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Sample records for alum

  1. Alum: an old dog with new tricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yumei; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum compounds (alum) are the most widely used adjuvants in veterinary and human vaccines. Alum was initially thought to be a simple depot for antigen retention; however, our understanding of the mechanism by which it works has progressed substantially in recent decades. Nonetheless, consensus regarding its roles in different aspects of immune regulation has not been reached, and it remains a long-standing research subject in the field of vaccinology. This review, in chronological order, discusses the various hypotheses proposed in mostly inadequate attempts to illuminate the mechanism by which alum works, from the depot theory to the involvement of the NLRP3 inflammasome and from cell death-associated danger factors to crystalline structure-mediated plasma membrane alteration. In addition, novel findings of unexpected beneficial effects of decreased HBV (Hepatitis B virus) viral load and HBeAg seroconversion in chronically infected patients, as well as significant tumor suppression in experimental mice following multiple alum-only injections are examined, revealing alum's potential clinical applications beyond its use as a simple tool in antigen preparation. With increasing threats of emerging microbes, originating from natural or man-made sources, that pose significant health concerns at the population scale, the potential use of alum as a 'first-aid' vaccine is also discussed. PMID:27004761

  2. Treatment of Sewer Water Using Alum Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Qaid M. Saleem; Yousif Mohamed Algamal; Majed H. Shtaiwi; Mohammad S. Aldahmashi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different concentrations of alum salt used in the treatment of sewer water of the pond and also to study the physico-chemical parameters such as pH ,electrical conductivity ,salinity and total sediments besides that the bacteriological analysis such as total viable count (TVC) or standard plate count (SPC) and total coliform count (MPN) content were analysed in the water sample collected from the pond estimation of viable...

  3. Estimating phosphorus concentrations following alum treatment using apparent settling velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuska, John; Robertson, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    he apparent settling velocity (Vs) is a term used in empirical, steady-state, mass-balance lake models to represent the net phosphorus flux from the water column. The Vollenweider (1969) mixed-reactor lake model was rearranged and used to calculate Vs values for total phosphorus (TP) for three lakes treated with alum to reduce the internal flux of P to the water column (Delavan Lake, Wisconsin; Lake Morey, Vermont; and West Twin Lake, Ohio). An analysis of Vs values was conducted using data from these three lakes for both the pre- and post-alum treated conditions. Analysis of Vs values for both the pre- and post-alum conditions in Lake Morey and West Twin Lake resulted in a post-treatment mean Vs value of 7 ± 2.0 m·yr−1. The effect of the alum treatment, although short-lived in Delavan Lake, resulted in a mean post-treatment Vs value of 3.4 ± 0.3 m·yr−1. The consistency in the post-treatment Vs values in Lake Morey and West Twin Lake is used to demonstrate a predictive analysis method for water column TP concentrations in lakes following a successful treatment of the anoxic sediment area with alum. Additional pre- and post-alum in-lake and watershed loading data are needed to advance this concept into a management model.

  4. Efficacy of alum for treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian, Nasrin; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Moghadamnia, Aliakbar; Jazayeri, Mina; Seif-Rabiee, Mohammadali; Salmanzadeh, Mina; Radi, Shahrbanoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common painful ulcers of oral mucosal which can cause many sufferings. Treatment of RAS often includes administration of corticosteroids, analgesics and regulators of the immune system. However, considering the side effects of these medications, even their topical application must be done with caution. Alum is used in traditional medicine for treatment of oral ulcers without significant side effect. This study sought to assess the effect of topical application of alum on aphthous ulcers. Methods: This clinical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted on 50 females aged 21 to 27 years. Mucosal adhesive patches were prepared in two forms of basic and 7% alum-containing patches. Subjects in two groups of case and control randomly received the mucosal adhesive patches containing alum and the basic patches, respectively three times in five days. Duration of recovery, changes in size of lesion and severity of pain were recorded. Data were entered into SPSS Version 16 and analyzed using t-test. Results: The average period of full recovery was 7.52 days in the case and 12.2 days in the control groups; which was significantly different (p<0.001). Size of wound and severity of pain were significantly lower at one, three and five days posttreatment compared to baseline values before treatment in the case group (p<0.001) and the difference in this regard between the case and control groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: Alum can significantly decrease the size of aphthous lesions, severity of pain and expedite the recovery of patients with RAS.

  5. A preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity: Intralymphatic injection with recombinant allergens in Alum or Alum and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Stefansdottir, Sara Bjork; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Rhyner, Claudio; Marti, Eliane; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2016-04-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides insects, not indigenous to Iceland. Horses born in Iceland and exported to Culicoides-rich areas are frequently affected with IBH. The aims of the study were to compare immunization with recombinant allergens using the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide (Alum) alone or combined with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) for development of a preventive immunization against IBH. Twelve healthy Icelandic horses were vaccinated intralymphatically three times with 10 μg each of four recombinant Culicoides nubeculosus allergens in Alum or in Alum/MPLA. Injection with allergens in both Alum and Alum/MPLA resulted in significant increase in specific IgG subclasses and IgA against all r-allergens with no significant differences between the adjuvant groups. The induced antibodies from both groups could block binding of allergen specific IgE from IBH affected horses to a similar extent. No IgE-mediated reactions were induced. Allergen-stimulated PBMC from Alum/MPLA horses but not from Alum only horses produced significantly more IFNγ and IL-10 than PBMC from non-vaccinated control horses. In conclusion, intralymphatic administration of small amounts of pure allergens in Alum/MPLA induces high IgG antibody levels and Th1/Treg immune response and is a promising approach for immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy against IBH. PMID:27032498

  6. Alum sludge: a sampling method for the radioactivity in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alum coagulation and settling steps used in water treatment plants can be the basis of a method to concentrate radionuclides present in very small amounts in soft waters. Indeed, the gamma spectrum of a dried alum sludge shows the presence of a number of naturally occurring radionuclides, of fission and activation products unobservable unless a preconcentration step is carried out. The floc sampling technique is described. The different methods developed to relate the amount of floc to the volume of water, are presented; they are based either on the chemical characterisation of the suspended matter or on the use of internal standards like 137Cs and 7Be. The question of the distribution of some radionuclides between the liquid and the solid phases in the rivers and that of their retention by the floc is discussed: the results show clearly the importance of the suspended matter as a carrier for the radioactivity

  7. Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater Using Oven-Dried Alum Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadood T. Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the removal of phosphorus from wastewater by using oven-dried alum sludge (ODS as adsorbent that was collected from Al-Qadisiya treatment plant (Iraq; it was heated in an oven at 105∘C for 24 h and then cooled at room temperature. The sludge particles were then crushed to produce a particle size of 0.5–4.75 mm. Two modes of operation are used, batch mode and fixed bed mode, in batch experiment the effect of oven-dried alum sludge doses 10–50 g/L, pH of solution 5–8 with constant initial phosphorus concentration of 5 mg/L, and constant particle size of 0.5 mm were studied. The results showed that the percent removal of phosphorus increases with the increase of oven-dried alum sludge dose, but pH of solution has insignificant effect. Batch kinetics experiments showed that equilibrium time was about 6 days. Adsorption capacity was plotted against equilibrium concentration, and isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, and Freundlich-Langmuir were used to correlate these results. In the fixed bed isothermal adsorption column, the effect of initial phosphorus concentration ( 5 and 10 mg/L, particle size 2.36 and 4.75 mm, influent flow rate (Q 6 and 10 L/hr, and bed depth (H 0.15–0.415 m were studied. The results showed that the oven-dried alum sludge was effective in adsorbing phosphorus, and percent removal of phosphorus reaches 85% with increasing of contact time and adsorbent surface area (i.e., mass of adsorbent 50 g/L with different pH.

  8. Effect of Moringa oleifera-alum Ratios on Surface Water Treatment in North East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Nwaiwu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination for MO and alum using alum as a coagulant aid in household treatment of natural pond surface water for domestic use. The physico-chemical properties investigated for in the raw, settled and filtered water were Ph, Total Dissolved Solids (tds, turbidity, colour and total suspended solids (tss. The various coagulant combinations with which the raw water from the pond was treated include Moringa oleifera (MO seed powder only (i.e., 100% MO, aluminium sulphate (alum only (i.e., 100% alum, 20% alum and 80% Moringa oleifera seed powder, 40% alum and 60% Moringa oleifera seed powder, 50% alum and 50% Moringa oleifera seed powder; 60% alum and 40% Moringa oleifera seed powder; and 80% alum and 20% Moringa oleifera seed powder. Five of the seven used coagulant combinations gave acceptable turbidity reduction i.e., below 10 NTU. When Moringa oleifera seed powder was used as the sole coagulant, a filter was needed to obtain an acceptable turbidity value of 7.8 NTU but there was no need for pH adjustment or correction. Moringa oleifera seed powder can be used in treating household drinking water either as a sole coagulant or in combination with alum (using the alum as a coagulant aid. The settling time for the MO seed powder is longer than that of the combined coagulants if the same results are to be obtained. The recommended ratio for the combined coagulant dose is 60% MO seed powder and 40% alum.

  9. Novel adjuvant Alum-TLR7 significantly potentiates immune response to glycoconjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonsanti, Cecilia; Balocchi, Cristiana; Harfouche, Carole; Corrente, Federica; Galli Stampino, Luisa; Mancini, Francesca; Tontini, Marta; Malyala, Padma; Bufali, Simone; Baudner, Barbara; De Gregorio, Ennio; Valiante, Nicholas M.; O’Hagan, Derek T.; Rappuoli, Rino; D’Oro, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Although glycoconjugate vaccines are generally very efficacious, there is still a need to improve their efficacy, especially in eliciting a strong primary antibody response. We have recently described a new type of vaccine adjuvant based on a TLR7 agonist adsorbed to alum (Alum-TLR7), which is highly efficacious at enhancing immunogenicity of protein based vaccines. Since no adjuvant has been shown to potentiate the immune response to glycoconjugate vaccines in humans, we investigated if Alum-TLR7 is able to improve immunogenicity of this class of vaccines. We found that in a mouse model Alum-TLR7 greatly improved potency of a CRM197-MenC vaccine increasing anti-MenC antibody titers and serum bactericidal activity (SBA) against MenC compared to alum adjuvanted vaccine, especially with a low dose of antigen and already after a single immunization. Alum-TLR7 also drives antibody response towards Th1 isotypes. This adjuvant was also able to increase immunogenicity of all polysaccharides of a multicomponent glycoconjugate vaccine CRM197-MenACWY. Furthermore, we found that Alum-TLR7 increases anti-polysaccharide immune response even in the presence of a prior immune response against the carrier protein. Finally, we demonstrate that Alum-TLR7 adjuvant effect requires a functional TLR7. Taken together, our data support the use of Alum-TLR7 as adjuvant for glycoconjugate vaccines. PMID:27439378

  10. A Novel Use for Potassium Alum as Controlling Agent Against Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Elham M

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed.

  11. Determination of the concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks using dielectric spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Kang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of alum additive in deep-fried dough sticks (DFDSs was investigated using a coaxial probe method based on dielectric properties in the 0.3–10-GHz frequency range. The dielectric spectra of aqueous solutions with different concentrations of alum, sodium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof were used. The correspondence between dielectric loss and alum concentration was thereby revealed. A steady, uniform correspondence was successfully established by introducing ω·ε″(ω, the sum of dielectric loss and conductor loss (i.e., total loss, according to the electrical conductivity of the alum-containing aqueous solutions. Specific, resonant-type dielectric dispersion arising from alum due to atomic polarization was identified around 1 GHz. This was used to discriminate the alum additive in the DFDS from other ingredients. A quantitative relationship between alum and sodium bicarbonate concentrations in the aqueous solutions and the differential dielectric loss Δε″(ω at 0.425 GHz was also established with a regression coefficient over 0.99. With the intention of eliminating the effects of the chemical reactions with sodium bicarbonate and the physical processes involved in leavening and frying during preparation, the developed technique was successfully applied to detect the alum dosage in a commercial DFDS (0.9942 g/L. The detected value agreed well with that determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (0.9722 g/L. The relative error was 2.2%. The results show that the proposed dielectric differential dispersion and loss technique is a suitable and effective method for determining the alum content in DFDSs.

  12. A Novel Use for Potassium Alum as Controlling Agent Against Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Elham M

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present our results on the use of potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide. This compound has the potential to rid our homes, schools, hotels, restaurants, and ships of cockroach infestations. This compound is environmentally friendly and has no hazardous effects on plant, animal, or human ecosystems. Alum was approved for medical use a long time ago. In our laboratory, we developed a novel method using potassium alum as an environmentally friendly insecticide to kill the most common cockroach in the subtropical region, Periplaneta americana (L.). Adult and nymph-staged cockroaches were left to feed on potassium alum per individual insect after a period of food deprivation. The mortality was recorded as LT50. The younger nymphs the third and early fourth instars died within 4 d of feeding after consuming an average of 0.3 mg per individual insect. Gravid females were highly susceptible to alum toxicity and experienced a higher mortality rate, with an average of 3 mg per individual female. The oothecae of the normal untreated females were 8.1 mm long and 4.13 mm wide and weighed 94 mg. The eggs laid by the treated gravid females were underweight and exhibited a dwarfism shape, and these eggs did not hatched if the females consumed the potassium alum before laying eggs. The results revealed that the adult male and female cockroaches have to consume 1 mg and 2.7 mg, respectively, of potassium alum to kill 100% of them after 1 month of ingestion. The potassium alum had to be ingested by the cockroaches to affect mortality. The effect of potassium alum was attributed to chronic toxicity and not acute toxicity. The potential applications of this novel technique will be discussed. PMID:26470384

  13. Alum as a Catalyst for the Synthesis of Bispyrazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zolfigol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compounds with pyrazolemoieties as nitrogen-containing heterocyclic systems have received attention owing to their diverse biological activities. Alum (KAl(SO42∙12H2O is an inexpensive, reusable and nontoxic catalyst used to synthesize 1H-pyrazole derivatives via the reaction of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one and carbonyl compound under solvent-free conditions at 60 °C. The proposed method has been used for the preparation of 1H-pyrazole derivatives to yield green products for cleaning-in-place and to avoid toxic catalysts and hazardous solvents in accordance with the philosophy of sustainable chemistry.

  14. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater. PMID:27164876

  15. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater.

  16. Alum amendment effects on phosphorus release and distribution in poultry litter-amended sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, K.E.; Arai, Y.; Sparks, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Increased poultry production has contributed to excess nutrient problems in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils due to land application of poultry litter (PL). Aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3?? 14H2O] amendment of PL effectively reduces soluble phosphorus (P) in the PL; however, the effects of these litters when added to acidic, sandy soils are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of alum-amended poultry litter in reducing P release from three Delaware Coastal Plain soils: Evesboro loamy sand (Ev; excessively drained, mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamments), Rumford loamy sand (Ru; well drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults), and Pocomoke sandy loam (Pm; very poorly drained, coarse-loamy, siliceous, active, thermic Typic Umbraquults). Long-term (25 d) and short-term (24 h) desorption studies were conducted, in addition to chemical extractions and kinetic modeling, to observe the changes that alum-amended versus unamended PL caused in the soils. The Ev, Ru, and Pm soils were incubated with 9 Mg ha-1 of alum-amended or unamended PL. Long-term desorption (25 d) of the incubated material resulted in approximately 13.5% (Ev), 12.7% (Ru), and 13.3% (Pm) reductions in cumulative P desorbed when comparing soil treated with unamended and alum-amended PL. In addition, the P release from the soil treated with alum-amended litter was not significantly different from the control (soil alone). Short-term desorption (24 h) showed 7.3% (Ev), 15.4% (Ru), and 20% (Pm) reductions. The overall implication from this study is that the use of alum as a PL amendment is useful in coarse-textured soils of the Coastal Plain. With increased application of alum-amended PL, more significant decreases may be possible with little or no effect on soil quality.

  17. XANES Spectroscopic Analysis of Phosphorus Speciation in Alum-Amended Poultry Litter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiter,J.; Staats-Borda, K.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Sparks, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate (alum; Al2(SO4)3{center_dot}14H2O) is used as a chemical treatment of poultry litter to reduce the solubility and release of phosphate, thereby minimizing the impacts on adjacent aquatic ecosystems when poultry litter is land applied as a crop fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine, through the use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and sequential extraction, how alum amendments alter P distribution and solid-state speciation within the poultry litter system. Our results indicate that traditional sequential fractionation procedures may not account for variability in P speciation in heterogeneous animal manures. Analysis shows that NaOH-extracted P in alum amended litters is predominantly organic ({approx}80%), whereas in the control samples, >60% of NaOH-extracted P was inorganic P. Linear least squares fitting (LLSF) analysis of spectra collected of sequentially extracted litters showed that the P is present in inorganic (P sorbed on Al oxides, calcium phosphates) and organic forms (phytic acid, polyphosphates, and monoesters) in alum- and non-alum-amended poultry litter. When determining land application rates of poultry litter, all of these compounds must be considered, especially organic P. Results of the sequential extractions in conjunction with LLSF suggest that no P species is completely removed by a single extractant. Rather, there is a continuum of removal as extractant strength increases. Overall, alum-amended litters exhibited higher proportions of Al-bound P species and phytic acid, whereas untreated samples contained Ca-P minerals and organic P compounds. This study provides in situ information about P speciation in the poultry litter solid and about P availability in alum- and non-alum-treated poultry litter that will dictate P losses to ground and surface water systems.

  18. Effects of Dissolved Alum on the Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soil for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga Oludolapo AMU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the effects of dissolved alum on the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil for road construction. Preliminary tests were performed on three samples, A, B and C for identification and classification purposes followed by the consistency limit tests. Geotechnical property tests (compaction, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, unconfined compression test and triaxial were also performed on the samples, both at the stabilized and unstabilized states by adding varying amounts of alum (5, 10 and 15g of alum/liter to the soil samples. The results show ed that the addition of alum significantly reduced the strength of the three soil samples. Maximum Dry Density (MDD increased simultaneously as the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC increased, the CBR values decreased from 15.2 to 0.9%, 13.1 to 1.3% and 14.0 to 1.2% in samples A, B and C , respectively. Shear strength values also decreased from 43 to 15, 49 to 16 and 41 to 16 kN/m2 in samples A , B and C, respectively. The study concluded that alum -soil is detrimental to the geotechnical properties of lateritic soil for road construction.

  19. Exploitation of Fenton and Fenton-like reagents as alternative conditioners for alum sludge conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maha A. Tony; Y. Q. Zhao; Aghareed M. Tayeb

    2009-01-01

    The use of Fenton's reagent (Fe2+/H2O2) and Fenton-like reagents containing transition metals of Cu(II), Zn(II), Co(II), and Mn(II) for an alum sludge conditioning to improve its dewaterability was investigated in this study. The results obtained were compared with those obtained from conditioning the same alum sludge using cationic and anionic polymers. Experimental results show that Fenton's reagent was the best among the Fenton and Fenton-like reagents for the alum sludge conditioning. A considerable effectiveness of capillary suction time (CST) reduction efficiency of 47% can be achieved under test conditions of Fe2+/H2O2 = 20/125 mg/gDS (dry solid) and pH = 6.0. The observation of floc-like particles after Fenton's reagent conditioning of alum sludge suggests that the mechanism of Fenton's reagent conditioning was different with that of polymer conditioning. In spite of the less efficiency in the CST reduction of Fenton's reagent in alum sludge conditioning compared with that of polymer conditioning, is less than that of polymer conditioning.[b1] This study provided an example of proactive treatment engineering, which is aimed at seeking a safe alternative to the use of polymers in sludge conditioning towards achieving a more sustainable sludge management strategy.

  20. Removal of alum from Iron-Age wooden objects by an applied electric field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Poul;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper removal of potassium, sulfate and aluminum ions from waterlogged alum treated wood with the use of an applied electric field is described. An electric DC field was applied across the wood for 4-20 days. At the end of the experiments sulfate had moved as expected towards the anode...... was not obtained in the experiments reported here, but the high conductivity and the transport of the measured ions due to the electric field indicates that an applied electric field as a method for removal of alum and other unwanted ions from treated wooden objects warrants further investigation....

  1. Reducing Phosphorus Runoff and Leaching from Poultry Litter with Alum: Twenty-Year Small Plot and Paired-Watershed Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lidong; Moore, Philip A; Kleinman, Peter J A; Elkin, Kyle R; Savin, Mary C; Pote, Daniel H; Edwards, Dwayne R

    2016-07-01

    Treating poultry litter with alum has been shown to lower ammonia (NH) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. Two long-term studies were conducted to assess the effects of alum-treated poultry litter on P availability, leaching, and runoff under pasture conditions. From 1995 to 2015, litter was applied annually in a paired watershed study comparing alum-treated and untreated litter and in a small plot study comparing 13 treatments (an unfertilized control, four rates of alum-treated litter, four rates of untreated litter, and four rates of NHNO). In the paired watershed study, total P loads in runoff were 231% higher from pasture receiving untreated litter (1.96 kg P ha) than from that receiving alum-treated litter (0.85 kg P ha). In both studies, alum-treated litter resulted in significantly higher Mehlich III P (M3-P) and lower water-extractable P at the soil surface, reflecting greater retention of applied P and lesser availability of that P to runoff or leaching. In soils fertilized with alum-treated litter, M3-P was much higher when analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrometry than by colorimetry, possibly due to the formation of aluminum phytate. Indeed, alum-treated poultry litter leached less P over the 20-yr study: M3-P at 10 to 50 cm was 266% greater in plots fertilized with untreated litter (331 kg M3-P ha) than with alum-treated litter (124 kg M3-P ha). This research provides compelling evidence that treating poultry litter with alum provides short-term and long-term benefits to P conservation and water quality.

  2. Alum and Rainfall Effects on Ionophores in Runoff from Surface-Applied Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doydora, Sarah A; Franklin, Dorcas; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Polyether ionophores, monensin, and salinomycin are commonly used as antiparasitic drugs in broiler production and may be present in broiler litter (bird excreta plus bedding material). Long-term application of broiler litter to pastures may lead to ionophore contamination of surface waters. Because polyether ionophores break down at low pH, we hypothesized that decreasing litter pH with an acidic material such as aluminum sulfate (alum) would reduce ionophore losses to runoff (i.e., monensin and salinomycin concentrations, loads, or amounts lost). We quantified ionophore loss to runoff in response to (i) addition of alum to broiler litter and (ii) length of time between litter application and the first simulated rainfall event. The factorial experiment consisted of unamended (∼pH 9) vs. alum-amended litters (∼pH 6), each combined with simulated rainfall at 0, 2, or 4 wk after litter application. Runoff from alum-amended broiler litter had 33% lower monensin concentration ( runoff from unamended broiler litter when averaged across all events of rainfall. Ionophore losses to runoff were also less when rainfall was delayed for 2 or 4 wk after litter application relative to applying rainfall immediately after litter application. While the weather is difficult to predict, our data suggest that ionophore losses in runoff can be reduced if broiler litter applications are made to maximize dry time after application.

  3. The Educational Voucher Intrigue: An Analysis of Its Impact on the Alum Rock Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Felix; Chacon, Gloria

    The 2 essays on educational vouchers given in this publication are: (1) "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents", and (2) "The Alum Rock Voucher Program". "The Economics of Educational Vouchers: Schools and Parents" traces the roots of the voucher concept from Adam Smith to the conservative economist, Milton Friedman, to its…

  4. Pretreatment with alum or powdered activated carbon reduces bacterial predation-associated irreversible fouling of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ho; Dwidar, Mohammed; Kwon, Young-Nam; Mitchell, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the co-application of bacterial predation by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and either alum coagulation or powdered activated carbon adsorption to reduce fouling caused by Escherichia coli rich feed solutions in dead-end microfiltration tests. The flux increased when the samples were predated upon or treated with 100 ppm alum or PAC, but co-treatment with alum and predation gave the best flux results. The total membrane resistance caused by the predated sample was reduced six-fold when treated with 100 ppm PAC, from 11.8 to 1.98 × 10(11) m(-1), while irreversible fouling (Rp) was 2.7-fold lower. Treatment with 100 ppm alum reduced the total resistance 14.9-fold (11.8 to 0.79 × 10(11) m(-1)) while the Rp decreased 4.25-fold. SEM imaging confirmed this, with less obvious fouling of the membrane after the combined process. This study illustrates that the combination of bacterial predation and the subsequent removal of debris using coagulation or adsorption mitigates membrane biofouling and improves membrane performance. PMID:25410737

  5. Petrographic and geochemical composition of kerogen in the Furongian (U. Cambrian) Alum Shale, central Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanei, H.; Petersen, H. I.; Schovsbo, N. H.;

    2014-01-01

    that organic-rich Alum Shale (TOC: 8.9-28.0. wt.%) contains mainly immature, predominantly algal-derived kerogen with unusually reduced hydrocarbon generation potential as suggested by relatively low Hydrogen Index (HI) values (HI: 251-471. mg HC/g TOC) and high degree of aromaticity. In the absence of thermal...

  6. Final Report on Third and Fourth Year Operations of the Alum Rock Voucher Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequoia Inst., San Jose, CA.

    Covered in this report are the main events that occurred in the Alum Rock voucher project between July 1974 and January 1976. Measures considered to be functioning effectively at the beginning of this time span were the concepts of alternative education, open enrollment, programs that vary their capacity in response to parent demand within the…

  7. Effect of Alum Additions to Poultry Litter on In-House Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Concentrations and Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Branly; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Miles, Dana; Trabue, Steven; Burns, Robert; Buser, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Alum [Al(SO4) ·14HO] addition to poultry litter has been shown to reduce ammonia (NH) concentrations in poultry houses; however, its effects on greenhouse gas (GHG; NO, CH, and CO) emissions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of alum additions on (i) in-house NH and GHG concentrations, (ii) NH and GHG emissions, and (iii) litter chemical properties. Two identical broiler houses located in northwest Arkansas were used for this study: one house was a control and the other was treated with alum between each flock of birds. Ventilation rates were coupled with in-house NH and GHG measurements to determine emission rates. Overall, alum additions significantly reduced the daily average in-house NH concentration by 42% (8.9 vs. 15.4 μL L), and the overall NH emission rate was reduced by 47% (7.2 vs. 13.4 kg d house). The average cumulative NH emission for the three flocks was 330 kg house flock for the alum-treated house and 617 kg house flock for the control. Concentrations and emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH) from the alum-treated house were not significantly different than the untreated house. However, carbon dioxide (CO) emissions were significantly higher from the untreated house than the alum-treated house. Alum also significantly increased litter N content and reduced the C/N ratio. These results indicate that the addition of alum to poultry litter is not only an effective management practice for reducing in-house NH concentrations and emissions but also significantly reduces CO emissions from poultry facilities.

  8. Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mervit M. Janbi; Suhama E. Salah; Kadhum M. Shabe

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl) when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage...

  9. Alum application to improve water quality in a municipal wastewater treatment wetland: Effects on macrophyte growth and nutrient uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malecki-Brown, Lynette M.; White, John R.; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    to experimental units at a rate of 0.91 g Al m-2 d-1 and water quality monitored for 3 months. The alum application significantly improved the outflow water quality and overall the growth of the plants was unaffected by the alum application. Biomass and growth varied between species and through time...... of the elevated Al concentrations in SAV needs further study. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved...

  10. A simple method for the use of gallocyanin-chrome alum as an electron strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandritter, W; Riede, U; Kiefer, G

    1981-03-01

    A method has been elaborated for the demonstration of DNA in the electron microscope. The method uses glutaraldehyde fixed tissue pieces from which RNA has been removed by incubation with RNase. DNA is stained by gallocyanin-chrome alum in the tissue block. Embedding and cutting is done in the usual manner. The method is based on histochemical observations at the light microscope level which show sufficient specificity and a good stoichiometry of the staining reaction. PMID:6163861

  11. Possibility of Using Moringa Peregrina Seeds Compared with Alum and Poly Aluminum Chloride in Sewage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Olyaie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objective: In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, urban runoff as a source of water restoration and is considered valuable. Wastewater treatment, while preserving the environment, it can be considered as water source. The aim of this study to evaluate the possibility of using powder grain Peregrina in wastewater treatment in comparing with Alum and PloyAluminum Chloride (PAC. "nMaterials and Methods: Flocculation and coagulation tests were done by Jar test. Wastewater quality parameters were measured according to standard method."nResults: Studies have been showed that in optimum Peregrina concentration, efficiency of turbidity reduction, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total E. Coli are 95.11, 38, 55.5, 46.6, 97 and 97 percent respectively. It is noted that turbidity reducing directly related with coli form reduction. As, with increasing turbidity reduction, coliform reduction is increased. The most reduction of E. coli with combination of Alum, Ploy Aluminum Chloride and Peregrina was 100 percent. In optimum concentration of Alum, Ploy Aluminum Chloride and Peregrina, the quality of treated wastewater would be in the range of environmental standards. Therefore, treated wastewater can be entering to surface water and reuse as irrigation water."nConclusion: The results derived from this study showed that the treated wastewater can be use in a variety of irrigation except sprinkler irrigation due to burn the leaves of plants. (high electrical conductivity.Also, the low cost of seed Peregrina and good performance in the refining operations, it is suggested that Peregrina as a replacement for poly aluminum chloride and an alum to be used for wastewater treatment.

  12. Mineral barrier systems for the treatment of metal-polluted water from an alum shale deposit

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Isabell

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas were recovered from alum shale (black shale) at Kvarntorp, Närke,during a period of 24 years. One of the remnants of this industry is a 100 m highdeposit with high contents of uranium, arsenic, molybdenum, vanadium and otherelements. Presently the leakage of metals from the deposit into nearby streams israther modest but will most likely accelerate in the near future. One way to preventan uncontrolled leakage of these elements from the deposit into the environmentwould be to insta...

  13. Alum:An efficient catalyst for one-pot synthesis of a-aminophosphonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swapnil S.Sonar; Kiran F.Shelke; Gopal K.Kakade; Bapurao B.Shingate; Murlidhar S.Shingare

    2009-01-01

    Alum(KA1(SO4)2·12H2O)is an inexpensive,efficient,non-toxic and mild catalyst for the one-pot synthesis of a-aminophosphonates.A three component reaction of an aldehyde/ketone,an amine and triethyl phosphite was carried out under solvent-free conditions to afford the corresponding a-aminophosphonates in short reaction times and high yields with the green aspects by avoiding toxic catalysts and solvents.

  14. Response of Alum Rock springs to the October 30, 2007 Alum Rock earthquake and implications for the origin of increased discharge after earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manga, Michael [UC BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    The origin of increased stream flow and spring discharge following earthquakes have been the subject of controversy, in large part because there are many models to explain observations and few measurements suitable for distinguishing between hypotheses. On October 30, 2007 a magnitude 5.5 earthquake occurred near the Alum Rock springs, California, USA. Within a day we documented a several-fold increase in discharge. Over the following year, we have monitored a gradual return towards pre-earthquake properties, but for the largest springs there appears to be a permanent increase in the steady discharge at all the springs. The Alum Rock springs discharge waters that represent a mixture between modern ('shallow') meteoric water and old ('deep') connate waters expelled by regional transpression. After the earthquake, the increased discharge at the largest springs was accompanied by a small decrease in the fraction of connate water in the spring discharge. Combined with the rapid response, this implies that the increased discharge has a shallow origin. Increased discharge at these springs occurs for earthquakes that cause static volumetric expansion and those that cause contraction, supporting models in which dynamic strains are responsible for the subsurface changes that cause flow to increase. We show that models in which the permeability of the fracture system feeding the springs increases after the earthquake are in general consistent with the changes in discharge. The response of these springs to another earthquake will provide critical constraints on the changes that occur in the subsurface.

  15. The use of an electric field for the removal of alum from treated wooden objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Poul;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the removal of sulfate and aluminum ions from waterlogged alum treated wood with the use of an applied electric field is in focus. Removal of alum is seen as the first step towards re-conservation of the wood with e.g. PEG. Alum treated wood samples from the Hjortspring finds (app....... 350 BC) was used in this investigation and a total of six experiments are presented here. An electric DC field was applied across the wood for 4-20 days. A constant current of 1-5 mA was applied and the corresponding voltage drop initially low, often below 10 V. At the end of the experiments sulfate...... has moved as expected towards the positively charged electrode (anode) and after 20 days only 10% of the sulfate was left in the wood. The majority of the sulfate was removed with the use of the electric field. It was shown that it is possible to apply the electric field and remove sulfate in both...

  16. Polyaluminium chloride as an alternative to alum for the direct filtration of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Idit; Friedler, Eran; Rebhun, Menahem

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of various polyaluminium chloride coagulants (PACls) was compared to the efficiency of aluminium sulfate (alum) in the coagulation-flocculation process preceding direct filtration in drinking water treatment. The comparative study consisted of two separate yet complementary series of experiments: the first series included short (5-7 h) and long (24 h) filter runs conducted at a pilot filtration plant equipped with large filter columns that simulated full-scale filters. Partially treated surface water from the Sea of Galilee, characterized by very low turbidity (-1 NTU), was used. In the second series of experiments, speciation of aluminium in situ was investigated using the ferron assay method. Results from the pilot-scale study indicate that most PACls were as or more efficient a coagulant as alum for direct filtration of surface water without requiring acid addition for pH adjustment and subsequent base addition for re-stabilizing the water. Consequently, cost analysis of the chemicals needed for the process showed that treatment with PACl would be significantly less costly than treatment with alum. The aluminium speciation experiments revealed that the performance of the coagulant is more influenced by the species present during the coagulation process than those present in the original reagents. PMID:24191453

  17. Biogenic gas in the Cambrian-Ordovcian Alum Shale (Denmark and Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M.; Wirth, R.; Biermann, S.; Arning, E.T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Krueger, M.; Straaten, N. [BGR Hannover (Germany); Bechtel, A. [Montanuniv. Leoben (Austria); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany); Schovsbo, N.H. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland - GEUS, Copenhagen (Denmark); Crabtree, Stephen [Gripen Gas (Sweden)

    2013-08-01

    Shale gas is mainly produced from thermally mature black shales. However, biogenic methane also represents a resource which is often underestimated. Today biogenic methane is being produced from the Upper Devonian Antrim Shale in the Michigan Basin which was the most successfully exploited shale gas system during the 1990-2000 decade in the U.S.A. before significant gas production from the Barnett Shale started (Curtis et al., 2008). The Cambro-Ordovician Alum Shale in northern Europe has thermal maturities ranging from overmature in southern areas (Denmark and southern Sweden) to immature conditions (central Sweden). Biogenic methane is recorded during drilling in central Sweden. The immature Alum Shale in central Sweden has total organic carbon (TOC) contents up to 20 wt%. The hydrogen index HI ranges from 380 to 560 mgHC/gTOC at very low oxygen index (OI) values of around 4 mg CO{sub 2}/gTOC, Tmax ranges between 420 - 430 C. The organic matter is highly porous. In general, the Alum Shale is a dense shale with intercalated sandy beds which may be dense due to carbonate cementation. Secondary porosity is created in some sandy beds due to feldspar dissolution and these beds serve as gas conduits. Methane production rates with shale as substrate in the laboratory are dependent on the kind of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial enrichment cultures used in the incubation experiments, ranging from 10-620 nmol/(g*d). In these experiments, the CO{sub 2} production rate was always higher than for methane. Like the northern part of North America, also Northern European has been covered by glaciers during the Pleistocene and similar geological processes may have developed leading to biogenic shale gas formation. For the Antrim Shale one hypothesis suggests that fresh waters, recharged from Pleistocene glaciation and modern precipitation, suppressed basinal brine salinity along the northern margins of the Michigan Basin to greater depths and thereby enhancing methanogenesis

  18. Influência das condições ambientais nas espumas de alumínio

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Joana Isabel Machado

    2008-01-01

    As espumas de Alumínio de porosidade fechada obtidas por pulverotecnologia, têm como principais aplicações a indústria dos transportes, principalmente na indústria automóvel. Tal é devido ao facto de estes materiais apresentarem propriedades como baixa densidade, excelente capacidade de absorção de energia e amortecimento de ruído e vibrações, o que torna estes materiais excelentes para incorporar em estruturas ultra-leves, de absorção de energia e de amortecimento sonoro em...

  19. Possibility of Using Moringa Peregrina Seeds Compared with Alum and Poly Aluminum Chloride in Sewage Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    E Olyaie; Mohajeri, S; A.R Rahmani; V Yazdani; H Banejad

    2010-01-01

    "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objective: In arid and semi-arid regions of the world, urban runoff as a source of water restoration and is considered valuable. Wastewater treatment, while preserving the environment, it can be considered as water source. The aim of this study to evaluate the possibility of using powder grain Peregrina in wastewater treatment in comparing with Alum and PloyAluminum Chloride (PAC). "nMaterials and Methods: Flocculation and coagulation tests were done by Jar test. Waste...

  20. Changes in soil test phosphorus and phosphorus in runoff from calcareous soils receiving manure, compost, and fertilizer application with and without alum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensification of the dairy industry in southern Idaho had led to the over-application of manures and a buildup of soil phosphorus (P) which is a potential threat to water quality in the region. As the use of alum has been shown to reduce both soluble manure P and runoff P from alum treated manure...

