world.He predicts that in 2007 the average aluminium price in

  1. Power quality results in energy efficient aluminium smelter operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiestner, Max

    2010-09-15

    New aluminium smelters consume up to 2400MW of electrical energy making the energy efficiency aspect most important. Power quality, optimised power conversion systems and well engineered power plant interfaces are essential for highest energy efficiency. An early optimisation of the power system design will reduce the capital investment cost for the power plant and smelter substation as well as results in most energy efficient aluminium production. This paper describes and intends to discuss the power quality improvement concepts and designs as well as energy cost reduction opportunities which a high power quality system can achieve.

  2. The hydrolysis of aluminium, a mass spectrometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarpola, A.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This thesis is focused on the hydrolysis of aluminium, the polymerisation of the hydrolysis products, and how these can be monitored by mass spectrometric methods. The main aim of this research is to figure out how the aqueous speciation of aluminium changes as a function of pH (3.2–10), concentration (1–100 mM), reaction time (1s–14d), and counter anion (Cl-, SO42-, HCOO-). The method used was electrospray mass spectrometry. The results showed more variable speciation than those ...

  3. Research of Properties of Sprayed Coatings on the Aluminium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In article the cathodic cleaning processes of aluminum alloyAW 5754 and cleaned substrate surface coating by plasmawith Ni-Cr-Fe-Si powder were researched. Aluminium substrateroughness after cathodic treatment at different cathodic treatmentparameters was established during the experiments. During theinvestigation a comparison of the calculated medium power1.6 to 9 kW plasma torch voltage-current characteristics withthe experimental results was made. The optimized parametersof aluminium cathode substrate cleaning process were selected;porosity and morphology of plasma sprayed nickel-based coatingwere determined.

  4. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  5. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg (AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si (Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-1000C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a complete absence of voids or bubbles in the grain interiors of the aluminium and the aluminium-alloys. Bubbles were clearly visible by TEM at grain boundaries in pure Al and the AlMg3 alloy; but bubbles were not visible in the Al6061 alloy. The bubble density in the AlMg3 alloy was considerably higher than in pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure. (orig.)

  6. Accumulation of Aluminium and Physiological Status of Tree Foliage in the Vicinity of a Large Aluminium Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Wannaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pollution gradient was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina. Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, and Populus hybridus and different needle ages of Pinus spec. were collected and concentrations of aluminium (Al and sulphur (S as well as physiological parameters (chlorophyll and lipid oxidation products were analyzed. Al and S concentrations indicate a steep pollution gradient in the study showing a relationship with the physiological parameters in particular membrane lipid oxidation products. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in high Al and sulphur deposition in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  7. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  8. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P.A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  9. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  10. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  11. New Investment Rush Brings up Concern for China’s Aluminium Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Although the blind construction of the electro-lytic aluminium industry has been restricted inChina this year,an investment rush in aluminaand aluminium processing has started,whichhas brought up new concern for the industry.Whether this will follow the route of the much-heated electrolytic aluminium industry remainsa question to be answered.According to someindustry analysts,under the pressure of themacro control measures of the State on theelectrolytic aluminium industry expansion,some producers of aluminium have shiftedtheir interests to the upper and lower fields soas to raise their competitiveness over the mar-

  12. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Aluminium and Concrete Composite Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polus, Łukasz; Szumigała, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    In this paper a numerical analysis of the resistance and stiffness of the aluminium and concrete composite beam is presented. Composite aluminium and concrete structures are quite new and they have not been thoroughly tested. Composite structures have a lot of advantages. The composite aluminium and concrete beam is more corrosion-resistant, fire-resistant and stiff than the aluminium beam. The contemporary idea of sustainable buildings relies on new solutions which are more environmentally friendly. Aluminium is lighter and more resistant to corrosion than steel, which is often used in composite structures.

  13. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Aluminium and Concrete Composite Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polus Łukasz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a numerical analysis of the resistance and stiffness of the aluminium and concrete composite beam is presented. Composite aluminium and concrete structures are quite new and they have not been thoroughly tested. Composite structures have a lot of advantages. The composite aluminium and concrete beam is more corrosion-resistant, fire-resistant and stiff than the aluminium beam. The contemporary idea of sustainable buildings relies on new solutions which are more environmentally friendly. Aluminium is lighter and more resistant to corrosion than steel, which is often used in composite structures.

  14. Structure and corrosion resistance of aluminium AlMg2.5; AlMg5Mn and AlZn5Mg1 alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szewczenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work was the evaluation of corrosion resistance and structure of aluminium AlMg2.5; AlMg5Mn and AlZn5Mg1 alloys.Design/methodology/approach: The corrosion resistance tests of investigated alloys were carried out by means of potentiodynamic method registering anodic polarization curves in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. Registering anodic polarization curves was conducted at the potential rate equal to 1mV/s. As the reference electrode was used saturated calomel electrode (SCE and the auxiliary electrode was platinum electrode. Mechanical properties were evaluated on the basis of Vickers hardness test. The test was realized with the use of Hauser hardness tester. The observations of the surface morphology after corrosive tests were carried out using Digital Scanning Electron Microscope DSM 940 OPTON.Findings: The investigations of corrosion resistance of examined aluminium alloys shows that the highest corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution was observed for AlZn5Mg1 aluminium alloy.Practical implications: The obtained results can be used for searching the appropriate way of improving the corrosion resistance of analysed alloys because better corrosion resistance, lightweight of aluminium and its alloys makes them as most attractive for the steel replacement in shipbuilding.Originality/value: The corrosion behaviour in chloride solution of AlMg2.5; AlMg5Mn and AlZn5Mg1 alloys was investigated.

  15. Effect of iron-containing intermetallic particles on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambat, Rajan [Department of Manufacturing and Management, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)]. E-mail: ambat@ipl.dtu.dk; Davenport, Alison J. [Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Scamans, Geoff M. [Innoval Technology Limited, Banbury, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Afseth, Andreas [Alcan Technology and Management, CH-8212 Neuhausen (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    The effect of heat treatment on the corrosion behaviour of binary Al-Fe alloys containing iron at levels between 0.04 and 0.42 wt.% was investigated by electrochemical measurements in both acidic and alkaline chloride solutions. Comparing solution heat-treated and quenched materials with samples that had been subsequently annealed to promote precipitation of Al{sub 3}Fe intermetallic particles, it was found that annealing increases both the cathodic and anodic reactivity. The increased cathodic reactivity is believed to be directly related to the increased available surface area of the iron-containing intermetallic particles acting as preferential sites for oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution. These particles also act as pit initiation sites. Heat treatment also causes depletion in the solute content of the matrix, increasing its anodic reactivity. When breakdown occurs, crystallographic pits are formed with {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} facets, and are observed to contain numerous intermetallic particles. Fine facetted filaments also radiate out from the periphery of pits. The results demonstrate that the corrosion of aluminium is thus influenced by the presence of low levels of iron, which is one of the main impurities, and its electrochemical behaviour can be controlled by heat treatment.

  16. Effect of iron-containing intermetallic particles on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of heat treatment on the corrosion behaviour of binary Al-Fe alloys containing iron at levels between 0.04 and 0.42 wt.% was investigated by electrochemical measurements in both acidic and alkaline chloride solutions. Comparing solution heat-treated and quenched materials with samples that had been subsequently annealed to promote precipitation of Al3Fe intermetallic particles, it was found that annealing increases both the cathodic and anodic reactivity. The increased cathodic reactivity is believed to be directly related to the increased available surface area of the iron-containing intermetallic particles acting as preferential sites for oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution. These particles also act as pit initiation sites. Heat treatment also causes depletion in the solute content of the matrix, increasing its anodic reactivity. When breakdown occurs, crystallographic pits are formed with {1 0 0} facets, and are observed to contain numerous intermetallic particles. Fine facetted filaments also radiate out from the periphery of pits. The results demonstrate that the corrosion of aluminium is thus influenced by the presence of low levels of iron, which is one of the main impurities, and its electrochemical behaviour can be controlled by heat treatment

  17. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  18. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid;

    2014-01-01

    of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  19. Cold forming of aluminium - State of the art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    1997-01-01

    The ongoing development of cold forging technology has been manifested lately by the increasing application of components in cold forged aluminium alloys. Applying precipitation hardening alloys components with great strength/weight ratio can be produced with a strength comparable to that of unal...... Elsevier Science S.A....

  20. STRUCTURE OF ECAP ALUMINIUM AFTER DIFFERENT NUMBER OF PASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ilucová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of high purity (99.99% aluminium processed by equal channel angular pressing in the as pressed state after different number of passes was examined using various stereological methods. An extreme inhomogeneity and complicated anisotropy was observed along the body of rod-like specimens.

  1. Zonal distribution of dissolved aluminium in the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolison, J. M.; Middag, R.; Stirling, C. H.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; de Baar, H. J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved aluminium (Al) is an important tracer of atmospheric dust input to the oceans. The GEOTRACES expedition to the highly dust impacted Mediterranean Sea afforded the opportunity to study the distribution of dissolved Al in the Mediterranean Sea in detail. Interestingly, the elevated concentra

  2. Development of an aluminium stabilized reinforced superconducting conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, D. [PTR Praezisionstechnik GmbH Maintal (Germany); Horvath, I.L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland); Harzenmoser, M.; Neuenschwander, J. [Swiss Federal Labs. for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Wittgenstein, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    For high performance superconducting magnets as used in large detectors for the High Energy Physics or for magnets of magnetic storage devices (SMES) the mechanical stresses on the conductor go beyond the yield stress level of the high purity matrix stabilizer, specially if aluminium is used. Therefore, a novel method is proposed to join high strength aluminium strips to high purity aluminium stabilizer by using the electron beam (EB) welding. The proposed EB-welding, combined with roll-pressing under vacuum, provides the minimum heat input on the conductor in comparison with other welding techniques. This method provides the advantage to allow the production of very long conductor lengths and includes the potentiality of repairing without losing expensive material. As this process has to be adapted to the high purity aluminium on the one side and to the high strength material on the other, the authors started in a first step with investigation and development of the process, using standard laboratory machines together with laboratory-size tooling. In this report the development program is described and first results of the quality control measurements are presented.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Aluminium (aluminum) Tolerance in Rye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity, affecting around half of the world’s arable land, severely hinders the ability of crop plants to utilize moisture and nutrients by restricting root growth and function. Among the cultivated cereals, rye is the most Al-tolerant and represents an important potential source of ...

  4. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S. A.; Eshghi, H.; Scudino, S.; Vyalikh, A.; Vanpoucke, D. E. P.; Gruner, W.; Oswald, S.; Kiani Rashid, A. R.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scheler, U.; Eckert, J.

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN. PMID:27650956

  5. Silicon Carbide Tiles for Sidewall Lining in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUANBo; ZHAOJunguo; 等

    1999-01-01

    The paper introduces the nitride bonded silicon carbide used for sidewall lining in aluminium eletrolysis cells ,including technical process,main properties and application results.Comparison tests on various physical properties of silicon carbide products made by LIRR and other producers worldwide have also been conducted in an independent laboratory.

  6. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreatta, F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a neg

  7. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S. A.; Eshghi, H.; Scudino, S.; Vyalikh, A.; Vanpoucke, D. E. P.; Gruner, W.; Oswald, S.; Kiani Rashid, A. R.; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M.; Scheler, U.; Eckert, J.

    2016-09-01

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN.

  8. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S A; Eshghi, H; Scudino, S; Vyalikh, A; Vanpoucke, D E P; Gruner, W; Oswald, S; Kiani Rashid, A R; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M; Scheler, U; Eckert, J

    2016-09-21

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN.

  9. Mechanochemical route to the synthesis of nanostructured Aluminium nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, S A; Eshghi, H; Scudino, S; Vyalikh, A; Vanpoucke, D E P; Gruner, W; Oswald, S; Kiani Rashid, A R; Samadi Khoshkhoo, M; Scheler, U; Eckert, J

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal Aluminium nitride (h-AlN) is an important wide-bandgap semiconductor material which is conventionally fabricated by high temperature carbothermal reduction of alumina under toxic ammonia atmosphere. Here we report a simple, low cost and potentially scalable mechanochemical procedure for the green synthesis of nanostructured h-AlN from a powder mixture of Aluminium and melamine precursors. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques has been employed to provide comprehensive mechanistic insights on the reactivity of melamine, solid state metal-organic interactions and the structural transformation of Al to h-AlN under non-equilibrium ball milling conditions. The results reveal that melamine is adsorbed through the amine groups on the Aluminium surface due to the long-range van der Waals forces. The high energy provided by milling leads to the deammoniation of melamine at the initial stages followed by the polymerization and formation of a carbon nitride network, by the decomposition of the amine groups and, finally, by the subsequent diffusion of nitrogen into the Aluminium structure to form h-AlN. PMID:27650956

  10. A vector valued Stefan problem from aluminium industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermolen, F.J.; Vuik, C.

    1998-01-01

    Dissolution of stoichiometric multi-component particles in ternary alloys is an important process occurring during the heat treatment of as-cast aluminium alloys prior to hot-extrusion. A mathematical model is proposed to describe such a process. In this model an equation is given to determine the p

  11. Modelling of aluminium sheet material at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaren, L.; Boogaard, van den A.H.; Huetink, J.

    2004-01-01

    The formability of Al–Mg sheet can be improved considerably, by increasing the temperature. At elevated temperatures, the mechanical response of the material becomes strain rate dependent. To accurately simulate warm forming of aluminium sheet, a material model is required that incorporates the temp

  12. Modelling of contact and friction in aluminium extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, X.; Rooij, de M.B.; Schipper, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A physical model capable of predicting the friction and sticking/slipping lengths in the bearing channel during unlubricated aluminium extrusion processes is presented. The model takes into account the pressure build up in the extrusion direction in relation with the bearing–extrudate friction and h

  13. Modelling aluminium wire bond reliability in high power OMP devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, R.; Yuan, C.A.; Xiao, A.; Bruijn, F. de

    2011-01-01

    In a RF power application such as the OMP, the wires are subjected to high current (because of the high power) and high temperature (because of the heat from IC and joule-heating from the wire itself). Moreover, the wire shape is essential to the RF performance. Hence, the aluminium wire is preferre

  14. Modelling of friction for high temperature extrusion of aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, finite-element (FE) simulations have been extensively used in scientific research and industrial practice to analyse the extrusion process. A basic issue of FE simulations is the accuracy of the results, which is mainly determined by the viscoplastic material behaviour of aluminium

  15. Hydrogen evolution from aluminium in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to conditions similar to BWR and PWR containment spray waters at 50, 100 and 1500C. BWR deionized water gives corrosion rates of at most 0.05 mm/year and hydrogen concentrations less than 0.1-1%. On the contrary PWR alkaline solutions give very high corrosion rates and hydrogen contents. (Auth.)

  16. Establishment of Integrated Information Displays in Aluminium Surfaces Using Nanomanufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen has been working with a method for manufacturing ultra-thin structures in Aluminium that can be penetrated by light. This has resulted in a patent describing how to obtain this effect by etching of local areas in a solid material. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum co...... ultra-short pulses, selective etching + anodizing, and electrochemical machining....

  17. Examples on cold forged aluminium components in automotive industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Kolsgaard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper describes the possibilites of applying cold forging for manufacturing of light weight components in aluminium. A short description of the basic cold forming processes forms the basis for describing the great variety in design of cold forged components. Examples are mainly taken...... from automotive industry but in a few cases also from other industrial sectors to show the possibilities....

