WorldWideScience

Sample records for alumina-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces

  1. Alumina-on-Polyethylene Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yup Lee; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2010-02-11

    The long-term durability of polyethylene lining total hip arthroplasty (THA) mainly depends on periprosthetic osteolysis due to wear particles, especially in young active patients. In hip simulator study, reports revealed significant wear reduction of the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene articulation of THA compared with metal-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces. However, medium to long-term clinical studies of THA using the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene are few and the reported wear rate of this articulation is variable. We reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of ceramicon- polyethylene articulation in THA, hip simulator study and retrieval study for polyethylene wear, in vivo clinical results of THA using alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces in the literature, and new trial alumina ceramic-onhighly cross linked polyethylene bearing surfaces.

  2. Alumina-on-Polyethylene Bearing Surfaces in Total Hip Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Yup Lee; Kim, Shin-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    The long-term durability of polyethylene lining total hip arthroplasty (THA) mainly depends on periprosthetic osteolysis due to wear particles, especially in young active patients. In hip simulator study, reports revealed significant wear reduction of the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene articulation of THA compared with metal-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces. However, medium to long-term clinical studies of THA using the alumina ceramic-on-polyethylene are few and the reported wear rate of th...

  3. Effect of Surface Roughness on Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, B. C.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical analysis on the performance of hydrodynamic oil bearings is made considering surface roughness effect. The hydrodynamic as well as asperity contact load is found. The contact pressure was calculated with the assumption that the surface height distribution was Gaussian. The average Reynolds equation of partially lubricated surface was used to calculate hydrodynamic load. An analytical expression for average gap was found and was introduced to modify the average Reynolds equation. The resulting boundary value problem was then solved numerically by finite difference methods using the method of successive over relaxation. The pressure distribution and hydrodynamic load capacity of plane slider and journal bearings were calculated for various design data. The effects of attitude and roughness of surface on the bearing performance were shown. The results are compared with similar available solution of rough surface bearings. It is shown that: (1) the contribution of contact load is not significant; and (2) the hydrodynamic and contact load increase with surface roughness.

  4. Hydrodynamic air lubricated compliant surface bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine. 1: Journal bearing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitto, D.; Mccormick, J.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    A 38.1 mm (1.5 inch) diameter Hydresil Compliant Surface Air Lubricated Journal Bearing was designed and tested to obtain bearing performance characteristics at both room temperature and 315 C (600 F). Testing was performed at various speeds up to 60,000 rpm with varying loads. Rotating sensors provided an opportunity to examine the film characteristics of the compliant surface bearing. In addition to providing minimum film thickness values and profiles, many other insights into bearing operation were gained such as the influence of bearing fabrication accuracy and the influence of smooth foil deflection between the bumps.

  5. The current state of bearing surfaces in total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpura, A; Kendoff, D; Board, T N

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed the literature on the currently available choices of bearing surface in total hip replacement (THR). We present a detailed description of the properties of articulating surfaces review the understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of existing bearing couples. Recent technological developments in the field of polyethylene and ceramics have altered the risk of fracture and the rate of wear, although the use of metal-on-metal bearings has largely fallen out of favour, owing to concerns about reactions to metal debris. As expected, all bearing surface combinations have advantages and disadvantages. A patient-based approach is recommended, balancing the risks of different options against an individual's functional demands.

  6. Static Performance of Surface Textured Magnetorheological Fluid Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bompos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of journal bearings with artificial texturing on the bearing surface show potential benefits in certain cases. These benefits are usually focused on a specific operating area of the bearing, whereas under certain operating conditions the performance of the bearing is deteriorating due to the surface texturing. Gaining control over the viscosity of the lubricant may become a useful tool in order to take advantage of the surface texturing in a wider range of loads and journal velocities. One way to achieve this control is the use of magnetorheological fluid journal bearings. Magnetorheological fluids are solutions of iron based paramagnetic particles in conventional lubricant. Under the influence of an external magnetic field, these particles form chains, they hinder the flow of the lubricant and they ultimately alter its apparent viscosity. In this work the two techniques are combined in order to optimize the behaviour of the journal bearing in as much a variety of operating conditions as possible. Different shapes applied on the surface texturing will be examined.

  7. Effect of the Surface Texture on Friction Thrust Bearing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez-Bustamante F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a theoretical model which stablishes relations among the operational conditions of a thrust bearing, its conditioned microtopography and the friction coeficient when it works under Hydrodynamic Lubrication conditions. Among the most outstanding results obtained from an exploration made with the model are: building of a map where the performance of these components is characterized and the obtention of some relations among several adimentional groups that show the possiblility to enhance the hydrodynamic lubrication regime for this sort of bearings by artificial conditioning of their surfaces.

  8. Designing prosthetic knee joints with bio-inspired bearing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Mingfeng; Chyr, Anthony; Sanders, Anthony P; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2014-09-01

    It has long been known that articular cartilage exhibits a surface microtexture with shallow indentations. By contrast, prosthetic joints consist of ultra-smooth bearing surfaces, the longevity of which does not reach that of natural cartilage. We show that adding a microtexture to the smooth femoral component of a prosthetic knee joint reduces friction by increasing the lubricant film thickness between the bearing surfaces of the knee. We have implemented an elastohydrodynamic lubrication model to optimize the geometry of the microtexture, while taking into account the deformation of the polyethylene tibial insert. We have manufactured several microtexture designs on a surrogate femoral component, and experimentally demonstrate that the microtexture reduces friction between the surrogate femoral component and tibial insert.

  9. Surface analyses of fluoroelastomer bearings exposed to geothermal environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T. [Energy Resources Division, Energy Science and Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 11973 Upton, NY (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The surfaces of fluoroelastomers, used in bearings in the down-hole pumps which extract the energy resource from geothermal brine reservoirs at 150C, are hydrothermally oxidized by the attack of hot brine. In the inductive stage of the oxidation pathway, the incorporation of oxygen into the elastomers led to the scission and breakage of C-F and C-C bonds in the polyfluorocarbon chain structure, and was followed by the formation of polyfluorocarbony derivatives as the molecular fragments. Further oxidation resulted in the substitution of carbonyl groups in the derivative by carboxylic acid groups. Concurrently, the functional carboxylic acid groups reacted with the divalent Fe and Ca cations in the geothermal brine and the bearing to form Fe- and Ca-bridged polyfluorocarboxyl complexes. This sequence of fluorocarbon -> fluorocarbonyl -> fluorocarboxylic acid -> fluorocarboxylate complexes substitutive transition caused by oxidation was detrimental to the thermal stability of fluoroelastomers, lowering the onset of the thermal decomposition temperature by 120C.

  10. Surface modification of titanium for load-bearing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Roy, Mangal; Das, Kakoli; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2009-12-01

    Titanium and its alloys are extensively used in load-bearing metallic devices. They are bioinert material and, therefore, get encapsulated after implantation into the living body by a fibrous tissue that isolates them from the surrounding tissues. Here we report modification of titanium surface using bioactive tricalcium phosphates (TCP) and nanoscale TiO2 to enhance cell-materials interaction. We have introduced bioactivity in Ti using laser-assisted coating of TCP and by anodization to grow surface TiO2 at room temperature using a mixed aqueous solution of sodium fluoride, citric acid and sulfuric acid as electrolyte. TCP coating showed a columnar Ti grains at the substrate side of the coating and transitioned to an equiaxed grains at the outside. Coating hardness increased from 882 +/- 67 to 1029 +/- 112 Hv as the volume fraction of TCP increased in the coating. For TiO2 nanotubes, microscopic analysis showed tubes of 50 nm in diameter with wall thickness of 15 nm and typical length between 200 nm and 1 micron based on anodization times. Effects of TCP and nanoscale TiO2 coating on bone cell-material interaction were examined by culturing osteoprecursor cells (OPC1) on coated surfaces. Antibacterial activity analysis using metallic Ag via electrodeposition showed over 99% antibacterial activity against the growth of colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  11. Thrust Porous Bearing with Rough Surfaces Lubricated by a Rotem-Shinnar Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicka Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of both bearing surfaces roughness and porosity of one bearing surface on the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity of a thrust bearing surfaces is discussed. The equations of motion of a pseudo-plastic fluid of Rotem-Shinnar, are used to derive the Reynolds equation. After general considerations on the flow in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer using the Morgan-Cameron approximation and Christensen theory of hydrodynamic lubrication the modified Reynolds equation is obtained. The analytical solutions of this equation for the cases of squeeze film bearing and externally pressurized bearing are presented. As a result one obtains the formulae expressing pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity. Thrust radial bearing with squeezed film is considered as a numerical example.

  12. Static properties of hydrostatic thrust gas bearings with curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehsteiner, F. H.; Cannon, R. H., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The classical treatment of circular, hydrostatic, orifice-regulated thrust gas bearings, in which perfectly plane bearing plates are assumed, is extended to include axisymmetric, but otherwise arbitrary, plate profiles. Plate curvature has a strong influence on bearing load capability, static stiffness, tilting stiffness, and side force per unit misalignment angle. By a suitable combination of gas inlet impedance and concave plate profile, the static stiffness can be made almost constant over a wide load range, and to remain positive at the closure load. Extensive measurements performed with convex and concave plates agree with theory to within the experimental error throughout and demonstrate the practical feasibility of using curved plates.

  13. Vibration of a rotating shaft on hydrodynamic bearings: multi-scales surface effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebufa, Jocelyn

    2016-01-01

    The hydrodynamic bearing provides good damping properties in rotating machineries. However, the performances of rotor-bearings systems are highly impacted by nonlinear effects that are difficult to analyze. The rotor dynamics prediction requires advanced models for the flow in the bearings. The surface of the bearings seems to have a strong impact on the lubricant flow, acting on the static and dynamic properties of the rotating parts. This study aims to enhance the simulation of the bearings' surface state effect on the motion of the rotating shaft. The flexible shaft interacts with textured hydrodynamic bearings. Multi-scales homogenization is used in a multi-physics algorithm in order to describe the fluid-structure interaction. Different models are used to account for the cavitation phenomenon in the bearings. Nonlinear harmonic methods allow efficient parametric studies of periodic solutions as well as their stability. Moreover, a test rig has been designed to compare predictions to real measurements. Several textured shaft samples modified with femto-seconds LASER surface texturing are tested. In most cases the experimental study showed similar results than the simulation. Enhancements of the vibration behaviors of the rotor-bearing system have been revealed for certain texturing patterns. The self-excited vibration, also known as 'oil whirl' phenomenon, is stabilized on a wide rotating frequency range. However, the simulation tool does not predict well the enhancements that are observed. Vortices in surface texturing patterns have been revealed numerically with Navier-Stokes equation resolution. These results are opposed to the classical lubrication hypothesis. It is also a possible explanation of the enhancements that are experimentally measured with textured bearings. (author) [fr

  14. Are Trends in Total Hip Arthroplasty Bearing Surface Continuing to Change? 2007-2015 Usage in a Large Database Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Nicholas A; Burnett, Robert A; DeMik, David E; Gao, Yubo; Liu, Steve S; Callaghan, John J

    2017-12-01

    Bearing surface issues related to trunnionosis or metal-on-metal (MoM) articulations have likely impacted recent trends in bearing surface choice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate trends in total hip arthroplasty (THA) bearing surface use, including 2015 data, with respect to the date of operation and patient demographics. The Humana dataset was reviewed from 2007 through 2015 to analyze bearing surface usage in primary THA. Four bearing surface types were identified by International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision codes and trended throughout the years: metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), and MoM. Prevalence was analyzed as a function of age and sex. Of the 28,504 primary THA procedures, the most commonly used bearing was MoP (46.1%), followed by CoP (33.2%), MoM (17.1%), and ceramic-on-ceramic (3.6%). The use of CoP bearings significantly increased from 6.4% in 2007 to 52.0% in 2015, while MoM bearings decreased during this period. MoP bearings decreased over 2012-2015 (P bearings increased with a transition occurring at 65-69 years of age. Women were more likely to receive MoP bearings (odds ratio [OR] 1.2), while men were more likely to receive MoM and CoP bearings (OR 1.1). Multivariate logistic regression showed age to be an independent predictor of bearing surface choice with patients 65 and older more likely to receive MoP bearings (OR 3.2). Bearing surface choice in primary THA has changed tremendously from 2007 to 2015. MoM bearing use has decreased as a result of adverse effects. Age continues to remain a significant factor in bearing surface choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  16. Deposition of Coatings for Raising the Wear Resistance of Friction Surfaces of Spherical Sliding Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlenko, A. O.; Davydov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The process of finishing plasma hardening with deposition of a multilayer amorphous coating of the Si - O - C - N system is considered as applied to hardening of the friction surfaces of spherical sliding bearings. The microrelief, the submicrorelief, and the tribological characteristics of the deposited wear-resistant antifriction amorphous coating, which are responsible for the elevated wear resistance of spherical sliding bearings, are investigated.

  17. Groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake, Minnesota, through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Bode, Jenifer A.; O'Grady, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the White Bear Lake Conservation District, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and other State, county, municipal, and regional planning agencies, watershed organizations, and private organizations, conducted a study to characterize groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake through 2011. During 2010 and 2011, White Bear Lake and other lakes in the northeastern part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area were at historically low levels. Previous periods of lower water levels in White Bear Lake correlate with periods of lower precipitation; however, recent urban expansion and increased pumping from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer have raised the question of whether a decline in precipitation is the primary cause for the recent water-level decline in White Bear Lake. Understanding and quantifying the amount of groundwater inflow to a lake and water discharge from a lake to aquifers is commonly difficult but is important in the management of lake levels. Three methods were used in the study to assess groundwater and surface-water interactions on White Bear Lake: (1) a historical assessment (1978-2011) of levels in White Bear Lake, local groundwater levels, and their relation to historical precipitation and groundwater withdrawals in the White Bear Lake area; (2) recent (2010-11) hydrologic and water-quality data collected from White Bear Lake, other lakes, and wells; and (3) water-balance assessments for White Bear Lake in March and August 2011. An analysis of covariance between average annual lake-level change and annual precipitation indicated the relation between the two variables was significantly different from 2003 through 2011 compared with 1978 through 2002, requiring an average of 4 more inches of precipitation per year to maintain the lake level. This shift in the linear relation between annual lake-level change and annual precipitation

  18. The next generation of acetabular shell design and bearing surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Robert B; McCalden, Richard W; Naudie, Douglas; Charron, Kory D J; Yuan, Xunhua; Holdsworth, David W

    2008-12-01

    The R3 Acetabular component represents the next generation of acetabular shell with an enhanced porous ingrowth surface (StikTite, Smith & Nephew, Memphis, Tenn) to meet the needs of both primary and revision hip arthroplasty; an optimized locking mechanism; and the ability to accomodate polyethylene, metal, or ceramic liners. This prospective clinical study reports on the safety and efficacy of the new StikTite porous ingrowth surface using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). StikTite provides a superior "sctratch-fit" due to its greater coefficient of friction and less micromotion using RSA measurements.

  19. Total Hip Arthroplasty Bearing Surface Trends in the United States From 2007 to 2014: The Rise of Ceramic on Polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Nathanael D; Sivasundaram, Lakshmanan; Stefl, Michael D; Kang, Hyunwoo Paco; Basler, Eric T; Lieberman, Jay R

    2018-01-09

    Wear of the bearing surface is a critical element in determining the longevity of a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Over the past decade, concerns related to modern metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings and corrosion at the femoral head-neck interface have influenced surgeon selection of bearing surfaces. The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in THA bearing surface selection from 2007 through 2014 using a large national database. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to extract bearing surface data from patients who underwent a primary THA between 2007 and 2014. Patients were grouped by bearing surface type: metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), MoM, and ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings. Descriptive statistics were employed to describe trends. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify differences between bearing surface groups. During the study period, 2,460,640 THA discharges were identified, of which 1,059,825 (43.1%) had bearing surface data. A total of 496,713 (46.9%) MoP, 307,907 (29.1%) CoP, 210,381 (19.9%) MoM, and 44,823 (4.2%) CoC cases were identified. MoM utilization peaked in 2008 representing 40.1% of THAs implanted that year and steadily declined to 4.0% in 2014. From 2007 to 2014, the use of CoP bearing surfaces increased from 11.1% of cases in 2007 to 50.8% of cases in 2014. In 2014, CoP utilization surpassed MoP which represented 42.1% of bearing surfaces that year. During the study period, MoM bearing surfaces decreased precipitously, while CoP surpassed MoP as the most popular bearing surface used in a THA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cement-base bearing pads mortar for connections in the precast concrete: study of surface roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. El Debs

    Full Text Available Bearing pads are used in precast concrete connections to avoid concentrated stresses in the contact area between the precast elements. In the present research, the bearing pads are Portland cement mortar with styrene-butadiene latex (SB, lightweight aggregate (expanded vermiculite-term and short fibers (polypropylene, glass and PVA, in order to obtain a material with low modulus of elasticity and high tenacity, compared with normal Portland cement mortar. The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of surface roughness on the pads and test other types of polypropylene fibers. Tests were carried out to characterize the composite and test on bearing pads. Characterization tests show compressive strength of 41MPa and modulus of elasticity of 12.8GPa. The bearing pads tests present 30% reduction of stiffness in relation to a reference mortar. The bearing pads with roughness on both sides present a reduction up to 30% in stiffness and an increase in accumulated deformation of more than 120%, regarding bearing pads with both sides smooth.

  1. The Ultimate Pile Bearing Capacity from Conventional and Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizah Bawadi, Nor; Anuar, Shamilah; Rahim, Mustaqqim A.; Mansor, A. Faizal

    2018-03-01

    A conventional and seismic method for determining the ultimate pile bearing capacity was proposed and compared. The Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) method is one of the non-destructive seismic techniques that do not require drilling and sampling of soils, was used in the determination of shear wave velocity (Vs) and damping (D) profile of soil. The soil strength was found to be directly proportional to the Vs and its value has been successfully applied to obtain shallow bearing capacity empirically. A method is proposed in this study to determine the pile bearing capacity using Vs and D measurements for the design of pile and also as an alternative method to verify the bearing capacity from the other conventional methods of evaluation. The objectives of this study are to determine Vs and D profile through frequency response data from SASW measurements and to compare pile bearing capacities obtained from the method carried out and conventional methods. All SASW test arrays were conducted near the borehole and location of conventional pile load tests. In obtaining skin and end bearing pile resistance, the Hardin and Drnevich equation has been used with reference strains obtained from the method proposed by Abbiss. Back analysis results of pile bearing capacities from SASW were found to be 18981 kN and 4947 kN compared to 18014 kN and 4633 kN of IPLT with differences of 5% and 6% for Damansara and Kuala Lumpur test sites, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the seismic method proposed in this study has the potential to be used in estimating the pile bearing capacity.

  2. Sub-surface Fatigue Crack Growth at Alumina Inclusions in AISI 52100 Roller Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sub-surface fatigue crack growth at non metallic inclusions is studied in AISI 52100 bearing steel under typical rolling contact loads. A first 2D plane strain finite element analysis is carried out to compute the stress history in the innner race at a characteristic depth, where the Dang Van...

  3. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants : clinical review

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    A.S. Shakespeare

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  4. Influence of Conditioned Surface Textures on Plain Journal Bearing Performance Working on HL Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vélez-Restrepo J.M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As an answer to the need for reducing friction losses on bearings, dynamic seals, piston rings, cutting tools and others, a lot of work has been dedicated to mechanical systems study whose surfaces have been textured in a controlled way. Theoretical models and experimental results have shown improvements on the tribological performance of these systems regarding untextured systems, working under the same conditions. This paper presents a numerical model for getting relationships among the operational conditions (load, speed, and dynamic viscosity, the minimum lubricate film thickness, the friction coefficient and the conditioned micro-topography of a plain sliding bearing working under a hydrodynamic regime. Moreover, regarding other similar works the constructed model allows studying the combined effect of the micro-wedges that work as micro-bearings, and the typical convergent macro-wedge of these study elements.

  5. Journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  6. NEW METHOD FOR ACTIVE SURFACES QUALITY INSPECTION FOR HIGH DIMENSIONS BEARINGS

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    BRAUN Barbu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a stage of an ample research on high quality control for different type of large dimension bearings, with application in wind turbines for electrical energy production. There is presented a new and efficient method for bearing’s active surfaces quality control, in terms of roughness, to ensure a good and safety functioning and a long life of these. The research involved the use of a powerful digital microscope for surface analysis followed by an assisted by PC algorithm for results obtaining in terms of roughness values. It has been observed that the proposed analyzing method could in the future to be successfully applied for a very large range of bearings, different dimensions and applications.

  7. Quality of surface water in the Bear River basin, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Price, Don

    1972-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, began a reconnaissance in 1967 to obtain essential water-quality information for the Bear River basin. The reconnaissance was directed toward defining the chemical quality of the basin’s surface waters, including suitability for specific uses, geology, and general basin hydrology. Emphasis was given to those areas where water-development projects are proposed or being considered.

  8. Bearing splitting and near-surface source ranging in the direct zone of deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Nan; Zhou, Shi-Hong; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ren-He

    2016-12-01

    Sound multipath propagation is very important for target localization and identification in different acoustical zones of deep water. In order to distinguish the multipath characteristics in deep water, the Northwest Pacific Acoustic Experiment was conducted in 2015. A low-frequency horizontal line array towed at the depth of around 150 m on a receiving ship was used to receive the noise radiated by the source ship. During this experiment, a bearing-splitting phenomenon in the direct zone was observed through conventional beamforming of the horizontal line array within the frequency band 160 Hz-360 Hz. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained based on ray theory. In principle, the received signal in the direct zone of deep water arrives from two general paths including a direct one and bottom bounced one, which vary considerably in arrival angles. The split bearings correspond to the contributions of these two paths. The bearing-splitting phenomenon is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the bearing-time records and experimental results, and they are well consistent with each other. Then a near-surface source ranging approach based on the arrival angles of direct path and bottom bounced path in the direct zone is presented as an application of bearing splitting and is verified by experimental results. Finally, the applicability of the proposed ranging approach for an underwater source within several hundred meters in depth in the direct zone is also analyzed and demonstrated by simulations. Project supported by the Program of One Hundred Talented People of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 41561144006).

  9. Contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication in a novel metal-on-metal hip implant with an aspherical bearing surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingen; Gao, Leiming; Liu, Feng; Yang, Peiran; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-22

    Diameter and diametral clearance of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip implants and structural supports have been recognised as key factors to reduce the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures and improve lubrication performance. On the other hand, application of aspherical bearing surfaces can also significantly affect the contact mechanics and lubrication performance by changing the radius of the curvature of a bearing surface and consequently improving the conformity between the head and the cup. In this study, a novel metal-on-metal hip implant employing a specific aspherical bearing surface, Alpharabola, as the acetabular surface was investigated for both contact mechanics and elastohydrodynamic lubrication under steady-state conditions. When compared with conventional spherical bearing surfaces, a more uniform pressure distribution and a thicker lubricant film thickness within the loaded conjunction were predicted for this novel Alpharabola hip implant. The effects of the geometric parameters of this novel acetabular surface on the pressure distribution and lubricant thickness were investigated. A significant increase in the predicted lubricant film thickness and a significant decrease in the dry contact and hydrodynamic pressures were found with appropriate combinations of these geometric parameters, compared with the spherical bearing surface. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface Modification Of The High Temperature Porous Sliding Bearings With Solid Lubricant Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiśniewska-Weinert H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A surface modification of stainless steel bearing sleeves is developed to improve the tribology characteristics at high temperature. Solid lubricant nano- and microparticles are applied for this purpose. To create the quasi-hydrodynamic lubrication regimes, the solid lubricant powder layer is made by developed pressure impregnation technique. Porous sliding bearing sleeve prototypes were made by powder metallurgy technique. The purpose of the paper is to define the friction and wear characteristics of the sleeves and to determine the influence of sealing of the sliding interface on these characteristics. It is found that application of WS2 sold lubricant nano- and micro-particles and preservation of a particle leakage out of interface allows to achieve at the high temperature the friction coefficients comparable to those at ambient temperature.

  11. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel – Hardening effects and white etching zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buling, Anna, E-mail: a.buling@hs-osnabrueck.de [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany); Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Laser surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 is performed. • Microstructural changes of the surface are examined by light microscopy and SEM. • Topographical changes are observed using white light interferometry. • Micro-hardness testing show the existence of very hard white etching zones (WEZ). • WEZ are attributed to near-surface reaustenitization and rapid quenching. • Dark etching zones (DEZ) are found at the laser path edges after laser pretreatment. - Abstract: In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1–1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  12. Magnetic Bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Anbuselvan. T; Vinothkumar. K; Sai Vikash. M

    2013-01-01

    The use of bearings is essential to all types of machines, especially in marine aspects they provide the function of supporting heavier component in a desired position. These bearings have contact with the rotating part and causes surface wear which can be controlled by lubrication. Researches have raised the standards of performance for rotating equipment by providing robust, cost effective, easy to implement magnetic bearing solutions. Use of magnetic bearings in ships can be more advantag...

  13. THE STUDY OF THE SURFACE QUALITY OF THE THIN WALL BEARING UNITS TO ROLLS ROLLER SEATS PIPE CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michalik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of surface roughness of thin-walled houses bearing rollers for roller mills. Size and shape of the rear end housing was designed in order to measure the surface roughness of the inner cylindrical bearing surface with a wall thickness of 4, 5 and 6 mm. For comparison roughness was measured and a wall thickness of 26 mm. Welded housing and the base plate is clamped in the machine vice jaw of a width of 150 mm. Material components bearing small house has been fine-grain weldable steel bearing S355. Tool for finishing the hole with a diameter of 40 mm was used with a diameter of 32 mm with three cutting blades SDXT09M405R MM. Spindle speed was 1350 rev / min. Tool feed speed was 850 mm / min. The surface roughness was measured with a Mitutoyo SJ 400th.

  14. PECULIARITIES OF ASSIGNMENT OF ROLLING BEARING MOUNTING AND PARAMETERS OF GEOMETRIC ACCURACY OF MOUNTING SURFACES OF SHAFTS AND FRAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamenko Yu. І.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The standards and methods concerning assignment of rolling bearing fit with shafts and frames via example of bearing 6-208 are analyzed. We set certain differences of recommendations according to GOST 3325-85, "Rolling bearings. Tolerance zones and technical requirements to mounting surfaces of shafts and frames. Attachment" and by reference of rolling bearing manufacturers. The following factors should be taken into consideration when assigning the mounting with the tension the internal ring of the bearing with shaft and mounting with a gap in the outer ring with a housing bore. The methods of achieving accuracy of mounting surfaces of shafts and frames via form tolerance assignment: roundness tolerance, profile of longitudinal cut, cross section, cylindricity and others. It is possible to limit the bearing rings in different ways, for example appointing the cylindrical mounting surfaces and bead end surfaces the appropriate tolerances, namely: coaxiality tolerance or full radial beat of mounting surfaces, and also perpendicularity tolerance, butt beats and full butt beats of mounting end surfaces. We suggest to expand methods of achieving the accuracy of shafts and frames depending on seriation of production and production operations metrology support.

  15. Self-assembled artificial viral capsids bearing coiled-coils at the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Seiya; Matsuura, Kazunori

    2017-06-14

    In order to construct artificial viral capsids bearing complementary dimeric coiled-coils on the surface, a β-annulus peptide bearing a coiled-coil forming sequence at the C-terminus (β-annulus-coiled-coil-B) was synthesized by a native chemical ligation of a β-annulus-SBn peptide with a Cys-containing coiled-coil-B peptide. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed that the β-annulus-coiled-coil-B peptide self-assembled into spherical structures of about 50 nm in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra indicated the formation of the complementary coiled-coil structure on the spherical assemblies. Addition of 0.25 equivalent of the complementary coiled-coil-A peptide to the β-annulus-coiled-coil-B peptide showed the formation of spherical assemblies of 46 ± 14 nm with grains of 5 nm at the surface, whereas addition of 1 equivalent of the complementary coiled-coil-A peptide generated fibrous assemblies.

  16. How have new bearing surfaces altered the local biological reactions to byproducts of wear and modularity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas W; Campbell, Patricia A; Hallerberg, Gretchen

    2014-12-01

    The biologic reactions to byproducts of wear or corrosion can involve innate and adaptive processes and are dependent on many factors, including the composition, size, surface properties, shape, and concentration of debris. We used a systematic literature review to compare the reported patterns of inflammation in tissues around total hip implants with the goal of identifying whether there are unique or characteristic patterns associated with the newer bearing options or modular components. A search of the Ovid Medline database between 1996 and early December 2013 identified articles that compared the histology around six implant groups: (1) metal-on-metal; (2) ceramic-on-ceramic; (3) metal-on-crosslinked polyethylene; (4) metal-on-conventional polyethylene with or (5) without modularity; and (6) tissue obtained at primary arthroplasty. Our initial search yielded 865 citations. After excluding articles that lacked a quantitative or semiquantitative description of histologic findings in periprosthetic tissue, we reviewed 34 articles. No pattern of inflammation is specific for any given bearing combination. Histologic features suggestive of an adaptive immune response appear to be more frequent and of greater magnitude in failed metal-on-metal implants, but tissues around many failed metal-on-metal implants show features of an "innate" foreign body reaction without lymphocytes. Occasional nonmetal-on-metal implants show features of an immune reaction, possibly associated with metal particles. Modular connections are one source of metal debris in nonmetal-on-metal implants. Features of an immune reaction appear rare in ceramic-on-ceramic implants that lack corrosion. Insufficient reports are available to characterize the biologic response to crosslinked polyethylene. All total hip bearing combinations will wear in vivo, and modular interfaces are a likely source of metal that may be associated with a biological response regardless of the composition of the bearing

  17. Effects of Viscosity Variation and Surface Roughness on the Couple stress Squeeze Film Characteristics of Short Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Ayyappa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the combined effects of surface roughness and viscosity variation on the couple stress squeeze film characteristics of short journal bearings is presented. The modified stochastic Reynold’s equation accounting for the viscosity variation of couple stresses fluid and randomized surface roughness structure on bearing surface is mathematically derived using the Christensen stochastic theory. It is observed that, the transverse roughness pattern improves the squeeze film characteristics whereas the bearing performance is affected due to the presence of one dimensional longitudinal surface roughness. Further, it is observed that, the effect of viscosity variation is to reduce the load carrying capacity and squeeze film time as compared to the case of constant viscosity.

  18. The impact of microgeometry pistons with a stepped bearing surface for the friction loss of the internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Emil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the results of experimental piston friction losses on stepped bearing surface microgeometry obtained on the test rig. This test rig is equipped with special temperature control system, which provides better stability to temperature than in standard systems. The results of station tests was discussed. Tests was analyzed depending the moment caused by the friction on the oil temperature in the oil sump. Specified conclusions allow to assess the impact of the stepped profile of the pistons bearing surface microgeometry for different values of engine speed and the oil temperature at the friction losses in the main kinematic engine node which is piston-cylinder.

  19. Surface modification and fatigue behavior of nitinol for load bearing implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Sheldon A.

    Musculoskeletal disorders are recognized amongst the most significant human health problems that exist today. Even though considerable research and development has gone towards understanding musculoskeletal disorders, there is still lack of bone replacement materials that are appropriate for restoring lost structures and functions, particularly for load-bearing applications. Many materials on the market today, such as titanium and stainless steel, suffer from significantly higher modulus than natural bone and low bioactivity leading to stress shielding and implant loosening over longer time use. Nitinol (NiTi) is an equiatomic intermetallic compound of nickel and titanium whose unique biomechanical and biological properties contributed to its increasing use as a biomaterial. An innovative method for creating dense and porous net shape NiTi alloy parts has been developed to improve biological properties while maintaining comparable or better mechanical properties than commercial materials that are currently in use. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS(TM)) and surface electrochemistry modification was used to create dense/porous samples and micro textured surfaces on NiTi parts, respectively. Porous implants are known to promote cell adhesion and have a low elastic modulus, a combination that can significantly increase the life of an implant. However, porosity can significantly reduce the fatigue life of an implant, and very little work has been reported on the fatigue behavior of bulk porous metals, specifically on porous nitinol alloy. High-cycle rotating bending and compression-compression fatigue behavior of porous NiTi fabricated using LENS(TM) were studied. In cyclic compression loading, plastic strain increased with increasing porosity and it was evident that maximum strain was achieved during the first 50000 cycles and remained constant throughout the remaining loading. No failures were observed due to loading up to 150% of the yield strength. When subjected

  20. Experimental Study of Geotextile Effect on Improving Soil Bearing Capacity in Aggregate Surfaced Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Taghipour Masoumi; Ali Abdi Kordani; Mahmoud Nazirizad

    2017-01-01

    Geosynthetics utilization plays an important role in the construction of highways with no additive layers, such as asphalt concrete or cement concrete, or in a subgrade layer which affects the bearing capacity of unbounded layers. This laboratory experimental study was carried out to evaluate changes in the load bearing capacity of reinforced soil with these materials in highway roadbed with regard to geotextile properties. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test samples were prepared with two ty...

  1. A METHOD OF LOADING UNIT FORMATION TAKING INTO ACCOUNT MASS, LOAD-BEARING STRENGTH AND SURFACES OF PACKING UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil POPIELA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of loading unit formation is computationally complex in nature. This article presents a heuristic algorithm of forming unit loads, which can be applied to unit load arrangement on unit load devices. This method accounts for dimensional, mass and load-bearing strength of loading units and loading devices. Moreover, the rotation of packages about a 90° vertical axis has been made possible. In this algorithm, the bearing surface of each packing unit is entirely supported. This guarantees the stability of additional unit load layers. A sample calculation of the arrangement of 30-unit loads is presented in this article.

  2. IMPACTS OF MARINE AEROSOLS ON SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY AT BEAR BROOK WATERSHED, MAINE USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  3. Influence of Wall Porosity and Surfaces Roughness on the Steady Performance of an Externally Pressurized Hydrostatic Conical Bearing Lubricated by a Rabinowitsch Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walicka, A.; Walicki, E.; Jurczak, P.; Falicki, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper, the influence of both the bearing surfaces roughness as well as porosity of one bearing surface on the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity of a curvilinear, externally pressurized, thrust bearing is discussed. The equations of motion of a pseudo-plastic Rabinowitsch fluid are used to derive the Reynolds equation. After general considerations on the flow in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer using the Morgan-Cameron approximation and Christensen theory of hydrodynamic lubrication with rough bearing surfaces the modified Reynolds equation is obtained. The analytical solution is presented; as a result one obtains the formulae expressing the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity. Thrust radial and conical bearings, externally pressurized, are considered as numerical examples.

  4. Influence of Wall Porosity and Surfaces Roughness on the Steady Performance of an Externally Pressurized Hydrostatic Conical Bearing Lubricated by a Rabinowitsch Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walicka A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the influence of both the bearing surfaces roughness as well as porosity of one bearing surface on the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity of a curvilinear, externally pressurized, thrust bearing is discussed. The equations of motion of a pseudo-plastic Rabinowitsch fluid are used to derive the Reynolds equation. After general considerations on the flow in a bearing clearance and in a porous layer using the Morgan-Cameron approximation and Christensen theory of hydrodynamic lubrication with rough bearing surfaces the modified Reynolds equation is obtained. The analytical solution is presented; as a result one obtains the formulae expressing the pressure distribution and load-carrying capacity. Thrust radial and conical bearings, externally pressurized, are considered as numerical examples.

  5. Isotopic study of the wear of sliding bearings with plastic friction surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandur, J.; Varkonyi, A.

    1978-01-01

    A new complex device has been elaborated for the investigation of the duration of bearings in the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The simultaneous determination of wear by an isotopic method the coefficient of friction by means of a Wheatstone bridge and the bearing temperature by means of a thermoresistor is described. Dynamic loading and variable revolution per minute are applied to produce a forced wear of the bearings. The isotopically labelled wear products are removed by oil and the collected sample is measured by a scintillation detector. Wear of a steel axle in plastic housing and plastic coated axle in cast iron housing was determined. (V.N.)

  6. BOREAS HYD-05 Bear Trap Creek and Namekus Lake Winter Surface Flux Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains the HYD-05 flux, and meteorological measurements from Bear Trap Forest, Saskatchewan in the winter of 1994. Contains the HYD-05 flux, meteorological, and...

  7. Optimum design of amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic groups for both cell surface ligand presentation and intercellular cross-linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Masafumi; Li, Cuicui; Matsuda, Masayoshi; Nagai, Hiroko; Hatanaka, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic alkyl groups are expected to be applicable for both ligand presentation on the cell surface and intercellular crosslinking. To explore the optimum design for each application, we synthesized eight different acyl-modified dextrans with varying molecular weight, alkyl length, and alkyl modification degree. We found that the behenate-modified polymers retained on the cell surface longer than the palmitate-modified ones. Since the polymers were also modified with biotin, streptavidin can be presented on the cell surface through biotin-streptavidin recognition. The duration of streptavidin on the cell surface is longer in the behenate-modified polymer than the palmitate-modified one. As for the intercellular crosslinking, the palmitate-modified polymers were more efficient than the behenate-modified polymers. The findings in this research will be helpful to design the acyl-modified polymers for the cell surface engineering.

  8. Surface-Active Mononuclear and Dinuclear Ru(II) Complexes based on Thio-substituted Terpyridines Bearing Cyclodextrin Recognition Units

    OpenAIRE

    Pikramenou, Zoe; Unwin, Patrick R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Ruthenium(II) surface active complexes based on a tpySH ligand have been prepared and characterised, (1) [Ru(tpyada)(tpySH)](PF6)2, (2) [Ru(biptpy)(tpySH)](PF6)2 and (3) [Ru(pm-?-CD(ttp))(tpySH)](PF6)2. The complexes bear a surface active thiol group and a recognition unit which is either a ?-cyclodextrin or a hydrophobic tail (admantyl- or biphenyl) in order to utilise cyclodextrin recognition for the formation of supramolecular wires using bottom up approaches. Monolaye...

  9. Bearing surfaces in total hip replacements: state of the art and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKellop, H A

    2001-01-01

    Because the UHMWPE components fabricated by the historic process of gamma-sterilization in air are no longer marketed, a surgeon who wishes to continue performing joint replacement surgery must choose among the new polyethylenes, or he or she may choose a modern metal-metal or ceramic-ceramic bearing, each of which has its potential advantages and disadvantages (Table 4). Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the surgeon to assess the risk-benefit ratios of each of the new bearing combinations and make an informed and wise choice among them.

  10. Performance of two-lobe hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system under the combined influence of textured surface and couple stress lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Chandra B.; Sharma, Satish C.

    2018-02-01

    Textured surface in journal bearings is becoming an important area of investigation during the last few years. Surface textures have the shapes of micro-dimple with a small diameter and depth having order of magnitude of bearing clearance. This paper presents the influence of couple stress lubricant on the circular and non-circular hole-entry hybrid journal bearing system and reports the comparative study between the textured and non-textured circular/non-circular hybrid journal bearing system. The governing Reynolds equation has been modified for the couple stress lubricant flow in the clearance of bearing and journal. The FEM technique has been applied to solve the modified Reynolds equation together with restrictor flow equation. The numerically simulated results indicate that the influence of couple stress lubricant is significantly more in textured journal bearing than that of non-textured journal bearing. Further, it has been observed that the textured two-lobe (δ = 1.1) hybrid journal bearing lubricated with couple stress lubricant provides larger values of fluid film stiffness coefficients and stability threshold speed against other bearings studied in the present paper.

  11. Why Did the Bear Cross the Road? Comparing the Performance of Multiple Resistance Surfaces and Connectivity Modeling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been few assessments of the performance of alternative resistance surfaces, and little is known about how connectivity modeling approaches differ in their ability to predict organism movements. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of four connectivity modeling approaches applied to two resistance surfaces in predicting the locations of highway crossings by American black bears in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. We found that a resistance surface derived directly from movement data greatly outperformed a resistance surface produced from analysis of genetic differentiation, despite their heuristic similarities. Our analysis also suggested differences in the performance of different connectivity modeling approaches. Factorial least cost paths appeared to slightly outperform other methods on the movement-derived resistance surface, but had very poor performance on the resistance surface obtained from multi-model landscape genetic analysis. Cumulative resistant kernels appeared to offer the best combination of high predictive performance and sensitivity to differences in resistance surface parameterization. Our analysis highlights that even when two resistance surfaces include the same variables and have a high spatial correlation of resistance values, they may perform very differently in predicting animal movement and population connectivity.

  12. COMETARY SCIENCE. CHO-bearing organic compounds at the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko revealed by Ptolemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I P; Sheridan, S; Barber, S J; Morgan, G H; Andrews, D J; Morse, A D

    2015-07-31

    The surface and subsurface of comets preserve material from the formation of the solar system. The properties of cometary material thus provide insight into the physical and chemical conditions during their formation. We present mass spectra taken by the Ptolemy instrument 20 minutes after the initial touchdown of the Philae lander on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Regular mass distributions indicate the presence of a sequence of compounds with additional -CH2- and -O- groups (mass/charge ratios 14 and 16, respectively). Similarities with the detected coma species of comet Halley suggest the presence of a radiation-induced polymer at the surface. Ptolemy measurements also indicate an apparent absence of aromatic compounds such as benzene, a lack of sulfur-bearing species, and very low concentrations of nitrogenous material. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. CHO-bearing organic compounds at the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko revealed by Ptolemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, I. P.; Sheridan, S.; Barber, S. J.; Morgan, G. H.; Andrews, D. J.; Morse, A. D.

    2015-07-01

    The surface and subsurface of comets preserve material from the formation of the solar system. The properties of cometary material thus provide insight into the physical and chemical conditions during their formation. We present mass spectra taken by the Ptolemy instrument 20 minutes after the initial touchdown of the Philae lander on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Regular mass distributions indicate the presence of a sequence of compounds with additional -CH2- and -O- groups (mass/charge ratios 14 and 16, respectively). Similarities with the detected coma species of comet Halley suggest the presence of a radiation-induced polymer at the surface. Ptolemy measurements also indicate an apparent absence of aromatic compounds such as benzene, a lack of sulfur-bearing species, and very low concentrations of nitrogenous material.