  1. Vaccination of mice for research purpose: alum is as effective as and safer than complete Freund adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Punzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease involving many organ systems. Glomerulonephritis (GLN is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in SLE. It has recently been demonstrated that adjuvants of vaccines could cause the so called ASIA syndrome. The study aimed to assess the effects of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA vs alum injections in NZB/NZWF1 mice. Mice (n=10 each group were injected with a total volume of 200 μL of: CFA in PBS (group 1, alum in PBS (group 2, PBS (group 3 as controls, PTX3/CFA (group 4, PTX3/alum (group 5, 3 times, 3 weeks apart /given in each injection, three weeks apart from ten weeks of age. Urine samples were collected weekly to evaluate proteinuria. Blood samples were collected before every injection, at 21 weeks of age, and at death to evaluate levels of anti-PTX3 and anti-dsDNA. Proteinuria free survival and survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method using Mantel-Cox’s test for comparisons. CFA-treated mice developed both anti-dsDNA antibodies and proteinuria earlier and at higher levels than alumtreated and PBS-injected mice, starting from 13 weeks of age. Proteinuria free survival rates (proteinuria ≥300 mg/dL and survival rates were lower in CFA-treated mice than those treated with alum or injected with PBS (P<0.001 for all. No difference was observed between the alum-treated group and PBS-injected mice. Notably, groups 4 and 5, immunized with PTX3, developed anti-PTX3 antibodies and no significant difference was observed. Alum seems to be as effective as and safer than CFA as adjuvant, since it did not affect disease progression in immunized NZB/NZWF1 mice.

  2. 明矾脱水工艺条件研究%Study on Technical Conditions of Alum Dehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振敏

    2000-01-01

    The reliability of first industrial grade alum as reacting source was studied as required for systhesis of aluminium borate whisker. The conditions for sieving, dehydrating, ball grinding of alum was determined.%根据硼酸铝晶须合成工艺要求,研究了以工业一级品明矾作为反应原料的可行性,确定了明矾筛选、脱水、球磨及筛分工艺条件。

  3. Fundamental Research on a New Process to Remove Al3+ as Potassium Alum during Lithium Extraction from Lepidolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Kuang, Ge; Yang, Jing-Xi; Hu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Sulfuric acid method can effectively extract lithium from lepidolite. However, purification problems make the method still tough before being widely applied. Especially, a considerable amount of Al3+ is contained in leaching solution, which needs to be removed before Li2CO3 precipitation. Based on the characteristic that K+, Rb+, and Cs+ can form corresponding alums with Al3+, an alum crystallization method was introduced and applied in our research. The feasibility of this method was also verified by phase equilibrium investigations in Li2SO4-K2SO4-Al2(SO4)3-H2O and its subternary system, which were typical subsystems of leaching solution. The results showed that Al2(SO4)3 can form potassium alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O) with K2SO4 easily, while no alum or double salt was found between Li2SO4 and Al2(SO4)3. Although Li2SO4 can generate KLiSO4 with K2SO4, the crystallization of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O still has priority over KLiSO4 when K2SO4 concentration is relatively low. Therefore, aluminum probably can be removed by regulating the concentration of leaching solution located in the crystallization field of KAl(SO4)2·12H2O. Besides, the effects of controlling factors specifically temperature, pH, and molar ratio of K+/Al3+ (m (K+/Al3+)) on alum crystallization were investigated. The results indicated that lower temperature and the addition of K2SO4 can accelerate the removal of Al2(SO4)3 obviously. The alum crystallization method turned out to be effective such that about 78 pct of Al2(SO4)3 can be removed mainly as potassium alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O) at 278 K (5 °C) with m (K+/Al3+) at 0.9 and pH of 2. A slight loss of lithium was caused by entrainment during alum crystallization. This research can be a promising exploration to purify leaching solution of lepidolite or other aluminosilicates.

  4. From "fills" to filter : insights into the reuse of dewatered alum sludge as a filter media in a constructed wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde, A.O.; Y. Q. ZHAO; Yang, Y.; Kearney, P

    2007-01-01

    Dewatered alum sludge, a by-product of drinking water treatment plants, hitherto consigned to landfills was used to develop a novel bio-filter in form of a constructed wetland. Performance results have demonstrated the benefits of the alum sludge cakes in a lab-scale system in enhancing phosphorus (P) removal from an animal farm wastewater. Although P and organic matter were concurrently removed in the system, there was a probable “one off” release of organics from the system, and this coinci...

  5. Effects of humic acid on recoverability and fractal structure of alum-kaolin flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runsheng Zhong; Xihui Zhang; Feng Xiao; Xiaoyan Li

    2011-01-01

    Particle surface characteristics, floc recoverability and fractal structure of alum-kaolin flocs were investigated using in situ particle image velocimetry (PIV) and microbalance with or without humic acid. Experimental results indicated that the zeta potential of kaolin particle surface after adsorption of humic acid was related with humic acid concentration and its acid-base buffering capacity. Adsorption of humic acid resulted in more negative electrophoresis on the particle surface. Coagulant dosages for particles to form flocs would increase with increasing humic concentration. PIV was used to evaluate floc structural fragmentation, floc surface erosion as well as recoverability after high shear. It was found that the floc size during the steady phase of growth was small, while the regrowing capability decreased in the presence of humic acid. The recoverability was closely related with floc breakage modes including floc structural fragmentation and floc surface erosion. The fractal dimensions of alum-kaolin flocs by mass-size method based on microbalance would decrease with increasing humic concentration. This study proved that humic acid had adverse influences on the performance of coagulation process.

  6. Irradiation of organic matter by uranium decay in the Alum Shale, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, M. D.; Buchardt, B.

    1989-06-01

    The Alum Shale of Sweden contains black shales with anomalously high uranium concentrations in excess of 100 ppm. Syngenetic or early diagenetic origin of this uranium indicates that organic matter within these shales has been irradiated by decaying uranium for approximately 500 Ma. Radiation-induced polymerization of alkanes through a free-radical cross-linking mechanism appears to be responsible for major alterations within the irradiated organic matter. Specific radiation-induced alterations include generation of condensate-like oils at reduced yields from hydrous pyrolysis experiments, decrease in atomic H/C ratios of kerogens, decrease in bitumen/organic-carbon ratios, and a relative increase in low-molecular weight triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons. Conversely, stable carbon isotopes of kerogens, reflectance of vitrinite-like macerais, oil-generation kinetics, and isomerization of 20R to 20S αα C 29-steranes were not affected by radiation. The radiation dosage needed to cause the alterations observed in the Alum Shale has been estimated to be in excess of 10 5 Mrads with respect to organic carbon. This value is used to estimate the potential for radiation damage to thermally immature organic matter in black shales through the geological rock record. High potential for radiation damage is not likely in Cenozoic and Mesozoic black shales but becomes more likely in lower Paleozoic and Precambrian black shales.

  7. Potash alum [KAl(SO4)2.12H2O] catalysed esterification of formylphenoxyaliphatic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ganesan Shunmugadhas Suresh Kumar; Sudalaiandi Kumaresan

    2012-07-01

    A convenient and clean procedure for esterification is reported. Direct condensation of formylphenoxyaliphatic acids with low to high boiling alcohols catalysed by potash alum gave moderate to good yields. This catalyst could be recovered and reused without substantial loss in its catalytic activity and the methodology could be used for a range of closely related substrates.

  8. Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervit M. Janbi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage dosages range of 50-2000 mg/L, rapid mixing at 200 rpm for 2 min, followed by slow mixing at 40 rpm for 15 min and settling time of 30 min. The effectiveness of Fenugreek mucilage was measured by the reduction of turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD. The results show that the combination of PACl and Fenugreek mucilage is more effective than alum, PACl and alum + Fenugreek mucilage. It can achieve greater than 97% of turbidity reduction and greater than 98% of COD reduction at low dosage of PACl (50 mg/L and Fenugreek mucilage (100 mg/L. The results indicate that lower quantities of PACl are needed to obtain an acceptable reduction in turbidity and COD in the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater.

  9. Parallel studies on dewatering and conditioning of an alum sludge and an aluminium hydroxide suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasilopoulos, E N; Bache, D H

    2001-01-01

    The paper shows a comparison between properties of an alum sludge gained from the coagulation of a coloured water with those of a suspension of aluminium hydroxide at a concentration equivalent to the coagulant fraction within the sludge. Background information is provided on composition and aspects of the source floc. The comparisons embraced floc size, polymer adsorption, and dewatering parameters including specific resistance to filtration, capillary suction time and the equilibrium moisture content under pressure. In all cases, there were strong similarities in the behaviour of the two suspensions. It is suggested that such features emanate from a common fractal structure within the source floc, whose fractal index (approximately/= 1) has been found to be insensitive to the composition of the floc.

  10. Diffusion-controlled cementation experiments in porous rock analogues using potash alum and halite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufe, A.; Hilgers, C. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Reservoir-Petrology; Stanjek, H. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Interface and Clay Mineralogy

    2013-08-01

    A good understanding of cementation is critical for reservoir quality predictions. However, studies of core material have shown that cementation may be driven by variations in pore size of the host rock. To better understand the underlying process, we developed a transparent microreactor for diffusion-controlled cementation experiments under the microscope. We studied the effect of different pore sizes and surface charges of solid material at different pH, using rock analogs. High-resolution videos allowed to analyze the nucleation from solution, pore cementation and growth rates of cements. Diffusion - considered the major mass transport during burial diagenesis - was driven along a temperature gradient across the microreactor. Pores were cemented with salt, which is well known to form pore-size dependent seals in silicilastic reservoirs. While halite precipitated primarily in pores bigger than 200 {mu}m, alum nucleated in smaller pores. The growth rate of alum (10{sup -5} mm/s) was one order of magnitude higher than that of halite. However, the dissolution rates of both minerals was similar at about 10{sup -6} mm/s. Authigenic euhdral halite migrated against the bulk diffusion transport and towards the higher-temperature reservoir. Halite growth rates increased by one order of magnitude to 1.8 x 10{sup -5} mm/s, if the phase boundary was vapor-liquid. A comparison nucleation in a 2-phase porous rock analog showed no difference in cementation pattern at a pH 7. However, at a pH of 10.5 the surface energies of the two different solids are altered, and porosity was reduced 60% more by cements in the phase-1 porous layers. Our experiments showed that pore size dependent nucleation and cementation is a process, which may also take place in complex reservoirs. With the successful pore clogging of halite we can now bring our experimental setup to reservoir conditions and establish the processes at elevated p-T conditions. (orig.)

  11. Process-based modelling of phosphorus removal in a novel constructed wetland system using dewatered alum-sludge as substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, J.L.G.; Zhao, Y.Q.; Babatunde, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    A process-based model that can evaluate the transport and the fate of phosphorus (P) in agricultural wastewater was developed for a novel 4-stage dewatered alum sludge cakes (DASC) based constructed wetlands (CWs) system using STELLA software (version 9.1.4). The model considered adsorption, plant and microbial uptakes as the major forms of P involved in the transformation chains. The results were obtained by experimental procedure through laboratory measurement, from literature and/or calibr...

  12. Fenton and Fenton-like AOPs for alum sludge conditioning : effectiveness comparison with different Fe2+ and Fe3+ salts

    OpenAIRE

    Tony, Maha A.; Zhao, Y.Q.; El-Sherbiney, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, organic polymers are adopted in alum sludge (aluminium-coagulated drinking water treatment sludge) conditioning. However, there are important concerns regarding the use of these polymers because of the unknown and long-term effects of the potential release of excess polymer to the surrounding environment when the sludge is landfilled. Therefore, as an initiative action, this study aimed at investigating alternative chemical conditioning methods and focused mainly on exploiting Fent...

  13. New thoughts concerning the epidemic of rickets: was the role of alum overlooked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Russell W

    2012-01-01

    Recent emphasis on the re-emergence of nutritional rickets has renewed interest in the etiology and therapy of this devastating disorder. At its peak in the 19th and 20th century, rickets was a major area of study for countless experts in childhood disorders and numerous theories abounded as to its cause. These included, among others, infections, confinement or intestinal disturbances, and were largely discarded after the discovery of the role of vitamin D and the importance of ultraviolet irradiation. Once a good explanation had been found for the cause of the disorder and the curative power of vitamin D proven, whether it was obtained from the diet or through exposure to sunlight, there was no apparent need to look any further into the etiology of rickets. But in fact there may have been other contributory factors, recognition of which might have lessened the severity of the disease or hastened recovery. One of these theories might be of particular interest to pediatric nephrologists because it relates to insoluble aluminum-based phosphate binders. Namely, alum used as an adulterant in bread in certain locations may have contributed to metabolic bone disease during the great epidemic of rickets.

  14. [Characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Hui; Pei, Yuan-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Batch tests have been used to investigate the characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant. ICP, SEM and XRD analyses confirm that the FARs enriched in Fe and Al elements and presented amorphism structure. Orthophosphate sorption by the FARs can be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. Fine adsorption effects of the FARs were found under lower pH values, particularly a 40.13% drop of the adsorptive capacity from pH 4.6 to pH 7.6. The FARs with grain sizes of 0.6-0.9 mm had the highest adsorption capacity of orthophosphate. Experimental data could be better fitted by the isotherm models of Langmuir (R2 = 0.9736) and Freundlich (R2 = 0.9916). The maximal adsorptive capacity reached 45.45 mg x g(-1) estimated from Langmuir isotherm model. Compared with other natural and industrial materials, FARs has relatively higher adsorption capacity. Under similar testing conditions, it was found that only about 10% orthophosphate could be desorbed from the FARs. Further study demonstrated that the mean energy of orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was 13.36 kJ x mol(-1) and the deltaH0 > 0, deltaS0 > 0 and deltaG0 wastewater and surface water. PMID:22619965

  15. A insustentável leveza do alumínio: impactos socioambientais da inserção do Brasil no mercado mundial de alumínio primário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Batista Henriques

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo procura discutir a produção de alumínio no Brasil e seus impactos socioambientais e à saúde pública. Os impactos da cadeia produtiva do alumínio colocam em xeque a ideia de crescimento sustentável difundido pelos grupos empresariais que atuam no setor. O artigo defende a tese de que a inserção do Brasil no mercado global do alumínio faz parte de uma nova configuração da Divisão Internacional do Trabalho (DIT, cujas atividades econômicas poluentes e altamente dependentes de energia, como o caso deste metal vêm se deslocando para nações periféricas ou emergentes, onde muitas vezes as legislações são menos austeras, do mesmo modo como são menos influentes os movimentos ambientalistas e as reivindicações das populações atingidas nos territórios afetados em seus direitos à saúde, ao ambiente saudável e à cultura. A competitividade desta commodity é garantida no mercado internacional, a partir da produção de externalidades como os danos ao ambiente, desmatamentos, emissões de gases do efeito estufa e de cenários de injustiça ambiental, como também nos empreendimentos de construção de barragens hidrelétricas que expõem comunidades tradicionais a situações que envolvem a perca de seus territórios.

  16. [Effectiveness of arsenite adsorption by ferric and alum water treatment residuals with different grain sizes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Xu, Jia-Rui; Wu, Hao; Wang, Chang-Hui; Pei, Yuan-Sheng

    2013-07-01

    Effectiveness of arsenite adsorption by ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) with different grain sizes was studied. The results indicated that the content of active Fe and Al, the specific surface area and pore volume in FARs with different grain sizes were in the range of 523.72-1 861.72 mmol x kg(-1), 28.15-265.59 m2 x g(-1) and 0.03-0.09 cm3 x g(-1), respectively. The contents of organic matter, fulvic acid, humic acid and humin were in the range of 46.97-91.58 mg x kg(-1), 0.02-32.27 mg x kg(-1), 22.27-34.09 mg x kg(-1) and 10.76-34.22 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Results of SEM and XRD analysis further demonstrated that FARs with different grain sizes were amorphousness. Batch experiments suggested that both the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations could well describe the kinetics adsorption processes of arsenite by FARs. Moreover, the contents of arsenite absorbed by FARs increased with the increase of arsenite concentrations. The theoretical saturated adsorption capacities calculated from Langmuir isotherm model were in the range of 6.72-21.79 mg x g(-1). Interestingly, pH showed little effect on the arsenite adsorption capability of FARs. The capability of FARs had a close relationship with their physicochemical properties. Correlation analysis showed that the active Fe and Al contents and pore volume had major effects on the arsenite adsorption capability of FARs.

  17. Comparison of different phosphate species adsorption by ferric and alum water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sijia; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2013-05-01

    As safe byproducts of drinking water treatment processes, ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) have the potential to be new phosphate (P) immobilization materials. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate and compare the adsorption characteristics of three P species by FARs. The results showed that the kinetic processes of different P species' adsorption by FARs could be described by a pseudo second-order model. The ranking list of the initial adsorption rates with respect to different phosphates was pyrophosphate, phytate, orthophosphate, hexametaphosphate and glycerophosphate. Of the six models considered, the two-site Langmuir model most effectively described the adsorption characteristics of the various P species. Upon fitting the results, the maximum adsorption capacities were determined to be 40.24 mg/g for phytate, 18.04 mg/g for pyrophosphate, 17.14 mg/g for orthophosphate, 15.86 mg/g for hexametaphosphate and 10.81 mg/g for glycerophosphate. In addition, the adsorption processes of the different P species were spontaneous endothermic processes and were favored at lower pH values. The pH dependency was found to be especially true for orthophosphate, where the adsorption capacity decreased by 1.22 mg/g with an increase in pH from 5 to 9. Fractionation of the adsorbed P species from the FARs demonstrated that Al-P and Fe-P were the dominating forms, constituting approximately 80%-90% of the total P fractions, which indicated that the adsorbed P species had a low leaching risk and could stably exist in the FARs. Therefore, the FARs could be effective in controlling pollution in water caused by different P species.

  18. [Characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang-Hui; Pei, Yuan-Sheng

    2011-08-01

    Batch tests have been used to investigate the characteristics of orthophosphate adsorption on ferric-alum residuals (FARs) from drinking water treatment plant. ICP, SEM and XRD analyses confirm that the FARs enriched in Fe and Al elements and presented amorphism structure. Orthophosphate sorption by the FARs can be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. Fine adsorption effects of the FARs were found under lower pH values, particularly a 40.13% drop of the adsorptive capacity from pH 4.6 to pH 7.6. The FARs with grain sizes of 0.6-0.9 mm had the highest adsorption capacity of orthophosphate. Experimental data could be better fitted by the isotherm models of Langmuir (R2 = 0.9736) and Freundlich (R2 = 0.9916). The maximal adsorptive capacity reached 45.45 mg x g(-1) estimated from Langmuir isotherm model. Compared with other natural and industrial materials, FARs has relatively higher adsorption capacity. Under similar testing conditions, it was found that only about 10% orthophosphate could be desorbed from the FARs. Further study demonstrated that the mean energy of orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was 13.36 kJ x mol(-1) and the deltaH0 > 0, deltaS0 > 0 and deltaG0 < 0, which indicated that orthophosphate sorption on the FARs was a spontaneously endothermic chemical reaction. It can be therefore highly valued that the FARs may be applied to phosphate removal from wastewater and surface water.

  19. Comparison of different phosphate species adsorption by ferric and alum water treatment residuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sijia Gao; Changhui Wang; Yuansheng Pei

    2013-01-01

    As safe byproducts of drinking water treatment processes,ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) have the potential to be new phosphate (P) immobilization materials.In this study,batch experiments were conducted to investigate and compare the adsorption characteristics of three P species by FARs.The results showed that the kinetic processes of different P species' adsorption by FARs could be described by a pseudo second-order model.The ranking list of the initial adsorption rates with respect to different phosphates was pyrophosphate,phytate,orthophosphate,hexametaphosphate and glycerophosphate.Of the six models considered,the two-site Langmuir model most effectively described the adsorption characteristics of the various P species.Upon fitting the results,the maximum adsorption capacities were determined to be 40.24 mg/g for phytate,18.04 mg/g for pyrophosphate,17.14 mg/g for orthophosphate,15.86 mg/g for hexametaphosphate and 10.81 mg/g for glycerophosphate.In addition,the adsorption processes of the different P species were spontaneous endothermic processes and were favored at lower pH values.The pH dependency was found to be especially true for orthophosphate,where the adsorption capacity decreased by 1.22 mg/g with an increase in pH from 5 to 9.Fractionation of the adsorbed P species from the FARs demonstrated that A1-P and Fe-P were the dominating forms,constituting approximately 80%-90% of the total P fractions,which indicated that the adsorbed P species had a low leaching risk and could stably exist in the FARs.Therefore,the FARs could be effective in controlling pollution in water caused by different P species.

  20. Resistência do arroz de terras altas ao alumínio Aluminum resistance of upland rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber M. Guimarães

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, identificar indicadores de resistência à toxicidade de alumínio em arroz de terras altas e linhagens com baixa susceptibilidade a esta toxicidade. Avaliaram-se 48 linhagens de arroz em solução nutritiva e dois níveis de estresse de alumínio: 0 e 40 mg dm-3 de Al; após 21 dias de teste, estimaram-se a massa da matéria seca das raízes e do dossel, o comprimento máximo das raízes e a altura das plantas e, também, índices de susceptibilidade à toxicidade de alumínio. Verificou-se que todos os indicadores de susceptibilidade ao alumínio, exceto aqueles relacionados à variabilidade do pH, se correlacionaram significativamente. O índice de susceptibilidade do crescimento radicular (S Rcm por se considerar, no seu cálculo, o crescimento radicular com e sem estresse de Al e a pressão de estresse de Al em que as linhagens foram avaliadas, constitui-se em importante parâmetro a ser usado na seleção para resistência à toxicidade ao alumínio. Conforme a distribuição das linhagens em quartis, delimitados pelo comprimento radicular superior a 47 cm e pelo SRcm menor que 0,92, selecionou-se o grupo de linhagens, CNA4120, CNA4164 e CNA1383, que apresenta raízes bem desenvolvidas, tanto na ausência como na presença de alumínio.The objective of this work was to identify indicators of resistance of aluminum toxicity in upland rice as well as lines with low susceptibility to this toxicity. Fifty one rice lines were evaluated in greenhouse, in nutrient solution, under two levels: 0 and 40 mg dm-3 of Al. Data of dry weight of roots and aerial parts, length of roots and plant height were obtained 21 days later. Also, the index of susceptibility to aluminum toxicity was calculated. The results showed significant correlation between all indicators with each other, except to those related to pH variability. Since root length susceptibility index (S Rcm was calculated taking into consideration the root

  1. EVALUATION OF FERRIC CHLORIDE AND ALUM EFFICIENCIES IN ENHANCED COAGULATION FOR TOC REMOVAL AND RELATED RESIDUAL METAL CONCENTRATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia, M. T. Rafiee, F. Vaezi and A. H. Mahvi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the removal of colloidal particles continues to be an important reason for using coagulation, a newer objective, the removal of natural organic matter (NOM to reduce the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs, is growing in importance. Enhanced coagulation is thus introduced to most water utilities treating surface water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to compare the effectiveness of alum and ferric chloride in removing DBPs precursors from eight synthetic water samples, each representing a different element of the USEPA’s 3×3 enhanced coagulation matrix. The effect of enhanced coagulation on the residual metal (aluminum/iron concentration in the treated water was assessed as well. The removal of total organic carbon (TOC was dependent on the coagulant type and was enhanced with increasing coagulant dose, but the latter had no further considerable effect in case of increasing to high levels. For all the treated samples coagulation with ferric chloride proved to be more effective than alum at similar doses and the mean values of treatment efficiencies were 51% and 32% for ferric chloride and alum, respectively. Ferric chloride was therefore considered the better chemical for enhancing the coagulation process. Besides, due to less production of sludge by this coagulant, it would be predicted that treatment plants would be confronted to fewer problems with respect to final sludge disposal. Measurements of residual metal in treated water indicated that iron and aluminum concentrations had been increased as expected but the quality of water concerning the residual metal deteriorated much more in cases of under-dosing. Despite expecting high residual Al and Fe concentrations under enhanced coagulation, metal concentrations were frequently remained low and were not increased appreciably.

  2. Case study: recovering clean water and pure ammonium alum from uranium mine acid waste in the Czech republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A huge underground deposit of sulfuric acid and salt is the result of nearly 30 years of uranium mining in the Northern Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Because of the danger to the local water supply, this deposit is now being cleaned up in a desalination plant which began operation in August, 1996. Acid waste is pumped to the surface, where 80% is converted to clean water for disposal to the Ploucnice river. The remaining waste is converted to pure ammonium alum crystals which will eventually be reprocessed into aluminium oxide for sale. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. MIGRAÇÃO DA ESPÉCIE INORGÂNICA – Alumínio – DOS UTENSÍLIOS CULINÁRIOS PARA O CEREAL ARROZ

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Paulo Palomino Lúcio; Elisangela Cardoso de Lima Borges

    2011-01-01

    Os utensílios culinários sempre estiveram em constante “evolução”, buscando praticidade, e nunca importando com o nível de toxicologia. Objetivando-se avaliar a migração de alumínio durante o cozimento do arroz por titulação indireta e FAAS, com extrações em HCl 1,0 e 0,1 mol L-1, amostras de arroz foram cozidas em três diferentes utensílios culinários: panela/colher de alumínio, panela de alumínio/colher de polietileno e panela de vidro/colher de polietileno. Na titulação indireta, não foi ...

  4. Poly(I:C/alum mixed adjuvant priming enhances HBV subunit vaccine-induced immunity in mice when combined with recombinant adenoviral-based HBV vaccine boosting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chuai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Virus-specific cellular immune responses play a critical role in virus clearance during acute or chronic HBV infection. Currently, the commercially available HBV vaccine is combined with alum adjuvant, which stimulates mainly Th2 immune responses. Therefore, development of new therapeutic HBV vaccine adjuvants and immune strategies that also promote Th1 and CTL responses is urgently needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve the immunity induced by the novel HBSS1 HBV vaccine, we evaluated the ability of adjuvants, including alum, CpG and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C], to enhance the response when boosted with the recombinant adenoviral vector vaccine rAdSS1. The immune responses to different adjuvant combinations were assessed in C57BL/6 mice by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, ELISpot and cytokine release assays. Among the combinations tested, a HBV protein particle vaccine with CpG/alum and poly(I:C/alum priming combinations accelerated specific seroconversion and produced high antibody (anti-PreS1, anti-S antibody titres with a Th1 bias. After boosting with recombinant adenoviral vector vaccine rAdSS1, both groups produced a strong multi-antigen (S and PreS1-specific cellular immune response. HBSS1 immunisation with poly(I:C/alum priming also generated high-level CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses in terms of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2. CONCLUSIONS: The protein-vaccine HBSS1 with mixed poly(I:C/alum adjuvant priming, followed by a rAdSS1 vaccine boost, maximises specific antibody and Th1-biased cellular immune responses. This regime might prove useful in the development of HBV therapeutic vaccines. Furthermore, this promising strategy might be applied to vaccines against other persistent infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis.

  5. The protein DIIIC-2, aggregated with a specific oligodeoxynucleotide and adjuvanted in alum, protects mice and monkeys against DENV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Lázaro; Marcos, Ernesto; Izquierdo, Alienys; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Ambala, Peris; Ochola, Lucy; Hitler, Rikoi; Suzarte, Edith; Álvarez, Mayling; Kimiti, Prisilla; Ndung'u, James; Kariuki, Thomas; Guzmán, María Guadalupe; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the ability of the chimeric protein DIIIC-2 (domain III of the dengue envelope protein fused to the capsid protein of dengue-2 virus), to induce immunity and protection in mice, when it is highly aggregated with a non-defined oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) and adjuvanted in alum. In this work, three different defined ODNs were studied as aggregating agents. Our results suggest that the nature of the ODN influences the capacity of protein DIIIC-2 to activate cell-mediated immunity in mice. Consequently, the ODN 39M was selected to perform further experiments in mice and nonhuman primates. Mice receiving the preparation 39M-DIIIC-2 were solidly protected against dengue virus (DENV) challenge. Moreover, monkeys immunized with the same preparation developed neutralizing antibodies, as measured by four different neutralization tests varying the virus strains and the cell lines used. Two of the immunized monkeys were completely protected against challenge, whereas the third animal had a single day of low-titer viremia. This is the first work describing the induction of short-term protection in monkeys by a formulation that is suitable for human use combining a recombinant protein from DENV with alum.

  6. A comparative study of biopolymers and alum in the separation and recovery of pulp fibres from paper mill effluent by flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sumona; Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Pariatamby, Agamuthu; Ali Hashim, Mohd; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2014-09-01

    Recovery of cellulose fibres from paper mill effluent has been studied using common polysaccharides or biopolymers such as Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum as flocculent. Guar gum is commonly used in sizing paper and routinely used in paper making. The results have been compared with the performance of alum, which is a common coagulant and a key ingredient of the paper industry. Guar gum recovered about 3.86mg/L of fibre and was most effective among the biopolymers. Settling velocity distribution curves demonstrated that Guar gum was able to settle the fibres faster than the other biopolymers; however, alum displayed the highest particle removal rate than all the biopolymers at any of the settling velocities. Alum, Guar gum, Xanthan gum and Locust bean gum removed 97.46%, 94.68%, 92.39% and 92.46% turbidity of raw effluent at a settling velocity of 0.5cm/min, respectively. The conditions for obtaining the lowest sludge volume index such as pH, dose and mixing speed were optimised for guar gum which was the most effective among the biopolymers. Response surface methodology was used to design all experiments, and an optimum operational setting was proposed. The test results indicate similar performance of alum and Guar gum in terms of floc settling velocities and sludge volume index. Since Guar gum is a plant derived natural substance, it is environmentally benign and offers a green treatment option to the paper mills for pulp recycling.

  7. Treatment of automotive wastewater by coagulation-flocculation using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Abdul Fattah Abu; Halim, Azhar Abdul

    2013-11-01

    A physicochemical treatment (coagulation-flocculation) was applied for automotive wastewater using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (alum) aided by anionic polyacrylamide as flocculant to determine the effectiveness of coagulation method for removal of COD, TSS and heavy metals (Fe, Ni and Zn). The results obtained proved that PAC was comparatively more efficient to FeCl3 and alum. At defined optimum experiment condition (coagulant dose: 70 mg/L, coagulant aid dose: 2 mg/L and pH 7), PAC showed 70% removal for (chemical oxygen demand) COD and 98% of (total suspended solid) TSS. For FeCl3 and alum, the maximum removal for COD were 64% and 54%, meanwhile TSS removal were 91% and 94%. Heavy metals removal using PAC also showed better results in which produced 98% of iron removal, 83% of zinc removal and 63% of nickel removal under optimum condition. The comparison revealed that the use of PAC aided by anionic polyacrylamide produced higher removal for COD, TSS and heavy metals compared to FeCl3 and alum for automotive wastewater treatment.

  8. Impacts of alum residues from Morton Jaffray Water Works on water quality and fish, Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muisa, Norah; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Chifamba, Portia

    campaigns (ANOVA: p fish > water. Bioaccumulation occurred in the fish and the order of bioconcentration was; kidney > liver > gill > muscle. The amounts of aluminium in the fish tissues investigated were significantly higher (maximum = 2.92 mg/g) than was reported in other studies reviewed (maximum = 0.18 mg/g). Thus, the water treatment plant residues are greatly increasing the concentrations of aluminium in the water system downstream of the plant thus creating a great risk of aluminium toxicity for fish. Treatment of the residues before discharge, substitution of alum with other coagulants, and re-use of the residues in buffer strips, agricultural lands and in sewage works should be considered.

  9. Influence of solid dairy manure and compost with and without alum on survival of indicator bacteria in soil and on potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in soil and on fresh potato skins after addition of solid dairy manure and dairy compost with and without alum (Al2(SO4)3) treatment 1, 7, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after application. The addition of dairy compost or solid dairy manure at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase E. coli and Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil sample after the first sampling day. Seven, 14, 28, 179 and 297 days after solid dairy waste and compost and alum were applied to soil, alum did not consistently affect Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform bacteria in the soil. We did not detect E. coli in any soil, fresh potato skin or potato wash-water at 214 days after dairy manure or compost application regardless of alum treatment. Dairy compost or solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake did not consistently increase Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in bulk soil. Solid dairy manure application to soil at rates to meet crop phosphorus uptake, increased Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers in potato rhizosphere soil. However, fresh potato skins had higher Enterococcus spp. and fecal coliform numbers when solid dairy manure was added to soil compared to compost, N and P inorganic fertilizer and N fertilizer treatments. We did not find any E. coli, Enterococcus or total coliform bacteria on the exterior of the tuber, within the peel or within a whole baked potato after microwave cooking for 5 min. - Solid dairy manure and dairy compost, with and without alum, had different effects

  10. Extração e quantificação de alumínio trocável em Organossolos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo da Rocha Campos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes métodos de extração e quantificação de alumínio trocável em Organossolos. As amostras foram coletadas em três perfis de turfeira e, então, secas ao ar e passadas em peneira de malha de 2 mm. Foram feitas extrações com KCl 1 mol L-1 , Ca(OAc2 1 mol L-1 e CuCl2 0,5 mol L-1 . Em seguida, os extratos obtidos por KCl e Ca(OAc2 foram analisados por titulação com NaOH 0,025 mol L-1 e por espectrômetro de absorção atômica com forno de grafite (GF-AAE. Os extratos obtidos por CuCl2 foram analisados por GF-AAE. Na quantificação por GF-AAE, os extratores KCl e Ca(OAc2 tiveram capacidade semelhante de extrair alumínio trocável, enquanto o CuCl2 foi capaz de extrair também o Al reativo. Os elevados teores de alumínio trocável observados na titulação após extração com KCl podem estar relacionados aos elevados teores do íon H+ presente nas amostras. O método indicado para determinação do teor de alumínio trocável em Organossolos é a extração com KCl ou com Ca(OAc2 e, para quantificação, a espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com forno de grafite.

  11. Petroleum source rock evaluation of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales (Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician) in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression (eastern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Kotarba, Maciej J.; Piestrzyński, Adam; Shogenova, Alla; Więcław, Dariusz

    2016-05-01

    We present geochemical characteristics of the Lower Palaeozoic shales deposited in the Baltic Basin and Podlasie Depression. In the study area, this strata are represented by the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Alum Shale recognized in southern Scandinavia and Polish offshore and a equivalent the Lower Tremadocian Dictyonema Shale from the northern Estonia and the Podlasie Depression in Poland. Geochemical analyses reveal that the Alum Shale and Dictyonema Shale present high contents of organic carbon. These deposits have the best source quality among the Lower Palaeozoic strata, and they are the best source rocks in the Baltic region. The bituminous shales complex has TOC contents up to ca. 22 wt%. The analysed rocks contain low-sulphur, oil-prone Type-II kerogen deposited in anoxic or sub-oxic conditions. The maturity of the Alum and Dictyonema Shales changes gradually, from the east and north-east to the west and south-west, i.e. in the direction of the Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone. Samples, located in the seashore of Estonia and in the Podlasie region, are immature and in the initial phase of "oil window". The mature shales were found in the central offshore part of the Polish Baltic Basin, and the late mature and overmature are located in the western part of the Baltic Basin. The Alum and Dictyonema Shales are characterized by a high grade of radioactive elements, especially uranium. The enrichment has a syngenetic or early diagenetic origin. The measured content of uranium reached up to 750 ppm and thorium up to 37 ppm.

  12. Determinação rápida de alumínio em plantas Rapid determination of aluminum in plant material

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    J. Romano Gallo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Um método rápido e sensível espectrofotométrico de determinação do sistema alumínio-hematoxilina pode ser usado para se conhecer o teor de alumínio em tecidos de plantas. Êste trabalho descreve o método analítico com modificações introduzidos, estuda as interferências e inclui sua adaptação para plantas. Depois do incineração do material orgânico, o alumínio é dosado usualmente numa alíquota do extrato de cinzas equivalente a 0,005 a 0,020 g de material sêco. A côr é obtida em condições controladas de pH com solução buffer de acetato e alcalinização com carbonato de amônio. No processo podem ser determinadas, rapidamente, pequenas quantidades de alumínio, sem interferência de outros elementos, nos concentrações que usualmente ocorrem nas plantas.A procedure is described for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminum in ash extracts of plant tissue using the organic dye hematoxylin, without removal of iron. It has been devised by modifying and incorporating previously published procedures for water and uranium materials. The proposed method provides a rapid determination of small amounts of aluminum up to 5 micrograms, with a recovery error smaller than ±5 per cent, as tested for several plant materials. Manganese, copper, molybdenum, vanadium, cobalt, and chromium in quantities usually encountered in plant tissue do not interfere with the method.