  18. Waste treatment of fission product solutions containing aluminium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Rossendorf molybdenum-99 production facility AMOR short-term irradiated aluminium clad fuel elements from the Rossendorf Research Reactor are reprocessed. Following extractive recovery of the enriched uranium the facility system has to be disposed of the fission product-Al(NO3)3 solution. Investigations on waste conditioning of such solutions are presented. (author)

  19. Hydrogen generation from aluminium corrosion in reactor containment spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aluminium corrosion experiments in reactor containment spray solutions, under the conditions expected to prevail during LOCA in BWR and PWR, were performed in order to investigate relationships between temperature, pH and hydrogen production rates. In order to simulate the conditions in a BWR containment realistic ratios between aluminium surface and water volume and between aluminium surface and oxygen volume were used. Three different aluminium alloys were exposed to spray solutions: AA 1050, AA 5052 and AA 6082. The corrosion rates were measured for BWR solutions (deaerated and aerated) with pH 5 and 9 at 50, 100 and 1500C. The pressure was constantly 0.8 MPa. The hydrogen production rate was measured by means of gas chromatography. In deionized BWR water the corrosion rates did not exceed about 0.05 mm/year in all cases, i.e. were practically independent of temperature and pH. Hydrogen concentrations were less than 0.1 vol.% in cooled dry gas. Corrosion rates and hydrogen production in PWR alkaline solution measured at pH 9.7 and 1500C were very high. AA 5052 alloy was the best material

  20. Electrochemical Characterisation of Filiform Corrosion on Aluminium Rolled Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisert, M.

    2001-01-01

    When aluminium is protected by an organic coating a special form of corrosion can occur underneath the organic coating; filiform corrosion. This form of corrosion manifests itself as threadlike filaments under the coating, it causes local delamination of the coating and the coating cannot protect th

  1. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the conditi

  2. Effects of Aluminium in Forest. Results of a pilot experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, J.; Wit, H. de; Nygaard, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This conference paper deals with an Norwegian pilot project which started in 1995 and finishing early 1999, investigates the solubility and phyto-toxicity of aluminium (Al) in mature forest ecosystems. The project consists of three major parts, including field manipulation study of Norwegian spruce stands, laboratory experiments and modelling Al chemistry in the root zone. 15 refs.

  3. Experimental weathering rates of aluminium silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical weathering of primary rocks and minerals in natural systems has a major impact on soil development and its composition. Chemical weathering is driven to a large extent by mineral dissolution. Through mineral dissolution, elements are released into groundwater and can readily react to precipitate secondary minerals such as clays, zeolites, and carbonates. Carbonates form from divalent cations (e.g. Ca, Fe and Mg) and CO2, and kaolin clay and gibbsite formation is attributed to the weathering of aluminium-rich minerals, most notably the feldspars. The CarbFix Project in Hellisheidi (SW-Iceland) aims to use natural weathering processes to form carbonate minerals by the re-injection of CO2 from a geothermal power plant back into surrounding basaltic rocks. This process is driven by the dissolution of basaltic rocks, rich in divalent cations, which can combine with injected CO2 to form and precipitate carbonates. This thesis focuses on the dissolution behaviour of Stapafell crystalline basalt, which consists of three major phases (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine) and is rich in divalent cations. Steady-state element release rates from crystalline basalt at far-from-equilibrium conditions were measured at pH from 2 to 11 and temperatures from 5 to 75 C in mixed-flow reactors. Steady-state Si and Ca release rates exhibit a U-shaped variation with pH, where rates decrease with increasing pH at acid condition but increase with increasing pH at alkaline conditions. Silicon release rates from crystalline basalt are comparable to Si release rates from basaltic glass of the same chemical composition at low pH and temperatures ≥25 C but slower at alkaline pH and temperatures ≥50 C. In contrast, Mg and Fe release rates decrease continuously with increasing pH at all temperatures. This behaviour is interpreted to stem from the contrasting dissolution behaviours of the three major minerals comprising the basalt: plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. Element

  4. Aluminium in allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy--a German perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Matthias F; Heath, Matthew D

    2014-07-16

    We are living in an "aluminium age" with increasing bioavailability of the metal for approximately 125 years, contributing significantly to the aluminium body burden of humans. Over the course of life, aluminium accumulates and is stored predominantly in the lungs, bones, liver, kidneys and brain. The toxicity of aluminium in humans is briefly summarised, highlighting links and possible causal relationships between a high aluminium body burden and a number of neurological disorders and disease states. Aluminium salts have been used as depot-adjuvants successfully in essential prophylactic vaccinations for almost 100 years, with a convincing positive benefit-risk assessment which remains unchanged. However, allergen-specific immunotherapy commonly consists of administering a long-course programme of subcutaneous injections using preparations of relevant allergens. Regulatory authorities currently set aluminium limits for vaccines per dose, rather than per treatment course. Unlike prophylactic vaccinations, numerous injections with higher proportions of aluminium-adjuvant per injection are applied in subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and will significantly contribute to a higher cumulative life dose of aluminium. While the human body may cope robustly with a daily aluminium overload from the environment, regulatory cumulative threshold values in immunotherapy need further addressing. Based on the current literature, predisposing an individual to an unusually high level of aluminium, such as through subcutaneous immunotherapy, has the potential to form focal accumulations in the body with the propensity to exert forms of toxicity. Particularly in relation to longer-term health effects, the safety of aluminium adjuvants in immunotherapy remains unchallenged by health authorities - evoking the need for more consideration, guidance, and transparency on what is known and not known about its safety in long-course therapy and what measures can be taken to prevent or

  5. Corrosion Resistance ofAA6063-TypeAl-Mg-SiAlloy by Silicon Carbide in Sodium Chloride Solution for MarineApplication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ojo Sunday Isaac Fayomi; Malik Abdulwahab; Ferdinand Asuke

    2015-01-01

    The present work focused on corrosion inhibition of AA6063 type Al-Mg-Si alloy in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with a silicon carbide inhibitor, using the potentiodynamic electrochemical method. The aluminium alloy surface morphology was examined, in the as-received and as-corroded in the un-inhibited state, with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results obtained via linear polarization indicated a high corrosion potential for the unprotected as-received alloy. Equally, inhibition efficiency as high as 98.82% at 10.0 g/v silicon carbide addition was obtained with increased polarization resistance (Rp), while the current density reduced significantly for inhibited samples compared to the un-inhibited aluminium alloy. The adsorption mechanism of the inhibitor aluminium alloy follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This shows that the corrosion rate of aluminium alloy with silicon carbide in NaCl environment decreased significantly with addition of the inhibitor.

  6. Corrosion resistance of AA6063-Type Al-Mg-Si alloy by silicon carbide in sodium chloride solution for marine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayomi, Ojo Sunday Isaac; Abdulwahab, Malik; Popoola, Abimbola Patricia Idowu; Asuke, Ferdinand

    2015-12-01

    The present work focused on corrosion inhibition of AA6063 type (Al-Mg-Si) alloy in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with a silicon carbide inhibitor, using the potentiodynamic electrochemical method. The aluminium alloy surface morphology was examined, in the as-received and as-corroded in the un-inhibited state, with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results obtained via linear polarization indicated a high corrosion potential for the unprotected as-received alloy. Equally, inhibition efficiency as high as 98.82% at 10.0 g/v silicon carbide addition was obtained with increased polarization resistance ( R p), while the current density reduced significantly for inhibited samples compared to the un-inhibited aluminium alloy. The adsorption mechanism of the inhibitor aluminium alloy follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This shows that the corrosion rate of aluminium alloy with silicon carbide in NaCl environment decreased significantly with addition of the inhibitor.

  7. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride by metal organic chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagdale, Pravin, E-mail: pravin.jagdale@polito.it [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy); Castellino, Micaela [Center for Space Human Robotics, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Marrec, Françoise [Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, University of Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV), Amiens 80039 (France); Rodil, Sandra E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexicom (UNAM), Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Tagliaferro, Alberto [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, 10129 (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) method was used to prepare thin films of bismuth based nano particles starting from bismuth salts. Nano sized bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) crystals were synthesized from solution containing bismuth chloride (BiCl{sub 3}) in acetone (CH{sub 3}-CO-CH{sub 3}). Self-assembly of nano sized BiOCl crystals were observed on the surface of silicon, fused silica, copper, carbon nanotubes and aluminium substrates. Various synthesis parameters and their significant impact onto the formation of self-assembled nano-crystalline BiOCl were investigated. BiOCl nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These analyses confirm that bismuth nanometer-sized crystal structures showing a single tetragonal phase were indeed bismuth oxy chloride (BiOCl) square platelets 18–250 nm thick and a few micrometres wide.

  8. Design of the lines of aluminium drawing. Part 1; Conception des filieres de filage d'aluminium. Partie 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cescutti, J.P.; Ravaille, N. [Pechiney, Div. Filiage, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-12-15

    After a general presentation, the second paragraph gives the main reasons of the complexity of the problem to be solved. Coming from the 'sciences of design', these aspects give valuable data to structure the analysis of the progress ways in the field of the design of the lines of aluminium extrusion. (O.M.)

  9. Decreased toxicity of aluminium when the ionic strength increases in water; Blir aluminium mindre toksisk naar ionestyrken i vannet oeker?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstad, E.W. [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper evaluates the acute mortality of fish caused by the toxicity of aluminium in water. The evaluation is based on the polymerization hypothesis. According to the author, the level of toxicity decreases when the concentration and charge of ions increase. The paper presents the preliminary results from the executed experiment. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H2PO4− ions to HPO32− ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm−2 and 1.77 mW cm−2, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for bioelectronic applications. • Selective

  11. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Gymama, E-mail: gslaught@umbc.edu; Sunday, Joshua; Stevens, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} ions to HPO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm{sup −2} and 1.77 mW cm{sup −2}, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for

  12. Effects of Nano-Aluminium on The Combustion of A PolyNIMMO-Based Propellant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clive Woodley; Peter Henning

    2014-01-01

    Propellants containing micro-aluminium particles have been shown to produce faster burn rates than conventional gun propellants.However,they are also more abrasive than conventional propellants.Nano-material propellants have been reported to give similar benefits to micron-material propellants but without the disadvantage of increased abrasion.Tests were conducted to compare the burn rates,ignitability and wear rates of a propellant loaded with 0% aluminium,15% micro-aluminium and 15%nano-aluminium.Closed vessel tests showed a burn rate increase of 39% in the range 30-250 MPa,and 70% at low pressure (50-100 MPa)for the nano-aluminium propellant compared with the baseline propellant.The micro-aluminium propellant showed only a 10% increase in the burn rate compared with the standard propellant.The ignition delay for the nano-aluminium propellant was slightly shorter than that of the baseline propellant.Substantially increased wear rates were measured for the micro-aluminium propellant.The nano-aluminium propellant showed reduced wear rates compared with the micro-aluminium propellant but these were still substantially greater than those for the baseline propellant.

  13. Numerical and experimental investigations of aluminium powder compaction; Numerische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zum Pulverpressen von Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanini, K.; Doege, E.; Schmidt-Juergensen, R. [Institut fuer Umformtechnik und Umformmaschinen, (IFUM) Universitaet Hannover, Welfengarten 1A, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    The FEM simulation is a powerful means which can drastically reduce the time to production and costs in the optimization of powder forming processes. The current paper investigates experimentally and numerically die compaction of aluminium powder. The plastic deformation is formulated by using the Drucker-Prager-Cap-model. This yield criterion describes the compressibility of porous bodies and allows the prediction of crack formation in the green compact. Axial compaction tests have been performed to determine material parameters for hardening. Simulation examples are presented to demonstrate the ability of the model to compute the distribution of the relative density. Furthermore, the compaction of an axisymmetric workpiece was simulated in order to determine optimal tools kinematics and to avoid crack formation. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Die Auslegung und Optimierung pulvertechnologischer Umformverfahren basiert bisher zu einem grossen Teil auf Erfahrungswissen. Die numerische Simulation bietet hierbei eine kosten- und zeitsparende Alternative. Besonders hat sich die Finite-Elemente-Methode (FEM) als leistungsfaehiges Simulationsverfahren bewaehrt. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird das Pulverpressen von Aluminiumpulver numerisch und experimentell untersucht. Hierbei wird das Drucker-Prager-Cap-Modell verwendet, um das kompressible Verhalten des Pulvers abzubilden und moegliche Rissbildungen waehrend des Pressvorgangs vorherzusagen. Durch Pressversuche werden die Materialkennwerte fuer dieses Modell hinsichtlich der Verdichtung und Verfestigung des Aluminiumpulvers ermittelt. Der Pressvorgang wird anhand ausgewaehlter Referenzbauteile simuliert. Von besonderem Interesse ist hierbei die Berechnung der Verteilung der relativen Dichte und die Vermeidung der Rissbildung durch Optimierung der Stempelkinematik. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Aluminium content of foods originating from aluminium-containing food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Haneishi, Nahoko; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takanashi, Mayu; Tomioka, Naoko; Uematsu, Yoko; Monma, Kimio

    2016-09-01

    Aluminium (Al) levels of 90 food samples were investigated. Nineteen samples contained Al levels exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for young children [body weight (bw): 16 kg] when consuming two servings/week. These samples were purchased multiple times at specific intervals and were evaluated for Al levels. Al was detected in 27 of the 90 samples at levels ranging from 0.01 (limit of quantitation) to 1.06 mg/g. Of these, the Al intake levels in two samples (cookie and scone mix, 1.3 and 2 mg/kg bw/week, respectively) exceeded the TWI as established by European Food Safety Authority, although the level in the scone mix was equivalent to the provisional TWI (PTWI) as established by Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives. The Al levels markedly decreased in 14 of the 19 samples with initially high Al levels. These results indicated reductions in the Al levels to below the PTWI limits in all but two previously identified food samples. PMID:27092423

  15. Steel sheet composite materials with foamed aluminium; Stahlblechverbundwerkstoffe mit geschaeumtem Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumeister, J.; Weber, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Materialforschung, Bremen (Germany); Bleck, W.; Hagen, H. von [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde

    1999-07-01

    Sandwich structured steel sheets with a core of foamed aluminium can be produced by roll-bonding and glueing. Results of corrosion tests and laser welding tests so far were positive. Several applications have been proposed but none of them has been implemented as yet. The material is recommended for applications with a profile of requirements comprising structurally and functionally relevant characteristics. Recycling is unproblematic. [German] Zur Herstellung von Stahlblechsandwichverbunden mit einem Aluminiumschaumkern lassen sich die Verfahren Walzplattieren und Kleben einsetzen. Es sind Sandwichverbunde mit Gesamtdichten von 0,7 bis 2,0 g/cm{sup 3} und Gesamtdicken zwischen 10 und 32 mm darstellbar. Die Tafelgroessen fuer die vielversprechendsten Verfahren liegen derzeit bei ueber DIN A3 (konventionell geschaeumt) oder 160 mm x mehrere m (kontinuierlich im Banddurchlaufofen geschaeumt) und 2 m x 600 mm (geklebt). Es lassen sich gute mechanische Eigenschaften des Sandwichverbundes (Biegesteifigkeit) und hohe Versagensreserven bei Druck- und Biegebeanspruchungen sowie interessante funktionelle Eigenschaften (z.B. hohe Energieaufnahme) erzielen. Aus Tastversuchen zu Korrosionseigenschaften und Fuegeverfahren (Laserschweissen) konnten positive Resultate gewonnen werden. Vorschlaege zu Anwendungen bestehen, aber ein direkter Einsatz ist noch nicht realisiert worden. Ein Einsatz des Werkstoffverbundes ist sinnvoll in Gebieten, in denen ein Anforderungsprofil von strukturell und funktionell relevanten Eigenschaften vorherrscht. Das Recycling der rein metallischen Verbunde ist problemlos. (orig.)