  14. Sole depth and weight-bearing characteristics of the palmar surface of the feet of feral horses and domestic Thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Brian A; Connelley, Alexandra D; de Laat, Melody A; Mills, Paul C; Pollitt, Chris C

    2011-06-01

    To determine solar load-bearing structures in the feet of feral horses and investigate morphological characteristics of the sole in feral horses and domestic Thoroughbreds. Forelimbs from cadavers of 70 feral horses and 20 domestic Thoroughbreds in Australia. Left forefeet were obtained from 3 feral horse populations from habitats of soft substrate (SS [n = 10 horses]), hard substrate (HS [10]), and a combination of SS and HS (10) and loaded in vitro. Pressure distribution was measured with a pressure plate. Sole depth was measured at 12 points across the solar plane in feet obtained from feral horses from SS (n = 20 horses) and HS (20) habitats and domestic Thoroughbreds (20). Feet of feral horses from HS habitats loaded the periphery of the sole and hoof wall on a flat surface. Feral horses from HS or SS habitats had greater mean sole depth than did domestic Thoroughbreds. Sole depth was greatest peripherally and was correlated with the loading pattern. The peripheral aspect of the sole in the feet of feral horses had a load-bearing function. Because of the robust nature of the tissue architecture, the hoof capsule of feral horses may be less flexible than that of typical domestic horses. The application of narrow-web horseshoes may not take full advantage of the load-bearing and force-dissipating properties of the peripheral aspect of the sole. Further studies are required to understand the effects of biomechanical stimulation on the adaptive responses of equine feet.

  15. Hard Chrome-Coated and Fullerene-Doped Metal Surfaces in Orthopedic Bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Robert; Feige, Katja; Dos Santos, Claudia Beatriz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2017-12-20

    Metal-on-metal bearings for total hip replacements have been introduced as an alternative to polyethylene in young and more active patients. These have, however, been shown to be prone to implant malpositioning and have been limited by some specific design features. In that context, coatings present an option to increase wear resistance by keeping the high fracture strength of the metal substrate. A custom-made electroplating setup was designed for the coating of CoCr substrates using (a) an industrial standard chromium electrolyte; (b) a custom-made hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) electrolyte with a reduced chromium trioxide (CrO₃) content, both without solid additives and (c) with the addition of fullerene (C 60 ) nanoparticles; and (d) a trivalent chromium (Cr 3+ ) electrolyte with C 60 addition. All coatings showed an increase in microhardness compared with the metal substrate. Trivalent coatings were thinner (10 µm) than the hexavalent coatings (23-40 µm) and resulted in increased roughness and crack density. Wear was found to be reduced for the hexavalent chromium coatings by 70-84% compared with the CoCr-CoCr reference bearing while the trivalent chromium coating even increased wear by more than 300%. The addition of fullerenes to the electrolyte did not show any further tribological effect.

  16. Bearing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.; Preece, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A hydrostatic bearing for the lower end of the vertical shaft of a sodium pump comprises a support shell encircling the shaft and a bush located between the shell and shaft. Liquid sodium is fed from the pump outlet to the bush/shaft and bush/shell interfaces to provide hydrostatic support. The bush outer surface and the shell inner surface are of complementary part-spherical shape and the bush floats relative to the shaft so that the bush can align itself with the shaft axis. Monitoring of the relative rotational speed of the bush with respect to the shaft (such rotation being induced by the viscous drag forces present) is also performed for the purposes of detecting abnormal operation of the bearing or partial seizure, at least one magnet is rotatable with the bush, and a magnetic sensor provides an output having a frequency related to the speed of the bush. (author)

  17. Investigations on femtosecond laser modified micro-textured surface with anti-friction property on bearing steel GCr15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Ding, Ye; Cheng, Bai; He, Jiangtao; Wang, Genwang; Wang, Yang

    2018-03-01

    This work puts forward femtosecond laser modification of micro-textured surface on bearing steel GCr15 in order to reduce frictional wear and enhance load capacity during its application. Multi pulses femtosecond laser ablation experiments are established for the confirmation of laser spot radius as well as single pulse threshold fluence and pulse incubation coefficient of bulk material. Analytical models are set up in combination with hydrodynamics lubrication theory. Corresponding simulations are carried out on to explore influences of surface and cross sectional morphology of textures on hydrodynamics lubrication effect based on Navier-Stokes (N-S) equation. Technological experiments focus on the impacts of femtosecond laser machining variables, like scanning times, scanning velocity, pulse frequency and scanning gap on morphology of grooves as well as realization of optimized textures proposed by simulations, mechanisms of which are analyzed from multiple perspectives. Results of unidirectional rotating friction tests suggest that spherical texture with depth-to-width ratio of 0.2 can significantly improve tribological properties at low loading and velocity condition comparing with un-textured and other textured surfaces, which also verifies the accuracy of simulations and feasibility of femtosecond laser in modification of micro-textured surface.

  18. Load-bearing evaluation of spinal posterior column by measuring surface strain from lumbar pedicles. An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peidong; Zhao, Weidong; Bi, Zhenyu; Wu, Changfu; Ouyang, Jun

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the load transfer within spinal posterior column of lumbar spine is necessary to determine the influence of mechanical factors on potential mechanisms of the motion-sparing implant such as artificial intervertebral disc and the dynamic spine stabilization systems. In this study, a new method has been developed for evaluating the load bearing of spinal posterior column by the surface strain of spinal pedicle response to the loading of spinal segment. Six cadaveric lumbar spine segments were biomechanically evaluated between levels L1 and L5 in intact condition and the strain gauges were pasted to an inferior surface of L2 pedicles. Multidirectional flexibility testing used the Panjabi testing protocol; pure moments for the intact condition with overall spinal motion and unconstrained intact moments of ±8 Nm were used for flexion-extension and lateral bending testing. High correlation coefficient (0.967-0.998) indicated a good agreement between the load of spinal segment and the surface strain of pedicle in all loading directions. Principal compressive strain could be observed in flexion direction and tensile strain in extension direction, respectively. In conclusion, the new method seems to be effective for evaluating posterior spinal column loads using pedicles' surface strain data collected during biomechanical testing of spine segments.

  19. Autosizing Control Panel for Needle Bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Prof.A.R.Wadhekar,; Ms Jyoti R. Rajput

    2016-01-01

    A needle roller bearing is a bearing which uses small cylindrical rollers. Bearings are used to reduce friction of any rotating surface. Needle bearings have a large surface in contact with the bearing outer surfaces as compared to ball bearings. There is less added clearance(Diameter of the shaft and the diameter of the bearing are different) so they are much compact. The structure consists of a needle cage which contains the needle rollersthemselves and an outer race (The housin...

  20. Hydrodynamic air lubricated compliant surface bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine. 2: Materials and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, B.; Ruscitto, D.; Gray, S.

    1978-01-01

    Material coatings for an air-lubricated, compliant journal bearing for an automotive gas turbine engine were exposed to service test temperatures of 540 C or 650 C for 300 hours, and to 10 temperature cycles from room temperatures to the service test temperatures. Selected coatings were then put on journal and partial-arc foils and tested in start-stop cycle tests at 14 kPa (2 psi) loading for 2000 cycles. Half of the test cycles were performed at a test chamber service temperature of 540 C (1000 F) or 650 C (1200 F); the other half were performed at room temperature. Based on test results, the following combinations and their service temperature limitations are recommended: HL-800 TM (CdO and graphite) on foil versus chrome carbide on journal up to 370 C (700 F); NASA PS 120 (Tribaloy 400, silver and CaF2 on journal versus uncoated foil up to 540 C (1000 F); and Kaman DES on journal and foil up to 640 C (1200 F). Kaman DES coating system was further tested successfully at 35 kPa (5 psi) loading for 2000 start-stop cycles.

  1. Diamond-like carbon coatings enhance the hardness and resilience of bearing surfaces for use in joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M E; Whiteside, L A; Xu, J; Katerberg, B J

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating to enhance the hardness and resilience of a bearing surface in joint replacement. The greater hardness of a magnesium-stabilized zirconium (Mg-PSZ) substrate was expected to provide a harder coating-substrate composite microhardness than the cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) also used in arthroplasty. Three femoral heads of each type (CoCr, Mg-PSZ, DLC-CoCr and DLC-Mg-PSZ) were examined. Baseline (non-coated) and composite coating/substrate hardness was measured by Vickers microhardness tests, while nanoindentation tests measured the hardness and elastic modulus of the DLC coating independent of the Mg-PSZ and CoCr substrates. Non-coated Mg-PSZ heads were considerably harder than non-coated CoCr heads, while DLC coating greatly increased the microhardness of the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates. On the nanoscale the non-coated heads were much harder than on the microscale, with CoCr exhibiting twice as much plastic deformation as Mg-PSZ. The mechanical properties of the DLC coatings were not significantly different for both the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates, producing similar moduli of resilience and plastic resistance ratios. DLC coatings greatly increased hardness on both the micro and nano levels and significantly improved resilience and resistance to plastic deformation compared with non-coated heads. Because Mg-PSZ allows less plastic deformation than CoCr and provides a greater composite microhardness, DLC-Mg-PSZ will likely be more durable for use as a bearing surface in vivo. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Grin and Bear It?: Employees' Use of Surface Acting During Co-worker Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ashley E; Bruk-Lee, Valentina; Spector, Paul E

    2017-04-01

    Using survey data from 459 employed individuals, the conditional indirect effects of three types of interpersonal conflict at work on strains and performance through surface acting were tested. Results indicated that task, relationship and non-task organizational conflict were positively related to depressive and physical symptoms and negatively related to performance. Task conflict had a significantly weaker association with employee outcomes than either relationship or non-task organizational conflict. Surface acting negatively related to all types of conflict, although it had a weaker association with relationship conflict than task or non-task organizational conflict. Support was found for moderated mediation relationships whereby surface acting mediated the associations between all types of conflict with depressive symptoms, as well as the association between relationship and non-task organizational conflict with physical symptoms, when conflict was infrequent. Surface acting also mediated the associations between all types of conflict and performance when conflict was frequent. Future research directions are discussed that can advance our theoretical understanding of how emotional labour and interpersonal conflict interact to affect employees, as well as further our ability to improve employee well-being and organizational functioning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. An Experimental Investigation of Skin Friction on Smooth Surfaces Supporting Air Bearing Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    existing knowledge. LABORATORY TECHNICAL REPORTS (LTR): Information receiving limited distribution because of preliminary data, security classification...LISSES PORTEUSES DE CANAUX ANTI-FROTTEMENT by/par M. Khalid National Aeronautical Establishment AERONAUTICAL NOTE OTTAWA NAE-AN-39 JULY 1986 NRC NO...installant sur la surface des canaux qui agissent comme des valiers d’air. Les mesures ont &t prises A l’aide d’une balance de mesure du frottement

  4. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  5. Failure Analysis and Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Bearings in the Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Ole H.E.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and ion channelling contrast imaging (ICCI) were used. The gap between RLM and SEM (providing a good overview over the crack morphology) and TEM (providing very detailed information but from a very limited part of the sample) could be covered by the use of EBSD and ICCI...... charged rollers to reproduce WEC formation. The influence of different hoop stress levels was studied. The fracture surfaces as well as formed WECs were investigated. A detrimental effect of higher hoop stress levels on roller lifetime was found and based on the analysis of the formed WECs an incremental...... increase of WEA formation with each cycle was suggested. By X-ray diffraction stress analysis the nonuniform build-up of compressive stresses under testing was identified. Deep nitriding is considered as a potential remedy against WEC failure. Therefore nitriding experiments were conducted to study...

  6. Chiral nematic self-assembly of minimally surface damaged chitin nanofibrils and its load bearing functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dongyeop X.; Cha, Yun Jeong; Nguyen, Hoang-Linh; Je, Hwa Heon; Jho, Yong Seok; Hwang, Dong Soo; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2016-03-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomaterials in nature, with 1010 tons produced annually as hierarchically organized nanofibril fillers to reinforce the exoskeletons of arthropods. This green and cheap biomaterial has attracted great attention due to its potential application to reinforce biomedical materials. Despite that, its practical use is limited since the extraction of chitin nanofibrils requires surface modification involving harsh chemical treatments, leading to difficulties in reproducing their natural prototypal hierarchical structure, i.e. chiral nematic phase. Here, we develop a chemical etching-free approach using calcium ions, called “natural way”, to disintegrate the chitin nanofibrils while keeping the essential moiety for the self-assembly, ultimately resulting in the reproduction of chitin’s natural chiral structure in a polymeric matrix. This chiral chitin nanostructure exceptionally toughens the composite. Our resultant chiral nematic phase of chitin materials can contribute to the understanding and use of the reinforcing strategy in nature.

  7. Effects of laser surface melting on the pitting resistance of sensitized nitrogen-bearing type 316L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Pujar, M.G.; Dayal, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels (SS) form a major part of the structural materials for fast reactors because of their excellent mechanical properties at high temperatures and good corrosion resistance in general. Here, laser surface melting of sensitized nitrogen-bearing type 316L austenitic stainless steel was carried out using a pulsed ruby laser. The sensitization heat treatment was carried out at 923 K for 50, 200, 1,000, and 2,500 h, and the sensitized microstructure was classified according to ASTM A 262 practice A. The degree of sensitization was assessed by the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test. The critical pitting potentials of as-sensitized as well as sensitized-laser melted specimens were determined by potentiodynamic anodic polarization method in a medium containing 0.5 M NaCl and 0.5 M H 2 SO 4 at room temperature. Results indicated that upon laser melting the pitting resistance increased significantly. This increase was attributed to the elimination of the sensitized heterogeneous microstructure by laser melting. The microscopic examination of the pitted specimens showed only micropits that developed at the interfaces of oxide/sulfide inclusions of titanium and matrix

  8. Laser-Hardened and Ultrasonically Peened Surface Layers on Tool Steel AISI D2: Correlation of the Bearing Curves' Parameters, Hardness and Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyk, D. A.; Martinez, S.; Mordyuk, B. N.; Dzhemelinskyi, V. V.; Lamikiz, A.; Prokopenko, G. I.; Grinkevych, K. E.; Tkachenko, I. V.

    2018-02-01

    This paper is focused on the effects of the separately applied laser heat treatment (LHT) and ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) and the combined LHT + UIT process on the wear and friction behaviors of the hardened surface layers of the tool steel AISI D2. In comparison with the initial state, wear losses of the treated specimens after long-term wear tests were decreased by 68, 41, and 77% at the LHT, UIT, and combined LHT + UIT processes, respectively. The Abbott-Firestone bearing curves were used to analyze the material ratio and functional characterization (bearing capacity and oil capacitance) of the studied surface specimens. The wear losses registered after short (15 min) tests correlate well with the changes in experimental surface roughness Ra, and the predictive Rpk, and bearing capacity B C parameters, respectively, evaluated using the Abbott-Firestone curves and Kragelsky-Kombalov formula. The wear losses after the long-term (45 min) tests are in good correlation with the reciprocal surface microhardness HV and with the W L and W P wear parameters, respectively, estimated using Archard-Rabinowicz formula and complex roughness-and-strength approach. The observed HV increase is supported by nanotwins (LHT), by dense dislocation nets (UIT), and by dislocation cells/nanograins fixed with fine carbides (LHT + UIT) formed in the surface layers of the steel.

  9. The Infection Rate of Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Is Higher When Compared to Other Bearing Surfaces as Documented by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Phil; Lyons, Matt; O'Sullivan, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the well-documented decline in the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants over the last decade, there are still controversies regarding whether all MoM implants are created equally. Complications such as elevated serum metal ion levels, aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) and pseudotumours have all been well documented, but recent studies suggest increased risk of infection with MoM bearing surfaces. Most of these studies however have small patient numbers. The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative incidence of revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary hip arthroplasty at a national and single-surgeon level. Data was collected from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, which contains over 98% of all arthroplasties performed in Australia since 2001. The cumulative incidence of revision for infection was extracted at a national level and single-surgeon level. Two hundred seventy-six thousand eight hundred seventy-eight subjects were documented in the Australian registry. The 10-year cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary total hip replacement (THR) was 2.5% at a national level, compared to 0.8% for other bearing surfaces. The senior author contributed 1755 subjects with 7-year follow-up and a cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary THR of 36.9%, compared to 2.0% for other bearing surfaces. The cumulative percent of revision of MoM bearing surfaces is higher compared to other bearing surfaces; this is especially pronounced in cumulative percent of revision for infection. There was a higher cumulative percent of revision for infection in MoM bearings surfaces (in particular, large-head MoM) compared to other bearing surfaces at both the national and individual-surgeon level.

  10. The effect of bearing surface on risk of periprosthetic joint infection in total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexter, A T; Hislop, S M; Blunn, G W; Liddle, A D

    2018-02-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Different bearing surface materials have different surface properties and it has been suggested that the choice of bearing surface may influence the risk of PJI after THA. The objective of this meta-analysis was to compare the rate of PJI between metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), and ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings. Electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature) were searched for comparative randomized and observational studies that reported the incidence of PJI for different bearing surfaces. Two investigators independently reviewed studies for eligibility, evaluated risk of bias, and performed data extraction. Meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenzel method and random-effects model in accordance with methods of the Cochrane group. Our search strategy revealed 2272 studies, of which 17 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. These comprised 11 randomized controlled trials and six observational studies. The overall quality of included studies was high but the observational studies were at high risk of bias due to inadequate adjustment for confounding factors. The overall cumulative incidence of PJI across all studies was 0.78% (1514/193 378). For each bearing combination, the overall incidence was as follows: MoP 0.85% (1353/158 430); CoP 0.38% (67/17 489); and CoC 0.53% (94/17 459). The meta-analysis showed no significant difference between the three bearing combinations in terms of risk of PJI. On the basis of the clinical studies available, there is no evidence that bearing choice influences the risk of PJI. Future research, including basic science studies and large, adequately controlled registry studies, may be helpful in determining whether implant materials play a role in determining the risk of PJI following arthroplasty

  11. Effect of Adsorption on Ice Surfaces on the Composition of Enceladus' Plumes: Partitioning of Oxygen-Bearing Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A.; Teolis, B. D.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Introduction: The plumes of Enceladus offer an opportunity to access a sample of water from its internal ocean. However, to gain valuable insights into the ocean's composition, it is necessary to take into account any possible process that would alter the mixture between the water table and the geysers. The adsorption of refractory compounds on the ice walls in the vents could partition them depending on their properties. Evaluating the effect of this fractionation is critical in anticipating which organics could be detected by a future mission. Models: We used a model using the temkin isotherm and published experimental desorption energies for our compounds of interest. The model calculates how the coverage of an ice surface exposed to the flow can evolve with time and what is the final composition of the adsorbed mixture is. The model considers the ice walls and the ice grains, as the latter have the potential to gather the most sticky compounds and put them within reach of sampling by a spacecraft. Our list of species included formaldehyde, methanol, acetic acid, formic acid, ethanol, butanol, benzene and hexanal.Results: We found that simple hydrocarbons have a very short residence time on ice, and are expected to stay in gas phase. Oxygen-bearing organic compounds, though, stick to the ice and will be concentrated on the walls and ice grains, with the exception of formaldehyde. With the species listed above originally in equal abundance in gas phase, we found the ice surface to hold mostly formic acid, acetic acid and butanol, with a small amount of ethanol and hexanal. The high number of collisions in the closed space of a 1 meter wide vent allows for a gas/adsorbed equilibration within a second. Way forward: The possible impact of ammonia, detected in the plumes, is unknown. Ammonia can accumulate on the ice surface and influence adsorption of other species, and potentially create a liquid layer by depressing the freezing point of water. The impact of these

  12. Finite size effects of ionic species sensitively determine load bearing capacities of lubricated systems under combined influence of electrokinetics and surface compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Kaustubh Girish; Chakraborty, Suman; Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti

    2017-09-27

    The behaviour and health of lubricated systems in various natural and artificial settings are often characterized by their load bearing capacity. This capacity stemming from the lift force associated with confined fluid flow can be significantly altered due to surface compliance and electrokinetic effects. Here, we highlight the influence of finite size of the ionic species participating in electrokinetic transport with substrate compliance in determining the electromechanical characteristics of lubricated systems. With these new considerations, anomalous trends previously observed for the load bearing capacity corresponding to high values of zeta potential are corrected. Simultaneously, trends associated with the finite ionic size are also found to be reversed, but fall in line with the consistent theory. Importantly, despite an intricate interplay among the various influences - electrokinetic, hydrodynamic, geometric, and elastic - previously established trends due to geometric (non-parallel slider geometry) and elastic effects are found to persist. Specifically, in the presence of electrokinetic effects, an increase in the obliqueness of the slider geometry results in lower values of load bearing capacity while an increase in the stiffness leads to higher values. These results point to a certain robustness in the overall theory and it is hoped that they can contribute to better practical designs of slider bearings and an improved understanding of lubricated sliding surfaces in biological settings.

  13. Enhancement of the surface methane hydrate-bearing layer based on the specific microorganisms form deep seabed sediment in Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yamamoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A methane hydrate-bearing layer located near the Japan Sea has been investigated as a new potential energy resource. In this study examined the feasibility of the seabed surface sediment strength located in the Japan Sea improvement technologies for enhancing microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. First, the authors cultivated the specific urease production bacterium culture medium from this surface methane hydrate-bearing layer in the seabed (-600m depth) of Japan Sea. After that, two types of the laboratory test (consolidated-drained triaxial tests) were conducted using this specific culture medium from the seabed in the Japan Sea near the Toyama Prefecture and high urease activities bacterium named Bacillus pasteurii. The main outcomes of this research are as follows. 1) Specific culture medium focused on the urease production bacterium can enhancement of the urease activities from the methane hydrate-bearing layer near the Japan Sea side, 2) This specific culture medium can be enhancement of the surface layer strength, 3) The microbial induced carbonate precipitation process can increase the particle size compared to that of the original particles coating the calcite layer surface, 4) The mechanism for increasing the soil strength is based on the addition of cohesion like a cement stabilized soil.

  14. Diamond-like carbon coatings enhance scratch resistance of bearing surfaces for use in joint arthroplasty: hard substrates outperform soft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Marcel E; Whiteside, Leo A; Katerberg, Brian J

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings will enhance the scratch resistance of a bearing surface in joint arthroplasty, and that a hard ceramic substrate will further enhance scratch resistance by reducing plastic deformation. We tested these hypotheses by applying a hard DLC coating to medical-grade cobalt chromium alloy (CoCr) and magnesia-stabilized zirconia (Mg-PSZ) femoral heads and performing scratch tests to determine the loads required to cause cohesive and adhesive fracture of the coating. Scratch tracks of DLC-coated and noncoated heads were then scanned by optical profilometry to determine scratch depth, width, and pile-up (raised edges), as measures of susceptibility to scratching. DLC-coated CoCr specimens exhibited cohesive coating fracture as wedge spallation at an average load of 9.74 N, whereas DLC-coated Mg-PSZ exhibited cohesive fracture as arc-tensile cracks and chipping at a significantly higher average load of 41.3 N (p coating fracture, DLC-CoCr delaminated at an average load of 35.2 N, whereas DLC-Mg-PSZ fractured by recovery spallation at a significantly higher average load of 46.8 N (p DLC-CoCr and DLC-Mg-PSZ specimens exhibited significantly shallower scratches and less pile-up than did uncoated specimens (p DLC-Mg-PSZ better resisted plastic deformation, requiring significantly higher loads for cohesive and adhesive coating fracture. These findings supported both of our hypotheses. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bearings: Technology and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

  16. Influence of processing medium on frictional wear properties of ball bearing steel prepared by laser surface melting coupled with bionic principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hong; Wang Chengtao; Guo Qingchun; Yu Jiaxiang; Wang Mingxing; Liao Xunlong; Zhao Yu; Ren Luquan

    2010-01-01

    Coupling with bionic principles, an attempt to improve the wear resistance of ball bearing steel (GCr15) with biomimetic units on the surface was made using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser. Air and water film was employed as processing medium, respectively. The microstructures of biomimeitc units were examined by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction was used to describe the microstructure and identify the phases as functions of different mediums as well as water film with different thicknesses. The results indicated that the microstructure zones in the biomimetic specimens processed with water film were more refined and had better wear resistance increased by 55.8% in comparison with that processed in air; a significant improvement in microhardness was achieved by laser surface melting. The application of water film provided considerable microstructural changes and much more regular grain shape in biomimetic units, which played a key role in improving the wear resistance of ball bearing steel.

  17. Lubrication of sliding bearings for hydropower applications

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Donald

    2005-01-01

    The term "sliding bearing" refers to types of bearing where two conformal surfaces (usually the stationary bearing and a moving shaft) slide relative to one another with load distributed directly across the interface. A suitable lubricant may be employed to reduce the friction between these two surfaces. In "fluid film" bearings, this lubricant builds up a layer of sufficient thickness such that the two surfaces are completely separated. Examples include journal and thrust bearings and shaft ...

  18. Frictionless Bearing Uses Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation was to develop a frictionless bearing for high speed, light load applications. The device involves the incorporation of permanent magnets in the bearing design. The repulsion of like magnetic poles provides concentric support of the inner member so that no metallic contact occurs between the bearing surfaces.

  19. Transient elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis of a novel metal-on-metal hip prosthesis with a non-spherical femoral bearing surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Q E; Liu, F; Fisher, J; Jin, Z M

    2011-01-01

    Effective lubrication performance of metal-on-metal hip implants only requires optimum conformity within the main loaded area, while it is advantageous to increase the clearance in the equatorial region. Such a varying clearance can be achieved by using non-spherical bearing surfaces for either acetabular or femoral components. An elastohydrodynamic lubrication model of a novel metal-on-metal hip prosthesis using a non-spherical femoral bearing surface against a spherical cup was solved under loading and motion conditions specified by ISO standard. A full numerical methodology of considering the geometric variation in the rotating non-spherical head in elastohydrodynamic lubrication solution was presented, which is applicable to all non-spherical head designs. The lubrication performance of a hip prosthesis using a specific non-spherical femoral head, Alpharabola, was analysed and compared with those of spherical bearing surfaces and a non-spherical Alpharabola cup investigated in previous studies. The sensitivity of the lubrication performance to the anteversion angle of the Alpharabola head was also investigated. Results showed that the non-spherical head introduced a large squeeze-film action and also led to a large variation in clearance within the loaded area. With the same equatorial clearance, the lubrication performance of the metal-on-metal hip prosthesis using an Alpharabola head was better than that of the conventional spherical bearings but worse than that of the metal-on-metal hip prosthesis using an Alpharabola cup. The reduction in the lubrication performance caused by the initial anteversion angle of the non-spherical head was small, compared with the improvement resulted from the non-spherical geometry.

  20. Fluorine lubricated bearing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallaire, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to evaluate and select materials for ball bearings intended for use in liquid fluorine and/or FLOX. The ability of three different ball-separator materials, each containing nickel, to form and transfer a nickel fluoride film to provide effective lubrication at the required areas of a ball bearing operating in liquid fluorine was evaluated. In addition, solid lubrication of a ball bearing operating in liquid fluorine by either a fused fluoride coating applied to all surfaces of the ball separator or by a fluoride impregnation of porous sintered material ball separators was evaluated. Less bearing wear occurred when tests were conducted in the less reactive FLOX. Bearings fabricated from any of the materials tested would have relatively short wear lives and would require frequent replacement in a reusable engine.

  1. The preparation of polytrifluorochloroethylene (PCTFE) micro-particles and application on treating bearing steel surfaces to improve the lubrication effect for copper-graphite (Cu/C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hailin; Zhang, Pengpeng; Ren, Shanshan; Guo, Junde; Li, Xing; Dong, Guangneng

    2018-01-01

    Contact mechanical seal is a normal technology applied on middle axis of liquid rocket turbo pump, and the kinetic and static seal rings contact low temperature rocket propellant. Copper-graphite (Cu/C) composite as an excellent self-lubrication material was widely used in aerospace industry, this study took Cu/C as ball and bearing steel as disk to investigate the tribology properties, and distilled water were used to simulate the lox tribology performances. This study prepared polytrifluorochloroethylene (PCTFE) micro-particles which were coated on the oxide surfaces of bearing steel disk at temperature of 150 °C. The tribology results showed that the oxide surfaces treated with micro PCTFE particles have lower fiction coefficient and lower wear rate than original disk in water, and the wear morphology revealed that the treated surfaces obviously had less Cu/C composite transfer film than original disk. Meanwhile SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS and light microscope etc revealed that PCTFE micro-particles could associate with the oxide surfaces and caused higher water contact angle, due to the properties of the fluorine-containing composite may cause the good lubrication effect in water. Thus this technology shows great potential to enhance tribological performances for aerospace industry on a large scale.

  2. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  3. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  4. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  5. Thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gas lubricated thrust bearing is described which employs relatively rigid inwardly cantilevered spokes carrying a relatively resilient annular member or annulus. This annulus acts as a beam on which are mounted bearing pads. The resilience of the beam mount causes the pads to accept the load and, with proper design, responds to a rotating thrust-transmitting collar by creating a gas film between the pads and the thrust collar. The bearing may be arranged for load equalization thereby avoiding the necessity of gimbal mounts or the like for the bearing. It may also be arranged to respond to rotation in one or both directions.

  6. Polar Bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and petroleum extraction and related human activities such as shipping road-building, and seismic testing (Stirling 1990).Little was known at the start of this project about how polar bears move about in their environment, and although it was understood that many bears travel across political borders, the boundaries of populations had not been delineated (Amstrup 1986, Amstrup et al. 1986, Amstrup and DeMaster 1988, Garner et al. 1994, Amstrup 1995, Amstrup et al. 1995, Amstrup 2000).As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, managers must know the sizes and distributions of the polar bear populations. Resource managers also need reliable estimates of breeding rates, reproductive intervals, litter sizes, and survival of young and adults.Our objectives for this research were 1) to determine the seasonal and annual movements of polar bears in the Beaufort Sea, 2) to define the boundaries of the population(s) using this region, 3) to determine the size and status of the Beaufort Sea polar bear population, and 4) to establish reproduction and survival rates (Amstrup 2000).

  7. Reduction-induced inward diffusion and crystal growth on the surfaces of iron-bearing silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.J.; Tao, H.Z.; Zhang, Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the sodium inward diffusion (i.e., sodium diffusion from surface toward interior) in iron containing alkaline earth silicate glasses under reducing conditions around Tg and the induced surface crystallization. The surface crystallization is caused by formation of a silicate-gel layer...... first and then the growth of silica crystals on the glass surface. The type of alkaline earth cations has a strong impact on both the glass transition and the surface crystallization. In the Mg-containing glass, a quartz layer forms on the glass surface. This could be attributed to the fact that Mg2......+ ions have stronger bonds to oxygen and lower coordination number (4~5) than Ca2+, Sr2+ and Ba2+ ions. In contrast, a cristobalite layer forms in Ca-, Sr- and Ba-containing glasses....

  8. Why did the bear cross the road? Comparing the performance of multiple resistance surfaces and connectivity modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jesse S. Lewis; Erin L. Landguth

    2014-01-01

    There have been few assessments of the performance of alternative resistance surfaces, and little is known about how connectivity modeling approaches differ in their ability to predict organism movements. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of four connectivity modeling approaches applied to two resistance surfaces in predicting the locations of highway...

  9. Permanent-Magnet Meissner Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1994-01-01

    Permanent-magnet meissner bearing features inherently stable, self-centering conical configuration. Bearing made stiffer or less stiff by selection of magnets, springs, and spring adjustments. Cylindrical permanent magnets with axial magnetization stacked coaxially on rotor with alternating polarity. Typically, rare-earth magnets used. Magnets machined and fitted together to form conical outer surface.

  10. From the Slab to the Surface: Origin, Storage, Ascent, and Eruption of Volatile-Bearing Magmas in the Aleutian arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, D.; Plank, T. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Rasmussen, D. J.; Power, J. A.; Lyons, J. J.; Haney, M. M.; Werner, C. A.; Kern, C.; Lopez, T. M.; Izbekov, P. E.; Stelling, P. L.

    2016-12-01

    We present initial results from an integrated geochemical-geophysical study of the Unimak-Cleveland corridor of the Aleutian volcanic arc, which encompasses six volcanoes spanning 450 km of the arc that have erupted in the past 25 years with a wide range of magmatic water contents. This relatively small corridor also exhibits a range of deep and upper-crustal seismicity, apparent magma storage depths, and depths to the subducting tectonic plate. The ultimate goal of this study is to link two normally disconnected big-picture problems: 1) the deep origin of magmas and volatiles, and 2) the formation and eruption of crustal magma reservoirs, which we will do by establishing the depth(s) of crustal magma reservoirs and pre-eruptive volatile contents throughout the corridor. Our preliminary work focuses on the geographic end members Shishaldin Volcano, which last erupted in 2014-2015, and Cleveland Volcano, which last erupted in April-May of this year (2016). Both systems are persistently degassing, open-vent volcanoes whose frequent eruptions are typically characterized by minimal precursory seismicity, making eruption forecasting challenging. At Cleveland, we analyze data from a 12-station broadband seismic network deployed from August 2015-July 2016, which is complemented by two permanent seismo-acoustic stations operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). We also analyze tephras from recent eruptions (including 2016) and conducted ground- and helicopter-based gas emission surveys. At Shishaldin, we analyze data from the permanent AVO network, which is comprised of mainly short-period, single-component seismic stations. We also present preliminary analyses of samples of recent eruptive deposits and gas emission data. Through integration of these various datasets we present preliminary interpretations related to the origin, storage, ascent and eruption of volatile-bearing magmas at Cleveland and Shishaldin volcanoes.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3564, Jowand (405) and Gurziwan (406) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Effect of surface passivation on corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of Cu-bearing 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Xu, Dake; Shahzad, M. Babar; Kang, Qiang; Sun, Ying; Sun, Ziqing; Zhang, Shuyuan; Ren, Ling; Yang, Chunguang; Yang, Ke

    2016-11-01

    The resistance for pitting corrosion, passive film stability and antibacterial performance of 316L-Cu SS passivated by nitric acid solution containing certain concentration of copper sulfate, were studied by electrochemical cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and co-culture with bacteria. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze the Cu2+ ions release from 316L-Cu SS surface. XPS analysis proved that the enrichment of CuO, Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3 on the surface of specimen could simultaneously guarantee a better corrosion resistance and stable antibacterial properties. The biocompatibility evaluation determined by RTCA assay also indicated that the 316L-Cu SS after antibacterial passivation was completely biocompatible.

  13. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  14. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  15. Improvement of bearing support lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehovtseva E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine engine bearing supports is an important part in providing product efficiency of general and special-purpose engineering industry. Attempts are being made to increase efficiency of bearing support. Such attempts are caused by the modern tendency of the development of engineering striving for compact machines and units possessing increased reliability and durability. Researches on finding discrepancies in operation of support for this purpose have been executed. The reasons of occurrence the fatigue crumbling on external bearing races at different stages development of working surface damage have been investigated. The basic constructions of support of shaft for the aviation gas turbine engine and methods of their lubrication have been considered. Shortcomings of existing methods of lubrication of bearing supports have been marked. The upgraded construction of the module of gas turbine bearing shaft, which allows to improve conditions of lubrication and bearing cooling as a result of a uniform oil feed to the contact zones of outside bearing race and rolling elements and forced oil removal from contact zones of inside bearing race and rolling elements has been suggested. The task of improving conditions of lubrication supply to an internal holder of the bearing has been solved. The developed design allows applying unconventional methods of lubrication and cooling of a bearing support. Thus it is recommended to use process of regulation of a microrough on working surfaces bearing support during grinding-in. It will allow to improve a stage grinding-in and to increase reliability and durability of bearing support.

  16. Oxidised zirconium versus cobalt alloy bearing surfaces in total knee arthroplasty: 3D laser scanning of retrieved polyethylene inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F L; Koch, C N; Elpers, M E; Wright, T M; Haas, S B; Heyse, T J

    2017-06-01

    We sought to establish whether an oxidised zirconium (OxZr) femoral component causes less loss of polyethylene volume than a cobalt alloy (CoCr) femoral component in total knee arthroplasty. A total of 20 retrieved tibial inserts that had articulated with OxZr components were matched with 20 inserts from CoCr articulations for patient age, body mass index, length of implantation, and revision diagnosis. Changes in dimensions of the articular surfaces were compared with those of pristine inserts using laser scanning. The differences in volume between the retrieved and pristine surfaces of the two groups were calculated and compared. The loss of polyethylene volume was 122 mm 3 (standard deviation (sd) 87) in the OxZr group and 170 mm 3 (sd 96) in the CoCr group (p = 0.033). The volume loss in the OxZr group was also lower in the medial (72 mm 3 (sd 67) versus 92 mm 3 (sd 60); p = 0.096) and lateral (49 mm 3 (sd 36) versus 79 mm 3 (sd 61); p = 0.096) compartments separately, but these differences were not significant. Our results corroborate earlier findings from in vitro testing and visual retrieval analysis which suggest that polyethylene volume loss is lower with OxZr femoral components. Since both OxZr and CoCr are hard surfaces that would be expected to create comparable amounts of polyethylene creep, the differences in volume loss may reflect differences in the in vivo wear of these inserts. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:793-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. Ten-year follow-up study of three alternative bearing surfaces used in total hip arthroplasty in young patients: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrey, A; Ward, S E; Khoshbin, A; Hussain, N; Bogoch, E; Schemitsch, E H; Waddell, J P

    2017-12-01

    We present the ten-year data of a cohort of patients, aged between 18 and 65 years (mean age 52.7 years; 19 to 64), who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Patients were randomised to be treated with a cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral head with an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) or ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearing surface. A total of 102 hips (91 patients) were randomised into the three groups. At ten years, 97 hips were available for radiological and functional follow-up. Two hips (two patients) had been revised (one with deep infection and one for periprosthetic fracture) and three were lost to follow-up. Radiological analysis was performed using a validated digital assessment programme to give linear, directional and volumetric wear of the two polyethylene groups. There was a significantly reduced rate of steady-state linear wear with XLPE (0.07 mm/yr) compared with UHMWPE (0.37 mm/yr) (p = 0.001). Volumetric wear was also significantly reduced in the XLPE group (29.29 mm 3 /yr) compared with the UHMWPE group (100.75mm 3 /yr) (p = 0.0001). There were six patients with UHMWPE who had non-progressive osteolysis and none in the XLPE group. All three bearing groups had significant improvements in 12-item short form health survey scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score and Harris Hip Score. However, the improvement in HSS was significantly less in the UHMWPE group (p = 0.0188) than in the other two groups. At ten years, the rates of volumetric and linear wear in the XLPE group remain low and predominantly below the estimated threshold for osteolysis (1 mm/yr). The rate of linear wear in the XLPE group was three times less than in the UHMWPE group at five-year follow-up and five times less at ten years. The rate of volumetric wear was also three times less in the XLPE group at ten years. While CoC also performs well, XLPE at ten years remains a safe and excellent bearing option

  18. Changes in Specific Surface as observed by NMR, caused by saturation of Chalk with porewater bearing divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Addassi, Mouadh; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry has proved to be a good technique for determining the petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks; such as porosity and pore size distribution. We investigated how pore water rich in divalent ions affect the NMR signal from chalk with two different...... samples where precipitation takes place were found to show shifts in the T2 relaxation curve due to the creation of crystals. We were able to identify how differences in the rock texture and precipitants within the pore space may affect the transverse relaxation time by altering the surface......-to-volume ratio of the pore space. The results of this work could benefit the ongoing study on the optimization of the water composition for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods and shed light on how it can affect the mechanical and physical properties of the rock....

  19. Deformation Analysis of Fixed Bearing Inclined Plane Thrust Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yong--hai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of lubrication,Numerical simulation of the deformation of the thrust bearing of the fixed inclined plane was carried out,by finite element numerical analysis method and using the ANSYS software. The mathematical model of the oil film shape control equations about of the deformation and bearing is established. Analytical result showed that the force caused the tile surface generating concave deformation,and convex deformation increased with the height and the size of the load and bearing;Tile surface temperature generated convex deformation and increased with the height and the size of the temperature of bearing bush;The actual deformation of the tile surface is the superposition of the force and the thermal deformation. This conclusion can provide reference for the design and the application of thrust bearing,to reduce the tile surface,which is not conducive to the carrying capacity of the concave deformation.

  20. Passive Thermal Management of Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for passive thermal management of foil bearing systems are disclosed herein. The flow of the hydrodynamic film across the surface of bearing compliant foils may be disrupted to provide passive cooling and to improve the performance and reliability of the foil bearing system.

  1. Novas superfícies em artroplastia total do quadril New bearing surfaces in total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A artroplastia total do quadril tem sido indicada cada vez mais em pacientes mais jovens e ativos, além de haver uma natural e crescente demanda do procedimento em função do aumento da expectativa de vida dos pacientes. Os altos custos da cirurgia e as controvérsias da performance dos implantes fazem deste assunto objeto de constantes pesquisas na busca de novos materiais com melhores resistências ao desgaste e biocompatibilidade. O presente artigo abrange um estudo de revisão das novas superfícies em artroplastia total do quadril.Total hip arthroplasty is being increasingly indicated for younger and more active patients, in addition to a naturally growing demand for the procedure because of increasing life expectancy among patients. The high costs of this surgery and the controversies regarding implant performance have made this topic the subject of constant research, seeking new materials with better resistance to wear and better biocompatibility. The present article provides a review of new surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

  2. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The monitoring data were collected for the multiple programmatic purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) and have been reported in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Annual Monitoring report presents only the results of the monitoring data evaluations required for waste management sites addressed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Regime. The Annual Monitoring Report also serves as a consolidated reference for the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained throughout the Bear Creek Regime under the auspices of the Y-12 GWPP. This report provides an evaluation of the CY 1996 monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater and surface water quality and long-term concentration trends of regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters

  3. Evaluation of Calendar Year 1996 groundwater and surface water quality data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring data obtained in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1996. The monitoring data were collected for the multiple programmatic purposes of the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) and have been reported in Calendar Year 1996 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the US Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Annual Monitoring report presents only the results of the monitoring data evaluations required for waste management sites addressed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) post-closure permit for the Bear Creek Regime. The Annual Monitoring Report also serves as a consolidated reference for the groundwater and surface water monitoring data obtained throughout the Bear Creek Regime under the auspices of the Y-12 GWPP. This report provides an evaluation of the CY 1996 monitoring data with an emphasis on regime-wide groundwater and surface water quality and long-term concentration trends of regulated and non-regulated monitoring parameters.