  13. Electro-coagulation treatment efficiency of graphite, iron and aluminum electrodes using alum and wood ash electrolytes on a Kraft pulp and paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orori, O B; Etiégni, L; Senelwa, K; Mwamburi, M M; Balozi, K B; Barisa, G K; Omutange, E S

    2010-01-01

    Specific power consumption and reduction of BOD, COD, TS, pH, and chemical elements were used to determine the treatment efficiency of Fe, graphite and Al electrodes with alum and wood ash as supporting electrolytes on the effluent from a Kraft pulp and paper mill in Kenya. Five sampling points were selected along mill's effluent treatment system: primary settling tank (SP1), first aerated lagoon (SP2), second aerated lagoon (SP3), stabilization pond (SP4), and at discharge point (SP5). Operating costs were also compared between treatments. Graphite electrodes combined with alum showed the lowest power consumption (0.5 to 3.9 mWh/m³), followed by Al and Fe. All the electrodes reduced color from a maximum of 3,200°H to the minimum local standard of 15°H. However Al electrode with alum was the most effective method for BOD and COD reduction by over 60% and 58.8% respectively and generated less sludge at all sampling points. The cost of treatment was lowest with graphite electrode (US$0.006 to 0.0008 per m³ of effluent), but highest with Al electrodes combined with wood ash (US$31.74 to 8.34 per m³). Further study is required for the effectiveness of increasing the concentration of wood ash leachate at higher concentration and current density. PMID:20935369

  14. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize coagulation-flocculation treatment of leachate using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) and alum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar

    2009-04-30

    Coagulation-flocculation is a relatively simple physical-chemical technique in treatment of old and stabilized leachate which has been practiced using a variety of conventional coagulants. Polymeric forms of metal coagulants which are increasingly applied in water treatment are not well documented in leachate treatment. In this research, capability of poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) in the treatment of stabilized leachate from Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS), Penang, Malaysia was studied. The removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, color and total suspended solid (TSS) obtained using PAC were compared with those obtained using alum as a conventional coagulant. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface method (RSM) were applied to optimize the operating variables viz. coagulant dosage and pH. Quadratic models developed for the four responses (COD, turbidity, color and TSS) studied indicated the optimum conditions to be PAC dosage of 2g/L at pH 7.5 and alum dosage of 9.5 g/L at pH 7. The experimental data and model predictions agreed well. COD, turbidity, color and TSS removal efficiencies of 43.1, 94.0, 90.7, and 92.2% for PAC, and 62.8, 88.4, 86.4, and 90.1% for alum were demonstrated. PMID:18771848

  15. Phosphorus Sorption Capacity of Concrete Waste, Natural Sorbents, Alum Residuals from Water Supply Sludge, and Ceramic Material for Tertiary Treatment in Onsite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Larpkiattaworn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus (P sorption capacity was determined for concrete waste, alum residuals from water treatment sludge, and natural sorbents (shells, clay, kaolin, and mordenite from various parts of Thailand. The material showing the best P sorption capacity (shells was selected for preparing a ceramic material to support the growth of nitrifying bacteria. The ceramic material, consisting of shells (50% by weight, alum residuals sludge (40% by weight and a soil (10% by weight heat at 750°C for about one hour, was studied for its P sorption capacity. Langmuir and Freundlich sorption isotherms yielded similar relative maximum P sorption capacities for the sorbents. The results from the Langmuir calculations showed the following maximum P sorption capacities: 32.26 g P/Kg shells, 31.25 g P/Kg concrete waste, 7.19 g P/Kg alum residuals sludge, 290 mg P/Kg clay, 80 mg P/Kg kaolin, and 30 mg P/Kg mordenite. The P sorption capacity for the prepared ceramic material at grain size 12 mm was 4.85 g P/kg. This result suggests that the ceramic material could be used for P sorption while providing growth support for nitrifying bacteria, similar to the well documented a popular P sorption material: light expanded clay aggregate (LECA from Sweden.

  16. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on phosphorus adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Wang, Ziyuan; Lin, Lu; Tian, Binghui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-02-15

    Effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs; citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid) on phosphorus (P) adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals (FARs) were studied. Both batch and column experiments indicated that the effects of LMWOAs on P adsorption were closely related to adsorption time. Initially, all acids presented inhibitory function on P adsorption. The inhibition became weaker with time, eventually promoting P adsorption for citric acid and tartaric acid. In the column experiment with a 61-day duration, high P adsorption rates (>55%) were observed for the test groups containing citric acid and tartaric acid. Interestingly, higher pH likely enhanced P adsorption with the effects of LMWOAs and a distinct relationship between LMWOAs' effects on P adsorption and their concentrations was not observed. Moreover, fractionation of the adsorbed P from the FARs demonstrated that oxalic acid reduced P adsorption capacity, while citric acid and tartaric acid increased. Based on the forms of Fe and Al existing in the FARs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, LMWOAs can promote P adsorption through activating crystalline Fe/Al and preventing crystallization of amorphous Fe/Al to increase P adsorption sites, and can also inhibit P adsorption by competition with adsorption sites.

  17. Investigation of a modified gallocyanin chrome alum staining technique in cytology compared to thionine and haematoxylin as nuclear stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, E

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the staining characteristics of a modified Gallocyanin-chrome alum stain as compared to the original gallocyanin stain. Thionine, haematoxylin and the Feulgen reaction were used as controls. Tissue imprints of rabbit liver and spleen and smears of human venous blood were stained and controlled microscopically. Nuclear extinction was measured with the image analysis system IBAS 2000. Both GCA variants were examined by spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography. The most striking difference between the GCA variants is the short staining time required for the modified stain (4 min) as compared to the original method (24 h). Both stains are stoichiometric for nucleic acids; the staining pattern, hue and intensity of nuclear colour and spectrophotometric and chromatographic data were absolutely consistent for both GCA-stains. These results and preliminary data from the analysis of the structure of the dye molecules seem to indicate that the molecular structure of the modified GCA is not changed by treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid. Differences in the staining kinetics might be due to differences in solubility. As nuclear chromatin texture after GCA staining is well appropriate for computerized image analysis the modified GCA-stain can be recommended as a simple and reproducible nuclear stain for automated feature extraction in cytology. PMID:2471227

  18. Long-term effects of phosphorus precipitations with alum in hypereutrophic Lake Süsser See (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Jörg; Schauser, Inke; Hupfer, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Precipitation and inactivation of phosphorus (P) by the addition of aluminum (Al) is a widely applied lake restoration measure. Many studies about short-term effects are reported, but little is known about long-term effects. To reduce this lack of knowledge we investigated the German hardwater lake, Süsser See, which was treated almost annually from 1977 to 1992 with aluminum sulfate (alum). We conducted sediment core experiments in laboratory, as well as in situ investigations of sediment and pore water. The treatment is clearly recognizable in sediment depth profiles as increases of total phosphorus, NaOH-extractable phosphorus, and NaOH-extractable aluminum. The molar ratio of added Al to additionally bound P is approximately 2.1:1. Pore water profiles of soluble reactive phosphorus taken in situ and in sediment core experiments, as well as sorption batch experiments, illustrate that the Al(OH)3 layer's sorptive capacity is still not exhausted with further P sorption occurring in different P fractions. The P release of the sediment is affected by the magnitude of the downward flux into the P sorbing layer. However, sediment core experiments and a modeling exercise indicate that a buried P sorbing layer has little or no effect on the P release of the uppermost fresh sediment layers. PMID:14509707

  19. Melhoramento do trigo: I. Hereditariedade da tolerância à toxicidade do alumínio Wheat breeding: I - Inheritance of tolerance to aluminum toxicity in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatro cultivares de trigo mostrando diferentes reações para a toxicidade de alumínio em condições de campo e apresentando grande variação em altura, foram estudados em solução nutritiva, utilizando-se diferentes concentrações de alumínio. O cultivar BH-1146, de porte alto, foi tolerante a 10 ppm de alumínio; o 'Atlas-66', também de porte alto, mostrou tolerância a 6 ppm, mas apresentou pequena tolerância a 10 ppm de alumínio. O 'Tordo', originário do cultivar Tom Thumb, uma fonte de nanismo, foi tolerante a 2 ppm, mas totalmente suscetível a 6 ppm de alumínio. O 'Siete Cerros', semi-anão e de origem mexicana, derivado do cultivar Norin-10, foi sensível a 2 ppm de alumínio. Pais, gerações F1 e F2 dos cruzamentos entre esses cultivares, e em alguns casos, incluindo também os retrocruzamentos para ambos os pais, foram testados em soluções nutritivas contendo diferentes concentrações de alumínio. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, para 2 ppm de alumínio, o cultivar Tordo diferiu do 'Siete Cerros' por um par de genes dominantes para tolerância; para 3 ppm, o cultivar BH-1146 apresentou um par de genes e 'Atlas-66', dois pares de genes dominantes para tolerância quando foram cruzados com os cultivares Siete Cerros e Tordo; para 6 ppm de Al, quando os cultivares BH-1146 e Atlas-66 foram cruzados entre si, mostraram ter um par de genes dominantes para tolerância cada um; o mesmo cruzamento entre o cultivar BH-1146 e Atlas-66 estudado a 10 ppm mostrou que 'BH-1146' diferiu do 'Atlas-66', que foi suscetível a essa concentração de alumínio, por um par de genes dominantes para tolerância. Os estudos das diferentes populações híbridas mostraram que a maioria dos genótipos heterozigotos testados a 6 e 10 ppm de alumínio, os quais eram esperados ser totalmente representados por plantas tolerantes, apresentaram também plantas sensíveis nas populações estudadas, sugerindo que o par ou pares de genes respons

  20. Evaluation of Alum-Naltrexone Adjuvant Activity, on Efficacy of Anti-Leishmania Immunization with Autoclaved Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER Antigens in BALB/C Mice.

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    Habib Mohammadzadeh Hajipirloo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist shifts the immune response toward a Th1 profile. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of the mixture of NTX and alum, as a new adjuvant, to enhance immune response and induce protection against Leishmania major in a mouse model.BALB/c mice were immunized three times either autoclaved L. major promastigotes' antigens alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, naltrexone or the alum-naltrexone mixture. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed two weeks after the last immunization and compared with control mice.The administration of alum- NTX in combination with the parasite antigen, significantly increased production of IFN-γ IFN-γ /IL-5 ratio, lymphocyte proliferation and improved DTH response against L. major. There was no significant difference in survival following challenge among groups.Immunization with the alum- naltrexone mixture as an adjuvant, in combination with the autoclaved L. major promastigotes antigens, can enhance cellular immunity and shift the immune responses to a Th1 pattern.

  1. Tolerância ao alumínio tóxico em germoplasma brasileiro elite de aveia

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    Cássio Barcellos Hervé

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A presença de alumínio (Al reduz o rendimento em solos ácidos ou em áreas onde o subsolo possui pH abaixo de 5, pois limita o crescimento radicular e, consequentemente, a absorção de água e nutrientes. Genótipos elite de aveia (Avena sativa L. não selecionados para a tolerância ao Al foram avaliados quanto a essa característica em solução nutritiva. Foi utilizada, como parâmetro de comparação da tolerância ao Al, a média de recrescimento radicular após a exposição ao Al. O recrescimento da raiz principal dos genótipos elite foi comparado com os controles UFRGS17, considerado tolerante e UFRGS930598-6, sensível. Foram avaliadas as linhagens UFRGS057005-1 e UFRGS057022-2, e as cultivares comerciais 'URSGuria', 'URSTorena', 'URSPenca', 'URSGuará', 'URS Charrua', 'URSTarimba', 'URSTaura', 'URSGuapa' e 'URS21'. A amplitude de recrescimento da raiz dentro de cada genótipo foi elevada, sendo a menor de 15mm e a maior de 44mm. As cultivares 'URSCharrua' e 'URSGuapa' demonstraram tolerância superior a 'UFRGS17'. URSTarimba, apesar da média similar a UFRGS17, mostrou distribuição de frequência mais positiva. URSTorena, UFRGS0570005-1 e URSPenca classificaram-se como intermediários, sendo inferiores a UFRGS17. Nenhum dos genótipos elite apresentou médias de recrescimento igual ou inferior às obtidas pelo controle sensível, UFRGS930598-6.

  2. Investigação de inclusões não metálicas em fios elétricos de alumínio

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    Marcolino Fernandes Neto

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, um dos grandes desafios enfrentados pelas empresas nacionais fabricantes de condutores elétricos, de alumínio, tem sido a ocorrência de inclusões não metálicas. Tais inclusões causam a ruptura dos fios ao longo dos processos de laminação, trefilação e encordoamento. Assim, a presença de inclusões não metálicas nesses materiais tem impactos significativos na capacidade de produzir fios elétricos com pequenos diâmetros, bem como no atendimento dos rigorosos requisitos de resistência à tração e à fadiga estabelecidos para esses materiais. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho analisou as inclusões não metálicas em fios elétricos de alumínio, que causaram a ruptura dos mesmos na etapa do processo de trefilação, através do método metalográfico convencional com auxílio do MEV/EDS, na busca de identificar a origem das inclusões. Também foi desenvolvido, nesse trabalho, um método de separação de inclusões não metálicas, presentes nos fios elétricos de alumínio, através da dissolução da matriz de alumínio em solução de ácido clorídrico. A análise das inclusões isoladas da matriz de alumínio permitiu uma investigação mais ampla quanto ao tamanho, à forma e à quantidade de tais inclusões. Os resultados mostraram que as inclusões responsáveis pelo rompimento dos fios são do tipo alumina e que as mesmas são provenientes do arraste de parte da camada de óxido de alumínio que protege o metal líquido nas calhas revestidas com material refratário.Actually, one of the biggest challenge for the national electrical aluminum conductors industries has been the occurrence of non-metallic inclusions. These inclusions cause the rupture of the wires during the rolling, drawing and bunchering process. Then, the presence of non-metallic inclusions in these materials has significant impact in the capacity of small diameter wire's production, such as to reach rigorous requirements of strength

  3. Characteristics of Laminar Flow in Pipelines of Homogenous Alum Sludge Approximated with use of the Vočadlo Model for Viscoplastic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempiński Jan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the manners of determination of the Darcy friction factor λ for a homogenous hydromixture of alum sludge of varied hydration and temperature for the laminar flow zone. The rheological evaluation of the hydromixture as a viscoplastic body has been conducted with use of measurements of viscosity. The curves of flow were approximated with use of the generalized Vočadlo model. The Darcy friction factor λ of the pipeline was determined with use of the non-dimensional criterion λ(Regen and λ(Re, He.

  4. Decolouration of H2SO4 leachate from phosphorus-saturated alum sludge using H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes in phosphorus recovery strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. Q.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of attempt for phosphorus (P) recovery from P-saturated alum sludge, which was used as a low-cost P-adsorbent in treatment reed bed for wastewater treatment, decolouration of H2SO4 leachate obtained from previous experiment, possessing a great deal of P, aluminum and red-brown coloured materials (RBCMs), by using H2O2 and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. The use of H2O2 and AOPs in the forms of Fenton (H2O2/Fe2+) and photo-Fenton (UV/H2O2/Fe2+) were tested. The ...

  5. 明矾替代物对甘薯粉丝品质的影响%Investigation on Sweet Potato Vermicellis Free of Alum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨书珍; 于康宁; 黄启星; 彭丽桃; 潘思轶; 汪宏月

    2009-01-01

    Most of the sweet potato vermicellis supplied in China contain alum that causes great harm to human health. In this research, three additives, namely corn starch, phosphate complex and xantham gum, were chosen to replace alum, and the parameters of cooking property including rupture rate, light absorbency and cooking weight gain were investigated to evaluate their influences on vermicelli quality. Results; Addition of alum 0.3% significantly decreases break rate and soup light absorbency of vermicellis; addition of corn starch improves product quality to some extent, and its optimal dose is 4% ; addition of phosphate complex 0.4 ~0.5% or xanthan gum 0.3% improves product quality effectively. The result of orthogonal test reveals that a great improvement to quality of sweet potato vermicellis can be obtained with the addition of corn starch 4% , phosphate complex 0.5% and xanthan gum 0.3% , which is comparable to the quality of vermicellis with addition of alum 0.3%.%多数粉丝在加工时均加入了含铝物质-明矾,但铝摄入过量对人体有害.试验从多种添加剂中筛选出三种明矾替代物-玉米淀粉、复合磷酸盐和黄原胶,并通过测定粉丝的断条率、糊汤情况及膨润度分析了替代物对粉丝质量的影响.结果表明,添加0.3%明矾可显著改善粉丝断条率和糊汤情况;玉米淀粉对粉丝质量有一定改善作用,添加4.0%甘薯粉丝质量达到最佳;添加0.40%~0.50%的复合磷酸盐或0.3%的黄原胶均能显著改善甘薯粉丝的品质.正交试验表明,添加4%的玉米淀粉、0.5%的复合磷酸盐和0.3%的黄原胶对粉丝质量有很显著的改善作用,其质量接近于添加了0.3%明矾的粉丝.

  6. Toxidez de alumínio em plântulas de grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa Vog. Macbride

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    Fortunato Roni Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A toxidez de alumínio (Al3+ afeta o crescimento vegetal através de sua ação nas regiões meristemáticas da raiz e pela diminuição da absorção de água e nutrientes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos do Al3+ no crescimento de plântulas de grápia (Apuleia leiocarpa Vog. Macbride. Em condições de câmara climatizada, as plantas foram cultivadas por 11 dias em minirizotrons contendo substrato geleificado (7g L-1 de ágar e quatro concentrações de Al3+ (0,0; 2,5; 5,0 e 10,0mg L-1. Em intervalos de 24h, avaliaram-se as taxas de elongação absoluta e relativa da raiz principal e o aparecimento das raízes secundárias. Além disso, aos 7 e 11 dias de cultivo, foram analisados o pH da rizosfera, a altura da planta, comprimento da raiz principal, comprimento total das raízes, número e comprimento de raízes secundárias, massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea, bem como a relação entre a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Plantas jovens de grápia são tolerantes à presença de Al3+ no substrato de cultivo até a concentração de 10,0mg L-1. As taxas de elongação absoluta e relativa da raiz principal de plântulas de grápia na presença de Al3+ a 10,0mg L-1 indicam a existência de um período de adaptação ao Al3+ de aproximadamente 48 h. A tolerância ao Al3+ depende da elevação do pH da rizosfera.

  7. 新型Lewis酸铁钾矾催化合成己酸乙酯%Catalytic Synthesis of Ethyl Caproate over New Lewis Acid Ferric Potassium Alum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭小丹; 张福捐

    2012-01-01

    新型Lewis酸铁钾矾催化己酸和乙醇合成反应生成己酸乙酯,其性能优于硫酸,并且是一种绿色催化剂.研究了催化剂的用量、酸醇摩尔比、反应时间对酯化反应的影响.实验结果表明,较佳的反应条件为:催化剂用量1.0 g/0.05 mol己酸,酸醇物质的量比为1∶2.4,反应时间为100 min,此条件下己酸转化率为94.3%.%Ethyl caproate was synthesized from hexanoic acid and ethyl alcohol with new Lewis acid ferric potassium alum as catalyst.The factors of influencing esterification rate were investigated.The results showed that ferric potassium alum was a good green catalyst for synthesis of ethyl caproate.The optimum conditions were:molar ratio of hexanoic acid to ethyl alcohol was 1∶ 2.4,amount of catalyst was 1.0 g /0.05 mol hexanoic acid,the water-carrying toluene was 10 mL,and the reaction time was 100 min.The highest esterification rate was 94.3%,and the catalyst can be recycled for many times.

  8. Refractory oxides containing aluminium and barium Oxidos refratários contendo alumínio e bário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Davies

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxides containing aluminium and barium, optionally with chromium, are refractory with several possible industrial uses. A gel precursor of an oxide having the formula BaO.n(Al2xCr2yO3, where 1Oxidos contendo alumínio e bário, opcionalmente com crômio, são refratários com vários possíveis usos industriais. Foi preparado um gel precursor de um óxido de formula BaO.n(Al2xCr2yO3, com 1alumínio ou uma solução de um sal de alumínio e um sal de cromo III, formando então um gel que é queimado para se obter o óxido desejado. Filamentos podem ser estraídos duramente a formação do gel ou extrudados de um gel semi-rígido. Estudos de infravermelho com transformada de Fourier, difração de raios X e ressonância magnética nuclear com 27AL mostraram que o bário não é incorporado diretamente na estrutura do gel. Oxidos de alumínio e bário foram obtidos somente após liquefação de espécies de bário. Foi preparada uma mistura de pós adequada para queima para se obter um óxido de fórmula BaO.m[Al2x Cr2y O3] com 4,6alumínio e bário. É feito um sumário de trabalhos anteriormente publicados.

  9. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  10. Níveis de alumínio e o desenvolvimento de porta-enxertos cítricos em cultivo hidropônico: I. Parâmetros biométricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos Henrique dos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alumínio nos parâmetros biométricos dos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro Cravo e citrumeleiro Swingle em cultivo hidropônico. O experimento foi instalado em casa de vegetação em Botucatu, SP. Os tratamentos seguiram o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de alumínio utilizados foram: 0; 7,5; 15; 22,5 e 30 mg L-1, na forma de AlCl3 6.H2O em solução nutritiva. Foram avaliados os parâmetros biométricos altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar, comprimento e volume de raízes. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que o citrumeleiro Swingle apresentou-se mais sensível ao alumínio, sendo que, a partir de 7,5 mg L-1 houve redução nos valores destes parâmetros, enquanto que o limoeiro Cravo mostrou-se mais tolerante aos níveis de alumínio.

  11. 无铝中式油条配料开发及其面团流变学性质研究%Development of No-Alum Ingredients of Chinese Fried Fritter and Mechanism of Dough on Rheological Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李子廷; 赵建新; 傅琼颖; 马申嫣; 李广; 张灏

    2011-01-01

    Chinese fried fritter was made with new no-alum ingredients, including Gluconic acid-δ-lactone (GdL), sodium bicarbonate, stearic acid monoglyceride and calcium phosphate.By means of sensory evaluation and physicochemical indexes, the best formula was achieved: Gluconic acid-δ-lactone (GdL)1.0 g, sodium bicarbonate 4.5 g, stearic acid monoglyceride 2.0 g, calcium phosphate 0.8 g.The properties of dough with no-alum formula and alum formula are similar according to theological properties and farinograph-extensograph properties.So the new no-alum formula can take the place of alum formula on chinese fried fritter production completely.%采用葡萄糖酸-α-内酯(GdL)、碳酸氢钠、硬脂酸单甘酯、磷酸二氢钙复配代替明矾配方制作无铝油条.对油条产品进行感官评定和相关理化指标测定,考察新配方对面团流变学性质的作用机理.结果表明:最佳新配方为葡萄糖酸-α-内酯1.0 g 、碳酸氢钠4.59、硬脂酸单甘酯2.09、磷酸二氢钙0.8 g,新配方对面团物性的影响与明矾配方一致,该配方可以完全代替"矾碱盐"配方.

  12. Transformações microestruturais nas ligas de alumínio arrefecidas desde o domínio semi-sólido

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Natália Ribeiro de

    2008-01-01

    O alumínio, após o seu desenvolvimento industrial no início do século XX, tem vindo a assumir uma importância crescente na vida quotidiana. Um dos factores determinantes para a sua vasta aplicação prende-se com a sua baixa densidade e, com isso, elevada resistência específica. Em particular, a liga A356 (Al7Si0,3Mg) tem sido muito utilizada na indústria automóvel. A conformação de ligas metálicas no estado semi-sólido é um processo tecnológico muito recente, decorrente de es...

  13. Estudo da liga alumínio-zinco como filtração alternativa em aparelhos de raios X odontológicos Study of the aluminum-zinc alloy as an alternative means of filtration in dental X-ray devices

    OpenAIRE

    HAITER Claudia Fátima Silva; Frab Norberto BÓSCOLO; Francisco HAITER NETO; ALMEIDA Solange Maria de

    2002-01-01

    O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da filtração alternativa da liga alumínio-zinco em aparelhos de raios X odontológicos, em relação ao espectro de energia dos feixes de raios X, a taxa de kerma no ar, o índice de contraste nas radiografias obtidas e a qualidade das imagens radiográficas. Este estudo foi realizado comparando-se o filtro convencional de alumínio com várias espessuras do filtro de liga alumínio-zinco, em diferentes porcentagens do elemento zinco na liga (2%, 3%, 4...

  14. 食品添加剂明矾生产新工艺研究%Study on new technology of alum as food additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何青峰; 杨玉梅

    2013-01-01

    介绍一种由氢氧化铝代替铝土矿生产食品添加剂明矾(十二水合硫酸铝钾)的新工艺.使用氢氧化铝与硫酸、硫酸钾在搪瓷反应釜内一步反应,再通过结晶、破碎、包装等工序,得到优质的明矾产品.解决了用铝土矿为原料生产明矾产品带来的重金属超标问题,并且大大缩短了工艺流程,减少了能源消耗同时杜绝了矿渣的产生.以氢氧化铝为原料生产食品添加剂明矾具有工艺流程短、环保、安全、产品质量好等特点.%A new technology,which uses aluminum hydroxide instead of bauxite for the production of food additive alum was introduced.In the process,aluminum hydroxide,sulfuric acid,and potassium sulfate completely reacted in an enamel reactor.And then high-quality alum could be obtained through the procedures,such as crystallization,crushing,and packing.The new technology solved the problem of exceeded heavy metals when using bauxite as raw material.Furthermore,it greatly shortened the process flow,reduced energy consumption and prevented the generation of slag.Therefore,the new technology has many advantages,such as short flow,environmental-friendly,safety,and high-quality.

  15. Effect of alum co-adjuvantation of oil adjuvant vaccine on emulsion stability and immune responses against haemorhagic septicaemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS, caused by Pasteurella multocida, is the most important bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes in India. Oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV is the most potent vaccine available for the control of HS. The study aims to evaluate the effect of alum co-adjuvantation of OAV on emulsion stability and immune response.Materials and Methods: Two different oil adjuvant vaccines viz., standard oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine (A–OAV were prepared with Pasteurella multocida antigen. Emulsion stability was tested by centrifugation, storage at 37 oC for 3 months and microscopy. Immune responses were evaluated by ELISA antibody titer, CD4, CD8 T cell populations and survival post challenge by P. multocida in mice.Results: The separation of aqueous and oil phase of emulsion by centrifugation and storage test were 0 and 6.76% in A-OAV as compared to 11.00 and 26.39% in OAV, respectively. The mean droplet size was significantly smaller (p<0.01 in A–OAV as compared to OAV. The A–OAV recorded higher ELISA antibody titer (p<0.05 up to 21st days post vaccination, and higher CD4 (p>0.05 and CD8 T cell (p<0.05 populations compared to OAV. The A–OAV group conferred 100% protection after challenge with both 100 LD50 and 1000 LD50 as compared to 100 and 60% respective protection by OAV group.Conclusion: The results indicates that A–OAV had better emulsion stability, produces higher level of CD4, CD8 T cells and antibody titer with better protection compared to oil adjuvant vaccine.

  16. Seleção de genótipos de Brachiaria Ruziziensis quanto ao alumínio em solução nutritiva: II: Avaliação da tolerância ao alumínio Brachiaria Ruziziensis genotypes selection: II: Evaluation of the aluminum tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Balbino Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O alumínio, em solos ácidos, é um dos principais responsáveis pela baixa produtividade de culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética da Brachiaria ruziziensis para a tolerância ao alumínio. Foram utilizados 10 genótipos da espécie referida, crescidas em vasos com 0, 30 e 60 mg/L de alumínio em solução nutritiva. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial, com seis repetições e parcelas de uma planta por vaso. Foram avaliados: a produção de massa verde da parte aérea e raízes (MVPA e MVR, a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e raízes (MSPA e MSR, o incremento no crescimento da parte aérea e das raízes (IPA e IR, expresso pela diferença entre o crescimento final e o inicial, e o incremento no número de perfilhos (INP. O aumento nas concentrações de alumínio provocou decréscimos para as médias de todas as características avaliadas, excetuando o IR. A ausência de diferenças do genótipo 8 para seis das sete características analisadas, com exceção da MVPA, demonstra ser ela a mais promissora para estudos posteriores em melhoramento, visando maior produtividade em solos ácidos. Os resultados evidenciaram a existência de variabilidade genética entre os genótipos avaliados para a tolerância ao alumínio tóxico, sendo possível identificar materiais mais produtivos na presença desse metal.In acid soils, the aluminum is responsible for the low cultures productivity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Brachiaria ruziziensis genetic variability for the aluminum tolerance.10 genotypes of that species were used, grown in vases with 0, 30 and 60 mg/L of aluminum in nutritious solution. A completely randomized design under 10 x 3 factorial, with six replicates. The following variables were evaluated: the green mass production of the aerial part and roots (MVPA and MVR, the dry matter production of the aerial part and roots (MSPA and MSR

  17. The Inhibition Effect of Nano Size Alum-Borneol Emulsion to L-929 Cell%矾冰纳米乳对L-929细胞抑制作用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽芳; 伍参荣; 祁林

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨矾冰纳来乳对L-929实验细胞增殖抑制作用.方法:采用细胞病变抑制法与MIT法,将试验药物稀释后加入培养4h贴壁的L- 929细胞中,37℃、5% CO2培养箱中观察24h、48h,同时设传统药物矾冰液和正常细胞对照,倒置显微镜下观察药物对细胞形态的影响,测定OD值比较药物对细胞生长的影响.结果:矾冰纳米乳对L - 929细胞的生长有随浓度增加其生长抑制率也增加的趋势,与矾冰液比较有统计学差异(P<0.05);矾冰纳米乳在同一浓度、同一时间内细胞增长抑制率低于矾冰液,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);倒置显微镜下观察细胞形态良好.结论:纳米矾冰乳对L - 929培养细胞无毒性作用,可以用于临床.%Objective:To study the proliferative inhibition effect of nano size Alum- Borneol emulsion to L- 929 cell.Methods: The cytopathogenic effect inhibition assay and MTT method were applied. The adherent L - 929 cell were added diluted drug and cultrued 24h, 48h in 7℃, 5% CO2 condition. The normal cell group and traditional Alum - Borneol liquid group were set as control. The effect of drugs to cell morphology and growth were detected by inverted microscope and OD assay respectively. Results: Compared with traditional Alum - Borneol liquid group, the nano size Alum - Bomeol emulsion could increase the proliferative inhibition effect on L - 929 cell with increasing of drug concentration ( P <0.05 ). The proliferative inhibition rate of nano size Alum - Borneol emulsion was lower than traditional Alum - Borneol liquid at same time and concentration( P <0.05 ). The proliferative inhibition rate of nano size Alum - Borneol emulsion was decreased with decreasing drug concentration and cultural time compared with normal control group( P <0.05 ).The morphology results show a good cell shape in inverted microscope. Conclusion: The nano size Alum - Borneol emulsion has no cytotoxicity to L- 929 cell and could applied to

  18. Avaliação de genótipos de trigo hexaplóide quanto a tolerância a toxicidade do alumínio Hexaploid wheat genotypes evaluation to toxic aluminum tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Cunha Dornelles; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Luiz Carlos Federizzi; Maria Jane Cruz de Melo Sereno; Adriane Amaral; Patrícia Langlois

    1996-01-01

    Com o objetivo de testar e aprimorar o método de avaliação de trigo hexaplóide (Triticum aestivum L.), quanto a sua resposta a níveis tóxicos de alumínio com o uso de solução nutritiva, cinco genótipos de comportamento conhecido quanto a sua reação ao alumínio (Al+++), foram submetidos a solução nutritiva em três concentrações de Al+++ (4, 6 e l0ppm), em dois ensaios. Os resultados observados permitiram o ajuste do equipamento e aprimoramento do método de avaliação, assim como a definição da ...

  19. Estudo da problemática da presença de alumínio na linha de tratamento de água para consumo humano, na ETA da Póvoa

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira, Ana Celeste Lucena

    2009-01-01

    A presente dissertação teve origem num problema de excesso de Alumínio residual na água tratada da linha de tratamento da ETA da Póvoa, situada no distrito de Portalegre, e que motivou a introdução de alterações ao processo. Os principais objectivos foram: acompanhar a evolução das concentrações de Alumínio ao longo da linha de tratamento da ETA da Póvoa e avaliar a qualidade da água, com base em parâmetros como a oxidabilidade, turvação, pH e alcalinidade; comparar dois métodos de d...

  20. Influência do alumínio de um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo do Acre sobre o crescimento das plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. N. F. Gama

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em Piracicaba (SP, em 1995, com o objetivo de investigar a causa da ausência de sintomas de toxidez de alumínio ou da redução de produtividade de plantas cultivadas em um solo Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo do Acre. O teor de Al trocável nesse solo ultrapassa 14 cmol c dm-3 no horizonte B. Amostras dos horizontes A e B foram incubadas com diferentes doses de calcário e submetidas à determinação do pH em H2O, do pH em CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 e do teor de Al trocável extraído com KCl 1 mol L-1 e determinado por titulação com NaOH 0,02 mol L-1 e por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Em outro experimento, quatro espécies ou cultivares (arroz, cultivares Fernandes e IAC 1131; feijão, cultivar Rosinha, e milho, cultivar C511-A foram plantados em vasos contendo amostras dos horizontes A e B do solo em estudo; em 50% dos vasos, as amostras foram previamente tratadas com carbonatos de cálcio e de magnésio para elevar a saturação por bases a 80%. Após 60 dias, as raízes e a parte aérea foram secas, pesadas e submetidas à determinação do teor de Al. Em uma terceira etapa, foi determinado o teor de alumínio na solução do solo, empregando-se extratos da pasta de saturação de amostras incubadas com doses crescentes de calcário. Os teores de Al trocável obtidos por titulação do extrato com NaOH 0,02 mol L-1 mostraram-se coerentes com os determinados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. A influência da calagem sobre a produção de matéria seca e sobre a absorção de Al pelas plantas foi pequena, não havendo relação clara entre o desenvolvimento destas ou ocorrência de sintomas de toxidez e a presença de Al trocável nesse solo. As amostras não tratadas com corretivos apresentaram teores elevados de Al na solução; contudo, não foram observados sintomas de toxidez nos vegetais. No Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo estudado, o teor de alumínio trocável e a concentração de Al na

  1. Investigation of ULF magnetic pulsations, air conductivity changes, and infra red signatures associated with the 30 October Alum Rock M5.4 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bleier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several electromagnetic signal types were observed prior to and immediately after 30 October 2007 (Local Time M5.4 earthquake at Alum Rock, Ca with an epicenter ~15 km NE of San Jose Ca. The area where this event occurred had been monitored since November 2005 by a QuakeFinder magnetometer site, unit 609, 2 km from the epicenter. This instrument is one of 53 stations of the QuakeFinder (QF California Magnetometer Network-CalMagNet. This station included an ultra low frequency (ULF 3-axis induction magnetometer, a simple air conductivity sensor to measure relative airborne ion concentrations, and a geophone to identify the arrival of the P-wave from an earthquake. Similar in frequency content to the increased ULF activity reported two weeks prior to the Loma Prieta M7.0 quake in 1989 (Fraser-Smith, 1990, 1991, the QF station detected activity in the 0.01–12 Hz bands, but it consisted of an increasing number of short duration (1 to 30 s duration pulsations. The pulsations peaked around 13 days prior to the event. The amplitudes of the pulses were strong, (3–20 nT, compared to the average ambient noise at the site, (10–250 pT, which included a component arising from the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART operations. The QF station also detected different pulse shapes, e.g. negative or positive only polarity, with some pulses including a combination of positive and negative. Typical pulse counts over the previous year ranged from 0–15 per day, while the count rose to 176 (east-west channel on 17 October, 13 days prior to the quake. The air conductivity sensor saturated for over 14 h during the night and morning prior to the quake, which occurred at 20:29 LT. Anomalous IR signatures were also observed in the general area, within 50 km of the epicenter, during the 2 weeks prior to the quake. These three simultaneous EM phenomena were compared with data collected over a 1–2-year period at the site. The data was also compared against accounts of air

  2. Efeitos do alumínio em pimenteiras do reino (Piper nigrum, L.cultivadas em solução nutritiva Effect of aluminum on black pepper (Piper nigrum, L. grown in nutruent solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.C. Veloso

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum, L. vem sendo cultivada, em sua maior parte, em áreas com solos de baixa fertilidade natural, caracterizadas por baixa saturação por bases, alta saturação de alumínio e acidez elevada. Visando estudar os efeitos do alumínio sobre a cultura foi conduzido um experimento com a cultivar Guajarina em solução nutritiva. As doses de alumínio estudadas foram: 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 e 40 mg/L. O sintoma inicial de toxidez de alumínio foi caracterizado por um retardamento no crescimento radicular, com aumento no diâmetro das raízes. Observou-se efeito positivo do alumínio na produção de matéria seca com adição de até 15 mg/L na solução, o que correspondeu a maior absorção de P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe e AL Concluiu-se que a pimenteira é tolerante à presença de concentrações de Al inferiores a 20 mg/L no substrato. Doses superiores provocam distúrbios nutricionais com redução no crescimento da planta.Black pepper (Piper nigrum, L. is usually grown in soils of low natural fertility and high aluminum saturation. An experiment using young plants of the Guajarina cultivar grown in nutrient solution was carried out in order to verify the effects of aluminum on the growth and chemical composition and determine the concentration in the substrate which causes toxicity symptoms. Aluminum was added to the nutrient solution at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 mg/L. The initial symptom of Al toxicity was a slower development of the roots, which were thicker than those of the control. Dry weight increased when aluminum supply increased from 0 to 15 ppm Al; correspondingly there was a higher uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and AL It appears that black pepper is tolerant to Al concentrations as high as 20 mg/L. Higher rates cause nutritional disturbances and reduction in growth.