  16. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  17. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  19. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL PHYSIO-PATOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ALUMINIUM IN PATIENTS WITH ALZHEIMER SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bǎlǎeț

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been developed an idea about the connection between the Presence of aluminium in human blood and Alzheimer disease. The goal of our study was to demonstrate that there is a connection between the aluminium in the patients’ blood (who presented specific symptoms and Alzheimer disease’s occurrence, having a physiopathological determination. Aluminium dosage in a group of patients was analyzed (according to some pre-established procedures. 65% of the patients had 1-5% higher than normal values for aluminium level. Aluminium intoxication could lead to syndromes which could affect peoples’ activity. The general physicians must be aware of the need for detecting the aluminium in blood, of interpreting the physiopathological changes and of monitoring these changes in order to detect early symptoms of Alzheimer disease.

  1. RESPONSE OF PHENOLIC METABOLISM INDUCED BY ALUMINIUM TOXICITY IN FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH. PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O E; Kosyan, A M; Kosyk, O I; Taran, N Yu

    2015-01-01

    Buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum Mill.) is one of the aluminium tolerant taxonomic units of plants. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the aluminium (50 μM effect on phenolic accumulation in various parts of buckwheat plants (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Detection of increasing of total phenolic content, changes in flavonoid and anthocyanin content and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity (PAL) were revealed over a period of 10 days of exposure to aluminium. The most significant effects of aluminium treatment on phenolic compounds accumulation were total phenolic content increasing (by 27.2%) and PAL activity rising by 2.5 times observed in leaves tissues. Received data could be helpful to understand the aluminium tolerance principles and relationships of phenolic compounds to aluminium phytotoxicity. PMID:27025067

  2. The nature of point defects in plastically deformed aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to find out which types of point defect are produced by plastic deformation, 57Co-doped aluminium specimens were cold worked at various temperatures by unidirectional tensile deformation or cyclic torsion. The specimens were then annealed at increasing temperatures, and the trapping of defects at the 57Co probes was studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. In none of the experiments were interstitials found, although it is known that in aluminium 57Co probes readily trap interstitials after low-temperature particle irradiation. However, vacancy trapping was found in two temperature ranges corresponding to two different migration energies of vacancies: in dislocations Esub(m)sup(d) approx.0.2 to 0.3 eV and in the lattice Esub(m) approx.= 0.6 eV. The consequences of the results on models of point defect production by cold working are discussed. (author)

  3. Environment pollution with aluminium around a coalburning electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments were carried out from November 1991 till November 1993 on the area surrounding an electric power plant within the circle of 20 km diameter and five geographical directions (N, S, SE, E, W). The results presented in this paper have indicated the threats caused by emissions of the power plant ashes and dusts. Mean aluminium content in soil has been multiply surpassed on the area studied. This must have as impact on fauna and flora. The distribution and intensity of pollution is determined first of all by the distance from the emitters and direction of prevailing winds. A part of aluminium contained in water soluble compounds can be distributed on large areas, what adds a lot to the threat to animals. That is why high chimneys do not solve the problem of pollution around big industrial plants. (author)

  4. Nano α-alumina powders from aluminium dross waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a solvo thermal chemical process to recycle aluminium dross waste into nano α-alumina powder. The process includes washing to remove the unwanted sodium follow by dissolving of this waste with dilute acid. The solvo thermal process then proceed with addition of propanol to crystallize the aluminium hydroxide. XRD analysis of this crystal shows that it belongs to Gibbs site (Al(OH)3). The crystals were then calcined at 1300 degree C where white powder was produced. Characteristic studies were then performed on this powder using XRD, SEM, EDX and particle size analysis showing that it has single α-alumina crystal phase with almost spherical shape. As the initial particle size is coarse and had a mean particle size of 3.80 μm, high speed wet milling was used and enable to reduce it to 0.49 μm. (Author)

  5. High-pressure direct synthesis of aluminium nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Bockowski, M; Grzegory, I; Krukowski, S; Wróblewski, M; Porowski, S

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of direct synthesis of aluminium nitride (AlN) under high nitrogen pressure up to 1 GPa and temperatures up to 2000 K. At pressure from 10 to 650 MPa we observe the combustion synthesis of AlN. As the result of the combustion process one can obtain the AlN sintered powder or AlN/Al metal matrix composites. For N sub 2 pressure higher than 650 MPa the crystal growth of AlN from the solution of atomic nitrogen in aluminium is possible. Both needle-like and bulk AlN single crystals, up to 1 cm and 1 mm, respectively, have been obtained.

  6. Thermal Effect of Ceramic Nanofiller Aluminium Nitride on Polyethylene Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Bin Sohail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene polymerization was done to form polyethylene nano-composite with nanoaluminum nitride using zirconocene catalysts. Results show that the catalytic activity is maximum at a filler loading of 15 mg nanoaluminum nitride. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD results show that percentage crystallinity was also marginally higher at this amount of filler. Thermal behavior of polyethylene nanocomposites (0, 15, 30, and 45 mg was studied by DSC and thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA. Morphology of the component with 15 mg aluminium nitride is more fibrous as compared to 0 mg aluminium nitride and higher filler loading as shown by SEM images. In order to understand combustibility behavior, tests were performed on microcalorimeter. Its results showed decrease in combustibility in polyethylene nanocomposites as the filler loading increases.

  7. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Kashyap; T Chandrashekar

    2001-08-01

    Grain refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of cast and wrought aluminium alloys. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys to grain refine the solidified product. The mechanism of grain refinement is of considerable controversy in the scientific literature. The nucleant effects i.e. which particle and its characteristics nucleate -Al, has been the subject of intensive research. Lately the solute effect i.e. the effect of dissolved titanium on grain refinement, has come into forefront of grain refinement research. The present paper attempts to review the literature on the nucleant effects and solute effects on grain refinement and addresses the importance of dissolved titanium in promoting nucleation of -Al on nucleant particles.

  8. Impact of Inert Metal Particles Flow on Aluminium Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhongqi; LIU Yi; CHEN Yahong; BAI Chunhua

    2008-01-01

    Inert metal explosive, a new kind of explosive, is a mixture of high explosive and inert metal particle.When this kind of explosive is detonated, an inert metal particle flow will be formed by the explosive product driving.To determine the characteristics of the movement of the metal particle flow, a series of aluminium plates were designed to be the targets on which the metal particle flow impacted.The test result was presented and a numerical model was set up to analyze the impact of the high speed inert metal particles on aluminium plate.Based on the numerical analysis, the relationship between the characteristic of the mark on the target plate and the initial condition of the inert metal particles was proposed.From the analysis of the impact on target plates, more information about the movement of the metal particles could be reconstructed.

  9. Properties of native ultrathin aluminium oxide tunnel barriers

    CERN Document Server

    Gloos, K; Pekola, J P

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated planar metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions with aluminium oxide as the dielectricum. These oxide barriers were grown on an aluminium electrode in pure oxygen at room temperature till saturation. By applying the Simmons model we derived discrete widths of the tunnelling barrier, separated by DELTA s approx 0.38 nm. This corresponds to the addition of single layers of oxygen atoms. The minimum thickness of s sub 0 approx 0.54 nm is then due to a double layer of oxygen. We found a strong and systematic dependence of the barrier height on the barrier thickness. Breakdown fields up to 5 GV m sup - sup 1 were reached. They decreased strongly with increasing barrier thickness. Electrical breakdown could be described by a metal-insulator like transition of the dielectric barrier due to the large density of tunnelling electrons.

  10. Muon motion in pure and weakly doped aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O; Karlsson, E; Kehr, K W; Norlin, L O; Richter, D; Welter, J M

    1981-01-01

    The authors have studied the diffusion and localization of positive muons in pure and weakly doped aluminium, in the temperature range 30 mK-100K, by measuring the damping parameter of the muon spin rotation ( mu SR) signal. In this paper they discuss some of their recent results and draw the following conclusions: i) in pure Al, positive muons are delocalized in band states (coherent motion); ii) in Al doped with 5-70 ppm Mn, the temperature, concentration and field dependences of the damping parameter suggest diffusion or capture limited trapping to octahedral interstitial sites in the aluminium lattice below 1K; iii) above 2K a two-state diffusion-trapping model explains well the peak in the damping parameter, which appears at 15-50K for the dopants Mn, Mg, Li and Ag so far studied. (11 refs).

  11. Buffering effects on electrograining of aluminium in nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroleva, E.V. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, UMIST, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: e.koroleva@umist.ac.uk; Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, UMIST, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, UMIST, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Hollrigl, G. [Alcan Technology and Management Ltd., Bad. Bahnhofstrasse 16, CH-8212 Neuhausen (Switzerland); Lockwood, S. [Bridgnorth Aluminium Limited, Stourbridge Road, Bridgnorth WV15 6AU (United Kingdom); Smith, G. [Bridgnorth Aluminium Limited, Stourbridge Road, Bridgnorth WV15 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    Electrograining of a binary Al-Si alloy has been undertaken in nitric acid based electrolytes, with the resultant surfaces examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Depending on electrograining conditions, the pit appearance varies from hemispherical to large lateral pits, with the latter favoured in relatively acidic electrolytes. The conditions prevailing in the pit have been explored through use of aluminium ion additions to the nitric acid electrolyte as well as additions of species which influence the precipitation and dissolution of aluminium hydroxide. These confirm that control of the pit solution pH, through hydroxide generation, as a result of the selected electrograining conditions and consequent anodic and cathodic polarisation, enables tailoring of the resultant electrograined surface appearance.

  12. Potentiostatic Electrochemical Preparation and Characterisation of Aluminium Containing Nickel Selenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Gohar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide range of properties exhibited by Al based alloy makes them suitable for different applications. Aluminium containing nickel Selenide ternary alloy possess considerable corrosion resistance as compared to their pure metal counterparts. The objective of the present work has been focused on the preparation and characterisation of its thin film. Alloying with Aluminium improve the oxidation resistance and increases the heat conductivity of the alloy. There is always a high demand for plating Al and its alloys in automotive and aerospace products, house-hold goods, and artificial jewellery etc,. The morphological and the structural studies of the electrodeposited thin film were determined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM images and X-Ray Diffraction Pattern (XRD while elemental composition has been done by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDAX analysis.

  13. Evolution of Structural Damage in Aluminium Irradiated with Xenon Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, A

    2001-01-01

    Structural defect evolution in high-purity aluminium both as-irradiated and annealed after irradiation has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The foils of high-purity aluminium were irradiated with 124 MeV Xe ions with fluence up to 2\\cdot 10^{16} Xe^+ cm^{-2} at room temperature and at 100 ^{o}C. The samples irradiated at 100 ^{o}C were annealed at 480 and 600 ^{o}C. At initial stage of irradiation, at low fluence (\\leq 2\\cdot 10^{14} Xe^+ cm^{-2}) the isolated dislocation loops are observed. When ion fluence increased the loops grow. At fluences above 10^{15} Xe^+ cm^{-2} cm the microstructure is characterized by high-density small voids (pores) which are grown and slowly merged with fluence increasing. For these conditions, the most possible mechanism of pore growth is their diffusion-controlled coalescence.

  14. Sputter deposition of aluminium on colloidal polymer templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, Rainer; Buffet, Adeline; Couet, Sebastien; Schlage, Kai; Roth, Stephan V.; Roehlsberger, Ralf [HASYLAB, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Herzog, Gerd [HASYLAB, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Inst. f. Exp. Phys., Univ. Hamburg (Germany); Kaune, Gunar; Koerstgens, Volker; Meier, Robert; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter [TU Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Wurth, Wilfried [Inst. f. Exp. Phys., Univ. Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This work addresses an approach to the formation of metal nanowire meshes on surfaces. Colloidal dispersions of 100 nm polystyrene spheres were spincoated on silicon. Islands of packed layers of spheres were formed which served as template for sputter deposition of aluminium. Structure formation was investigated with grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering at beamline BW4 at HASYLAB/DESY using an in-situ sputtering chamber, thus scattering could be observed during metal deposition. The measurements indicate, that at the beginning of the deposition the metal atoms assemble in the indentations between the spheres, only after longer sputtering times the surface becomes completely covered with aluminium. If an unsputtered sample was heated beyond the glass transition temperature the lateral ordering vanished, if sputtering was stopped before complete metal coverage ordering remained upon heating. This indicates that the metal forms a stable structure separating the polymer spheres from each other.

  15. Experimental evidence for a dynamical crossover in liquid aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmel, F; Fraile, A; Szubrin, D; Pilgrim, W-C; Morkel, C

    2015-11-18

    The temperature dependence of the dynamic structure factor at next-neighbour distances has been investigated for liquid aluminium. This correlation function is a sensitive parameter for changes in the local environment and its Fourier transform was measured in a coherent inelastic neutron scattering experiment. The zero frequency amplitude decreases in a nonlinear way and indicates a change in dynamics around 1.4 ∙ Tmelting. From that amplitude a generalized viscosity can be derived which is a measure of local stress correlations on next-neighbour distances. The derived generalized longitudinal viscosity shows a changing slope at the same temperature range. At this temperature the freezing out of degrees of freedom for structural relaxation upon cooling sets in which can be understood as a precursor towards the solid state. That crossover in dynamics of liquid aluminium shows the same signatures as previously observed in liquid rubidium and lead, indicating an universal character. PMID:26465204

  16. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  17. Uranium and thorium behavior at aluminium floating-zone refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and thorium behaviour during aluminium refining by crystallization from the melt is ascertained. Measurements of of uranium and thorium radioactive impurities content in high-purity aluminiumn samples using the surface α-activity method are carried out. The content of the given impurities happened to be less than 1 x 10-7 mass.%. Such purity satisfies the requirements to materials applied in the low background 71Ge detection system of gallium-germanium solar neutrino detector

  18. Work Hardening and Mechanical Anisotropy of Aluminium Sheets and Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ryen, Øyvind

    2003-01-01

    The processing of aluminium alloys from casting to end product is associated with a large number of metallurgical phenomena. In order to further improve and optimise process routes and alloys, a thorough understanding of the thermomechanical treatments by experimental observations and physically based modelling is necessary.In part A of this thesis the work hardening behaviour of non-heat treatable alloys is followed up to large strains. The evolution in strength, microstructure and texture d...

  19. Fatigue Strength of Friction Stir Welded Joints in Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Solid state Friction stir welding (FSW) is of major interest in the welding of aluminium since it improves the joint properties. Many applications where Al-alloys are used are subject to varying load conditions, making fatigue failure a critical issue. In the scope of this thesis, the fatigue performance of friction stir welded AlMgSi-alloy 6082 has been investigated. Static and dynamic properties of different joint configurations and welds produced with varying process parameters have been d...

  20. Aluminium extrusion investigated by theory, experiment and FEM-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khorasani, Sepinood Torabzadeh

    2015-01-01

    The process of aluminium extrusion has important influence in metal forming industry because of its ability to produce profiles with different shapes, sizes and complicated geometries. The required extrusion load is depending on the process parameters such as the flow stress of the billet material, velocity field, strain rate distribution, and thermal conditions within extrusion. These conditions are so important for industries, and interesting for academia, that research has been...