  4. The adsorption and lubrication behavior of synovial fluid proteins and glycoproteins on the bearing-surface materials of hip replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Marcella; Naka, Marco; Gautier, Emanuel; Spencer, Nicholas D; Crockett, Rowena

    2009-04-01

    The selectivity of synovial fluid protein adsorption onto ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and alumina (Al(2)O(3)), and in particular the ability of glycoproteins to adsorb in the presence of all the other synovial fluid proteins, was investigated by means of fluorescence microscopy and gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The non-specific nature of protein adsorption from synovial fluid indicated that the lubrication of artificial hip-joint materials may not be attributable to a single protein as has been frequently suggested. The friction behavior of polyethylene (PE) sliding against Al(2)O(3) in solutions of bovine serum albumin (BSA), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) was investigated by means of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy. BSA was shown to be a poorer boundary lubricant than the phosphate buffered saline used as a control. This was attributed to denaturation of the BSA upon adsorption, which provided a high-shear-strength layer at the interface, impairing the lubrication. Interestingly, both the glycoproteins AGP and A1AT, despite their low concentrations, improved lubrication. The lubricating properties of AGP and A1AT were attributed to adsorption via the hydrophobic backbone, allowing the hydrophilic carbohydrate moieties to be exposed to the aqueous solution, thus providing a low-shear-strength fluid film that lubricated the system. The amount of glycoprotein adsorbed on hydrophobic surfaces was determined by means of optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS), allowing conclusions to be drawn about the conformation of the glycan residues following adsorption.

  5. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2009-01-01

    minimizing it on the opposite side. The advantage of this configuration is that it makes it possible to approach the theoretical maximum force per unit area that could be exerted by a given amount of permanent-magnet material. The configuration is named after physicist Klaus Halbach, who conceived it for use in particle accelerators. Halbach arrays have also been studied for use in magnetic-levitation ("maglev") railroad trains. In a radial Halbach magnetic bearing, the basic Halbach arrangement is modified into a symmetrical arrangement of sector-shaped permanent magnets mounted on the outer cylindrical surface of a drum rotor (see Figure 2). The magnets are oriented to concentrate the magnetic field on their radially outermost surface. The stator coils are mounted in a stator shell surrounding the rotor.

  6. Electron beam melting of bearing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmied, G.; Schuler, A. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik); Elsinger, G.; Koroschetz, F. (MIBA Gleitlager AG, Laakirchen (Austria)); Tschegg, E.K. (Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte und Technische Physik)

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports on a surface treatment method for the bearing materials AlSn6 which permits the use of this material without the overlay usually required. Microstructural refinement is achieved by means of a surface melting technique using an electron beam with successive rapid solidification. Extremely fine tin precipitates are formed in the melted surface layer which lead to significantly better tribological properties of the bearing material. Tests compared the tribological properties for AlSn6 bearings treated by the surface melting technique with those of untreated bearings. Whereas all untreated bearings failed by seizure after only 2 h of testing, 30% of the tested bearings which had been surface melted survived the entire testing program without damage.

  7. Final Technical Report. Reactivity of Iron-Bearing Minerals and CO2 Sequestration and Surface Chemistry of Pyrite. An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strongin, Daniel [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Over the course of the scientific program, two areas of research were pursued: reactions of iron oxides with supercritical CO2 and sulfide and surface reactivity of pyrite. The latter area of interest was to understand the chemistry that results when supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) with H2 S and/or SO2 in deep saline formations (DFS) contacts iron bearing minerals. Understanding the complexities the sulfur co-injectants introduce is a critical step in developing CO2 sequestration as a climate-mitigating strategy. The research strategy was to understand macroscopic observations of this chemistry with an atomic/molecular level view using surface analytical techniques. Research showed that the exposure of iron (oxyhdr)oxides (which included ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite) to scCO2 in the presence of sulfide led to reactions that formed siderite (FeCO3). The results have important implications for the sequestration of CO2 via carbonation reactions in the Earth’s subsurface. An earlier area of focus in the project was to understand pyrite oxidation in microscopic detail. This understanding was used to understand macroscopic observations of pyrite reactivity. Results obtained from this research led to a better understanding how pyrite reacts in a range of chemical environments. Geochemical and modern surface science techniques were used to understand the chemistry of pyrite in important environmental conditions. The program relied on a strong integration the results of these techniques to provide a fundamental understanding to the macroscopic chemistry exhibited by pyrite in the environment. Major achievements during these studies included developing an understanding of the surface sites on pyrite that controlled its reactivity under oxidizing conditions. In particular sulfur anion vacancies and/or ferric sites were sites of reactivity. Studies also showed that the

  8. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Surface Sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments in the Shenhu area of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Shen, Z.; Jia, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Methane hydrates are superior energy resources and potential predisposing factors of geohazard. With the success in China's persistent exploitation of methane hydrates in the Shenhu area of South China Sea for 60 days, there is an increasing demand for detailed knowledge of sediment properties and hazard assessment in this area. In this paper, the physical and mechanical properties of both the surface sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) in the exploitation area, the Shenhu area of South China Sea, were investigated using laboratory geotechnical experiments, and triaxial tests were carried out on remolded sediment samples using a modified triaxial apparatus. The results show that sediments in this area are mainly silt with high moisture content, high plasticity, low permeability and low shear strength. The moisture content and permeability decrease while the shear strength increases with the increasing depth. The elastic modulus and peak strength of MHBS increase with the increasing effective confining pressure and higher hydrate saturation. The cohesion increases with higher hydrate saturation while the internal friction angle is barely affected by hydrate saturation. The obtained results demonstrate clearly that methane hydrates have significant impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of sediments and there is still a wide gap in knowledge about MHBS.

  9. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.

  10. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  11. Magnetic bearing and motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

  12. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively

  13. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  14. Dynamic analysis of double-row self-aligning ball bearings due to applied loads, internal clearance, surface waviness and number of balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yaobin; Zhou, Xiaojun; Yang, Chenlong

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a three degrees of freedom (dof) model was established for a double-row self-aligning ball bearing (SABB) system, and was applied to study the dynamic behavior of the system during starting process and constant speed rotating process. A mathematical model was developed concerning stiffness and damping characteristics of the bearing, as well as three-dimensional applied load, rotor centrifugal force, etc. Balls and races were all considered as nonlinear springs, and the contact force between ball and race was calculated based on classic Hertzian elastic contact deformation theory and deformation compatibility theory. The changes of each ball's contact force and loaded angle of each row were taken into account. In order to solve the nonlinear dynamical equilibrium equations of the system, these equations were rewritten as differential equations and the fourth order Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equations iteratively. In order to verify accuracy of the dynamical model and correctness of the numerical solution method, a kind of SABB-BRF30 was chosen for case studies. The effects of several important governing parameters, such as radial and axial applied loads, normal internal, inner and outer races waviness, and number of balls were investigated. These parametric studies led to a complete characterization of the shaft-bearing system vibration transmission. The research provided a theoretical reference for new type bearing design, shaft-bearing system kinetic analysis, optimal design, etc.

  15. Noise of oil lubricated journal bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Byoung Hoo; Kim, Kyung Woong

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide a procedure to calculate the noise of oil lubricated journal bearings. To do this, the nonlinear transient analysis of rotor-bearing system including rotor imbalance is performed. Acoustical properties of the bearing are investigated through frequency analysis of the pressure fluctuation of the fluid film calculated from the nonlinear analysis. Furthermore, a transmission theory of plane waves on a boundary of the outer surface of the bearing is used to obtain the sound pressure level of the bearing. Results show that the sound pressure level of the bearing can be increased with the rotational speed of the rotor although the whirl amplitude of the rotor is decreased at high speed. Noise estimating procedures presented in this paper could be an aid in the evaluation and understanding of acoustical properties of oil lubricated journal bearings

  16. Performance studies of oil lubricated helical groove journal bearing

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair

    1992-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The provision of helical grooves on the surface of a plain journal bearing can improve the stability of a rotor-bearing system. However, the improvement depends on the arrangement of the grooves along the axial length of the bearing. In order to verify this improved stability three types of helical groove bearing and a reference plain journal bearing were investigated. The helical groove jour...

  17. Deterioration Assessment of Bridge Rubber Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Haosheng; 伊藤, 義人; Itoh, Yoshito

    2005-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) with lead plugs and high damping rubber (HDR) are often used for base-isolated rubber bearings. However, it is usually known that ageing causes rubber performance to drop. This research is to study the deterioration characteristics of these two kinds of bridge rubber bearings through accelerated thermal oxidation tests. The property variations inside the aged rubber blocks are investigated. For natural rubber bearing, the mechanical properties on the surface change the mos...

  18. Scaling laws for radial foil bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavara Prasad, Srikanth

    The effects of fluid pressurization, structural deformation of the compliant members and heat generation in foil bearings make the design and analysis of foil bearings very complicated. The complex fluid-structural-thermal interactions in foil bearings also make modeling efforts challenging because these phenomena are governed by highly non-linear partial differential equations. Consequently, comparison of various bearing designs require detailed calculation of the flow fields (velocities, pressures), bump deflections (structural compliance) and heat transfer phenomena (viscous dissipation in the fluid, frictional heating, temperature profile etc.,) resulting in extensive computational effort (time/hardware). To obviate rigorous computations and aid in feasibility assessments of foil bearings of various sizes, NASA developed the "rule of thumb" design guidelines for estimation of journal bearing load capacity. The guidelines are based on extensive experimental data. The goal of the current work is the development of scaling laws for radial foil bearings to establish an analytical "rule of thumb" for bearing clearance and bump stiffness. The use of scale invariant Reynolds equation and experimentally observed NASA "rule of thumb" yield scale factors which can be deduced from first principles. Power-law relationships between: a. Bearing clearance and bearing radius, and b. bump stiffness and bearing radius, are obtained. The clearance and bump stiffness values obtained from scaling laws are used as inputs for Orbit simulation to study various cases. As the clearance of the bearing reaches the dimensions of the material surface roughness, asperity contact breaks the fluid film which results in wear. Similarly, as the rotor diameter increases (requiring larger bearing diameters), the load capacity of the fluid film should increase to prevent dry rubbing. This imposes limits on the size of the rotor diameter and consequently bearing diameter. Therefore, this thesis aims

  19. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  20. Eddy-Current Inspection of Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, B.

    1985-01-01

    Custom eddy-current probe locates surface anomalies. Low friction air cushion within cone allows ball to roll easily. Eddy current probe reliably detects surface and near-surface cracks, voids, and material anomalies in bearing balls or other spherical objects. Defects in ball surface detected by probe displayed on CRT and recorded on strip-chart recorder.

  1. Improved gas thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. J.; Etsion, I.

    1979-01-01

    Two variations of gas-lubricated thrust bearings extend substantially load-carrying range over existing gas bearings. Dual-Action Gas Thrust Bearing's load-carrying capacity is more than ninety percent greater than that of single-action bearing over range of compressibility numbers. Advantages of Cantilever-mounted Thrust Bearing are greater tolerance to dirt ingestion, good initial lift-off characteristics, and operational capability over wide temperature range.

  2. Bearing assemblies, apparatuses, and motor assemblies using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Timothy N.; Cooley, Craig H.; Knuteson, Cody W.

    2015-12-29

    Various embodiments of the invention relate to bearing assemblies, apparatuses and motor assemblies that include geometric features configured to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and/or hydrodynamic film formation. In an embodiment, a bearing assembly may include a plurality of superhard bearing pads distributed circumferentially about an axis. At least some of the plurality of superhard bearing pads may include a plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements defining a bearing surface. At least some of the plurality of sub-superhard bearing elements may be spaced from one another by one or more voids to impart a selected amount of heat transfer and hydrodynamic film formation thereon during operation. The bearing assembly may also include a support ring that carries the plurality of superhard bearing pads. In addition, at least a portion of the sub-superhard bearing elements may extend beyond the support ring.

  3. Vibration model of rolling element bearings in a rotor-bearing system for fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Feiyun; Chen, Jin; Dong, Guangming; Pecht, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Rolling element bearing faults are among the main causes of breakdown in rotating machines. In this paper, a rolling bearing fault model is proposed based on the dynamic load analysis of a rotor-bearing system. The rotor impact factor is taken into consideration in the rolling bearing fault signal model. The defect load on the surface of the bearing is divided into two parts, the alternate load and the determinate load. The vibration response of the proposed fault signal model is investigated and the fault signal calculating equation is derived through dynamic and kinematic analysis. Outer race and inner race fault simulations are realized in the paper. The simulation process includes consideration of several parameters, such as the gravity of the rotor-bearing system, the imbalance of the rotor, and the location of the defect on the surface. The simulation results show that different amplitude contributions of the alternate load and determinate load will cause different envelope spectrum expressions. The rotating frequency sidebands will occur in the envelope spectrum in addition to the fault characteristic frequency. This appearance of sidebands will increase the difficulty of fault recognition in intelligent fault diagnosis. The experiments given in the paper have successfully verified the proposed signal model simulation results. The test rig design of the rotor bearing system simulated several operating conditions: (1) rotor bearing only; (2) rotor bearing with loader added; (3) rotor bearing with loader and rotor disk; and (4) bearing fault simulation without rotor influence. The results of the experiments have verified that the proposed rolling bearing signal model is important to the rolling bearing fault diagnosis of rotor-bearing systems.

  4. Experiments with needle bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Pericle

    1933-01-01

    Experiments and results are presented in testing needle bearings, especially in comparison with roller bearings. Reduction in coefficient of friction is discussed as well as experimental methods and recording devices.

  5. Coating Hydrostatic Bearings To Resist Ignition In Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Merle E.

    1993-01-01

    Coats of superalloy MA754 plasma-sprayed onto occasionally rubbing surfaces of hydrostatic journal bearings operating in liquid and/or gaseous oxygen, according to proposal. Prevents ignition and combustion occurring when components made of stainless steels or other conventional bearing alloys rub against each other in oxygen. Eliminates need for runner and enhances control over critical bearing clearance.

  6. Technique for improving hydrodynamic gyro bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, P., Jr.; Burch, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    Conical or spherical, spirally grooved grease bearings have an inclined surface which is machined inboard of the grooved surface. The indentation and inclined surface provide a reservoir for forced out lubricant, and when rotation begins, centrifugal force returns the lubricant to the grooved area.

  7. Device Rotates Bearing Balls For Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    Entire surface of ball inspected automatically and quickly. Device holds and rotates bearing ball for inspection by optical or mechanical surface-quality probe, eddy-current probe for detection of surface or subsurface defects, or circumference-measuring tool. Ensures entire surface of ball moves past inspection head quickly. New device saves time and increases reliability of inspections of spherical surfaces. Simple to operate and provides quick and easy access for loading and unloading of balls during inspection.

  8. Wear Analysis of Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; Parten, Randy J [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Geer, Tom [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this effort was to investigate and characterize the nature of surface damage and wear to wind turbine gearbox bearings returned from service in the field. Bearings were supplied for examination by S. Butterfield and J. Johnson of the National Wind Technology Center (NREL), Boulder, Colorado. Studies consisted of visual examination, optical and electron microscopy, dimensional measurements of wear-induced macro-scale and micro-scale features, measurements of macro- and micro-scale hardness, 3D imaging of surface damage, studies of elemental distributions on fracture surfaces, and examinations of polished cross-sections of surfaces under various etched and non-etched conditions.

  9. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... about their childhood teddy bears, and children's accounts of what they do with teddy bears, both written for school and told 'out of school', The chapter sees teddy bears as artefacts that provide a cultural channeling for the child's need of a transitional object and argues that the meanings of teddy...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....

  10. The Ideal Total Hip Replacement Bearing Surface in the Young Patient: A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Alumina Ceramic-On-Ceramic With Ceramic-On-Conventional Polyethylene: 15-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atrey, Amit; Wolfstadt, Jesse I; Hussain, Nasir; Khoshbin, Amir; Ward, Sarah; Schemitsch, Emil H; Waddell, James P

    2017-12-06

    The optimum bearing surface for total hip arthroplasty remains debatable. We have previously published our outcome at 10 years and this represents the 15-year follow-up. A total of 58 hips (in 57 patients with a mean age of 42 years) were randomized to receive either ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) or ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP) total hip arthroplasty. We prospectively followed for survivorship, functional outcomes (using the Harris Hip Score and the St Michael's Hip Score [SMH]), and radiological outcomes. At a minimum of 15 years, 3 patients had died, but not been revised. Seven were lost to follow-up. Five cases from the CoP group were revised (4 for polyethylene wear and osteolysis). Four from the CoC were revised; one each for head fracture, instability, infection, and trunnionosis. Both groups showed statistically significant improvements in Harris Hip Score scores and SMH functional scores, with no difference between the 2 bearings. For the CoP group, there was an improvement from 15.6 to 21.5 in the SMH and from 48.8 to 88.7 (P > .05); and for CoC, this improvement was 15.8 to 23.5 and 50.3 to 94.6 (P > .05), respectively. Mean wear rate of the polyethylene was 0.092 mm/y and for the CoC was 0.018 mm/y. Two patients in the CoC group had evidence of acetabular osteolysis vs 3 in the CoP. Six patients had femoral osteolysis in the CoC group and 12 in the CoP group. Survivorship and function of the 2 bearing groups remains comparable; while the polyethylene wear and osteolysis may represent issues in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Failure of GIMBAL bearing in directional GYRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervaiz, R.; Baig, N.A.; Shahid, M.; Ahmad, A.; Chohan, G.Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper relates to the directional gyro of a sensing device used in indigenously developed surface-to-surface missile. The assembling of more than one thousand components in the form of several sub assemblies including hundreds of silver solders of this device was done in the hundred-thousands-class clean room according to assembly procedure. Whereas more than twenty bearings including gimbals bearings were assembled in the ten-thousands-class clean room after inspection/ testing them on beating testing system as per routine. The device was entered in testing and adjustment phase after successful completion of assembly work. The directional gyro qualified all the tests except the most critical one, the drift-rate. The drift-rate of outer gimbal was 60% more than permissible limit whereas drift-rate of inner gimbal was found O.K. It was diagnosed that at least one inner gimbal bearing out of two had some problem. The results were same after rebalancing of gimbals three times. The directional gyro was disassembled in clean room and the radial-thrust-bearing was recovered and flange bearing which are inner gimbal bearings. They were checked on bearing testing system and it was found that flange-bearing had more friction than permissible limit and hence rejected but radial thrust bearing were declared O.K. The gyro was reassembled with new O.K. flange bearing and the assembly work was completed in all respects. The sensing device qualified all the tests including the drift-rate. This case study is being presented to emphasize the importance of careful assembly of gyro in clean environment. (author)

  12. Analysis of partially textured slider and journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. V. V. L. N.; Rani, A. M. A.; Nagarajan, T.; Hashim, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    The partial texturing of bearing surfaces with different shapes of textures and at different locations is an effective approach to improve the performance of bearings. The present study examines the effects of texture configuration on improvement in load capacity and reduction in friction coefficient for slider and journal bearing. This work presents nondimensional pressure expressions for the partially textured slider and journal bearing. The nondimensional pressure expressions are derived taking into consideration of texture geometry and extent of partial texture on the bearing surface. The Reynolds boundary conditions are used in the analysis to predict nondimensional load capacity and coefficient of friction. Even for nominally parallel surfaces, partial texturing of bearing surfaces has a potential to generate load carrying capacity and reduce coefficient of friction.

  13. Camshaft bearing arrangement for overhead cam engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    In an assembly for an internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder block, a cylinder head detachably affixed to the cylinder block by a plurality of threaded fastening means, a plurality of poppet valves supported for reciprocation in the cylinder head and a camshaft for operating the poppet valves, the improvement is described comprising a cam carrier detachably affixed to the cylinder head and overlying the threaded fastening means, and a bearing cap affixed to the cam carrier. The cam carrier and the bearing cap have bearing surfaces for journaling the camshaft.

  14. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  15. Blade Bearing Friction Estimation of Operating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Blade root bearing on a wind turbine (WTG) enables pitching of blades for power control and rotor braking and is a WTG critical component. As the size of modern WTGs is constantly increasing, this leads to relatively less rigid bearings, more sensitive to deformations, thus WTG operational...... reliability can be increased by continuous monitoring of blade bearing. High blade bearing friction is undesirable, as it may be associated with excessive heating of the surfaces, damage and/or inefficient operation. Thus, continuous observation of bearing friction level is crucial for blade bearing health...... monitoring systems. A novel algorithm for online monitoring of bearing friction level is developed combining physical knowledge about pitch system dynamics with state estimator, i.e. observer theory and signal processing assuming realistic sensor availability. Results show estimation of bearing friction...

  16. Thermal effects in an accelerating thrust bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, R.; Rodkiewicz, C. M.; Gupta, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    This study is mainly concerned with the development of transient temperatures in a thrust bearing. The effect of Prandtl number on temperatures was also investigated. All lubricant properties were assumed to be constant. It was found that the location of highest temperatures depended on the bearing ratio. The effect of Prandtl number on temperatures was small. However, its effect on the heat transfer at the surfaces was significant.

  17. Risk of revision following total hip arthroplasty: metal-on-conventional polyethylene compared with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene bearing surfaces: international results from six registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Elizabeth; Cafri, Guy; Havelin, Leif; Stea, Susanna; Pallisó, Francesc; Graves, Stephen; Hoeffel, Daniel; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-12-17

    The results of randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have suggested reduced radiographic wear in highly cross-linked polyethylene compared with conventional polyethylene in primary total hip arthroplasty. However, longer-term clinical results have not been thoroughly examined, to our knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of revision for metal-on-conventional and metal-on-highly cross-linked total hip arthroplasty bearing surfaces with use of a distributed data network of six national and regional registries (Kaiser Permanente, HealthEast, the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy, the Catalan region in Spain, Norway, and Australia). Inclusion criteria were osteoarthritis as the primary diagnosis, cementless implant fixation, and a patient age of forty-five to sixty-four years. These criteria resulted in a sample of 16,571 primary total hip arthroplasties. Multivariate meta-analysis was performed with use of linear mixed models, with survival probability as the unit of analysis. The results of a fixed-effects model suggested that there was insufficient evidence of a difference in risk of revision between bearing surfaces (hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% confidence interval, 0.80 to 1.79]; p = 0.384). Highly cross-linked polyethylene does not appear to have a reduced risk of revision in this subgroup of total hip arthroplasty patients. Arthroplasties involving highly cross-linked polyethylene do not appear to have an increased risk of revision in this subgroup of total hip arthroplasty patients. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  18. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  19. Foil Bearing Coating Behavior in CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pasch, James Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleming, Darryn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Sandia S-CO2 Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) utilizes a series of gas foil bearings in its turbine-alternator-compressors. At high shaft rotational speed these bearings allow the shaft to ride on a cushion of air. Conversely, during startup and shutdown, the shaft rides along the foil bearing surface. Low-friction coatings are used on bearing surfaces in order to facilitate rotation during these periods. An experimental program was initiated to elucidate the behavior of coated bearing foils in the harsh environments of this system. A test configuration was developed enabling long duration exposure tests, followed by a range of analyses relevant to their performance in a bearing. This report provides a detailed overview of this work. The results contained herein provide valuable information in selecting appropriate coatings for more advanced future bearing-rig tests at the newly established test facility in Sandia-NM.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Journal Bearing Stability and New Gas Wave Bearing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin

    1998-01-01

    A gas journal bearing, with a wavy surfaces was tested in a range of speeds up to 18,000 RPM to determine its stability in an unloaded condition as a function of the wave amplitude. The bearing, was 50 mm in diameter, 58 mm long and had 0.01 65 mm radial clearance. Three waves were created on the inner surface by deforming the bearing sleeve. The ratio of the wave amplitude to the radial clearance (the wave amplitude ratio) was varied from zero to 0.3.

  1. Contact fatigue in rolling-element bearings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface contact fatigue is a common cause of failure in rolling-element bearings. The extent of damage observed depends on the contact loads, the curvature of the rolling elements, and the relative motion between the contacting surfaces...

  2. Chimeric human parainfluenza virus bearing the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the sole surface protein is immunogenic and highly protective against Ebola virus challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Marzi, Andrea; Feldmann, Friederike; Zhang Liqun; Yang Lijuan; Ward, Jerrold M.; Dorward, David W.; Pickles, Raymond J.; Murphy, Brian R.; Feldmann, Heinz; Collins, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    We generated a new live-attenuated vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV) based on a chimeric virus HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP that contains the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) as the sole transmembrane envelope protein combined with the internal proteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). Electron microscopy analysis of the virus particles showed that they have an envelope and surface spikes resembling those of EBOV and a particle size and shape resembling those of HPIV3. When HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP was inoculated via apical surface of an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium, the virus was released from the apical surface; when applied to basolateral surface, the virus infected basolateral cells but did not spread through the tissue. Following intranasal (IN) inoculation of guinea pigs, scattered infected cells were detected in the lungs by immunohistochemistry, but infectious HPIV3/ΔF-HN/EboGP could not be recovered from the lungs, blood, or other tissues. Despite the attenuation, the virus was highly immunogenic, and a single IN dose completely protected the animals against a highly lethal intraperitoneal challenge of guinea pig-adapted EBOV

  3. External Coulomb-Friction Damping For Hydrostatic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmann, Paul S.

    1992-01-01

    External friction device damps vibrations of shaft and hydrostatic ring bearing in which it turns. Does not rely on wear-prone facing surfaces. Hydrostatic bearing ring clamped in radially flexing support by side plates clamped against radial surfaces by spring-loaded bolts. Plates provide friction against radial motions of shaft.

  4. Low elastic modulus Ti–Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: Enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteven, Jazmin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Choe, Han-Choel [Department of Dental Materials, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys (10–30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium–aluminium–vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti–Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3 × 10{sup −4} mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4 × 10{sup −3} mm/y). All the Ti–Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1 × 10{sup −4} mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ∼ 22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ∼ 48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) showed ∼ 53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. - Highlights: • In vitro degradation of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys was studied. • Ta addition to Ti is beneficial for better degradation resistance. • Ti–Ta alloys perform better than commercially pure Ti. • Calcium phosphate coated Ti–Ta alloy is superior to Ti6Al4V alloy.

  5. Oxford phase III meniscal bearing fracture: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong-Chul; Shon, Won-Yong; Kim, Seung-Ju; Bae, Ji-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Meniscal bearing fracture is a rare complication of phase III Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). We report a case of a meniscal bearing fracture that occurred 7 years after phase III Oxford medial UKR. The meniscal bearing showed uneven delamination of the polyethylene in the thinnest articular surface and an impingement lesion. This lesion initiated a fatigue crack that propagated to cause failure of the meniscal bearing. This is the first report of a meniscal bearing fracture without a posterior marker wire. © 2013.

  6. The Influence of Pressure Distribution on the Maximum Values of Stress in FEM Analysis of Plain Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several methods can be used in the FEM studies to apply the loads on a plain bearing. The paper presents a comparative analysis of maximum stress obtained for three loading scenarios: resultant force applied on the shaft – bearing assembly, variable pressure with sinusoidal distribution applied on the bearing surface, variable pressure with parabolic distribution applied on the bearing surface.

  7. Assessing the Contribution of the CFRP Strip of Bearing the Applied Load Using Near-Surface Mounted Strengthening Technique with Innovative High-Strength Self-Compacting Cementitious Adhesive (IHSSC-CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient transfer of load between concrete substrate and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP by the bonding agent is the key factor in any FRP strengthening system. An innovative high-strength self-compacting non-polymer cementitious adhesive (IHSSC-CA was recently developed by the authors and has been used in a number of studies. Graphene oxide and cementitious materials are used to synthesise the new adhesive. The successful implementation of IHSSC-CA significantly increases carbon FRP (CFRP strip utilization and the load-bearing capacity of the near-surface mounted (NSM CFRP strengthening system. A number of tests were used to inspect the interfacial zone in the bonding area of NSM CFRP strips, including physical examination, pore structure analysis, and three-dimensional laser profilometery analysis. It was deduced from the physical inspection of NSM CFRP specimens made with IHSSC-CA that a smooth surface for load transfer was found in the CFRP strip without stress concentrations in some local regions. A smooth surface of the adhesive layer is very important for preventing localized brittle failure in the concrete. The pore structure analysis also confirmed that IHSSC-CA has better composite action between NSM CFRP strips and concrete substrate than other adhesives, resulting in the NSM CFRP specimens made with IHSSC-CA sustaining a greater load. Finally, the results of three-dimensional laser profilometery revealed a greater degree of roughness and less deformation on the surface of the CFRP strip when IHSSC-CA was used compared to other adhesives.

  8. Studies on Automobile Clutch Release Bearing Characteristics with Acoustic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Chen, Xiaoyang

    Automobile clutch release bearings are important automotive driveline components. For the clutch release bearing, early fatigue failure diagnosis is significant, but the early fatigue failure response signal is not obvious, because failure signals are susceptible to noise on the transmission path and to working environment factors such as interference. With an improvement in vehicle design, clutch release bearing fatigue life indicators have increasingly become an important requirement. Contact fatigue is the main failure mode of release rolling bearing components. Acoustic emission techniques in contact fatigue failure detection have unique advantages, which include highly sensitive nondestructive testing methods. In the acoustic emission technique to detect a bearing, signals are collected from multiple sensors. Each signal contains partial fault information, and there is overlap between the signals' fault information. Therefore, the sensor signals receive simultaneous source information integration is complete fragment rolling bearing fault acoustic emission signal, which is the key issue of accurate fault diagnosis. Release bearing comprises the following components: the outer ring, inner ring, rolling ball, cage. When a failure occurs (such as cracking, pitting), the other components will impact damaged point to produce acoustic emission signal. Release bearings mainly emit an acoustic emission waveform with a Rayleigh wave propagation. Elastic waves emitted from the sound source, and it is through the part surface bearing scattering. Dynamic simulation of rolling bearing failure will contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the characteristics of rolling bearing failure, because monitoring and fault diagnosis of rolling bearings provide a theoretical basis and foundation.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopic Analyses of Sulfate, Nitrate, and Carbonate-bearing Atacama Desert Soils: Analogs for the Interpretation of Infrared Spectra from the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Dalton, J. B.; Ewing, S. A.; Amundson, R.; McKay, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is the driest desert on Earth, receiving only a few mm of rain per decade. The Mars climate may, in the past, have been punctuated by short-lived episodes of aqueous activity. The paleo-Martian environment may have had aqueous conditions similar to the current conditions that exist in the Atacama, and Mars soils may have formed with soil chemistry and mineralogy similar to those found in the Atacama. Remote and in-situ analysis of the Martian surface using infrared technology has a long heritage. Future investigations of the subsurface mineralogy are likely to build upon this heritage, and will benefit from real life lessons to be learned from terrestrial analog studies. To that end, preliminary results from a near- and mid-infrared spectroscopic study of Atacama soil profiled at a range of depths are presented.

  10. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  11. On the computation of electrical resistance of hydrodynamic journal bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Pop

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper approaches the mathematical model of electrical resistance of hydrodynamic journal bearing under different parameters of operation so as to predict bearing performance and safe load carrying capacity. The currents circulating in the journal bearing of electrical machine causes reducing of lifespan by appearance of pitting on their surface and the degradation of the lubricant. In a hydrodynamic journal bearing, the zone of minimum film thickness, load-carrying oil film varies along the circumference of a bearing through its length. This has been found to form a capacitor of varying capacitance between the journal and the bearings dependent on permittivity of the lubricant used, the bearing length, the eccentricity ratio and the clearance ratio. Besides this, load-carrying on oil film offers resistance that depends on operating parameters and resistivity of the lubricant.

  12. Investigation of Bearing Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maciag, Walter

    1998-01-01

    .... They eliminate roller needles and balls in bearings. Since the GC design does not require lubrication maintenance, there is no need for the u-joint cross to contain lubrication reservoirs and distribution channels and their input fitting...

  13. DW_BEAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Subset of BEAR (Bi-Weekly Examination Analysis and Reporting) data used for financial audit remediation reporting within the Coast Guard Business Intelligence (CGBI)...

  14. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  15. A Low Friction Thrust Bearing for Reciprocating Compressors

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Shuhei; Kousokabe, Hirokatsu; Sekiyama, Nobuya; Ono, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    A thrust bearing with a micro texture on its sliding surface that produces hydrodynamic pressure was developed for use in reciprocating compressors. Evaluation using an elemental friction test showed that its friction loss was 20–60 % lower than that of the current design. Measurement of the efficiency of a compressor with the developed thrust bearing showed that the coefficient of performance was 1.4 % higher than that of a compressor with a conventional thrust bearing.

  16. Analysis of thermoelastohydrodynamic performance of journal misaligned engine main bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fengrong; Shao, Kang; Liu, Changwen; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Jian

    2015-05-01

    To understand the engine main bearings' working condition is important in order to improve the performance of engine. However, thermal effects and thermal effect deformations of engine main bearings are rarely considered simultaneously in most studies. A typical finite element model is selected and the effect of thermoelastohydrodynamic(TEHD) reaction on engine main bearings is investigated. The calculated method of main bearing's thermal hydrodynamic reaction and journal misalignment effect is finite difference method, and its deformation reaction is calculated by using finite element method. The oil film pressure is solved numerically with Reynolds boundary conditions when various bearing characteristics are calculated. The whole model considers a temperature-pressure-viscosity relationship for the lubricant, surface roughness effect, and also an angular misalignment between the journal and the bearing. Numerical simulations of operation of a typical I6 diesel engine main bearing is conducted and importance of several contributing factors in mixed lubrication is discussed. The performance characteristics of journal misaligned main bearings under elastohydrodynamic(EHD) and TEHD loads of an I6 diesel engine are received, and then the journal center orbit movement, minimum oil film thickness and maximum oil film pressure of main bearings are estimated over a wide range of engine operation. The model is verified through the comparison with other present models. The TEHD performance of engine main bearings with various effects under the influences of journal misalignment is revealed, this is helpful to understand EHD and TEHD effect of misaligned engine main bearings.

  17. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  18. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  19. The quality of materials applied for slewing bearing raceway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected slewing bearings and their application have been described in this article. Basic causes of the damage pitch surfaces of slewing bearings have been analysed and examples of the damage have been presented as well. Special attention was paid to these kinds of damage which appeared most often in the case of the pitch surfaces of the bearings and those ones which very often cause premature exchange of the bearing and its scrapping. On the basis of the conducted studies it was stated that the main cause of the damage to  the pitch surfaces of the bearings is the excessive load of rolling elements. Based on the results of the conducted analysis, actions limiting the occurrence of the damage to the pitch surfaces of the bearings, which lead to their premature exchange, have been proposed. One of the suggested actions, limiting the premature exchange of bearings, is the necessity of exceptionally thorough design and selection of the slewing bearings, including the conditions of their foundation

  20. Precise bearing support ditherer with piezoelectric drive means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assard, G. L.; Moorcroft, A. L.

    1985-06-01

    A relatively solid mounting surface, which may be part of a leveling gimbal, supports a piezoelectric bearing mount which has the properties of an acoustic transducer. The transducer has electrodes thereon which are powered from multi-phase electrical sources causing the bearing mount, and a bearing jewel which is rigid therewith, to move so as to dither the jewel in a rotary or other preselected fashion, thereby reducing bearing friction. Bandwidth, level and phasing sequence of the power sources are adjustable permitting optimized average dynamic motion and corresponding increased readout accuracy.

  1. Precision Magnetic Bearing Six Degree of Freedom Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. E.; Trumper, David L.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic bearings are capable of applying force and torque to a suspended object without rigidly constraining any degrees of freedom. Additionally, the resolution of magnetic bearings is limited only by sensors and control, and not by the finish of a bearing surface. For these reasons, magnetic bearings appear to be ideal for precision wafer positioning in lithography systems. To demonstrate this capability a linear magnetic bearing has been constructed which uses variable reluctance actuators to control the motion of a 14.5 kg suspended platen in five degrees of freedom. A Lorentz type linear motor of our own design and construction is used to provide motion and position control in the sixth degree of freedom. The stage performance results verify that the positioning requirements of photolithography can be met with a system of this type. This paper describes the design, control, and performance of the linear magnetic bearing.

  2. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  3. On the Design of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Pockets are often machined in the surfaces of tilting-pad thrust bearings to allow for hydrostatic jacking in the start-up phase. Pockets and other recesses in the surfaces of bearing pads influence the pressure distribution and thereby the position of the pivot resulting in the most advantageous...... friction and a small pressure build-up. As in parallel-step bearings the recesses may also have a depth of the same order of magnitude as the oil film thickness. Such recesses are characterized by a strong pressure build-up caused by the reduction of the flow area at the end of the recess. Numerical models...... based on the Reynolds equation are used. They include the effects of variations of viscosity with temperature and the deformation of the bearing pads due to pressure and thermal gradients. The models are validated using measurements. Tilting-pad bearings of standard design are studied and the influences...

  4. Non Linear Analysis on Multi Lobe Journal Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya Bhaskar, S.; Manzoor Hussian, M.; Yousuf Ali, Md.

    2017-08-01

    Multi lobe journal bearings are used in machines which operate at high speeds and high loads. In this paper the multi lobe bearing are analyzed to determine the effect of surface roughness during non linear loading. A non-linear time transient analysis is performed using the fourth order Runge Kutta method. The finite difference method is used to predict the pressure distribution over the bearing surface. The effect of eccentric ratio is studied and the variation of attitude angle is discussed. The journal center trajectories were calculated and plotted.

  5. Compliant hydrodynamic fluid journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An air bearing structure is described that prevents destructive bending moments within the top foil. Welds are eliminated by mounting the top bearing foil in the bearing cartridge sleeve without using a space block. Tabs or pins at the end of the top bearing foil are restrained by slots or stops formed in the cartridge sleeve. These structural members are free to move in a direction normal to the shaft while being restrained from movement in the direction of shaft rotation.

  6. Estimation of Hydrodynamic Parameters of Connecting Rod Plain Bearings of Pumping Plant of Powered Mine Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernin, M. V.; Mishin, A. V.; Rybkin, N. N.

    2017-10-01

    Expert evaluation of damage the connecting rod bearing shells UNP55-250 pump unit was performed. The finite elements method is used to calculate oil flow in the bearing clearance. Influence of operating defects on the parameters of hydrodynamics is also estimated. Calculations for various designs of connecting rod bearings are carried out and impact of various surface compliances is estimated.

  7. Hydrodynamic journal bearings: Capacity, wear, and lubrication. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings. Bearing load, lubrication, thermal effects, tolerance to misalignment, cavitation, and design are discussed. Studies on the effect of temperature and heat transfer on hydrodynamic films are presented. The impact of surface roughness on hydrodynamic journal bearing performance is also examined. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. A THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A SPHERICAL GAS JOURNAL BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    An externally pressurized spherical gas journal bearing , which has multiple spherically surfaced pads, was designed and fabricated for use as a three...model bearing, which duplicates the lubricating film of a journal bearing pad, was constructed in order to obtain experimental data to verify the

  9. Passive magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  10. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  11. COMPOSITION OF BLACK BEAR MILK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of black bear ( Ursus americanus Pallas) milk showed that the total solids, fat and protein were much higher and the lactose lower than...either cow or human milk. In comparison with polar bear (Thalarcotos maritimus ), the black bear milk was lower in fat, protein and total calories. (Author)

  12. Rotating plug bearing and seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a bearing and seal structure for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor vessel. The structure permits lubrication of bearings and seals of the rotating plugs without risk of the lubricant draining into the reactor vessel below. The structure permits lubrication by utilizing a rotating outer race bearing. 19 claims, 3 figures

  13. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  14. Fatigue Life Prediction in Journal Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irsyadi Yani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Failure of fatigue is damaged materials where caused frequent load. Fatigue owing to some factors, which is Stress concentration on fatigue, Stress life, Effect size and surface, and Change properties of surface. The fatigue failure of a material is dependent on the interaction of a large stress with a critical flow. In essence, fatigue is controlled by the weakest link of the material, with the probability of a weak link increasing with material volume. This phenomenon is evident in the fatigue test results of a material using specimens of varying diameters. From this research we can get effect of concentration stress on strength fatigue with S-N method. On this method only count fatigue life or endurance limit from Journal bearing housing. By Finite Element Analysis, it is not so easy to determine fatigue life. When we find the first yield point, it means this point is in the highest stress state. Then we can refer S-N curve. In this paper, the effect of bearing and housing elasticity on the stress field, which could result in surface fatigue in journal bearing, has been investigated. This condition is proved with occurred slip lines on surface of specimen. These slip lines are caused on some thousands stress cycles. Additional crack is happened immediately and finally long enough crack. So that formed unstable crack that caused fracture of brittleness or fracture of toughness because section of specimen cannot keep

  15. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  16. Bearing, gearing, and lubrication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results of selected NASA research programs on rolling-element and fluid-film bearings, gears, and elastohydrodynamic lubrication are reported. Advances in rolling-element bearing material technology, which have resulted in a significant improvement in fatigue life, and which make possible new applications for rolling bearings, are discussed. Research on whirl-resistant, fluid-film bearings, suitable for very high-speed applications, is discussed. An improved method for predicting gear pitting life is reported. An improved formula for calculating the thickness of elastohydrodynamic films (the existence of which help to define the operating regime of concentrated contact mechanisms such as bearings, gears, and cams) is described.