  3. Enraizamento de estacas de genótipos de Camellia sinensis L. em meio ácido, presença de alumínio e ácido indolbutírico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. LIMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o efeito do meio ácido e do alumínio, assim como para determinar a concentração mais apropriada de ácido indolbutírico (AIB para o enraizamento de estacas de diferentes genótipos de Camellia sinensis L (planta de chá. Para tal, foram coletados ramos de plantas-matrizes em Pariquera-Açu-SP, Brasil, no inverno de 2012 e preparadas estacas semi-lenhosas, contendo uma gema e uma folha, que foram mantidas em viveiro com 70% de sombreamento. A irrigação do substrato foi feita com água e soluções contendo ácido fosfórico e sulfato de alumínio a pH 5,5, 4,5; 3,5. No primeiro experimento, o delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 7, três genótipos (F 15, IAC 259 e Comum e sete condições diferentes de enraizamento (vermiculita a pH 6,5, vermiculita acidificada com ácido fosfórico a pH 3,5; 4,5 e 5,5 ou vermiculita acidificada com sulfato de alumínio a pH 3,5; 4,5 e 5,5. No segundo experimento, o tratamento que promoveu o maior enraizamento no primeiro experimento (vermiculita acidificada com sulfato de alumínio a pH 3,5 foi combinado ao tratamento com AIB. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 6, sendo três genótipos e seis concentrações de AIB (0, 2000, 4000, 6000, 8000 e 1000 mg L-1. A vermiculita acidificada com sulfato de alumínio a pH 3,5, combinada a aplicação de 10000 mg L-1 de AIB por 30 segundos, foi o tratamento mais adequado para o enraizamento de estacas semi-lenhosas dos genótipos F15, IAC 259 e Comum.

  4. Promoting the bio-cathode formation of a constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell by using powder activated carbon modified alum sludge in anode chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhao, Yaqian; Doherty, Liam; Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi

    2016-01-01

    MFC centered hybrid technologies have attracted attention during the last few years due to their compatibility and dual advantages of energy recovery and wastewater treatment. In this study, a MFC was integrated into a dewatered alum sludge (DAS)- based vertical upflow constructed wetland (CW). Powder activate carbon (PAC) was used in the anode area in varied percentage with DAS to explore its influences on the performance of the CW-MFC system. The trial has demonstrated that the inclusion of PAC improved the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and RP. More significantly, increasing the proportion of PAC from 2% to 10% can significantly enhance the maximum power densities from 36.58 mW/m2 to 87.79 mW/m2. The induced favorable environment for bio-cathode formation might be the main reason for this improvement since the content of total extracellular polymeric substances (TEPS) of the substrate in the cathode area almost doubled (from 44.59 μg/g wet sludge to 87.70 μg/g wet sludge) as the percentage of PAC increased to 10%. This work provides another potential usage of PAC in CW-MFCs with a higher wastewater treatment efficiency and energy recovery. PMID:27197845

  5. Promoting the bio-cathode formation of a constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell by using powder activated carbon modified alum sludge in anode chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhao, Yaqian; Doherty, Liam; Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi

    2016-05-01

    MFC centered hybrid technologies have attracted attention during the last few years due to their compatibility and dual advantages of energy recovery and wastewater treatment. In this study, a MFC was integrated into a dewatered alum sludge (DAS)- based vertical upflow constructed wetland (CW). Powder activate carbon (PAC) was used in the anode area in varied percentage with DAS to explore its influences on the performance of the CW-MFC system. The trial has demonstrated that the inclusion of PAC improved the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and RP. More significantly, increasing the proportion of PAC from 2% to 10% can significantly enhance the maximum power densities from 36.58 mW/m2 to 87.79 mW/m2. The induced favorable environment for bio-cathode formation might be the main reason for this improvement since the content of total extracellular polymeric substances (TEPS) of the substrate in the cathode area almost doubled (from 44.59 μg/g wet sludge to 87.70 μg/g wet sludge) as the percentage of PAC increased to 10%. This work provides another potential usage of PAC in CW-MFCs with a higher wastewater treatment efficiency and energy recovery.

  6. Alumínio e a absorção de cálcio por mudas de pimenta do reino Aluminum and calcium absorption by black pepper seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com solução nutritiva foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da nutrição de cálcio na toxicidade de alumínio em mudas de pimenta do reino. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três concentrações de cálcio (10; 40 e 160 mg L-1 adicionados como CaCl2 em combinação com três concentrações de alumínio (0; 10 e 20 mg L-1 adicionados como AlCl3.6H2O. A solução nutritiva continha as seguintes concentrações dos íons expressos em mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 e Zn(0,10. Os tratamentos com alumínio retardaram o crescimento das mudas de pimenta do reino, induziram sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio na parte aérea e principalmente aumentaram o diâmetro das raízes. O acúmulo de cálcio aumentou com o incremento da concentração de cálcio na solução na ausência de alumínio, nas raízes o conteúdo de cálcio foi diminuído com o aumento da concentração de alumínio na solução. A absorção de alumínio diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de cálcio na solução.A nutrient solution experiment with was carried out in a greenhouse with the objective of verifying the specific effects of calcium and aluminum toxicity on black pepper seedlings. The treatments were set up in three concentrations of calcium (10; 40 and 160 mg L-1 added as CaCl2 in combination with three concentrations of aluminum (0; 10 and 20 mg L-1 added as AlCl3. 6 H2O. The nutrient solution contained the following ion concentrations in mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 and Zn(0,10. The treatments with aluminum reduced black pepper growth and the diameter of roots increased. Calcium absorption increased with the increase of calcium concentration in the solution, in the absence of aluminum. Calcium absorption by roots decreased with the increase of the

  7. Variabilidade genética e herança da tolerância à toxicidade do alumínio em aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÁNCHEZ-CHACÓN CARLOS DANILO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e um genótipos de aveia (Avena sativa L. do programa de melhoramento da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul foram avaliados quanto à reação ao alumínio (Al tóxico em solução nutritiva. Os níveis de Al testados foram 5, 10, 15, 20 e 30 g kJ-1, e o recrescimento da raiz foi medido depois de 48 horas sob a ação do metal. A variabilidade fenotípica foi observada a partir de 10 g kJ-1; em 20 g kJ-1 foram discriminados genótipos tolerantes e sensíveis. As bases genéticas da tolerância ao Al foram estudadas nas gerações P1, P2, F1 e F2, em nove cruzamentos entre genótipos tolerantes x sensíveis. Foi observado nas populações segregantes que a tolerância foi condicionada por um gene, de efeito dominante. A herdabilidade no sentido amplo foi moderada a elevada, permitindo que a seleção de indivíduos homozigotos tolerantes possa ser realizada em gerações precoces, acompanhada de teste de progênie. Por ser um método de relativa facilidade e rapidez, a seleção de germoplasma tolerante ao Al pode ser parte integrante da rotina dos programas de melhoramento de aveia.

  8. Effect of aluminum in plants of Jatropha curcas L. grown in nutritive solution/ Efeito do alumínio em plantas de Pinhão-Manso (Jatropha curcas L., cultivadas em solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cabral de Vasconcellos Barreto

    Full Text Available High amounts of aluminum (Al3+ limit the development of many plant species, inhibiting the growth of roots. The physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. has been studied extensively for the production of biodiesel and despite being tolerant to low fertility soils, the roots of physic nuts do not developed in acid soils. This study aimed to evaluate the development and physiological responses of different accessions of physic nuts in varying doses of aluminum. Seedlings obtained from seeds from São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Bahia, were subjected to aluminum stress at concentrations of 0, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 mg L-1 in nutritive solution, with the following parameters: fresh matter of shoot (MFPA, fresh matter of root (MFR, dry matter of shoot (MSA, dry matter of root (MSR, initial length of root before submersion in solution (CIR and growth of root end after submersion in solution (CFR. For variables MFPA, MFR and MSR, the access from Minas Gerais and Bahia presented higher relative mean different from São Paulo provenance at levels of 5% and 1% significance, respectively. The doses of aluminum showed significant differences for the variables MFR and CFR after submersion in solution, and those results are explained by descendants’ linear equations. Based on these results, it was noticed that the growth of the species is affected by the presence of aluminum, even considering small levels and independently of the provenance. The doses of aluminum affect root growth for all provenances, with doses above 3 mgL-1, the most harmful to plant growth.Quantidades elevadas de alumínio (Al3+ limitam o desenvolvimento de muitas espécies vegetais, inibindo o crescimento de suas raízes. O pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L. tem sido estudado amplamente para a produção de biodiesel e, apesar de ser tolerante em solos com baixa fertilidade, as raízes do pinhão-manso não se desenvolvem em solos ácidos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e a

  9. Tolerância de cultivares de trigo a diferentes níveis de alumínio em solução nutritiva e no solo Tolerance op wheat cultivars to different levels of aluminum toxicity

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados dez cultivares de trigo em soluções nutritivas contendo cinco diferentes níveis de alumínio tóxico. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após um período prévio de 48 horas em solução contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio. Os cultivares Siete Cerros e Tobari-66 foram sensíveis, respectivamente, a 1 e 3 ppm de alumínio. 'Alondra-S-46', 'Alondra-S-45' e 'IAC-17' foram sensíveis a 6 ppm; 'BH-1146', 'IAC-5', 'IAC-18', 'IAC-13' e 'Londrina' foram tolerantes a 10 ppm, porém 'BH-1146', 'IAC-18' e 'IAC-13' foram mais tolerantes que 'IAC-5' e 'Londrina'. Os cultivares BH-1146, IAC-17, Alondra-S-46, Tobari-66 e Siete Cerros foram cultivados em vasos contendo solo ácido mostrando a presença de alumínio. Metade do número de vasos recebeu uma aplicação de calcário. Os resultados desse experimento mostraram que o cultivar BH-1146 diferiu significativamente em produção de grãos por planta de 'Tobari-66', 'Alondra-S-46', 'IAC-17' e 'Siete Cerros'. Esse resultado confirmou a tolerância ao alumínio do cultivar BH-1146, observada quando se empregou solução nutritiva com a presença desse elemento.Ten wheat cultivars were studied to aluminum toxicity using five different levels of this element. The tolerance was measured taking into account the root growth in a aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a previous Al treatment. With toxic amounts of Al, the primary roots did not grow at all and remained thickned at the tip as a typical Al injury. The wheat cultivars Siete Cerros and Tobari-66 were sensitive to 1 and 3 ppm of aluminum, respectively. The cultivars Alondra-S-46, Alondra-S-45 and IAC-17 were sensitive to 6 ppm. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-5, IAC-18, IAC-13 and Londrina showed tolerance to 10 ppm but BH-1146, IAC-18 and IAC-13 were more tolerant than IAC-5 and Londrina. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-17, Alondra-S-46

  10. Polimento de restaurações com amálgama: uma técnica alternativa utilizando jato de óxido de alumínio Polishing of amalgam restorations: an alternative technique using air abrasion

    OpenAIRE

    Mondelli, José; Rogério Fulgêncio PINHEIRO; Lincoln Dias LANZA

    1998-01-01

    O polimento das restaurações com amálgama fornece uma superfície final mais lisa, diminuindo a quantidade de porosidades e favorecendo a resposta dos tecidos periodontais, aumentando, deste modo, sua longevidade. Desta forma, várias técnicas têm sido descritas, visando contribuir para a melhor qualidade das restaurações. Recentemente, a tecnologia do jateamento com óxido de alumínio tem sido difundida na clínica odontológica e, assim, os autores descrevem uma técnica alternativa de acabamento...

  11. Tolerância ao alumínio em cultivares de aveia branca sob cultivo hidropônico Tolerance to the aluminum in oat cultivars under hydroponic culture

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    José Antonio Gonzalez da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O emprego do cultivo hidropônico para avaliar a tolerância à toxicidade pelo alumínio em genótipos de aveia pode ser feito por meio da medida da retomada do crescimento de raiz. Avaliaram-se 12 cultivares de aveia branca indicadas para o cultivo no Sul do Brasil com o intuito de caracterizar a tolerância ao alumínio, de maneira a ser estrategicamente recomendadas e/ou incluídas em blocos de cruzamento na obtenção de constituições genéticas de elevado potencial produtivo e tolerante ao íon metálico. Foram utilizadas doses de 10, 15 e 20 mg L-1 de alumínio na solução hidropônica e o delineamento experimental adotado foi o completamente casualizado, com três repetições, seguindo o esquema fatorial (12 x 3. As doses empregadas são altamente eficientes na identificação de genótipos de aveia tolerantes e sensíveis ao alumínio tóxico. As cultivares UPF 16, URS 21, UFRGS 14, UPF 19 e UFRGS 17 expressam tolerância.The use of hidroponic culture to evaluate tolerance to aluminum toxicity in oat genotypes can be performed by measuring root regrowth, allowing phenotypically to discriminate tolerant genetic constitutions sensitivity. Twelve white oat cultivars indicated for cultivation in Southern Brazil were evaluated aiming at to characterize their aluminum tolerance, in order to use them as parents in crosses or to recommend them for in cultivation regions. Aluminum concentration of 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 were used in the hydroponic solution arranged in complete randomized blocks with three replications in 12 x 3 factorial designs. Concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg L-1 were highly efficient for the identification of tolerant and sensitive oat genotypes. Cultivars UPF 16, URS 21, UFRGS 14, UPF 19 and UFRGS 17 showed aluminum.

  12. Avaliação da influência do ferro e alumínio sobre o crescimento e produção de toxinas por cianobactérias em cultura mista

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Ana Ellen Octávio

    2009-01-01

    Na presente dissertação foram investigados os efeitos de dois metais, ferro e alumínio, sobre o crescimento e produção de toxinas por cianobactérias, em culturas mistas, ricas em Microcystis aeruginosa. Florescências tóxicas desta cianobactéria são conhecidas por ocorrer em lagos, albufeiras e rios por todo o mundo. As microcistinas, toxinas produzidas por esta espécie, são as mais comummente detectadas, e já mostraram ser tóxicas para mamíferos, peixes e invertebrados. O ferro é bem co...

  13. Avaliação do efeito tóxico de sulfato de alumínio e sulfato de cobre em bioensaio de contaminação subcrônica via trófica no bioindicador Rhamdia quelen (Siluriforme)

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Paula Moiana da, 1978-

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: O cobre é um elemento essencial para a atividade de diversas enzimas biológicas, mas em doses altas é considerado altamente tóxico às algas, fungos, sementes de plantas e invertebrados, e moderadamente tóxico aos mamíferos. Relata-se, especialmente, sua toxicidade a invertebrados marinhos e de água doce. O alumínio está presente em pequenas quantidades nos organismos vivos, mas é abundante no ambiente. Entretanto, estudos mostram que o aumento do alumínio dissolvido na água causa dano...

  14. Experimental Research on Roasting-Water Leaching-Crystallization Process to Produce Alumina and Potassium Sulfate from Alum%明矾制备氧化铝和硫酸钾的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞永

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using alum as raw materials, and the roasting - water leaching - crystallization process were carried out to produce alumina and potassium sulfate. The factors impact on the quality and recoveries of alumina were studied, such as the roasting temperature and time, leaching temperature, time and liquid solid ratio of alum calcine, etc. In the optimum conditions, the experiment results showed that recoveries of alumina and potassium sulfate were more than 90% , and the chemical composition of α - alumina and potassium sulfate prepared in laboratory respectively conform the GB/T 24487 -2009( AO -3)and GB 20406 -2006's requirements.%以明矾为原料,采用焙烧—浸出—结晶的工艺路线制备氧化铝和硫酸钾,研究了明矾焙烧过程温度、时间及明矾焙砂浸出温度、时间、液固比等因素对氧化铝产品质量及回收率的影响.优化工艺条件下试验结果表明,氧化铝和硫酸钾的回收率均在90%以上,得到的α-氧化铝、硫酸钾化学成分分别符合GB/T 24487-2009(AO-3)、GB 20406-2006的要求.

  15. Polimento de restaurações com amálgama: uma técnica alternativa utilizando jato de óxido de alumínio Polishing of amalgam restorations: an alternative technique using air abrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José MONDELLI

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O polimento das restaurações com amálgama fornece uma superfície final mais lisa, diminuindo a quantidade de porosidades e favorecendo a resposta dos tecidos periodontais, aumentando, deste modo, sua longevidade. Desta forma, várias técnicas têm sido descritas, visando contribuir para a melhor qualidade das restaurações. Recentemente, a tecnologia do jateamento com óxido de alumínio tem sido difundida na clínica odontológica e, assim, os autores descrevem uma técnica alternativa de acabamento e polimento de restaurações com amálgama, utilizando o jato de óxido de alumínio, que permite obter clinicamente boas condições de lisura superficial.Polishing amalgam restorations results in a smoother surface, reducing the presence of porosities, favouring a good response of periodontal tissues and thus increasing the longevity of those restorations. Therefore, several techniques have been described in order to contribute to higher quality restorations. Recently, sandblasting devices have been introduced in dental practice and the authors describe an alternative technique for finishing and polishing amalgam restorations using sandblasting, which results in clinically adequate superficial characteristics.

  16. Tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio de linhagens e híbridos de milho em solução nutritiva Aluminium toxicity tolerance of maize inbred lines and hybrids evaluated in nutrient solution

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    Maria Elisa Ayres Guidetti Zagatto Paterniani

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dez linhagens de milho do programa de melhoramento do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, em cruzamentos dialélicos e os 45 híbridos resultantes quanto à tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio em laboratório. Estimou-se a tolerância pelo comprimento líquido da radícula (CLR de plântulas em solução nutritiva contendo 4,5 mg.L-1 de alumínio, em ensaio sob delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, utilizando-se como padrões linhagens sensível e tolerante de IAC Taiúba. Apresentam-se, ainda, resultados da produtividade desses cruzamentos em ensaios de campo. Identificaram-se linhagens que constituem fontes de tolerância (L 06 e L 09 e híbridos tolerantes à toxicidade de alumínio com elevada produtividade em solos corrigidos. Na análise dialélica, o desdobramento dos efeitos de tratamentos, em capacidade geral (CGC e específica (CEC de combinação, indicou a predominância de efeitos aditivos na manifestação da tolerância ao alumínio tóxico. Obtiveram-se elevados valores de heterose, indicando a existência de interações não alélicas na manifestação do CLR. O híbrido HS 10X11 (denominado IAC 21 aliou alta produtividade e tolerância ao alumínio, apresentando a maior estimativa da CEC para CLR.Ten inbred lines and the resulting forty-five hybrids from the maize IAC breeding program were evaluated for Al tolerance by the nutrient solution technique. Net radicle lengths (CLR of plants grown with 4.5 mg.L-1 were used to estimate Al tolerance. The experimental design was randomized complete block with four replications, and it was used two divergent inbred lines IAC Taiuba as control for Al tolerance and sensitivity, respectively. In addition to these data, it is shown also the grain yield of the same materials from field plots. It was identified two inbred lines (L 06 and L 09 as Al tolerance sources and hybrids potentially adapted to acid soil conditions (tolerant to Al toxicity

  17. O pH das soluções nutritivas no comportamento de cultivares de trigo à toxicidade de alumínio Effect of pH in nutrient solution on tolerance to aluminum toxicity in wheat cultivars

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados nove cultivares de trigo em soluções nutritivas contendo quatro níveis de alumínio (0, 5, 10 e 20mg/litro combinados com três níveis de pH (4,0, 5,0 e 6,0. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após um período de permanência de 48 horas em solução contendo determinados níveis de pH e de alumínio. Os cultivares BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-13 e C-3 foram tolerantes; IAC-17 e Alondra-4546 foram moderadamente tolerantes, e Síete Cerros, Super-x e CNT-8 foram sensíveis à presença de quantidades crescentes de Al3+ nas soluções de tratamentos quando foi mantido o pH 4,0. Todos os cultivares foram tolerantes às dosagens de alumínio estudadas quando foram mantidos os níveis de pH 5,0 ou 6,0. Ficou confirmado que um controle rigoroso do pH da solução tratamento é um fator de grande importância no estudo da toxicidade do alumínio a diferentes cultivares de trigo.The aluminum tolerance of nine wheat cultivars was studied in nutrient solutions using three different levels of pH combined with four different concentrations of this element. The tolerance was evaluated by measuring the root growth in an aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a previous treatment in aluminum added solutions (0, 5, 10 and 20mg/l under a particular pH (4.0, 5.0 and 6.0. The wheat cultivars BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-13 and C-3 presented tolerance, IAC-17 and Alondra-4546 showed moderate tolerance and Siete Cerros, Super-x and CNT-8 were sensitive to the presence of increasing concentrations of Al3+ in the treatment solution under pH 4.0. All cultivars were tolerant to the different concentrations of aluminum under pH 5.0 and 6.0. The aluminum toxicity symptom (inhibition of root growth was dependent on the pH and the amount of aluminum in the treatment solution. For the same level of aluminum, toxicity symptoms increased, when the pH decreased in the solution from 6

  18. Fluoride and aluminum in teas and tea-based beverages Flúor e alumínio em chás e bebidas à base de chás

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    Mitsue Fujimaki Hayacibara

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fluoride and aluminum concentration in herbal, black, ready-to-drink, and imported teas available in Brazil considering the risks fluoride and aluminum pose to oral and general health, respectively. METHODS: One-hundred and seventy-seven samples of herbal and black tea, 11 types of imported tea and 21 samples of ready-to-drink tea were divided into four groups: I-herbal tea; II-Brazilian black tea (Camellia sinensis; III-imported tea (Camellia sinensis; IV-ready-to-drink tea-based beverages. Fluoride and aluminum were analyzed using ion-selective electrode and atomic absorption, respectively. RESULTS: Fluoride and aluminum levels in herbal teas were very low, but high amounts were found in black and ready-to-drink teas. Aluminum found in all samples analyzed can be considered safe to general health. However, considering 0.07 mg F/kg/day as the upper limit of fluoride intake with regard to undesirable dental fluorosis, some teas exceed the daily intake limit for children. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian and imported teas made from Camellia sinensis as well as some tea-based beverages are sources of significant amounts of fluoride, and their intake may increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as concentrações de flúor e alumínio em chás brasileiros de ervas, preto e bebidas a base de chá, como em chás preto importados considerando seus riscos para, respectivamente, a saúde oral e geral. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 177 amostras de chá de ervas e chá preto, 11 tipos de chá preto importados e 21 amostras de bebidas à base de chá. Flúor e alumínio foram determinados após infusão dos chás de ervas e pretos. As determinações de flúor e alumínio foram feitas por eletrodo específico e absorção atômica, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: A quantidade de flúor e alumínio encontrada nos chás de erva foi muito baixa, mas foi alta nos chás preto e nas bebidas à base de chá. A quantidade de alum

  19. Associated mechanisms of aluminum tolerance in plants/ Mecanismos associados à tolerância ao alumínio em plantas

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    Cecília Estima Sacramento dos Reis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is one of the major limiting factor regarding plant development in acid soils. The use of liming for correcting soil pH is not viable for some of acid soil areas (technique or economic reasons, making the development of Al tolerant genotypes the best alternative. Thus, the tolerance mechanisms as well as the genetic basis of Al tolerance has deserved special attention in the scientific community. In the last years, a significant progress has been achieved towards these goals, as well as in developing cultivars adapted to acid soils. The Al tolerance mechanisms are divided basically in two classes: the exclusion mechanisms that act after absorption or blocking its entry in the root system and those involved in detoxification, complexing the Al in specific organelles, mainly in the vacuoles. In many species, physiological mechanisms have been reported as responsible for the activation of organic acids (mainly citrate and malate that act as Al quelating agents, however many process are not yet understood and cleared. Currently, the basis for the internal detoxification is becoming clear through organic acid complexes and there sequestering by the vacuoles. Other potential mechanisms are the target for discussions.A toxicidade do alumínio é um dos principais fatores limitantes do desenvolvimento das plantas em solos ácidos. Pelo fato da utilização de corretivos da acidez do solo não ser a estratégia mais viável em muitas situações com solos ácidos (por razões técnicas e econômicas, o desenvolvimento de genótipos tolerantes ao Al tem sido o caminho mais focado, assim a investigação dos mecanismos de tolerância bem como as bases genéticas da tolerância ao Al têm merecido atenção especial pela pesquisa científica. Nos últimos anos, foi gerado um significativo progresso no entendimento das bases dos mecanismos de tolerância ao Al, assim como no desenvolvimento de cultivares mais adaptados as condições de

  20. Níveis de alumínio e acúmulo de macronutrientes em porta-enxertos cítricos em cultivo hidropônico Aluminum levels and macronutrient accumulation in citrus rootstocks in hydroponic solution

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    Carlos Henrique dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência de diferentes níveis de alumínio no acúmulo de macronutrientes pelos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro Cravo e citrumeleiro Swingle, sob cultivo hidropônico. Os tratamentos utilizados em condições de casa de vegetação seguiram o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com 3 repetições, em parcelas subdivididas. Os níveis de alumínio utilizados foram: 0, 7,5, 15, 22,5 e 30 mg L-1, na forma de AlCl3.6 H2O. Determinaram-se o acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e do Al da matéria seca vegetal, relacionando-os com os pesos da matéria seca da parte aérea (folhas e caule e raízes durante o período de 84 dias, com coletas de plantas a cada 14 dias. Conclui-se que, com adição a partir de 7,5 mg L-1 de alumínio em solução nutritiva ocorreram alterações fisiológicas e reduções significativas no acúmulo de macronutrientes associado à redução nos pesos da matéria seca das folhas, caule e raízes das plantas de citrumelo Swingle.The aim of this research was to study the influence of different levels of aluminum on macronutrient contents of citrus rootstocks of the `Rangpur' lime and the `Swingle' citrumelo, in hydroponic solution. The treatments, established under greenhouse conditions, followed a completely randomized experimental design, with 3 replications, distributed in split-plots. The levels of aluminum were: 0; 7.5; 15; 22.5 and 30 mg L-1, applied as AlCl3.6 H2O. The evaluated chemical plant parameters were the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Al and dry weight of leaves, stem and root system. The results showed that with adition of 7.5 mg L-1 of Al to the nutrient solution there was a significant decrese of nutrient contents and a decrese in leave, stem and root system dry weight of `Swingle' citrumelo.

  1. Ação da cinetina, ácido indolbutírico e ácido giberélico na emergência do girassol sob estresse por alumínio

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    Carlos Alan Couto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a ação do bioestimulante vegetal Stimulate® (0,009% de cinetina, 0,005% de ácido indolbutírico e 0,005% de ácido giberélico na emergência de plântulas de girassol (Helianthus annuus L., em condições de estresse por alumínio. Utilizou-se tricloreto de alumínio, AlCl3, na concentração de 4 mg L-1 e o bioestimulante vegetal Stimulate® nas concentrações: 0,5, 2,0, 3,5 e 5,0 mL L-1 e como controle água. As sementes de girassol da variedade BR 122 foram pré-embebidas nas soluções (tratamentos por 4 horas e em seguida semeadas em bandejas contendo areia lavada. Foram utilizados 200 sementes para cada tratamento em 4 repetições de 50 sementes cada. A solução contendo 4 mg L-1 de Al+3, foi ajustada para o pH 4,5 e em seguida irrigou-se todas as bandejas, inclusive o controle, até atingir 60% de saturação hídrica. Aos três dias após a semeadura (3 DAS, foi avaliada a porcentagem de plântulas emergidas no primeiro dia (PEM1. Quando ocorreu a estabilidade da emergência, aos 13 DAS, foi avaliado o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições e os dados submetidos à análise de variância e estudo de regressão polinomial. A pré-embebição de sementes de girassol com bioestimulante vegetal promove aumento significativo no início da emergência de plântulas de girassol em condições de estresse com alumínio

  2. Experimental Research: Poly-Alum Coagulant's Effect on Residual Aluminum in Water%聚合铝类混凝剂及混凝条件对余铝的影响试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 崔福义

    2001-01-01

    通过一系列试验,分析了聚合铝类混凝剂蝗性能、投药量及混凝条件等因素对余铝的影响,并进一步分析了余浊与余铝的相关性,为生产上控制水中余铝提供了参考依据。%The influencing factors related to poly-alum coagulant application on the residual aluminum in water were researched by series of experiments. The characters of the coagulant, chemical dosage level and coagulating condition were included. Furthermore the correlation between residual turbidity and aluminum was discussed. The results of this research might be helpful to control the residual aluminum in output water in practical operation.

  3. Tendência à hidratação do pó de alumínio em concretos refratários contendo elevado teor de carbono Hydration of aluminum powder in high-carbon containing refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Domiciano

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios proporcionados pela adição de carbono em concretos refratários têm ampliado a utilização desses materiais em aplicações siderúrgicas. Contudo, um problema inerente à utilização de carbono em refratários é a sua susceptibilidade à oxidação a temperaturas superiores a 600 °C. Uma das alternativas empregada na tentativa de controlar a oxidação do carbono é o uso de antioxidantes. Dentre eles, o pó de alumínio tem mostrado bons resultados em tijolos refratários contendo carbono. Porém, sua aplicação em concretos refratários é limitada pela forte tendência que o pó de alumínio apresenta em se hidratar. Algumas técnicas de recobrimento baseadas no processo Sol-Gel têm sido empregadas como forma de impedir a reação de hidratação do pó de alumínio quando em água. Entretanto, a eficiência destes recobrimentos ainda não foi avaliada em concretos refratários. O presente trabalho se propõe a avaliar a eficiência de recobrimentos à base de SiO2 ou TiO2 em inibir a reação de hidratação do pó de alumínio em condições reais de aplicação. Estes recobrimentos foram obtidos a partir de alcóxidos metálicos e um polímero reativo fazendo uso do método Sol-Gel.The benefits promoted by the addition of carbon in refractory castables resulted the increase use of these materials in steel making industry. Nevertheless, carbon-containing refractory castables faces the problem of oxidation at temperatures above 600°C. One of the alternatives to overcome this drawback is the use of antioxidants. Among them, aluminum powder has shown good results in carbon containing refractory bricks. However, its application in refractory castables is restricted by the strong tendency of aluminum powder to react with water. Some surface treatments, based on Sol-Gel process, have been employed to generate an oxide coating in order to inhibit the hydration reaction when aluminum is exposed to water. However, the

  4. Dissimilaridade genética entre genótipos de trigo avaliados em cultivo hidropônico sob estresse por alumínio Genetic dissimilarity among wheat genotypes evaluated in hydroponic culture under aluminum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivandro Bertan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da distância genética entre genótipos é importante ferramenta utilizada na escolha de genitores que vão dar origem às populações segregantes. Essa informação serve como parâmetro para indicação de cruzamentos que possibilitem recuperar recombinantes superiores para o caráter desejado. O principal objetivo do estudo foi promover informações de dissimilaridade genética para o caráter tolerância ao alumínio tóxico em genótipos de trigo da Região Sul do Brasil, avaliados em cultivo hidropônico sob estresse por alumínio em nível tóxico, utilizando diferentes técnicas de agrupamento e visualização gráfica. Entre os 23 genótipos testados, foi constatada a presença de variabilidade genética para tolerância ao alumínio, verificada pela formação de diferentes classes na média das variáveis consideradas bem como agrupamentos distintos. As técnicas de agrupamento e dispersão gráfica utilizadas juntamente com a comparação de médias permitiram identificar de modo eficiente os genótipos promissores na formação de populações segregantes superiores para o caráter estudado. Os genótipos ICAT 01338, ICAT 011, ICA 2, ICA 5, CD 106, CEP 24, CD 103, CD 105, IPR 85, IPR 110 e ICAT 012 são indicados para cruzamentos na expectativa de incremento de tolerância ao alumínio nas progênies formadas.The quantification of genetic distance among genotypes is an important tool for the choice of parents originating the segregating populations. This information serves as a parameter for directing crosses that increase the probability of recover superior recombinants for the desired character. The main object of this study was to provide information recording the genetic dissimilarity for the character tolerance to toxic aluminum in wheat genotypes from the Southern Region of Brazil, evaluated in hydroponic culture under aluminum stress, using different clustering and graphic techniques. It was observed the

  5. Interação da deficiência hídrica e da toxicidade do alumínio em guandu cultivado em hidroponia Interaction of water stress and aluminum toxicity in pigeon pea cultivated in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adão Marin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da interação da deficiência hídrica e da toxicidade do alumínio no crescimento inicial e teores de prolina livre em duas cultivares de guandu, IAPAR 43-Aratã e IAC Fava Larga, cultivadas em hidroponia. As plântulas foram submetidas aos estresses em solução nutritiva (pH 3,8, nos potenciais osmóticos de 0, -0,004, -0,006, -0,008 e -0,010 MPa, com 0, 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 e 1 mmol dm-3 de Al3+. O experimento foi conduzido em sala de crescimento, sob luminária com irradiância média de 190 mmol m-2 s-1 , fotoperíodo de 12 horas e temperatura de 25+1ºC. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2x5x5 (duas cultivares de guandu, cinco potenciais osmóticos e cinco níveis de alumínio, com quatro repetições. Os dados foram submetidos às análises de regressão polinomial, agrupamento e componentes principais. A deficiência hídrica causa redução do crescimento da parte aérea do guandu, e a toxicidade do alumínio provoca diminuição do crescimento radicular. Houve aumento nos teores de prolina livre nas duas cultivares sob deficiência hídrica, e apenas na IAC Fava Larga sob toxicidade de alumínio. Na análise multivariada, foi observada alta correlação no crescimento e no acúmulo de prolina na cultivar IAC Fava Larga, o que evidencia provável tolerância aos estresses associados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the interaction effect of water stress and aluminum toxicity on the initial growth and free proline contents in two cultivars of pigeon pea, IAPAR 43-Aratã and IAC Fava Larga, cultivated in hydroponics. The seedlings were submitted to stresses in nutritive solution (pH 3.8, osmotic potentials 0, -0.004, -0.006, -0.008 and -0.010 MPa, with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 mmol dm-3 Al3+ . The experiment was carried out in a plant growth room, under a luminary unit of average irradiance 190 mmol m-2 s-1 , 12-hour photoperiod and 25+1º

  6. Immunization with the Haemophilus ducreyi trimeric autotransporter adhesin DsrA with alum, CpG or imiquimod generates a persistent humoral immune response that recognizes the bacterial surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samo, Melissa; Choudhary, Neelima R; Riebe, Kristina J; Shterev, Ivo; Staats, Herman F; Sempowski, Gregory D; Leduc, Isabelle

    2016-02-24

    The Ducreyi serum resistance A (DsrA) protein of Haemophilus ducreyi belongs to a large family of multifunctional outer membrane proteins termed trimeric autotransporter adhesins responsible for resistance to the bactericidal activity of human complement (serum resistance), agglutination and adhesion. The ability of DsrA to confer serum resistance and bind extracellular matrix proteins lies in its N-terminal passenger domain. We have previously reported that immunization with a recombinant form of the passenger domain of DsrA, rNT-DsrA, in complete/incomplete Freund's adjuvant, protects against a homologous challenge in swine. We present herein the results of an immunogenicity study in mice aimed at investigating the persistence, type of immune response, and the effect of immunization route and adjuvants on surrogates of protection. Our results indicate that a 20 μg dose of rNT-DsrA administered with alum elicited antisera with comparable bacterial surface reactivity to that obtained with complete/incomplete Freund's adjuvant. At that dose, high titers and bacterial surface reactivity persisted for 211 days after the first immunization. Administration of rNT-DsrA with CpG or imiquimod as adjuvants elicited a humoral response with similar quantity and quality of antibodies (Abs) as seen with Freund's adjuvant. Furthermore, intramuscular administration of rNT-DsrA elicited high-titer Abs with significantly higher reactivity to the bacterial surface than those obtained with subcutaneous immunization. All rNT-DsrA/adjuvant combinations tested, save CpG, elicited a Th2-type response. Taken together, these findings show that a 20 μg dose of rNT-DsrA administered with the adjuvants alum, CpG or imiquimod elicits high-quality Abs with reactivity to the bacterial surface that could protect against an H. ducreyi infection. PMID:26812077

  7. Absorção, translocação e utilização de fósforo por variedades de trigo submetidas à toxidez de alumínio Phosphorus uptake, translocation and utilization in wheat varieties under aluminum toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Abichequer

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Variedades de trigo tolerantes ao alumínio podem ser mais eficientes no aproveitamento de fósforo na presença desse elemento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do alumínio em variedades de trigo Toropi, considerada eficiente, e CNT 8, ineficiente quanto ao aproveitamento de fósforo. Realizou-se um experimento em 1994, em casa de vegetação, em vasos que continham solução nutritiva com duas concentrações de fósforo (1,6 e 32,3 µmol L-1 e duas de alumínio (0,0 e 37,0 µmol L-1. Após 31 dias de cultivo, foram avaliados a morfologia das raízes e o aproveitamento do fósforo. As raízes da variedade de trigo Toropi foram menos afetadas do que as da CNT 8 pelo alumínio; no entanto, não houve relação da absorção de fósforo com o comprimento, raio médio e superfície do sistema radicular. A presença de alumínio aumentou a diferença entre as variedades Toropi e CNT 8 quanto à eficiência de absorção, translocação e utilização de fósforo, com vantagem para a primeira, que é mais tolerante ao alumínio.Aluminum tolerant wheat varieties can present increased efficiency of phosphorus use in presence of aluminum. A greenhouse experiment was conducted in 1994 to compare the wheat cultivars (Toropi and (CNT 8, considered efficient and inefficient, respectively, in relation to phosphorus use. Nutrient solutions containing two phosphorus (1.6 and 32.3 µmol L-1 and two aluminum (0.0 and 37.0 µmol L-1 concentrations were tested. Root morphology and phosphate use were established for the plants, which were harvested from the pots on the 31th day. Roots of the Toropi cultivar were less affected by aluminum than CNT 8; there was no relationship, however, between phosphorus uptake and root length, radius or surface. The presence of aluminum increased the difference between Toropi and CNT 8 in their efficiency of phosphorus uptake, translocation and utilization. Toropi, which is more tolerant towards aluminum

  8. Tolerância de cultivares de arroz a diferentes níveis de alumínio em solução nutritiva Rice cultivars tolerance to different levels of aluminum in nutrient solution

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Em condições controladas de crescimento, foram estudados 22 cultivares de arroz, em soluções nutritivas com temperaturas de 25 ± 1°C e 30 ± 1°C, com cinco diferentes níveis de alumínio, em recipientes de 8,3 litros com 330 plântulas por recipiente. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuar a crescer, em solução sem alumínio, após um período de 72 horas em solução contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio. Nas soluções nutritivas com temperatura de 25 ± 1°C, os cultivares IAC-899 e IR-841 foram sensíveis a 10mg/litro de Al3+; IR-43, IR-45 e IR-8, foram sensíveis a 20mg/litro de Al3+; CICA-4 e IR-42, a 40mg/litro de Al3+, e IAC-435, IAC-164, Pérola, Batatais, Pratão Precoce, Blue Bonnet, IAC-120, IAC-47, IAC-1246, IAC-25, IAC-165, Pratão, Dourado Precoce e CICA-8 foram tolerantes a 40mg/litro de Al3+. Quando foram utilizadas soluções nutritivas com temperatura de 30 ± 1°C, todos os cultivares de arroz estudados apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento radicular do que a 25 ± 1°C e se mostraram tolerantes a 5, 10 e 20mg/litro de Al3+. Com a concentração de 40mg/litro de Al3+, os cultivares Dourado Precoce, CICA-4, IR-42, IR-43, IR-45, IR-8, IAC-899, IR-665-4-5-5 e IR-841 foram sensíveis; IAC-47, Blue Bonnet, IAC-1246, IAC-164, Pratão, Pratão Precoce, CICA-8, IAC-435, IAC-120, IAC-25, IAC-165, Pérola e Batatais, tolerantes. A presença do alumínio nas soluções nutritivas foi prejudicial a todos os cultivares tolerantes e sensíveis. Os dados obtidos permitiram classificar os cultivares estudados nas seguintes classes de tolerância ao alumínio: tolerantes: IAC-435, IAC-120, IAC-47, IAC-1246, IAC-25, IAC-165, IAC-164, Pérola, Batatais, Pratão Precoce, Blue Bonnet; moderadamente tolerantes: Pratão, Dourado Precoce e CICA-8, e sensíveis: CICA-4, IR-42, IR-43, IR-45, IR-8, IAC-899, IR-665-4-5-5 e IR-841.Twenty two rice cultivars were studied in nutrient solution in

  9. Efeito dos parâmetros de processo na obtenção e na microestrutura de juntas alumínio-aço realizadas mediante soldagem por atrito com pino não consumível (SAPNC)

    OpenAIRE

    Edwar Andrés Torres López; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2013-01-01

    Os resultados bem-sucedidos apresentados na literatura acerca da soldagem por atrito com pino não consumível das juntas alumínio-aço, desconsideram o aspecto e formação de defeitos na junta como pontos de referência para sua avaliação. Igualmente aumenta a controvérsia acerca da presença de compostos intermetálicos do tipo Fe xAl y, somado à falta de informação sobre sua origem. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar parâmetros adequados para a obtenção de juntas alumínio-aço livres de defeit...