  1. Melting Transition of Small Aluminium Clusters Al11-20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Feng-Shou; ZHU Zhi-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Heat capacities of small aluminium clusters Al11-20 are investigated using MD simulation with empirical manybody Gupta potential. The heat capacities of some clusters Al11, Al12, Al13 and Al19 show well-defined peaks while the heat capacities of Al15-18 indicate a gradual melting transition. The spectra of isomers obtained by quenches along the MD trajectory give good interpretation for those results.

  2. Establishment of integrated information displays in aluminium surfaces using nanomanufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik H.;

    2006-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen has been working with a method for manufacturing ultra-thin structures in aluminium that can be penetrated by light. This work has resulted in a patent describing how to obtain this effect by material removal in local areas in a solid material. The idea behind an invisible display ...... micromachining with ultra-short pulses, selective etching combined with anodizing, and electrochemical machining....

  3. Texture development during recrystallization of aluminium containing large particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte; Hansen, Niels; Humphreys, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    The recrystallization process in heavily deformed commercially pure aluminium containing large intermetallic particles was studied by in situ neutron diffraction texture measurements and various microscopical techniques including texture measurements in local areas and simultaneous determination of...... size and orientation of individual grains. The formation and growth of recrystallization nuclei at the particles and in the matrix were examined by correlating the measured change in texture to the observed change in microstructure. It was found that prolific nucleation of grains having a wide spread...

  4. Load carrying capacity analysis of materials for aluminium rims

    OpenAIRE

    Fajdiga, Matija; Čižman, Jure

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we present an experimental simulation of the fatique strength of clamped aluminium rims. This is supported by numerical modelling using the Finite Element Method (FEM), which was used for stress-strain analysis of a model representing a clamped detail during bendings. The design and analysis of the model are made simultaneously on an integrated computer controlled test rig for testing the fatique strength of clamped parts subjected to bending. The simulation is evaluated ...

  5. Fabrication and characterisation of uranium, molybdenum, chromium, niobium and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes fabrication of binary uranium alloys by melting and casting. The following alloys with nominal composition were obtained by melting in the vacuum furnace: uranium with niobium contents from 0.5%- 4.0% and uranium with molybdenum contents from 0.4% - 1.2%. Uranium alloys with chromium content from 0.4% - 1.2% and uranium alloy with 0.12% of aluminium were obtained by vacuum induction furnace (electric arc melting)

  6. State diagram of copper-aluminium alloys after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is ascertained that under reactor irradiation of copper-aluminium alloys (18.0-31.2 at% of Al) radiation-induced phase transformations occur, alpha-phase is decomposed into two ones with alpha'-phase precipitation, in gamma2-phase separate regions of its high-temperature disordered modification (gamma1-phase) are formed. Thermal stability of precipitations is investigated, regions of their existence are defined on the state diagram

  7. Study of twist boundaries in aluminium. Structure and intergranular diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses the study of grain boundaries in oriented crystals, and more particularly the systematic calculation of intergranular structures and energies of twist boundaries of <001> axis in aluminium, the determination of intergranular diffusion coefficients of zinc in a set of twist bi-crystals of same axis encompassing a whole range of disorientations, and the search for a correlation between these experimental results and calculated structures

  8. Hole quality and burr reduction in drilling aluminium sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilny, Lukas; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Piska, Miroslav;

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of the metal drilling process requires creation of minimum amount of burrs and uniform appearance of the drilled holes. In this paper, an experimental investigation was performed on 2 mm sheets of wrought aluminium alloy Al99.7Mg0.5Cu-H24, using 1.6 and 2 mm diameter drills. Cutting ...... drilled holes was fulfilled as well as high productivity achieved. Such optimized process results in a noticeable production cost reduction....

  9. METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES BASED ON ALUMINIUM LITHIUM AND SILICON CARBIDE

    OpenAIRE

    White, J.; Hughes, I; Willis, T.; Jordan, R.

    1987-01-01

    The present study tests the feasibility of producing metal matrix composites based on aluminium-lithium alloys. The first step in this process has been to produce an MMC based on 8090 with SiC. This has been successfully produced by Alcan International using the "Osprey" spray deposition process. The raw billets have been processed initially by extrusion. The tensile properties of this material have been determined and the strength compares favourably with DC cast alloys. Modulus is improved ...

  10. Noncontact ultrasonic thickness measurements of thin aluminium sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been described for the noncontact ultrasonic thickness measurements of thin aluminium sheets, using a Q-switched ruby laser generation concentric with an annular electro-magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) detection to imitate pulse-echo system. The detected waveforms were analyzed with the cut-off frequences of the higher order lamb modes. The results show in a good egreement with micrometer measurements within 2% discrepancy. (authors). 22 refs, 6 figs

  11. Oblique Impact of Projectile on Thin Aluminium Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.U. Khan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed, wherein cylindrical projectiles made of hardened steel were impacted on commercially available aluminium plates at different angles. Projectiles were of 12.8 mm diameter and plates were of 0.81 mm, 1.52mm and 1.91mm thicknesses. Based on the experimental results, an analytical model has been developed to predict the residual velocity of the projectile and the ballistic limit of the plate.

  12. Anisotropic behaviour law for sheets used in stamping: A comparative study of steel and aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Macquaire, Bruno

    2003-01-01

    International audience For a car manufacturer, reducing the weight of vehicles is an obvious aim. Replacing steel by aluminium moves towards that goal. Unfortunately, aluminium's stamping numerical simulation results are not yet as reliable as those of steel. Punch-strength and spring-back phenomena are not correctly described. This study on aluminium validates the behaviour law Hill 48 quadratic yield criterion with both isotropic and kinematic hardening. It is based on the yield surface ...

  13. Subgrain Growth, Recovery Kinetics and Nucleation of Recrystallization of Cold Deformed Aluminium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Bunkholt, Sindre

    2013-01-01

    Phenomena related to annealing of aluminium alloys are among the least understood in aluminium metallurgy but very important for industrial thermo-mechanical processing i.e. deformation and annealing. Physical models are used to predict recovery and recrystallization behaviour, and associated material properties, industrially. However, alloy development, e.g. to incorporate more recycled aluminium, has shown that current softening models are not satisfactory. Thus, improvements do require a b...

  14. Selected properties of the aluminium alloy base composites reinforced with intermetallic particles

    OpenAIRE

    M. Adamiak

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this work is to investigate two types of intermetallics TiAl and Ti3Al as reinforcement and their influence on selected properties and microstructure of aluminium matrix composites.Design/methodology/approach: Aluminium matrix composites were produced employing the atomised aluminium alloy AA6061 as metal matrix, when as reinforcement TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallics particles were used. The powders were cold pressed and then hot extruded. To evaluate the effect of mecha...

  15. Electrodeposition of aluminium film on P90 Li-Al alloy as protective coating against corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    U. Bardi; Caporali, S; M. Craig; A. Giorgetti; Perissi, I; Nicholls, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the electrodeposition of thin aluminium layers on P90 lithium–aluminium alloy at room temperature from a chloroaluminate ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium heptachloroaluminate [BMIm]Al2Cl7). We found that the treatment of the P90 sample's surface is a key point to obtain good quality coatings. On freshly mechanically polished surfaces, thin (about 24 µm), homogeneous and dense aluminium layers were obtained at 10 µm h− 1 deposition rate. F...

  16. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    OpenAIRE

    Mold, M; Shardlow, E; Exley, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, pote...

  17. Lewis acid fragmentation of a lithium aryloxide cage: generation of new heterometallic aluminium-lithium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Urbaneja, Carmen; Temprado, Manuel; Mosquera, Marta E G; Cuenca, Tomás

    2011-11-14

    Heterometallic aluminium-lithium species were prepared by the fragmentation reaction of the hexametallic cage compound [Li{2,6-(MeO)(2)C(6)H(3)O}](6) (1) with alkyl aluminium derivatives. Depending on the aluminium precursor, the species formed present different nuclearities in the solid state as shown by single crystal X-ray analysis. Spectroscopic and computational studies have been performed to study the nuclearity of the synthesized compounds in solution.

  18. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Gai-Fei Peng; Nai-Qian Feng; Qi-Ming Song

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage...

  19. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  20. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  1. The Effect of Thickness of Aluminium Films on Optical Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lugolole

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Uganda and Africa at large, up to 90% of the total energy used for food preparation and water pasteurization is from fossil fuels particularly firewood and kerosene which pollute the environment, yet there is abundant solar energy throughout the year, which could also be used. Uganda is abundantly rich in clay minerals such as ball clay, kaolin, feldspar, and quartz from which ceramic substrates were developed. Aluminium films of different thicknesses were deposited on different substrates in the diffusion pump microprocessor vacuum coater (Edwards AUTO 306. The optical reflectance of the aluminium films was obtained using a spectrophotometer (SolidSpec-3700/DUV-UV-VIS-NIR at various wave lengths. The analysis of the results of the study revealed that the optical reflectance of the aluminium films was above 50% and increased with increasing film thickness and wavelength. Thus, this method can be used to produce reflector systems in the technology of solar cooking and other appliances which use solar energy.

  2. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    The current project investigated the possibility of designing aluminium based coatings focusing on the effect of composition and surface finish on the optical appearance and on the alkaline corrosion properties using titanium as the main alloying element. The main results and discussions of this ......The current project investigated the possibility of designing aluminium based coatings focusing on the effect of composition and surface finish on the optical appearance and on the alkaline corrosion properties using titanium as the main alloying element. The main results and discussions...... described magnetron sputtered Al-Ti coatings showed that 13 wt. % titanium and more improved the corrosion resistance at pH 13.5 and this was further improved by heat treatment, especially at 400 °C and more. The improved corrosion properties were ascribed to structural relaxation, decreased galvanic...... potential differences in the microstructure, and protection from the network of the Al3Ti phases precipitated during the heat treatment. Laser surface cladding of aluminium containing up to 20 wt. % Ti6Al4V were studied focusing on the microstructure and the alkaline corrosion properties. Due...

  3. Analysis of Orthogonal Cutting of Aluminium-based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravinder Reddy

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A turning test on aluminium-based metal-matrix composites (MMCs (aluminium-30% silicon carbide was performed with K-20 carbide tool material and wear patterns and the wear land growth rates were analysed to evaluate the wear characteristics and to classify the relationship between the physical (mechanical properties and the flank wear of cutting tools. The study was also extended to the machining aspects and the width of cuts on MMCs and the influence of various cutting parameters. The experiments were conducted to measure the temperature along the cutting tool edge using thermocouple at various cutting speeds, and depth of cuts, keeping the feed rate constant while turning with K-20 carbide cutting tool. The finite-element method was used to simulate the orthogonal cutting of aluminium-based MMCs. The heat generation at the chip-tool interface, frictional heat generation at the tool flank, and the heat generation at the work tool interface were calculated analytically and imposed as boundary conditions. The analysis of the steady-state heat transfer was carried out and the temperature distribution at cutting edge, shear zone, and interface regions have been reported.

  4. Modelling of detonation cellular structure in aluminium suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, A.; Veyssiere, B.; Khasainov, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    Heterogeneous detonations involving aluminium suspensions have been studied for many years for industrial safety policies, and for military and propulsion applications. Owing to their weak detonability and to the lack of available experimental results on the detonation cellular structure, numerical simulations provide a convenient way to improve the knowledge of such detonations. One major difficulty arising in numerical study of heterogeneous detonations involving suspensions of aluminium particles in oxidizing atmospheres is the modelling of aluminium combustion. Our previous two-step model provided results on the effect on the detonation cellular structure of particle diameter and characteristic chemical lengths. In this study, a hybrid model is incorporated in the numerical code EFAE, combining both kinetic and diffusion regimes in parallel. This more realistic model provides good agreement with the previous two-step model and confirms the correlations found between the detonation cell width, and particle diameter and characteristic lengths. Moreover, the linear dependence found between the detonation cell width and the induction length remains valid with the hybrid model.

  5. The Manufacture and Characterisation of Aluminium Foams Made by Investment Casting Using Dissolvable Spherical Sodium Chloride Bead Preforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Open cell Al foams have been made by infiltrating molten Al into preforms made from porous salt spheres. Infiltration has been effected using simple pressure-assisted vacuum investment casting where the maximum infiltration pressure difference was less than 36 psi. The preform and resulting foam density decreased with increasing compaction pressure and the foam density increased with increasing infiltration pressure. For low pressure infiltration, and high density preforms, salt dissolution was rapid due to the porous nature of the salt spheres. Infiltration of molten Al occurred into the beads and, for high density preforms and higher infiltration pressures, the volume of metal in the beads exceeded that in the cell walls, drastically decreasing the NaCl dissolution rate. A simple approach is shown whereby the data from mercury porosimetry can be used to predict the resulting foam density, thereby aiding the design of preform and beads structures.

  6. Aluminium localization in root tips of the aluminium-accumulating plant species buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Benjamin; Specht, André; Horst, Walter J

    2011-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) uptake and transport in the root tip of buckwheat is not yet completely understood. For localization of Al in root tips, fluorescent dyes and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were compared. The staining of Al with morin is an appropriate means to study qualitatively the radial distribution along the root tip axis of Al which is complexed by oxalate and citrate in buckwheat roots. The results compare well with the distribution of total Al determined by LA-ICP-MS which could be reliably calibrated to compare with Al contents by conventional total Al determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The Al localization in root cross-sections along the root tip showed that in buckwheat Al is highly mobile in the radial direction. The root apex predominantly accumulated Al in the cortex. The subapical root section showed a homogenous Al distribution across the whole section. In the following root section Al was located particularly in the pericycle and the xylem parenchyma cells. With further increasing distance from the root apex Al could be detected only in individual xylem vessels. The results support the view that the 10 mm apical root tip is the main site of Al uptake into the symplast of the cortex, while the subapical 10-20 mm zone is the main site of xylem loading through the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells. Progress in the better molecular understanding of Al transport in buckwheat will depend on the consideration of the tissue specificity of Al transport and complexation.

  7. Dietary exposure to aluminium and health risk assessment in the residents of Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Jiang, Lixin; Huang, Huiping; Zeng, Shengbo; Qiu, Fen; Yu, Miao; Li, Xiaorong; Wei, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Although there are great changes of dietary in the past few decades in China, few are known about the aluminium exposure in Chinese diet. The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the dietary aluminium intake level in residents of Shenzhen, China. A total of 853 persons from 244 household were investigated their diet by three days food records. Finally, 149 kinds of foods in 17 food groups were selected to be the most consumed foods. From them, 1399 food samples were collected from market to test aluminium concentration. High aluminium levels were found in jellyfish (median, 527.5 mg/kg), fried twisted cruller (median, 466.0 mg/kg), shell (median, 107.1 mg/kg). The Shenzhen residents' average dietary aluminium exposure was estimated at 1.263 mg/kg bw/week which is lower than the PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake). But 0-2 and 3-13 age groups have the highest aluminium intake exceeding the PTWI (3.356 mg/kg bw/week and 3.248 mg/kg bw/week) than other age groups. And the main dietary aluminium exposure sources are fried twisted cruller, leaf vegetables and bean products. Our study suggested that even three decades rapid economy development, children in Shenzhen still have high dietary aluminium exposure risk. How to control high dietary aluminium exposure still is a great public health challenge in Shenzhen, China.