  17. Self-Assembling Brush Polymers Bearing Multisaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongchan; Kim, Jin Chul; Lee, Hoyeol; Song, Sungjin; Kim, Heesoo; Ree, Moonhor

    2017-06-01

    Three different series of brush polymers bearing glucosyl, maltosyl, or maltotriosyl moiety at the bristle end are successfully prepared by using cationic ring-opening polymerization and two sequential postmodification reactions. All brush polymers, except for the polymer containing 100 mol% maltotriosyl moiety, demonstrate the formation of multibilayer structure in films, always providing saccharide-enriched surface. These self-assembling features are remarkable, regarding the bulkiness of saccharide moieties and the kink in the bristle due to the triazole linker. The saccharide-enriched film surfaces reveal exceptionally high specific binding affinity to concanavalin A but suppress nonspecific binding of plasma proteins severely. Overall, the brush polymers bearing saccharide moieties of various kinds in this study are highly suitable materials for biomedical applications including biosensors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  19. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of..., 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC (transferees) filed an application for the partial the transfer of licenses...

  20. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Tribological Behavior of Journal Bearing Material under Different Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baskar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The friction and wear behavior of journal bearing material has been investigated using pin on disc wear tester with three different lubricating oils i.e. synthetic lubricating oil (SAE20W40, chemically modified rapeseed oil (CMRO, chemically modified rapeseed oil with Nano CuO. Wear tests were carried out at maximum load of 200 N and sliding speeds of 2 – 10 m/s. The results showed that the friction and wear behavior of the journal bearing material have changed according to the sliding conditions and lubricating oils. The journal bearing material has a lower friction coefficient for CMRO with Nano CuO than other two oils. Higher wear of journal bearing material was observed in SAE 20W40 and CMRO. Worn surfaces of the journal bearing material with three lubricating oils were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM and wear mechanisms were discussed.

  2. A theoretical-experimental study of backup bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe Linhares da Fonseca, Cesar Augusto

    The backup bearing is a mechanical component designed to improve the safety and reliability of Active Magnetic Bearings (AMBs). Rotors levitated by AMBs can be subjected to delevitation and consequently to impacts if a power loss happens because real-time active control is necessary to keep them...... running. When impacting on a stator surface, the rotor can develop a dangerous behavior caused by the friction force known as the full annular backward whirl. In this situation, the rotor will describe a trajectory around the surface of the bearing at a dominant superharmonic frequency and with large...... radial forces. Remaining in this condition, it may lead to permanent damage or total failure of the machine. This is why the backup bearing design has to be carefully planned and investigated as to whether it helps to protect the integrity of the machine. This PhD thesis provides a comprehensive study...

  3. Dietary ecology of the extinct cave bear: Evidence of omnivory as inferred from dental microwear textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brent Jones

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the extinct European cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, has widely been debated. Diverging from the extant brown bear (Ursus arctos approximately 1.2 million years ago, the cave bear is one of the most ubiquitous fossil bears occurring in Europe during the middle and Late Pleistocene. Early morphological studies suggested that the cave bear was likely specialized on processing tough and/or abrasive foods, while later two-dimensional low-magnification microwear studies suggested that they were omnivorous and may have consumed more bone than U. arctos. Here, we used dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA to further interpret the diet of the cave bear. Microscopic wear features were assessed and compared to modern ursids, including the cave bears’ closest living relative, U. arctos. Results suggest that U. spelaeus consumed a diet with a diversity of textural properties, similar to most other bears and only distinguishable from the hyper-carnivorous polar bear (Ursus maritimus. Further, only U. maritimus can be distinguished from all bear species here examined (i.e., the giant panda bear, Ailuropoda melanoleuca; sun-bear, Ursus malayanus; spectacled bear, Tremarctos ornatus; American black bear, Ursus americanus; and U. arctos, with significantly greater area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc of microwear surfaces. The DMTA of A. melanoleuca also has significantly lower Asfc than T. ornatus and U. americanus, consistent with observed dietary behavior. As modern bears vary their diets seasonally and across their range, it may be difficult to characterize the dietary ecology of extinct bears using dental microwear alone. Nevertheless, DMTA here demonstrates that U. spelaeus had a diet distinct from the hyper-carnivorous U. maritimus and instead likely consumed food with textural properties most similar to other herbivorous/omnivorous bears. Lastly, the European cave bear and North American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus may have had

  4. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  5. Experimental Performance Study of a High Speed Oil Lubricated Polymer Thrust Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the demand for turbomachinery to operate at higher speeds, loads, and power, fluid film bearings that support turbomachinery must be capable of operating in these more demanding applications. Thrust bearings operating at high speeds and loads can experience high surface temperatures and thin fluid film thickness. Typically, babbitt (white metal is the bearing lining material for most turbomachinery bearings but is limited in operating temperature and allowable film thickness. Polymer based materials are alternative materials that can operate at high temperatures and with thin films and have been in use for many decades in high load applications, such as electric submersible pumps (ESP. Test results of polymer lined thrust bearings subjected to modern turbomachinery speeds and loads are presented and compared to babbitt lined bearings of the same design and under similar conditions. The test results show polymer lined thrust bearings can operate at higher bearing unit loads than babbitt.

  6. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  7. Bear maul craniocerebral trauma in Kashmir Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Sheikh Adil; Rasool, Altaf; Zaroo, Mohamad Inam; Wani, Adil Hafeez; Zargar, Haroon Rashid; Darzi, Mohammad Ashraf; Khursheed, Nayil

    2013-01-01

    Craniocerebral injuries constitute the bulk of the trauma patients in all the tertiary-care hospitals. Bear attacks as a cause of trauma to the brain and its protective covering are rare. This was a hospital-based retrospective (January 1990 to July 2005) and prospective study (August 2005 to December 2010). Craniocerebral trauma was seen in 49 patients of bear maul injuries. Loss of scalp tissue was seen in 17 patients, 13 of whom had exposed pericranium and needed split-thickness skin grafting, while 4 patients with exposed skull bones required scalp transposition flaps as an initial procedure. Skull bone fractures without associated brain injury were observed in 24 cases. Frontal bone was the site of fracture in the majority of cases (95%). Surgical intervention was needed in 18 patients for significantly depressed fractures. Three of these patients had depressed frontal bone fractures with underlying contusions and needed brain debridement and duraplasty. Injury to the brain was observed in 8 patients. Trauma to the brain and its protective coverings as a result of bear attacks is rarely known. Brain injury occurs less commonly as compared to soft tissue and bony injury. Craniocerebral trauma as a result of bear assaults has been a hitherto neglected area of trauma as the past reported incidence has been very low. Of late, the incidence and severity of such attacks has assumed grave proportions in areas adjacent to known bear habitats. An innocuous-looking surface wound might be the only presentation of an underlying severe brain trauma. Public awareness has to be generated to protect the people living in hilly areas.

  8. Performance of solid lubricated ball bearings at high-temperatures in a vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Katsumi; Suzuki, Mineo; Nishimura, Makoto; Hasegawa, Masaji; Moriyama, Minoru

    1994-07-01

    Ball bearings which can operate at high temperatures in a vacuum will be required with advances in technology. Among the issues for the operation of ball bearings at high temperatures, solid lubricants and bearing materials are crucial. The aim of this study was to develop ball bearings for use at high temperatures in a vacuum. The tested bearings were 20-mm bore-sized angular contact ball bearings. Three combinations of bearing materials were tested: M-50 bearings, hybrid bearings with M-50 races and Si3N4 balls, and Si3N4 bearings. M-50 bearings were lubricated with a silver film. Hybrid and ceramic bearings were lubricated with a pre-coated sputtered MoS2 film and a self-lubricating hot-pressed composite retainer. Tests were carried out at temperatures up to 500 C and a rotational speed of 600 rpm under an axial load of 50 N in a vacuum. Excellent performance at 500 C in a vacuum was obtained for Si3N4 bearings. Frictional torque was low and stable for more than 5x10(exp 7) revolutions. After the tests, the bearings were in very good condition with a small amount of wear. Hybrid bearings also showed very good performance at 350 C in a vacuum. M-50 steel bearings were operated without failure at 350 C in a vacuum, although frictional torque was rather high and unstable. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation revealed the existence of a film on the ball surface transferred from the composite retainer for both hybrid and ceramic bearings.

  9. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  10. What about the Javan Bear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1898-01-01

    The other day I read in a dutch popular periodical a paper dealing with the different species of Bears and their geographical distribution. To my great surprise the Malayan Bear was mentioned from Java: the locality Java being quite new to me I wrote to the author of that paper and asked him some

  11. Nonlinear control of magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, A. K.; Gurumoorthy, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we present a variety of nonlinear controllers for the magnetic bearing that ensure both stability and robustness. We utilize techniques of discontinuous control to design novel control laws for the magnetic bearing. We present in particular sliding mode controllers, time optimal controllers, winding algorithm based controllers, nested switching controllers, fractional controllers, and synchronous switching controllers for the magnetic bearing. We show existence of solutions to systems governed by discontinuous control laws, and prove stability and robustness of the chosen control laws in a rigorous setting. We design sliding mode observers for the magnetic bearing and prove the convergence of the state estimates to their true values. We present simulation results of the performance of the magnetic bearing subject to the aforementioned control laws, and conclude with comments on design.

  12. Flywheel Challenge: HTS Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Rothfeld, R; Wippich, D; Goebel, B

    2006-01-01

    A 200 mm cylindrical engineering prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) was designed and fabricated. Measurements show that the 17 kg PM rotor can suspend safely 1000 kg in axial direction and 470 kg radially. The rationale for the bearing performance is to stabilize a 400 kg rotor of a new compact 5 kWh/280 kW flywheel energy storage system (COM - FESS). Measurements of the magnetic bearing force, stiffness and drag-torque are presented indicated the successful targeting a milestone in the HTS bearing technology. The influence of the PM configuration and the YBCO temperature on the bearing performance was experimentally studied, providing high-force or high-stiffness behaviour. The axial stiffness 5 kN/mm at 0.5 mm displacement is the highest value of a HTS bearing we know

  13. Apparatus and method for inspecting a bearing ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, B. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the surface of a ball bearing is disclosed which includes a base having a high friction non-abrasive base scanning surface. A holding device includes a cone-shaped cup recess in which a ball element is received. Air is introduced through a passage to relieve friction between the wall of the recess and the ball element and facilitate rolling of the ball over the high friction base surface. The holding device is moved over the base scanning surface in a predetermined pattern such that the entire surface of the ball element is inspected byan eddy current probe which detects any surface defects.

  14. Lead-free bearing alloys for engine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratke, Lorenz; Ågren, John; Ludwig, Andreas; Tonn, Babette; Gránásy, László; Mathiesen, Ragnvald; Arnberg, Lars; Anger, Gerd; Reifenhäuser, Bernd; Lauer, Michael; Garen, Rune; Gust, Edgar

    2005-10-01

    Recent developments to reduce the fuel consumption, emission and air pollution, size and weight of engines for automotive, truck, ship propulsion and electrical power generation lead to temperature and load conditions within the engines that cannot be borne by conventional bearings. Presently, only costly multilayer bearings with electroplated or sputtered surface coatings can cope with the load/speed combinations required. Ecological considerations in recent years led to a ban by the European Commission on the use of lead in cars a problem for the standard bronze-lead bearing material. This MAP project is therefore developing an aluminium-based lead-free bearing material with sufficient hardness, wear and friction properties and good corrosion resistance. Only alloys made of components immiscible in the molten state can meet the demanding requirements. Space experimentation plays a crucial role in optimising the cast microstructure for such applications.

  15. DESIGN HANDBOOK ON GAS BEARINGS FOR GYROSCOPES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    consisting of a plain journal for supporting radial loads flanked by two spiral-grooved thrust bearings to support double-acting thrust loads; (3) the spiral-grooved journal bearing ; and (4) the spiral-grooved conical bearing.

  16. Hybrid Hydrostatic/Transient Roller Bearing Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justak, John F.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed bearing assembly for shaft of high-speed turbopump includes both hydrostatic and rolling-element bearings. Rolling-element bearing unloaded at high speed by centrifugal expansion of outer race and transient retainer.

  17. Two pad axially grooved hydrostatic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Andres, Luis A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A hydrostatic bearing having two axial grooves on opposite sides of the bearing for breaking the rotational symmetry in the dynamic force coefficients thus reducing the whirl frequency ratio and increasing the damping and stiffness of the hydrostatic bearing.

  18. EFFECT OF BEARING MACROGEOMETRY ON BEARING PERFORMANCE IN ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  19. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  20. EHD Effects in Lubricated Journal Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Pavlovich Usov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis of the influence of deformation of infinite parallel cylindrical solids in partial journal bearing on the oil film characteristics. The stationary elastohydrodynamic EHD problems for three design models of bearings are considered: (1 The bearing in which the basic contribution to the elastic displacement of the surface brings the thin elastic liner; (2 The elastic cylinder and the elastic bushing which is modeled by the elastic space with a cylindrical cut; (3 The elastic cylinder and the elastic bushing in the presence of the thin elastic liner with a small module of elasticity. It is shown that when the minimum film thickness is fixed and deformations of the elastic solids increase, then the load capacity increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. The deformation of solids can raise load capacity many times over. When the deformation of solids increases from zero, the pressure distribution changes from the distribution of pressure in the case of rigid bodies to the distribution of pressure which takes place with the dry contact of elastic bodies.

  1. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2017-08-22

    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  2. Mixed Lubrication Simulation of Hydrostatic Spherical Bearings for Hydraulic Piston Pumps and Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, Toshiharu

    Mixed and fluid film lubrication characteristics of hydrostatic spherical bearings for swash-plate-type axial piston pumps and motors are studied theoretically under non-steady-state conditions. The basic equations incorporating interference and contact of surface roughness are derived fundamentally through combination of the GW and PC models. Furthermore, a programming code that is applicable to the caulked-socket-type and open-socket-type bearings is developed. Effects of caulking, operating conditions, and the bearing dimension on the motion of the sphere and tribological performance of the bearings are examined. Salient conclusions are the following: The sphere's eccentricity increases in the low supply pressure period. The time-lag of the load change engenders greater motion of the sphere. Caulking of the bearing socket suppresses the sphere's motion. The bearing stiffness increases and power loss decreases for smaller recess angles. Minimum power loss is given under the condition that the bearing socket radius nearly equals the equivalent load radius.

  3. Thin Dense Chrome Bearing Insertion Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhoads, Mark

    1997-01-01

    .... TDC coated bearings demonstrated improved corrosion and contamination resistance. TDC coated bearings also demonstrated acceptable performance during thermal cycle, oil-off, and induced defect conditions...

  4. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate–saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate–bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  5. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  6. Simplified installation of thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenbaugh, N. D.

    1980-01-01

    Special handling sleeve, key to method of installing thrust bearings, was developed for assembling bearings on shaft of low-pressure oxygen turbo-pump. Method eliminates cooling and vacuum-drying steps which saves time, while also eliminating possibility of corrosion formation. Procedure saves energy because it requires no liquid nitrogen for cooling shaft and no natural gas or electric power for operating vacuum oven.

  7. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  8. Radial magnetic bearings: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Radial magnetic bearings (RMBs are one of the most commonly used magnetic bearings. They are used widely in the field of ultra-high speed and ultra-precise numerical control machine tools, bearingless motors, high speed flywheels, artificial heart pumps, and molecular pumps, and they are being strengthened and extended in various important areas. In this paper, a comprehensive overview is given of different bearing topologies of RMBs with different stator poles that differ in their construction, the driving mode of electromagnets, power consumption, cost, magnetic circuits, and symmetry. RMBs with different poles and couplings between the two bearing axes in the radial direction responsible for cross-coupling generation are compared. In addition, different shaped rotors are compared, as the performances of magnetic bearing-rotor systems are of great concern to rotor constructions. Furthermore, the parameter design methods, the mathematical models and control strategies of the RMBs are described in detail. From the comparison of topologies, models and control methods for RMBs, the advantages, disadvantages and utilizable perspectives are also analyzed. Moreover, several possible development trends of the RMBs are discussed. Keywords: Radial magnetic bearings (RMBs, Topologies, Mathematical mode, Control strategies, Development trends

  9. Stress Analysis and Fatigue Behaviour of PTFE-Bronze Layered Journal Bearing under Real-Time Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, M. S.; Kaplan, E.; Cuvalcı, O.

    2018-01-01

    The present paper is based on experimental studies and numerical simulations on the surface fatigue failure of the PTFE-bronze layered journal bearings under real-time loading. ‘Permaglide Plain Bearings P10’ type journal bearings were experimentally tested under different real time dynamic loadings by using real time journal bearing test system in our laboratory. The journal bearing consists of a PTFE-bronze layer approximately 0.32 mm thick on the steel support layer with 2.18 mm thick. Two different approaches have been considered with in experiments: (i) under real- time constant loading with varying bearing widths, (ii) under different real-time loadings at constant bearing widths. Fatigue regions, micro-crack dispersion and stress distributions occurred at the journal bearing were experimentally and theoretically investigated. The relation between fatigue region and pressure distributions were investigated by determining the circumferential pressure distribution under real-time dynamic loadings for the position of every 10° crank angles. In the theoretical part; stress and deformation distributions at the surface of the journal bearing analysed by using finite element methods to determine the relationship between stress and fatigue behaviour. As a result of this study, the maximum oil pressure and fatigue cracks were observed in the most heavily loaded regions of the bearing surface. Experimental results show that PTFE-Bronze layered journal bearings fatigue behaviour is better than the bearings include white metal alloy.

  10. Feasibility of Applying Active Lubrication to Dynamically Loaded Fluid Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of modifying the dynamics of the thin fluid films of dynamically loaded journal bearings, using different strategies of active lubrication is studied in this work. A significant reduction in the vibration levels, wear and power friction losses, is expected. Particularly, the focus...... of this study is on the analysis of main crankshaft bearings, where the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is modified by injecting oil at actively controllable pressures, through orifices circumferentially located along the bearing surface....

  11. The analysis, design, and testing of a blood lubricated hydrodynamic journal bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowit, J A; Malanoski, S B; Horvath, D; Golding, L R; Smith, W A

    1997-01-01

    The Cleveland Clinic Foundation's Innovative Ventricular Assist System (IVAS) uses a hydrodynamic journal bearing to support the rotating assembly of the blood pump. Bearing dimensions are chosen so that a stable film of lubricant develops and separates stationary and rotating pump surfaces during operation. This bearing type provides several advantages for a permanently implanted device, including essentially no wear for very long life and very high reliability, as well as a self pumping action that generates circumferential wash flow and thus lowers the risk of bearing associated deposition. However, these advantages are accompanied by design issues not encountered with typical journal bearing, such as low shear stress, bearing ends that are not at atmospheric pressure, and low radial bearing loads. To address these issues, several concepts for a hydrodynamic blood bearing were designed and analyzed using a special computer code to perform parametric studies. This design analysis code was developed to define optimum bearing performance under selected load and speed ranges and within practical tolerances. Results showed the range of dimensions and conditions over which an effective, reliable, blood lubricated journal bearing can be designed. Subsequent bench testing has validated the theoretical conclusions and shown this bearing type to be very robust in a blood pump application.

  12. Experimental determination of the distributed dynamic coefficients for a hydrodynamic fluid film bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurko, John Harrison

    Most current rotor bearing analysis utilizes lumped parameter bearing coefficients to model the static and dynamic characteristics of fluid film bearings. By treating the stiffness and damping properties of the fluid film as acting upon the axial centerline of the rotor, these models are limited in their analysis to first order lateral rotor-bearing motion. The development of numerical methods that distribute the dynamic properties of the fluid film around the bearing circumference allow for higher order analysis of the motion between the bearing and rotor. Assessment of the accuracy of the numerical method used to calculate distributed dynamic fluid film bearing coefficients is performed by developing a novel hydrodynamic journal bearing test rig and experimental testing procedure capable of obtaining measured distributed dynamic coefficients over a range of bearing operating conditions. The instrumented bearing test rig is used to measure the dynamic bearing displacement and fluid film pressure responses from application of an externally applied excitation force. Least squares solution to a system of perturbated pressure equations, populated by measured displacement and pressure responses, is used to determine the hydrodynamic stiffness and damping properties for a finite region of the bearing surface. Incremental rotation of pressure sensors embedded in the body of the test bearing allow for measurement of the fluid film circumferential pressure distribution which is used to calculate a set of experimentally determined dynamic bearing coefficients. Distributed bearing coefficients derived from experimental measurements are compared to numerically calculated distributed coefficients as well as to lumped parameter coefficients generated from experimental and numerical methods found in the literature. Overall, the numerically calculated distributed coefficients successfully model both the circumferential distribution and the operating conditions of the experimental

  13. Genesis of B lymphocytes in the bone marrow: extravascular and intravascular localization of surface IgM-bearing cells in mouse bone marrow detected by electron-microscope radioautography after in vivo perfusion of 125I anti-IgM antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, D.G.; Batten, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The role of mammalian bone marrow in generating surface IgM (sIgM)-bearing B lymphocytes is reviewed. Precursor cells in the marrow give rise to large, rapidly dividing cells bearing free cytoplasmic mu chains (c mu). The progeny of the large c mu+ cells form a population of small, nondividing c mu+ cells that mature into small lymphocytes, progressively expressing sIgM and other B-cell surface membrane components. Newly formed sIgM+ cells soon migrate through the bloodstream to the spleen and other lymphoid tissues, where they may die after a short lifespan or be activated to produce antibody molecules. The large-scale lymphocytopoiesis in the bone marrow thus maintains a population of rapidly renewed virgin B lymphocytes in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. A technique for perfusing radiolabeled anti-IgM antibodies in young mice has now permitted sIgM+ cells to be detected radioautographically in histological preparations of bone marrow under the electron microscope. Small sIgM+ lymphocytes are situated either singly or in small groups throughout the extravascular hemopoietic compartment of the bone marrow, often near sinusoid walls adjacent to late erythroblasts and reticular cells. Some regional concentrations of sIgM+ cells are apparent. sIgM+ cells also appear in transit through the sinusoidal endothelium and are markedly concentrated in the lumen of some sinusoids. Intrasinusoidal sIgM+ small lymphocytes have high densities of sIgM and long microvilli, on which sIgM molecules are concentrated. These studies reveal the localization and cell associations of specifically identified sIgM+ small lymphocytes in the extravascular marrow compartment and suggest that these cells may also undergo a transient intravascular storage and maturation phase. Use of this in vivo immunolabeling technique to detect other cell-surface markers may further elucidate the microenvironmental basis of B lymphocyte genesis in the bone marrow

  14. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited. ...

  15. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  16. Heuristic Explanation of Journal Bearing Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    A fluid-filled journal bearing is viewed as a powerful pump circulating fluid around the annular space between the journal and the bearing. A small...other simple explanations of journal - bearing instability. It is shown that for non-cavitating long bearings the hypothesis predicts instability onset

  17. The bear in Eurasian plant names: motivations and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, Valeria; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kalle, Raivo; Strecker, Lisa; Özkan, Ayşe Mine Gençler; Pieroni, Andrea; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Molnár, Zsolt; Papp, Nora; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Dimitrova, Dessislava; Šeškauskaitė, Daiva; Roper, Jonathan; Hajdari, Avni; Sõukand, Renata

    2017-02-21

    Ethnolinguistic studies are important for understanding an ethnic group's ideas on the world, expressed in its language. Comparing corresponding aspects of such knowledge might help clarify problems of origin for certain concepts and words, e.g. whether they form common heritage, have an independent origin, are borrowings, or calques. The current study was conducted on the material in Slavonic, Baltic, Germanic, Romance, Finno-Ugrian, Turkic and Albanian languages. The bear was chosen as being a large, dangerous animal, important in traditional culture, whose name is widely reflected in folk plant names. The phytonyms for comparison were mostly obtained from dictionaries and other publications, and supplemented with data from databases, the co-authors' field data, and archival sources (dialect and folklore materials). More than 1200 phytonym use records (combinations of a local name and a meaning) for 364 plant and fungal taxa were recorded to help find out the reasoning behind bear-nomination in various languages, as well as differences and similarities between the patterns among them. Among the most common taxa with bear-related phytonyms were Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Heracleum sphondylium L., Acanthus mollis L., and Allium ursinum L., with Latin loan translation contributing a high proportion of the phytonyms. Some plants have many and various bear-related phytonyms, while others have only one or two bear names. Features like form and/or surface generated the richest pool of names, while such features as colour seemed to provoke rather few associations with bears. The unevenness of bear phytonyms in the chosen languages was not related to the size of the language nor the present occurence of the Brown Bear in the region. However, this may, at least to certain extent, be related to the amount of the historical ethnolinguistic research done on the selected languages.

  18. Research on bearing lubricants for use in a high vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. E.; Hass, H.

    1972-01-01

    Work, during the research program, was concentrated on lubricant development, gear lubrication and evaluation, providing coated test specimens, advising NASA contractors about solid lubrication specific applications, and investigation of new method of attaching lubricating solids to bearing surfaces by sputtering technique.

  19. Design optimization of deep groove ball bearings using crowding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparna Duggirala

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... The theory states that the total strain energy in the com- plex state of stress system reaches the shear strain at the sub-surface near the area of contact. .... transmission system and wheel hub, are embedded with bearings. The present work is focussed on the transmission system that invloves heavy duty ...

  20. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, F. N.; Floegel-Delor, U.; Rothfeld, R.; Riedel, T.; Goebel, B.; Wippich, D.; Schirrmeister, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS-FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN2. More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  1. Three Types of Active Lubrication Systems for the Main Bearings of Reciprocating Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Pulido, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    pressures, through orifices circumferentially located around the bearing surface. The computed bearing fluid film forces are coupled to the set of nonlinear equations that describes the dynamics of the reciprocating engine, obtained with the help of multibody dynamics (rigid components) and finite elements...

  2. The Weight-Bearing Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak M; Gelber, Jonathan D; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2018-01-01

    The shoulder achieves a wide spectrum of motion, and in a subset of patients, including those who use manual wheelchairs and upper extremity walking aids, the shoulder also serves as the primary weight-bearing joint. Because the weight-bearing shoulder is subject to considerable joint reaction forces and overuse, a broad spectrum of pathology can affect the joint. The combination of muscle imbalance and repetitive trauma presents most commonly as subacromial impingement syndrome but can progress to other pathology. Patients with high-level spinal cord injury, leading to quadriplegia and motor deficits, have an increased incidence of shoulder pain. Understanding the needs of patients who use manual wheelchairs or walking aids can help the physician to better comprehend the pathology of and better manage the weight-bearing shoulder.

  3. Chemicothermal treatment of races of universal joint bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, L. I.; Palei, F. A.

    1995-03-01

    In the operation of a universal joint bearing at low velocities of the reciprocating motion of rolling bodies (needle rollers) the near has the form of contact gripping of the metal of the bodies in contact. This is accompanied by continuous plastic deformation of the surface layers of races. Therefore, it is important to create a structural state in the working layers of a race that provides resistance to plastic deformation, namely, martensite of high hardness 62-65 HRC e. Special features of the chemicothermal treatment (CTT) of races of universal joint bearings of 15G I steel produced by the cold squeezing method are described.

  4. Millisecond bearing wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blatchley, C.; Sioshansi, P.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides have been widely used for many purposes in medicine, metals, transportation, manufacturing and research. Approximately 200 artificially produced nuclides are commercially available from reactors or accelerator sources. Another 400 or so have properties which may make them useful if satisfactory methods of production can be developed. One of the most economically important industrial applications of radionuclides has been in wear measurement and condition monitoring in reciprocating engines. The general techniques developed for this purpose have also been applied in a number of other areas besides engine or lubrication studies. The wear of floor wax applied to linoleum, for example, has been measured by mixing shortlived radionuclides in the wax. In those applications where the material is tagged and then followed, the radionuclides are termed ''tracers,'' similar to the medical tracer materials used to measure uptake or metabolism of biologically active chemicals in the body. The alternate function for the radionuclides is to act as ''markers'' which indicate the amount of material which is remaining at the location of the original activation. Both approaches require that the debris removed from the surface must be carried away from the original site. The first application of radioactive tracers as a diagnostic tool in engines was in 1949. In this technique, an entire wearing part such as a piston ring or gear was first exposed to neutrons in a nuclear reactor. This caused the entire volume of the part to become radioactive. The part was next installed and exposed to wear in the operating engine. Detectors placed near the oil line, an oil filter or a sediment trap then determined the amount of debris from the part by counting the gamma rays escaping from the debris

  5. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Žarko Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  6. Wave Journal Bearing. Part 1: Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimofte, Florin

    1995-01-01

    A wave journal bearing concept features a waved inner bearing diameter of the non-rotating bearing side and it is an alternative to the plain journal bearing. The wave journal bearing has a significantly increased load capacity in comparison to the plain journal bearing operating at the same eccentricity. It also offers greater stability than the plain circular bearing under all operating conditions. The wave bearing's design is relatively simple and allows the shaft to rotate in either direction. Three wave bearings are sensitive to the direction of an applied stationary side load. Increasing the number of waves reduces the wave bearing's sensitivity to the direction of the applied load relative to the wave. However, the range in which the bearing performance can be varied decreases as the number of waves increases. Therefore, both the number and the amplitude of the waves must be properly selected to optimize the wave bearing design for a specific application. It is concluded that the stiffness of an air journal bearing, due to hydrodynamic effect, could be doubled and made to run stably by using a six or eight wave geometry with a wave amplitude approximately half of the bearing radial clearance.

  7. Multiscale characterization of White Etching Cracks (WEC) in a 100Cr6 bearing from a thrust bearing test rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson; Guzmán, F. Gutiérrez; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    2017-01-01

    A common cause for premature bearing failures in wind turbine gearboxes are the so-called White Etching Cracks (WEC). These undirected, three-dimensional cracks are bordered by regions of altered microstructure and ultimately lead to a cracking or spalling of the raceway. An accelerated WEC test...... was carried out on a FE8 test rig using cylindrical roller thrust bearings made of martensitic 100Cr6 steel. The resulting WECs were investigated with several characterisation techniques. Ultrasonic measurements showed the WEC were mainly located in the region of the overrolled surface in which negative slip...

  8. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we...

  9. Satellite monitoring of black bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, J. J.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.; Varney, J. R.; Cote, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a feasibility experiment recently performed to test the use of a satellite system for telemetering environmental and physiological data from the winter den of a 'hibernating' black bear, Ursus americanus. The instrumentation procedure and evaluations of the equipment performance and sensory data obtained are discussed in detail.

  10. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  11. BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR. Deur generaal sir Walter Walker KCB, CBE,. D80. 8andton. Uitgegee deur Valiant Publis- hers. Verskyningsdatum Julie 1978. Prys R10.) Hierdie boek is 'n uitstekende aktuele geskrif ook. Suidelike Afrika se politieke en militere aspekte wat deur 'n a/gehele buitestaander nl 'n Britse. Generaal ...

  12. Climate Change, Polar Bears and their management

    OpenAIRE

    Derenchenko, Liza

    2010-01-01

    This is a literature study of polar bears in the context of climate change: what kind of creatures are polar bears, what are the main interpretations of current climate change, how might the polar bear adapt to these changes (feeding strategies) and how are the bears being managed (hunting)? These are relevant questions , since climate change is on the agenda, and polar bears being the apex predators of the Arctic are a key representation of the wildlife there. The third element of polar bear...

  13. Controllable Sliding Bearings and Controllable Lubrication Principles—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmar F. Santos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic and aerodynamic lubrication regimes in their controllable forms have been intensively investigated over the last two decades. With the aim of reducing friction and improving thermal, static, and dynamic characteristics of radial sliding bearings, different types of electro-mechanical actuators have been coupled to such bearings. Depending on (i the actuator type; (ii the actuation principle, i.e., hydraulic, pneumatic, piezoelectric or magnetic among others; and (iii how such an actuator is coupled to the sliding bearings, different regulation and control actions of fluid film pressure and lubricant flow can be obtained. The most common actions are: (a the control of the injection pressure to modify the fluid film pressure statically as well as dynamically; (b the adjustment of the angle and direction of injection flow (mostly passive action; (c the control of the sliding bearing gap and its preload via moveable and compliant sliding surfaces; and (d the control of the lubricant viscosity. All four parameters, i.e., pressure, flow (velocity profiles, gap and viscosity, are explicit parameters in the modified form of Reynolds’ equations for active lubrication. In this framework, this paper gives one main original contribution to the state-of-the-art of radial sliding bearings and controllable lubrication: a comprehensive overview about the different types of controllable sliding bearings and principles used by several authors. The paper ends with some conclusive remarks about advantages and drawbacks of the different design solutions for controllable sliding bearings and the main challenges to be overcome towards industrial applications.

  14. Finite element modelling of the dynamics of groovy ball bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajala Olamide

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometry modified thrust bearings exposed to rolling and sliding contact are subjected to wear and localized frictional heating caused by relative slip between the two sliding surfaces. This leads to a rise in temperature, thermal stresses and changes in the elastic and plastic strength and physical properties of the material. The changes in the properties in turn alter the stress state, the displacement field, life and reliability of the bearing. Hence, a finite-element model is created to study the dynamics of groovy thrust bearing. In this paper, Hertz contact theory and numerical method are used to simulate the dynamics and kinematics of groovy ball bearings. The optimal loading parameters are identified in this study based on the analysis of the system responses and properties. The results of the numerical analysis and validation are presented. The numerical analysis proves the concept of transforming rotational motion into axial oscillation and demonstrates the capabilities of the numerical simulation to accurately model the dynamics of the groovy ball bearing.

  15. Magnetic remanence of hematite-bearing murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, R.; Zanella, E.; Saudino, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a series of experiments designed to test the ability of hematite-bearing colors to record the direction of the ambient magnetic field. Plasterboards accurately oriented with respect to the Earth's magnetic field were painted with red tempera colors prepared with hematite pigments. Magnetic measurements indicate that the color film retains a remanent magnetization and acquires a well developed magnetic fabric. The remanence direction is close to, yet slightly deviated from the Earth's magnetic field. The deviation is interpreted to result from preferential alignment of the pigment grains parallel to the plasterboard surface and depends on both its orientation with respect to magnetic north and the degree of magnetic anisotropy of the color film, which in turn varies according to the pigment used. Investigation of the magnetic remanence of murals may complement archaeomagnetic information derived from traditional materials such as baked and fired structures.

  16. Dynamics of gas-thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, A. K.; Tapia, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Computer program calculates load coefficients, up to third harmonic, for hydrostatic gas thrust bearings. Program is useful in identification of industrial situations where gas-thrust bearings have potential applications.

  17. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  18. Large Area Diamond Tribological Surfaces with Negligible Wear in Extreme Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we propose to demonstrate the processing of very large area diamond sliding bearings and tribological surfaces. The bearings and surfaces will experience...

  19. Mercury in polar bears from Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentfer, J.W.; Galster, W.A.

    1987-04-01

    Alaskan polar bear (Ursus maritimus) muscle and liver samples collected in 1972 were analyzed for total mercury. Bears north of Alaska had more mercury than bears west of Alaska. The only difference between young and adult animals was in the northern area where adults had more mercury in liver tissue than young animals. Levels were probably not high enough to be a serious threat to bears.

  20. Technology development for indigenous water lubricated bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limaye, P.K.; Soni, N.L.; Agrawal, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Water Lubricated Bearings (WLB) are used in various mechanisms of fuel handling systems of PHWRs and AHWR. Availability and random failures of these bearings was a major factor in refuelling operations. Indigenous development of these bearings was taken up and 7 types of antifriction bearings in various sizes (totaling 37 variants) for PHWR, AHWR and Dhruva applications were successfully developed. This paper deals with various aspects of WLB development. (author)

  1. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  2. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  3. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  4. Hydrodynamic squeeze-film bearings for gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, T.; Smith, R. L.

    1970-01-01

    Experimental tests are conducted on squeeze-film bearings by applying electricity to piezoelectric ceramics, causing vibrations at thousands or millions of Hz that are amplified and transmitted to the bearing. Rotor operation through 24,000 rpm without whirl instability proved bearing ability to support rotor weight without hydrodynamic action.

  5. 14 CFR 23.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 23.623 Section 23.623... Bearing factors. (a) Each part that has clearance (free fit), and that is subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of normal relative motion. (b) For...

  6. 14 CFR 25.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 25.623 Section 25.623... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.623 Bearing factors. (a) Except... subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of...

  7. 14 CFR 27.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 27.623 Section 27.623... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.623 Bearing factors. (a) Except... subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of...

  8. 14 CFR 29.623 - Bearing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bearing factors. 29.623 Section 29.623... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.623 Bearing factors. (a... subject to pounding or vibration, must have a bearing factor large enough to provide for the effects of...

  9. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  10. Microstructural degradation of bearing steels

    OpenAIRE

    Solano Alvarez, Wilberth

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work presented in this thesis is to clarify one of the most fundamental aspects of fatigue damage in bearings steels through critical experiments, in particular whether damage in the form of cracks precedes hard “white-etching matter" formation, which is carbon supersaturated nanoscaled ferrite. Heat treatments have been designed to create four different crack types and distributions: scarce martensite plate cracks, fine grain boundary cracks, abundant martensite plate cracks, ...

  11. Bearings for high performance requirements in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ederer, U.G.

    1983-11-01

    Most measures to reduce fuel consumption in diesel engines lead, directly or indirectly, to more severe operating conditions for the engine bearings. In ever more instances the bearings become the components which limit useful engine life and the time between overhauls. Bearings with improved performance characteristics are required. During recent years, Miba Gleitlager AG has developed several solutions to meet these requirements. They consist of either material improvements, such as a cast white metal (SnSb 12Cu 3 NiCd) with higher fatigue strength, or an electroplated overlay (PbSn 18 Cu) with improved fatigue and wear resistance. New design solutions found included the steel-Al Sn 6-WM 85 bearing for two-stroke engines, the steel-Al Sn 6 PbSn 18 Cu bearing applied to two-stroke crosshead bearings, the steel-AlZn 4,5 PbSn 18 Cu bearing for high bearing loads in four-stroke engines, and the Miba-Rillenlager with its radically new running-surface structure for extreme load and wear conditions. The application potential of these bearings and the operating experience with them are discussed in this article.

  12. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff...... bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and it is found that it increases the hydrodynamic performance when applied to a stiff bearing, whereas...... the liner has practically no influence on the flexure journal bearing's performance....

  13. Bearing/Bypass Material-Testing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, John H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    System developed to test specimens in compression as well as tension while maintaining constant bearing/bypass ration. Test specimen with centrally located hole is clamped between two bearing-guide plates using one bolt. Bearing-guide plates then secured to two bearing-load cells. Test specimen independently loaded at both ends, using two separate control systems identified as applied and bypass. If two end loads unequal, difference between them reacted as bolt-bearing load on specimen. Throughout test, two control systems synchronized by common input signal (increasing voltage). As result, loads remain proportional as they increase.

  14. [Advances in studies on bear bile powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao-fan; Gao, Guo-jian; Liu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis was made on relevant literatures about bear bile powder in terms of chemical component, pharmacological effect and clinical efficacy, indicating bear bile powder's significant pharmacological effects and clinical application in treating various diseases. Due to the complex composition, bear bile powder is relatively toxic. Therefore, efforts shall be made to study bear bile powder's pharmacological effects, clinical application, chemical composition and toxic side-effects, with the aim to provide a scientific basis for widespread reasonable clinical application of bear bile powder.

  15. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Tanner, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings

  16. A motor with superconducting magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladun, A.; Stoye, P.; Verges, P.; Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Goernert, P.

    1993-01-01

    Superconducting bearings may be one of the most promising near term applications of HTSC. For use at liquid nitrogen temperature and below, they offer the advantage of lower energy consumption and higher reliability. Different bearing configurations have been proposed. But in order to substitute for conventional bearings a further increase in the critical current density of the superconductor and improved bearing concepts are necessary. For this it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the interaction between permanent magnets and bulk superconductors. As a contribution to this programme we present the model of a motor with superconducting magnetic bearings. (orig.)

  17. Heuristic explanation of journal bearing instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    A fluid-filled journal bearing is viewed as a powerful pump circulating fluid around the annular space between the journal and the bearing. A small whirling motion of the journal generates a wave of thickness variation progressing around the channel. The hypothesis that the fluid flow drives the whirl whenever the mean of the pumped fluid velocity is greater than the peripheral speed of the thickness variation wave is discussed and compared with other simple explanations of journal bearing instability. It is shown that for non-cavitation long bearings the hypothesis predicts instability onset correctly for unloaded bearings but gradually overpredicts the onset speed as the load is increased.

  18. A reliability approach to machine tool bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yazhou; Shen Guixiang; Jia Zhixin

    1995-01-01

    Based on the machine tool working characteristics, a method to determine the bearing dynamic load rating with a specified reliability is presented. Unlike the conventional methods for machine tool bearing design which are almost empirical, the proposed method is based on the bearing fatigue reliability. Also, unlike the common design methods of other industrial bearings which cannot consider the machine tool peculiarity, the obtained method is based on power and torque characteristics of machine tools. Designing the machine tool bearings by use of the method can obtain the expected reliability

  19. Ball Bearing Analysis with the ORBIS Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Ball bearing design is critical to the success of aerospace mechanisms. Key bearing performance parameters, such as load capability, stiffness, torque, and life all depend on accurate determination of the internal load distribution. Hence, a good analytical bearing tool that provides both comprehensive capabilities and reliable results becomes a significant asset to the engineer. This paper introduces the ORBIS bearing tool. A discussion of key modeling assumptions and a technical overview is provided. Numerous validation studies and case studies using the ORBIS tool are presented. All results suggest the ORBIS code closely correlates to predictions on bearing internal load distributions, stiffness, deflection and stresses.

  20. Improvement of journal bearing operation at heavy misalignment using bearing flexibility and compliant liners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A flexure journal bearing design is proposed that will improve operational behaviour of a journal bearing at pronounced misalignment. Using a thermoelastohydrodynamic model, it is shown that the proposed flexure journal bearing has vastly increased the hydrodynamic performance compared to the stiff bearing when misaligned. The hydrodynamic performance is evaluated on lubricant film thickness, pressure and temperature. Furthermore, the influence of a compliant bearing liner is investigated and...