  10. Obtenção de mulita porosa a partir da sílica da casca de arroz e do acetato de alumínio Porous mullite obtained using silica from rice husk and aluminum acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Menezes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O grande volume de produção de arroz no mundo gera uma enorme quantidade de rejeito na forma de cascas e de cinzas oriundas da queima da casca. Esses resíduos são fontes de poluição e contaminação, podendo agredir diretamente a saúde da população. Assim, esse trabalho tem por objetivo a obtenção de mulita porosa a partir da sílica da casca de arroz e do acetato de alumínio. O resíduo foi física e quimicamente caracterizado e em seguida misturado com acetato de alumínio para a produção do precursor da mulita. O material precursor foi caracterizado termicamente e com base nos resultados foi calcinado a 850 ºC e 1200 ºC. Os corpos de prova foram queimados a 1500 ºC e 1600 ºC e caracterizados pela determinação de sua porosidade aparente, absorção de água e densidade aparente e por difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados indicaram que a sílica é constituída por material amorfo e aglomerados micrométricos de partículas submicrométricas e nanométricas. Com base nos resultados conclui-se que a sílica obtida da casca de arroz e o acetato de alumínio podem ser utilizados com sucesso para a produção de corpos mulíticos porosos com porosidades superiores a 48%.The production of rice around the world generates large amounts of waste in the form of husks and ashes from husks burning, which are sources of environmental contamination and pollution. The aim of this work was obtain porous mullite bodies using the silica from the rice husk and aluminum acetate. The waste material was physically and chemically characterized. The mullite precursor was produced mixing the waste and aluminum acetate. The thermal behavior of mullite precursor was described. The precursor was fired at 850 ºC and 1200 ºC and sample bodies were sintered at 1500 and 1600 ºC. Sintered samples were characterized to determine their apparent porosity, water absorption, apparent density, and microstructurally

  11. Aditivos de secagem para concretos refratários: pó de alumínio e fibras poliméricas Drying additives for refractory castables: aluminum powder and polymeric fibers

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    R. Salomão

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Concretos refratários são usualmente materiais de baixas porosidade e permeabilidade. Devido a isso, a retirada da água adicionada às formulações durante a mistura deve ser feita de modo cuidadoso para minimizar os riscos de explosão e danos mecânicos envolvidos. Por outro lado, a crescente utilização de concretos refratários em revestimentos de calcinadores para a indústria de alumínio e o período de lucro cessante durante essa etapa do processamento desses materiais indica que programas de aquecimento otimizados possam se tornar um importante diferencial competitivo para as empresas. Na tentativa de conciliar esses aspectos, aditivos para facilitar o processo de secagem e torná-lo mais seguro foram desenvolvidos. Entre os principais, destacam-se o pó de alumínio, as fibras poliméricas convencionais e as de alto desempenho. Neste trabalho, são apresentados seus mecanismos de atuação e comparações em relação às condições que otimizam seu desempenho.Refractory castables are low porosity and permeability materials. Due to this, the first heat up must be carried out in a careful way in order to avoid the risks of explosive spalling and mechanical damages during the water withdrawn. On the other hand, the growing use of refractory castables in the aluminum industry, as calciners lining, and the lack of production during their placement indicate that optimized heating schedules may become an important competitive advantage to the companies. In order to join these two aspects, additives to easy the drying process and to make it safer were developed. These drying additives behave, generally, increasing the castable permeability in a more controlled way. The most important ones are the aluminum powder and the polymeric fibers. In the present work, their mechanisms and the most suitable processing condition for their use are presented.

  12. Tolerância de genótipos de cereais de inverno ao alumínio em cultivo hidropônico e em campo Tolerance of small graine cereal genotypes to aluminum on hydroponic and field cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Portaluppi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a capacidade de crescimento radicular de 75 genótipos de cereais de inverno em cultivo hidropônico, em diferentes concentrações de alumínio, avaliar a relação entre o grau de tolerância/sensibilidade, em solução hidropônica, e a resistência/suscetibilidade ao crestamento em campo. Os cereais cevada, triticale, centeio, trigo e Aegilops tauschii foram avaliados em hidroponia, com concentrações de Al3+ que variaram entre 0,5 (cevada, 2 e 6 (triticale, 6 e 10 (centeio e 2 mg L-1 (trigo e Ae. tauschii. Os delineamentos experimentais foram inteiramente casualizados. Em campo, foram avaliados os mesmos genótipos, exceto Ae. tauschii, em solo com pH 4,4 e 4,85, corrigido a 1/2 e 1/4 do índice SMP. Utilizou-se uma escala de notas com variação de escores de 0,5 (altamente resistente a 5 (altamente suscetível. Foi observada elevada relação entre a tolerância ao alumínio em hidroponia e a resistência ao crestamento em campo. A seleção de cereais em meio hidropônico pode ser considerada eficiente como ferramenta de apoio aos programas de melhoramento genético para essa característica.The objective of this work was to determine the root growth capacity of 75 genotypes of small graine cereals in hydroponic culture under different aluminum concentrations, and to assess the relationship betwen the level of tolerance/sensitivity in hydroponic solution and the resistance/susceptibility index in the field. Barley, triticale, rye, wheat and Aegilops tauschii were evaluated in hydroponics, with Al3+ concentrations that varied between 0.5 (barley, 2 and 6 (triticale, 6 and 10 (rye and 2 mg L-1 (wheat and Ae. tauschii. The experiments' designs were completely randomized. In the field trial, the same genotypes were assessed, except for Ae. tauschii, in soil with pH 4.4 and 4.85 adjusted to 1/2 and 1/4 of the SMP index. A score scale ranging from 0.5 (highly resistant to 5 (highly susceptible was used

  13. Efeito dos parâmetros de processo na obtenção e na microestrutura de juntas alumínio-aço realizadas mediante soldagem por atrito com pino não consumível (SAPNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwar Andrés Torres López

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados bem-sucedidos apresentados na literatura acerca da soldagem por atrito com pino não consumível das juntas alumínio-aço, desconsideram o aspecto e formação de defeitos na junta como pontos de referência para sua avaliação. Igualmente aumenta a controvérsia acerca da presença de compostos intermetálicos do tipo Fe xAl y, somado à falta de informação sobre sua origem. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar parâmetros adequados para a obtenção de juntas alumínio-aço livres de defeitos e sua relação com a formação de fases deletérias durante a soldagem por atrito com pino. Foram obtidas juntas soldadas consolidadas e foi determinada a microestrutura resultante destas juntas soldadas da liga de alumínio 6063-T5 e aço AISI SAE 1020. Utilizou-se uma ferramenta de carbeto de tungstênio (WC-14Co a velocidades de rotação e de avanço de 300 rpm e 150 mm.min-1, respectivamente. Foram empregados deslocamentos da ferramenta de +0,5; +1,0 e +1,5 mm. Os resultados realçam a importância do aporte energético na obtenção de juntas alumínio-aço com aspecto superficial e penetração adequados. A análise microestrutural revela a formação de sete regiões na junta soldada, destacando a zona termo-mecanicamente afetada no lado do aço, uma banda de grãos ultra finos de ferrita e a ausência de compostos intermetálicos na interface alumínio-aço.

  14. Reação de genótipos de soja ao alumínio em hidroponia e no solo Soybean genotypes reaction to aluminium in hydroponics and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os genótipos de soja BR86-5974, BR86-7396, Dourados, Doko RC, EMGOPA 305, IAC-9, BR-9 (Savana, UFV-1, UFV-9 e UFV Araguaia em relação à tolerância ao alumínio (Al em hidroponia e em solo. Na solução com Al foi medido o comprimento radicular. Em solo com 49% de saturação de Al avaliou-se área foliar, altura de planta, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, produção de matéria seca, produção de grãos e índice de colheita. Os genótipos BR86-7396 e IAC-9 são os de maior tolerância ao Al, e UFV-1 mostrou o pior desempenho. Houve correlação significativa entre alongamento radicular e produção de grãos (r = 0,705, área foliar (r = 0,645 e produção de matéria seca (r = 0,634. Isto indica que experimentos em hidroponia e solo são igualmente eficientes na seleção de soja tolerante ao alumínio. A variabilidade detectada sugere que o conjunto de genótipos de soja possui ampla variabilidade genética, o que é desejável em programas de melhoramento com o objetivo de elevar estabilidade de produção no Cerrado.The soybean genotypes BR86-5974, BR86-7396, Dourados, Doko RC, EMGOPA 305, IAC-9, BR-9 (Savana, UFV-1, UFV-9 e UFV Araguaia were evaluated for Al tolerance in simple-short term nutrient solution and in soil. Root elongation was measured in the nutrient solution, and the following agronomic characters were measured for the soil evaluation of tolerance: leaf area, plant height, first pod height, dry matter, grain yield and harvest index. The soil was partly amended with lime to leave 49% Al saturation. The most tolerant genotypes in both experiments were BR86-7396 and IAC-9; UFV-1 was shown to be the most intolerant. A positive correlation coefficient of root elongation and field parameters of grain (r = 0.705, dry matter yield (r = 0.634 and leaf area (r = 0.645 indicate that short term hydroponics and field experiments are equally effective in screening Al-tolerant soybean

  15. Effectiveness of Arsenite Adsorption by Ferric and Alum Water Treatment Residuals with Different Grain Sizes%不同粒径铁铝泥对砷(Ⅲ)的吸附效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林璐; 胥嘉瑞; 吴昊; 王昌辉; 裴元生

    2013-01-01

    以给水处理厂废弃铁铝泥(ferric and alum water treatment residuals,FARs)为载体,考察了不同粒径FARs对砷(Ⅲ)的吸附效果.不同粒径FARs的有效铁铝含量、比表面积和孔体积分别为523.72 ~1 861.72 mmol·kg-1、28.15 ~ 265.59 m2·g-1和0.03~0.09 cm3·g-1,总有机质、富里酸、胡敏酸和胡敏素分别为46.97 ~ 91.58、0.02~ 32.27、22.27~34.09和10.76 ~34.22 mg·kg-1.SEM和XRD检测表明,不同粒径FARs均以无定形结构存在.批量实验结果表明,准一级和准二级动力学方程均能较好地反映FARs吸附砷(Ⅲ)的动力学过程.不同粒径FARs对砷(Ⅲ)的吸附量随着浓度的增加而增高,用Langmuir等温线方程拟合获得理论饱和吸附量在6.72~21.79 mg·g-1之间.pH值对FARs吸附砷(Ⅲ)的作用影响不大.砷(Ⅲ)吸附量大小与不同粒径FARs的理化性质的变化趋势基本一致,由相关性分析可得,有效铁铝含量和孔体积大小是影响FARs对砷(Ⅲ)吸附的主要因素.%Effectiveness of arsenite adsorption by ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) with different grain sizes was studied.The results indicated that the content of active Fe and Al,the specific surface area and pore volume in FARs with different grain sizes were in the range of 523.72-1 861.72 mmol·kg-1,28.15-265.59 m2·g-1 and 0.03-0.09 cm3 ·g-1,respectively.The contents of organic matter,fulvic acid,humic acid and humin were in the range of 46.97-91.58 mg·kg-1,0.02-32.27 mg·kg-1,22.27-34.09 mag· kg-1 and 10.76-34.22 mg·kg-1,respectively.Results of SEM and XRD analysis further demonstrated that FARs with different grain sizes were amorphousness.Batch experiments suggested that both the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations could well describe the kinetics adsorption processes of arsenite by FARs.Moreover,the contents of arsenite absorbed by FARs increased with the increase of arsenite concentrations.The theoretical saturated adsorption

  16. Herança da tolerância ao alumínio em populações híbridas de trigo Inheritance of aluminum tolerance in wheat hybrid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO DE OLIVEIRA CAMARGO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Plântulas originárias de populações híbridas, em geração F2, de 26 cruzamentos entre cultivares de trigo tolerantes (BH-1146, IAC-227, IAC-24, IAC-60, C-3, IAC-5, IAC-18 e IAC-21 e sensíveis (Anahuac 75, IAC-287, IAC-289, Siete Cerros e Veery "S" à toxicidade de alumínio e de 18 cruzamentos entre cultivares tolerantes (BH-1146, IAC-227, IAC-24, IAC-60, C-3, IAC-5, IAC-21, C-17, IAC-74 e IAC-18 foram avaliadas em relação à tolerância a 3 mg/L de Al3+, empregando soluções nutritivas. A tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio foi medida pela capacidade de crescimento da raiz primária central em solução nutritiva completa, após um tratamento de 48 horas em solução contendo 3 mg/L de Al3+. Avaliando-se as plântulas das populações F2 provindas de cruzamentos entre cultivares tolerantes e sensíveis, verificou-se que a tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+ foi dominante, e que em 24 dos cruzamentos, as cultivares tolerantes diferiram das sensíveis por um par de genes. Não foi detectada diferença entre as cultivares tolerantes em relação ao par de genes dominantes em relação à tolerância. Qualquer uma dessas cultivares poderá ser utilizada como fonte de tolerância num programa de cruzamentos em que essa característica for desejada.Seedlings originated from hybrid populations, in F2 generation, from 26 crosses between tolerant wheat cultivars (BH-1146, IAC-227, IAC-24, IAC-60, C-3, IAC-5, IAC-18 and IAC-21 and sensitive cultivars (Anahuac 75, IAC-287, IAC-289, Siete Cerros and Veery "S" to aluminum toxicity and from 18 crosses between tolerant cultivars (BH-1146, IAC-227, IAC-24, IAC-60, C-3, IAC-5, IAC-21, C-17, IAC-74 and IAC-18 were evaluated for tolerance to 3 mg/L of Al3+, using nutrient solutions. It was considered tolerant the plant that was able to show root regrowth of the central primary root in the complete nutrient solution after a treatment of 48 hours in solution containing 3 mg/L of Al3+. The evaluation of

  17. Caracterização da liga comercial de alumínio 3003 produzida por fundição contínua de chapas (twin roll caster: microestrutura

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    Juliana de Paula Martins

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho caracterizou a microestrutura da liga comercial de alumínio 3003, produzida em escala industrial pelo processo de fundição contínua de chapas. Microscopia óptica com luz polarizada e campo escuro, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e ensaios de dureza Brinell foram utilizados. Os teores de manganês em solução sólida foram avaliados por medidas de resistividade elétrica. A análise química, ao longo da espessura da chapa é homogênea, ou seja, revela ausência de macro-segregação. A microestrutura da liga caracteriza-se pela presença de grãos com estrutura dendrítica, partículas primárias da fase Al6(Mn,Fe localizadas, preferencialmente, nos contornos de grão e a fração volumétrica de precipitados varia ao longo da espessura.The present work characterized the microstructure of a commercial 3003 aluminum alloy produced on an industrial scale by a twin roll caster process. Optical microscopy using polarized light and dark field, scanning electron microscopy, and Brinell hardness tests were carried out. The manganese content in solid solution was evaluated by electric resistivity measurements. The chemical composition across sheet thickness is homogeneous, in other words, there is no macro-segregation. A microstructural examination showed the presence of: grains with a dendritic structure, primary phase particles Al6(Mn,Fe in the grain boundaries, and variable volumetric fractions of the precipitated along the thickness.

  18. Trigo, triticale e centeio: avaliação da eficiência ao fósforo e tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio Evaluation of wheat, triticale and rye cultivars for phosphorus efficiency and tolerance to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a eficiência da utilização de fósforo e a tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio, instalou-se um experimento empregando os cultivares de trigo BH-1146, Anahuac, IAC-5, IAC-24 e IAC-21; o de triticale TCEP 77138 e o de centeio Branco, em soluções nutritivas contendo cinco níveis de fósforo (0; 3,1; 6,2; 12,4 e 31 mg/litro combinados com cinco níveis de alumínio (0, 1, 3, 6 e 10 mg/litro. A eficiência ao fósforo foi avaliada levando-se em consideração a produção de matéria seca e a quantidade de P nela presente, e a tolerância ao alumínio, com base no comprimento máximo das raízes após doze dias de crescimento em soluções nutritivas. O cultivar de centeio e o de triticale mostraram maior tolerância ao alumínio. Os cultivares de trigo BH-1146, IAC-21, IAC-5 e IAC-24 apresentaram-se como tolerantes e Anahuac, como sensível. O sintoma da toxicidade de alumínio ficou acentuado pelo aumento das concentrações de alumínio e fósforo para todos esses cultivares. 'IAC-5' foi considerado eficiente na utilização de fósforo; 'IAC-21' e 'IAC-24', moderadamente eficientes, e 'Anahuac', Ineficiente, em soluções contendo baixos níveis de fósforo na presença de Al3+.Five wheat cultivars, one triticale and one rye cultivar were studied in aerated nutrient solution with one tenth of the salt concentration of a complete nutrient solution, pH = 4.0 with five levels of aluminum (0, 1, 3, 6 and 10 mg/l combined with five levels of phosphorus (0; 3.1; 6.2; 12.4 and 31 mg/l. As controls, it was used a complete nutrient solution and distilled water. The aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring the primary root lenght of the seedlings after a 12-days growth period in the different treatment solutions. The rye cultivar (Branco and the triticale cultivar (TCEP 77138 were the most tolerant as far as aluminum toxicity is concerned, independently of the phosphorus concentrations into the solutions. The wheat

  19. Melhoramento do trigo: III. Evidência de controle genético na tolerância ao manganês e alumínio tóxico em trigo Wheat breeding: III. Evidence of genetic control in the tolerance to manganese and aluminum toxicity in wheat

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares Siete Cerros, tolerante, e BH-1146, sensível a elevadas doses de manganês, foram cruzados, obtendo-se sementes em gerações F1 e F2 desse cruzamento. As plantas dos cultivares pais e das gerações F1 e F2 foram cultivadas em soluções nutritivas contendo doses variadas de manganês (0,11; 300; 600 e 1.200mg/litro e testadas em outra solução nutritiva contendo 3mg/litro de alumínio. O comprimento das raízes primárias centrais das plantas dos genótipos estudados, após quinze dias de cultivo em soluções nutritivas contendo diferentes concentrações de manganês, serviu de base para avaliar a tolerância a esse elemento. Esse comprimento, após 72 horas de crescimento em solução nutritiva normal seguidas de 48 horas de crescimento em solução nutritiva contendo 3mg/litro de alumínio, foi utilizado para a avaliação da tolerância ao alumínio. Os valores da herdabilidade em sentido amplo para a tolerância a concentrações crescentes de manganês e para 3mg/litro de alumínio foram altos, indicando que grande parte da variabilidade encontrada nas populações segregantes para tolerância ao manganês e ao alumínio foram de origem genética, sugerindo que as seleções para estas características seriam efetivas a partir das gerações F2 e F3. Os dados mostraram que seria possível transferir, por meio de cruzamento entre os cultivares BH-1146 e Siete Cerros, a tolerância ao manganês do 'Siete Cerros' para o 'BH-1146' ou a tolerância ao alumínio deste para o 'Siete Cerros'.The cultivar Siete Cerros (P1 with tolerance to manganese toxicity and the cultivar BH-1146 (P2 showing sensitivity to manganese, were crossed. It was obtained the F1 and F2 generations of this cross. P1, P2, F1 and F2, where cultivated in nutrient solutions containing 0.11, 300, 600 and 1,200mg/l of manganese and they also were tested in other nutrient solution with 3mg/l of aluminum. The length of the central primary root of plants of each

  20. Preparação de compostos de alumínio a partir da bauxita: considerações sobre alguns aspectos envolvidos em um experimento didático Preparation of aluminum compounds from bauxite: considerations about some aspects involved in a didactic experiment

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    Vera R. Leopoldo Constantino

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum metal and aluminum compounds have many applications in several branches of the industry and in our daily lives. The most important raw material for aluminum and its manufactured compounds is bauxite, a rock constituted mainly by aluminum hydroxides minerals. In this work, a didactic experiment aiming the preparation of alumina and potassium alum starting from bauxite is proposed for undergraduate students. Both compounds are of great commercial, scientific and historical interest. The experiment involves applications of important chemical principles such as acid-base and precipitation. Some chemical properties and uses of aluminum compounds are also illustrated.

  1. An Efficient Method For The One-Pot, Four-Component Benzaldehyde Based Synthesis of 3-Methyl-1,4-Diphenyl-7,8-Dihydro-1H-Furo[3,4-E]Pyrazolo[3,4-B]Pyridin-5(4H-Ones Catalyzed by Alum in Environment-Friendly Media.

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    Sadif A. Shirvan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A mild and efficient method for the synthesis of 3-methyl-1,4- diphenyl-7,8-dihydro-1H-furo[3,4-e]pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-5(4H-one derivatives via one-pot, four-component reaction of aromatic aldehydes, tetronic acid, 3-aminobut-2-enenitrile, and phenylhydrazine is described using Alum as catalyst. The features of this procedure are mild reaction conditions, excellent yields, short reaction time, and operational simplicity.

  2. The use of alum, ferric chloride and ferrous sulphate as coagulants in removing suspended solids, colour and COD from semi-aerobic landfill leachate at controlled pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Alias, Salina; Assari, Faridah; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2007-12-01

    Suspended solids, colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are among the main pollutants in landfill leachate. Application of physical or biological processes alone is normally not sufficient to remove these constituents, especially for leachate with a lower biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)/ COD ratio. The main objective of this research was to investigate the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation processes for removing suspended solids, colour and COD from leachate produced in a semi-aerobic landfill in Penang, Malaysia. A 12-month characterization study of the leachate indicated that it had a mean annual BOD/COD ratio of 0.15 and was partially stabilized, with little further biological degradation likely to occur. Particle size analysis of the raw leachate indicated that its 50th percentile (d50) was 11.68 microm. Three types of coagulants were examined in bench scale jar test studies: aluminium sulphate (alum), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ferrous sulphate (FeSO4). The effects of agitation speed, settling time, pH, coagulant dosages and temperature were examined. At 300 rpm of rapid mixing, 50 rpm of slow mixing, and 60 min settling time, higher removals of suspended solids (over 95%), colour (90%) and COD (43%) were achieved at pH 4 and 12. FeCl3 was found to be superior to other coagulants tested. At pH 4 and 12, fair removal of suspended solids was observed at a reasonably low coagulant dose, i.e., 600 mg L(-1); hHowever, about 2500 mg L(-1) of coagulant was required to achieve good removals at pH 6. Better removals were achieved at higher temperature. The d50 of sludge after coagulation at pH 4 with a 2500 mg L(-1) FeCl3 dose was 60.16 microm, which indicated that the particles had been removed effectively from the leachate. The results indicate that coagulation and flocculation processes can be used effectively in integrated semi-aerobic leachate treatment systems, especially for removing suspended solids, colour and COD. PMID:18229750

  3. Tolerância de genótipos de trigo comum, trigo duro e triticale à toxicidade de alumínio em soluções nutritivas Tolerance of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale genotypes to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento diferencial de 12 genótipos de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L., um genótipo de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., e um de triticale (Triticosecale sp em soluções nutritivas de tratamento contendo duas concentrações salinas (1/5 e 1/10 da completa e seis concentrações de alumínio ( 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg L-1, à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC e pH 4,0. Foram utilizadas dez plântulas por parcela e quatro repetições. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanecer 48 horas em solução nutritiva completa, contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio combinada com cada uma das concentrações salinas. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-289, IAC-350 e IAC-370 e a cultivar controle Anahuac, e os genótipos de trigo duro IAC-1003 e de triticale IAC-5 foram os mais sensíveis a níveis crescentes de Al3+nas soluções nutritivas de tratamento e, portanto, somente seriam indicados para cultivo em solos corrigidos. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-24 e IAC-378 e a cultivar controle BH-1146 destacaram-se pela tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, com potencial para uso em solos ácidos e como fontes genéticas de tolerância nos futuros cruzamentos. Os sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio foram maiores com a elevação da concentração de alumínio e da diminuição das concentrações de sais da solução nutritiva para todos os genótipos estudados.Twelve bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one durum wheat (Triticum durum L. and one triticale (Triticosecale sp genotypes were studied in nutrient solutions with a high salt concentration in experiment 1 and a weak salt concentration in experiment 2, for aluminum tolerance at six levels: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1, under temperature 25 ± 1ºC and pH 4,0. Four replications were used per experiment. Aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring root growth in an aluminum-free complete

  4. Tolerância de cultivares de trigo, triticale e centeio em diferentes níveis de alumínio em solução nutritiva Tolerance of wheat, triticale and rye cultivars to different levels of aluminum in nutrient solution

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados sete cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. , um de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., sete de triticale e dois de centeio (Secale cereale L., em soluções nutritivas contendo quatro níveis de alumínio tóxico. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em soluçâo sem alumínio após um período de 48 horas em solução contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio. A temperatura de 28 ± 1 °C foi mantida constante nas soluções durante o experimento. Os cultivares de centeio, Goyarowo e Branco, foram tolerantes a 20mg/ litro de Al3+; os de trigo, Siete Cerros, Tobari-66 e Cocorit, foram sensíveis a 5mg/lítro de alumínio, porém BH-1146, IAC-5, BR-1 e IAC-18 foram tolerantes e, IAC-17, moderadamente tolerante a essa concentração de alumínio; os cultivares de triticale, PFT-763, TCEP-77142, PFT-764, TCEP-75709, Cynamon, TCEP-77138 e TCEP-77136, foram tolerantes a 5mg/litro de Al3+. Todos os cultivares de trigo e triticale foram sensíveis a 10mg/litro de Al3+.Seven bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars, one durum wheat (Triticum durum L. cultivar, seven triticale cultivars and two rye cultivars (Secale cereale L. were studied to aluminum toxicity using four different levels of this element in nutrient solutions at constant temperature (28 °C ± 1 °C. The tolerance was measured taking into account the root growth in an aluminum-free complete nutrient solution after a previous Al3+ treatment. With a toxic concentration of aluminum, the primary roots did not grow at all and remained thickned at the tip as a typical aluminum injury. The rye cultivars: Goyarowo and Branco were tolerant to 20 ppm of Al3+; the bread wheat cultivars Siete Cerros and Tobari and the durum wheat Cocorit were sensitive to 5 ppm of Al3+, BH-1146. IAC-5, BR-1 and IAC-18 were tolerant while the cultivar IAC-17 showed moderate tolerance to 5 ppm of Al3+; the triticale cultivars, PET-763, TCEP

  5. Construção e avaliação agronômica de genótipos de cornichão com respostas contrastantes à toxidez por alumínio Construction and agronomic evaluation of birdsfoot trefoil genotypes with contrasting responses to aluminum toxicity

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    Armando Martins dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar e caracterizar genótipos de Lotus corniculatus com respostas contrastantes à toxidez por alumínio. Quatro cultivares (São Gabriel, San Gabriel, Draco, Estanzuela e uma população (UFRGS foram submetidas a duas seleções consecutivas em solos com 30-35% de saturação por alumínio. As seleções consistiram da separação de 1% dos indivíduos mais e menos vigorosos para obtenção de genótipos tolerantes e sensíveis, respectivamente. Os indivíduos selecionados foram comparados ao germoplasma de origem por avaliação agronômica. Os genótipos selecionados pela tolerância ao alumínio tóxico foram de modo geral superiores aos germoplasmas originais, enquanto aqueles selecionados pela sensibilidade parecem ter sido selecionados pelo menor vigor, pois foram inferiores ao germoplasma original, mesmo em situações de ausência de alumínio tóxico. Entre os genótipos selecionados, destacou-se o UFRGS selecionado para tolerância, que apresentou elevada produção de matéria seca, sendo superior aos demais genótipos. A realização de testes a campo e a multiplicação de sementes destes genótipos para posterior uso em áreas que apresentem esta limitação é necessária, particularmente para a população de UFRGS selecionada para tolerância ao alumínio.The objective of this study was to select and characterize Lotus corniculatus genotypes with contrasting responses to toxicity by aluminum. Four cultivars (São Gabriel, San Gabriel, Draco, Estanzuela and one population (UFRGS were submitted to two consecutive selections in soils that presented 30-35% aluminum saturation. Selections consisted of separating 1% of the most and less vigorous individuals in order to obtain tolerant and sensitive genotypes, respectively. The individuals chosen were compared with the original germplasm by agronomical evaluation. Genotypes selected by tolerance to toxic aluminum were overall

  6. Estabelecimento de critérios para selecionar porta-enxertos de macieira tolerantes ao alumínio em solução nutritiva Establishment of criteria to select apple tree rootstocks tolerant to the aluminum in nutritious solution

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    Elaine Cristina Stolf

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre todas as fruteiras de clima temperado, a macieira é a que mais atenção tem recebido no sentido de se obterem porta-enxertos com características de boa adaptação, resistência ou sanidade. O desenvolvimento de um método eficiente para caracterizar genótipos com tolerância ao alumínio é o primeiro passo para a realização de estudos de mecanismos genéticos envolvidos na herança desse caráter. Assim, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a tolerância ao alumínio dos porta-enxertos de macieira M.9 e Marubakaido em cinco concentrações (0; 50;150; 250 e 350 µM L-1 em solução nutritiva. As estacas de Marubakaido, na concentração intermediária de alumínio apresentaram menor crescimento radicular e aéreo. O M.9 mostrou menor crescimento radicular nas concentrações de 250 e 350 mM de alumínio. As características de crescimento avaliadas permitiram discriminar o porta-enxerto Marubakaido como mais tolerante que o M.9, e a concentração de 350 µM L-1 é a mais eficiente para a discriminação da tolerância ao alumínio aos 15 dias de cultivo em solução nutritiva.Among all of the temperate fruit trees, the apple tree is the one that has attracted more attention when it comes to obtaining rootstocks with characteristics of good adaptation, resistance or sanity. The development of an efficient method to characterize genotypes with tolerance to the aluminum is the first step for the accomplishment of genetic mechanisms studies involved in the inheritance of this character. Thus, the present work aimed to evaluate the tolerance to aluminum of the apple tree rootstocks M.9 and Marubakaido in five concentrations (0, 50, 150, 250 and 350 µM L-1 in nutritious solution. The cuttings of Marubakaido, in the intermediate concentration of aluminum presented smaller root and aerial growth. M.9 showed smaller root growth in the concentrations of 250 and 350 µM of aluminum. The evaluated growth characteristics permitted

  7. Seleção de populações de Lotus corniculatus L. com maior tolerância ao alumínio em solução nutritiva Selection of populations of Lotus corniculatus L. with increased tolerance to aluminum in nutrient solution

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    Aline Janke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar genótipos de Lotus corniculatus L. (Draco, São Gabriel e UFRGS mais tolerantes ao alumínio, utilizando-se a técnica de seleção em solução nutritiva. A solução continha 200 µmol/L de cálcio (CaCl2, 100 µmol/L de alumínio (AlCl3 e pH controlado na faixa de 4,1 a 4,3. Realizaram-se dois ciclos de seleção, nos quais as plântulas foram selecionadas pelo comprimento final das radículas. Posteriormente, avaliou-se o ganho genético alcançado nos ciclos de seleção, tanto nas populações originais como nas melhoradas, em um experimento com solução nutritiva com quatro concentrações de alumínio (0, 50, 100 e 150 µmol/L (AlCl3, por meio do crescimento radicular líquido. O uso de solução nutritiva foi eficiente na seleção de plântulas de cornichão tolerantes ao alumínio. Os materiais analisados apresentam diferenças em relação a esta característica, destacando-se o genótipo UFRGS F2, proveniente de dois ciclos de seleção, como o material com maior tolerância ao alumínio.The experiment was carried out to select genotypes of Lotus corniculatus L. (Draco, São Gabriel and UFRGS more tolerant to aluminum, using the technique of selection in nutrient solution. The solution contained 200 µmol/L calcium (CaCl2 and 100 µmol/L aluminum (AlCl3 and a pH controlled in the range from 4.1 to 4.3. It was performed two cycles of selection, in which the seedlings were selected by the root final length. Subsequently, the genetic gain achieved in the cycles of selection was tested, in original and improved populations in an experiment in nutrient solution with four concentrations of aluminum (0, 50, 100 and 150 µmol/L (AlCl3, by liquid root growth. Use of nutritional solution was efficient in the selection of seedlings of birdsfoot trefoil tolerant to aluminum. The materials analyzed differ for this characteristic, with the genotype UFRGS F2, being the most tolerant.