  8. Determination of aluminium contents in selected food samples by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food and food products are the main sources of Aluminium entering the human body. In order to know aluminium contents in food and food products, selected 26 samples from local market were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) using reactor neutrons and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. INAA using 1,779 keV γ-ray of 28Al (2.24 min) was used for aluminium concentrations in the range of 33-529 mg kg-1. Two NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and two IAEA reference materials (RMs) were analyzed by INAA for quantification of aluminium as a part of method validation. (author)

  9. Low temperature oxidation of niobium alloy with silicon-aluminium coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the gravimetry methods heat resistance of niobium-titanium-aluminium alloy in the air and at 700 deg C in the initial state and when it is protected by silicide-aluminium coatings (with variable content of aluminium) is investigated. Using X-ray diffraction and micro X-ray diffraction analyses, mechanisms of the alloy oxidation and the coating protective effect are studied. The role of aluminium in the formation of coatings is analyzed and according to bend tests the plasticity of the coatings is evaluated

  10. Aluminium nitride: from the powder to the substrate. Le nitrure d'aluminium: de la poudre au substrat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrige, J. (Lab. de Ceramiques Nouvelles, Limoges (France)); Mexmain, J. (Lab. de Ceramiques Nouvelles, Limoges (France)); Oumaloul, M. (Lab. de Ceramiques Nouvelles, Limoges (France)); Bachelard, R. (CRRA ELF ATOCHEM, Pierre Benite (France)); Disson, J.P. (CRRA ELF ATOCHEM, Pierre Benite (France))

    1993-04-01

    The aluminium nitride is a material which should replace alumina or beryllia as substrate for power electronic applications. The powder, prepared by carbothermal nitridation, is dispersed in a butanone-2-ethanol azeotrop solvent with a phosphate ester. Electrical conductivity, sedimentation, viscosity have been used to determine which phenomena take place in the defloculation of the suspension. The stability of AlN suspensions is due mainly to an electrostatic mechanism, with a steric contribution. The aluminium nitride tape-casting slip has been sintered at 1850 C in a nitrogen atmosphere. Removing of the binder and plasticizer can be performed in the same oven at 650 C, due to their nature and low concentration. The thermal conductivity of the substrates has been measured and is in the 160 to 200 W/m.K range. (orig.).

  11. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect...

  12. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  13. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full...

  14. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  15. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Y.; Graaf, de D.B.; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference electr

  16. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de result

  17. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  18. Aluminium-induced changes in hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male rabbits: protective role of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Mokhtar I

    2004-06-01

    For a long time, aluminium (Al) has been considered an indifferent element from a toxicological point of view. In recent years, however, Al has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several clinical disorders, such as dialysis dementia, the fulminant neurological disorder that can develop in patients on renal dialysis. Therefore, the present experiment was carried out to determine the effectiveness of l-ascorbic acid (AA) in alleviating the toxicity of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) on certain hemato-biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities of male New Zealand white rabbits. Six rabbits per group were assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 0mg AA and 0mg AlCl3/kg body weight (BW) (control); 40 mg AA/kg BW; 34 mg AlCl3/kg BW (1/25 LD50); 34 mg AlCl3 plus 40 mg AA/kg BW. Rabbits were orally administered their respective doses every other day for 16 weeks. Evaluations were made for lipid peroxidation, enzyme activities and hemato-biochemical parameters. Results obtained showed that AlCl3 significantly (PAluminium treatment caused a significant decrease in plasma total lipids (TL), blood haemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), and increased total leukocyte count (TLC) and the concentrations of glucose, urea, creatinine, bilirubin and cholesterol. Ascorbic acid alone significantly decreased the levels of free radicals, TL, cholesterol, glucose and creatinine, and increased the activity of GST, SH groups, Hb, TEC and PCV. While, the rest of the tested parameters were not affected. Also, the present study showed that ascorbic acid can be effective in the protection of aluminium-induced toxicity.

  19. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  20. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  1. The Macro-Adjustment Policies on China’s Aluminium Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>In recent years, China’s aluminium industry has developed rapidly with considerable expansion of the production scale. Presently, China’s aluminum production capacity has taken a quarter of the world total, and China has become the largest aluminium producer in the world, However, such large scaled expan-

  2. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Lars; Exley, Christopher; Darabi, Anna; Sandén, Emma; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium oxyhydroxide, Al(OH)3 is one of few compounds approved as an adjuvant in human vaccines. However, the mechanism behind its immune stimulating properties is still poorly understood. In vitro co-culture of an aluminium adjuvant and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation. Inhibition occurred at concentrations of adjuvant several times lower than would be found at the injection site using a vaccine formulation containing an aluminium adjuvant. Based on evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, THP-1 cells showed no mitochondrial rupture after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant, instead an increase in mitochondrial activity was seen. The THP-1 cells are phagocytosing cells and after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant the phagosomal pathway was obstructed. Primary or early phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes with an internal pH of 4.5 - 5 and carry a wide variety of hydrolysing enzymes. Co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant yielded a reduced level of acidic vesicles and cathepsin L activity, a proteolytic enzyme of the phagolysosomes, was almost completely inhibited. THP-1 cells are an appropriate in vitro model in order to investigate the mechanism behind the induction of a phagocytosing antigen presenting cell into an inflammatory cell by aluminium adjuvants. Much information will be gained by investigating the phagosomal pathway and what occurs inside the phagosomes and to elucidate the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminium particles.

  3. Domestic Output of Aluminium Alloy Hub Surpassing 70 million in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>According to a report from the hub branch of China Association of Automobile Manufactur- ers,China has produced a total of more than 70 million aluminium alloy hubs in 2007,a year- on-year growth over 25%,while consuming over 700,000 tons of primary aluminium the whole year.

  4. The effect of aluminium chlorhydrate on sweat gland activity in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees-Jones, A M; Jenkinson, D M

    1978-03-01

    Topical application of aluminium chlorhydrate had no appreciable antiperspirant action on the epitrichial glands of cattle. There was no evidence of penetration of the salt into the dermis or of any change in the morphology of the glands. It is probable that the antiperspirant activity of aluminium chlorhydrate in the human axilla, is only on the atrichial glands. PMID:632617

  5. Aluminium in an ocean general circulation model compared with the West Atlantic Geotraces cruises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulten, M. M. P.; Sterl, A.; Tagliabue, A.; Dutay, J. -C.; Gehlen, M.; de Baar, H. J. W.; Middag, R.

    2013-01-01

    A model of aluminium has been developed and implemented in an Ocean General Circulation Model (NEMO-PISCES). In the model, aluminium enters the ocean by means of dust deposition. The internal oceanic processes are described by advection, mixing and reversible scavenging. The model has been evaluated

  6. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain. PMID:27515230

  7. The role of magnesium in the electrochemical behaviour of 5XXX aluminium-magnesium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Ramirez, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation concerning the effects of magnesium on the intergranular corrosion susceptibility of AA5XXX aluminium alloys was carried out. In the present work, magnesium is found to be highly mobile in the bulk metal as well as in the aluminium oxide. This mobility is also found to be dependent

  8. Design of an aluminium bicycle path integrated in a steel bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Burggraaf, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the aluminium structure of a bicycle path which is mounted on an existing steel brige. The benefits of aluminium, being low self weight, freedom in design obtained by extrusion and good corrosion resistance were maximal utilized. One of the main drawbacks of alumin

  9. Microstructure and interfaces of a reaction coating on aluminium alloys by laser processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports an approach to coat a ceramic layer on aluminium alloys by means of chemical reaction. The reaction product of Al2O3 layer of 100 µm in thickness has been formed using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. It turns out that the large amount of heat f

  10. Void formation in pure aluminium irradiated with high-energetic electron beams and gamma-quanta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, V. V.; Ozhigou, L. S.; Yamnitsky, V. A.;

    1983-01-01

    The spatial distribution of displaced atoms and helium atoms and also the spectra of damaging energies of primary displaced atoms in a thick aluminium target irradiated with electrons of 225 MeV energy were calculated. Pure aluminium (99.9999%) irradiated up to 0.04 dose was studied by electron...

  11. Influence of Alkali Treatment on the Surface Area of Aluminium Dross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmad Zauzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium dross is an industrial waste from aluminium refining industry and classified as toxic substances. However, the disposal of dross as a waste is a burden to aluminium manufacturer industries due to its negative effects to the ecosystem, surface, and ground water. Therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH on the surface area and pore size of aluminium dross. There were 3 stages in the treatment activities, which were leaching, precipitation, and calcination process. The optimum result from this study was the surface area of aluminium dross increases from 10.1 m2/g up to 80.0 m2/g at 40°C, 1% NaOH, and 15-minute reaction time. Thus, aluminium dross has a potential to be converted into other useful material such as catalyst and absorbent. The benefit of this research is that the hazardous industrial waste can be turned into wealth to be used in other applications such as in catalytic activities and absorber in waste water treatment. Further investigation on the physicochemical of aluminium dross with different acid or alkali should be conducted to get deeper understanding on the aluminium dross as a catalyst-type material.

  12. Insight into the cellular fate and toxicity of aluminium adjuvants used in clinically approved human vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mold, Matthew; Shardlow, Emma; Exley, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Aluminium adjuvants remain the most widely used and effective adjuvants in vaccination and immunotherapy. Herein, the particle size distribution (PSD) of aluminium oxyhydroxide and aluminium hydroxyphosphate adjuvants was elucidated in attempt to correlate these properties with the biological responses observed post vaccination. Heightened solubility and potentially the generation of Al3+ in the lysosomal environment were positively correlated with an increase in cell mortality in vitro, potentially generating a greater inflammatory response at the site of simulated injection. The cellular uptake of aluminium based adjuvants (ABAs) used in clinically approved vaccinations are compared to a commonly used experimental ABA, in an in vitro THP-1 cell model. Using lumogallion as a direct-fluorescent molecular probe for aluminium, complemented with transmission electron microscopy provides further insight into the morphology of internalised particulates, driven by the physicochemical variations of the ABAs investigated. We demonstrate that not all aluminium adjuvants are equal neither in terms of their physical properties nor their biological reactivity and potential toxicities both at the injection site and beyond. High loading of aluminium oxyhydroxide in the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells without immediate cytotoxicity might predispose this form of aluminium adjuvant to its subsequent transport throughout the body including access to the brain.

  13. Fatigue testing of large scale details of a large size aluminium surface effect ship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, O.D.; Vredeveldt, A.W.; Janssen, G.Th.M.; Ortmans, P.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents the results of two large scale fatigue tests on a detail of an aluminium surface effect ship. The overall dimensions of the specimens were: length 4.8 m, height 3.2 m and width 1.5 m (equal to the main frame spacing). The specimens consist of an aluminium structure of welded plate

  14. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  15. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used......In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...

  16. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  17. Nouveau procédé de synthèse du nitrure d'aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Haussonne, J.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J.; Lostec, L.; Sadou, S.

    1993-01-01

    Les calculs thermodynamiques montrent que, même à température ambiante, l'aluminium pur peut réagir avec l'azote pour former le nitrure d'aluminium AlN. Cependant, la poudre d'aluminium pur n'existe pas : ses grains sont toujours entourés d'une couche d'alumine protectrice. De plus, dans l'hypothèse où l'on pourrait faire réagir de la poudre d'aluminium avec de l'azote, il se formerait de même une couche protectrice de nitrure d'aluminium qui empêcherait le centre des grains de réagir. S'insp...

  18. Production and some properties of Si3N4 reinforced aluminium alloy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research work focuses on the production of aluminium (AA6082-T6 matrix composites reinforced with various weight percentage of silicon nitride particles by conventional stir casting route. The percentage of reinforcement is varied from 0 wt.% to 12 wt.% in a stage of 3%. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the fabricated aluminium matrix composites are investigated. The scanning electron microstructure images reveal the presence of Si3N4 particles in the aluminium matrix. The distribution of Si3N4 particles has also been recognized with X-ray diffraction technique. The mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength and hardness have improved at the cost of reduction in ductility with increase in weight percentage of silicon nitride particulates in the aluminium metal matrix. The density and porosity of the composites also show an increasing trend with increase in volume fraction of Si3N4 particles in the aluminium matrix.

  19. Experimental Study on the Shock Absorption Performance of Combined Aluminium Honeycombs under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock absorption characteristics of combined aluminium honeycomb structures were studied experimentally. In the experiments, a testing platform was design to compare the shock absorption level of different honeycomb specimens quantitatively. The shock response curves of six test points mounted on the platform were recorded with acceleration sensors when the buffer was impacted by a bullet driven by high pressure gas. The maximum acceleration values in time domain and in specifically spectral domain were obtained based on spectral analysis. Comparing the data of combined aluminium honeycomb buffer and single aluminium honeycomb buffer, conclusion can be obtained that shock absorbing characteristic of combined aluminium honeycomb buffer is better. Furthermore, compression properties of three kinds of buffers were tested under quasi-static state. The energy absorption parameters were calculated. The results show suitable combined aluminium honeycomb buffer can smooth the stress and lower the energy applied to the testing platform.

  20. Low-temperature Electrodeposition of Aluminium from Lewis Acidic 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇; 张锁江; 吕兴梅; 王倩; 左勇; 刘恋

    2012-01-01

    Lewis acidic 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloroaluminate ionic liquids were used as promising electrolytes in the low-temperature electrodeposition of aluminium. Systematic studies on deposition process have been performed by cYClic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The surface morphology and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of deposits prepared at different experimental conditions were also investigated. It was shown that the nucleation density and growth rate of crystallites had a great effect on the structure of aluminium deposited. The crys- tallographic orientation of deposits was mainly influenced by temperature and current density. Smooth, dense and well adherent aluminium coatings were obtained on copper substrates at 10-25 mA.cm^-2 and 313.2-353.2 K. More- over, the current efficiency of deposition and purity of aluminium have been significantly improved, demonstrating that the ionic liquids tested have a prospectful potential in electroplating and electrorefining of aluminium.