  1. Coupled Dynamics of a Rotor-Journal Bearing System Equipped with Thrust Bearings

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Lie; R.B. Bhat

    1995-01-01

    The rotordynamic coefficients of fixed-pad thrust bearing are introduced and calculated by using the out-domain method, and a general analysis method is developed to investigate the coupled dynamics of a rotor equipped with journal and thrust bearings simultaneously. Considerations include the effects of static tilt parameters of the rotor on rotordynamic coefficients of thrust bearing and the action of thrust bearing on system dynamics. It is shown that thrust bearing changes the load distri...

  2. Chromatographic (TLC) differentiation of grizzly bear and black bear scats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Harold D.; Kendall, Katherine C.

    1994-01-01

    While past work concluded that thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was inadequate for the separation of grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (U. americanus) scats, our study found differences adequate for species separation. A key was constructed using 19 of 40 data points recorded on each(N)=356 profiles of 178) know-species scat. Accuracy was best for late summer scats (94%). Methods for specimen preparation, analysis, and reading the TLC profiles are discussed. Factors involved in scat variation were tested.

  3. On Calculation Methods and Results for Straight Cylindrical Roller Bearing Deflection, Stiffness, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some calculation methods for quantifying the relationships of bearing geometry, material properties, load, deflection, stiffness, and stress. The scope of the work was limited to two-dimensional modeling of straight cylindrical roller bearings. Preparations for studies of dynamic response of bearings with damaged surfaces motivated this work. Studies were selected to exercise and build confidence in the numerical tools. Three calculation methods were used in this work. Two of the methods were numerical solutions of the Hertz contact approach. The third method used was a combined finite element surface integral method. Example calculations were done for a single roller loaded between an inner and outer raceway for code verification. Next, a bearing with 13 rollers and all-steel construction was used as an example to do additional code verification, including an assessment of the leading order of accuracy of the finite element and surface integral method. Results from that study show that the method is at least first-order accurate. Those results also show that the contact grid refinement has a more significant influence on precision as compared to the finite element grid refinement. To explore the influence of material properties, the 13-roller bearing was modeled as made from Nitinol 60, a material with very different properties from steel and showing some potential for bearing applications. The codes were exercised to compare contact areas and stress levels for steel and Nitinol 60 bearings operating at equivalent power density. As a step toward modeling the dynamic response of bearings having surface damage, static analyses were completed to simulate a bearing with a spall or similar damage.

  4. A prototype construction of bearing heater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga

    2007-01-01

    A bearing heater system has been successfully constructed using transformer-like method of 1000 VA power, 220 V primary voltage, and 50 Hz electrical frequency. The bearing heater consists of primary coil 230 turns, U type and bar-type iron core with 36 cm 2 , 9 cm 2 ,and 3 cm 2 cross-section, and electrical isolation. The bearing heater is used to enlarge the diameter of the bearing so that it can be easily fixed on an electric motor shaft during replacement because the heating is conducted by treated the bearing as a secondary coil of a transformer. This bearing heater can be used for bearing with 3 and 6 cm of inner diameter and 12 cm of maximum outside diameter. (author)

  5. Evaluation of rotating, incompressibly lubricated, pressurized thrust bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D. P.

    1971-01-01

    Program evaluates a series hybrid, fluid film ball bearing consisting of an orifice compensated pressurized thrust bearing in conjunction with a self-acting journal bearing. Oil viscosities corresponding to experimentally measured ball bearing outer-race temperatures were used.

  6. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-03-01

    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Wollastonite Carbonation in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2: Effects of Particle Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yujia; Li, Qingyun; Voltolini, Marco; Kneafsey, Timothy; Jun, Young-Shin

    2017-11-07

    The performance of geologic CO 2 sequestration (GCS) can be affected by CO 2 mineralization and changes in the permeability of geologic formations resulting from interactions between water-bearing supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2 ) and silicates in reservoir rocks. However, without an understanding of the size effects, the findings in previous studies using nanometer- or micrometer-size particles cannot be applied to the bulk rock in field sites. In this study, we report the effects of particle sizes on the carbonation of wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) at 60 °C and 100 bar in water-bearing scCO 2 . After normalization by the surface area, the thickness of the reacted wollastonite layer on the surfaces was independent of particle sizes. After 20 h, the reaction was not controlled by the kinetics of surface reactions but by the diffusion of water-bearing scCO 2 across the product layer on wollastonite surfaces. Among the products of reaction, amorphous silica, rather than calcite, covered the wollastonite surface and acted as a diffusion barrier to water-bearing scCO 2 . The product layer was not highly porous, with a specific surface area 10 times smaller than that of the altered amorphous silica formed at the wollastonite surface in aqueous solution. These findings can help us evaluate the impacts of mineral carbonation in water-bearing scCO 2 .

  8. Minuteman III Motor-Generator Bearing Grease Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Automotive -40 to 170 °C MIL-PRF-10924H (GAA-H) PAO + Polyol ester Lithium complex Automotive multipurpose -54 to 180 °C MIL-PRF-81322G... Protection in Humidity Cabinet (ASTM D 1748) (8) Copper corrosion test (ASTM D 130) (9) Bimetallic corrosion test (ASTM D6547) (10) Low temperature...rust on bearing surfaces and to preserve grease consistency. In the corrosion protection property, the Multifak AFB2 grease showed very poor rust

  9. Study of hydrodynamic behaviour of large bearings depending on the viscosity of the lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabas Sorin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research refers to study of hydrodynamic behavior of large bearings equipped with automatic lubrication system, where the liquid used may have a viscosity with variable values depending on the temperature or depending on the additive used. The introduction of additives with nanoparticles causes modification of viscosity and a significant reduction of friction coefficient. This study establishes a direct link between the friction, viscosity and tensions that occur in the contact area. Experimental studies confirm improving tribological properties of the contact area between the bearing rollers and raceways, through attracting nanoparticles on surfaces in contact and reducing friction coefficient. Accomplished finite element analysis showed decrease of the contact stresses, therefore decrease of the wear and increase the life of the bearing. Research has concluded that influencing viscosity and friction coefficient of lubricant can result in reducing wear of the bearing components, as well as increase the lifetime of bearing.

  10. Standard test method for pin-type bearing test of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1984-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a pin-type bearing test of metallic materials to determine bearing yield strength and bearing strength. Note 1—The presence of incidental lubricants on the bearing surfaces may significantly lower the value of bearing yield strength obtained by this method. 1.2 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Influence of technological deviations on the basic operational characteristics of hydrodynamic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevych, Y.; Savchenko, I.; Sovenko, N.

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to define a methodology to determine the analytical approximate closed-form expression of probabilistic characteristics of load capacity of liquid-lubricated journal bearings in the case of a steady flow regime. Influence of random change of basic geometrical parameters of journal bearings (gap value and eccentricity) on the load capacity of bearing is considered. It is shown that the actual value of hydrodynamic force in bearing can substantially differ from a calculation one. The got results confirm the necessity of application of such approach at consideration both geometrical and operating parameters of bearing, for example, axes misalignment, deviation of surface form, roughness and others, which have casual nature too.

  12. Linear and Non-Linear Control Techniques Applied to Actively Lubricated Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication....... For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can count with the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurised oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and non-linear controllers, applied...... to a tilting-pad journal bearing, are analysed and discussed. Important conclusions about the application of integral controllers, responsible for changing the rotor-bearing equilibrium position and consequently the "passive" oil film damping coefficients, are achieved. Numerical results show an effective...

  13. The Bearing Strength and Fracture Behavior of Bolted Connections in Two Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinl, N.; Menzemer, C. C.; Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the bearing capacity, taken as a combination of strength, elongation, and failure by fracture characteristics of bolt holes in two aluminum alloys, 5052-H32 and 6061-T6, that were deformed in uniaxial tension is presented and discussed. The specific role played by bolt hole confinement on the bearing capacity of each aluminum alloy is highlighted. An increase in the bearing ratio caused plastic deformation around the holes to gradually increase. For both the chosen aluminum alloys the average bearing ratio at the time of failure of the test sample was found to vary with end distance. The experimentally determined strength was observably larger than the calculated bearing strength obtained using guaranteed minimum mechanical properties and recommended mathematical relationships. The nature of final fracture of each aluminum alloy is carefully examined and the intrinsic features present on the fracture surface are rationalized in concurrence with macroscopic mechanical response.

  14. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (≥ 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for

  15. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  16. Precision magnetic suspension linear bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumper, David L.; Queen, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    We have shown the design and analyzed the electromechanics of a linear motor suitable for independently controlling two suspension degrees of freedom. This motor, at least on paper, meets the requirements for driving an X-Y stage of 10 Kg mass with about 4 m/sq sec acceleration, with travel of several hundred millimeters in X and Y, and with reasonable power dissipation. A conceptual design for such a stage is presented. The theoretical feasibility of linear and planar bearings using single or multiple magnetic suspension linear motors is demonstrated.

  17. EFFECT OF SLIP VELOCITY ON MAGNETIC FLUID LUBRICATION OF ROUGH POROUS RAYLEIGH STEP BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the performance of a magnetic-fluid-based porous rough step bearing considering slip velocity. The Neuringer-Rosensweig model governs the fluid flow while the velocity slip is modeled by the method of Beavers and Joseph. The bearing surfaces are assumed transversely rough and the transverse surface roughness of the bearing surfaces is characterized by a stochastic random variable with non-zero mean, variance, and skewness. With the usual assumptions of hydrodynamic lubrication, the related stochastically averaged Reynolds’ equation for the fluid pressure is solved with appropriate boundary conditions, which is then used to calculate the load-carrying capacity. It is found that although the bearing suffers owing to transverse surface roughness, the performance of the bearing system can be improved to some extent by the positive effect of magnetization, considering the slip parameter at the minimum; at least in the case of negatively skewed roughness. A comparison of this paper with some established investigations indicates that here, the reduction of load-carrying capacity due to porosity and slip velocity is comparatively less, especially, when negative variance occurs. In augmenting the performance of the bearing system, the step ratio plays a central role, even if the slip parameter is at the minimum.

  18. Comparison of Alignment Correction Angles Between Fixed-Bearing and Mobile-Bearing UKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Atsuo; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Yamazoe, Shoichi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Good outcomes have been reported with both fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). However, overcorrected alignment could induce the progression of arthritis on the non-arthroplasty side. Changes of limb alignment after UKA with both types of bearings (fixed bearing: 24 knees, mobile bearing: 28 knees) were investigated. The mean difference between the preoperative standing femoral-tibial angle (FTA) and postoperative standing FTA was significantly larger in mobile bearing UKA group. In fixed-bearing UKA, there must be some laxity in MCL tension so that a 2-mm tension gauge can be inserted. In mobile-bearing UKA, appropriate MCL tension is needed to prevent bearing dislocation. This difference in MCL tension may have caused the difference in the correction angle between the groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Seismic isolation rubber bearings for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes results of biaxial breaking tests by compression and shear and by tension and shear for seismic isolation rubber bearings with bolted-type connections. The bearings used in the tests were low-damping rubber bearings, high-damping rubber bearings, and lead-rubber bearings. Three modes of failure of the bolted-type bearings were observed in the tests. They are the breaking failure by tension and shear; the breaking failure by compression and shear; and the buckling failure by compression and shear. The first and the second modes of failures are almost independent of the types and the sizes of the bearings. The breaking conditions of those failure modes are described in the axial-stress-shear-strain plane. This expression is useful for the evaluation of safety margins of the bearings. The paper outlines the basic design of the nuclear-grade bearings which were used for large-scale rubber bearing tests in a research project for seismic isolation of FBR plants. It also discusses the protection method against aging and the quality control which are important for implementation. (orig./HP)

  20. Seismic isolation rubber bearings for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Takafumi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes results of biaxial breaking tests by compression and shear and by tension and shear for seismic isolation rubber bearings with bolted-type connections. The bearings used in the tests were low-damping rubber bearings, high-damping rubber bearings, and lead-rubber bearings. Three modes of failure of the bolted-type bearings were observed in the tests. They are the breaking failure by tension and shear; the breaking failure by compression and shear; and the buckling failure by compression and shear. The first and the second modes of failures are almost independent of the types and the sizes of the bearings. The breaking conditions of those failure modes are described in the axial stress-shear strain plane. This expression is useful for the evaluation of safety margins of the bearings. The paper outlines the basic design of the nuclear-grade bearings which were used for large-scale rubber bearing tests in a research project for seismic isolation of fast breeder reactor (FBR) plants. The paper also discusses the protection method against aging and the quality control which are important for implementation

  1. History of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbopump Bearing Testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; Thom, Robert; Moore, Chip; Haluck, Dave

    2010-01-01

    bronze filled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cage inserts into the bearings and the anchoring of the SHABERTH bearing model and SINDA thermal computer model for cryogenic bearing analysis. In the mid 1990's, Pratt and Whitney (P&W) won the contract to deliver new high pressure turbopumps for the Shuttle s engines. P&W used two new bearing materials for the rings, Cronidur 30 and AISI 9310 steel and testing was needed on these new materials. A test rig had been designed and delivered to MSFC for testing hydrostatic bearings but with the need by Pratt to validate their bearings, the rig was reconfigured for testing of two ball bearings or a ball bearing and a roller bearing. The P&W bearings are larger than the Rocketdyne bearings and could not be installed in the BSMT. This new test rig was called the LH2 test rig and began operation in 1995. The LH2 test rig accumulated 75,000 seconds of run time in hydrogen. This test rig was valuable in two areas: validating the use of silicon nitride balls and rollers in Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) bearings, which Pratt eventually used, and in proving the robustness of the balls and rollers after river marks appeared on the surface of the rolling elements. Individual test reports have been presented at conferences and symposiums throughout the years. This paper is a comprehensive report of all the bearing testing done at Marshall. It represents thousands of hours of dedication and labor in all engineering and technical fields that made this program a success.

  2. Nonlinear Transient Modeling and Design of Turbocharger Rotor/Semi-Floating Bush Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the bearing design and analysis of radial semi-floating bush oil lubricated bearings for a typical industrial turbocharger configuration. Initially, the stability analysis for a linear rotor/bearing system is evaluated through eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the inner oil film are obtained for the linear modeling process. The operating speed range of the turbocharger is high enough, at 21,000 to 24,000 rpm, to be unstable, indicating that the analysis should be and is carried out with nonlinear transient modeling. The nonlinear transient analysis evaluates the rotor and bush limit cycle orbits, rotor dynamics, the forces acting on the rotor and semi-floating bush surfaces, the oil flow through the bearing, the oil temperatures, and the power loss of the two oil films. The optimum design of a set of semi-floating bush bearings for this application depends strongly upon the clearances of the bush and squeeze film damper, usually expressed as the non-dimensional clearance to radius ratio. A typical clearance is evaluated to determine the bearing performance in terms of orbit size, forces acting on the bush and squeeze damper surfaces, oil flow through the bearing, power loss, and thermal heating. The nonlinear transient orbit values are evaluated for frequency content using the FFT to determine which orbits show both the synchronous and sub-synchronous vibration components and the associated rotor modes excited. These results are compared to the linear analysis over the operating speed range. The oil flow through the bearing component is much larger than the squeeze film damper. The forces acting on the bush and squeeze damper surfaces are related to the fatigue life of the bearing.

  3. Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Thomas, Fransua; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    Rolling element bearings made from highly-elastic intermetallic materials (HIM)s, such as 60NiTi, are under development for applications that require superior corrosion and shock resistance. Compared to steel, intermetallics have been shown to have much lower rolling contact fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod (ASTM STP 771) fatigue tests. In the 3-ball tests, poor material quality and microstructural flaws negatively affect fatigue life but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not fail even in long-term tests. Though the full-scale bearing test data is yet preliminary, the results suggest that the simplified RCF test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance. These results provide guidance for materials development and to establish minimum quality levels required for successful bearing operation and life.

  4. Measurement of Pressure Fluctuations inside a Model Thrust Bearing Using PVDF Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Andrew; Matthews, David; Guzzomi, Andrew; Pan, Jie

    2017-04-16

    Thrust bearings play a vital role in propulsion systems. They rely on a thin layer of oil being trapped between rotating surfaces to produce a low friction interface. The "quality" of this bearing affects many things from noise transmission to the ultimate catastrophic failure of the bearing itself. As a result, the direct measure of the forces and vibrations within the oil filled interface would be very desirable and would give an indication of the condition of the bearing in situ. The thickness of the oil film is, however, very small and conventional vibration sensors are too cumbersome to use in this confined space. This paper solves this problem by using a piezoelectric polymer film made from Polyvinylidine Fluoride (PVDF). These films are very thin (50 m) and flexible and easy to install in awkward spaces such as the inside of a thrust bearing. A model thrust bearing was constructed using a 3D printer and PVDF films inserted into the base of the bearing. In doing so, it was possible to directly measure the force fluctuations due to the rotating pads and investigate various properties of the thrust bearing itself.

  5. Coupled Dynamics of a Rotor-Journal Bearing System Equipped with Thrust Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lie

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotordynamic coefficients of fixed-pad thrust bearing are introduced and calculated by using the out-domain method, and a general analysis method is developed to investigate the coupled dynamics of a rotor equipped with journal and thrust bearings simultaneously. Considerations include the effects of static tilt parameters of the rotor on rotordynamic coefficients of thrust bearing and the action of thrust bearing on system dynamics. It is shown that thrust bearing changes the load distribution of journal bearings and the static deflection of the rotor and delays the instability of the system considerably in lateral shaft vibration.

  6. The dual action gas thrust bearing - A new high load bearing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    The principle of utilizing hydrodynamic effects in diverging films for improving load capacity in gas thrust bearings is discussed. A new concept of dual action bearing based on that principle is described and analyzed. The potential of the new bearing is demonstrated both analytically for an infinitely long slider and by numerical solution for a flat sector shaped thrust bearing. It is shown that the dual action bearing can extend substantially the range of load carrying capacity in gas lubricated thrust bearings and improve their efficiency.

  7. Construction of gas suspended bearings (radial and axial gas ball bearings)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspar, G.

    1974-10-01

    This report contains practical and theoretical results that were obtained at IPP in the section of gas suspended bearings. The two air-cushioned, air-driven revolving mirrors and an air-cushioned, air measuring coil drive were built. The latter has a double radial bearing and a single axial bearing. The axial bearing is shaped in such a way that, with slight throttling of the air feed, i.e. at low air intake pressure, a relatively high bearing load can be imposed and the bearing remains at the same time free of the so-called air hammer effect. (orig.) [de

  8. Effect of boundary conditions on the performances of gas-lubricated micro journal bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Sheng; Lei Kangbin; Kiwamu, Kase; Luo Xilian; Gu Zhaolin

    2010-01-01

    As significant components of micromechanics, gas-lubricated microbearings are more prevalent for their special advantages than other types. The fluid dynamics of the microbearing is different from their larger cousins due to the noncontinuum effect and surface-dominated effect, which may make the Navier-Stokes equations invalid. In this paper, by considering the accommodation coefficients on journal (α i ) and that on bearing (α o ) separately, the microbearings with different bearing numbers under the assumption of large L/D (length to diameter) are simulated using direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) program incorporated with a Volume-CAD software. The diffuse reflection model and Cercignani-Lampis-Lord (CLL) model are applied to model the molecule-surface interaction. The flow field characteristics, as well as the performances of gas-lubricated journal bearings including load-carrying capacity, attitude angle and bearing drag are obtained. The results reveal that α i and α o have different effects to flow field characteristics and bearing performances. The bearing number has significantly impact on the bearing performances. The method developed in this paper would be very useful for designing and evaluating the gas-lubricated journal microbearing.

  9. Bearing Health Assessment Based on Chaotic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machinery carry a lot of useful information about the condition of operating machine. Due to the strong non-linear, complex and non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals from working bearings, an accurate and reliable health assessment method for bearing is necessary. This paper proposes to utilize the selected chaotic characteristics of vibration signal for health assessment of a bearing by using self-organizing map (SOM. Both Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm and Takens' theory are employed to calculate the characteristic vector which includes three chaotic characteristics, such as correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov entropy. After that, SOM is used to map the three corresponding characteristics into a confidence value (CV which represents the health state of the bearing. Finally, a case study based on vibration datasets of a group of testing bearings was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed method can reliably assess the health state of bearing.

  10. Are organohalogen contaminants a bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Leifsson, PS

    2006-01-01

    Tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland contain the highest concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) among subpopulations of any mammalian species in the Arctic. Negative associations also have been found between OHC concentrations and bone mineral density and liver...... histology parameters for this subpopulation of polar bears. The present study examined the OHC concentrations and adverse effects on renal tissue for 75 polar bears collected during 1999 to 2002. Specific lesions were diffuse glomerular capillary wall thickening, mesangial glomerular deposits, tubular...

  11. BEARING TESTS FOR THE SPUR TURBOGENERATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of the liquid-potassium journalbearing test program for the SPUR turbogenerator are presented. The activities described include the design, assembly and checkout of the bearing test rig, and the results of a successfully completed 250-h endurance test on a hydrodynamic journal bearing using 600 F liquid potassium as the lubricant. Unidirectional loads from 6 to 25 lbs were applied to the bearing operating at a speed of 24,000 rpm. (Author)

  12. Comparison between the volumetric flow rate and pressure distribution for different kinds of sliding thrust bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pourmehran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydrodynamic journal sliding bearing, forming with two nonparallel surfaces that the lower surface moves with a unidirectional velocity and the upper surface is stationary shaped with exponential geometry is verified mathematically. The values of volumetric flow rate and distribution of pressure for incompressible lubricant flow between two supports in several conditions of velocity with different variables are determined. The results indicate that by increasing the amount of constant (m, the maximum oil pressure in the bearing will face an extreme decrease, and also by increasing the α coefficient, the rate of volumetric flow rate will decrease.

  13. Mixed Lubrication Simulation of Hydrostatic Spherical Bearings for Hydraulic Piston Pumps and Motors

    OpenAIRE

    KAZAMA, Toshiharu

    2008-01-01

    Mixed and fluid film lubrication characteristics of hydrostatic spherical bearings for swash-plate-type axial piston pumps and motors are studied theoretically under non-steady-state conditions. The basic equations incorporating interference and contact of surface roughness are derived fundamentally through combination of the GW and PC models. Furthermore, a programming code that is applicable to the caulked-socket-type and open-socket-type bearings is developed. Effects of caulking, operatin...

  14. Effects of various treatments on the serviceability of water-immersed carbon-steel ball bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.G.

    1977-06-01

    Carbon-steel ball bearings employing various coatings, surface treatments, lubricants and ball and separator materials were tested under conditions simulating those in the NPD/Bruce type fuelling machine heads. The effects of the treatments on operating torques and wear and corrosion rates were studied. Sealed bearings lubricated with Dow FS 3451 (a fluorosilicone grease) gave the best performance in terms of these parameters. (author)

  15. Technical Development Path for Gas Foil Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Foil gas bearings are in widespread commercial use in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and microturbine generators and are emerging in more challenging applications such as turbochargers, auxiliary power units and propulsion gas turbines. Though not well known, foil bearing technology is well over fifty years old. Recent technological developments indicate that their full potential has yet to be realized. This paper investigates the key technological developments that have characterized foil bearing advances. It is expected that a better understanding of foil gas bearing development path will aid in future development and progress towards more advanced applications.

  16. Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; Kutschera, Verena E; Hallström, Björn M; Klassert, Denise; Fain, Steven R; Leonard, Jennifer A; Arnason, Ulfur; Janke, Axel

    2012-04-20

    Recent studies have shown that the polar bear matriline (mitochondrial DNA) evolved from a brown bear lineage since the late Pleistocene, potentially indicating rapid speciation and adaption to arctic conditions. Here, we present a high-resolution data set from multiple independent loci across the nuclear genomes of a broad sample of polar, brown, and black bears. Bayesian coalescent analyses place polar bears outside the brown bear clade and date the divergence much earlier, in the middle Pleistocene, about 600 (338 to 934) thousand years ago. This provides more time for polar bear evolution and confirms previous suggestions that polar bears carry introgressed brown bear mitochondrial DNA due to past hybridization. Our results highlight that multilocus genomic analyses are crucial for an accurate understanding of evolutionary history.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Journal Bearing Stability and New Gas Bearing Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dimofte, Florin

    2001-01-01

    It has been estimated that the noise levels in aircraft engine transmissions can be reduced by as much as 10 dB through the use of journal bearings. The potential benefits of lower noise levels include reduced wear, longer gear life and enhanced comfort for passengers and crew. Based on this concept the journal-thrust wave bearing was analyzed and its performance was evaluated. Numerical codes, developed over the past 30 years by Dr. Dimofte, were used to predict the performance of the bearing. The wave bearing is a fluid film bearing and therefore was analyzed using the Reynolds pressure equation. The formulation includes turbulent flow concepts and possesses a viscosity-temperature correction. The centrifugal growth of the bearing diameter and the deformation of the bearing under gear loads were also incorporated into the code. An experimental rig was developed to test the journal-thrust wave bearing.

  18. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.

    2011-10-01

    NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

  19. A Systems Approach to the Solid Lubrication of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Zaldana, Antonio R.; Radil, Kevin C.

    2002-01-01

    Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings which rely upon solid lubricants to reduce friction and minimize wear during sliding which occurs at start-up and shut-down when surface speeds are too low to allow the formation of a hydrodynamic air film. This solid lubrication is typically accomplished by coating the non-moving foil surface with a thin, soft polymeric film. The following paper introduces a systems approach in which the solid lubrication is provided by a combination of self lubricating shaft coatings coupled with various wear resistant and lubricating foil coatings. The use of multiple materials, each providing different functions is modeled after oil-lubricated hydrodynamic sleeve bearing technology which utilizes various coatings and surface treatments in conjunction with oil lubricants to achieve optimum performance. In this study, room temperature load capacity tests are performed on journal foil air bearings operating at 14,000 rpm. Different shaft and foil coating technologies such as plasma sprayed composites, ceramic, polymer and inorganic lubricant coatings are evaluated as foil bearing lubricants. The results indicate that bearing performance is improved through the individual use of the lubricants and treatments tested. Further, combining several solid lubricants together yielded synergistically better results than any material alone.

  20. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  1. Long-term bearing wear tests of conventional journal bearings and development of hydrostatic bearings for the LOFT drag-disc turbine transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The details of a two-year development program concerning materials for use as turbine bearings in a pressurized water reactor environment are reported. Two types of bearings have been examined, both conventional journal bearings and hydrostatic bearings. The results of long-term bearing wear tests conducted at 590 K and 15.1 MPa in water are presented. The feasibility of using hydrostatic bearings for the same transducer is demonstrated

  2. Rolling bearing fault detection using an adaptive lifting multiwavelet packet with a 1(1/2) dimension spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hongkai; Xia, Yong; Wang, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Defect faults on the surface of rolling bearing elements are the most frequent cause of malfunctions and breakages of electrical machines. Due to increasing demands for quality and reliability, extracting fault features in vibration signals is an important topic for fault detection in rolling bearings. In this paper, a novel adaptive lifting multiwavelet packet with 1(1/2) dimension spectrum to detect defects in rolling bearing elements is developed. The adaptive lifting multiwavelet packet is constructed to match vibration signal properties based on the minimum singular value decomposition (SVD) entropy using a genetic algorithm. A 1(1/2) dimension spectrum is further employed to extract rolling bearing fault characteristic frequencies from background noise. The proposed method is applied to analyze the vibration signal collected from electric locomotive rolling bearings with outer raceway and inner raceway defects. The experimental investigation shows that the method is accurate and robust in rolling bearing fault detection. (paper)

  3. Rolling Bearing Life Prediction, Theory, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2016-01-01

    A tutorial is presented outlining the evolution, theory, and application of rolling-element bearing life prediction from that of A. Palmgren, 1924; W. Weibull, 1939; G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren, 1947 and 1952; E. Ioannides and T. Harris, 1985; and E. Zaretsky, 1987. Comparisons are made between these life models. The Ioannides-Harris model without a fatigue limit is identical to the Lundberg-Palmgren model. The Weibull model is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. Both the load-life and Hertz stress-life relations of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, and Ioannides and Harris reflect a strong dependence on the Weibull slope. The Zaretsky model decouples the dependence of the critical shear stress-life relation from the Weibull slope. This results in a nominal variation of the Hertz stress-life exponent. For 9th- and 8th-power Hertz stress-life exponents for ball and roller bearings, respectively, the Lundberg-Palmgren model best predicts life. However, for 12th- and 10th-power relations reflected by modern bearing steels, the Zaretsky model based on the Weibull equation is superior. Under the range of stresses examined, the use of a fatigue limit would suggest that (for most operating conditions under which a rolling-element bearing will operate) the bearing will not fail from classical rolling-element fatigue. Realistically, this is not the case. The use of a fatigue limit will significantly overpredict life over a range of normal operating Hertz stresses. (The use of ISO 281:2007 with a fatigue limit in these calculations would result in a bearing life approaching infinity.) Since the predicted lives of rolling-element bearings are high, the problem can become one of undersizing a bearing for a particular application. Rules had been developed to distinguish and compare predicted lives with those actually obtained. Based upon field and test results of 51 ball and roller bearing sets, 98 percent of these bearing sets had acceptable

  4. Grafting of cellulose by fluorine-bearing silane coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ly, B. [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes Papetiers, Grenoble INP-Pagora, BP 65, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Belgacem, M.N., E-mail: Naceur.Belgacem@pagora.genoble-inp.fr [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes Papetiers, Grenoble INP-Pagora, BP 65, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bras, J.; Brochier Salon, M.C. [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes Papetiers, Grenoble INP-Pagora, BP 65, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2010-04-06

    The surface of model cellulose fibres, Avicell (AV), as well as that of Whatman paper (WP) was chemically modified with two fluorine-bearing alkoxysilane coupling agents, namely: 3,3,3-trifluoropropyl trimethoxysilane (TFPS) and 1H,1H,2H,2H,perfluorooctyl trimethoxysilane (PFOS). The occurrence of the grafting of soxhlet extracted modified cellulose was confirmed by the presence of silicon and fluorine atoms detected by elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Electron Dispersion Energy/Scanning Electron Microscopy (EDS/SEM). The contact angle measurements showed that, after grafting, the surface of AV and WP samples became totally highly hydrophobic with a contact angle of 140 deg. Thus, the polar contribution to the surface energy of the modified substrates was found to be close to zero. These modified substrate could be interesting for application such as self-cleaning surface, wipes paper, grease barrier paper or for biocomposite with a polar matrix.

  5. State Space Formulation of Nonlinear Vibration Responses Collected from a Dynamic Rotor-Bearing System: An Extension of Bearing Diagnostics to Bearing Prognostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Tse

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL. Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.

  6. A Weldability Study of Structural Materials for Manufacturing Bearing Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Drizhov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to analyze the possibility for using the 08YUT steel separator tape to manufacture separators, which are to be further applied to the bearing assembly via projection welding.Reliability of rolling bearings is determined by many factors such as surface quality of balls and rings and assembly precision, including the seal strength of hemiseparators.The technology based on the double-pulsed condenser projection welding belongs to one of the most efficient technologies to provide the assembly of bearing, for it allows welding of separator simultaneously in all currents. The paper shows that the required condition to assure high reliability of the bearing is induastial development and implementation of an effective and positive quality control system, which will reduce the probability of damages occurring both when welding and in the course of operation.The work used the static tensile test methods, as well as metallographic analysis.The experimental study used the 08YUT steel hemiseparators. A tape thickness of the hemiseparators was of 1.5mm. The number of simultaneously welded points were 8. The experimental studies of the metal damage of welding joints of the the 08YUT steel separator have shown that with a wide range of the changing welding current and compressed electrode force the quality assurance of welding points at the parent metal level could not be retrieved.The metallographic analysis of the metal damage nature of a welded joint revealed that between the atoms on the surfaces of hemiseparators there are no strong bonds – a bond was formed in the contact zone. This phenomenon leads to reduced tensile seal strength.The study has shown that aluminum and titanium added to the low-carbon steel in order to have a more fine-grained metal structure has a negative effect on the quality of welded joint via projection welding.

  7. Foil Gas Thrust Bearings for High-Speed Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Brian; DellaCorte, Christopher; Dykas, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the design and construction of simple foil thrust bearings intended for parametric performance testing and low marginal costs, supporting continued development of oil-free turbomachinery. A bearing backing plate is first machined and surface-ground to produce flat and parallel faces. Partial-arc slots needed to retain the foil components are then machined into the plate by wire electrical discharge machining. Slot thicknesses achievable by a single wire pass are appropriate to accommodate the practical range of foil thicknesses, leaving a small clearance in this hinged joint to permit limited motion. The backing plate is constructed from a nickel-based superalloy (Inconel 718) to allow heat treatment of the entire assembled bearing, as well as to permit hightemperature operation. However, other dimensionally stable materials, such as precipitation-hardened stainless steel, can also be used for this component depending on application. The top and bump foil blanks are cut from stacks of annealed Inconel X-750 foil by the same EDM process. The bump foil has several azimuthal slits separating it into five individual bump strips. This configuration allows for variable bump spacing, which helps to accommodate the effects of the varying surface velocity, thermal crowning, centrifugal dishing, and misalignment. Rectangular tabs on the foil blanks fit into the backing plate slots. For this application, a rather traditional set of conventionally machined dies is selected, and bump foil blanks are pressed into the dies for forming. This arrangement produces a set of bump foil dies for foil thrust bearings that provide for relatively inexpensive fabrication of various bump configurations, and employing methods and features from the public domain.

  8. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coe±cients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 [1]and described further in 1972 [2]. Several authors have re¯ned this metho...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF SHALLOW FOUNDATION SOIL BEARING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the soil bearing capacity and foundation settlement characteristics of Minna City Centre development site using standard penetration test (SPT) data obtained from10 SPT boreholes at 0.6, 2.1 and 3.6 m depths to correlate soil properties. Evaluation of foundation bearing capacity and settlement ...

  10. INVESTIGATION OF ANGULAR BALL BEARING WEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Savchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Wearing process of balls in an angular ball bearing has been investigated in the paper. Force affecting a separator from the side of balls is determined theoretically. Wear rate may be calculated with a formula for abrasive wear while substituting numerical parameter values of the investigated ball bearing for formula symbols.

  11. On the dynamics of ball bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This investigation on the dynamic behaviour of ball bearings was motivated by the demand for silent bearings in noise-sensitive applications, especially in the household appliance and automotive industry. The present investigations are intended to provide a clear understanding of the role of the

  12. Hydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis Of Slider Bearings Lubricated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis Of Slider Bearings Lubricated With Micropolar Fluids. ... In this paper, a theoretical study of the effect of micropolar lubricants on the performance characteristics of wide inclined slider bearings is presented. The finite element method and Gauss Seidel iterative procedure have been used ...

  13. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  14. Friction coefficients of PTFE bearing liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, C. M.

    1979-01-01

    Data discusses frictional characteristics of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) under temperature extremes and in vacuum environment. Tests were also run on reduced scale hardware to determine effects of vacuum. Data is used as reference by designers of aircraft-control system rod-end bearings and for bearings used in polar regions.

  15. BEARING ANALYSIS FOR THE SPUR TURBOGENERATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of the analysis of journal bearing configuration for the SPUR turbogenerator are presented in this report. For this analysis, a computer...laminar analysis agreed with existing solutions, thereby providing a check of the computer program. Several journal bearing mounting arrangements were considered, and a design was selected for initial testing. (Author)

  16. Protecting a Ball-Bearing-Deflection Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhr, George A.

    1987-01-01

    Deflectometer probe monitors deflection of ball-bearing race in liquid oxygen with aid of small window or diaphragm. Diaphragm or window isolates optical deflectometer from liquid oxygen or other fluid in ball bearing. At high pressures, diaphragm integral part of housing preferable to window, since there would be no leakage.

  17. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    orifices machined in the bearing pads, one can alter the machine dynamic characteristics, thus enhancing its operational range. A mathematical model of the rotor-bearing system, as well as of the hydraulic system, is presented. Numerical results of the system frequency response show good agreement...

  18. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    OpenAIRE

    He Ji-Huan; Wang Qing-Li; Sun Jie

    2011-01-01

    A polar bear (Ursus maritimus) has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  19. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  20. TEMPERATURE DIAGNOSTICS OF GAS TURBINE ENGINE BEARINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Birukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to develop methodology for diagnosing industrial gas turbine engine bearings using the standard performance parameters. This paper presents mathematical thermal model of combined thrust and radial bearing and provides the model application examples for diagnostics.

  1. The performance and stability of three-lobe journal bearing textured with micro protrusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.KH. EL-Said

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research work deals with studying the steady state performance and dynamic stability of sliding element hydrodynamic bearings of the three-lobe type and provided with a bushing surface textured with uniform micro protrusions. A mathematical model has been put forward for the problem using the Reynolds equation governing the unstable fluid lubrication inside the bearing as well as the equations governing the dynamic movement of the journal. The equations have been put in their numerical forms suitable for computer solution using the finite difference method. Two types of three lobe bearings have been considered, one with its plain bushing and the other with bushing textured with uniform micro protrusions. This is in addition to other two plain journal bearings one with plain bushing and the other with textured bushing. This is for the purpose of carrying out a general comparison to include the steady performance of these bearings in terms of their load carrying capacity and the friction losses in their parts in addition to their dynamic stability. It was concluded in the present work that the inclusion of these textured micro protrusions in the bushing of bearings, whether they are plain or of the three-lobe geometry improves their performance in terms of reducing their friction losses and raising their load carrying capacity along. It was found that the three-lobe bearing with protruded bushing surface texture is superior to the other types of bearings considered in the present work as far as steady state performance is concerned. Regarding the margin of stability to small sinusoidal disturbances the protruded three-lobe bearing shows a relatively lower margin. Some useful recommendations for future research work in this field of study are given in this work and the most important one is to carry out extensive experimental studies on sliding bearings surfaces fitted with textured bushings of different micro protrusions designs

  2. Gas Lubricated Foil Bearing Development for Advanced Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Rear Journal Bearing Runner 29 3.1.6 Forward Journal Bearing Runner Stress and DefJection Analysis 32 3.1.7 Critical Speed Analysis 35 3.1.8 Thermal...Analysis 39 3.1.8.1 Journal Bearing Temperatures 42 3.1.8.2 Thrust Bearing Temperatures 50 3.2 Design 56 3.2.1 Baseline Bearing Design 56 3.2.1.1 Journal ... Bearing Baseline Design 57 3.2.1.2 Thrust Bearing Baseline Design 59 3.2.2 Thrust Bearing Test Rig Design 61 3.2.3 Journal Bearing Test Rig Design 63

  3. Transient response of two lobe aerodynamic journal bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Yadav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behavior of a rotor-dynamic system is greatly affected by the performance of aerodynamic bearing and the performance of bearing is characterized by the stiffness and damping coefficients. In the present work, stiffness and damping coefficients of bearing are computed and the performance of the bearing is greatly changed with the change in bearing air film profile. The effect of lobe offset factors on the transient performance of aerodynamic bearing is presented. Bifurcation and Poincare diagrams of two lobe journal bearing have been presented for different offset factors. A bearing designer can judge the bearing performance based on bifurcation diagrams.

  4. The dynamic state monitoring of bearings system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the methods of dynamic state monitoring of bearings system. A vibration signal contains important technical information about the machine condition and is currently the most frequently used in diagnostic bearings systems. One of the main ad-vantages of machine condition monitoring is identifying the cause of failure of the bearings and taking preventative measures, otherwise the operation of such a machine will lead to frequent replacement of the bearings. Monitoring changes in the course of the operation of machin-ery repair strategies allows keeping the conditioned state of dynamic failure conditioned preventive repairs and repairs after-failure time. In addition, the paper also presents the fundamental causes of bearing failure and identifies mechanisms related to the creation of any type of damage.

  5. Trends in Controllable Oil Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar

    2011-01-01

    This work gives an overview about the theoretical and experimental achievements of mechatronics applied to oil film bearings, with the aim of: controlling the lateral vibration of flexible rotating shafts; modifying bearing dynamic characteristics, as stiffness and damping properties; increasing...... the rotational speed ranges by improving damping and eliminating instability problems, for example, by compensating cross-coupling destabilizing effects; reducing startup torque and energy dissipation in bearings; compensating thermal effects. It is shown that such controllable bearings can act as "smart......" components and be applied to rotating machines with the goal of avoiding unexpected stops of plants, performing rotordynamic tests and identifying model parameters "on site". Emphasis is given to the controllable lubrication (active lubrication) applied to different types of oil film bearings, i...

  6. Development of gadolinia bearing fuel for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Kazuichiro

    1986-01-01

    In the PWR power plants in Japan, the long-period operation cycle was extended legally to a maximum of 13 months from the conventional about 9 months in fiscal 1980. With this move, as a new type of fuel with burnable-poison-rod function, the development was started of gadolinia-bearing (gadolinium oxide) fuel, gadolinia being contained in the fuel pellets. The basic technology studies were completed in fiscal 1984. Actual irradiation of the fuel in Unit 2 of the Oi Power Station was then started in July 1984, demonstrating validity of the design. Meanwhile, the rapid power-up fest and the fuel center temperature measurement are conducted in an overseas reactor from fiscal 1983. The following are described: functions of the burnable absorber, the need for gadolinia-bearing fuel, experiences with gadolinia-bearing fuel, problems in the design and production of gadolinia-bearing fuel, the development of gadolinia-bearing fuel. (Mori, K.)

  7. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  8. Wave journal bearing with compressible lubricant--Part 1: The wave bearing concept and a comparison to the plain circular bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimofte, Florin

    1995-01-01

    To improve hydrodynamic journal bearing steady-state and dynamic performance, a new bearing concept, the wave journal bearing, was developed at the author's lab. This concept features a waved inner bearing diameter. Compared to other alternative bearing geometries used to improve bearing performance such as spiral or herring-bone grooves, steps, etc., the wave bearing's design is relatively simple and allows the shaft to rotate in either direction. A three-wave bearing operating with a compressible lubricant, i.e., gas is analyzed using a numerical code. Its performance is compared to a plain (truly) circular bearing over a broad range of bearing working parameters, e.g., bearing numbers from 0.01 to 100.