  8. Iron and aluminum forms and their relationship with texture, mineralogy and organic carbon in the Cerrado OxisolFormas de ferro e alumínio e suas relações com textura, mineralogia e carbono orgânico em Latossolos do Cerrado

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    Robélio Lenadro Marchão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oxisols of the Cerrado region have a simple mineralogy, and are composed mainly of kaolinite and iron and aluminium oxides. The aim of this work was to perform a sequential extraction of iron and aluminium and to relate them to texture, mineralogy and organic carbon in Oxisols of the Cerrado region. The soil samples, 35 in total, were taken from the 0–20 cm layer in Oxisols under pasture located in the Brazilian Cerrado Region. The levels of iron and aluminum extracted by full attack, dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate, ammonium oxalate and sodium pyrophosphate were analyzed according to the textural classes using the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Then these data were related to the mineralogy and organic carbon through a principal component analysis. Whatever the textures, iron oxides of high degree of crystallinity were the main form of iron and are positively correlated with the iron total content. The aluminum oxides have a high affinity to organic carbon than iron oxides. The levels of iron and aluminum extracted by sodium pyrophosphate were closely related to soil pH.Os Latossolos da região do Cerrado apresentam mineralogia da fração argila relativamente simples, sendo constituídos principalmente por caulinita e óxidos de ferro e de alumínio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar extrações sequênciais de ferro e de alumínio e relacioná-los à mineralogia, textura e teores de carbono orgânico em Latossolos da região do Cerrado. Coletaram-se 35 amostras na camada de 0-20 cm de Latossolos sob pastagem da Região do Cerrado. Os teores de ferro e de alumínio extraídos pelo ataque total, ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio, oxalato ácido de amônia e pirofosfato de sódio foram analisados de acordo com a classe textural através do teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis. Em seguida estes dados foram relacionados com a mineralogia e o carbono orgânico por meio de uma análise de componentes principais

  9. Infiltração de sal de alumínio em fibras de sisal para obtenção de fibras de alumina Infiltration of aluminum salt into sisal to produce alumina fibers

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    T. E. Andrade Jr.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O sisal é um recurso estratégico para a região Nordeste e, particularmente, para o estado do Rio Grande do Norte, por ser uma cultura renovável e adaptada às condições do semi-árido. Em virtude das condições adversas de clima e solo, o sisal é, em algumas regiões, o único produto agrícola rentável passível de plantio. Agregar valor aos produtos manufaturados a partir do sisal contribui não só para o desenvolvimento científico e tecnológico da região, como também para a geração de renda para a população dos municípios potiguares produtores de sisal. Da planta extraem-se fibras ligninocelulósicas utilizadas na produção artesanal de cordas e industrial de mantas e tapetes. Uma outra alternativa é o aproveitamento da estrutura da fibra para a produção de fibras de alumina (Al2O3 pela biomodelagem. Este processo consiste na reprodução da estruturas natural do material de partida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as condições de infiltração da fibra de sisal com sal de alumínio para posterior conversão da estrutura em fibras de alumina. Inicialmente, as fibras de sisal foram pré-tratadas com hidróxido de sódio, infiltradas com uma solução saturada de sal de alumínio (Al2Cl6 e sinterizadas entre 1400 °C e 1650 °C. A caracterização das fibras de alumina foi feita por difração de raios X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados mostraram a conversão completa apenas da superfície da fibra de sisal em alfa-Al2O3, resultando em baixa resistência ao manuseio. Novos métodos de infiltração são propostos com o objetivo de reproduzir-se a estrutura interna da fibra de sisal, resultando em fibras materiais com melhor resistência mecânica.Sisal is a renewable agricultural resource adapted to the hostile climatic and soil conditions particularly encountered in the semi-arid areas of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, located in Northeastern Brazil. Consequently, sisal has played a

  10. Behind the scenes w/ an NPS alum

    OpenAIRE

    McDonough, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    How NPS helped my USMC 8825 career: "My education at MOVES greatly prepared me for my three years working as the M&S Officer for TECOM. We actually used FOPCSims to practice call for fire. It is very rewarding to see something that started out as lines of code provide skills my fellow Marines use to train for combat."

  11. Análise sistêmica para seleção de refratários para transporte de alumínio líquido Systemic analysis for refractory selection for molten aluminum transportation

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    M. A. L. Braulio

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As vantagens econômicas decorrentes da comercialização de alumínio líquido por meio de cadinhos ressaltam a importância da correta seleção dos revestimentos refratários, a fim de otimizar o processo. Uma primeira etapa na seleção se relaciona ao estudo da composição química do refratário e a busca por soluções que reduzam a corrosão. Para tanto, é fundamental a escolha de composições contendo óxidos termodinamicamente estáveis e aditivos anti-molhantes, os quais colaboram para o aumento da vida útil do revestimento. Além do aspecto químico, o controle da distribuição de tamanho de poros é outra variável relevante quando se procura retardar a infiltração do metal fundido no material. Como, durante a operação, o revestimento está sujeito a uma variedade de mecanismos de desgaste, as propriedades mecânicas dos refratários também devem ser consideradas, além das características físicas que influenciam diretamente na carga útil para o transporte. Adicionalmente, os aspectos de transferência de calor, tais como cálculos de fluxo de calor e temperatura da face fria, podem ser realizados simulando-se as respostas que diferentes propostas de revestimento trariam, sem a necessidade de experiências ou riscos, quando aplicados em escala industrial. Desta forma, uma análise sistêmica para a escolha do revestimento foi desenvolvida, a qual busca englobar todos os fatores que interferem no desempenho do cadinho e na análise econômica, visando-se encontrar a melhor alternativa para conservação de energia, e aumento da vida útil e da capacidade de carga.The growing interest in molten aluminum transportation, due to economic reasons, highlights the importance of the correct refractory lining selection for the ladles used in this operation. The chemical composition of the refractory and the search for solutions that reduce the corrosion are the first topics to be addressed. For this purpose, it is of utmost

  12. Trocas gasosas e fluorescência da clorofila em seis cultivares de cafeeiro sob estresse de alumínio Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in six coffee cultivars under aluminum stress

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    Maria Luiza Freitas Konrad

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento desenvolvido em casa de vegetação e em câmara de crescimento avaliou-se o efeito do alumínio (Al na fotossíntese de seis cultivares de cafeeiro. As plantas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva aerada continuamente, contendo duas concentrações de Al, 0 e 0,148 mmol L-1, fornecidas como Al2(SO43. Após 97 dias mediram-se as taxas de assimilação de CO2 (A e transpiração (E, a condutância estomática (gs, a concentração interna de CO2 (Ci, eficiência instantânea de carboxilação (fic e variáveis de fluorescência da clorofila. Em todas as cultivares, a presença de Al causou quedas significantes em A, gs, fic, ocorrendo aumento em Ci. Também se observou aumento significativo na fluorescência basal (Fo e queda na eficiência quântica máxima do fotossistema II (Fv/Fm, sugerindo injúrias na estrutura dos tilacóides causadas pelo Al. Na curva de indução de fotossíntese, observou-se que o Al causou queda no coeficiente de extinção fotoquímica da fluorescência e aumento no coeficiente de extinção não fotoquímico. Os resultados desse estudo indicaram que a queda de A foi devida à queda da condutância estomática, nas atividades bioquímicas e fotoquímicas.Experiments were carried out under greenhouse and growth chamber to evaluate the effects of aluminum (Al on several photosynthetic characteristics in six coffee cultivars. Plants were grown in nutrient solution aerated continuously, containing two Al concentration, 0 and 0.148 mmol L-1, supplied as Al2(SO43. After 97 days of treatament, measurements of CO2 assimilation rate (A, transpiration rate (E, stomatal conductance (gs, internal CO2 concentration (Ci, instantaneous carboxylation efficiency (phic and chlorophyll fluorescence related characteristics were performed. All six cultivars showed decrease in A, gs and phic and increase in Ci. The basal chlorophyll fluorescence yield (Fo increased and the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm decreased

  13. Aluminum as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease Aluminio como factor de riesgo para la enfermedad de Alzheimer Alumínio como fator de risco para a doença de Alzheimer

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    Pricilla Costa Ferreira

    2008-02-01

    ífica demuestra a lo largo de los últimos años que el Al es uno de los determinantes para el desenvolvimiento de la EA.O objetivo do estudo foi condensar a evidência científica existente entre a exposição ao alumínio (Al e risco para o desenvolvimento da doença de Alzheimer (DA, avaliando os efeitos para saúde da população, a longo prazo. Realizou-se revisão sistemática de literatura produzida entre 1990 e 2005, conduzida em duas bases de dados, MEDLINE e LILACS, utilizando os unitermos: "Aluminium exposure and Alzheimer Disease" e "Aluminium and risk for Alzheimer Disease". Foram selecionados 34 trabalhos para a pesquisa, desses, 68% estabeleceram relação entre o Al e a DA, 23,5% não apresentaram dados conclusivos e 8,5% não estabeleceram nenhuma relação entre o Al e DA. A partir dos resultados obtidos, verifica-se que o Al intervém em diversos processos neurofisiológicos responsáveis pela degeneração característica da DA. Apesar da polêmica existente, a evidência científica demonstra, ao longo dos últimos anos, que o Al se associa com o desenvolvimento da DA.

  14. Caracterização microestrutural e propriedades mecânicas da liga de alumínio 2198-T851 em configuração tailored blank soldada por FSW - Friction Stir Welding

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    Ivan Moroz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nos setores industriais relacionados à aeronáutica e automobilística, tem-se buscado o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de ligas metálicas leves com o intuito da redução de massa dos produtos e consequente redução do consumo de combustível. Por suas dimensões e requisitos estruturais, componentes e seções de aviões e automóveis são produzidos através da união por processos de soldagem por fusão. Entretanto, processos de soldagem no estado sólido são preferíveis por evitar defeitos decorrentes da fusão, e têm sido objeto de estudo nas últimas duas décadas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização de uma solda por FSW - Friction Stir Welding em junta de topo, da Liga de Alumínio 2198-T851 com espessuras diferentes (configuração "Tailored Blanks". A metodologia utilizada na caracterização envolveu a determinação das propriedades mecânicas das juntas soldadas, compreendendo ensaios de tração e determinação de perfil de microdureza na seção transversal; e buscou-se compreender a relação entre as alterações microestruturais promovidas pelo processo de soldagem e as propriedades resultantes. Concluiu-se que, devido aos fenômenos metalúrgicos decorrentes do processo de soldagem utilizado, alterações microestruturais tais como refino de grão, encruamento e dissolução/formação de fases precipitadas permitiram a obtenção de uma solda cujas propriedades mecânicas de tração (salvo alongamento igualaram-se a ou excederam aquelas do metal base, evidenciando a viabilidade de utilização dos parâmetros de soldagem por FSW utilizados neste trabalho.In both aeronautic and automobile related industries, development and application of light-weighted metallic alloys have been pursued with the intention of reducing product weight and consequent fuel consumption. Due to their dimension and structural requirements, components and sections from airplanes and automobiles are produced through fusion

  15. Linhagens diaplóides de trigo: produção de grãos, características agronômicas e tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio Dihaploid wheat lines: grain yield, agronomic characteristics and tolerance to aluminum toxicity

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    CARLOS EDUARDO DE OLIVEIRA CAMARGO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 18 linhagens de trigo diaplóides obtidas via cultura de anteras de plantas híbridas, em geração F1, e os cultivares Al Res 102/84 e IAC-24, em quatro ensaios instalados em condições de irrigação por aspersão e de sequeiro. Analisaram-se a produção de grãos, outros componentes da produção, características agronômicas e resistência à ferrugem-da-folha. Estudou-se também a tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas, em condição de laboratório. A linhagem diaplóide 5, provinda do cruzamento IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24, de porte baixo, mostrou resistência ao acamamento e ao agente causal da ferrugem-da-folha e tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, destacando-se, ainda, quanto à produção de grãos. A linhagem 6 identificou-se como fonte genética de maior número de grãos por espigueta, porte baixo, resistência ao acamamento e à ferrugem-da-folha, e a linhagem 8 apresentou espigas mais compridas e maior número de espiguetas por espiga. Todos os genótipos avaliados, com exceção do cultivar IAC-287 (controle sensível exibiram elevada tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio.Eighteen dihaploid wheat lines originated via anther culture from F1 hybrid plants and control cultivars Al Res 102/84 and IAC-24 were evaluated for grain yield, yield components, agronomic characteristics and resistance to leaf rust, in four field trials performed under upland and sprinkler irrigation conditions. The genotypes were evaluated for their tolerance to Al toxicity, in nutrient solutions, in laboratory conditions. The dihaploid line 5, originated from the cross IAS 63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24, exhibited dwarf plant type, lodging and leaf rust resistance and tolerance to Al toxicity allied to high productivity. Line 6 was considered a good genetic source for large number of grains per spikelet, dwarf plant type, resistance to lodging and leaf rust, whereas line 8, for long spikes and large number of spikelets per

  16. Estudo da liga alumínio-zinco como filtração alternativa em aparelhos de raios X odontológicos Study of the aluminum-zinc alloy as an alternative means of filtration in dental X-ray devices

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    Claudia Fátima Silva HAITER

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da filtração alternativa da liga alumínio-zinco em aparelhos de raios X odontológicos, em relação ao espectro de energia dos feixes de raios X, a taxa de kerma no ar, o índice de contraste nas radiografias obtidas e a qualidade das imagens radiográficas. Este estudo foi realizado comparando-se o filtro convencional de alumínio com várias espessuras do filtro de liga alumínio-zinco, em diferentes porcentagens do elemento zinco na liga (2%, 3%, 4% e 5%. Foi utilizado um aparelho de raios X odontológico convencional, operando com 60 kVp e 70 kVp, e filmes radiográficos dos grupos D e E de sensibilidade. Foram realizadas radiografias de um "phantom" e de uma escala de densidade de alumínio. Os resultados mostraram que o uso dos filtros de liga Al-Zn resultou em um não-endurecimento dos feixes. A taxa de kerma no ar diminuiu em até 18,53%, sem alteração no contraste das radiografias e a qualidade das imagens teve uma boa aceitação pelos examinadores. A análise dos resultados nos levou a concluir que o filtro de liga Al-Zn 2%, com 1,99 mm de espessura, tensão de 60 kVp, quando usado com filme D, foi o que obteve melhor desempenho, reduzindo a taxa de kerma no ar sem variar o índice de contraste das radiografias, mantendo a qualidade da imagem aceitável para diagnóstico, sem contudo aumentar o tempo de exposição.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alternative filtration with the aluminum-zinc alloy in dental X-ray devices, regarding the energy spectrum, dose, contrast and image quality. This study was carried out comparing the conventional aluminum filter with aluminum-zinc alloy filters of various thicknesses and with different percentages of zinc in the alloy (2, 3, 4 and 5%. A conventional X-ray device operating with 60 and 70 kVp as well as D- and E-speed films were utilized in order to obtain images of a phantom and an aluminum step wedge. The utilization

  17. Crescimento, morfologia radicular e liberação de compostos orgânicos por plântulas de soja em função da atividade de alumínio na solução do solo de campo natural Growth, root morphology and organic compounds released by soybean seedlings as a function of aluminum activity in a field soil solution

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    Antonio Nolla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade do alumínio em solos é considerada uma das maiores limitações para a produção das culturas. No entanto, algumas plantas são capazes de tolerar altas concentrações de alumínio por sua complexação com ácidos orgânicos exsudados pelas raízes. No intuito de estudar os efeitos concomitantes de faixas pH e de alumínio no desenvolvimento radicular de plântulas de soja, desenvolveu-se um trabalho na solução de um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico de campo natural. Cultivou-se, em câmara de crescimento, plântulas pré-germinadas de soja durante três dias dentro de tubos de ensaio aerados contendo 40ml da solução do solo (4,2µmol de Al L-1, submetidos a quatro concentrações de alumínio (0,0; 0,3; 0,6 e 1,2µmol L-1 e três níveis de pH (4,0; 5,0 e 6,0. O crescimento radicular e da parte aérea da soja foi menor em condições mais ácidas (pH 4,0. Em condições de acidez intermediária (pH H2O 5,0, o crescimento radicular foi menos afetado pelas espécies rizotóxicas de alumínio, mesmo quando submetidas a elevadas concentrações de alumínio na solução do solo.Aluminum toxicity in soils is considered one of the major limitations to crop production. However, some plants are able to tolerate high aluminum concentrations due to its complexation with root organic acids exudates. The simultaneous effect of pH ranges and aluminum concentration in soil solution on soybean seedlings root development was studied in a Rhodic Paleudult soil solution under natural grasses vegetation. Soybean seedlings were grown in growth chamber for three days in aerated test tubes containing 40ml soil solution (4.2µmol Al L-1, submmited to four aluminum concentrations (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2mmol L-1 and three pH levels (4.0, 5.0 and 6.0. Root and aerial growth decreased under more acidic conditions (pH 4.0. Root growth was less affected by rhyzotoxic aluminum species at pH 5.0, even when submitted to high concentration of

  18. Nitrogen nutrition of young triticale plants grown under aluminium stress Adubação azotada de plântulas de triticale sob toxicidade de alumínio

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    Ana Maria Domingues

    2010-12-01

    in plant fertilization are discussed.O triticale constitui uma cultura tolerante a condições climáticas e edáficas extremas, estando bem adaptado a solos ácidos, com níveis tóxicos de Al. A satisfação das necessidades cerealíferas crescentes da população mundial é o desafio fundamental da agricultura sustentável, evitando a poluição antropogénica, frequentemente por compostos azotados contaminantes de aquíferos e da atmosfera. Foi estudado o enriquecimento amoniacal na adubação azotada em triticale, na presença de alumínio tóxico. As plantas com três dias do genótipo tolerante ao Al TTE 9203 foram sujeitas à presença de 0 ou 370 mM Al e receberam as quatro proporções de NO3-/ NH4+ seguintes 15:1, 8:1, 3:1 e 1:1, tendo sido fixada a concentração total de 3,2 mM N nas diferentes modalidades em solução nutritiva. Relativamente aos correspondentes controlos, os tratamentos com 370 mM Al induziram reduções importantes no crescimento, que variaram significativamente entre 75,3% e 47,3% do comprimento radicular, 80% a 60% da biomassa radicular e 89% a 71% da biomassa aérea, segundo a proporção de NO3-/ NH4+ presente na solução nutritiva. Efectivamente, o Al tóxico reduziu muito significativamente a absorção de nitrato pelas plantas. O efeito negativo do Al nas jovens plantas foi mais evidente na modalidade com a proporção 15:1 NO3-/ NH4+, tendo a presença de Al provocado as reduções de 52,7 % do alongamento da radícula mais longa e de 40,6 % da biomassa fresca de raiz produzida em quatro dias de tratamento. Pelo contrário, na modalidade com a proporção 8:1 NO3-/ NH4+, as raízes das plantas sofreram as reduções mínimas daqueles parâmetros relativamente ao correspondente controlo (24,7 % e 20,3 %, respectivamente. No seu conjunto, os resultados obtidos indicaram que o NH4+ pode aliviar a toxicidade do Al em triticale, na fase vegetativa precoce que constitui a mais susceptível à toxicidade daquele metal. Sob stress

  19. Micronutrient concentration in potato clones with distinct physiological sensitivity to Al stress Concentração de micronutrientes em clones de batata com distinta sensibilidade fisiológica ao estresse de alumínio

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    Luciane Almeri Tabaldi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of aluminum (Al on the zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn, iron (Fe and copper (Cu concentrations in four potato clones (Macaca and Dakota Rose: both Al-sensitive clones; and SMIC148-A and Solanum microdontum: both Al-tolerant-clones, grown in a nutrient solution (pH 4.00 with 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200mg Al L-1. Root Zn and Fe concentrations decreased linearly with the increase of Al levels in Macaca, SMIC148-A and Dakota Rose and increased linearly in S. microdontum. Shoot Zn concentration showed a quadratic relationship with Al in S. microdontum and SMIC148-A, but a curvilinear response in Dakota Rose. Shoot Fe concentration showed a quadratic relationship with Al in S. microdontum, SMIC148-A and Dakota Rose. Root Mn concentration decreased linearly in Macaca and SMIC148-A, and increased linearly in S. microdontum with Al levels. Mn concentration showed a quadratic relationship with Al in roots of Dakota Rose and in shoot of SMIC148-A, and increased curvilinearly with Al levels in shoot of Dakota Rose. In shoot, there was no alteration in Zn, Fe and Mn in Macaca and Mn concentration in S. microdontum. Roots and shoot Cu concentration increased linearly in Dakota Rose, and showed quadratic relationship with Al in Macaca. Roots Cu concentration showed a quadratic relationship with Al levels in S. microdontum and SMIC148-A. Shoot Cu concentration increased linearly in S. microdontum, and decreased linearly in SMIC148-A. Therefore, the excessive Al accumulation affected the uptake and distribution of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu in roots and shoot of potato clones.The response of shoot Cu concentration to Al was less altered in the Al-tolerant clones than was in Al-sensitive clones. Aluminum tolerance in S. microdontum may be connected with greater levels of Zn, Fe and Mn in the roots.O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar o efeito do alumínio (Al na concentração de zinco (Zn, manganês (Mn, ferro (Fe e cobre

  20. Subproduto da indústria de alumínio como amenizante de solos contaminados com cádmio e chumbo Aluminum industry by-product as an amendment for cadmium and lead-contaminated soils

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    Enio Tarso de Souza Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A poluição do solo com elementos-traço tem sido motivo de preocupação nos últimos anos, o que justifica melhor conhecimento da disponibilidade desses elementos no ambiente, visando amenizar seus efeitos em áreas contaminadas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de um subproduto da indústria de alumínio como amenizante de solos contaminados com Cd e Pb. Foram utilizados um Neossolo Quartzarênico (930 g kg-1 de areia, 20 g kg-1 de silte e 50 g kg-1 de argila e um Latossolo Vermelho (360 g kg-1 de areia, 100 g kg-1 de silte e 540 g kg-1 de argila contendo 15 % de solo contaminado com Cd e Pb. Foram feitas cinco repetições testando-se o efeito da aplicação do subproduto in natura a 0; 0,25; 0,50; 1,00; e 2,00 %. Para comparação, utilizaram-se calcário, silicato e turfa a 0,25; 0,50; e 2,00 %, respectivamente, e cada um dos solos sem contaminação. Cultivou-se B. decumbens, fazendo coletas de lixiviado e determinando o pH e a CE. As concentrações de Cd e Pb foram avaliadas no lixiviado não-filtrado e filtrado (0,45 µm. Avaliaram-se a produção de matéria seca de raízes (MSR e da parte aérea (MSPA e as quantidades de Cd e Pb em ambas após digestão nitroperclórica. Os amenizantes contribuíram para aumentar o pH dos lixiviados do Neossolo Quartzarênico e do Latossolo Vermelho, tendo este último apresentado menores valores de condutividade eletrolítica quando comparado ao primeiro. Os teores de Cd nos lixiviados filtrados (fração solúvel foram os mesmos dos lixiviados não-filtrados, enquanto os de Pb apresentaram diferenças. As produções de MSR e MSPA aumentaram com o aumento das taxas de aplicação do subproduto, e a quantidade de Cd na MSPA da B. decumbens foi maior que a de Pb.Soil pollution with trace elements has been of great concern in the last years due to the increase in contaminated areas, which calls for a better understanding of trace element availability and environmental remediation

  1. Melhoramento do trigo: VI. hereditariedade da tolerância a três concentrações de alumínio em solução nutritiva Wheat breeding: VI. inheritance of tolerance to three different aluminum concentrations in nutrient solution

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available No estudo dos cultivares de trigo C-3, BH-1146, Siete Cerros e Brevor em soluções nutritivas contendo oito concentrações de alumínio (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 e 10mg/litro, BH-1146 e C-3 mostraram tolerância a todas as concentrações de Al empregadas, e Brevor e Siete Cerros apresentaram-se sensíveis à presença de 1mg/litro de Al3+ nas soluções. A tolerância a dada concentração de alumínio foi medida pela capacidade de crescimento da raiz primária central da planta em solução nutritiva completa, após um tratamento de 48 horas em solução contendo determinada quantidade de alumínio. Os cultivares C-3 e Siete Cerros, considerados pais, e as populações F1 e F2, provenientes dos seus cruzamentos, foram testados em soluções nutritivas contendo 3, 6 e 10mg/litro de alumínio. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, para 3mg/litro de alumínio, o cultivar C-3 diferiu de Siete Cerros por um par de genes dominantes para tolerância. Houve uma quebra gradual da dominância do par de genes responsável pela reação de tolerância quando se empregou a concentração de 6mg/litro de Al3+. O cultivar Siete Cerros diferiu do C-3 por um par de genes dominantes para sensibilidade, quando foram estudados em solução nutritiva contendo 10mg/litro de Al3+, ou o C-3 diferiu do Siete Cerros por um par de genes dominantes para tolerância, nessa concentração, considerando que os indivíduos heterozigotos das populações F1 e F2, apresentaram reação de sensibilidade. Os indivíduos heterozigotos das populações F1 e F2, revelaram tolerância a 3mg/litro, a qual foi diminuída a 6mg/litro, e apresentaram suscetibilidade total a 10mg/litro, com base na hipótese de a tolerância ser devida a um par de genes dominantes. Altos valores da herdabilidade em sentido amplo (0,725 a 0,895 indicaram que a seleção para tolerância ao alumínio seria eficiente na população proveniente do cruzamento entre um cultivar tolerante (C-3 e um sensível (Siete

  2. Influência da temperatura de infiltração de alumínio gasoso em ligninocelulósicos nas propriedades de Al2O3 biomórfica Effect of the temperature of aluminum gas infiltration into lignocellulosic preforms on the properties of biomorphic Al2O3

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    T. E. Andrade Jr.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A conversão de materiais ligninocelulósicos em cerâmicas biomórficas tem despertado particular interesse, por tratar-se de uma nova classe de materiais cerâmicos de alto valor agregado, produzidos a partir de matérias-primas de baixo custo e relevante papel econômico. Cerâmicas biomórficas são obtidas por meio do processo de biomodelagem, que consiste na reprodução ao nível micrométrico da estrutura natural do material de partida. Neste trabalho, os materiais ligninocelulósicos utilizados como material de partida foram fibras de sisal, ratam e pinheiro. Estes foram convertidos por pirólise em pré-formas de carbono. Subseqüentemente, essas pré-formas foram infiltradas com alumínio gasoso em temperaturas que variaram de 1400 ºC a 1600 ºC sob vácuo, obtendo-se assim carbeto de alumínio (Al4C3. Por ser um material frágil e de rápida decomposição, O Al4C3 foi rapidamente oxidado a 1600 ºC para sua conversão total em fibras de Al2O3 biomórfica. A microestrutura e morfologia das cerâmicas biomórficas obtidas foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e por difração de raios X. O estudo comparativo da infiltração de alumínio gasoso foi realizado com base em resultados obtidos por análise termogravimétrica.The reproduction of lignocellulosic structures into biomorphous ceramics has been extensively studied since it results in added-value products from relatively inexpensive raw materials. Synthetic ceramics can be obtained by biotemplating maintaining the structural features of native wood or fibers. In the present study, lignocellulosic materials, i.e, sisal, rattan and pinnus, were used to produce alumina fibers. The natural structures were pyrolized into carbon prefoms and subsequently infiltrated with aluminum gas temperatures ranging from 1400 ºC to 1600 ºC under vacuum, resulting in aluminum carbide (Al4C3. Because of its brittle nature and fast decomposition, Al4C3 was quickly oxidized

  3. Screening Jatropha genotypes for aluminum tolerance using the solution-paper methodSeleção de genótipos de pinhão-manso tolerantes ao alumínio usando o método papel-solução

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    Tatiana Barbosa Rosado

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of genetic material tolerant to aluminum (Al can offer important advantages to breeding programs and to recommendations for cultivars with the aim of utilizing acidic soil. Based on this, our aim was to determine, by using the solution-paper method, the aluminum concentration that best demonstrates tolerance of Jatropha accessions to this element. For this study, seeds from eight Jatropha accessions (CNPAE 114, CNPAE 154, CNPAE 169, CNPAE 178, CNPAE 218, CNPAE 200, CNPAE 226, CNPAE 228 were placed in a germination chamber with different concentrations of Al (0, 85, 155, 225 and 295 mg L-1 using the solution-paper technique. After 14 days, the length of the primary root was evaluated and the percentage by which those subjected to doses of Al was calculated. A concentration of 85 mg L-1 was the level that separated the accessions in terms of Al tolerance; the accessions CNPAE 114 and CNPAE 154 were the most sensitive to the presence of this toxic element in the solution. It was concluded that the solution-paper method is efficient and can be used in Jatropha breeding programs for the selection of Al-tolerant genotypes. A identificação de material genético tolerante ao alumínio (Al pode oferecer importantes subsídios aos programas de melhoramento e à recomendação de cultivares destinada a utilização de solos ácidos. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, através do método de papel-solução, a concentração de alumínio que melhor discrimine acessos de pinhão-manso quanto à tolerância ao Al. Para este estudo, sementes de oito acessos de pinhão-manso (CNPAE 114, CNPAE 154, CNPAE 169, CNPAE 178, CNPAE 218, CNPAE 200, CNPAE 226, CNPAE 228 foram colocadas para germinar em diferentes concentrações de Al (0, 85, 155, 225 e 295 mg L-1 utilizando a técnica do papel solução. Após 14 dias o comprimento da raiz primária foi avaliado e a porcentagem de redução foi calculada para os sujeitados as doses de

  4. Avaliação de variáveis fisiológicas em porta-enxertos de videira cultivados em solução nutritiva com a adição de alumínio Physiologic variables evaluation in grapevine roostocks grown in nutritive solution with aluminum addition

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    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a resposta dos porta-enxertos de videira IAC 313 "Tropical" e IAC 572 "Jales" a diferentes níveis de alumínio em solução nutritiva. A condução do experimento foi realizada em condições de casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Produção Vegetal/Área de Horticultura, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP/Botucatu. Utilizaram-se cinco níveis de alumínio, a saber: 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 mg L-1. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, realizaram-se coletas a cada 15 dias para obtenção das variáveis fisiológicas. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de parcelas subdivididas, inteiramente casualizado e com 3 repetições. Avaliaram-se as variáveis: taxa de crescimento absoluto e relativo, razão de massa foliar e relação parte aérea/raízes. Concluiu-se que o porta-enxerto IAC 572 "Jales", quando submetido ao nível de 10mg Al L-1 na solução, apresentou maior taxa de crescimento absoluto e relativo, e maior redistribuição de massa seca das folhas para o restante da planta, ao passo que o porta-enxerto IAC 313 "Tropical", quando submetido a esse nível de alumínio, apresentou um decréscimo acentuado nessas variáveis.The experiment aimed to evaluate the behavior of the grapevine rootstocks IAC 313 "Tropical" and IAC 572 "Jales" in nutrient solution with different aluminium concentrations. The experiment was conducted in green house conditions of the Vegetal Production Department/Horticulture Sector, of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences - UNESP/Botucatu. Five aluminium levels were used, as known: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40mg L-1in the form of AlCl3.6H2O. The samples were colleted every 15 days to obtain the physiologic variables. The experimental design adopted was the subdivided split-plots, fully randomized and with 3 replications. The variables evaluated were: absolute and relative growth rates, leaf weight and aerial parts/root ratio. The IAC 572 "Jales" rootstock

  5. Propriedades mecânicas e de inflamabilidade de composições de borracha EPDM carregadas com negro de fumo e hidróxido de alumínio Mechanical and flammability properties of EPDM (ethylene-propylene terpolymer rubber compositions filled with carbon black and aluminum hydroxide

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    Cristine Canaud

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Composições de EPDM (terpolímero de etileno-propileno-dieno contendo misturas de negro de fumo e hidróxido de alumínio (ATH foram preparadas com o objetivo de se avaliar seu potencial de utilização em aplicações elétricas. O hidróxido de alumínio, conhecido por suas características de retardante de chama, é uma carga semi-reforçante e, portanto, incapaz de fornecer o nível de reforço necessário para diversas aplicações. Dessa forma, para aliar ao artefato propriedades de não inflamabilidade e alto desempenho mecânico, foi também adicionado o negro de fumo (que é a carga reforçante mais largamente empregada. A escolha do EPDM se justifica pela facilidade de ser encontrado no mercado brasileiro, por sua característica em aceitar grandes quantidades de carga e por ser um elastômero apolar, o que é um requisito básico para aplicação em isolamento elétrico. Os materiais foram submetidos a testes mecânicos e de inflamabilidade, para se determinar aqueles que se ajustavam às normas estabelecidas pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT. Verificou-se que pelo menos 160 phr de hidróxido de alumínio são necessários nessas composições para que a resistência à chama seja alcançada.EPDM composition filled with mixtures of aluminum hydroxide (ATH and carbon black were evaluated for electrical applications. Aluminum hydroxide, known for its characteristics of flame retardancy, is a semi-reinforcing filler and, in this sense, it is unable to impart the reinforcement level necessary to several applications. Thus, to have in the same artifact the non-flammability properties together with a high mechanical performance, carbon black, the most widely used reinforcing filler, has also been used. The choice of EPDM can be justified by the availability of this polymer in the brazilian market, allied to its characteristics to accept large amounts of filler and its apolar chemical character, which is a basic

  6. Effects of aluminum on plant growth and nutrient uptake in young physic nut plantsEfeitos do alumínio no crescimento e na absorção de nutrientes em plantas jovens de pinhão-manso

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    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al3+ toxicity is a major limiting factor to crop productivity in acid soils. The effects of aluminum on root and shoot growth of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L. young plants and, the uptake and distribution of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and aluminum in the roots and shoots were investigated in the present study. Plants were grown in 2.5L pots in a greenhouse. After fourteen days of adaptation to nutrient solution, plants were exposed to Al concentrations of 0, 370, 740, 1,100 and 1,480 ?mol L–1, corresponding to an active Al3+ solution of 13.3, 35.3, 90.0, 153.3 and 220.7 ?mol L–1, respectively. The dry matter partitioning between roots, stems and leaves, and the concentrations of P, Ca, Mg and Al in plant tissue, were measured after 75 days exposure to Al. The increasing level of Al3+ activity in solution progressively decreased the growth of the shoot and root of physic nut plants, and at the two highest active Al3+ levels, plants showed morphological abnormalities typical of the toxicity caused by this metal. Higher Al3+ activity reduced P concentrations in leaves and Ca and Mg in leaves and roots of physic nut, demonstrating the effect of Al on the uptake, transport and use of these nutrients by plants. The Al accumulated preferentially in the roots of physic nut, whereas only a small amount was transported to shoots.A toxicidade de alumínio (Al3+ é um dos principais fatores que limitam a produtividade das culturas em solos ácidos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do alumínio no crescimento e na absorção de fósforo, cálcio, magnésio e alumínio em plantas jovens de pinhão-manso, cultivadas em solução nutritiva. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos de 2,5 L e as plantas crescidas em casa de vegetação. Após 14 dias de adaptação em solução nutritiva, as plantas foram submetidas a concentrações de Al de: 0; 370; 740; 1.110 e 1.480 ?mol L–1, que corresponderam a atividade de Al3+ em solução de

  7. Influência do desempenho térmico de moldes fabricados com compósito epóxi/alumínio nas propriedades de pp moldado por injeção Thermal behavior of epoxy/aluminum rapid tooling composite during injection molding of polypropylene

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    Gean V. Salmoria

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O surgimento das tecnologias de prototipagem rápida (RP e de ferramental rápido (RT tem despertado interesse da indústria de moldes de injeção. O vazamento de termofixos com cargas metálicas possibilita a construção de moldes usando materiais compósitos, os quais apresentam maior resistência que os utilizados por outras técnicas RT. Neste trabalho foi estudado o comportamento térmico de moldes fabricados em epóxi/alumínio durante a injeção de polipropileno através de avaliações da estrutura e de propriedades mecânicas utilizando difração de raio X e ensaios de dureza e de tração. Os corpos-de-prova injetados no molde em compósito epóxi/alumínio apresentaram pequenas diferenças no grau de cristalinidade das superfícies analisadas e propriedades mecânicas semelhantes aos corpos-de-prova injetados em molde de aço. O estudo mostrou um razoável desempenho térmico do molde compósito durante a injeção de polipropileno evidenciando a viabilidade de utilização destes moldes na produção de pequenas séries de protótipos e de produtos neste termoplástico.rapid prototyping (RP and rapid tooling (RT technologies are gaining increasing importance in the injection molding industry. Casting of resin/metal composites allows the construction of molds with greater resistance than those manufactured by other RT techniques such as Stereolithography. In this work, the thermal behavior of molds manufactured in epoxy/aluminum during the injection molding of polypropylene specimens was investigated. Structural and mechanical characterization of the molded specimens included X ray analysis, hardness and tensile testing. The samples presented small differences in the degree of crystallinity and similar mechanical properties in comparison with samples injected into steel molds. This study showed a reasonable thermal performance of the epoxy/aluminum mold during the injection molding of polypropylene, thus demonstrating the

  8. Determination of spatial variability of aluminum according to the clay distribution in soils of Querência do Norte/Paraná State, BrazilDeterminação da variabilidade espacial de alumínio em função da distribuição de argila em solos de Querência do Norte/Paraná, Brasil

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    Marcelo Luiz Chicati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The major part of Brazilian soils shows elevated aluminum contents and in several cases this element occurs in phytotoxic levels. Aluminum is a constituent of the soil´s clay minerals. Its release can occur to the exchangeable fraction or to the soil solution. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the relationship between the spatial variability of aluminum and the distribution of soil clay. In order to achieve that, a grid of soil samples was collected in field, defined by means of photointerpretation and observation of images. The results obtained in laboratory were submitted to statistical analyses to verify spatial dependence, which was proven later. The space continuity was studied by means of the semivariogram’s elaboration using different models. The best semivariograms were chosen by cross validation performed through "ordinary kriging". Thus, it could be observed that these variables showed structure of spatial dependence, with a positive correlation between them, besides it was possible to make maps in order to allow a better agricultural exploitation.A maior parte dos solos brasileiros possui altos teores de alumínio e, em muitos casos, este elemento ocorre em níveis fitotóxicos. Constituinte dos minerais de argila, pode ter sua liberação diretamente na forma trocável ou para a solução do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi demonstrar a relação entre a variabilidade espacial do alumínio e a distribuição de argila do solo. Para isto, foi coletada uma malha de amostras de solo em campo, definida por meio de fotointerpretação e observação de imagens. Os resultados obtidos em laboratório foram submetidos a análises estatísticas visando a verificação da dependência espacial, que foi comprovada posteriormente. A continuidade espacial foi estudada mediante a elaboração de semivariogramas utilizando-se diferentes modelos. Os melhores semivariogramas foram escolhidos mediante a validação cruzada executada

  9. Efeito de três fertilizantes acidificantes sobre a concentração de alumínio e de manganês em folhas e raízes de cafeeiros Effect of three acidifying fertilizers on the concentration of aluminum and manganese on coffee leaves and roots

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    Ferdinando Roberto Pupo de Moraes

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinada a concentração de alumínio e de manganês em folhas de cafeeiros cultivados em vasos com três solos diferentes e com aplicação de três fertilizantes nitrogenados acidificantes (nitrato de amônio, uréia e sulfato de amônio e um não acidificante (salitre-do-chile, além de dois tratamentos extras com corretivos de acidez e um com enxofre. Nas raízes estes elementos foram também determinados para os tratamentos que receberam uréia, uréia mais enxofre e o controle sem nitrogênio. Nos três solos determinou-se o efeito dos tratamentos sobre o pH e a concentração de A1(3+ e Mn3+. A análise foliar revelou diferenças significativas entre tratamentos na concentração de alumínio e manganês das folhas e em todos os três solos estudados. Alguns sintomas específicos observados nas folhas e raízes estiveram associados à presença de níveis elevados de manganês nessas partes vegetais.There were determined concentrations of aluminum and manganese in leaves of coffee trees cultivated in pots with 3 different soils fertilized with acidifying nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate, urea and ammonium sulphate and non acidifying nitrogen fertilizer (chilean nitrate and 3 other treatments (urea plus calcium carbonate, urea plus lime and urea plus sulfur. Aluminum and manganese were determined in coffee roots of pots fertilized with urea, urea plus sulfur and a control without nitrogen. The relation of pH and concentration of Al3+ and Mn2+ are discussed for the soils utilized. Leaves analysis showed significant differences in aluminum and manganese concentration in the leaves among treatments and among the 3 soils types. Symptoms correlated with high levels of manganese in the leaves and roots of the coffee trees were observed.