  1. TEM microstructure investigations of aluminium alloys used for laser alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Labisz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper there are presented results of Transmission Electron Microscope investigation concerning the structure of the AlSi7Cu4 cast aluminium alloy using for alloying and remelting with the high power diode laser (HPDL. There are also presented the results of the thermo-derivative analysis performed using the UMSA (Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyser device, allowing to determine the specific points of the solidifying alloy, what is helpful for phase determination occurred in this alloy. In this work especially the changes of the precipitation type, size and shape were determined.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were performed using electron microscopy for the microstructure and phases determination. By mind of the transmission electron microscopy, especially selected area diffraction method appliance it was possible to determine the phases occurred in the alloy in the as cast state. The morphology and size of the Mg2Si was also possible to determine as well the lattice parameters for this phase.Findings: : The reason of this work was also to present the laser treatment technology, which will be used for further alloying and remelting with ceramic powders – especially carbides and oxides. Particularly the overview will be directed on the laser power to achieve good layer hardness for protection of this hot work tool steel from losing their work stability and to make the tool surface more resistant to action in external conditions. The structure of the surface laser tray changes in a way, that there are very high roughness of the surface zone and the flatness or geometry changes in an important manner, crucial for further investigation.Research limitations/implications: The aluminium samples were examined metallographically using transmission electron microscope with different image techniques.Practical implications: Developing of new technology with appliance of Al alloys, High Power Diode Laser and

  2. Slip lines in scandium and lithium containing aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive slip lines in cold rolled sheets of scandium or lithium containing aluminium base alloys are under study. Slip lines are shown to be the places of concentrated shear strain which arise due to the occurrence of secondary δ'(Al3Li) and Al3Sc particles completely coherent to the matrix. The formation of slip lines has a detrimental effect on cold rolled sheet mechanical properties after heat hardening. To avoid the appearance of slip lines it is necessary to roll sheets with low reductions in area and to choose appropriate conditions of intermediate heat treatments. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Regularities in aluminium and indium chemisorption on chelating polymeric sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexation properties of synthesized polymer chelate sorbents: substituted of polystyrene-azo-pyrocatechol are investigated and correlations between pK'OH of functional groups of sorbents as well as pH50 values of chelation and constants of stability (lgKstab) are established for studying regularities of effect of structure and acid-base properties of functional groups of sorbents on the parameters of Al3+ and In3+ chemical sorption. Established correlations make it possible to predict the physicochemical parameters of sorbents and sorption of metal ions with the aim of separation and concentration of aluminium and indium micro account from the objects of different origin

  4. Skin telangiectasia in workers of an aluminium processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balić, J; Kansky, A

    1988-01-01

    Telangiectases were detected in 57 (46.7%) of 122 workers employed at the electrolysis department of the aluminium plant Lozovac/Sibenik, Yugoslavia. Of 116 workers employed in the smeltery of the same plant, telangiectases were observed in 19 persons (16.4%) and in a group of 121 public transportation workers from Sibenik 15 men (12.4%) displayed enlarged blood vessels. Statistical evaluation revealed the difference in number between workers showing telangiectases engaged in electrolysis and the other two samples to be significant. It may be assumed that telangiectases were caused by hydrogen fluoride and other fluorides. Further clinical parameters, as well as working conditions, are reviewed.

  5. Modeling of recrystallization texture of aluminium: symmetric and asymmetric rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbanowski, K.; Kotra, M.; Wronski, M.; Sztwiertnia, K.; Wronski, S.; Lodini, A.

    2015-04-01

    In some metallic materials the dominating recrystallization mechanism can be described by the oriented growth behaviour. Phenomenological laws state that in selected materials only these nuclei grow intensively which have a given misorientation relation with the deformed matrix. This description is frequently verified in f.c.c. metals and generally reported misorientations correspond approximately to 400 rotation around the axis. Basing on the above ideas the recrystallization model, including the compromise condition, was formulated and applied to the study of recrystallization textures of rolled polycrystalline aluminium.

  6. Spectrum Simulation of Li-Like Aluminium Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Feng; JIANG Gang; ZHU Zheng-He

    2006-01-01

    X-ray emission spectra for L-shell of Li-like aluminium ions are simulated by using the flexible atomic code based on the collisional radiative model. Atomic processes including radiative recombination, dielectronic recombination, collisional ionization and resonance excitation from the neighbouring ion (Al9+ and Al11+) charge states of the target ion (Al10+) are considered in the model. In addition, the contributions of different atomic processes to the x-ray spectrum are analysed. The results show that dielectronic recombination, radiative recombination, collisional ionization and resonance excitation, other than direct collisional excitation, are very important processes.

  7. Physical model of aluminium refining process in URC-7000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saternus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents short characteristics of the most frequently used reactors for the continuous refining of aluminium and its alloys. Refining depends on the flow rate of refining gas. It influences the shape and size of gas bubbles. So the physical model was created to determine the level of gas bubble dispersion in liquids. Schemes of gas dispersion in liquid metal were presented taking into consideration that the gas flow rate is changing from 2 to 30 dm3/min. The range selection of the flow rate of refining gas value for five patterns of the dispersion (no dispersion, minimum, intimate, uniform and overdispersion was also done.

  8. Interface reaction in aluminium matrix composite at laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Interface reaction of SiCw/6061Al aluminium matrix composite subjected to laser welding was studied. It is pointed out that the main reason for bad weldability of the material is concerned with the interface reaction during the welding. Effects of welding parameters on interface reaction were also investigated. The results show that the interface bonding state can be improved by laser beam, and the main welding parameter affecting the strength of weld is laser output power. The smaller the output power, the lower the extent of interface reaction and the better the mechanical properties.

  9. Design considerations for HFQ® hot stamped aluminium structural panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HFQ is a deep drawing process for alloyed aluminium sheet that can be used to produce complex-stamped forms while maintaining the high-strength of 6xxx and 7xxx alloys. By adopting a strategy to design for HFQ at the platform level, designers can reduce part count (thereby reducing cost and weight, reduce gauge (thereby reducing weight, and improve part packaging. Two simple design examples are given to assist designers in evolving traditionally formed panel designs to HFQ formed solutions. Example features are used to illustrate the effect of geometry, thickness and strength on the final structural component.

  10. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    I dette projekt blev muligheden for at designe aluminiumsbaserede coatings undersøgt med fokus på hvordan den kemiske sammensætning og overfladens beskaffenhed påvirker den visuelle fremtoning og de basiske korrosionsegenskaber med titan anvendt som det primære legeringselement. De primære resultater og diskussioner fra dette arbejde præsenteres i form af i bilag som fire artikelmanuskripter indsendt til publikation i tidsskrifter. Anvendelsen af aluminium er bred, fra transportmidler, bygnin...

  11. Optically Designed Anodised Aluminium Surfaces: Microstructural and Electrochemical Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy

    under high frequency anodising, highly reflecting, bright and glossy white anodised aluminium surfaces were generated for the first time. Further, these white anodised surfaces were conventionally dyed to generate new appearances based on pastel colours. The work presented in this thesis is mainly......-13). The outcome of the work is presented in the last chapter (Chapter 15). The results from white anodising of the Al surfaces, which is the primary goal of this thesis and also the generation of a new set of pastel coloured anodised surfaces is presented. The optical characterization of these white anodised...

  12. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...... the 15 min air corona treatment. A significant reduction in anodic and cathodic reactivities was observed starting from 1 min exposure, which further decreased with prolonged exposure (15 min) and after delayed testing (after 30 days). The reduction in surface reactivity is due to the formation...

  13. Release Behaviour of Shock Loaded LY12 Aluminium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Min; DAI Lan-Hong; SHEN Le-Tian

    2005-01-01

    @@ By making use of a light gas gun, a specially designed target is impacted by the LY12 flyer, and the pressure is taken in the range of 0.6-3 GPa. Based on the stress profiles measured in the buffer materials by manganese gauges, the Hugoniot curve and release curves of LY12 aluminium alloy are obtained. Meanwhile, the release curves from different initial shocked states are described in both the pressure-particle velocity plane and the pressure-specific volume plane.

  14. Multi-element study in aluminium by activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental activation analysis is a technique relatively quickly that help to know the elemental composition of materials. It is used mainly in the trace elements determination but in the case of major elements it is necessary to make some considerations as the different nuclear reactions carried out due to the neutron flux is a mixture of thermal and fast neutrons. This could be interpreted for the presence and or erroneous quantification about some elements. In this work, is described the way in which was analyzed a container piece with approximately a 85% of aluminium. The elements Zn, Mn, Sb, Ga, Cu, Cl and Sm were determined. (Author)

  15. Bone histoquantitative findings and histochemical staining reactions for aluminium in chronic renal failure patients treated with haemodialysis fluids containing high and low concentrations of aluminium.

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, J; Fazzalari, N L; Fassett, R G; Pugsley, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 112 undecalcified bone biopsies from 67 patients under treatment for chronic renal failure by maintenance haemodialysis was available for retrospective study. The patients were divided into three groups. Group I (15 cases) had been dialysed for the majority of the time in their own homes with a fluid containing a low concentration of aluminium. Group II (28 cases) had been dialysed exclusively in hospital (prior to 1978) with a fluid containing a high concentration of aluminium and...

  16. 铝合金芯高导电率铝绞线标准解读%A Reading of High Conductivity Aluminium Conductor Aluminium Alloy Reinforced Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万建成; 董玉明; 刘龙

    2014-01-01

    To implement the engineering philosophy of security, reliability, reasonable economy, advanced technology and environmental friendliness, company standard of State Grid, 《High Conductivity Aluminium Conductor Aluminium Alloy Reinforced》, has been finished. A detailed reading about the technical approaches, basic principle and announcements of high conductivity aluminium conductor aluminium alloy reinforced standard is given by combining corresponding research results. The implementation of the standard provides important basis to guide the engineering application of high conductivity aluminium conductor aluminium alloy reinforced and will promote the upgrading of conductors for overhead transmission lines.%贯彻安全可靠、经济合理、技术先进、环境友好的技术原则,完成国家电网公司企业标准《铝合金芯高导电率铝绞线》的制定工作。结合铝合金芯高导电率铝绞线相应研究成果,解读主要条款的编制思路、基本原理以及注意事项。该标准的实施为指导铝合金芯高导电率铝绞线工程应用提供重要依据,并将促进架空输电线路用导线的更新换代。

  17. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata;

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  18. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  19. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Horsewell, Andy; Sommer, W. F.;

    1986-01-01

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg(AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si(Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-100°C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sho...... higher than in the pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure...

  20. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  1. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; A. S. Kayaalp

    2009-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many...

  2. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  3. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La) nor cadmium chloride (Cd) induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. PMID:27144562

  4. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La nor cadmium chloride (Cd induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms.

  5. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-04-30

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La) nor cadmium chloride (Cd) induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms.

  6. The determination of boron in aluminium of high purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the investigations that led to the development of chemical methods for the determination of boron within the range 0,25 to 1,0 p.p.m. in aluminium of high purity. Methods were developed that incorporated fluorimetry, directly in solutions containing aluminium and after separation of boron by liquid-liquid extraction into 2-ethyl-1,3 hexanediol. A published spectrophotometric method, involving extraction of the BF4sup(-) complex with methylene blue into dichloroethane, was modified for application to alluminium samples. Details of this modified procedure and the fluorimetric-extraction procedure are appended. The precision of the methylene-blue method is about 6 percent relative and is recommended for precision and speed in preference to others. Separation of boron by distillation and spectrophotometric determination with curcumin gave low values in comparison with those obtained by the other methods. Agreement between the boron values obtained on the samples tested was good for the fluorimetric and methylene-blue spectrophotometric methods

  7. Aluminium surface treatment with ceramic phases using diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labisz, K.; Tański, T.; Brytan, Z.; Pakieła, W.; Wiśniowski, M.

    2016-07-01

    Ceramic particles powder feeding into surface layer of engineering metal alloy is a well-known and widely used technique. New approach into the topic is to obtain finely distributed nano-sized particles involved in the aluminium matrix using the traditional laser technology. In this paper are presented results of microstructure investigation of cast aluminium-silicon-copper alloys surface layer after heat treatment and alloying with ceramic carbides of WC and ZrO2 using high-power diode laser. The surface layer was specially prepared for the reason of reducing the reflectivity, which is the main problem in the up-to-date metal matrix composites production. With scanning electron microscopy, it was possible to determine the deformation process and distribution of WC and ZrO2 ceramic powder phase. Structure of the surface after laser treatment changes, revealing three zones—remelting zone, heat-affected zone and transition zone placed over the Al substrate. The structural changes of ceramic powder, its distribution and morphology as well as microstructure of the matrix material influence on functional properties, especially wear resistance and hardness of the achieved layer, were investigated.

  8. Geopolymerisation of fly ashes with waste aluminium anodising etching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundiran, M B; Nugteren, H W; Witkamp, G J

    2016-10-01

    Combined management of coal combustion fly ash and waste aluminium anodising etching solutions using geopolymerisation presents economic and environmental benefits. The possibility of using waste aluminium anodising etching solution (AES) as activator to produce fly ash geopolymers in place of the commonly used silicate solutions was explored in this study. Geopolymerisation capacities of five European fly ashes with AES and the leaching of elements from their corresponding geopolymers were studied. Conventional commercial potassium silicate activator-based geopolymers were used as a reference. The geopolymers produced were subjected to physical, mechanical and leaching tests. The leaching of elements was tested on 28 days cured and crushed geopolymers using NEN 12457-4, NEN 7375, SPLP and TCLP leaching tests. After 28 days ambient curing, the geopolymers based on the etching solution activator showed compressive strength values between 51 and 84 MPa, whereas the commercial potassium silicate based geopolymers gave compressive strength values between 89 and 115 MPa. Based on the regulatory limits currently associated with the used leaching tests, all except one of the produced geopolymers (with above threshold leaching of As and Se) passed the recommended limits. The AES-geopolymer geopolymers demonstrated excellent compressive strength, although less than geopolymers made from commercial activator. Additionally, they demonstrated low element leaching potentials and therefore can be suitable for use in construction works.

  9. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken from a billet of an experimental alloy (alloy 1 and were subsequently hot-rolled and cold-rolled (height reduction, 72% and 70%, respectively. The other used samples, alloys 2 and 3, were taken from cylinders liners. The results from the Laue camera showed texture just in the axial direction of alloy 3. The pole figures also indicated the presence of a typical low intensity deformation texture, especially for alloy 3. The spray formed microstructure, which is very fine, hinders the Al-Si texture formation during mechanical work.

  10. Cancellous bone homograft storage with aluminium-polyethylene bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, A; Martinez, R; Cañal, P; Arriaga, M J; Román, F San; Llames, S; Orós, C; Moreno, A; Fernandez, C

    2006-01-01

    In order to transport and cryopreserve human tissues, it is essential to have an easy-to-use recipient where tissues can be kept in sterile conditions. Here we show the results obtained by using Macopharma's tissue freezing bags, an aluminium-polyethylene multilayer bag, in our tissue bank of the Centro Comunitario de Sangre y Tejidos de Asturias. Five hundred and twenty-seven cancellous bone homografts were obtained from hospitals located 120 km around our Bank. The homografts were submitted to bacteriological controls and sent to our bank in these bags. They were stored at -70 degrees C and sent in dry ice to about 50 hospitals, where the tissue was bacteriologically controlled and grafted. Furthermore, the behaviour of these bags at -140 degrees C (vapour nitrogen) or -196 degrees C (liquid nitrogen) was tested. Our results indicate that Macopharma aluminium-polyethylene bags are suitable for the transporting and cryopreserving of cancellous bone homografts. These bags could also be used for keeping tissues in nitrogen containers.

  11. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Goryachev, Maxim; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconducting cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.

  12. A 3D Printed Superconducting Aluminium Microwave Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Creedon, Daniel L; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Tim; Tobar, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals in particular has found a number of novel applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Whilst many techniques can be used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a resonant microwave cavity 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable to the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum...

  13. Experimental study of friction in aluminium bolted joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzi N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at developing an experimental tool useful to define accurately the friction coefficients in bolted joints and, therefore, at relating precisely the tightening torque to the bolt preloading force in some special components used in front motorbike suspensions. The components under investigation are some clamped joints made of aluminium alloy. The preloading force is achieved by applying a torque wrench to the bolt head. Some specific specimens have been appropriately designed and realized in order to study the tribological aspects of the tightening phase. Experimental tests have been performed by applying the Design of Experiment (DOE method in order to obtain a mathematical model for the friction coefficients. Three replicas of a full factorial DOE at two levels for each variable have been carried out. The levels include cast versus forged aluminium alloy, anodized versus spray-painted surface, lubricated versus unlubricated screw, and first tightening (fresh unspoiled surfaces versus sixth tightening (spoiled surfaces. The study considers M8x1.25 8.8 galvanized screws.