  9. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  10. 24 CFR 3285.202 - Soil classifications and bearing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Soil classifications and bearing... Soil classifications and bearing capacity. The soil classification and bearing capacity of the soil... bearing capacity must be determined by one or more of the following methods, unless the soil bearing...

  11. Nanocrystalline, superhard, ductile ceramic coatings for roller-cone bit bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namavar, F.; Colter, P.; Karimy, H. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The established method for construction of roller bits utilizes carburized steel, frequently with inserted metal bearing surfaces. This construction provides the necessary surface hardness while maintaining other desirable properties in the core. Protective coatings are a logical development where enhanced hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and surface properties are required. The wear properties of geothermal roller-cone bit bearings could be further improved by application of protective ceramic hard coatings consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites. Nanocrystalline protective coatings provide the required combination of hardness and toughness which has not been available thus far using traditional ceramics having larger grains. Increased durability of roller-cone bit bearings will ultimately reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells through increased durability.

  12. Application of Silicon Nitride (Si3N4 Ceramics in Ball Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto

    2016-08-01

    operation up to 1000°C, greater thermal shock resistance, lower density and low thermal expansion. This properties gives some benefit for ball bearing material such as higher running speed, reduce vibration of the shaft, will improve the life time and maintenance cost, lower heat generated, less energy consumption, lower wear rate, reducing noise level and reduce of using lubricant. The sintering methods are used to produce ball bearing from silicon nitride. Some techniques can be applied to increase ceramics strength which are reduce porosity, reduce grain size, reduce surface flaw and proof stressing. The surface finishing of the ceramic bearing is very important because silicon nitride as a brittle material, its strength is limited to the flaw sizes especially the flaw at the surface.

  13. Genomic evidence of widespread admixture from polar bears into brown bears during the last ice age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James A; Heintzman, Peter D; Harris, Kelley; Teasdale, Matthew D; Kapp, Joshua; Soares, André E Rodrigues; Stirling, Ian; Bradley, Daniel; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Graim, Kiley; Kisleika, Aliaksandr A; Malev, Alexander V; Monaghan, Nigel; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2018-02-20

    Recent genomic analyses have provided substantial evidence for past periods of gene flow from polar bears (Ursus maritimus) into Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos), with some analyses suggesting a link between climate change and genomic introgression. However, because it has mainly been possible to sample bears from the present day, the timing, frequency, and evolutionary significance of this admixture remains unknown. Here, we analyze genomic DNA from three additional and geographically distinct brown bear populations, including two that lived temporally close to the peak of the last ice age. We find evidence of admixture in all three populations, suggesting that admixture between these species has been common in their recent evolutionary history. In addition, analyses of ten fossil bears from the now-extinct Irish population indicate that admixture peaked during the last ice age, when brown bear and polar bear ranges overlapped. Following this peak, the proportion of polar bear ancestry in Irish brown bears declined rapidly until their extinction. Our results support a model in which ice age climate change created geographically widespread conditions conducive to admixture between polar bears and brown bears, as is again occurring today. We postulate that this model will be informative for many admixing species pairs impacted by climate change. Our results highlight the power of paleogenomics to reveal patterns of evolutionary change that are otherwise masked in contemporary data.

  14. Slider Posture Effects on Air Bearing in a Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Sett Myo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of slider posture on the slider bearing in a heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR system with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC method. In this HAMR system, the heat issues on the slider bearings are assumed to be caused by a heated spot on the disk and/or slider body itself at various pitch angles. The simulation results show that with a heated spot on the disk, the air bearing pressure and air bearing force that acted on the slider surface will increase when the pitch angle becomes larger. It is also found that the bearing force increases with the heated spot size and the effects of a heated spot become more obvious at a larger pitch angle. On the other hand, the slider body temperature is observed to have a noticeable effect on air bearing pressure and force. The smaller pitch angle enlarges the tendency of bearing force variations with the slider temperature and makes the slider more sensitive to its temperature changes.

  15. Research of the Quality of Quarry Dumpers Engine Crankshafts Sliding Bearings of Various Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Alexander; Korotkova, Lidiya; Vidin, Denis

    2017-11-01

    Sliding bearings are an important part of many large and critical components. They are widely used in power equipment, high-capacity pumps, compressors, electric motors and internal combustion engines (ICE). As a rule, sliding bearings include an antifriction bushing, part of the shaft surface (bearing journal), and a layer of oil between them. These are complex and critical parts in which there may occur dangerous defects, and which directly affect the durability, accuracy and reliability of the entire unit. To ensure high reliability of the equipment with sliding bearings applied in complex equipment, it is necessary to provide the quality control and sufficient level of monitoring of the technical condition, as well as diagnosis of emerging defects. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the internal combustion engines sliding bearings quality of various manufacturing companies. It gives operational properties of bearings depending on the compositional composition. The results of chemical analysis of the base, the cover and intermediate layers of the ICE liners are presented here. We have also made recommendations to increase the operational performance of sliding bearings.

  16. Bear-ly” learning: Limits of abstraction in black bear cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vonk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We presented two American black bears (Ursus americanus with a serial list learning memory task, and one of the bears with a matching-to-sample task. After extended training, both bears demonstrated some success with the memory task but failed to generalize the overarching rule of the task to novel stimuli. Matching to sample proved even more difficult for our bear to learn. We conclude that, despite previous success in training bears to respond to natural categories, quantity discriminations, and other related tasks, that bears may possess a cognitive limitation with regards to learning abstract rules. Future tests using different procedures are necessary to determine whether this is a limit of bears’ cognitive capacities, or a limitation of the current tasks as presented. Future tests should present a larger number of varying stimuli. Ideally, bears of various species should be tested on these tasks to demonstrate species as well as individual differences.

  17. Vibration quenching in a large scale rotor-bearing system using journal bearings with variable geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasalevris, Athanasios; Dohnal, Fadi

    2014-03-01

    In large scale rotating machinery the resonance amplitude during the passage through resonance is a matter of consideration because of its influence in the surrounding environment of the rotational system and foundation. In this paper, a variable geometry journal bearing (VGJB), recently patented, is applied for the mounting of a large scale rotor bearing system operating at the range of medium speed. The simulation of the rotor-bearing system incorporates a recent method for simulation of a multi-segment continuous rotor in combination with nonlinear bearing forces. The use of the current bearing gives results that encourage the use of such a bearing in rotating machinery since the vibration amplitude during the passage through the critical speed can be reduced up to 60-70%. In the presented study, the developed amplitude and the rotor stresses are severely reduced compared to those of the system with normal cylindrical journal bearings during a virtual start up of the system.

  18. The effect of bone cement particles on the friction of polyethylene and polyurethane knee bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash, H E; Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A; Jones, E

    2004-01-01

    Compliant layer knee joints have been considered for use in an attempt to increase the serviceable life of artificial joints. If designed correctly, these joints should operate within the full-fluid film lubrication regime. However, adverse tribological conditions, such as the presence of bone and bone cement particles, may breach the fluid film and cause surface wear. The frictional behaviour of both polyurethane (PU) and conventional polyethylene (PE) tibial components against a metallic femoral component was therefore assessed when bone cement particles were introduced into the lubricant. The bone cement particles caused a large increase in the frictional torque of both the PE and PU bearings; however, the friction produced by the PU bearings was still considerably lower than that produced by the PE bearings. The volume of bone cement particles between each of the bearings and the resultant frictional torque both decreased over time. This occurred more quickly with the PE bearings but greater damage was caused to the surface of the PE bearings than the PU components

  19. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  20. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  1. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.

    2005-04-01

    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  2. Unexpectedly low angular extent of journal bearing pressures: experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Vimal, T.; Chatterjee, Anindya

    2015-04-01

    Journal bearings have been studied for a long time. Pressure solutions for the same, as presented in textbooks, typically have angular extents exceeding 150°. Here, for a bearing with a relatively larger clearance ratio (0.01 as opposed to, say, 0.001), our experiments show an angular extent of about 50° only. Such small angular extents cannot be predicted, even approximately, by the existing simple theories for journal bearing pressures. However, such theories are based on assumptions whereby only the relative speed between bearing and journal surfaces enters the governing equations. We discuss how these same assumptions motivate some new combinations of boundary conditions that allow reasonably simple numerical treatment. In this paper, the resulting families of possible solutions are computed semi-numerically using a Fourier series expansion in one direction and finite differences and numerical continuation in the other. We find that one such solution family contains small-extent solutions similar to those observed experimentally.

  3. Influence of bearing support structures on shaft vibration of large hydraulic pump/turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistner, C.A.; Greenplate, B.S. [Voith, Hydro, Inc., Pennsylvania, PA (United States); Waddell, A.M. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Start-up transient loads from pump/turbine impellers can cause excessive vibration problems in the shaft system. If the radial guide bearing supports are structurally soft or loose, or if the bearings are worn, the resulting radial shaft movement causes abnormal wear. The wear normally occurs at the impeller sealing surfaces, main shaft seals, motor/generator components, piping, brackets, foundation connections, etc. This paper explores the critical factors causing shaft system vibration problems at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant, as well as the unique modifications which were implemented to strengthen and improve the units. The solution involved extensive three-dimensional finite element structural and thermal transient analyses of the original and re-designed turbine shoe bearing, bearing housings, and support structures. The conclusion compares the calculated and measured shaft system response to transient loads of the original and modified system.

  4. Determination a static limiting load curves for slewing bearing with application of the finite element methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In slewing bearings, a great number of contact pairs are present on the contact surfaces between the rolling elements and raceways of the bearing. Computations to determine the load of the individual rolling elements, taking into account the flexibility of the bearing ring, are most often carried out using the finite element method. Construction of a FEM full model of the bearing, taking into account the shape of the rolling elements and the determination of the contact problem for every rolling element, leads to a singularity of stiffness matrix, which in turn makes the problem impossible to solve. In FEM models the rolling elements are replaced by one-dimensional finite elements (linear elements to simplify the computation procedure and to obtain an optimal time for computations. replaced by truss elements with a material non-linear characteristic located between the raceway centres of the curvatures in their axial section, are presented in the paper

  5. Feasibility of Applying Active Lubrication to Dynamically Loaded Fluid Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of modifying the dynamics of the thin fluid films of dynamically loaded journal bearings, using different strategies of active lubrication is studied in this work. A significant reduction in the vibration levels, wear and power friction losses, is expected. Particularly, the focus...... of this study is on the analysis of main crankshaft bearings, where the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is modified by injecting oil at actively controllable pressures, through orifices circumferentially located along the bearing surface.......The feasibility of modifying the dynamics of the thin fluid films of dynamically loaded journal bearings, using different strategies of active lubrication is studied in this work. A significant reduction in the vibration levels, wear and power friction losses, is expected. Particularly, the focus...

  6. Modelling and construction of a compact 500 kg HTS magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Rothfeld, R; Goebel, B; Wippich, D; Riedel, T

    2005-01-01

    The progress of heavy-load HTS bearings depends on improvements in design, material quality and reliable cooling. We have constructed, manufactured and tested a 200 mm HTS journal bearing with a thermally encapsulated YBCO ring. For maximum force the larger gap due to the bearing cryostat (>4 mm) requires adjustment of the magnetic excitation pole distance and the Fe collector shim thickness. HTS material progress is obtained by top-seeded single- or multiple-grain growth which increases the averaged trapped magnetic flux density. Successful YBCO ring growth with radial c axis distribution by seeding the inner ring surface has been performed. The encapsulation ensures a substantially reduced cryogenic effort and stabilizes bearing operation at 78-79 K

  7. Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Clearance on Stress State and Contact Pressure in Plain Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of plain bearings by finite element method it is important to model as closely to real state the aspects that influence the stress and contact pressure: the loading mode, the properties of the materials, the lubrication system, the clearance between the shaft and the bearing body, the evolution in time of clearance correlated with the wear, etc. In order to study the effect of the clearance on the stress state, a plain bearing with nominal diameter d=40 mm was modeled. The contact pressure and the equivalent stress were computed for six discrete values of clearance, range from c=0 to c=0.3 mm. It has been shown that the increase of clearance generates an increase of the equivalent stress and contact pressure. The growth rate is higher for contact pressure, due to the decrease of the contact surface between the shaft and the bearing body

  8. The Biotribology of PEEK-on-HXLPE Bearings Is Comparable to Traditional Bearings on a Multidirectional Pin-on-disk Tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Doruk; Siskey, Ryan S; Underwood, Richard J; Briscoe, Adam; Kurtz, Steven M

    2016-11-01

    All-polymer bearings involving polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have been proposed for orthopaedic applications because they may reduce stress shielding, reduce weight of the implants, reduce wear and risk of osteolysis, and prevent release of metal ions by replacing the metal articulating components. Little is known about the biotribology of all-polymer PEEK bearings, including the effects of cross-shear, which are relevant for implant longevity, especially in the hip, and increased temperature that may affect lubricant proteins and, hence, lubrication in the joint. Using pin-on-disk in vitro testing, we asked: (1) Can all-polymer bearing couples involving PEEK have a comparable or lower wear rate than highly crosslinked UHMWPE (HXLPE) on CoCr bearing couples? (2) Is the wear rate of PEEK bearing couples affected by the amount of cross-shear? (3) Is there a difference in wear mechanism and surface morphology for all-polymer bearing surfaces compared with UHMWPE (HXLPE) on CoCr? We simultaneously tested a total of 100 pin-on-disk couples (n = 10 per bearing couple) consisting of three traditional metal-on-UHMWPE and seven polymer-on-polymer bearings for 2 million cycles under physiologically relevant conditions and in accordance with ASTM F732. Using analysis of variance, we analyzed the effect of bearing surface topography and cross-shear on wear rate. The changes in surface topography were evaluated using optical microscopy. Sample size was sufficient to provide 80% power to detect a difference of 1.4 mm 3 /MC in average wear rates of bearing couples. The combined wear rates of all-polymer bearing couples were not different than traditional bearing couples. With the numbers available, the PEEK and HXLPE bearing couple had a mean wear rate (WR: mean ± SD) of 0.9 ± 1.1 mm 3 /MC (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5 mm 3 /MC), which was not different than the wear rate of the CoCr and HXLPE bearing couple (1.6 ± 2.0 mm 3 /MC; 95% CI, 0.4-2.8 mm 3 /MC; mean difference

  9. Synthesis of a polyhistidine-bearing amphipol and its use for immobilizing membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giusti, Fabrice; Kessler, Pascal; Hansen, Randi Westh

    2015-01-01

    APol, are described. Its ability to immobilize MPs on nickel ion-bearing surfaces was tested using two complementary methods, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Compared to a single His6-tag fused at one extremity of a MP, the presence of several His6-tags carried...... by the APol belt surrounding the transmembrane domain of a MP increases remarkably the affinity of the protein/APol complex for nickel ion-bearing SPR chips, whereas it does not show such a strong effect on an IMAC resin. HistAPol-mediated immobilization, which allows reversibility of the interaction and easy...

  10. Analysis of Nanoparticle Additive Couple Stress Fluids in Three-layered Journal Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. V. V. L. N.; Sufian, S.; Mohamed, N. M.

    2013-04-01

    The present theoretical study investigates the load capacity and friction coefficient in a three-layered journal bearing lubricated with nanoparticle additive couple stress fluids. The couple stresses effects are analyzed based on Stokes micro-continuum theory. The nondimensional pressure and shear stress expressions are derived using modified Reynolds equation. The nondimensional load capacity increases and the coefficient of friction decreases using nanoparticle additive lubricants with couple stress effects. The three-layered journal bearing performance characteristics are improved with increase in both (i) surface adsorbent fluid film layer thickness and (ii) dynamic viscosity ratio of surface to core layer.

  11. Analysis of Nanoparticle Additive Couple Stress Fluids in Three-layered Journal Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T V V L N; Sufian, S; Mohamed, N M

    2013-01-01

    The present theoretical study investigates the load capacity and friction coefficient in a three-layered journal bearing lubricated with nanoparticle additive couple stress fluids. The couple stresses effects are analyzed based on Stokes micro-continuum theory. The nondimensional pressure and shear stress expressions are derived using modified Reynolds equation. The nondimensional load capacity increases and the coefficient of friction decreases using nanoparticle additive lubricants with couple stress effects. The three-layered journal bearing performance characteristics are improved with increase in both (i) surface adsorbent fluid film layer thickness and (ii) dynamic viscosity ratio of surface to core layer.

  12. HI-bearing Ultra Diffuse Galaxies in the ALFALFA Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Lukas; Janowiecki, Steven; Jones, Michael G.; ALFALFA Almost Darks Team

    2018-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (Arecibo L-band Feed Array) extragalactic HI survey, with over 30,000 high significance extragalactic sources, is well positioned to locate gas-bearing, low surface brightness sources missed by optical detection algorithms. We investigate the nature of a population of HI-bearing sources in ALFALFA with properties similar to "ultra-diffuse" galaxies (UDGs): galaxies with stellar masses of dwarf galaxies, but radii of L* galaxies. These "HI-bearing ultra-diffuse" sources (HUDS) constitute a small, but pertinent, fraction of the dwarf-mass galaxies in ALFALFA. They are bluer and have more irregular morphologies than the optically-selected UDGs found in clusters, and they appear to be gas-rich for their stellar mass, indicating low star formation efficiency. To illuminate potential explanations for the extreme properties of these sources we explore their environments and estimate their halo properties. We conclude that environmental mechanism are unlikely the cause of HUDS' properties, as they exist in environments equivalent to that of the other ALFALFA sources of similar HI-masses, however, we do find some suggestion that these HUDS may reside in high spin parameter halos, a potential explanation for their "ultra-diffuse" nature.

  13. On Controllable Elastohydrodynamic Fluid Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Martin Asger

    This thesis gives a theoretical description of the active tilting-pad journal bearing (ATPJB). It provides the qualified reader with the tools to model an ATPJB, while staying clear of pitfalls. The model is based on well known techniques and allows for local stability analyses, harmonic stationary...... are performed for a tilting-pad journal bearing (TPJB) and an ATPJB under static conditions, followed by a generalisation to dynamic conditions (transient as well as stationary harmonic). These analyses will be of interest to experimentalists, since they permit experiments performed on scaled down test rigs...... the addition of a control system may just as well harm rotor-bearing performance as improve it....

  14. On the Characteristics of Misaligned Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Young Jang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Journal bearing misalignment arise generally from the shaft deformation under load, deflection of the shaft, manufacturing and assembly errors, improper installation, and asymmetric loading. During operations, misalignment has a considerable effect on the static and dynamic performances. It could cause wear, vibration and even system failure. In this article, a literature review of misalignment of the journal bearings is presented. The basic theory for the misalignment and some results for the circular journal bearing are also presented to show the general trends of the misalignment.

  15. Microeconomic analysis of military aircraft bearing restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding program was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed. The annual cost savings to U.S. Army aviation is approximately $950,000.00 for three engines and three transmissions. The capital value over an indefinite life is approximately ten million dollars. The annual cost savings for U.S. Air Force engines is approximately $313,000.00 with a capital value of approximately 3.1 million dollars. The program will result in the government obtaining bearings at lower costs at equivalent reliability. The bearing industry can recover lost profits during a period of reduced demand and higher costs.

  16. Rotational decay torques of superconducting magnetic bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahata, R.; Yotsuya, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a superconducting magnetic bearing as one of application of a high critical temperature (Tc) oxide superconducting material. The authors have assembled new models of bearing with free rotation axis. In these models, superconductor, YBa 2 Cu 3 O X , prepared by the quench and melt growth (QMG) method was applied to the bearing section and a permanent magnet was used for a rotor. This development originated from the knowledge that YBa 2 Cu 3 O X prepared by QMG method had a stronger pinning force of magnetic flux than that of conventional superconductors

  17. Compressor ported shroud for foil bearing cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elpern, David G [Los Angeles, CA; McCabe, Niall [Torrance, CA; Gee, Mark [South Pasadena, CA

    2011-08-02

    A compressor ported shroud takes compressed air from the shroud of the compressor before it is completely compressed and delivers it to foil bearings. The compressed air has a lower pressure and temperature than compressed outlet air. The lower temperature of the air means that less air needs to be bled off from the compressor to cool the foil bearings. This increases the overall system efficiency due to the reduced mass flow requirements of the lower temperature air. By taking the air at a lower pressure, less work is lost compressing the bearing cooling air.

  18. Public Perceptions of Bears and Management Interventions in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of bears is a challenge globally. In Japan, Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) are considered a nuisance because of agricultural and property damage and personal human danger due to occasional human casualties. Reduction of human–bear conflicts in Japan would improve long-term conservation of bears and reduce risks to human health and safety. To understand Japanese perceptions of and experience with bears, we analyzed results of 5 public surveys...

  19. Management of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Klenzendorf, Sybille A.

    1997-01-01

    Management of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) in Europe. Sybille A. Klenzendorf (Abstract) Successful conservation of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Europe is associated with public acceptance of damages caused by bears. Recent increases in sheep depredation and beehive damage in central Austria resulted in the deaths of two bears there. Since bear numbers are low in most European populations, alternatives to the elimination of problem bears associated with dam...

  20. Use of thin films in high-temperature superconducting bearings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J. R.; Cansiz, A.

    1999-09-30

    In a PM/HTS bearing, locating a thin-film HTS above a bulk HTS was expected to maintain the large levitation force provided by the bulk with a lower rotational drag provided by the very high current density of the film. For low drag to be achieved, the thin film must shield the bulk from inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Measurement of rotational drag of a PM/HTS bearing that used a combination of bulk and film HTS showed that the thin film is not effective in reducing the rotational drag. Subsequent experiments, in which an AC coil was placed above the thin-film HTS and the magnetic field on the other side of the film was measured, showed that the thin film provides good shielding when the coil axis is perpendicular to the film surface but poor shielding when the coil axis is parallel to the surface. This is consistent with the lack of reduction in rotational drag being due to a horizontal magnetic moment of the permanent magnet. The poor shielding with the coil axis parallel to the film surface is attributed to the aspect ratio of the film and the three-dimensional nature of the current flow in the film for this coil orientation.

  1. The evaluation of the micro-tracks and micro-dimples on the tribological characteristics of thrust ball bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanov, Auezhan; Pyoun, Young-Shik; Cho, In-Shik; Lee, Chang-Soon; Park, In-Gyu

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary remedies for tribological problems is surface modification. The reduction of the friction between the ball and the raceway of bearings is a very important goal of the development of bearing technology. A low friction has a positive effect in terms of the extension of the fatigue life, avoidance of a temperature rise, and prevention of premature failure of bearings. Therefore, this research sought to investigate the effects of micro-tracks and micro-dimples on the tribological characteristics at the contact point between the ball and the raceway of thrust ball bearings (TBBs). The ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) technology was applied using different intervals (feed rates) to the TBB raceway surface to create micro-tracks and micro-dimples. The friction coefficient after UNSM at 50 microm intervals showed marked sensitivity and a significant reduction of 30%. In this study, the results showed that more micro-dimples yield a lower friction coefficient.

  2. State Space Formulation of Nonlinear Vibration Responses Collected from a Dynamic Rotor-Bearing System: An Extension of Bearing Diagnostics to Bearing Prognostics

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W. Tse; Dong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To exten...

  3. Vibration Characteristics of Hydrodynamic Fluid Film Pocket Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Feng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analyses of hydrodynamic fluid film bearings with different bearing profiles rely on solutions of the Reynolds equation. This paper presents an approach used for analysing the so-called pocket bearings formed from a combination of offset circular bearing profiles. The results show that the variation of the dynamic bearing characteristics with different load inclinations for the pocket bearings is less than that for the elliptic bearing counterpart. It is shown that the natural frequencies as well as the critical speeds, and hence the vibrational behaviour, can also be significantly different for an industrial rotor supported by the different bearings.

  4. Improved grinding quality inspection of large bearing components using Barkhausen noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarits, Francis M.

    2014-02-01

    Assuring that the finished surfaces of precision large bearing components are free from grinding injury is important due to the high initial value of these bearings, heavy application loadings and high costs associated with potential reduced service life. Inspecting bearing raceway surfaces for grind burn can be done by nital etching but this method is time consuming, involves using hazardous acids, is non-quantitative and does not provide information about residual stresses. An experimental study was performed to assess scanning Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) to detect various levels of induced grind injury on four steels used in large bearing ring production. Test samples having approximately 0.25 m diameter were fabricated from bearing steels heat treated by case carburizing, induction hardening and through hardening. A series of grinding cycles was designed and subsequently the entire ground surface on each sample was tested by scanning BNA. Selected samples were then evaluated by nital etching or destructive metallurgical tests. BNA results are compared with specific grinding power, nital etch and destructive measurements to show BNA to be an effective technique for identification of grind injury on these steel materials. Similar relative trends in the BNA response are present regardless of alloy or heat treatment.

  5. An investigation into failure analysis of interfering part of a steam turbine journal bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehdizadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Journal bearings as so sensitive parts of steam turbines are very susceptible to failure through different mechanisms of wear, fatigue and crush during service conditions. Failure occurring through these mechanisms lead to turbine completely shut down as a result of interfering in working conditions of bearing different parts. In this research, failed interfered part of a journal bearing related to a 320,000 kW steam turbine was examined. Failure analysis investigations were performed by utilizing of stereographic, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS analysis and hardness test. Surface crush, large amounts of surface cracks, no noticeable changes of failed surface chemical composition and microstructure with significant hardness improvement were the main obtained results. The studies were revealed that the bearing part loosing and inappropriate clearance can produce relative displacements under cyclic gradient loading. This condition was detrimental for the service life of turbine journal bearing via failure through fretting fatigue mechanism.

  6. White-Etching Matter in Bearing Steel. Part II: Distinguishing Cause and Effect in Bearing Steel Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Alvarez, W.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2014-10-01

    The premature failure of large bearings of the type used in wind turbines, possibly through a mechanism called "white-structure flaking", has triggered many studies of microstructural damage associated with "white-etching areas" created during rolling contact fatigue, although whether they are symptoms or causes of failure is less clear. Therefore, some special experiments have been conducted to prove that white-etching areas are the consequence, and not the cause, of damage. By artificially introducing a fine dispersion of microcracks in the steel through heat treatment and then subjecting the sample to rolling contact fatigue, manifestations of hard white-etching matter have been created to a much greater extent than samples similarly tested without initial cracks. A wide variety of characterization tools has been used to corroborate that the white areas thus created have the same properties as reported observations on real bearings. Evidence suggests that the formation mechanism of the white-etching regions involves the rubbing and beating of the free surfaces of cracks, debonded inclusions, and voids under repeated rolling contact. It follows that the focus in avoiding early failure should be in enhancing the toughness of the bearing steel in order to avoid the initial microscopic feature event.

  7. Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; Rincon, Gonzalo; Meredith, Robert W; MacNeil, Michael D; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Cánovas, Angela; Medrano, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationships of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) with high throughput genomic sequencing data with an average coverage of 25× for each species. A total of 1.4 billion 100-bp paired-end reads were assembled using the polar bear and annotated giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome sequences as references. We identified 13.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3 species aligned to the polar bear genome. These data indicate that polar bears and brown bears share more SNP with each other than either does with black bears. Concatenation and coalescence-based analysis of consensus sequences of approximately 1 million base pairs of ultraconserved elements in the nuclear genome resulted in a phylogeny with black bears as the sister group to brown and polar bears, and all brown bears are in a separate clade from polar bears. Genotypes for 162 SNP loci of 336 bears from Alaska and Montana showed that the species are genetically differentiated and there is geographic population structure of brown and black bears but not polar bears.

  8. Mercury biomagnification in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Blum, J. D.; Xie, Z.; Hren, M.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury biomagnification occurs in a variety of ecosystems resulting in greater potential for toxicological effects in higher-level trophic feeders. However, Hg transport pathways through different foodweb channels are not well known, particularly in high-latitude systems affected by atmospheric Hg deposition associated with snow and ice. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios and Hg concentrations determined for 26 late 19th and early 20th century polar bear hair specimens collected from cataloged museum collections elucidate relationships between high latitude marine foodweb structure and Hg transport pathways. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions suggest that polar bears derive nutrition from both open water (pelagic) and ice associated (sympagic) foodweb channels. Correlation between Hg concentrations and nitrogen isotope compositions indicate mercury biomagnification occurred in most of the polar bears investigated. Interpretation of stable isotope based foodweb structure in concert with Hg concentrations further suggests that Hg biomagnification occurred to a greater degree in polar bears participating in pelagic foodweb channels.

  9. Bearings for the HFIR control plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, A.A.

    1975-08-01

    Recent accelerated wear of HFIR bearings seems to be a more advanced stage of the situation encountered in 1967. The latest observations are in agreement with the hypothesis that high-frequency impact loads at a 30 0 angle on these bearings are the apparent basic cause of their short life. In view of the limited possibilities for change at this stage of HFIR operation, the region of best payoff seems to be an increase in the load-carrying area at some acceptable sacrifice of low rolling friction. On this basis three types of bearings are proposed for test--two of these are journal types and one is a slider type. The next planned shutdown for major parts replacement provides an opportunity to test these modified bearing types in the HFIR under full mechanical operating conditions but without nuclear operation. The program is recommended for consideration and adoption. (U.S.)

  10. LIGHT-WEIGHT LOAD-BEARING STRUCTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared...... to the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding one...... or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  11. How to live with black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1988-01-01

    A black bear in camp requires caution but is not cause for great alarm. Most are timid enough to be scared away by yelling, waving, and banging pans. But a few are too accustomed to people to be bothered.

  12. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  13. AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.

  14. Cavitation Peening of Aerospace Bearings, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-value bearings are a critical part of the safety, reliability, cost and performance of modern aircraft. A typical passenger jet will have 100 to 175 high-valve...

  15. Hydrostatic radial bearing of centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrostatic radial pump is described characterized by the fact that part of the medium off-taken from delivery is used as a lubricating medium. Two additional bodies are placed alongside a hydrostatic bearing with coils in between them and the pump shaft; the coils have an opposite pitch. The feed channel for the hydrostatic bearing pocket is linked to delivery. The coil outlets are connected to the pump suction unit. Two rotating coils placed alongside the hydrostatic bearing will considerably simplify the communication channel design and reduce the dependence on the pump shaft deflections. The addition of another rotating coil in the close vicinity of the pump shaft or directly on the shaft further increases the efficiency. The bearing can be used in designing vertical circulating pumps for the cooling circuits of nuclear reactors. (J.B.)

  16. Novel nano bearings constructed by physical adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-09-01

    The paper proposes a novel nano bearing formed by the physical adsorption of the confined fluid to the solid wall. The bearing is formed between two parallel smooth solid plane walls sliding against one another, where conventional hydrodynamic lubrication theory predicted no lubricating effect. In this bearing, the stationary solid wall is divided into two subzones which respectively have different interaction strengths with the lubricating fluid. It leads to different physical adsorption and slip properties of the lubricating fluid at the stationary solid wall respectively in these two subzones. It was found that a significant load-carrying capacity of the bearing can be generated for low lubricating film thicknesses, because of the strong physical adsorption and non-continuum effects of the lubricating film.

  17. Development of hydrodynamic micro-bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Zhang, J.; Spikes, H. A.; Reddyhoff, T.; Holmes, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the modelling and testing of mm-scale hydrodynamic bearings which are being developed to improve the efficiency of a cm-scale turbine energy harvester, whose efficiency was previously limited by poorly lubricated commercial jewel-bearings. The bearings were fabricated using DRIE and their performance was assessed using a custom built MEMS tribometer. Results demonstrate that acceptably low friction is achieved when low viscosity liquid lubricants are used in combination with an appropriate choice of friction modifier additive. Further reduction in friction is demonstrated when the step height of bearing is adjusted in accordance with hydrodynamic theory. In parallel with the experiments, hydrodynamic lubricant modelling has been carried out to predict and further optimize film thickness and friction performance. Modelling results are presented and validated against experimental friction data.

  18. cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon ruthenium complexes bearing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - cyclic -perimeter hydrocarbon ruthenium complexes bearing functionalized pyridyl diketones: Isolation of complexes with 2-N∩O and 4-N∩O bonding modes of ligands. Saphidabha L Nongbri Babulal Das Mohan Rao Kollipara.

  19. Cavitation Peening of Aerospace Bearings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-value bearings are a critical part of the safety, reliability, cost and performance of modern aircraft. A typical passenger jet will have 100 to 175 high-valve...

  20. Effects of fluid inertia and bearing flexibility on the performance of finite length journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorova, Juliana; Alexandrov, Vassil

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes the theoretical study concerning the effect of lubricant inertia forces and deformability of the bearing elastic layer on the performance of a plane journal bearing. The problem is investigated for a Newtonian lubricant under isothermal and isoviscous conditions. The analysis considers the generalized Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the clearance space and the linear elasticity equation governing the displacement field in the bearing shell. An iterative numerical procedure with successive over relaxation is used to pressure distribution within the lubricated conjunction. Bearing performance characteristics have been presented for typically selected values of generalized Reynolds number Re* and elasticity parameters of the elastic liner. It has been observed that the combined effect of fluid inertia forces and bearing flexibility affects the performance characteristics of dynamically loaded journal bearing.

  1. Genetic relationships of extant brown bears (Ursus arctos) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and brown bears (Ursus arctos) are closely related species for which extensive mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic comparisons have been made. We used previously published genotype data for 8 microsatellite DNA loci from 930 brown bears in 19 populations and 473 polar bears in 16 populations to compare the population genetic relationships of extant populations of the species. Genetic distances (Nei standard distance = 1.157), the proportion of private alleles (52% of alleles are not shared by the species), and Bayesian cluster analysis are consistent with morphological and life-history characteristics that distinguish polar bears and brown bears as different species with little or no gene flow among extant populations.

  2. Flywheel energy storage with superconductor magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer; Hull, John R.

    1993-01-01

    A flywheel having superconductor bearings has a lower drag to lift ratio that translates to an improvement of a factor of ten in the rotational decay rate. The lower drag results from the lower dissipation of melt-processed YBCO, improved uniformity of the permanent magnet portion of the bearings, operation in a different range of vacuum pressure from that taught by the art, and greater separation distance from the rotating members of conductive materials.

  3. Is Polar Bear Hair Fiber Optic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Daniel W.

    1998-05-01

    New direct measurement of high optical attenuation rates in polar bear hairs 2 8 dB mm in the visible and reanalysis of the data of Tributsch et al . Sol. Energy Mater. 21, 219 (1990) seem to rule out the UV waveguiding proposed by Grojean et al . Appl. Opt. 19, 339 (1980) . The case against fiber-optic polar bear hairs is summarized, and four conditions are given that any variation of the model of Grojean et al . would have to satisfy.

  4. KINEMATICS FRICTION PAIR FOR EXAMPLE NEEDLE BEARINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy NACHIMOWICZ; Robert KORBUT

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns certain phenomena that take place in the needle roller bearing. The friction that generates the anti-torque of a friction pair is the major factor that influences the needle bearing’s wear. In the needle bearing there occur two predominant types of friction: the rolling friction and the sliding friction, and both are subject to examination. The study presents recordings and analysis of the movements of all needle bearing’s rolling elements. The examination was carri...

  5. Consumption choice by bears feeding on salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gende, S M; Quinn, T P; Willson, M F

    2001-05-01

    Consumption choice by brown (Ursus arctos) and black bears (U. americanus) feeding on salmon was recorded for over 20,000 bear-killed fish from 1994 to 1999 in Bristol Bay (sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka) and southeastern Alaska (pink, O. gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta). These data revealed striking patterns of partial and selective consumption that varied with relative availability and attributes of the fish. As the availability of salmon decreased, bears consumed a larger proportion of each fish among both years and habitats. When availability was high (absolute number and density of salmon), bears consumed less biomass per captured fish, targeting energy-rich fish (those that had not spawned) or energy-rich body parts (eggs in females; brain in males). In contrast, individual fish were consumed to a much greater extent, regardless of sex or spawning status, in habitats or years of low salmon availability. The proportion of biomass consumed per fish was similar for males and females, when spawning status was statistically controlled, but bears targeted different body parts: the body flesh, brain and dorsal hump in males and the roe in females. Bears thus appeared to maximize energy intake by modifying the amount and body parts consumed, based on availability and attributes of spawning salmon.

  6. Rotordynamics and bearing design of turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen Jeng

    2012-05-01

    Turbochargers have gained significant attention in recent years. They are already widely used in automotive, locomotive, and marine applications with diesel engines. They are also applied in the aerospace application to increase the engine performance now. The turbochargers used in automotive and aerospace industry are very light-weight with operating speeds above 100,000 rpm. The turbochargers used in locomotive and marine applications are relatively heavy in size and power compared to the automotive and aerospace applications, and the maximum continuous operating speeds are around 30,000 rpm depending on the diesel engine power rating. Floating ring bushings, semi-floating dampers, ball bearings, and ball bearings with dampers are commonly used in automotive applications for small turbochargers. However, these bearings may not be appropriate for large turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Instead, multi-lobed bearings with and without squeeze film dampers are commonly used in these heavy-duty turbochargers. This paper deals with the rotordynamic characteristics of larger turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Various bearing designs are discussed. Bearing design parameters are studied and optimal values are suggested. Test results are also presented to support the analytical simulation.

  7. Adaptive Spindle Balancing Using Magnetically Levitated Bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARNEY, PATRICK S.; LAUFFER, JAMES P.; PETTEYS, REBECCA; REDMOND, JAMES M.; SULLIVAN, WILLIAM N.

    1999-01-01

    A technological break through for supporting rotating shafts is the active magnetic bearing (AMB). Active magnetic bearings offer some important advantages over conventional ball, roller or journal bearings such as reduced frictional drag, no physical contact in the bearing, no need for lubricants, compatibility with high vacuum and ultra-clean environments, and ability to control shaft position within the bearing. The disadvantages of the AMB system are the increased cost and complexity, reduced bearing stiffness and the need for a controller. Still, there are certain applications, such as high speed machining, biomedical devices, and gyroscopes, where the additional cost of an AMB system can be justified. The inherent actuator capabilities of the AMB offer the potential for active balancing of spindles and micro-shaping capabilities for machine tools, The work presented in this paper concentrates on an AMB test program that utilizes the actuator capability to dynamically balance a spindle. In this study, an unbalanced AMB spindle system was enhanced with an LMS (Least Mean Squares) algorithm combined with an existing PID (proportional, integral, differential) control. This enhanced controller significantly improved the concentricity of an intentionally unbalanced shaft. The study included dynamic system analysis, test validation, control design and simulation, as well as experimental implementation using a digital LMS controller

  8. Adaptive Spindle Balancing Using Magnetically Levitated Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARNEY,PATRICK S.; LAUFFER,JAMES P.; PETTEYS,REBECCA; REDMOND,JAMES M.; SULLIVAN,WILLIAM N.

    1999-09-20

    A technological break through for supporting rotating shafts is the active magnetic bearing (AMB). Active magnetic bearings offer some important advantages over conventional ball, roller or journal bearings such as reduced frictional drag, no physical contact in the bearing, no need for lubricants, compatibility with high vacuum and ultra-clean environments, and ability to control shaft position within the bearing. The disadvantages of the AMB system are the increased cost and complexity, reduced bearing stiffness and the need for a controller. Still, there are certain applications, such as high speed machining, biomedical devices, and gyroscopes, where the additional cost of an AMB system can be justified. The inherent actuator capabilities of the AMB offer the potential for active balancing of spindles and micro-shaping capabilities for machine tools, The work presented in this paper concentrates on an AMB test program that utilizes the actuator capability to dynamically balance a spindle. In this study, an unbalanced AMB spindle system was enhanced with an LMS (Least Mean Squares) algorithm combined with an existing PID (proportional, integral, differential) control. This enhanced controller significantly improved the concentricity of an intentionally unbalanced shaft. The study included dynamic system analysis, test validation, control design and simulation, as well as experimental implementation using a digital LMS controller.

  9. Hydrodynamic journal bearings: Capacity, wear, and lubrication. January 1973-September 1989 (Citations from Fluidex data base). Report for January 1973-September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings. Bearing load, lubrication, thermal effects, tolerance to misalignment, cavitation, and design are discussed. Studies on the effect of temperature and heat transfer on hydrodynamic films are presented. The impact of surface roughness on hydrodynamic journal bearing performance is also examined. (This updated bibliography contains 359 citations, 27 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  10. A semi-analytical bearing model considering outer race flexibility for model based bearing load monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerst, Stijn; Shyrokau, Barys; Holweg, Edward

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel semi-analytical bearing model addressing flexibility of the bearing outer race structure. It furthermore presents the application of this model in a bearing load condition monitoring approach. The bearing model is developed as current computational low cost bearing models fail to provide an accurate description of the more and more common flexible size and weight optimized bearing designs due to their assumptions of rigidity. In the proposed bearing model raceway flexibility is described by the use of static deformation shapes. The excitation of the deformation shapes is calculated based on the modelled rolling element loads and a Fourier series based compliance approximation. The resulting model is computational low cost and provides an accurate description of the rolling element loads for flexible outer raceway structures. The latter is validated by a simulation-based comparison study with a well-established bearing simulation software tool. An experimental study finally shows the potential of the proposed model in a bearing load monitoring approach.

  11. Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Gloria G; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Kolbe, Ben; Fernandes, Daniel; Meleg, Ioana N; García-Vázquez, Ana; Pinto-Llona, Ana C; Constantin, Silviu; de Torres, Trino J; Ortiz, Jose E; Frischauf, Christine; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel

    2016-10-01

    Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as homing behaviour, and that cave bears formed stable maternal social groups at least for hibernation. In contrast, brown bears do not show any strong association of mitochondrial lineage and cave, suggesting that these two closely related species differed in aspects of their behaviour and sociality. This difference is likely to have contributed to cave bear extinction, which occurred at a time in which competition for caves between bears and humans was likely intense and the ability to rapidly colonize new hibernation sites would have been crucial for the survival of a species so dependent on caves for hibernation as cave bears. Our study demonstrates the potential of ancient DNA to uncover patterns of behaviour and sociality in ancient species and populations, even those that went extinct many tens of thousands of years ago. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Modified Vertical Bearing Capacity for Circular Foundations in Sand Using Reduced Friction Angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin; Larsen, Kim André

    2012-01-01

    Recently Bucket foundation as a large cylindrical structure that is open as the base and closed at the top, has attracted much attention in offshore projects. In order to present relationship between vertical bearing capacity of a bucket foundation relative to the corresponding capacity of a circ......Recently Bucket foundation as a large cylindrical structure that is open as the base and closed at the top, has attracted much attention in offshore projects. In order to present relationship between vertical bearing capacity of a bucket foundation relative to the corresponding capacity...... of a circular plate, several loading tests on small scale bucket foundations including the circular surface footings are performed at Aalborg University. In current research, the vertical bearing capacity of circular surface footings is investigated using reduced friction angle. It is also presented a linear...