  10. Características de fusão e potência de soldagem com a transferência MIG - CMT versus MIG convencional para Alumínio 5183 Melting and welding power characteristics of MIG CMT versus Conventional MIG for Aluminum 5183

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    Jair Carlos Dutra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available De todos os processos de soldagem a arco, o MIG/MAG é o que recebe maior número de inventivas, originando uma quantidade enorme de novas versões. Em virtude disto, surge uma grande dificuldade dos usuários em manterem-se atualizados no estado da arte e de tomarem as devidas decisões, seja na seleção de novos equipamentos, seja na seleção da correta modalidade e respectiva regulagem dentro de um equipamento já disponível. Muitas das novidades vêm ao mercado com uma roupagem tecnológica que nem sempre está muito próxima da verdade científica. Assim, este artigo se propõe a dar uma contribuição a esta questão, abordando a versão CMT (Cold Metal Transfer. É apresentado um estudo das características de fusão, comparando-o com o MIG convencional no caso particular da soldagem com arame de alumínio naval 5183. Os resultados revelam que a aparente baixa potência elétrica desta versão transparecida pelos baixos valores de tensão e corrente média, não é correta. Realmente, para as condições ensaiadas, ela é uma versão de processo MIG com maior potência do que o MIG convencional, quando os procedimentos de cálculo são os corretos. Apesar disso, o CMT se revela uma boa solução para a soldagem de raiz de alumínio devido à adequada cadência e repetitividade da transferência de gotas. A cadência da corrente e da tensão revela uma grande similitude com uma corrente pulsada de onda retangular, mas dentro da faixa de transferência por curto-circuito.Among all arc welding processes, MIG/MAG is the one experiencing most of the innovations, originating an enormous quantity of new versions. Due to this fact, end users are faced with a great difficulty in keeping up to date with the state of the art and taking due decisions, whether in the selection of new equipment or in the selection of the correct welding mode and respective adjusting of an already available equipment. Many of the novelties come on the market with a

  11. Estudo comparativo entre a agressividade superficial obtida na retificação com rebolos de óxido de alumínio e CBN, fabricados com ligantes resinóide e vitrificado The evaluation of the bond resin and vitrified and abrasive grain CBN and alumina influence in the grinding wheel topography characteristics, by the study of the grinding wheel sharpness

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    E. C. Bianchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um estudo da agressividade do rebolo (habilidade de corte. A retificação é um processo de usinagem preciso, o qual é amplamente usado na manufatura de componentes que requerem tolerâncias estreitas e superfícies bem acabadas. Na retificação, a ferramenta abrasiva é o rebolo, que é basicamente composto por núcleo, ligante e grãos abrasivos. As ferramentas testadas nessa pesquisa foram rebolos convencional (Al2O3 e superabrasivo (CBN. Entre os superabrasivos, três tipos específicos de ligantes foram testados: resinóide, vitrificado e resinóide de alto desempenho. Conseqüentemente, foi possível avaliar a habilidade de corte entre os diferentes tipos de rebolos testados. Assim, o rebolo convencional de óxido de alumínio apresentou a maior agressividade.This paper presents a study of the grinding wheel sharpness (cutting ability. Grinding is a precision machining process which is widely used in the manufacture of components requiring fine tolerances and smooth surfaces. In grinding, the abrasive tool is the grinding wheel, which is basically compounded by the core, the bond and the abrasive grains. The tools tested in this research were conventional (Al2O3 and superabrasive (CBN grinding wheels. Among the superabrasive ones, three specific bond types were tested: resin, vitrified and high performance resin bond. Consequently, it was possible to evaluate the comparative cutting ability among the different types of grinding wheels tested. So the conventional wheel (Al2O3 presented the highest sharpness.

  12. Caracterização da liga comercial de alumínio 3003 produzida por fundição contínua de chapas ("twin roll caster": textura cristalográfica Microstructural characterization of a commercial 3003 aluminum alloy produced by twin roll caster: crystallographic texture

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    Juliana de Paula Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nesse trabalho, são apresentados os resultados da determinação de textura cristalográfica da liga comercial de alumínio 3003, produzida em escala industrial pelo processo de fundição contínua de chapas. As diferentes etapas de processamento dos materiais metálicos, tais como solidificação, deformação plástica e recristalização, por exemplo, conduzem à formação de uma distribuição de orientação preferencial, onde predominam determinados eixos cristalográficos. Portanto a distribuição de orientação em um policristal é resultado do processo de fabricação e, com isso, a textura contém informações sobre o histórico de produção do material. A textura apresenta forte efeito nas propriedades do metal e revela a relação entre parâmetros de processamento do material e seu desempenho. A caracterização da textura, ao longo da espessura, foi feita utilizando-se difração de elétrons retroespalhados (EBSD. Foi possível observar diferenças ao longo da espessura.The present work characterized the crystallographic texture of a commercial 3003 aluminum alloy produced by the twin roll caster process. The different stages of metal processing: solidification, plastic deformation and recrystallization, have different crystallographic textures. The crystallographic texture at the end of the manufacturing process contains information about the process itself. The texture characterization was carried out by electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD. Results showed that there was a significant difference between the specimen's texture at the surface and that of its center.

  13. Comparação entre resultados numéricos e experimentais para o campo magnético de cubas eletrolíticas de alumínio Numerical and experimental results comparison of magnetic fields in aluminium eletrolysis cells

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    André F. Schneider

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A fabricação primária de alumínio dá-se em fornos onde banho e metal líquidos são movimentados a partir de Forças de Lorentz. Esse artigo apresenta a validação experimental em cubas reais de uma metodologia 3-D de análise eletromagnética de cubas eletrolíticas anteriormente desenvolvida com o pacote comercial de Elementos Finitos ANSYS 9.0. Os resultados numéricos representam, adequadamente, a forma das componentes mais importantes de para a tecnologia ensaiada (B X e B Z, observando-se a incerteza de medição e. A maior diferença observada entre resultados numéricos e experimentais para a componente longitudinal B X, é de 33% e, para a componente vertical B Z, é de 60%. Foram observadas correlações entre dados medidos e calculados de 98,8% para B X e 93,5% para B Z.Primary aluminum is produced in electrolytic cells where bath and metal flow due to Lorentz Forces. This work presents the experimental validation in real pots of a previously introduced 3-D magnetic field analysis methodology develop with the commercial Finite Element package ANSYS 9.0. Numerical results represent fairly the most important components for the simulated technology (B X and B Y, considering the measurement error e. Maximum differences observed between experimental and numerical results are 33% for B X and 60% for B Z. Correlation between measured and calculated values are up to 98,8% for B X and 93,5% for B Z.

  14. CpG-ODN plus alum as a composite adiuvant to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza split virion vaccine%CpG-ODN和氢氧化铝复合佐剂对流感病毒裂解疫苗免疫效果的影响

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    罗兴; 刘颖; 杨春亭; 龚敏卿; 周军; 于三科; 许洪林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the immuno-potentiating effects of CpG-ODN plus alum as a composite adjuvant on influenza split virion vaccine.Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with various amounts of 2009 H1N1 influenza split virion vaccine,alone or in combination with CpG-ODN,alum,or both (composite adjuvant).Antigen-specific humoral immune responses were evaluated by ELISA,hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) assay and neutralizing assay.Antigen-specific cellular immune responses were evaluated by ELISPOT assay,intracellular cytokine staining assay and in vivo CTL assay.Results Compared with the control group immunized with antigen alone,a single use of either adjuvant weakly enhanced the humoral immune responses,as indicated by the increase of antigen-specific IgG titers,HI titers and neutralizing titers by 3-6 folds,2-4 folds and 4-8 folds,respectively,after two immunizations.In contrast,the composite adjuvant induced more potent humoral immune responses; the antigen-specific IgG titers,HI titers and neutralizing titers were increased by 23-57 folds,9-20 folds and 16-64 folds,respectively.Consequently,the composite adjuvant achieved antigen-sparing by at least 16 folds.In addition,the composite adjuvant significantly enhanced the antigen-specific cellular immune responses,as revealed by the increase of IFN-γ-secreting CD4+ T cells and the enhancement of CTL activity in immunized mice.Conclusion CpG-ODN plus alum as a composite adjuvant can enhance the immunogenicity of influenza split virion vaccine and achieve the antigen-sparing effect.%目的 研究CpG-ODN和氢氧化铝复合佐剂对流感病毒裂解疫苗体液免疫和细胞免疫效果的影响,为今后研制新佐剂流感疫苗和解决流感疫苗产能不足的问题提供依据.方法 以不同剂量的2009 H1N1流感病毒裂解疫苗为抗原,分别以CpG-ODN、氢氧化铝以及CpG-ODN和氢氧化铝复合佐剂为疫苗佐剂免疫BALB/c小鼠,通过ELISA、血凝抑制试验和假病毒中和试验等

  15. Simultaneous effect of water deficiency and aluminum toxicity in the soil in cultivar IAC91-5155 of sugarcaneEfeito simultâneo da deficiência hídrica e do alumínio tóxico no solo na cultivar IAC91-5155 de cana-de-açúcar

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    Andressa Freitas de Lima Rhein

    2012-05-01

    parâmetros que atuem como indicadores fisiológicos da aclimatação das plantas aos efeitos da combinação de estresses, o presente trabalho avaliou a atividade da redutase do nitrato e os teores de clorofilas em plantas jovens de cana-de-açúcar, cv. IAC91-5155, sob efeito simultâneo de dois estresses abióticos de grande ocorrência nos solos brasileiros: deficiência hídrica e alumínio tóxico. Para tanto, as plantas foram submetidas a três tratamentos de disponibilidade hídrica (% de capacidade de campo, CC: sem estresse (70% CC, estresse moderado (55% CC e estresse severo (40% CC e três tratamentos de acidez no solo (saturação por bases, V%: baixa acidez (V=55%, média acidez (V=33% e alta acidez (V=23%. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação 29,7±4,3oC e 75±10 UR%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3×3, com quatro repetições. Após 60 dias sob ambos os estresses, foi verificada a atividade da enzima redutase do nitrato e os teores de clorofilas na folha diagnóstico. Os resultados mostram que, a atividade da enzima redutase do nitrato é indicadora apenas do efeito do estresse hídrico. Os teores de clorofilas são indicadores dos efeitos dos estresses isolados, deficiência hídrica ou toxidez do alumínio no solo. Ambos os parâmetros avaliados não podem ser adotados como indicadores fisiológicos do mecanismo de aclimatação de plantas jovens de cana-de-açúcar, cv. IAC91-5155, sob efeito combinado da deficiência hídrica e alumínio tóxico no solo.

  16. Avaliação da geometria de ferramenta e parâmetros do processo FSW na soldagem da liga de alumínio AA 5052 Process parameters and tool geometry evaluation in the FSW of AA 5052 aluminum alloy

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    Tiago Valdameri Capelari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A soldagem de ligas de alumínio sem degradação excessiva das propriedades originais do metal base apresenta-se como um obstáculo a ser superado pelas indústrias em seus processos de fabricação, uma vez que o alumínio tem sido usado cada vez de forma mais intensiva. Neste sentido, o processo de soldagem denominado Friction Stir Welding (FSW tem recebido atenção por suas potencialidades onde o aporte de calor deve ser minimizado ou quando metais dissimilares devem ser soldados. Neste processo, uma ferramenta de alta resistência mecânica e com um perfil especial é utilizada para, por meio de atrito com as peças a serem soldadas, gerar calor e misturar mecanicamente o material da junta, consolidando a solda. Este trabalho visa implementar o processo FSW utilizando uma fresadora universal de elevada rigidez na soldagem de chapas de alumínio AA 5052-H34 com 6,35mm de espessura. Para tanto, três geometrias de ferramentas de soldagem foram projetadas, fabricadas e testadas, de forma a definir-se parâmetros de soldagem compatíveis com as condições fornecidas pela máquina fresadora, por meio de testes preliminares. Definidos estes parâmetros, juntas foram obtidas com as três geometrias de ferramenta disponíveis e seus desempenhos foram comparados. Ensaios mecânicos de dobramento e tração, medição do perfil de microdurezas e análise macrográfica da seção transversal das soldas foram os métodos empregados na caracterização das propriedades resultantes. Em adição, soldas pelo processo MIG também foram obtidas e sujeitas às mesmas avaliações. considerando-se a tensão de escoamento como parâmetro de comparação, as três geometrias testadas apresentaram desempenho similar (em torno de 80% da tensão de escoamento do metal base. Porém, se comparadas com respeito aos valores de ductilidade ou aos testes de dobramento transversal, observou-se que uma das geometrias testadas tem desempenho inferior às demais devido a

  17. Substituição de amianto por silicato de alumínio e grafite expansível em compósito de poliuretano utilizado em motor-foguete Substitution of asbestos for aluminosiliacate and expandable graphite in polyurethane composites used in rocket motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Crespim

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos de poliuretano e amianto (liner são utilizados como revestimento interno em paredes de motor-foguete, conferindo proteção térmica e garantindo a adesão entre o propelente e as paredes do motor. No entanto, o uso do amianto tem sido restringido devido à sua toxidade. No presente trabalho, o amianto foi substituído por um silicato de alumínio hidratado (SA e pelo grafite expansível (GE em diferentes teores no liner. Resultados de análise termogravimétrica (TG mostraram que a estabilidade térmica do liner praticamente não é afetada pela substituição das cargas, embora a energia de ativação (Ea obtida para a decomposição tenha mudado, mostrando maiores valores para as amostras contendo as cargas SA e GE. A análise termomecânica (TMA mostrou que o coeficiente de expansão térmica linear do liner contendo SA foi menor que aquele encontrado para o liner contendo amianto. O liner contendo a carga SA também apresentou os maiores valores de tensão nos testes mecânicos de tração.Composites of polyurethane (PU and asbestos (liner are used as internal coating of rocket motors, providing thermal protection and assuring the adhesion between propellant and the motor walls. However, the use of asbestos has been restricted due to its hazardous nature. In the present work, asbestos was replaced by hydrated alumina silicate (SA and expandable graphite (GE in different contents. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG showed that the thermal stability of liners was practically unaffected by the filler replacement although the activation energy obtained for the decomposition has changed. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA showed that coefficients of thermal expansion of SA/liners were lower than asbestos/liner. SA/liners also presented the highest tension values in mechanical tests.

  18. Influência das características das substâncias húmicas na eficiência da coagulação com sulfato de alumínio The influence of humic substances characteristics on the coagulation efficiency using aluminum sulfate

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    Sandro Xavier Campos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudada a influência das características das substâncias húmicas (SH, em especial a massa molar das moléculas, na eficiência da coagulação com o uso do sulfato de alumínio. Utilizando-se de água proveniente de poço profundo, foram preparadas quatro águas de estudo, todas com cor verdadeira de aproximadamente 100 uH. As SH foram extraídas de turfa e fracionadas em massas molares: i SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm; ii SH filtradas em membranas de 0,45 µm e maiores que 100 kDa, iii SH com moléculas entre 30 e 100 kDa; iv SH com moléculas menores do que 30 kDa. Verificou-se que quanto maior a massa molar das SH maior foi a eficiência de remoção da cor aparente, com as menores dosagens de coagulante.O pH de coagulação ótimo, esteve entre 6,0 e 7,0, para todas as águas de estudo. Os estudos da porcentagem de ácido húmico (AH e ácido fúlvico (AF presentes em cada fração de diferente massa molar mostraram que quanto maior foi à porcentagem de AF presente, maior foi à dosagem de coagulante exigida para se obter os melhores resultados de remoção da cor aparente.The influence of the molecular weight of soil humic substances on the coagulation efficiency with aluminum sulfate was studied in this work. Four types of water were studied, with the same true color of approximately 100 HU, but prepared with different fractions of molecular weights: Water Type 1 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm; Water Type 2 (humic substances filtered in membrane of 0,45 µm and with molecular weight > 100 KDa; Water Type 3 (humic substances with molecular weight between 100 and 30 KDa; Water Type 4 (humic substances with molecular weight < 30 KDa. It was conclude that the higher the molecular weight of the molecules, the lower the coagulant dosages required for efficient coagulation, at the coagulation pH range 6 - 7. The types of water prepared with the fractions of humic substances containing higher

  19. Avaliação da resistência ao desgaste de aluminas nanométricas produzidas a partir da decomposição térmica de acetato de alumínio liofilizado Evaluation of wear resistance of nanometric aluminas produced by thermal decomposition of lyophilized aluminum acetate

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    E. Fagury Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios de resistência ao desgaste, na modalidade pino-contra-disco com pares deslizantes, foram realizados em pinos confeccionados a partir de pós de alumina proveniente do processo de decomposição térmica de acetato de alumínio liofilizado. Pós de alumina referentes às fases alfa-Al2O3 e gama-Al2O3, com e sem aditivos de sinterização (MgO e La2O3, foram usados para confeccionar pinos de desgaste. Pinos feitos também a partir de alumina comercial (A1000 SG foram analisados e os resultados foram comparados. Os ensaios foram feitos de acordo com norma ASTM e mostraram que os pinos confeccionados a partir de alfa-Al2O3 têm elevada resistência ao desgaste, comprovada pelos ensaios de perda de massa e microscopia eletrônica. Os pinos de gama-Al2O3 tiveram desempenho intermediário e os pinos de A1000 SG mostraram resultados menos expressivos.Wear resistance tests, using the pin-on-disk test method with sliding pairs, were carried out on pins produced from alumina powders prepared by thermal decomposition of lyophilized aluminum acetate. Alumina powders of alpha-Al2O3 and gamma-Al2O3 phases, with and without sintering additives (MgO and La2O3, were used to produce wear pins. In addition, pins made of commercial alumina (A1000 SG were tested and the results compared. The tests, carried out according to the ASTM standard, indicated that the pins made with alpha-Al2O3 powder showed high wear resistance, a finding corroborated by mass loss tests and scanning electron microscopy. The gamma-Al2O3 pins showed an intermediary performance while the A1000 SG pins showed less interesting results.

  20. Determinação da força de adesão da metalização com alumínio em filmes plásticos utilizados em embalagens flexíveis Adhesion strength of aluminum on metallized plastic films used in flexible packages - development and validation of a test procedure

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    Léa M. Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Filmes de BOPP e de PET metalizados são muito utilizados em embalagens multicamadas, pois reúnem boas propriedades mecânicas e de barreira a gases e umidade, as quais, bem como a aparência e a integridade, são comprometidas quando ocorre a delaminação da estrutura multicamada. Um dos principais fatores que influem na resistência à delaminação é a força de adesão da camada de alumínio ao substrato polimérico, parâmetro para o qual não há um método de quantificação normalizado. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer e validar um método de ensaio para determinar esta força de adesão. O método foi definido usando um planejamento experimental com fatores fixos e variáveis sendo que, para cada variável, foram definidos dois níveis. O método de ensaio estabelecido mostrou-se estável, preciso, robusto e replicável. Consiste, basicamente, na termosselagem de um filme plástico à face metalizada da amostra, em condições específicas de temperatura/tempo/pressão, e medida da força para destacamento da metalização, em ângulo e velocidade específicos, em máquina universal de ensaios.OPP and OPET metallized films are widely used as substrates in multilayer packages, since they bring together good mechanical properties and barrier to gases and water vapor, which are damaged with delamination of the film layers, together with the visual appearance and package integrity. One of the main factors that affect the package delamination is the adhesion strength of aluminum layer to the polymeric substrate, a parameter for which there is no standard procedure to quantify. The aim of this work was to establish and validate a procedure to determine the adhesion strength of the aluminum to the polymer. This test procedure was carried out using experimental design with fixed and variables parameters with two levels for each variable. The test procedure was stable, robust and replicable. It consisted basically of the heat sealing

  1. A naturalização da identidade social precarizada na indústria do alumínio primário paraense The acknowledgment of the precarious social identity in the primary aluminum industry in the state of Pará, Brazil

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    Attila Magno e Silva Barbosa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar em que medida o processo de terceirização em uma indústria de alumínio primário no município de Barcarena, no estado do Pará, produz diferenciações nas identidades sociais dos trabalhadores diretos e dos terceirizados. Como se sabe, os terceirizados possuem estatuto diferenciado no espaço de trabalho, o que os exclui da rede de benefícios oferecida pelas empresas. Nesse sentido, a sociedade passa a conviver não apenas com a fragilidade presente na relação salarial, mas também com o desmoronamento dos princípios reguladores da sociabilidade entre os trabalhadores. A hipótese levantada é a de que os estatutos mais precários que fundamentam a condição dos terceirizados se estendem por toda a constituição da vida social destes e lhes confere uma identidade social distinta. Foram realizadas 15 entrevistas com cada grupo de trabalhadores e duas entrevistas com dirigentes sindicais, também analisamos o acordo coletivo dos trabalhadores diretos com a empresa e os relatórios anuais desta desde o ano de 2003.This study intends to examine to what extent the outsourcing process in an industry of primary aluminum, in the city of Barcarena, Pará, results in differentiation in the social identities of direct and outsourced workers. Outsourced workers have a different status in the workplace, which excludes them from the benefits offered by the companies. As a result, society has to deal not only with the fragility of the wage relationship, but also with the collapse of the principles that regulate sociability among workers. The hypothesis is that the precarious statutes responsible for the conditions of outsourced workers are extended throughout their social lives, which gives them a distinct social identity. Fifteen interviews were conducted with each group of workers; two union leaders were also interviewed. Furthermore, the article examines the collective agreement between the direct workers

  2. Toxicidade do alumínio e efeito do ácido giberélico em linhas quase isogênicas de trigo com o caráter permanência verde e maturação sincronizada

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    Silva Simone Alves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar linhas quase isogênicas de trigo com o caráter permanência verde e de maturação sincronizada quanto à tolerância ao alumínio e à sensibilidade ao ácido giberélico (AG3. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Duplo-haplóides e Hidroponia da FAEM/UFPel, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, através do teste simultâneo utilizando solução nutritiva com concentrações de 10mg L-1 de Al3+ e 100mg L-1 de AG3. Foram determinados: a inserção da 1feminine folha, o comprimento da 1feminine folha, a inserção da 2feminine folha, comprimento da 2feminine folha, diferença da inserção entre a 1feminine e 2feminine folha, estatura de plântula, estatura de planta, área foliar, área radicular e o crescimento de raiz. Os caracteres estatura da plântula, inserção da 1feminine folha e comprimento da 2feminine folha foram os mais expressivos para a seleção de indivíduos com estatura reduzida através da reação do AG3. O grupo do caráter permanência verde apresentou maior insensibilidade à ação do AG3, enquanto o grupo de plantas sincronizadas proporcionou maior tolerância ao Al3+. Contudo, existe possibilidade de selecionar linhas quase isogênicas dentro do grupo permanência verde com tolerância ao Al3+ e insensibilidade ao AG3 através da técnica de cultivo hidropônico com solução nutritiva em ambiente controlado.

  3. Determination of ammonium sulphate in ammonia alum by formaldehyde reaction

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    Amir Chand

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing methods for the estimation of ammonium salts in presence of hydrolysable salts have been reviewed. A new titrimetric method utilizing formaldehyde and potassium fluoride is described for its estimation in presence of aluminium sulphate. The method is accurate and rapid for routine analysis.

  4. Gallocyanin-chrome alum counterstaining of Golgi-Kopsch impregnations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieman, S B

    1983-05-01

    A simple technique is described for counterstaining Golgi-Kopsch impregnations. The sections are first stabilized by the method of Geisert and Updyke and then stained in 0.15% gallocyanin and 5% chromium potassium sulfate for 45 minutes at 55-60 C. The sections are then rinsed, dehydrated to 70% ethanol, cleared in terpineol, mounted and coverslipped. This procedure results in a light to medium blue stain of those cells not impregnated by the silver chromate. The major advantages of this procedure over earlier methods are: (1) the counterstain does not fade and (2) since no differentiation is required, many sections may be stained simultaneously. PMID:6195778

  5. Behind the scenes w/ an NPS alum (poster)

    OpenAIRE

    Kibel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    How NPS helped my USMC 8825 career: "My office deals with requirements development and resource sponsorship of training simulations. Using the requirements development process with Modeling and Simulation, I am able to assess how these systems work to define what is feasible and what is not. Interfacing with the Marine Corps' Science and Technology partners enables us to leverage related technologies. My NPS education has helped me to assess what technologies can be transitioned to fill si...

  6. THE EFFECT OF ALUM AND METALS ON PAPER AGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byun~HoYoo~; KyoungHwaChoi; MyoungKuLee; SeJongKim

    2004-01-01

    Books and archives experience aging which isaffected by a variety of factors, such asmicroorganism, humidity, light and components ofpaper [l]. Thus, the studies concerning impacts ofthose factors on paper aging are required. In thispaper, an accelerated paper aging was carried out toinvestigate the effects of acid and metals such asalum, copper ( 11 ) sulfate, copper ( 1] ) chloride, andiron ( IU ) chloride on paper aging. It was found thatboth acid and metals had impacts on paper aging. Inparticular, paper aging was far more accelerated incase that acid and metals were present in paper at thesame time.

  7. Assessing racial prejudice technique topic of talk by alum, professor

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Sally L.

    2004-01-01

    The departments of Psychology, Marketing, and Sociology and the Office of Multicultural Affairs will sponsor a colloquium, "You May Not Be Racist After All: A Psychometric Reanalysis of the Implicit Association Test of Racial Preferences," by Hart Blanton at 3:30 p.m. Friday, Nov. 5, in Pamplin Hall 30.

  8. Teores de alumínio trocável e não trocável após calagem e gessagem em Latossolo sob plantio direto Exchangeable and non-exchangeable contents of aluminum after lime and gypsum application in an Oxisol under no-tillage

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    Fernando César Bachiega Zambrosi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O sistema plantio direto (SPD contribui para o incremento dos teores de matéria orgânica (MO no solo, o que pode alterar as relações entre os teores de alumínio (Al trocável e não trocável, devido à complexação desse cátion. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da calagem e da gessagem nos teores de Al trocável (Al-KCl, Al trocável + não trocável (Al-CuCl2 e Al não trocável em amostras de Latossolo Vermelho cultivado há 55 meses no SPD, no município de Ponta Grossa (PR. Na implantação do sistema sobre uma pastagem nativa, entre os meses de julho e outubro de 1998, foram aplicadas 4,5 t ha-1 de calcário em superfície, em única aplicação, ou parceladas em três aplicações anuais de 1,5 t ha-1, ou ainda em uma aplicação, sendo o corretivo incorporado a 20 cm de profundidade. Nas subparcelas, foram aplicadas três doses de gesso: 3, 6 e 9 t ha-1. A calagem reduziu os teores de Al-KCl, Al-CuCl2 e de Al não trocável, que se relacionaram negativamente com o pH do solo. Mesmo em condições de elevada acidez, os teores de Al trocável foram baixos, predominando no solo o Al não trocável, que representou 98%, 95%, 91% e 89% do Al extraído nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 e 20-40 cm respectivamente. Não foi detectado efeito do gesso nos teores de nenhuma das formas de Al.No-tillage (NT system contributes for the increase of soil organic matter (OM contents, changing the ratio between exchangeable and non-exchangeable Al due to cation complexation. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of lime and gypsum application in the contents of exchangeable aluminum (Al-KCl, exchangeable + non-exchangeable aluminum (Al-CuCl2, and non-exchangeable Al from samples of a dystrophic clayey Rhodic Hapludox under NT for 55 months, in Ponta Grossa - PR. The NT system was implemented on a native pasture between July and October of 1998. Three methods of lime application were evaluated: a single

  9. Recrystallization and crystallographic texture in AA4006 aluminum alloy sheets produced by twin roll caster and direct chill processes Recristalização e textura cristalográfica de chapas produzidas por lingotamento contínuo e semicontínuo da liga de alumínio AA4006

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    Fabrício Mendes Souza

    2012-09-01

    ém disto, a textura cristalográfica pode mudar com a recristalização e com a laminação do metal. Utilizando-se dessas etapas de processamento do material, a orientação dos grãos de uma tira metálica pode ser otimizada, a fim de, por exemplo, melhorar a estampabilidade de chapas, na obtenção de um dado produto com valor agregado. Nesse trabalho, as curvas de amolecimento, para duas chapas produzidas por lingotamento contínuo e lingotamento semicontínuo da liga de alumínio AA4006, foram determinadas e comparadas. Embora as diferenças detectadas entre as curvas de amolecimento tenham sido pequenas, foi possível verificar que a recristalização da chapa produzida por lingotamento contínuo ocorre em temperaturas mais elevadas do que na chapa produzida por lingotamento semicontínuo. Resultados da textura cristalográfica, em amostras dessas chapas, foram obtidos utilizando-se da difração de raios X e da difração de elétrons retroespalhados EBSD. Esses resultados indicaram a presença da textura de cisalhamento na superfície e da fibra β no centro da amostra laminada a frio (70% de redução da chapa obtida por lingotamento contínuo. Na amostra da chapa obtida por lingotamento semicontínuo, nas mesmas condições, a componente cubo e a fibra β foram detectadas na superfície e no centro. Uma textura fraca com grãos orientados ao acaso foi vista nas duas amostras recristalizadas das duas chapas, devido possivelmente à nucleação estimulada por partículas.

  10. Análise de coberturas com telhas de barro e alumínio, utilizadas em instalações animais para duas distintas alturas de pé-direito The analysis of ceramic tile and aluminum covers, used in animal facilities for two different foot-right heights

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    Rodrigo C. Santos

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a análise de coberturas com telhas de barro e alumínio, comumente utilizadas em instalações animais, para duas distintas alturas de pé-direito, em condições de inverno no Brasil. O experimento foi realizado com modelos reduzidos de galpões avícolas, escala 1:10, e a análise foi feita quantificando-se a Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR e o Índice de Temperatura de Globo Negro e Umidade (ITGU em diferentes horários, ao longo do período experimental. O experimento foi montado segundo um esquema de parcelas subdivididas, no delineamento em blocos casualizados. A interpretação estatística dos dados experimentais foi feita por meio da análise de variância e regressão. Para os fatores qualitativos (tipos de cobertura e pé-direito as médias foram comparadas utilizando-se o teste de Tukey e/ou F, adotando-se o nível de 5% de probabilidade; já para o fator quantitativo, os modelos foram escolhidos com base na significância dos coeficientes de regressão, utilizando-se o teste t em nível de 5% de probabilidade, o coeficiente de determinação e o fenômeno em estudo. Verificou-se, através deste experimento, que nas horas de frio mais intenso todas as coberturas causaram desconforto térmico e todos os protótipos tiveram UR acima do máximo tolerável para o conforto animal.This research had as objective the analysis of ceramic tiles and aluminum roof, commonly used in animal facilities, for two different heights, under Brazilian Winter conditions. The experiment used reduced models of poultry houses (scale 1:10 and the analysis was made by the values of Thermal Load of Radiation (TLR and of Black Globe and Humidity Index (BGHI, at different times along the experiment. The trial was conducted in randomized complete block design. The statistical interpretation of the experimental data was made through the variance and regression analysis. For the qualitative factors (roof types and height, the

  11. Crescimento em vasos, de cultivares de soja e de trigo em função da saturação de alumínio Tolerance of soybean and wheat varieties in sub-soil high in exchangeable aluminum

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    H.A.A. Mascarenhas

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Um dos problemas que a acidez do solo causa às plantas é concentrar alguns elementos químicos em nível tóxico, como por exemplo de alumínio (Al e manganês. Visando estudar esse aspecto, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se amostra de subsolo, classificado como Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo fase rasa, de extrema acidez e alto teor de Al trocáveL A acidez do substrato foi neutralizada com doses de hidróxido de cálcio, no intuito de reduzir a saturação de Al originalmente de 67 para 45, 30, e 15%. As incubações e os cultivos foram feitos em vasos contendo 6 kg daquele subsolo. Inicialmente foi testada a soja variedades Biloxi, Davis e Santa Rosa, com medições de: altura das plantas, número de nós, tamanho dos internódios, número de folhas trifoliadas, produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes. Imediatamente após, o sub-solo foi cultivado com trigo variedades BH-1146 e Siete Cerros, sendo medido o comprimento dos seus sistemas radiculares. Verificou-se para a soja que não houve diferenças significativas dentro de cada variedade para as saturações de Al estudadas, evidenciando que todas foram tolerantes ao AL As raízes do trigo BH-1146 não mostraram redução no desenvolvimento em quaisquer saturações de Al. Por outro lado, as da v. Siete Cerros mostraram menor comprimento à medida que se aumentou a saturação de Al, provando sua suscetibilidade a esse elemento.A pot experiment was installed in a greenhouse using an acid sub-soil, classified as a Red Yellow Latosol, shallow phase, high hi aluminum and very low in phosphorus availabilities. The soil acidity was neutralized using calcium hidroxide to reduce the original aluminum saturation of 67 to 45, 30 and 15%. The quantity of subsoil used per pot was 6 kg and 60 kg/ha of P2O5 were applied hi the form of superphosphate. The varieties of soybeans utilized were Biloxi, Davis and Santa Rosa. The results showed that whichever

  12. Available phosphorus and sulphur, exchangeable aluminum and remaining phosphorus in rhodic eutrudox submitted to gypsum cultivated with wheat and soybean Fósforo e enxofre disponível, alumínio trocável e fósforo remanescente em latossolo vermelho submetido ao gesso cultivado com trigo e soja

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    Leandro Rampim

    2013-09-01

    ósforo e enxofre disponível, alumínio trocável e interferência no fósforo remanescente no solo nas profundidades de 0-0,10, 0,10-0,20 e 0,20- 0,40 m em um Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico de textura muito argilosa sob sistema de semeadura direta e produtividade das culturas de trigo e soja. Foi realizado coleta de amostras de solo aos seis e 12 meses após aplicação superficial de 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 e 5000 kg ha-1 de gesso e tratamento sem aplicação de gesso. O uso do gesso aumentou linearmente o teor de S disponível na profundidades de 0-0,10, 0,10-0,20 e 0,20-0,40 m, com teor de mínimo teor de P disponível com a dose de 3166 kg ha-1 e teor de mínimo Al trocável com a dose de 3300 kg ha-1 na profundidade de 0,20-0,40 m, no entanto, não influenciou os valores de P remanescente. O uso do gesso aumentou a produtividade de trigo, mas não influenciou a produtividade da soja.