  14. Modelling of semi-liquid aluminium flow in extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Skorulski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available characterizing by low cost. The significant results may be quickly applying using theory of probability. The way of modelling the deformation mechanisms during extrusion of aluminium alloys in semi - liquid phase, the way of preparing samples and experimental technique has been analysed in the following work. On the ground of received results (i.e. registrations of consecutive process steps the grid of the flow velocity vectors on a flat sample surface was done. It allowed to draw conclusions which one of the basic deformation mechanisms is dominant in particular stage of the process. The technique of measurement has been shown as well. Experiments are made using plasticine and rape oil as a substiute materials. Some kind of different variants have been investigated. To ensure that such model experiments provide useful information it is essential to select model materials and prepare samples that would exhibit (preferably at room temperature similar behaviour and similar deformation mechanisms as those present during the actual deformation process of aluminium alloys in a semi-liquid state. In particular the FLS, SS and PDS mechanisms should be adequately reproduced.

  15. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  16. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  17. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  18. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  19. Effect of aluminium on migration of oestrogen unresponsive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Ayse; Darbre, Philippa D

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) has been measured in human breast tissue, and may be a contributory factor in breast cancer development. At the 10th Keele meeting, we reported that long-term exposure to Al could increase migratory properties of oestrogen-responsive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells suggesting a role for Al in the metastatic process. We now report that long-term exposure (20-25 weeks) to Al chloride or Al chlorohydrate at 10(-4) M or 10(-5) M concentrations can also increase the migration of oestrogen unresponsive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells as measured using time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology. In parallel, Al exposure was found to give rise to increased secretion of active matrix metalloproteinase MMP9 as measured by zymography, and increased intracellular levels of activated MMP14 as measured by western immunoblotting. These results demonstrate that Al can increase migration of human breast cancer cells irrespective of their oestrogen responsiveness, and implicate alterations to MMPs as a potential mechanism worthy of further study.

  20. Nouveau procédé de synthèse du nitrure d'aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussonne, J. M.; Lostec, J.; Bertot, J. P.; Lostec, L.; Sadou, S.

    1993-04-01

    Thermodynamic considerations show that, even at room temperature, pure aluminium can react with nitrogen to form the aluminium nitride AlN. However, pure aluminium does not exist: it is always surrounded by an alumina shell that protects the metal from further reactions. Furthermore, in the hypothesis where one has been able to make aluminium react with nitrogen, an aluminium nitride shell will protect as well the metal core from further oxidation. Prompted by the Lanxide process allowing to form Al/Al2O3 composites, we have mixed aluminium powders with lithium salts, and easily synthesized pure aluminium nitride by heating the mixed powders in nitrogen at temperatures ranging from 800 to 1200 °C. Starting from aluminium powders with a specific area ranging from 0.3 to 4 m^2/g, we have been able to produce aluminium nitride with specific are ranging from 1 to 20 m^2/g. Mixed with Y203-CaO and sintered at 1720 °C in N2, we obtained AIN ceramics owning 92% density and 160 W/m.K thermal conductivity. Les calculs thermodynamiques montrent que, même à température ambiante, l'aluminium pur peut réagir avec l'azote pour former le nitrure d'aluminium AlN. Cependant, la poudre d'aluminium pur n'existe pas : ses grains sont toujours entourés d'une couche d'alumine protectrice. De plus, dans l'hypothèse où l'on pourrait faire réagir de la poudre d'aluminium avec de l'azote, il se formerait de même une couche protectrice de nitrure d'aluminium qui empêcherait le centre des grains de réagir. S'inspirant du “procédé Lanxide” permettant de réaliser des composites Al/Al2O3, nous avons mélangé de la poudre d'aluminium avec des sels de lithium, et synthétisé du nitrure d'aluminium pur en portant ce mélange dans l'azote à une température pouvant être comprise entre 800 et 1 200 °C. Utilisant des poudres d'aluminium possédant une surface spécifique comprise entre 0,3 et 4 m^2/g, nous avons obtenu une poudre de nitrure d'aluminium avec une surface sp

  1. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used.

  2. Factors affecting the aluminium content of human femoral head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Dąbrowski, Mikołaj; Kubaszewski, Łukasz; Rogala, Piotr; Frankowski, Marcin

    2015-11-01

    Tissues for the study were obtained intraoperatively during hip replacement procedures from 96 patients. In all the cases, the indication for this treatment was primary or secondary degenerative changes in the hip joint. The subject of the study was the head and neck of the femur, resected in situ. Aluminium concentrations measured in femoral head and neck samples from patients aged between 25 and 91 were varied. Statistical methods were applied to determine the variations in relation to the parameters from the background survey. Significant differences in the aluminium content of femoral head samples were observed between patients under and over 60 years of age. Based on the results, it was confirmed that the aluminium accumulates in bones over a lifetime. The study showed that the content of aluminium in the head and neck of the femur depends on the factors such as: type of medicines taken, contact with chemicals at work, differences in body anatomy and sex. The study on the levels of aluminium in bones and the factors affecting its concentration is a valuable source of information for further research on the role of aluminium in bone diseases. Based on the investigations, it was found that the GF-AAS technique is the best analytical tool for routine analysis of aluminium in complex matrix samples. The use of femoral heads in the investigations was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the University of Medical Sciences in Poznań (Poland).

  3. Increased absorption of aluminium from a normal dietary intake in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N B; Clough, A; Bellia, J P; Kim, J Y

    1998-02-15

    Serum aluminium was significantly raised (p dementia including Alzheimers Disease (AD) 0.66 +/- 0.2 (mumol/l mean +/- 1 s.d.) and patients on regular aluminium hydroxide therapy 0.54 +/- 0.17, compared with healthy volunteers 0.21 +/- 0.13, although not as high as in patients with end stage renal failure on regular dialysis 0.88 +/- 0.42. The urine outputs (mumol/l mean +/- 1 s.d.) of aluminium and silicon, respectively, were also significantly increased up to 5-fold in dementia 2.89 +/- 1.78 (n = 23) and 1587 +/- 645 (n = 22) and patients on regular aluminium hydroxide therapy 5.03 +/- 2.08 (n = 8) and 998 +/- 364 (n = 21) compared with healthy volunteers 0.95 +/- 0.82 (n = 84) and 471 +/- 332 (n = 114). The increase in urine aluminium was thus associated with a similarly marked increase in the output of silicon. The increased absorption of aluminium in dementia patients is equivalent to the intestinal loading in Aludrox therapy. Also silicon appears to be important in the renal excretion of the absorbed aluminium. Whether this is a phenomenon related to the elderly or the process of dementia warrants further study.

  4. Determination of local material properties of laser beam welded aluminium-steel and aluminium-titanium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunkel, M.; Hehl, A. von [IWT Stiftung Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik Bremen (Germany); Barr, A.

    2012-04-15

    The combination of different metallic materials, such as aluminium and steel or aluminium and titanium, by firmly bonding via laser beam welding enables the production of customised hybrid lightweight designs with enhanced properties. Both weld geometry and local material behaviour, which are responsible for the final load characteristics of the compound, are influenced by the process parameters during welding. A novel approach of coupling process, microstructure and mechanical simulation, considering the development of weld geometry and local material conditions is intended to deliver a fast and reliable method for evaluating the quasi-static strength of laser beam welded hybrid compounds. Besides the objective to promote a reduction of expensive welding experiments, the developed method can enhance the performance of hybrid structures as well as their lightweight potential for automotive and aircraft applications. The experimental determination of the local mechanical properties as the basis for the regarded simulation approach is an essential part of a running research project. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  6. Development of Modified 304 Stainless Steel Resistant to Stress Corrosion Cracking in Chloride Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This was a feasibility study for a modified 304 steel resistant to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in aqueous environment containing chloride. SCC tests were conducted potentiostaticaly with spot-welded specimens, which had both crevice and residual stress, mainly in 3 % NaCl solution at various temperatures to determine the critical temperature for SCC at and below which the steel would not suffer from SCC. The effects of individual alloying element of silicon, manganese and copper on SCC of 18Cr-14Ni steels which phosphor content is 0.002 % and molybdenum content is 0.01 % were examined. Addition of 1 or 2 % of copper has beneficial effect on resistance to SCC, while increasing silicon or manganese content has no significant effect. Critical temperature of the steel with 0.002 % of phosphor and 2 % of copper is 150 ℃, which is markedly higher than 50 ℃ of 304L steel. However, the beneficial effect of copper is reduced with increasing phosphor content. From practical viewpoint, the modified steel with good SCC resistance should have 0.01 %-0.015 % of phosphor and 0.3 % or more of molybdenum, because it is very difficult to reduce phosphor content below 0.008 % industrially and such molybdenum content is inevitably introduced through cost-saving melting process using return steel. Aluminium is to be added as another alloying element and 3 % of aluminium combined with 2 % of copper has been found to negate the deleterious effects of increased phosphor and molybdenum content. As a candidate steel at this stage, 14Cr-16Ni-0.013P-2Cu-1Al-(0.3-1)Mo steel has critical temperature of 110 ℃.

  7. Aluminium exposure from parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and later health outcomes during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Mary S; Edmonds, Caroline J; Isaacs, Elizabeth; Bishop, Nick J; Lucas, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aluminium is the most common metallic element, but has no known biological role. It accumulates in the body when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal function is impaired, or exposure is high - all of which apply frequently to preterm infants. Recognised clinical manifestations of aluminium toxicity include dementia, anaemia and bone disease. Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are liable to contamination with aluminium, particularly from acidic solutions in glass vials, notably calcium gluconate. When fed parenterally, infants retain >75% of the aluminium, with high serum, urine and tissue levels. Later health effects of neonatal intravenous aluminium exposure were investigated in a randomised trial comparing standard PN solutions with solutions specially sourced for low aluminium content. Preterm infants exposed for >10 d to standard solutions had impaired neurologic development at 18 months. At 13-15 years, subjects randomised to standard PN had lower lumbar spine bone mass; and, in non-randomised analyses, those with neonatal aluminium intake above the median had lower hip bone mass. Given the sizeable number of infants undergoing intensive care and still exposed to aluminium via PN, these findings have contemporary relevance. Until recently, little progress had been made on reducing aluminium exposure, and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations (<5 μg/kg per d) has been impossible in patients <50 kg using available products. Recent advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Authority that calcium gluconate in small volume glass containers should not be used for repeated treatment in children <18 years, including preparation of PN, is an important step towards addressing this problem.

  8. Study of the combustion of aluminium and magnesium particulates: influence of the composition of the gaseous mixture and of pressure; Etude de la combustion de particules d'aluminium et de magnesium: influence de la composition du melange gazeux et de la pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, B.

    2000-07-01

    The combustion of metal particulates has a major interest in the domain of space propulsion. Aluminium is today used as doping material in the solid propellant of Ariane 5 rocket engines. Magnesium represents a possible fuel for propellers allowing a come back from Mars. An electrostatic levitation device has been used to study the combustion in controlled environment of particulates having a size representative of those encountered in propellers. The particulates are ignited with a laser and observed by fast cinematography. The inhibitive property of hydrogen chloride, an important constituent of the propellant atmosphere, on the combustion of aluminium particulates has been evidenced. These results have been compared with those obtained with a kinetic model in gaseous phase. The combustion of magnesium particulates in carbon dioxide has been studied for 53-63 {mu}m and 1-2 mm particulates. It is shown that the ignition of small particulates is controlled by the chemical kinetics and that the limit ignition pressure is reversely proportional to the particulates size. A study on big samples, performed in normal gravity but also in reduced gravity to get rid of the natural convection phenomena, has permitted to show a pulsed combustion regime linked with the presence of heterogenous reactions. The measurement of the combustion durations for the different sizes of particulates has permitted to propose a correlation between these two parameters for the particulate diameters comprised between 50 {mu}m and 2 mm. (J.S.)

  9. Developments in electrode materials and electrolytes for aluminium-air batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, D; Ponce De Leon, Carlos; R.J.K. Wood; Jones, R. L.; Stokes, K.R.; Walsh, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminium-air cells are high-energy density (< 400 W h kg-1), primary batteries first developed in the 1960s. The review shows how the performance of the battery is influenced by the choice of materials, including the type of aluminium alloy, oxygen reduction catalyst and electrolyte type. Two continuing issues with these batteries are (a) the parasitic corrosion of the aluminium, at open-circuit and under discharge, due to the reduction of water on the anode surface and (b) the passive hydro...

  10. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  11. The Major Events of China’s Aluminium Industry in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>The year 2005 is seen as a turning point for China’s aluminium industry with the whole industry making losses leading to the closures, reorganization and acquisitions of the smelters. The macro-adjustment policies of the government on the aluminium industry and the industry’s operating difficulties led to the overall change of the industry, which is reflected by the strengthened position of China’s aluminium industry in the world and China’s influence on the world market is growing with the united

  12. Étude par spectrométrie auger d'alliages aluminium-cuivre liquides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laty, P.; Joud, J. C.; Desré, P.

    1981-03-01

    Surface analysis of liquid aluminium and aluminium-copper alloys have been performed by Auger electron spectroscopy at 775°C. Experiments were carried out, in UHV chamber, on liquid droplets located in graphite crucible heated by a heat pipe. Pure aluminium has been studied in view to estimate surface contamination. For each Al-Cu alloy surface composition is calculated from the Auger spectra. Peak to peak height ratios are deduced from limited extrapolation t zero level contamination. The deduced Al enrichment of the surface is compared with thermodynamical computation based on statistical model or Gibbs' adsorption relation.

  13. Characterization of steam generated anti-corrosive oxide films on Aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in structural and transportation industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further...... of hexavalent chromium is strictly regulated due to its toxic nature and suspected carcinogenicity. So, it is highly imperative to develop other alternatives for chrome conversion coatings. Treatment of aluminium with natural water at elevated temperatures results in the formation of different forms...

  14. Car-Parrinello Simulation of the Aluminium Oxidation: Questioning the Role of 'Hot Adatoms'

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Marius

    2012-01-01

    We present Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of the initial reaction steps leading to an inert oxide layer on aluminium. The mechanism of the reaction of the aluminium surface with single oxygen molecules is analysed. After adsorption at the surface the oxygen molecules dissociate at a femtosecond timescale and the atoms are chemisorbed at the surface at a distance of several angstrom which falsifies earlier STM results. When the aluminium surface is exposed to higher oxygen pressure, a surface layer essentially consisting of threefold coordinated oxygen atoms starts to form.

  15. Influence of Aluminium on Performance of HTPB-based Aluminised PBXs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Prakash

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of aluminised plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs based on aluminium and nitramine explosives using hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene as polymer matrix. The PBXs were processed as per standard procedures. Compositions with different formulations were prepared by varying the percentages of aluminium and RDX and their explosive properties, including velocity of detonation (VOD, peak overpressure, duration, impulse and sensitivity to different types of stimuli, were studied. The experimental and theoretical values of the VOD have been compared. It is observed that about 15 per cent aluminium content in the aluminised PBXs shows the optimum VOD.

  16. Cobalt and Nickel Nanopillars on Aluminium Substrates by Direct Current Electrodeposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A fast and cost-effective technique is applied for fabricating cobalt and nickel nanopillars on aluminium substrates. By applying an electrochemical process, the aluminium oxide barrier layer is removed from the pore bottom tips of nanoporous anodic alumina templates. So, cobalt and nickel nanopillars are fabricated into these templates by DC electrodeposition. The resulting nanostructure remains on the aluminium substrate. In this way, this method could be used to fabricate a wide range of nanostructures which could be integrated in new nanodevices.