  13. [Determination of a Friction Coefficient for THA Bearing Couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbka, M; Nečas, D; Bartošík, J; Hartl, M; Křupka, I; Galandáková, A; Gallo, J

    2015-01-01

    The wear of articular surfaces is considered one of the most important factors limiting the life of total hip arthroplasty (THA). It is assumed that the particles released from the surface of a softer material induce a complex inflammatory response, which will eventually result in osteolysis and aseptic loosening. Implant wear is related to a friction coefficient which depends on combination of the materials used, roughness of the articulating surfaces, internal clearance, and dimensions of the prosthesis. The selected parameters of the bearing couples tested were studied using an experimental device based on the principle of a pendulum. Bovine serum was used as a lubricant and the load corresponded to a human body mass of 75 kg. The friction coefficient was derived from a curve of slowdown of pendulum oscillations. Roughness was measured with a device working on the principle of interferometry. Clearance was assessed by measuring diameters of the acetabular and femoral heads with a 3D optical scanner. The specimens tested included unused metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene and ceramic-on-ceramic bearing couples with the diameters of 28 mm and 36 mm. For each measured parameter, an arithmetic mean was calculated from 10 measurements. 1) The roughness of polyethylene surfaces was higher by about one order of magnitude than the roughness of metal and ceramic components. The Protasul metal head had the least rough surface (0.003 μm). 2) The ceramic-on-ceramic couples had the lowest clearance. Bearing couples with polyethylene acetabular liners had markedly higher clearances ranging from 150 μm to 545 μm. A clearance increased with large femoral heads (up to 4-fold in one of the couple tested). 3) The friction coefficient was related to the combination of materials; it was lowest in ceramic-on-ceramic surfaces (0.11 to 0.12) and then in ceramic-on-polyethylene implants (0.13 to 0.14). The friction coefficient is

  14. Polar bears: the fate of an icon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Polar bears are one of the most iconic animals on our planet. Worldwide, even people who would never see one are drawn to these charismatic arctic ice hunters. They are the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, and despite being born on land, they spend most of their lives out on the sea ice and are considered a marine mammal. Current global studies estimate there are around 20,000 animals in some 19 discrete circumpolar populations. Aside from pregnant females denning in the winter months to give birth, the white bears do not hibernate. They spend their winters on the sea ice hunting seals, an activity they are spectacularly adapted for. Research on these animals is incredibly difficult because of the inhospitable surroundings they inhabit and how inaccessible they make the bears. For many years, the sum of our understanding of the natural history of polar bears came from tracks, scats, the remains of their kills, abandoned dens, and anecdotal observations of native hunters, explorers, and early biologists. Nonetheless, the last 40 years have seen a much better picture of their biology emerge thanks to, first, dedicated Canadian researchers and, later, truly international efforts of workers from many countries. Veterinarians have contributed to our knowledge of the bears by delivering and monitoring anesthesia, obtaining blood samples, performing necropsies, investigating their reproduction, conducting radiotelemetry studies, and examining their behavior. Recently, new technologies have been developed that revolutionize the study of the lives and natural history of undisturbed polar bears. These advances include better satellite radiotelemetry equipment and the development of remote-controlled miniature devices equipped with high-definition cameras. Such new modalities provide dramatic new insights into the life of polar bears. The remarkable degree of specialized adaptation to life on the sea ice that allowed the bears to be successful is the very reason that

  15. Wave Journal Bearing. Part 2: Experimental Pressure Measurements and Fractional Frequency Whirl Threshold for Wave and Plain Journal Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James F.; Dimofte, Florin; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A new hydrodynamic bearing concept, the wave journal bearing, is being developed because it has better stability characteristics than plain journal bearings while maintaining similar load capacity. An analysis code to predict the steady state and dynamic performance of the wave journal bearing is also part of the development. To verify numerical predictions and contrast the wave journal bearing's stability characteristics to a plain journal bearing, tests were conducted at NASA Lewis Research Center using an air bearing test rig. Bearing film pressures were measured at 16 ports located around the bearing circumference at the middle of the bearing length. The pressure measurements for both a plain journal bearing and a wave journal bearing compared favorably with numerical predictions. Both bearings were tested with no radial load to determine the speed threshold for self-excited fractional frequency whirl. The plain journal bearing started to whirl immediately upon shaft start-up. The wave journal did not incur self-excited whirl until 800 to 900 rpm as predicted by the analysis. Furthermore, the wave bearing's geometry limited the whirl orbit to less than the bearing's clearance. In contrast, the plain journal bearing did not limit the whirl orbit, causing it to rub.

  16. Study of design parameters for squeeze film air journal bearing – excitation frequency and amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a design of squeeze film air journal bearing based on the design rules derived from CFX and FEA simulation study of an air film in between two flat plates, one of which was driven in a sinusoidal manner. The rules are that the oscillation frequency should be at least 15 kHz and that the oscillation amplitude be as large as possible to ensure a greater film thickness and to allow the bearing to reach its stable equilibrium quickly. The proposed journal bearing is made from AL2024-T3, of 20.02 mm outer diameter, 600 mm length and 2 mm thickness. Three 20-mm long fins are on the outer surface of the bearing tube and are spaced 120° apart; three longitudinal flats are milled equi-spaced between the fins and two piezoelectric actuators are mounted lengthwise on each flat. Such a design produces a modal shape on the bearing tube which resembles a triangle. When excited in this mode at the frequency of 16.37 kHz, and a voltage of 75 V AC with 75 V DC offset acting on the piezoelectric actuators, the air gap underneath of the bearing tube behaves as a squeeze air film with a response amplitude of 3.22 μm. The three design rules were validated by experiments.

  17. White-beaked dolphins trapped in the ice and eaten by polar bears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aars

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice, where they hunt ice-associated seals. However, they are opportunistic predators and scavengers with a long list of known prey species. Here we report from a small fjord in Svalbard, Norwegian High Arctic, a sighting of an adult male polar bear preying on two white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris on 23 April 2014. This is the first record of this species as polar bear prey. White-beaked dolphins are frequent visitors to Svalbard waters in summer, but have not previously been reported this far north in early spring. We suggest they were trapped in the ice after strong northerly winds the days before, and possibly killed when forced to surface for air at a small opening in the ice. The bear had consumed most parts of one dolphin. When observed he was in the process of covering the mostly intact second dolphin with snow. Such caching behaviour is generally considered untypical of polar bears. During the following ice-free summer and autumn, at least seven different white-beaked dolphin carcasses were observed in or near the same area. We suggest, based on the area and the degree to which these dolphins had decayed, that they were likely from the same pod and also suffered death due to entrapment in the ice in April. At least six different polar bears were seen scavenging on the carcasses.

  18. Mass Loss Rates of Fasting Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Richardson, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014. Polar bears were given access to water but not food and held for a median length of 17 d. Median mass loss rates were 1.0 kg/d, while median mass-specific loss rates were 0.5%/d, similar to other species with high adiposity and prolonged fasting capacities. Mass loss by unfed captive adult males was identical to that lost by free-ranging individuals, suggesting that terrestrial feeding contributes little to offset mass loss. The inferred metabolic rate was comparable to a basal mammalian rate, suggesting that while on land, polar bears can maintain a depressed metabolic rate to conserve energy. Finally, we estimated time to starvation for subadults and adult males for the on-land period. Results suggest that at 180 d of fasting, 56%-63% of subadults and 18%-24% of adult males in this study would die of starvation. Results corroborate previous assessments on the limits of polar bear capacity to withstand lengthening ice-free seasons and emphasize the greater sensitivity of subadults to changes in sea ice phenology.

  19. A circumpolar monitoring framework for polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraven, Dag; Aars, Jon; Amstrup, Steven C.; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W.; DeBruyn, T.D.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Durner, George M.; Gill, Michael J.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Omelak, Jack; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Peacock, Elizabeth; Richardson, E.E.; Sahanatien, Vicki; Stirling, Ian; Wiig, Øystein

    2012-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) occupy remote regions that are characterized by harsh weather and limited access. Polar bear populations can only persist where temporal and spatial availability of sea ice provides adequate access to their marine mammal prey. Observed declines in sea ice availability will continue as long as greenhouse gas concentrations rise. At the same time, human intrusion and pollution levels in the Arctic are expected to increase. A circumpolar understanding of the cumulative impacts of current and future stressors is lacking, long-term trends are known from only a few subpopulations, and there is no globally coordinated effort to monitor effects of stressors. Here, we describe a framework for an integrated circumpolar monitoring plan to detect ongoing patterns, predict future trends, and identify the most vulnerable polar bear subpopulations. We recommend strategies for monitoring subpopulation abundance and trends, reproduction, survival, ecosystem change, human-caused mortality, human–bear conflict, prey availability, health, stature, distribution, behavioral change, and the effects that monitoring itself may have on polar bears. We assign monitoring intensity for each subpopulation through adaptive assessment of the quality of existing baseline data and research accessibility. A global perspective is achieved by recommending high intensity monitoring for at least one subpopulation in each of four major polar bear ecoregions. Collection of data on harvest, where it occurs, and remote sensing of habitat, should occur with the same intensity for all subpopulations. We outline how local traditional knowledge may most effectively be combined with the best scientific methods to provide comparable and complementary lines of evidence. We also outline how previously collected intensive monitoring data may be sub-sampled to guide future sampling frequencies and develop indirect estimates or indices of subpopulation status. Adoption of this framework

  20. What Can We Learn?--The Algonquin Bear Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Describes a bear attack in Algonquin Park in Lake Opeongo (Canada) in which a man and woman were killed. Hypothesizes that the bear deliberately preyed on its victims and concludes that the bear was physically normal. Despite this isolated attack, the chance of being attacked by a black bear when camping is virtually nonexistent. (KS)

  1. 77 FR 77070 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2727-086] Black Bear Hydro...: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project... designating Black Bear Hydro as the Commission's non-federal representative for carrying out informal...

  2. Wear numbers for ball cup and journal bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, D.J.; Moes, H.

    1980-01-01

    A wear number is defined for ball cup bearings and for journal bearings where the cup and the cylindrical bearing are made of soft material. This dimensionless wear number provides a relation between the following five quantities: the radius of the ball or the length of the journal bearing in

  3. Critical Pressures of the Thrust Bearing Using a Magnetic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    長屋, 幸助; 武田, 定彦; 佐藤, 淳; 井開, 重男; 関口, 肇; 斉藤, 登

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a thrust bearing lubricated by a magnetic fluid under a magnetic field. The critical pressures of the bearing versus the magnitude of the magnetic flux densities have been investigated experimentally. It is clarified that the critical pressures of the proposed bearing are larger than those of the normal lubricant bearing under high speeds.

  4. Noise reduction of rotating machinery by viscoelastic bearing supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, H.G.

    2003-01-01

    The demand for silent rolling bearing applications, such as electric motors and gearboxes, has resulted in an investigation of viscoelastic bearing supports. By placing a thin viscoelastic layer between the bearing outer ring and the surrounding structure, vibrations of the shaft-bearing arrangement

  5. 46 CFR 61.20-23 - Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tailshaft clearance; bearing weardown. 61.20-23 Section...; bearing weardown. (a) Water lubricated bearings, other than rubber, must be rebushed as follows: (1) Where the propelling machinery is located amidship, the after stern tube bearing must be rebushed when it is...

  6. Vibration Propagation of Gear Dynamics in a Gear-Bearing-Housing System Using Mathematical Modeling and Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert G.; Guo, Yi; Eritenel, Tugan; Ericson, Tristan M.

    2012-01-01

    Vibration and noise caused by gear dynamics at the meshing teeth propagate through power transmission components to the surrounding environment. This study is devoted to developing computational tools to investigate the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a gearbox using different bearings. Detailed finite element/contact mechanics and boundary element models of the gear/bearing/housing system are established to compute the system vibration and noise propagation. Both vibration and acoustic models are validated by experiments including the vibration modal testing and sound field measurements. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation is speed-dependent. Housing plays an important role in noise radiation .It, however, has limited effects on gear dynamics. Bearings are critical components in drivetrains. Accurate modeling of rolling element bearings is essential to assess vibration and noise of drivetrain systems. This study also seeks to fully describe the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a power-transmission system using rolling element and fluid film wave bearings. Fluid film wave bearings, which have higher damping than rolling element bearings, could offer an energy dissipation mechanism that reduces the gearbox noise. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation in explored using multi-body computational models. These models include gears, shafts, rolling element and fluid film wave bearings, and the housing. Radiated noise is mapped from the gearbox surface to surrounding environment. The effectiveness of rolling element and fluid film wave bearings in breaking the vibro-acoustic propagation path from the gear to the housing is investigated.

  7. An Experimental Investigation Into the Temperature Profile of a Compliant Foil Air Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin; Zeszotek, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    A series of tests was performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump-type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions. The temperature profile was collected by instrumenting a foil bearing with nine, type K thermocouples arranged in the center and along the bearing s edges in order to measure local temperatures and estimate thermal gradients in the axial and circumferential directions. To facilitate the measurement of maximum temperatures from viscous shearing in the air film, the thermocouples were tack welded to the backside of the bumps that were in direct contact with the top foil. The mating journal was coated with a high temperature solid lubricant that, together with the bearing, underwent high temperature start-stop cycles to produce a smooth, steady-state run-in surface. Tests were conducted at speeds from 20 to 50 krpm and loads ranging from 9 to 222 N. The results indicate that, over the conditions tested, both journal rotational speed and radial load are responsible for heat generation with speed playing a more significant role in the magnitude of the temperatures. The temperature distribution was nearly symmetric about the bearing center at 20 and 30 krpm but became slightly skewed toward one side at 40 and 50 krpm. Surprisingly, the maximum temperatures did not occur at the bearing edge where the minimum film thickness is expected but rather in the middle of the bearing where analytical investigations have predicted the air film to be much thicker. Thermal gradients were common during testing and were strongest in the axial direction from the middle of the bearing to its edges, reaching 3.78 8C/mm. The temperature profile indicated the circumferential thermal gradients were negligible.

  8. Thin layer flow and film decay modeling for grease lubricated rolling bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venner, Cornelis H.; van Zoelen, M.T.; Lugt, Pieter Martin

    2012-01-01

    A model is presented to predict lubricant supply layer changes on tracks in rolling bearings due to centrifugal forces and elastohydrodynamic contact pressure. Experimental validation is shown for centrifugal force driven free surface flow, and layer thickness (film thickness) decay in single

  9. SOIL ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTION IN THE NEAR-STREAM ZONE AT THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED IN MAINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  10. One of the last wild brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Netherlands (Noordwijk)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plicht, Johannes; Kuijper, Wim J.; Verheijen, Ivo K.A.; Ramcharan, André; Kolfschoten, T. van

    2016-01-01

    Early in 2016, bones of a left front leg of a brown bear (Ursus arctos) were found in the dunes between Noordwijk and Zandvoort (Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen - Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes). The stratigraphical composition of the find horizon was identified as the old surface (palaeosoil) of the

  11. A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the performance of a fixed inclined slider bearing whose surfaces are lubricated by a non Newtonian power law lubricant is investigated numerically. Based on the power law model, the modified Reynolds equation is derived and solved using the finite element method. The effect of flow index on pressure ...

  12. Increased muscle activity to stabilise mobile bearing knees in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garling, E.H.; Eck, M; Wedding, T.; Veeger, H.E.J.; Valstar, E.R.; Nelissen, R.G.H.H.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the differences in muscle activity (surface EMG) between a posterior stabilised (PS) total knee design and a mobile bearing (MB) posterior cruciate ligament retaining design in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients during a step-up task. Four patients with a PS total

  13. UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS IN BATCH SYSTEMS BY A RECYCLED IRON-BEARING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An iron-bearing material deriving from surface finishing operations in the manufacturing of cast-iron components demonstrates potential for removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Batch isotherm and rate experiments were conducted for uptake of cadmium, zinc, and lead...

  14. Ice-bearing deposits in the southern mid-latitude regions of Terra Cimmeria, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Michael, G.; Fawdon, P.

    2017-09-01

    We report here the presence of a newly observed well-preserved glacial-like and ice-bearing deposit, named Valley Fill Deposit (VFD), on the surface of Terra Cimmeria, located in the southern mid-latitude regions of Mars.

  15. Effect of Bearings on Vibration in Rotating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Rudrapati Victor; Amit Siddhappa, Savale; Bhushan Gajanan, Savale; Vipin Philip, S.; Paul, P. Sam

    2017-08-01

    In rotary machines vibration is an inherent phenomenon which has the tendency to affect required performance. Amongst the different parameters that affect vibration, selection of appropriate bearing is the most critical component. In this work the effect of different types of bearing on vibration in rotary machines is studied and the magnitude of vibration produced by use of different set of bearings under the same condition of loads and rotational speeds were investigated. Bearings considered in this work were ball bearing, tapered roller bearing, thrust bearing and shaft material considered is of mild steel. From experimental result, it was noted that tapered roller bearing gives the highest amplitude of vibration among all the three bearings whereas the ball bearing gives least amplitude under similar operating conditions.

  16. Effect of semi-circular wavy liner on performance of journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md.; Osman, Kahar; Asral

    2012-06-01

    The amount of lubricant present in a bearing can affect its performance. This study compares the load carrying capacity of wavy and smooth surfaces liner bearing so that the potential advantages of the former could be identified. Both types of bearing used palm oil as lubricant and computational analysis was developed to predict the numerical data for full film lubrication condition. The bearing model was 60 mm in diameter and its ratio of length to diameter was 0.5 with clearance and amplitude of 250μm and 200μm respectively. All cases studied included temperature effect under steady flow conditions with speed between 200 and 5000 rpm. The results show, for low eccentricity ratio, semi circular wavy liner bearings were able to produce higher load carrying capacity. The results also show that the overall temperature drop for wavy liner surfaces was higher for all test conditions. The shaft speeds, however, have no direct effect on the magnitude of the load carrying capacity.

  17. Bearing capacity of circular footing resting on granular soil overlying soft clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The bearing capacity of footings constructed on soft clay soil is considerably governed by soil settlement. In practice, the bearing capacity of foundations on soft clay can be improved by a layer of compacted sand or gravel. In this study numerical analysis is performed using the Mohr Column model and some of the results are ensured by field plate loading observations. It is demonstrated that the ultimate bearing capacity is directly proportional to the angle of internal friction of granular soil “ϕ”, the granular layer thickness “H”, and the foundation depth “D”, while at the same time it is inversely proportional to the footing diameter “B”. The ultimate capacity of surface footings (D/B = 0 and H/B >2 increases about 67% if the granular soil changes from medium to very dense. A significant enhancement in bearing capacity is achieved by increasing the ratio between the granular soil thickness and the footing diameter “H/B” up to four for surface foundations (D/B = 0 and up to six for deeper foundations (D/B = 1.0. The failure mechanism is characterized by punch shear failure in the granular soil and Prandtl1 failure in the lower soft clay soil. The ultimate bearing capacity is also directly proportional to the extension “x” of granular soil measured from the footing edge up to a ratio equal to one (x/B = 1.

  18. Co-Bioleaching of Chalcopyrite and Silver-Bearing Bornite in a Mixed Moderately Thermophilic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congren Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chalcopyrite and bornite are two important copper minerals, and they often coexist. In this study, the co-bioleaching of chalcopyrite and silver-bearing bornite by mixed moderately thermophilic culture at 50 °C was investigated. The bioleaching results show that the extraction percentage of Cu for co-bioleaching of chalcopyrite (Ccp and silver-bearing bornite (Bn (Ccp/Bn = 3:1 was 94.6%. Compared to bioleaching of chalcopyrite or silver-bearing bornite alone, the Cu extraction percentage was greatly enhanced when they were bioleached together. The leaching residues were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Silver-bearing bornite dissolved preferentially compared to chalcopyrite, due to galvanic interactions. Simultaneously, Ag+ was released from the silver-bearing bornite into solution. Ag2S formed on the surface because Cu and Fe in the chalcopyrite were replaced by Ag+, accelerating chalcopyrite dissolution and enrichment of Ag on the surface of the chalcopyrite.

  19. Local Attitudes towards Bear Management after Illegal Feeding and Problem Bear Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fraser, David

    2013-09-12

    The "pot bears" received international media attention in 2010 after police discovered the intentional feeding of over 20 black bears during the investigation of an alleged marijuana-growing operation in Christina Lake, British Columbia, Canada. A two-phase random digit dialing survey of the community was conducted in 2011 to understand local perspectives on bear policy and management, before and after a summer of problem bear activity and government interventions. Of the 159 households surveyed in February 2011, most had neutral or positive attitudes towards bears in general, and supported the initial decision to feed the food-conditioned bears until the autumn hibernation. In contrast to wildlife experts however, most participants supported relocating the problem bears, or allowing them to remain in the area, ahead of killing; in part this arose from notions of fairness despite the acknowledged problems of relocation. Most locals were aware of the years of feeding but did not report it, evidently failing to see it as a serious form of harm, even after many bears had been killed. This underscores the importance of preventive action on wildlife feeding and the need to narrow the gap between public and expert opinion on the likely effects of relocation versus killing.

  20. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Incipient in Journal Bearings - Part I : Detectability and measurement for bearing damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dong Jin; Kwon, Oh Yang; Chung, Min Hwa; Kim, Kyung Woong

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to the machinery using rolling element bearings, systems with journal bearings generally operate in large scale and under severe loading condition such as steam generator turbines and internal combustion engines. Failure of the bearings in these machinery can result in the system breakdown. To avoid the time consuming repair and considerable economic loss, the detection of incipient failure in journal bearings becomes very important. In this experimental approach, acoustic emission monitoring is applied to the detection of incipient failure caused by several types of abnormal operating condition most probable in the journal bearing systems. It has been known that the intervention of foreign materials, insufficient lubrication and misassembly etc. are principal factors to cause bearing failure and distress. The experiment was conducted under such designed conditions as hard particles in the lubrication layer, insufficient lubrication, and metallic contact in the simulated journal bearing system. The results showed that acoustic emission could be an effective tool to detect the incipient failure in journal bearings

  1. Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Thomas, Fransua; Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2017-01-01

    Rolling element bearings made from highly-elastic intermetallic materials (HIM)s, such as 60NiTi, are under development for applications that require superior corrosion and shock resistance. Compared to steel, intermetallics have been shown to have much lower rolling contact fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod (ASTM STP 771) fatigue tests. In the 3-ball tests, poor material quality and microstructural flaws negatively affect fatigue life but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not fail even in long-term tests. Though the full-scale bearing test data is yet preliminary, the results suggest that the simplified RCF test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance. These results provide guidance for materials development and to establish minimum quality levels required for successful bearing operation and life.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for a Plain Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhamra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic behavior for a plain classic bearing (fluid bearing lubricated by a non-Newtonian fluid of a turbo machine rotating with high speed; this type of fluid contains additives viscosity (couple-stress fluid film. The solution of the nonlinear dynamic problem of this type of bearing is determined with a spatial discretisation of the modified Reynolds' equation written in dynamic mode by using the optimized short bearing theory and a temporal discretisation for equations of rotor motion by the help of Euler's explicit diagram. This study analyzes the dynamic behavior of a rotor supported by two couple-stress fluid film journal lubricant enhances the dynamic stability of the rotor-bearing system considerably compared to that obtained when using a traditional Newtonian lubricant. The analysis shows that the dynamic behavior of a shaft which turns with high velocities is strongly nonlinear even for poor eccentricities of unbalance; the presence of parameters of couple stress allows strongly attenuating the will synchrony (unbalance and asynchrony (whipping amplitudes of vibrations of the shaft which supports more severe conditions (large unbalances.

  3. Identifying lubricant options for compressor bearing designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaz, J.; Seeton, C.; Dixon, L.

    2017-08-01

    Today’s refrigeration and air conditioning market is not only driven by the environmental aspects of the refrigerants, but also by the energy efficiency and reliability of system operation. Numerous types of compressor designs are used in refrigeration and air conditioning applications which means that different bearings are used; and in some cases, multiple bearing types within a single compressor. Since only one lubricant is used, it is important to try to optimize the lubricant to meet the various demands and requirements for operation. This optimization entails investigating different types of lubricant chemistries, viscosities, and various formulation options. What makes evaluating these options more challenging is the refrigerant which changes the properties of the lubricant delivered to the bearing. Once the lubricant and refrigerant interaction are understood, through various test methods, then work can start on collaborating with compressor engineers on identifying the lubricant chemistry and formulation options. These interaction properties are important to the design engineer to make decisions on the adequacy of the lubricant before compressor tests are started. This paper will discuss the process to evaluate lubricants for various types of compressors and bearing design with focus on what’s needed for current refrigerant trends. In addition, the paper will show how the lubricant chemistry choice can be manipulated through understanding of the bearing design and knowledge of interaction with the refrigerant to maximize performance. Emphasis will be placed on evaluation of synthetic lubricants for both natural and synthetic low GWP refrigerants.

  4. Comparison of fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty after high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Huys, Maxime; Pariat, Jacques; Roubineau, François; Flouzat Lachaniette, Charles Henri; Dubory, Arnaud

    2018-02-01

    There is no information comparing the results of fixed-bearing total knee replacement and mobile-bearing total knee replacement in the same patients previously treated by high tibial osteotomy. The purpose was therefore to compare fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing total knee replacements in patients treated with previous high tibial osteotomy. We compared the results of 57 patients with osteoarthritis who had received a fixed-bearing prosthesis after high tibial osteotomy with the results of 41 matched patients who had received a rotating platform after high tibial osteotomy. The match was made for length of follow-up period. The mean follow-up was 17 years (range, 15-20 years). The patients were assessed clinically and radiographically. The pre-operative knee scores had no statistically significant differences between the two groups. So was the case with the intra-operative releases, blood loss, thromboembolic complications and infection rates in either group. There was significant improvement in both groups of knees, and no significant difference was observed between the groups (i.e., fixed-bearing and mobile-bearing knees) for the mean Knee Society knee clinical score (95 and 92 points, respectively), or the Knee Society knee functional score (82 and 83 points, respectively) at the latest follow-up. However, the mean post-operative knee motion was higher for the fixed-bearing group (117° versus 110°). In the fixed-bearing group, one knee was revised because of periprosthetic fracture. In the rotating platform mobile-bearing group, one knee was revised because of aseptic loosening of the tibial component. The Kaplan-Meier survivorship for revision at ten years of follow-up was 95.2% for the fixed bearing prosthesis and 91.1% for the rotating platform mobile-bearing prosthesis. Although we did manage to detect significant differences mainly in clinical and radiographic results between the two groups, we found no superiority or inferiority of the mobile-bearing

  5. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee , Gadre; Dattatraya, Aniruddha [Rexford, NY

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  6. Transient thermal modelling of ball bearing using finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Sibilli, Thierry; Igie, Uyioghosa

    2017-01-01

    Gas turbines are fitted with rolling element bearings, which transfer loads and supports the shafts. The interaction between the rotating and stationary parts in the bearing causes a conversion of some of the power into heat, influencing the thermal behaviour of the entire bearing chamber. To improve thermal modelling of bearing chambers, this work focused on modelling of the heat generated and dissipated around the bearings, in terms of magnitude and location, and the interaction with the co...

  7. A conventional point of view on active magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Ming; Dill, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Active magnetic bearings used in rotating machinery should be designed as locally controlled, independent devices similar to other types of bearings. The functions of control electronics and power amplifiers can be simply and explicitly related to general bearing properties such as load capacity, stiffness, and damping. The dynamics of a rotor and its supporting active magnetic bearings are analyzed in a modified conventional method with an extended state vector containing the bearing state variables.

  8. Superconducting Meissner Effect Bearings for Cryogenic Turbomachines. Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    significant sources of damping being squeeze - film damping in the gap and any structural damping in the bearings . The first of these damping sources is dependent... bearing / damper , that the gas bearing could be stabilized at cryogenic temperatures. Figure 12 shows the hybrid gas/Meissner-effect bearing . The tilt-pad...Housing TurbomachineAssembly with T Meissner Dampers and Self-Acting Tilt-Pad Gas Bearings In-Une Heaters Manually Controlled Uquid Nitrogen -j T

  9. Modeling and simulation of porous journal bearings in multibody systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buuren, Sietze van

    2013-01-01

    A specific cost-efficient type of plain journal bearing is the porous journal bearing, which possesses a pervious bush that serves as a lubricant reservoir. The current work is concerned with modeling porous journal bearings in multibody systems, for which dynamical models are needed to investigate the bearing’s behavior. Such porous journal bearing models as well as models of elementary rotor-bearing systems including these, were developed and investigated during the course for this work.

  10. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2010-06-15

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  11. Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamatsu Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Technique". Bear farming is extremely inhumane and many bears died of illness such as chronic infections and liver cancer. Efforts are now given by non-governmental organizations, mass media and Chinese government to end bear farming ultimately. At the same time, systematic research has to be done to find an alternative for bear bile. In this review, we focused on the literature, laboratory and clinical results related to bear bile and its substitutes or alternative in English and Chinese databases. We examined the substitutes or alternative of bear bile from three aspects: pure compounds derived from bear bile, biles from other animals and herbs from TCM. We then discussed the strategy for stopping the trading of bear bile and issues of bear bile related to potential alternative candidates, existing problems in alternative research and work to be done in the future.

  12. Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yibin; Siu, Kayu; Wang, Ning; Ng, Kwan-Ming; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Tong, Yao

    2009-01-01

    Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Technique". Bear farming is extremely inhumane and many bears died of illness such as chronic infections and liver cancer. Efforts are now given by non-governmental organizations, mass media and Chinese government to end bear farming ultimately. At the same time, systematic research has to be done to find an alternative for bear bile. In this review, we focused on the literature, laboratory and clinical results related to bear bile and its substitutes or alternative in English and Chinese databases. We examined the substitutes or alternative of bear bile from three aspects: pure compounds derived from bear bile, biles from other animals and herbs from TCM. We then discussed the strategy for stopping the trading of bear bile and issues of bear bile related to potential alternative candidates, existing problems in alternative research and work to be done in the future. PMID:19138420

  13. Experimental investigations of active air bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Morosi, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Along with traditional oil lubrication, increasing demand for high-speed applications has renewed attention to gas bearings technology. Traditional aerostatic and aerodynamic gas lubrication has been widely used in a variety of applications, ranging from high-speed spindles to micro and meso......-scale turbomachinery. The present paper deals with experimental rotordynamic testing of a flexible rotor supported by hybrid aerostaticaerodynamic gas journal bearing equipped with an electronic radial air injection system. From a rotordynamic point of view there are two phenomena that limit the widespread...... of traditional gas lubrication: 1) Low damping makes operation across critical speed dangerous, as even low level of unbalance can generate large vibration responses. This is especially problematic for gas bearing applications, which often operate in the supercritical region. Moreover, 2) An upper bound...

  14. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF ROTOR-BEARING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit SARUHAN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief study of the information from the published literature and author's works regarding rotor-bearing systems analysis with respect to optimization. The main goal of this work is to motivate and give an idea to designers who are willing to deal with optimization of rotor-bearing sytems. The results obtained and presented in this study are to provide a comparison with numerical optimum design methods such as gradientbased method, and to show the potential of genetic algorithms in optimization of rotor-bearing systems. Genetic algorithms have been used as optimization problem solving techniques. They are parameter search procedures based on the idea of natural selection and genetics. These robust methods have increasingly recognized and applied in many applications.

  15. KINEMATICS FRICTION PAIR FOR EXAMPLE NEEDLE BEARINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy NACHIMOWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns certain phenomena that take place in the needle roller bearing. The friction that generates the anti-torque of a friction pair is the major factor that influences the needle bearing’s wear. In the needle bearing there occur two predominant types of friction: the rolling friction and the sliding friction, and both are subject to examination. The study presents recordings and analysis of the movements of all needle bearing’s rolling elements. The examination was carried out on a special examination stand that precisely emulates the real conditions of the needle bearing’s work. Carefully prepared examination methods enable recording and analyzing frictions in the bearing, estimating a sphere within which the load is shifted, and calculating the coefficient of friction.

  16. Active Magnetic Bearings – Magnetic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Parameter identification procedures and model validation are major steps towards intelligent machines supported by active magnetic bearings (AMB). The ability of measuring the electromagnetic bearing forces, or deriving them from measuring the magnetic flux, strongly contributes to the model...... of the work is the characterization of magnetic forces by using two experimental different experimental approaches. Such approaches are investigated and described in details. A special test rig is designed where the 4 poles - AMB is able to generate forces up to 1900 N. The high precision characterization...... of the magnetic forces are led by using different experimental tests: (I) by using hall sensors mounted directly on the poles (precise measurements of the magnetic flux) and by an auxiliary system, composed of strain gages and flexible beams attached to the rotor; (II) by measuring the input current and bearing...

  17. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  18. White-Etching Matter in Bearing Steel. Part I: Controlled Cracking of 52100 Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Solano-Alvarez, W; Bhadeshia, Harshad Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Although most of the research performed in bearing steel metallurgy aims to prevent crack nucleation and propagation, some applications require the exact opposite in order to study the role that disconnected surfaces inside the bulk material play when load is applied, or when fluids entrapped in surface cracks propagate tensile stresses or exacerbate corrosion. Four heat treatments have been designed to create controlled arrays of crack types and distributions in quenched and untempered steel...

  19. Effect of ion-plated films of germanium and silicon on friction, wear, and oxidation of 52100 bearing steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, D. H.; Spalvins, T.

    1977-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments were conducted with ion plated films of germanium and silicon on the surface of 52100 bearing steel both dry and in the presence of mineral oil. Both silicon and germanium were found to reduce wear, with germanium being more effective than silicon. An optimum film thickness of germanium for minimum wear without surface crack formation was found to be approximately 400 nanometers (4000 A). The presence of silicon and germanium on the 52100 bearing steel surface improved resistance to oxidation.

  20. Drivers of hibernation in the brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A L; Singh, N J; Friebe, A; Arnemo, J M; Laske, T G; Fröbert, O; Swenson, J E; Blanc, S

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation has been a key area of research for several decades, essentially in small mammals in the laboratory, yet we know very little about what triggers or ends it in the wild. Do climatic factors, an internal biological clock, or physiological processes dominate? Using state-of-the-art tracking and monitoring technology on fourteen free-ranging brown bears over three winters, we recorded movement, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature (Tb), physical activity, ambient temperature (TA), and snow depth to identify the drivers of the start and end of hibernation. We used behavioral change point analyses to estimate the start and end of hibernation and convergent cross mapping to identify the causal interactions between the ecological and physiological variables over time. To our knowledge, we have built the first chronology of both ecological and physiological events from before the start to the end of hibernation in the field. Activity, HR, and Tb started to drop slowly several weeks before den entry. Bears entered the den when snow arrived and when ambient temperature reached 0 °C. HRV, taken as a proxy of sympathetic nervous system activity, dropped dramatically once the bear entered the den. This indirectly suggests that denning is tightly coupled to metabolic suppression. During arousal, the unexpected early rise in Tb (two months before den exit) was driven by TA, but was independent of HRV. The difference between Tb and TA decreased gradually suggesting that bears were not thermoconforming. HRV increased only three weeks before exit, indicating that late activation of the sympathetic nervous system likely finalized restoration of euthermic metabolism. Interestingly, it was not until TA reached the presumed lower critical temperature, likely indicating that the bears were seeking thermoneutrality, that they exited the den. We conclude that brown bear hibernation was initiated primarily by environmental cues, but terminated by

  1. Big Bear Exploration Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    During the first quarter of 1998 Big Bear completed a purchase of additional assets in the Rainbow Lake area of Alberta in which light oil purchase was financed with new equity and bank debt. The business plan was to immediately exploit these light oil assets, the result of which would be increased reserves, production and cash flow. Although drilling results in the first quarter on the Rainbow Lake properties was mixed, oil prices started to free fall and drilling costs were much higher than expected. As a result, the company completed a reduced program which resulted in less incremental loss and cash flow than it budgeted for. On April 29, 1998, Big Bear entered into agreement with Belco Oil and Gas Corp. and Moan Investments Ltd. for the issuance of convertible preferred shares at a gross value of $15,750,000, which shares were eventually converted at 70 cents per share to common equity. As a result of the continued plunge in oil prices, the lending value of the company's assets continued to fall, requiring it to take action in order to meet its financial commitments. Late in the third quarter Big Bear issued equity for proceeds of $11,032,000 which further reduced the company's debt. Although the company has been extremely active in identifying and pursuing acquisition opportunities, it became evident that Belco Oil and Gas Corp. and Big Bear did nor share common criteria for acquisitions, which resulted in the restructuring of their relationship in the fourth quarter. With the future of oil prices in question, Big Bear decided that it would change its focus to that of natural gas and would refocus ts efforts to acquire natural gas assets to fuel its growth. The purchase of Blue Range put Big Bear in a difficult position in terms of the latter's growth. In summary, what started as a difficult year ended in disappointment

  2. The sweet lung: Chewing gummi bear aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavladaki, Theonimfi; Fitrolaki, Michaela-Diana; Spanaki, Anna-Maria; Ilia, Staurula; Geromarkaki, Elissabet; Briassoulis, George

    2012-07-01

    Inhalation of foreign bodies, a leading cause of accidental death, is most common in preschool children. In this article we report our experience with a 5-year-old Greek girl who presented with a 24-hour history of sore throat, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Emergency bronchoscopy was performed and multiple small chewing gummi bear (HARIBO) particles impacted in the orifices of the right main bronchus and right lobar and segmentalinic bronchi were successfully removed and aspirated. Aspiration of gummi bears, which is for the first time reported, may cause a silent choking episode leading to life-threatening bronchi obstruction at multiple sites, even in children older than 4 years.

  3. Influence of technological factors on characteristics of hybrid fluid-film bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltsov, A.; Prosekova, A.; Rodichev, A.; Savin, L.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of the parameters of micro- and macrounevenness on the characteristics of a hybrid bearing with slotted throttling is considered in the present paper. The quantitative assumptions of calculation of pressure distribution, load capacity, lubricant flow rate and power loss due to friction in a radial hybrid bearing with slotted throttling are taken into account, considering the shape, dimensions and roughness of the support surfaces inaccuracies. Numerical simulation of processes in the lubricating layer is based on the finite-difference solution of the Reynolds equation using an uneven orthogonal computational grid with adaptive condensation. The results of computational and physical experiments are presented.

  4. Design and performance of compliant thrust bearing with spiral-groove membranes on resilient supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, L.; Anderson, W. J.; Doroff, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    Novel thrust bearings with spiral-groove flexible membranes mounted on resilient supports were designed and their performance demonstrated. Advantages of surface compliance were combined with the superior load-capacity of the spiral-groove geometry. Loads of 127-150N were supported on an area 42 sq cm, at speeds of 43,000-45,000 rpm and mean clearances of 15-20 microns. Support-worthiness was proved when tested in conjunction with foil journal-bearings and a 19N rotor, excited in a pitching mode by a total unbalance of 43 micron-N.

  5. Precision Position Control of Pneumatic Servo Table Embedded with Aerostatic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hung; Hsu, Tzu-Yung; Pai, Kei-Ren; Shih, Ming-Chang

    This paper treats the control of a pneumatic servo table combining the air cylinders and sliding guides embedded with aerostatic bearing. Since compressed air flows into the small gap between the bearing and the sliding guide, the cylinder floats around the air film and on the guide surface of the table. The friction forces of the pneumatic servo table are measured, and the relation of frictional force and speed is plotted. The hybrid self-tuning fuzzy controller with the velocity compensators and dead-zone are proposed in this paper. From the experimental results, in case of different position, the positioning accuracy can reach the 0.04μm.

  6. Local Attitudes towards Bear Management after Illegal Feeding and Problem Bear Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fraser

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The “pot bears” received international media attention in 2010 after police discovered the intentional feeding of over 20 black bears during the investigation of an alleged marijuana-growing operation in Christina Lake, British Columbia, Canada. A two-phase random digit dialing survey of the community was conducted in 2011 to understand local perspectives on bear policy and management, before and after a summer of problem bear activity and government interventions. Of the 159 households surveyed in February 2011, most had neutral or positive attitudes towards bears in general, and supported the initial decision to feed the food-conditioned bears until the autumn hibernation. In contrast to wildlife experts however, most participants supported relocating the problem bears, or allowing them to remain in the area, ahead of killing; in part this arose from notions of fairness despite the acknowledged problems of relocation. Most locals were aware of the years of feeding but did not report it, evidently failing to see it as a serious form of harm, even after many bears had been killed. This underscores the importance of preventive action on wildlife feeding and the need to narrow the gap between public and expert opinion on the likely effects of relocation versus killing.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of a Rotor-Bearing-SFD System with the Bearing Inner Race Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a rotor-bearing-SFD system with the inner race defect of bearing is investigated. The contact force between the rolling element and the race is calculated in Hertzian contact and elastohydrodynamic lubrication condition. The supporting force of the SFD is simulated by integrating the pressure distribution derived from Reynolds’s equation. The equations of motion of the rotor-bearing-SFD system are derived and solved using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic behavior and the fault characteristics are analyzed with two configurations of the SFD: (1 mounted on the unfaulted bearing and (2 mounted on the faulty bearing. According to the analysis of time-frequency diagram, waterfall plot, and spectral diagram, the results show that the characteristics of inner race defects on bearing frequencies are related to the characteristic multiple frequency of the inner race defect and the fundamental frequency. The speed and defect width have different influence on the distribution and amplitude of frequency. The SFD can enhance the system stability under the bearing fault but the enhancement decreases with the increasing speed. Meanwhile, the beneficial effect of the SFD varies according to the mounted position in the rotor system.