  17. Bioavailability and Toxicity of Aluminium to the Freshwater Crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus

    OpenAIRE

    Woodburn, Katie

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium is found in large amounts all over the world but plants and animals have no use for this metal. However, because it is everywhere, aluminium can get into animals and stops cells, tissues and organs from working properly. The aim of this thesis was to look at where aluminium goes when it is eaten by crayfish and whether it causes any damage to body systems such as the digestive system and the nervous system. Crayfish are freshwater crustaceans; they have a hard outer exoskeleton and ...

  18. Dissolved aluminium in the surface microlayer of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narvekar, P.V.; Singbal, S.Y

    -94 85 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Dissolved aluminium in the surface microlayer of the eastern Arabian Sea P.V. Narvekar and S.Y.S. Singbal National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India (Received 5 November 1991...; revision accepted 26 August 1992) ABSTRACT Narvekar, P.V. and Singbal, S.Y.S., 1993. Dissolved aluminium in the surface microlayer of the eastern Arabian Sea. Mar. Chem., 42: 85-94. Measurements of dissolved aluminium (A1) in surface microlayer (SML...

  19. The aluminium content of breast tissue taken from women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Darbre, Philippa; Barr, Lester; Metaxas, George; Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aetiology of breast cancer is multifactorial. While there are known genetic predispositions to the disease it is probable that environmental factors are also involved. Recent research has demonstrated a regionally specific distribution of aluminium in breast tissue mastectomies while other work has suggested mechanisms whereby breast tissue aluminium might contribute towards the aetiology of breast cancer. We have looked to develop microwave digestion combined with a new form of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as a precise, accurate and reproducible method for the measurement of aluminium in breast tissue biopsies. We have used this method to test the thesis that there is a regional distribution of aluminium across the breast in women with breast cancer. Microwave digestion of whole breast tissue samples resulted in clear homogenous digests perfectly suitable for the determination of aluminium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The instrument detection limit for the method was 0.48 μg/L. Method blanks were used to estimate background levels of contamination of 14.80 μg/L. The mean concentration of aluminium across all tissues was 0.39 μg Al/g tissue dry wt. There were no statistically significant regionally specific differences in the content of aluminium. We have developed a robust method for the precise and accurate measurement of aluminium in human breast tissue. There are very few such data currently available in the scientific literature and they will add substantially to our understanding of any putative role of aluminium in breast cancer. While we did not observe any statistically significant differences in aluminium content across the breast it has to be emphasised that herein we measured whole breast tissue and not defatted tissue where such a distribution was previously noted. We are very confident that the method developed herein could now be used to provide accurate and reproducible data on the aluminium content

  20. Anisotropic behaviour law for sheets used in stamping: A comparative study of steel and aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    For a car manufacturer, reducing the weight of vehicles is an obvious aim. Replacing steel by aluminium moves towards that goal. Unfortunately, aluminium's stamping numerical simulation results are not yet as reliable as those of steel. Punch-strength and spring-back phenomena are not correctly described. This study on aluminium validates the behaviour law Hill 48 quadratic yield criterion with both isotropic and kinematic hardening. It is based on the yield surface and on associated experimental tests (uniaxial test, plane tensile test, plane compression and tensile shearing).

  1. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cecchetto, L; Ambat, Rajan; Davenport, A.J.;

    2007-01-01

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin Wlms of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very eVective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines......: • a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, • a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer–metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidiWcation in Wrst steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces....

  2. A feasibility study of the in vivo measurement of aluminium in peripheral bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, S.; Chettle, D.R. (Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Space Research)

    1992-12-01

    In this note the authors discuss the feasibility of constructing a neutron source, using the [sup 3]H([sup 1]H,n)[sup 3] He reaction and the 3MV Dynamitron accelerator in the University of Birmingham, which is suitable for the measurement of aluminium in vivo. The immediate purpose was for the measurement of aluminium in bone, particularly in renal dialysis patients, but another possible application is mentioned in regard to a possible link between raised body stores of aluminium and Alzheimers Disease. (UK).

  3. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  4. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  5. Behaviour of painted aluminium in Ibero-American atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcillo, M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium generally presents good corrosion resistance to the atmosphere. However, unprotected aluminium and aluminium alloys weather outdoors to an ugly grey colour, which deepens to black in industrial atmospheres, and undergo superficial pitting in marine atmospheres, etc. Finishing technologies are applied for their protection and decoration in a wide range of applications. These technologies basically consist of two protection processes: anodizing and painting; the latter going from conventional solvent base paints to modem water-borne, high solids and powder coatings. This paper considers the weathering performance of three paint systems: alkyd, polyurethane and polyester, after more than three years of exposure in a wide spectra of Ibero-American atmospheric conditions. The information reported includes resistance to undercutting corrosion at the scribe, filiform corrosion, fungal attack and change in the physical-chemical properties of the paint surface (loss of gloss, colour changes, chalking, etc..

    El aluminio, en general, presenta una buena resistencia a la corrosión en la atmósfera. Sin embargo, el aluminio sin ninguna protección y las aleaciones de aluminio expuestas a la intemperie envejecen mostrando un color gris, negro en el caso de atmósferas industriales, sufren la formación de picaduras en atmósferas marinas, etc. Para su protección, o a efectos decorativos, se le aplican diferentes procesos de acabado en un amplio rango de aplicaciones. Estos procesos de acabado, básicamente consisten en dos métodos de protección: anodizado y pintado; este último abarca desde pinturas convencionales de base disolvente hasta modernos sistemas base agua, de alto contenido en sólidos o pinturas en polvo. Este trabajo considera el comportamiento de tres sistemas de pinturas: alquídico, poliuretano y poliéster, tras más de tres años de exposición en un amplio espectro de condiciones atmosféricas de Iberoamérica. La

  6. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  7. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  8. Dynamic Electrochemical Measurement of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-02-05

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement, long-term and continuous monitoring is limited due to the inherent drift and the requirement of a stable reference electrode. We utilized the chronopotentiometric approach to minimize drift and avoid the use of a conventional reference electrode. A galvanostatic pulse is applied to an Ag/AgCl electrode which initiates a faradic reaction depleting the Cl- ions near the electrode surface. The transition time, which is the time to completely deplete the ions near the electrode surface, is a function of the ion concentration, given by the Nernst equation. The square root of the transition time is in linear relation to the chloride ion concentration. Drift of the response over two weeks is negligible (59 µM/day) when measuring 1 mM [Cl-]using a current pulse of 10 Am(-2). This is a dynamic measurement where the moment of transition time determines the response and thus is independent of the absolute potential. Any metal wire can be used as a pseudo-reference electrode, making this approach feasible for long-term measurement inside concrete structures.

  9. Positron annihilation observations of shot peened aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of two aluminium alloys, 7075 and 2024, were used to examine the damage caused by surface shot peening. The 7075 alloy was in the T6 condition, which significs solution heat treatment and artificial aging to maximum hardness. The 2024 alloy was in the T3 condition, which signifies solution heat treatment followed by cold work. 2024 - T3 is quite sensitive to positron measurements of damage when compared with 7075 - T6 alloy. The main reason for the intensitivity of the 7075 - T6 to positron measurements is very likely the presence of a fully developed state of precipitation hardening as denoted by the T6 coding. The cold work used in the T3 condition did not bring the 2024 - T3 alloy above the upper limit of detectability for positron trapping prior to peening

  10. Natural gas anodes for aluminium electrolysis in molten fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarberg, Geir Martin; Khalaghi, Babak; Mokkelbost, Tommy

    2016-08-15

    Industrial primary production of aluminium has been developed and improved over more than 100 years. The molten salt electrolysis process is still suffering from low energy efficiency and considerable emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and PFC). A new concept has been suggested where methane is supplied through the anode so that the CO2 emissions may be reduced significantly, the PFC emissions may be eliminated and the energy consumption may decrease significantly. Porous carbon anodes made from different graphite grades were studied in controlled laboratory experiments. The anode potential, the anode carbon consumption and the level of HF gas above the electrolyte were measured during electrolysis. In some cases it was found that the methane oxidation was effectively participating in the anode process. PMID:27210046

  11. Reconsideration of Anelastic Relaxation Peaks in Pure Aluminium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Li-Yan; SHUI Jia-Peng; CAI Bin; CUI Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ The temperature dependence of internal friction (T- tan (ψ) curves) in pure aluminium (Al) is measured at sixteen different frequencies. Based on T - tan (ψ) curves, the frequency dependence of internal friction (f - tan (ψ) curves)is also obtained by the interpolation method. An internal friction peak is observed in both the T - tan (ψ) curves and the f - tan (ψ) curves. The activation energy of the peak in the f - tan (ψ) curves is found to be 2.08 ± 0.02 eV and compared to the value of 1.60 ± 0.04 e V in the T - tan (ψ) curves. It is suggested that the change of relaxation strength with temperature should be considered when one calculates the activation energy of the peak in T- tan (ψ)curves.

  12. Radio frequency plasma nitriding of aluminium at higher power levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitriding of aluminium 2011 using a radio frequency plasma at higher power levels (500 and 700 W) and lower substrate temperature (500 deg. C) resulted in higher AlN/Al2O3 ratios than obtained at 100 W and 575 deg. C. AlN/Al2O3 ratios derived from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (and corroborated by heavy ion elastic recoil time of flight spectrometry) for treatments preformed at 100 (575 deg. C), 500 (500 deg. C) and 700 W (500 deg. C) were 1.0, 1.5 and 3.3, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that plasma nitrided surfaces obtained at higher power levels exhibited much finer nodular morphology than obtained at 100 W

  13. Process evaluation for treatment of aluminium bearing declad waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declad waste generated by the process of chemical decladding of Al-cladded uranium metal fuel is characterized by highly alkaline, high Al bearing intermediate level waste. It was found that the process developed and adopted in India for plant scale treatment of alkaline intermediate level waste (ILW) is unsuitable for treatment of declad waste. This is mainly due to its exotic characteristics, notably substantial amounts of aluminium in the declad waste. As part of development of treatment scheme for this waste, 137Cs removal by RFPR has been demonstrated earlier and the present paper reports the results of further processing of the Cs-lean effluent. The waste simulated with respect to the major chemical constituents of stored Al-bearing alkaline ILW after 137Cs and 90Sr removal by ion exchange, is used in this study

  14. Calculation of Specific Heat for Aluminium Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yao; SONG Qing-Lin; XIA Shan-Hong

    2005-01-01

    @@ We employ Prasher's non-dimensional form to analyse the size effects on specific heat of Al thin films. Compared the calculation results of pure aluminium film with the experimental data, it is found that the reduction of phonon states is not the main reason of the size effect on the specific heat Al thin films with thickness from 10hm to 370nm. However, the Al thin film in air usually has an oxidation layer and the specific heat of the layer is smaller than Al. By including the contribution of the oxidation layer to the thin-film specific heat, the calculation results are much closer to the experimental data. This may be a possible reason of the size effects on specific heat of Al thin films.

  15. About resonance frequencies of aluminium alloy bending vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ultrasonic method resonance frequencies of bending vibrations and elastic moduli of aluminium alloy SAV-1 samples are investigated. On the base of spectra of bending vibrations in low-frequency range data on values of a number of elastic properties are obtained as well as dispersion characteristics of main moduli for number of frequencies before and after ionizing irradiation (60Co, 5x103-1.6x107 Gy) of samples. Considerable stability of sample elastic moduli during common storage conditions and nonlinear dose dependence of these parameters within wide range of absorbed doses are pointed out. Possible causes of revealed effects of radiation modification of elastic properties of SAV-1 alloy are analyzed

  16. Neutron irradiation influence on magnesium aluminium spinel inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvortsova, V.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Ulmanis, U.

    2002-05-01

    Grown by the Verneuil method MgO · nAl 2O 3 single crystals and natural spinel crystal have been studied using X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectra. The fast neutron irradiation of magnesium aluminium spinel leads to the lattice parameter decrease. The bond lengths of Mg-O and Al-O vary with the u-parameter and the lattice parameter. On the other hand, the bond lengths are related with the inversion parameter. Using changes of the lattice parameter during irradiation we have calculated the inversion parameter, which is 15-20%. In the luminescence spectra, the fast neutron radiation (fluence 10 16 cm -2) produces an increase in the intensity ratio of the N- to R-lines by 5-20%. Taking into account that intensity of the N-lines is closely associated with the inversion parameter, it is possible to state that the neutron irradiation causes the increasing of the spinel inversion.

  17. Neutron irradiation influence on magnesium aluminium spinel inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grown by the Verneuil method MgO · nAl2O3 single crystals and natural spinel crystal have been studied using X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectra. The fast neutron irradiation of magnesium aluminium spinel leads to the lattice parameter decrease. The bond lengths of Mg-O and Al-O vary with the u-parameter and the lattice parameter. On the other hand, the bond lengths are related with the inversion parameter. Using changes of the lattice parameter during irradiation we have calculated the inversion parameter, which is 15-20%. In the luminescence spectra, the fast neutron radiation (fluence 1016 cm-2) produces an increase in the intensity ratio of the N- to R-lines by 5-20%. Taking into account that intensity of the N-lines is closely associated with the inversion parameter, it is possible to state that the neutron irradiation causes the increasing of the spinel inversion

  18. Doped aluminium based spinels synthesized by a soft chemistry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural and optical properties of (Co0.01Zn0.99)Al2O4 and Zn(Al1.99Ln0.01)O4 (where Ln(III) = Eu(III), Tb(III)) spinels obtained by a variant of the complexation method-tartarate route were studied. The tartarate precursors have been characterized by IR, UV-vis and luminescence spectroscopy. The doped aluminium based spinels have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transsmision electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and luminescence spectroscopy. Pure spinel nanometer powders were obtained. Under excitation at 380 nm the nanoparticles exhibits strong luminescence corresponding to 5D0 → 7F2 transition of Eu3+ ions and respectively, to 5D4 → 7Fj (j = 3, 4, 5, 6) transition of Tb3+ ions. No blue emission from the 5D3 state were observed.

  19. An unconventional set-up for fluxless brazing of aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Loos, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In order to successfully braze aluminium alloy assemblies without the use of oxide-removing fluxes, an evironment with very low contaminant level is mandatory. This is mostly achieved by using a vacuum furnace. Brazing under inert gas of sufficient purity is also possible. The method reported upon here makes use of a stainless steel bag which can enter a traditional air furnace. The bag is evacuated, giving a well distributed mechanical pressure on the parts to join. The intrinsic handicap of poor vacuum is compensated by regular inert gas flushing, even at high temperatures. The set-up works rather well, and the idea is believed to yield a valuable strategic and economic option, for the realization of special equipment as well as for prototyping work. We intend to use the principle for the CMS Preshower cooling screens.

  20. High Temperature Strength of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauer, A.H.; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    constant (except for the material with the lowest oxide content). The high temperature values of the modulus-corrected yield stresses are approximately two-thirds of the low temperature value. During high temperature creep, there is a definite indication of a threshold stress. This threshold stress......The tensile flow stress of coarse-grained dispersion strengthened Al-Al2O3 materials were measured as a function of temperature (77–873 K) and volume fraction (0.19-0.92 vol.%) of aluminium oxide. For the same material, the creep strength was determined as a function of temperature in the range 573......–873 K. The modulus-corrected yield stress (0.01 offset) is found to be temperature independent at low temperature (195–472 K). Between 473 and 573 K, the yield stress starts to decrease with increasing temperature. At high temperatures (573–873 K), the modulus-corrected yield stress is approximately...