  8. A. Palmgren Revisited: A Basis for Bearing Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1997-01-01

    Bearing technology, as well as the bearing industry, began to develop with the invention of the bicycle in the 1850's. At the same time, high-quality steel was made possible by the Bessemer process. In 1881, H. Hertz published his contact stress analysis. By 1902, R. Stribeck had published his work based on Hertz theory to calculate the maximum load of a radially loaded ball bearing. By 1920, all of the rolling bearing types used today were being manufactured. AISI 52100 bearing steel became the material of choice for these bearings. Beginning in 1918, engineers directed their attention to predicting the lives of these bearings. In 1924, A. Palmgren published a paper outlining his approach to bearing life prediction. This paper was the basis for the Lundberg-Palmgren life theory published in 1947. A critical review of the 1924 Palmgren paper is presented here together with a discussion of its effect on bearing life prediction.

  9. Clinical outcomes of ceramicized ball heads in total hip replacement bearings: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piconi, Corrado; De Santis, Vincenzo; Maccauro, Giulio

    2017-01-26

    Metallic ball heads for total hip replacement (THR) bearings with ceramicized surfaces were introduced in orthopedics during the second half of the 1980s, with the aim of decreasing the wear of polyethylene cups. An analysis was made of the literature regarding outcomes for metallic ball heads with ceramicized surfaces now in clinical use (TiN, TiNbN, ZrN, monoclinic ZrO2), as well as carbon coatings (pyrolytic carbon, diamond-like carbon) and silicon nitride as coatings in ball heads for THR bearings. Notwithstanding the diffusion of ceramicized ball heads in THRs, there are few reports about their clinical outcomes in hip arthroplasty. In addition, several clinical studies and some registry data are putting under scrutiny the clinical advantages of ceramicized ball heads over cobalt chrome (CoCr) alloy and ceramic ball heads. The wear of THR bearings with ceramicized ball heads looks like it depends more on the behavior of the polyethylene cups than on the treatment of the ball head surface. The risk of coating damage and of its consequences has to be taken into account in selecting this type of bearing.

  10. Three-D CFD Analysis of Hydrostatic Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyi-Jang; Hibbs, Robert I., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrostatic bearing promises life and speed characteristics currently unachievable with rolling element bearings alone. In order to achieve the speed and life requirements of the next generation of rocket engines, turbopump manufacturers are proposing hydrostatic bearings to be used in place of, or in series with, rolling element bearings. The design of a hydrostatic bearing is dependent on accurate pressure in the bearing. The stiffness and damping of the hydrostatic bearing is very sensitive to the bearing recess pressure ratio. In the conventional approach, usually ad hoc assumptions were made in determining the bearing pressure of this approach is inherently incorrect. In the present paper, a more elaborate approach to obtain bearing pressure is used. The bearing pressure and complete flow features of the bearing are directly computed by solving the complete 3-D Navier Stokes equation. The code used in the present calculation is a modified version of REACT3D code. Several calculations have been performed for the hydrostatic bearing designed and tested at Texas A&M. Good agreement has been obtained between computed and test results. Detailed flow features in the bearing will also be described and discussed.

  11. Diet and morphology of extant and recently extinct northern bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.

    1998-01-01

    I examined the relationship of diets to skull morphology of extant northern bears and used this information to speculate on diets of the recently extinct cave (Ursus spelaeus) and short-faced (Arctodus simus) bears. Analyses relied upon published skull measurements and food habits of Asiatic (U. thibetanus) and American (U. americanus) black bears, polar bears (U. maritimus), various subspecies of brown bears (U. arctos), and the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Principal components analysis showed major trends in skull morphology related to size, crushing force, and snout shape. Giant pandas, short-faced bears, cave bears, and polar bears exhibited extreme features along these gradients. Diets of brown bears in colder, often non-forested environments were distinguished by large volumes of roots, foliage, and vertebrates, while diets of the 2 black bear species and brown bears occupying broadleaf forests contained greater volumes of mast and invertebrates and overlapped considerably. Fractions of fibrous foods in feces (foliage and roots) were strongly related to skull morphology (R2=0.97)">(R2=0.97). Based on this relationship, feces of cave and short-faced bears were predicted to consist almost wholly of foliage, roots, or both. I hypothesized that cave bears specialized in root grubbing. In contrast, based upon body proportions and features of the ursid digestive tract, I hypothesized that skull features associated with crushing force facilitated a carnivorous rather than herbivorous diet for short-faced bears.

  12. Spatial transposition tasks in Indian sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) and Bornean sun bears (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniela; Davila-Ross, Marina; Wong, Siew Te; Call, Josep; Scheumann, Marina

    2017-11-01

    Spatial transposition tasks assess individuals' ability to represent nonvisible spatial object displacements. Several nonhuman mammal species have been tested on this task including primates, cats, and dogs, but to date, great apes seem the only taxon that has repeatedly and consistently solved spatial transposition tasks. The authors investigated the ability of captive sloth and sun bears to solve spatial transposition tasks. Both species belong to the same taxonomic group as cats and dogs, but unlike them and similar to apes, they have an omnivorous diet that requires them to keep track of fruit sources in space and time. The bears were first tested on a visible displacement task and those that succeeded were further tested on a spatial transposition task that involved a 180° transposition, followed by 2 tasks with two 360° transpositions. All 7 sloth bears and 7 out of 9 sun bears solved the visible displacement task. The 180° transposition task was solved by 6 out of 7 sloth bears and 1 out of the 5 tested sun bears. Three sloth bears were tested on all 4 experiments and even solved 2-chained 360° transpositions. Control conditions were conducted showing that the bears' performance did not rely on olfactory or auditory cues. The results provide the first indication that bears might be able to track invisible objects. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results and to control the influence of associative learning. The present study emphasizes the importance of including different animal species in the investigation of what underlies the evolution of different cognitive skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Design of an oil squeeze film damper bearing for a multimass flexible-rotor bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, R. E.; Gunter, E. J., Jr.; Fleming, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A single-mass flexible-rotor analysis was used to optimize the stiffness and damping of a flexible support for a symmetric five-mass rotor. The flexible, damped support attenuates the amplitudes of motions and forces transmitted to the support bearings when the rotor operates through and above its first bending critical speed. An oil squeeze film damper was designed based on short bearing lubrication theory. The damper design was verified by an unbalance response computer program. Rotor amplitudes were reduced by a factor of 16 and loads reduced by a factor of 36 compared with the same rotor with rigid bearing supports.

  14. Telemetry experiments with a hibernating black bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, J. J.; Varney, J. R.; Sumner, J. S.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop and test telemetry equipment suitable for monitoring physiological parameters and activity of a hibernating bear in its den, to monitor this data and other environmental information with the Nimbus 3 IRLS data collection system, and to refine immobilizing, handling, and other techniques required in future work with wild bears under natural conditions. A temperature-telemetering transmitter was implanted in the abdominal cavity of a captive black bear and body temperature data was recorded continuously during a 3 month hibernation period. Body temperatures ranging between 37.5 and 31.8 C were observed. Body temperature and overall activity were influenced by disturbances and ambient den temperature. Nychthemeral temperature changes were not noticable. A load cell weight recording device was tested for determining weight loss during hibernation. Monitoring of data by satellite was not attempted. The implanted transmitter was removed and the bear was released with a radiolocation collar at the conclusion of the experiment.

  15. An Interview About Hunting a Black Bear

    OpenAIRE

    G.yu lha

    2009-01-01

    The respondent describes the first time he killed a black bear while hunting. The fifty one audio and nine video files in this collection include: villages’ life stories, circle-dancing songs and performance, local history, folk tales, and interviews from Siyuewu Village, Puxi Township, Rangtang County, Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province, China. World Oral Literature Project

  16. Self-lubricating fluid bearing assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    A sealed self-lubricating fluid bearing assembly is described for circulating fluid in the form of a gas coolant in a nuclear reactor, the power for the circulator being provided by a shaft located within the primary containment vessel. In such a system the reactor coolant is isolated from the fluid region at the far end of the drive shaft. (U.K.)

  17. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  18. Extended Life Testing of Duplex Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Jeffrey; Robertson, Michael; Hodges, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Space Systems performed bearing life testing for the Scan Mirror Motor/Encoder Assembly (SMMA), part of the Scan Mirror Assembly on-board the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) on the NASA Glory Spacecraft. The baseline bearing life test duration extended beyond the launch date for the Glory Spacecraft; a risk that the program was willing to undertake with the understanding that if any anomalies or failures occurred before the required life was achieved, then the mission objectives or operating profile could be modified on orbit to take those results into account. Even though the Glory Spacecraft failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011, the bearing life testing was continued through a mutual understanding of value between Sierra Nevada Corporation and our customer; with a revised goal of testing to failure rather than completing a required number of life cycles. Life testing thus far has not only exceeded the original mission required life, but has also exceeded the published test data for Cumulative Degradation Factor (CDF) from NASA/CR-2009-215681. Many lessons were learned along the way regarding long life testing. The bearing life test has been temporarily suspended due to test support equipment issues.

  19. Thermo-hydrodynamic lubrication in hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the thermo-hydrodynamic and the thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. The algorithms are methodically detailed and each section is thoroughly illustrated.

  20. Angular-momentum-bearing modes in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1989-03-01

    The angular-momentum-bearing degrees of freedom involved in the fission process are identified and their influence on experimental observables is discussed. The excitation of these modes is treated in the ''thermal'' limit, and the resulting distributions of observables are calculated. Experiments demonstrating the role of these modes are presented and discussed. 61 refs., 12 figs

  1. Weak and strong nonlinearities in magnetic bearings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 7 (2004), s. 779-795 ISSN 0094-114X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/1471; GA AV ČR IBS2076301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : weak nonlinearitiy * strong nonlinearity * magnetics bearings Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2004

  2. Film Thickness in Grease Lubricated Rolling Bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, Piet M.; Van Zoelen, M. T.; Venner, C. H.; Lugt, Piet M.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter the theory from Chapter 9 will be applied to rolling bearings. The thin layer flow equations are used to describe the tangential and normal flow due to centrifugal forces. The interaction between the various contacts on inner ring and outer ring will be described followed by the

  3. Heavy Bearings Exploitation Energy and Reduction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, V. G.; Cioară, R.

    2016-11-01

    The global trend of resource conservation so as “not to compromise the ability of future generation's development” is the fundamental basis of the concept of sustainable development. Concordant with this, the energy efficiency of products is increasingly discussed and frequently taken into account in the design stage. In more cases a product is more appreciated and more attractive as the energy consumption and its associated materials are lower. In the production stage, said consumption advantages primarily the manufacturer, particularly through low consumption thereof. In the operational phase, low energy and materials consumption represents an user advantage and it's a major argument in the decision to purchase and use a particular product. Heavy bearings are frequent products used in wind turbines that are producing non-conventional “clean” energy, as windmills. An enhanced energy efficiency bearing contributes to the enhancement of the overall efficiency of the wind turbines. Based on a suitable mathematical model, this paper identifies and recommends courses of action to reduce the operating energy of heavy bearing through the “cage” - which is the subject of a much larger research - with the highest priority. The identified actions may constitute from a set of requirements for the design stage of the heavy bearing predominantly oriented towards innovation-invention.

  4. Additive Manufacturing for Low Volume Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, John G. [Schaeffler Group USA, Spartanburg, SC (United States); Richardson, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ORNL worked with the Schaeffler Group USA to explore additive manufacturing techniques that might be appropriate for prototyping of bearing cages. Multiple additive manufacturing techniques were investigated, including e-beam, binder jet and multiple laser based processes. The binder jet process worked best for the thin, detailed cages printed.

  5. The economics of roadside bear viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leslie; Rosen, Tatjana; Gunther, Kerry; Schwartz, Chuck

    2014-01-01

    Viewing bears along roadside habitats is a popular recreational activity in certain national parks throughout the United States. However, safely managing visitors during traffic jams that result from this activity often requires the use of limited park resources. Using unique visitor survey data, this study quantifies economic values associated with roadside bear viewing in Yellowstone National Park, monetary values that could be used to determine whether this continued use of park resources is warranted on economic grounds. Based on visitor expenditure data and results of a contingent visitation question, it is estimated that summer Park visitation would decrease if bears were no longer allowed to stay along roadside habitats, resulting in a loss of 155 jobs in the local economy. Results from a nonmarket valuation survey question indicate that on average, visitors to Yellowstone National Park are willing to pay around $41 more in Park entrance fees to ensure that bears are allowed to remain along roads within the Park. Generalizing this value to the relevant population of visitors indicates that the economic benefits of allowing this wildlife viewing opportunity to continue could outweigh the costs of using additional resources to effectively manage these traffic jams.

  6. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  7. Bearings and Seals. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on bearings and seals is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for use in training for the servicing of automotive and off-the-road farm and industrial machines. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. Focusing on…

  8. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  9. Stability of multi orifice active tilting-pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Asger M.; Santos, Ilmar

    2010-01-01

    The stability properties of actively lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings are investigated theoretically. The bearing preload factor and control system gains are varied, and stable and unstable regions are identified. It is seen, that the control system influences bearing stability, and that t......The stability properties of actively lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings are investigated theoretically. The bearing preload factor and control system gains are varied, and stable and unstable regions are identified. It is seen, that the control system influences bearing stability...

  10. Fault tolerant homopolar magnetic bearings with flux invariant control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Uhn Joo

    2006-01-01

    The theory for a novel fault-tolerant 4-active-pole homopolar magnetic bearing is developed. If any one coil of the four coils in the bearing actuator fail, the remaining three coil currents change via an optimal distribution matrix such that the same opposing pole, C-core type, control fluxes as those of the un-failed bearing are produced. The homopolar magnetic bearing thus provides unaltered magnetic forces without any loss of the bearing load capacity even if any one coil suddenly fails. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the novel fault-tolerant, 4-active pole homopolar magnetic bearings

  11. Three-Wave Gas Journal Bearing Behavior With Shaft Runout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimofte, Florin; Hendricks, Robert C.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental orbits of a free-mounted, three-wave gas journal bearing housing were recorded and compared to transient predicted orbits. The shaft was mounted eccentric with a fixed runout. Experimental observations for both the absolute bearing housing center orbits and the relative bearing housing center to shaft center orbits are in good agreement with the predictions. The sub-synchronous whirl motion generated by the fluid film was found experimentally and predicted theoretically for certain speeds. A three-wave journal bearing can run stably under dynamic loads with orbits well inside the bearing clearance. Moreover, the orbits are almost circular free of the influence of bearing wave shape.

  12. Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Luis San

    1993-01-01

    A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.

  13. Dual-action gas thrust bearing for improving load capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    The principle of utilizing hydrodynamic effects in diverging films to improve the load carrying capacity in gas thrust bearings is discussed. A new concept of a dual action bearing based on that principle is described and analyzed. The potential of the new bearing is demonstrated both analytically for an infinitely long slider and by numerical solution for a flat sector shaped thrust bearing. It is shown that the dual action bearing can extend substantially the range of load carrying capacity in gas lubricated thrust bearings and can improve their efficiency.

  14. Vibration analysis of paper machine's asymmetric tube roll supported by spherical roller bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Janne E.; Ghalamchi, Behnam; Viitala, Raine; Sopanen, Jussi; Juhanko, Jari; Mikkola, Aki; Kuosmanen, Petri

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a simulation method that is used to study subcritical vibrations of a tube roll in a paper machine. This study employs asymmetric 3D beam elements based on the Timoshenko beam theory. An asymmetric beam model accounts for varying stiffness and mass distributions. Additionally, a detailed rolling element bearing model defines the excitations arising from the set of spherical roller bearings at both ends of the rotor. The results obtained from the simulation model are compared against the results from the measurements. The results indicate that the waviness of the bearing rolling surfaces contributes significantly to the subcritical vibrations while the asymmetric properties of the tube roll have only a fractional effect on the studied vibrations.

  15. Controllable Lubrication for Main Engine Bearings Using Mechanical and Piezoelectric Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    Although mechatronic systems are nowadays implemented in a large number of systems in vehicles, active lubrication systems are still incipient in industrial applications. This study is an attempt to extend the active lubrication concept to combustion engines and gives a theoretical contribution...... to this field. One refers to active lubrication when conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with dynamically modified hydrostatic lubrication. In this study, two different schemes for the oil injection system in actively lubricated main engine bearings are presented. The use of active lubrication...... located around the bearing surface. The main equations that govern the dynamics of the injection for a piezo-actuated oil injector and a mechanical-actuated oil injector are presented. It is shown how the dynamics of the oil injection system is coupled to the dynamics of the bearing fluid film through...

  16. What every surgeon should know about Ceramic-on-Ceramic bearings in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Roubineau, François; Bouthors, Charlie; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri

    2016-04-01

    Based on the exceptional tribological behaviour and on the relatively low biological activity of ceramic particles, Ceramic-on-Ceramic (CoC) total hip arthroplasty (THA) presents significant advantagesCoC bearings decrease wear and osteolysis, the cumulative long-term risk of dislocation, muscle atrophy, and head-neck taper corrosion.However, there are still concerns regarding the best technique for implantation of ceramic hips to avoid fracture, squeaking, and revision of ceramic hips with fracture of a component.We recommend that surgeons weigh the potential advantages and disadvantages of current CoC THA in comparison with other bearing surfaces when considering young very active patients who are candidates for THA. Cite this article: Hernigou P, Roubineau F, Bouthors C, Flouzat-Lachaniette C-H. What every surgeon should know about Ceramic-on-Ceramic bearings in young patients. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:107-111. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000027.

  17. Micromechanical study of the effect of inclusions on fatigue failure in a roller bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to carry out a set of micromechanical analyses to study the effect of small inclusions on fatigue life of wind turbine bearings. Design/methodology/approach - The local stress concentrations around an inclusion are determined from a characteristic unit cell...... of the most commonly used bearing steels, AISI 52100, and two different types of inclusions are considered. The macroscopic stress histories applied correspond to either a Hertzian or an elastohydrodynamic (EHL) contact pressure distribution under the rollers. Findings - The paper shows that sub......-surface fatigue failure due to rolling contact is more likely to develop close to the inclusion-matrix interface, at particular angles that depend on the material and on the inclusion orientation. Originality/value - Inclusions represent an important issue in the design of wind turbine bearings, that are supposed...

  18. Microstructure and Properties of Laser Additive Manufacturing TC Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jiao-xi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of uneven wear of TC bearing that conventional method brought and improve its service life,wear-resistant coating was fabricated on the surface of steel parts matrix with the method of laser additive manufacture. The Cr3C2/Fe based alloy was deposited by laser cladding technique on the inner-sleeve cylindrical and outer-sleeve bore of TC bearing with two different process parameters. The high-performance coating was obtained respectively, of cracks free,no pores and with good metallurgical quality. The morphology of the laser cladding coating was observed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM,the composition was analyzed by EDS,the phase transformation was characterized by XRD. The wear resistance,corrosion resistance and hardness of the laser cladding layer were tested by friction and wear tester,salt spray test chamber and digital micro-hardness tester respectively. The results show that the average micro-hardness of composite coating is HV700. The wear resistance of the composite coating is about 3 times as much as the Ni-based alloy. The corrosion resistance is close to 316L stainless steel.

  19. [Management of weight-bearing area fracture of acetabulum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-tong; Wang, Pan-feng; Zhang, Chun-cai

    2011-02-01

    Acetabulum, as the important factor for weight bearing of the upper body, has its unique anatomic features and complicated physiological function. The integrity and stability of the lunata articular surface in the dome region of acetabulum, is the important base to bear the physiological function of acetabulum. The fracture related to this part will cause relation change of contact area and stress between head of femur and acetabulum. Furthermore, the deep anatomical position of the dome region, the complicated surrounding anatomical relation, and the irregular bony structure will also increase the difficulty of surgical treatment. Especially for some complicated comminuted or compressed fracture, even with good explosions, it is hard to get satisfied anatomical reduction. Consequently,forward traumatic arthritis has greater probability of occurrence. Therefore, the clinical research on the fracture in the dome region of acetabulum was getting more and more attention worldly. This paper intended to review the relation of fracture classifications and anatomic features, physiological function,diagnostic criteria,and also its clinical treating countermeasure.

  20. Bearing capacity of Skirt circular footing on sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Z. EL Wakil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skirts are used to improve the bearing capacity of shallow footings on sandy soil by constraining the soil beneath and containing the plastic flow of soil. They are used as an alternative to deep foundations in soils with low strength at the surface. As there has been available little work studying the performance of skirted foundation, we are performing eighteen laboratory experiments on circular steel footings of different diameters and different skirt lengths. The aim of these experiments is to shed some lights on the effects of skirts on the bearing capacity of shallow footings. The effects of skirt length and the relative density of sand on the ultimate load attained were investigated. From the accomplished laboratory tests, it was found that skirts improve appreciably the sustainability of shallow footings to applied load as they increase the ultimate load of shallow footings by some up to 6.25 times for the current study conditions and variables. The performance of skirted footing depends upon the relative density of sand and on the skirt length to footing diameter ratio. Skirts are more beneficial in case of footings on loose sand than in case of medium and dense sand.

  1. Development testing of high temperature bearings for SP-100 control drive assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalcher, Alfred W.; Kjaer-Olsen, Christian G.; Martinez, Carlos; Ogawa, Stanley Y.; Springer, Dwight R.; Yaspo, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Initial phases of two distinct SP-100 control drive assembly bearing test programs were successfully completed at elevated temperature in vacuum. The first was for the reflector drive line spherical self-aligning bearings. Each bearing consisted of a carbon-graphite ball mounted on an aluminum oxide-coated Ta-10%W shaft, captured by an aluminum oxide-coated Ta-10%W socket. One set of these bearings was exposed to temperatures up to 1180K (1665°F) at 1.33×10-6 Pa (1×10-8 torr) and subjected to 38000 cycles of motion. Friction coefficients were found to be between 0.11 and 0.25 over the full range of operation. Overall performance of the bearings was excellent, with only slight wear observed. The second test program was for the safety rod slider bearing. Zirconium carbide coated Nb-1%Zr bearings pads were stroked inside a molybdenum tube at temperatures up to 1422 K (2100°F) at ˜1.33×10-6 Pa with a normal load of 1.02 Kg between each sliding surface. Coefficients of sliding friction were found to increase from 0.90 at 293 K to 1.20 at 1422 K prior to high temperature dwells. Results were consistent over the range of stroke velocities; 5.1 to 51 mm (0.2 to 2.0 inches) per second. Following dwells of 92, 72, and 110 hours at 1422 K, static friction coefficients as high as 5.4 were observed prior to initiation of sliding, after which sliding friction coefficients of ˜1.6 were seen. Breakaway forces were well within the actuator design limits.

  2. State of art report for high temperature wear test of SMART MCP and CEDM bearing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Hu; Lee, Jae Seon; Park, Jin Seok; Kim, Ji Ho; Kim, Jong In

    2000-03-01

    Wear resistance properties of machine elements has been more critical in view of its significant effect on life extension, economics and material saving because it has been recognized that nearly 80 percent of damages of mechanical elements in the friction pairs are due to the material loss by wear. And wear properties have direct influence on the life of a machine in a great extend under extremely severe operating condition. Therefore highly improved wear properties of machine elements operating in such circumstances is heavily required. The purpose of this report is to survey current technology for high temperature wear test in order to establish the test plan for the life evaluation of SMART MCP and CEDM bearing materials. Friction and wear test will be done under high pressure (170 MPa) and high temperature (350 degree C) with water as lubricant to simulate the operating condition of the nuclear power reactor. Because pump type for MCP is selected as the caned motor pump which needs no mechanical sealing, the rotating shaft on which bearing is fully submerged by main coolant with high temperature. So MCP bearing operates without additional lubricant. CEDM is adopted as the ball-screw type with fine controllability. So the driving part is designed as the immersed-in type by main coolant. Therefore the anti-wear and reliability of driving parts are much consequent to guarantee the lifetime and the safety of the whole system. Tribometer adapted to high temperature and pressure circumstance is needed to execute bearing material testing. Test parameters are material, sliding speed, sliding distance and applied load. In order to identify the wear mechanism, optical microscope and surface roughness testers are required. The result of this report will provide an elementary data to develop bearing materials and to estimate bearing lifetime for the bearings of MCP and CEDM in SMART. (author)

  3. White-Etching Matter in Bearing Steel. Part I: Controlled Cracking of 52100 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Alvarez, W.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2014-10-01

    Although most of the research performed in bearing steel metallurgy aims to prevent crack nucleation and propagation, some applications require the exact opposite in order to study the role that disconnected surfaces inside the bulk material play when load is applied, or when fluids entrapped in surface cracks propagate tensile stresses or exacerbate corrosion. Four heat treatments have been designed to create controlled arrays of crack types and distributions in quenched and untempered steel normally used in the manufacture of bearings. The varieties of cracks studied include sparsely distributed martensite-plate cracks, fine-grain-boundary cracks, abundant martensite-plate cracks, and surface cracks. The intention was to create samples which can then be subjected to appropriate mechanical testing so that phenomena such as the appearance of "white-etching areas" or "white-etching cracks," crack-lubricant interactions, or hydrogen trapping can be studied further.

  4. The role of human outdoor recreation in shaping patterns of grizzly bear-black bear co-occurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ladle

    Full Text Available Species' distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a occurrence of grizzly bears and black bears relative to habitat variables (b occurrence and intensity of use relative to competing bear species and motorised and non-motorised recreational activity, and (c temporal overlap in activity patterns among the two bear species and recreationists. Grizzly bears were spatially separated from black bears, selecting higher elevations and locations farther from roads. Both species co-occurred with motorised and non-motorised recreation, however, grizzly bears reduced their intensity of use of sites with motorised recreation present. Black bears showed higher temporal activity overlap with recreational activity than grizzly bears, however differences in bear daily activity patterns between sites with and without motorised and non-motorised recreation were not significant. Reduced intensity of use by grizzly bears of sites where motorised recreation was present is a concern given off-road recreation is becoming increasingly popular in North America, and can negatively influence grizzly bear recovery by reducing foraging opportunities near or on trails. Camera traps and multi-species occurrence models offer non-invasive methods for identifying how habitat use by animals changes relative to sympatric species, including humans. These conclusions emphasise the need for integrated land-use planning, access management, and grizzly bear conservation efforts to consider the implications of continued access for

  5. The role of human outdoor recreation in shaping patterns of grizzly bear-black bear co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladle, Andrew; Steenweg, Robin; Shepherd, Brenda; Boyce, Mark S

    2018-01-01

    Species' distributions are influenced by a combination of landscape variables and biotic interactions with other species, including people. Grizzly bears and black bears are sympatric, competing omnivores that also share habitats with human recreationists. By adapting models for multi-species occupancy analysis, we analyzed trail camera data from 192 trail camera locations in and around Jasper National Park, Canada to estimate grizzly bear and black bear occurrence and intensity of trail use. We documented (a) occurrence of grizzly bears and black bears relative to habitat variables (b) occurrence and intensity of use relative to competing bear species and motorised and non-motorised recreational activity, and (c) temporal overlap in activity patterns among the two bear species and recreationists. Grizzly bears were spatially separated from black bears, selecting higher elevations and locations farther from roads. Both species co-occurred with motorised and non-motorised recreation, however, grizzly bears reduced their intensity of use of sites with motorised recreation present. Black bears showed higher temporal activity overlap with recreational activity than grizzly bears, however differences in bear daily activity patterns between sites with and without motorised and non-motorised recreation were not significant. Reduced intensity of use by grizzly bears of sites where motorised recreation was present is a concern given off-road recreation is becoming increasingly popular in North America, and can negatively influence grizzly bear recovery by reducing foraging opportunities near or on trails. Camera traps and multi-species occurrence models offer non-invasive methods for identifying how habitat use by animals changes relative to sympatric species, including humans. These conclusions emphasise the need for integrated land-use planning, access management, and grizzly bear conservation efforts to consider the implications of continued access for motorised

  6. Yellowstone grizzly bear investigations: Annual report of the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; West, Karrie K.

    2007-01-01

    The contents of this Annual Report summarize results of monitoring and research from the 2006 field season. The report also contains a summary of nuisance grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) management actions.

  7. Measurement of misalignment in a journal bearing with low frequency ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Noh Nu

    1998-01-01

    Misalignment of a shaft in journal bearing of rotary compressor was measured and analyzed for the study on the effect of misalignment on the performance of the rotary compressor using a new ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. Two low-frequency ultrasonic transducers(10Mhz) were mounted on the outer surface of the bearing in X and Y axis to receive the reflection signals from each axis and to obtain the amplitude of a modified reflection wave defined as the total reflection wave minus the first reflection wave from a thin layer which is inversely proportional to the thickness of the layer in the region where h/λ is approximately less than 1/4. The relationship of the amplitude of the modified reflection wave to the thickness of the oil layer was shown both in mathematical form and in graph. Gap clearances between the bearing and the shaft in the horizontal and vertical axis were determined directly by the relationship and used to evaluate the misalignment of the journal bearing. Several intentional misalignments in a test compressor were made to measure and show the misalignment and the effect of the misalignment on the efficiency of the rotary compressor. A fast quantitative evaluation of the misalignment of journal bearing was possible using the amplitude of the modified reflection signal without any inversion process to extract thickness information from waveforms of the reflected waves.

  8. Linear and Non-Linear Control Techniques Applied to Actively Lubricated Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication. For furt......The main objectives of actively lubricated bearings are the simultaneous reduction of wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. For reducing wear and dissipating vibration energy until certain limits, one can count with the conventional hydrodynamic lubrication....... For further reduction of shaft vibrations one can count with the active lubrication action, which is based on injecting pressurised oil into the bearing gap through orifices machined in the bearing sliding surface. The design and efficiency of some linear (PD, PI and PID) and non-linear controllers, applied...... vibration reduction of unbalance response of a rigid rotor, where the PD and the non-linear P controllers show better performance for the frequency range of study (0 to 80 Hz). The feasibility of eliminating rotor-bearing instabilities (phenomena of whirl) by using active lubrication is also investigated...

  9. A Stability Analysis for a Hydrodynamic Three-Wave Journal Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Nicoleta M.; Dimofte, Florin; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the wave amplitude and oil supply pressure on the dynamic behavior of a hydrodynamic three-wave journal bearing is presented. Both, a transient and a small perturbation technique, were used to predict the threshold to fractional frequency whirl (FFW). In addition, the behavior of the rotor after FFW appeared was determined from the transient analysis. The turbulent effects were also included in the computations. Bearings having a diameter of 30 mm, a length of 27.5 mm, and a clearance of 35 microns were analyzed. Numerical results were compared to experimental results obtained at the NASA GRC. Numerical and experimental results showed that the above-mentioned wave bearing with a wave amplitude ratio of 0.305 operates stably at rotational speeds up to 60,000 rpm, regardless of the oil supply pressure. For smaller wave amplitude ratios, a threshold of stability was found. It was observed that the threshold of stability for lower wave amplitude strongly depends on the oil supply pressure and on the wave amplitude. When the FFW occurs, the journal center maintains its trajectory inside the bearing clearance and therefore the rotor can be run safely without damaging the bearing surfaces.

  10. Improvement of Thrust Bearing Calculation Considering the Convectional Heating within the Space between the Pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chmielowiec-Jablczyk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A modern thrust bearing tool is used to estimate the behavior of tilting pad thrust bearings not only in the oil film between pad and rotating collar, but also in the space between the pads. The oil flow in the space significantly influences the oil film inlet temperature and the heating of pad and collar. For that reason, it is necessary to define an oil mixing model for the space between the pads. In the bearing tool, the solutions of the Reynolds equation including a cavitation model, the energy equation and the heat transfer equation are done iteratively with the finite volume method by considering a constant flow rate. Both effects—laminar/turbulent flow and centrifugal force—are considered. The calculation results are compared with measurements done for a flooded thrust bearing with nominal eight tilting pads with an outer diameter of 180 mm. The heat convection coefficients for the pad surfaces mainly influence the pad temperature field and are adjusted to the measurement results. In the following paper, the calculation results for variable space distances, influence of different parameters on the bearing behavior and operating condition at high load are presented.

  11. A high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of bearing cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.; Yu, T.; Chen, H.; Li, B.

    2016-01-01

    The high-precision ball bearing is fundamental to the performance of complex mechanical systems. As the speed increases, the cage behavior becomes a key factor in influencing the bearing performance, especially life and reliability. This paper develops a high-precision instrument for analyzing nonlinear dynamic behavior of the bearing cage. The trajectory of the rotational center and non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the cage are used to evaluate the instability of cage motion. This instrument applied an aerostatic spindle to support and spin test the bearing to decrease the influence of system error. Then, a high-speed camera is used to capture images when the bearing works at high speeds. A 3D trajectory tracking software TEMA Motion is used to track the spot which marked the cage surface. Finally, by developing the MATLAB program, a Lissajous’ figure was used to evaluate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the cage with different speeds. The trajectory of rotational center and NRRO of the cage with various speeds are analyzed. The results can be used to predict the initial failure and optimize cage structural parameters. In addition, the repeatability precision of instrument is also validated. In the future, the motorized spindle will be applied to increase testing speed and image processing algorithms will be developed to analyze the trajectory of the cage.

  12. Activation of the hip adductor muscles varies during a simulated weight-bearing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Beall, Paula; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Stanton, Warren; Miokovic, Tanja; Richardson, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the pattern of muscle activation of the individual hip adductor muscles using a standardised simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. A repeated measures design. Laboratory. 20 healthy individuals (11 females, 9 males) participated in the study. Age ranged from 20 to 25 years. Surface electromyography recordings from adductor magnus and adductor longus muscles were taken at levels representing 10-50% of body weight during a simulated weight-bearing task. Electromyography (EMG) data were normalised to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The adductor magnus was recruited at significantly higher levels than the adductor longus muscle during a simulated weight-bearing task performed across 10-50% of body weight (p bearing task. This information should be considered when selecting exercises for management and prevention of groin strains. Closed chain exercises with weight-bearing through the lower limb are more likely to recruit the adductor magnus muscle over the adductor longus muscle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Local Attitudes towards Bear Management after Illegal Feeding and Problem Bear Activity

    OpenAIRE

    David Fraser; Sara Dubois

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The “pot bears” received international media attention in 2010 after police discovered the intentional feeding of black bears during the investigation of an alleged marijuana-growing operation in Christina Lake, British Columbia. Residents of this small community were surveyed by phone twice over the following year, before and after government actions. This study aimed to understand local attitudes on how these bears should be managed and whether they differed from existing bea...

  14. The thermodynamic properties of a new type catcher bearing used in active magnetic bearings system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chaowu; Zhu, Yili; Xu, Longxiang; Xu, Yuanping; Zheng, Yantong

    2015-01-01

    Normally a rotor levitated by active magnetic bearings (AMBs) system would rotate without contacting with any stator component, but the possibility still remains that the supporting force might lose temporarily or permanently, thus requiring the Catcher bearings (CBs) to provide backup protection in case of the failure of AMBs. A new type CB with two separate rolling element bearing series could have the speed distribution between the inner race and intermediate race according to certain ratio, in which the speed of each roller element bearing decreases with the limit speed of the whole CB increasing, offering high capability to sustain its initial rotation speed. Based on the theory of heat transfer, tribology, and rotor dynamics, this paper analyzes the thermal structure of double-decker catcher bearing (DDCB) and single-decker catcher bearing (SDCB), respectively. Through this structure, the thermal resistances and equations of heat transfer can be obtained. Then we calculate the friction heat and temperature distribution in the various CBs upon rotor's dropping on SDCB or DDCB, followed by the discussion on the CBs temperature rise's effects on lubrication conditions and rotor dynamics parameters. Finally various experiments are carried out to measure the temperature rise of different CBs. The results obtained validate the theoretical analysis and also provide main methods to reduce heat generation. Using DDCB is proved to be effective to reduce the temperature rise. - Highlights: • The DDCB is a more suitable catcher bearing for AMBs. • Compared to SDCB, using DDCB, the temperature rise can decrease in the same states. • A lower viscosity of lubricant may induce a lower temperature rise. • The inner raceway temperature of the first layer bearing is the highest. • Reducing the unbalance mass of the rotor is a method to decrease the temperature rise

  15. Evaluation of effect of low opening operation on increasing wear of bearing bushings of guide vanes used in hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Se Na

    2012-01-01

    A guide vane plays a key role in controlling the flow rate of water supplied to the turbine of a hydropower plant. It has been reported that guide vane bearing bushings are subjected to considerable wear, which requires them to be maintained. An ancillary service such as frequency control and black start causes cyclic low opening operation of the guide vanes. It is empirically well known that such operation increases the wear rate of the guide vane bearing bushing. In this study, the effect of low opening operation on the increasing wear of the guide vane bearing bushing is quantitatively assessed via finite element flow analysis, finite element stress analysis, and relative wear evaluation. As a result of the assessment, it is identified that the pressure applied on the guide vane surface increases and the contact length between the outer surface of the guide vane stem and the inner surface of the bearing bushing decreases with a decrease in the opening of the guide vane. In addition, low opening of the guide vanes results in an increase in the relative wear owing to the generation of high contact pressure on the bearing bushing surfaces

  16. Tribological composition optimization of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings for foil gas bearings at temperatures to 650 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    1988-01-01

    The determination of the tribilogically optimum composition of chromium-carbide-based solid lubricant coatings using a foil gas bearing test apparatus is described. The coatings contain a wear resistant chromium carbide `base stock' with the lubricant additives silver and BaF2-CaF2 eutectic. The coating composition is optimized for air-lubricated foil gas bearings at temperatures ranging from 25 to 650 C. The various compositions were prepared by powder blending, then plasma sprayed onto Inconel 718 test journals and diamond ground to the desired coating thickness and surface finish. The journals were operated against preoxidized Ni-Cr alloy foils, and the test bearings were subjected to repeated start-stop cycles under a bearing unit of 14 kPa. Sliding contact between the coated journal and the smooth foil occurs during bearing start-up before lift-off or hydrodynamic lubrication by the air film and during bearing coast-down. The bearings were tested for 9000 start-stop cycles or until specimen reached a predetermined failure level.

  17. A NEW APPROACH AT SURFACE ENGINEERING; DUPLEX SURFACE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgün ALSARAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Duplex surface process was developed to deposite thin ceramic film coating on commonly manufacturing used low alloy steels. Low alloy steel having low strength by this process was first plasma nitrided with purpose enhancing load bearing capacity and then deposited with such ceramic coating. In this study, the duplex surface treatment was deal with main lines and informed about advantage and disadvantage.

  18. Reduced Bearing Excursion After Mobile-Bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty is Associated With Poor Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahal, Naman; Gaba, Sahil; Malhotra, Rajesh; Kumar, Vijay; Pegg, Elise C; Pandit, Hemant

    2018-02-01

    A small proportion of patients with mobile unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) report poor functional outcomes in spite of optimal component alignment on postoperative radiographs. The purpose of this study is to assess whether there is a correlation between functional outcome and knee kinematics. From a cohort of consecutive cases of 150 Oxford medial UKA, patients with fair/poor functional outcome at 1-year postsurgery (Oxford Knee Score [OKS] bearing position with knee flexion angle. Mean OKS in the fair/poor group was 29.9 and the mean OKS in the good/excellent group was 41.1. The tibial slope, time taken to complete the exercises, and patellar tendon angle trend over the flexion range were similar in both the groups; however, bearing position and the extent of bearing excursion differed significantly. The total bearing excursion in the OKS bearing was positioned 1.7 mm more posterior on the tibia in the OKS bearing excursion and positioning, are associated with worse functional outcomes after mobile UKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Critical flaw size in silicon nitride ball bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, George Arthur

    Aircraft engine and bearing manufacturers have been aggressively pursuing advanced materials technology systems solutions to meet main shaft-bearing needs of advanced military aircraft engines. Ceramic silicon nitride hybrid bearings are being developed for such high performance applications. Though silicon nitride exhibits many favorable properties such as high compressive strength, high hardness, a third of the density of steel, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and high corrosion and temperature resistance, they also have low fracture toughness and are susceptible to failure from fatigue spalls emanating from pre-existing surface flaws that can grow under rolling contact fatigue (RCF). Rolling elements and raceways are among the most demanding components in aircraft engines due to a combination of high cyclic contact stresses, long expected component lifetimes, corrosive environment, and the high consequence of fatigue failure. The cost of these rolling elements increases exponentially with the decrease in allowable flaw size for service applications. Hence the range of 3D non-planar surface flaw geometries subject to RCF is simulated to determine the critical flaw size (CFS) or the largest allowable flaw that does not grow under service conditions. This dissertation is a numerical and experimental investigation of surface flaws in ceramic balls subjected to RCF and has resulted in the following analyses: Crack Shape Determination: the nucleation of surface flaws from ball impact that occurs during the manufacturing process is simulated. By examining the subsurface Hertzian stresses between contacting spheres, their applicability to predicting and characterizing crack size and shape is established. It is demonstrated that a wide range of cone and partial cone cracks, observed in practice, can be generated using the proposed approaches. RCF Simulation: the procedure and concerns in modeling nonplanar 3D cracks subject to RCF using FEA for stress intensity

  20. Evaluation Of Residual Stresses In Inner Ring Of The Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malotová, Šárka; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Kyncl, Ladislav; Mrázik, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Residual stresses are undesirable and it should not be underestimated. They occur in many components and it is necessary to identify and try to avoid them. For detection the Residual stresses, there are many methods, but not all are suitable, because they can completely destroy of the components. The article deals with the evaluation of Residual stresses in the inner rings of Bearings, which are made from steel 100Cr6 (ČSN 14 109.4. The surfaces were turning at different cutting parameters and subsequently are evaluated Residual stresses. The stresses have been evaluated by non - destructive method X - Ray. The experiment was realized in cooperation Faculty of Mechanical Engineering VSB - TU Ostrava and Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of ZU Zilina - machining in the laboratories of ZU Žilina, Slovak Republic.