  13. Absorção e redução de nitrato em duas cultivares de arroz na presença de alumínio Uptake and reduction of nitrate in two rice cultivars in the presence of aluminum

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    Gilberto Costa Justino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos do alumínio (Al sobre a absorção e a redução de nitrato, em duas cultivares de arroz: Fernandes (tolerante e Maravilha (sensível, expostas a 0 e 500 µM de Al. Depois de 21 dias de crescimento, foram determinados o comprimento, a produção de matéria seca, os teores de Al e de nitrato e a atividade in vitro da redutase do nitrato (RN, nas raízes e na parte aérea, bem como as constantes cinéticas de absorção de nitrato pelas raízes. O Al reduziu o crescimento em comprimento e a produção de matéria seca, nas duas partes das plantas, apenas da cultivar Maravilha. Os teores de Al aumentaram nas raízes e parte aérea das plantas nas duas cultivares, enquanto o teor de nitrato sofreu redução apenas nas raízes da cultivar Maravilha. A Vmax não se modificou, enquanto o Km da absorção de nitrato diminuiu cerca de 11% na cultivar Fernandes e aumentou 310% na Maravilha. Em presença de Al, houve redução na atividade da RN nas raízes das duas cultivares, e na parte aérea apenas da cultivar Maravilha. A cultivar tolerante foi mais eficiente na absorção e na redução de nitrato, o que indica que esses processos são importantes componentes da tolerância ao Al em arroz.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of Al on the nitrate uptake and reduction in two rice cultivars, Fernandes (Al tolerant and Maravilha (Al sensitive, exposed to 0 and 500 µM Al. After 21 days of Al treatment, growth in size and dry matter yield, Al and nitrate contents and in vitro nitrate reductase activity (NR in the tops and roots, and the kinetic constants of root nitrate uptake were determined. Aluminum reduced the growth and dry matter yield of both plant parts only in the Maravilha cultivar. Aluminum content increased in the tops and roots of both cultivars, while nitrate content decreased only in the roots of Maravilha cultivar. Vmax did not change, while Km of the nitrate uptake

  14. Avaliação do tamanho, da morfologia e da composição química de inclusões não metálicas em aço baixo carbono desoxidado ao alumínio

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    José Carlos dos Santos Pires

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A presença de inclusões não metálicas endógenas e exógenas prejudica a lingotabilidade e as propriedades mecânicas dos aços. A busca contínua pelo controle da quantidade, do tamanho, da morfologia e da composição química de inclusões não metálicas tem sido tema de estudos nas últimas décadas, em especial durante o processo de refino secundário dos aços. Através do controle, principalmente, do tamanho e da composição química das inclusões, é possível obter um produto final de boa qualidade. A identificação da natureza e o controle da formação de inclusões são de suma importância para a obtenção de aços limpos. Este trabalho tem como objetivo fazer uma investigação de inclusões não metálicas em aço de baixo teor de carbono(SAE 1015, desoxidado ao alumínio, através de um método de dissolução parcial e total da matriz metálica e posterior análise ao Microscópio Eletrônico de Varredura (MEV, acoplado a um sistema de análise por energia dispersiva (EDS, permitindo uma visualização do tamanho, da forma e da composição química das inclusões com maior precisão, sem interferência da matriz ferrítica.The endogenous and exogenous non-metallic inclusions, which are normally present in steel, affect its castability and its mechanical properties. In the last decades, the control of amount, size, morphology and chemical composition of non-metallic inclusions has been extensively investigated, especially at the stage of refinement of steels. By controlling amount, size, distribution and chemical composition of inclusions, a steel product of better quality can be produced. To identify the nature of inclusions and the stages of the manufacturing process where they are formed is extremely important for the production of clean steels. The present work has as a main objective to investigate non-metallic inclusions in low carbon steel (SAE 1015, killed by aluminum. A method, which uses the expedient of

  15. Análise físico-química e microbiológica do suco de laranja minimamente processado armazenado em lata de alumínio Physico-chemical and microbiological analyses of minimally processed orange juice stored in aluminium cans

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    Áurea Y. Sugai

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, suco de laranja natural foi pasteurizado em um trocador de calor a placas empregando três diferentes temperaturas de pasteurização: 82,5ºC; 85,0ºC e 87,0ºC e tempos de retenção variando de 11 a 59s, para se obter um produto minimamente processado. Um estudo comparativo foi realizado no suco de laranja armazenado em latas de alumínio em relação ao mesmo produto armazenado em garrafas PEAD, sob refrigeração, por um período de 21 dias. Análises de graus Brix, pH, acidez, sólidos insolúveis e totais e análises microbiológicas foram realizadas em amostras logo após o processamento e durante o período de armazenamento. As propriedades físico-químicas do suco de laranja pasteurizado apresentaram diferenças devido as diferenças detectadas na matéria-prima ao longo do período do estudo. O parâmetro de pasteurização mais apropriado para o suco de laranja natural foi 87,0ºC e com tempo de retenção variando de acordo com o pH do suco. Para pH 4,0 o tempo de retenção requerido foi maior. De acordo com os resultados, uma vida-de-prateleira de 15 dias foi determinada para o suco processado nas condições acima.In this work, single-strength orange juice was pasteurized in a plate heat exchanger using three different temperatures: 82.5ºC, 85.0ºC and 87.0°C and holding times varying from 11 to 59s in order to obtain a minimally processed product. A comparison among orange juice samples stored in aluminium cans and in polyethylene bottles under refrigerated conditions for 21 days was carried out. Degree of Brix, acidity, pH, insoluble and total solids, and microbiological analyses were conducted soon after processing and during the storage period. The physico-chemical properties of the pasteurized orange juice showed differences due to variations in the raw material during the period of study. The most appropriate pasteurization temperature for orange juice was 87.0°C, with the holding time varying according

  16. Crescimento radicular e produção de ácidos orgânicos em cultivares de soja com diferentes tolerâncias ao alumínio Root growth and production of organic acids by soybean cultivars with different tolerance to aluminum

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    Orival Gastão Menosso

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A elucidação dos mecanismos que definem o comportamento diferencial entre genótipos de soja quanto à toxidez de Al facilita a utilização da variabilidade genética existente ou produzida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do Al no crescimento radicular, na modificação do pH da solução e no conteúdo de ácidos orgânicos em extratos de raízes de cultivares de soja tolerantes ao Al, FT-1 e FT-6 (Veneza e sensíveis, IAC-13 e Paraná. As plantas cresceram por nove dias em solução contendo 50 mg L-1 de Ca e 0,0 e 0,2 mg L-1 de Al, com pH inicial de 4,76. Houve maior crescimento de raízes nas cultivares tolerantes e não houve alterações do pH da solução relacionadas à tolerância das cultivares ao alumínio. A presença do Al reduziu o conteúdo dos ácidos cítrico, lático, succínico, oxálico e málico, em ambos os grupos de cultivares avaliados, porém com maior redução no grupo das cultivares sensíveis. O ácido cítrico foi encontrado em maior quantidade nas cultivares tolerantes. A capacidade das cultivares de soja FT-1 e FT-6 (Veneza de alterar o conteúdo de ácidos orgânicos não-voláteis, principalmente o ácido cítrico, que pode complexar o Al, indica que este mecanismo pode ser muito importante para a tolerância a esse elemento.The understanding of the mechanisms for the differential performance of soybean genotypes in relation to Al toxicity is important to explore the existing or produced genetic variability. The objective of this study was to determine the Al influence on root growth, solution pH modifications and organic acid content in root extracts of Al tolerant, FT-1 and FT-6 (Veneza and sensitive, IAC-13 and Paraná, soybean cultivars. Plants were grown during nine days in a solution containing 50 mg L-1 of calcium and 0.0 and 0.2 mg L-1 of aluminum. The solution pH at the beginning was 4.76. Root growth in Al solutions of the tolerant soybean cultivars was higher than that of the

  17. The effect of microsilica and refractory cement content on the properties of andalusite based Low Cement Castables used in aluminum casthouse O efeito do teor de microsílica e de cimento refratário nas propriedades de LCCs usados em moldagem de alumínio

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    E. A. Firoozjaei

    2010-12-01

    avaliar a resistência à corrosão dos concretos a 850 ºC e 1160 ºC. O estudo mostrou que um aumento na razão microsílica/cimento melhora as propriedades mecânicas e físicas do concreto, mas às custas da resistência à corrosão. Quando um teor fixo de BaSO4 foi adicionado ao material refratário base, observou-se um aumento de barium celsian junto com a formação de uma fase vítrea com o aumento da razão microsílica/cimento no refratário. Foi observado que a presença de fases vítreas diminui o efeito positivo da formação Ba-celsian na melhora da corrosão à resistência do refratário. Os resultados observados foram validados por meio de cálculos termodinâmicos que indicaram que a fase Ba-celsian era mais resistente que a Ca-anortita para aplicações envolvendo contato com alumínio líquido.

  18. Melhoramento do trigo: XXX. Avaliação de linhagens com tolerância a toxicidade de alumínio, manganês e ferro em condições de campo Wheat breeding: XXX. Evaluation of inbred lines tolerant to aluminum, manganese and iron toxicities under field conditions

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 23 linhagens tolerantes, ao mesmo tempo, à toxicidade de Al3+ Mn2+ e Fe2+, provindas do cruzamento entre 'BH-1146' (tolerante à toxicidade de A1(3+ e sensível à de Mn2+ e Fe2+ e 'Siete Cerros' (sensível à toxicidade de A1(3+ e tolerante à de Mn2+ e Fe2+ e os dois cultivares utilizados como pais em quatro ensaios instalados nas Estações Experimentais de Itararé (1990-92 e de Capão Bonito (1992, em solos ácidos, e em cinco ensaios realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas (1990-92 e na Fazenda Santa Lúcia (1990-91, município de Cruzália, em solos corrigidos, analisando os seguintes parâmetros: rendimento de grãos, características agronômicas e resistência às doenças. Em solos ácidos, vinte linhagens e o 'BH-1146' mostraram maior rendimento de grãos em relação ao 'Siete Cerros' indicando que a toxicidade de alumínio foi um dos principais fatores limitantes à produção. Em solos corrigidos, não se verificaram diferenças significativas entre os genótipos estudados quanto ao rendimento de grãos, mostrando não haver urna associação entre baixa produtividade e tolerância ao A1(3+ nessas condições. A linhagem 21 foi moderadamente resistente ao agente causal de oídio em condições naturais de infecção. Todos os genótipos avaliados revelaram suscetibilidade aos agentes causais das manchas foliares. O 'Siete Cerros' e as linhagens 3 a 12 apresentaram porte baixo associado à menor porcentagem de acamamento; as 13, 14 e 23 mostraram espigas compridas; a 12, maior número de espiguetas e grãos por espiga, e a 17, grãos mais pesados, representando fontes genéticas de valor para essas características.Twenty three inbred lines showing at the same time tolerance to A1(3+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities, originated from the cross between 'BH-1146' (tolerant to Al3+ toxicity and sensitive to Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities and 'Siete Cerros' (sensitive to Al3+ and tolerant to Mn2+ and Fe2+ toxicities, and the two

  19. Clinical evaluation of dentin hypersensitivity treatment with the low intensity Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenide laser - AsGaAl Avaliação clínica do tratamento da hiperestesia dentinária com laser de baixa potência de Arseniato de Gálio-Alumínio - AsGaAl

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    Luciana Chucre Gentile

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The dentin hypersensitivity is a painful condition rather prevalent in the general population. There are several ways of treatment for such condition, including the low intensity lasers. The proposal of this study was to verify the effectiveness of the Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenide diode laser in the treatment of this painful condition, using a placebo as control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients were selected, 22 females and 10 males, with ages ranging from 20 to 52 years old. The 32 patients were randomly distributed into two groups, treated and control; the sample consisted of 68 teeth, 35 in the treated group and 33 in the control group. The treated group was exposed to six laser applications with intervals from 48 to 72 hours, and the control group received, as placebo, applications of a curing light. RESULTS: A significant reduction was observed in the pain condition between the initial phase and after six laser applications; however, such reduction could also be observed for the control group exposed to the placebo. CONCLUSION: Therapy with the low intensity Gallium-Aluminum-Arsenide laser - AsGaAl induces a statistically significant reduction in the painful condition after each application and between the beginning and end of treatment, although there was no statistically significant difference between the treated group (laser and the control group (placebo at the end of treatment and after the mediate evaluation results (after 6 weeks, this way impairing the real measurement of laser effectiveness and placebo effect.A hiperestesia dentinária trata-se de uma condição dolorosa bastante prevalente nas populações mundiais. Várias são as modalidades de tratamento para tal condição, entre elas, os lasers de baixa potência. A proposta deste estudo foi a de verificar a efetividade do laser de diodo de Arseniato de Gálio-Alumínio no tratamento desta condição dolorosa, utilizando-se um placebo como controle. MATERIAIS E M

  20. A concentração de fósforo na tolerância de cultivares de trigo à toxicidade de alumínio em soluções nutritivas Effect of phosphorus in nutrient solution on the tolerance to aluminum toxicity in wheat cultivars

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Em dois experimentos empregando soluções nutritivas, foi estudada a tolerância de cultivares de trigo na presença de 5mg/litro de Al3+, medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução nutritiva completa sem alumínio, após permanência de 48 horas em solução contendo alumínio com diferentes concentrações de fósforo, controle do pH e temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC. No primeiro experimento, foram estudados oito cultivares de trigo em soluções nutritivas contendo quatro níveis de fósforo (0;15,5; 31,0 e 62,0mg/litro combinados com três níveis de pH (4,0; 5,0 e 6,0. Os cultivares CNT-8 e Siete Cerros foram sensíveis e, BH-1146, IAC-18, IAC-13, C-3, IAC-17 e Alondra-4546, tolerantes a 5mg/litro de Al3+ nas soluções de tratamento combinado com 0mg/litro de P e pH, = 4,0. Todos os cultivares foram sensíveis ao Al3+ quando se empregaram 15,5mg/litro de P e tolerantes quando se adicionaram 62mg/litro de P, considerando-se fixo o pH 4,0. Com o nível de 31mg/litro de P, em pH 4,0, os cultivares IAC-18, BH-1146, IAC-13 e C-3 foram tolerantes e 'IAC-17', 'Alondra-4546', 'CNT-8' e 'Siete Cerros', sensíveis. Nas soluções com pH 5,0 e 6,0, todos os cultivares foram tolerantes, independente das concentrações de P utilizadas, evidenciando pequena atividade dos íons Al3+ nesses níveis de pH. Os dados demonstraram que a tolerância a 5mg/litro de Al3+, além do pH da solução, foi dependente das concentrações de fósforo. No segundo experimento, foram estudados os cultivares BH-1146, IAC-17 e Siete Cerros, em soluções de tratamento contendo cinco concentrações de P (0; 1,55; 3,875; 7,75 e 15,5mg/litro e pH 4,0, Os cultivares BH-1146 e IAC-17 foram tolerantes e, 'Siete Cerros', sensível a 5mg/litro de Al3+, quando foram adicionados 0 e 1,55mg/litro de P nas soluções de tratamento. Quando se empregaram as concentrações de 3,875; 7,75 e 15,5mg/litro de P, todos os cultivares foram sensíveis ao Al3

  1. Desempenho de linhagens de trigo, oriundas de hibridações, em duas condições de cultivo do Estado de São Paulo e tolerância de alumínio em laboratório Performance of wheat lines in two tillage conditions os State of São Paulo and their tolerance to aluminum toxicity

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    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se 18 linhagens provenientes de cruzamentos entre genótipos de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L. e entre genótipos de trigo comum e de trigo duro (T. durum L., e as cultivares-controle IAC-24 e IAC-370 em experimentos instalados em condição de sequeiro e solo ácido de Capão Bonito, e em condição de irrigação por aspersão e solo ácido com aplicação de calcário de Mococa, no período 2003-2005. Analisaram-se produção de grãos, outros componentes da produção, características agronômicas e resistência ao agente causal da ferrugem-da-folha. Estudou-se também a tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas, no laboratório. As linhagens 9 (IAC-24/Anahuac M - Tol Al e 14 (BH-1146//AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/G.C.W1/SERI destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos em Mococa e a linhagem 10 (IAC-24/Anahuac M - Tol Al, tolerante à toxicidade de Al3+, em soluções nutritivas, sobressaíu-se quanto à produção de grãos, apresentando as plantas semi-anãs mais altas, em Capão Bonito. Todos os genótipos tiveram porte semi-anão e a cultivar IAC-370 e as linhagens 13 (BH-1146//AA"S"/WIN"S"/3/IAC-287, 14 e 15 F12.71/COC// CMH76.173/CMH 75 A 66/3/Desconhecido exibiram resistência ao acamamento. As linhagens 13 e 14 pela baixa incidência da ferrugem-da-folha mostraram ser boas fontes de resistência a essa doença em programas de melhoramento genético. As linhagens 17, 18, 19 e 20, oriundas do cruzamento interespecífico Maya"S"/SPRW"S"//SAP"S"/3/BUC"S"/4/IAC-225/5/IAC-1003 tiveram espigas compridas associadas aos grãos pesados, a linhagem 3 (IAC-24/Siete Cerros destacaram-se em relação ao número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta e a linhagem 14 pelo número de espiguetas por espiga. As cultivares IAC-24 e BH-1146, e as linhagens 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 e 10, selecionadas a partir do híbrido IAC-24/Anahuac M - Tol Al sobressaíram-se em relação à tolerância, à presença de 10 mg L-1 de Al3+, em soluções nutritivas

  2. Efeito da terapia com laser de arsenieto de gálio e alumínio (660Nm sobre a recuperação do nervo ciático de ratos após lesão por neurotmese seguida de anastomose epineural: análise funcional Effect of gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser therapy (660Nm on recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats following neurotmesis lesion and epineural anastomosis: functional analysis

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    FA Reis

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: As lesões nervosas periféricas podem comprometer atividades diárias de um indivíduo e resultam em perda da sensibilidade e motricidade do território inervado. OBJETIVO: Com o intuito de acelerar os processos regenerativos, objetivou-se analisar a influência da aplicação do laser de arsenieto de gálio e alumínio (AsGaAl, 660Nm sobre a recuperação funcional do nervo ciático de ratos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O nervo ciático de 12 ratos Wistar foi submetido à lesão por neurotmese e anastomose epineural e divididos em dois grupos: controle e laserterapia. Após a lesão, utilizou-se o laser de GaAlAs, 660Nm, 4J/cm², 26,3mW, feixe de 0,63cm², em três pontos eqüidistantes sobre a lesão, por 20 dias. As impressões das pegadas dos animais foram obtidas antes e após (sete, 14 e 21 dias pós-operatórios o procedimento cirúrgico e calculou-se o índice funcional do ciático (IFC. RESULTADOS: A comparação do IFC não resultou em diferença significante (p>0,05 entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Conclui-se que os parâmetros e métodos empregados na laserterapia demonstram resultados nulos sobre o IFC no período avaliado.CONTEXT: Peripheral nerve injuries result in sensory and motor losses in the innervated area and can hinder individuals’ daily activities. Objective: The objective was to analyze the influence of applying gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs laser (660Nm on the functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in rats. METHODS: The sciatic nerve of 12 Wistar rats was subjected to injury consisting of neurotmesis and epineural anastomosis. The rats were divided into two groups: control and laser therapy. After the injury, a GaAlAs laser was used (660Nm, 4J/cm², 26.3mW and 0.63cm² beam at three equidistant points on the injury, for 20 days. Footprint impressions were obtained from the animals before and seven, 14 and 21 days after the surgical procedure and the sciatic functional index (SFI was calculated

  3. Chemical and microbiological evaluation of the internal surfaces of aluminum tubes both unlined and lined with epoxi resin by means of the stereoscope and scanning electron microscope Avaliação química e microbiológica da superfície interna dos tubos de alumínio não revestido e revestido com resina epóxi por meio de microscópio estereoscópio e eletrônico de varredura

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    Elisabeth Loshchagin Pizzolitto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The internal surfaces of aluminum tubes, both unlined and lined with epoxy resin, which are used for packaged medicines such as creams, ointments, gels, etc., were evaluated chemically, and microbiologically with regard to microorganism adherence. Proof of porosity of the unlined aluminum surface and lined with epoxy resin, and the resistance to removal of the resin were observed using a scanning electron microscope and a stereoscope, with a digitalized image system. To evaluate the microorganisms adherence to the aluminum surface, unlined and lined with epoxy resin, sterilized disks (10mm in diameter were immersed in Mueller Hinton Broth and placed in tubes of polypropylene with screw caps. The liquid culture medium was then inoculated with suspensions (10(9CFU/ml of the following microorganisms: Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter lwoffii and Candida albicans and incubated at 37°C under constant agitation (100rpm for 12 days. The culture broth was changed every 3 days, after which the disks were removed, and observed under the scanning electron microscope. Microscopic observations revealed adherence of the microorganisms and biofilm on the aluminum surfaces both unlined and lined with epoxy resin.A superfície interna das bisnagas fabricadas com alumínio não revestido e revestido com resina epóxi, utilizadas para acondicionar cremes, pomadas, géis, etc., foram avaliadas quimicamente e por métodos microbiológicos correlacionados com a aderência de microrganismos. A prova da porosidade e da resistência à remoção da resina foi observada por meio do microscópio eletrônico de varredura (Topcon FM300 e estereoscópio Leica (MZ12 acoplado a Sistema de Digitalização de Imagens. Para avaliar a ação dos microrganismos foram utilizados corpos-de-prova esterilizados (discos de 10mm de diâmetro, imersos em caldo Mueller Hinton (Difco e colocados em tubos de polipropileno com tampa de rosca (Corning. Foram

  4. Removal of Cryptosporidium sized particle under different filtration temperature, flow rate and alum dosing

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    XU Guo-ren; Fitzpatrick S. B. Caroline; Gregory John; DENG Lin-yu

    2007-01-01

    Recent Cryptosporidium outbreaks have highlighted concerns about filter efficiency and in particular particle breakthrough. It is essential to ascertain the causes of Cryptosporidium sized particle breakthrough for Cryptosporidium cannot be destroyed by conventional chlorine disinfection. This research tried to investigate the influence of temperature, flow rate and chemical dosing on particle breakthrough during filtration. The results showed that higher temperatures and coagulant doses could reduce particle breakthrough. The increase of filtration rate made the residual particle counts become larger. There was an optimal dose in filtration and was well correlated to ζ potential.

  5. Comportamiento geoquímico de barreras arcillosas: transformaciones hidrotermales en esmectitas alumínicas

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    Cuadros, F. J.

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of bentonite barriers in radiactive waste repositories is conditioned by its transformation into illite, due to the influence of temperature and solutions in the canister vicinity. This reaction is known in burial diagenesis and hydrothermal alterations, but its mechanism is not yet well stablished. A preliminary study on spanish bentonites shows that important variations exist in the chemical solutions in contact with bentonites in a hydrothermal environment.El uso de bentonitas como barrera en almacenamientos de residuos radiactivos viene condicionado por su posible transformación en ilita debido a la influencia de la temperatura y de las soluciones cercanas al contenedor. Esta reacción se conoce en zonas de diagénesis de enterramiento y en áreas hidrotermales, pero su mecanismo no está todavía bien establecido. En un estudio preliminar realizado sobre bentonitas españolas se ha encontrado que existen variaciones importantes en el quimismo de las soluciones en contacto con bentonitas en ambiente hidrotermal.

  6. Efeito do alumínio sobre o crescimento de duas espécies florestais

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    A. N. Beutler

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o efeito do Al no crescimento inicial de duas espécies florestais, foi instalado um experimento em novembro de 1998, em solução nutritiva, em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Após duas semanas em solução nutritiva diluída a 1/3 e sem Al, duas plantas de Moringa (Moringa oleifera e duas de Angico (Anandenantha peregrina foram transplantadas para vasos de 1,5 L e crescidas em solução nutritiva. Os teores de Al utilizados foram de 0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; e 10,0 mg L-1, com pH 4,0 ± 0,2, ajustado diariamente durante 70 dias. Após este período, foi determinada a altura das plantas, as quais, posteriormente, foram divididas em parte aérea e raiz, para determinação da matéria seca e dos teores de N e P. Os teores crescentes de Al reduziram progressivamente a altura das plantas e a produção de matéria seca das raízes nas duas espécies e da parte aérea no Angico. O teor de nitrogênio na Moringa diminuiu com o incremento nos teores de Al. O teor de fósforo na parte aérea da Moringa e do Angico diminui a partir de 5 mg L-1 de Al na solução nutritiva.

  7. Desidrogenação do etilbenzeno sobre compostos de ferro e alumínio

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    Oliveira Alcinéia Conceição

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium and potassium-doped iron oxides are widely used as industrial catalysts in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to produce styrene. They have several advantages but deactivate with time, because of the loss of potassium. Also, they are toxic due to chromium compounds. Therefore there is a need for developing alternative non toxic catalysts without potassium. Then, iron and aluminum compounds were prepared by different methods in this work. Different phases were produced depending on the preparation method. Aluminum-doped hematite was more active and selective to styrene than the aluminum ferrite. Aluminum acts both as textural and structural promoter in the catalysts.

  8. Bladder tissue permeability and transport modelling of intravesical alum, lidocaine hydrochloride, methylprednisolone hemisuccinate and mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, Céline; Salmon, Damien; Rodríguez Armesto, Laura; Colombel, Marc; Pivot, Christine; Pirot, Fabrice

    2014-04-10

    The aims of this study were to assess the tissue permeability of the bladder and to characterize the transport of four drugs displaying different physico-chemical properties and commonly used in intravesical delivery, through porcine bladder. The transport of aluminium through porcine bladder was assessed by using a vertical static diffusion cell. Lidocaine hydrochloride, methylprednisolone hemisuccinate and mitomycin C were tested by using three different experimental setups, including vertical static diffusion cell, microdialyseur and lab-patented device. Penetration results on different experimental setups were homogenous suggesting dependency on physico-chemical characteristics of drug and subsequent interaction with bladder wall structure. Oppositely, permeation varied consistently with experimental setup characteristics (i.e., permeation surface, receptor fluid volume and hydrodynamic). Mathematical modelling of drug transport through bladder wall is proposed considering scarce literature on this route of administration. Practical outcome of this study could drive compounding optimization towards improvement of safety and efficacy in patient undergoing intravesical administration. PMID:24463072

  9. Statistilise keelemudeli adapteerimine eesti keele kõnetuvastuses / Tanel Alumäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alumäe, Tanel, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Käsitletakse eesti keele suure sõnavaraga kõnetuvastuse statistilise keelemudeli adapteerimist, mille käigus on võimalik varjatud semantika analüüsi abil leida suurest dokumendikorpusest antud teemale lähedasemad tekstid

  10. Characterization of alum floc in water treatment by image analysis and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Juntunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In many water treatment plants, flocculation is the key unit concerning the performance of water treatment. For this reason, monitoring the flocculation (i.e. floc size is a crucial issue to achieve the acceptable performance for the process. Generally, flocculation is monitored by naked eye or using complex, sample-based methods. This is laborious and expensive, however, and should be either automated or alternative methods for estimating the floc quality should be developed if possible. In this paper, we present an online characterization system for estimating the most essential quality parameters of floc using digital images taken in the flocculation unit. In addition, we compare the surface area of the floc particles defined using the images with other measurement data collected from the process, and create a multivariable regression model for it. We also illustrate the dependencies between the floc properties and other process variables using a self-organizing map.

  11. Comparison of coagulation performance and floc properties using a novel zirconium coagulant against traditional ferric and alum coagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Peter; Sharp, Emma; Pidou, Marc; Molinder, Roger; Parsons, Simon A; Jefferson, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Coagulation in drinking water treatment has relied upon iron (Fe) and aluminium (Al) salts throughout the last century to provide the bulk removal of contaminants from source waters containing natural organic matter (NOM). However, there is now a need for improved treatment of these waters as their quality deteriorates and water quality standards become more difficult to achieve. Alternative coagulant chemicals offer a simple and inexpensive way of doing this. In this work a novel zirconium (Zr) coagulant was compared against traditional Fe and Al coagulants. The Zr coagulant was able to provide between 46 and 150% lower dissolved organic carbon (DOC) residual in comparison to the best traditional coagulant (Fe). In addition floc properties were significantly improved with larger and stronger flocs forming when the Zr coagulant was used with the median floc sizes being 930 μm for Zr; 710 μm for Fe and 450 μm for Al. In pilot scale experiments, a similar improved NOM and particle removal was observed. The results show that when optimised for combined DOC removal and low residual turbidity, the Zr coagulant out-performed the other coagulants tested at both bench and pilot scale.

  12. Tolerância de porta-enxertos de videira ao alumínio do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fráguas

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Onze porta-enxertos e duas cultivares americanas de videira (Vitis spp foram avaliadas mediante níveis de saturação por Al no solo (Cambissolo Húmico álico, objetivando alcançar a tolerância diferenciada ao Al. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com seis tratamentos completamente casualizados e quatro repetições, na Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Uva e Vinho, em Bento Gonçalves, RS, no período de 1987 a 1990. As características avaliadas foram: altura das plantas, comprimento das raízes, peso da matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes e teores de P, K, Ca e Mg em folhas e raízes. Diante dos acréscimos ou aumentos verificados em cada característica (variação % e por cultivar, foi possível estabelecer a tolerância diferenciada das cultivares. O teor de K na parte aérea não foi afetado pelos níveis de saturação por Al, enquanto os teores de Ca e Mg foram os mais afetados. O teor de P teve um comportamento estável entre os níveis de saturação por Al. As cultivares Isabel e Cunningham apresentaram diferença na tolerância ao Al do solo; a Cunningham teve melhor comportamento. Os porta-enxertos R99, Rupestris du Lot e Kober 5BB, juntamente com Isabel, foram os mais sensíveis ao Al, e P1103, 101-14 e 196-17Cl foram os mais tolerantes.

  13. Protection or violation : challenges of reintegrating and rehabilitating child victims of war in Northern Uganda (1998-2011) / Alum Sera

    OpenAIRE

    Sera, Alum

    2013-01-01

    The use of children in war is one of the most universally condemned human rights abuses in the world, yet a large number of children are currently believed to be fighting in over 30 conflicts around the globe. While many of them die before they are released, others escape, are rescued or are returned by their captors. These children then face the daunting task of being rehabilitated and reintegrated into society. Despite the broad nature of the issue, and its huge individual and societal impa...

  14. Origen de arcillas alumínicas en horizontes de alteración de materiales graníticos del borde sur de la sierra de Guadarrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Patino, M. T.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Three weathering profiles of granitic rocks and two arkoses in the NW of Madrid Province have been studied. Rocks are granodiorites and adamellites with albites showing variable degrees of sericitization, and no-weathered potassic feldspars. Clay fraction in the weathered horizons from these rocks displays high content in beidellite, and minor amounts of illite and 7 Ǻ-halloysite. On the other hand, beidellite, illite and well crystallized kaolinite are clay minerals in the arkosic rocks. Microfabric characteristics from SEM studies show abundant weathered albites with clean surfaces and formation of beidellite in all areas of the samples. Moreover, spatial relations between albite and beidellite are not observed. In pedochemical weathering of albite, sodium from this mineral should be exchanged with protons from soil solution with very quick kinetics. This initial alkalinization produces an increase in the silica solubility released from albite network. In these environments, a continued contact between weathering solution and albite causes a silica and alumina enrichment and beidellite or 7 Ǻ-halloysite precipitation. Microclimatic variations in weathering environment may cause fluctuations in silica and alumina activities with resultant pH changes. So, when silica activities are high, beidellite neoformation is favoured; on the contrary, 7 Ǻ-halloysite is precipitated.Se han estudiado tres perfiles de alteración de rocas graníticas y dos muestras de arcosas en la zona NO de la provincia de Madrid. Las rocas, clasificadas como granodioritas y adamellitas, presentan albitas con sericitización variable, y escasos feldespatos potásicos muy poco alterados. La fracción arcilla de los horizontes de alteración de estas rocas presenta un alto contenido en beidellita, así como porcentajes menores de ilita y haloisita-7Ǻ. Por otra parte, los minerales de la arcilla presentes en las arcosas son ilita, beidellita y caolinita bien cristalizada. El estudio de la microfábrica muestra la presencia de albitas alteradas con superficies limpias y beidellita de neoformación en cualquier zona de la muestra sin ningún tipo de relación espacial con la albita. En la alteración edafoquímica de la albita, el sodio de este silicato se intercambiaría con protones procedentes de la fase acuosa, con una cinética muy rápida. Esta alcalinización inicial daría lugar a un aumento en la solubilidad de la sílice liberada a partir de la red de las albitas. En aquellos microambientes en los que se produce un prolongado contacto entre la solución de alteración y la albita, la primera puede enriquecerse suficientemente en sílice y alúmina como para alcanzar la precipitación de beidellita o haloisita-7Ǻ. Las variaciones en las condiciones microclimáticas del medio de alteración deben producir fluctuaciones en las actividades de sílice y alúmina, con cambios de pH suficientes como para dar Jugar a la neoformación de beidellita cuando las actividades de sílice sean elevadas y, de haloisita-7Ǻ en caso contrario.

  15. Coagulação/floculação de suspensões ricas em óxidos de ferro por sulfato de alumínio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedes Claudia Dumans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The destabilization mechanism of suspensions of positively charged iron oxide particles by aluminum sulphate was investigated, aiming to evaluate the efficiency of the latter as a coagulant for natural surface waters from iron ore mining plants. Synthetic waters that simulate natural suspensions were used. The best coagulant dosage was found to be 100 mg/L at pH 4. The specific adsorption of hydrolysis products of aluminum salts on iron oxide particles and heterocoagulation processes involving differently charged substrates are proposed to explain the turbidity reduction of the suspensions.

  16. Síntese da zeólita A utilizando diatomita como fonte de sílicio e alumínio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Nascimento

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A zeólita A é uma típica zeólita sintética muito utilizada nas indústrias como trocador de íons em formulação de detergentes. Por outro lado, a diatomita, material rico em sílica (cerca de 80%, é utilizada em diversos setores industriais como agente filtrante. Neste trabalho é apresentada a síntese da zeólita A utilizando a diatomita como fonte de SiO2 e Al2O3. As relações SiO2/ Al2O3 utilizadas foram 2 e 1,5. Todas as amostras obtidas foram caracterizadas por análise de difração de raios X, adsorção de N2 e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foi possível sintetizar a zeólita A pura com 51% de cristalinidade com 2 h de cristalização. Maiores tempos de cristalização, independentemente da relação Si e Al levaram à formação da fase sodalita. Na síntese 2 com relação SiO2/ Al2O3 = 1,5, através do processo de separação observou-se que a formação da zeólita A ocorre a partir de aglomerados de partículas de diatomita, e tempos maiores, ao contrário de favorecer a dissolução da diatomita, favorecem a formação da fase sodalita a partir dos cristais de zeólita A.

  17. Processamento coloidal de cerâmicos de espinela de alumínio e magnésio (MgAl2O4)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Paula Alexandra de Sousa Curveira e

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objectivo estudar a utilização de técnicas de processamento por via coloidal, nomeadamente o enchimento por barbotina, enchimento por coagulação directa e enchimento por centrifugação, na obtenção de peças densas de MgAl2O4. Para o efeito, foi utilizado pó do material que foi caracterizado em termos físicos, cristalográficos e reológicos de forma a permitir estabelecer as condições adequadas de preparação de suspensões aquosas de MgAl2O4. Apó...

  18. Land co-applications of Alum-Based Drinking Water Treatment Residuals (Al-WTRs and biosolids: Effects on heavy metals bioavailability and bioaccessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.Mahdy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two Lysimeter experiments were conducted in Egypt to: explore possible effects of land-applying Al-WTRs and /or biosolids on the environment, and recommends ways to minimize human and animal impacts. The specific objectives were to (1 determine the co-application effects on Diethylene Triamine Penta Acetic acid (DTPA-extractable heavy metals in relation to their accumulation in plant, (2 assess the effectiveness of WTRs in reducing bioavailability of heavy metals in the soils amended with different rates of biosolids, and (3 quantify the optimum application ratio of WTRs to biosolids in relation to the reduction of plant metal accumulation. Thus, in these lysimeter experiments, the WTRs and biosolids were obtained twice in 1999 and 2008. The used soil was classified as Typic torrifluvent. Treatments in both experiments consisted of the combination of WTRs (0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 Mg.ha-1 and biosolids (0, 25, and 50 Mg.ha-1, DW by fixing one rate of biosolids and with varying the rate of WTRs. The results showed that land application of biosolids increases the accumulation of toxic metals in corn tissues in slightly alkaline soils. However, WTRs-application of (20, 40, 80 and 160 Mg.ha-1 to the soil amended with (0, 25 and 50 Mg.ha-1 of biosolids decreases significantly the DTPA-extractable metal concentrations. The reduction in DTPA-extractable metals resulting from the application of WTRs to biosolid-amended soils can be explained by formation of metal-sulfate, low solubility product, and the floc-adsorption and the co-precipitation processes, in which the formation of a mixed solid phase by the incorporation of metal ions into the crystal lattice of another precipitating solid phase is expected. The combined studies clearly demonstrate that Al-WTRs should have no negative impacts on the environment when appropriate rates are land applied. Thus, Al-WTRs are safe soil amendments to control heavy metals contamination in soil and water bodies.

  19. Efficacy of Amla (Emblica officinanis and Shibe yamani (potash alum in the management of Candida vaginitis: a randomized standard controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma Zaki

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Test drugs provide statistically significant improvement in vulvovaginal pruritus, vaginal discharge and in wet mount test without any apparent side effects. It can serve as an alternative treatment for Candida vaginitis. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1601-1606

  20. Development of a New Manure Amendment for Reducing Ammonia Volatilization and Phosphorus Runoff from Poultry Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip A

    2016-07-01

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice that reduces phosphorus (P) runoff and ammonia (NH) emissions. However, alum prices have increased substantially during the past decade. The goal of this research was to develop inexpensive manure amendments that are as effective as alum in reducing NH volatilization and P runoff. Sixteen amendments were developed using mixtures of alum mud, bauxite ore, sulfuric acid, liquid alum, and water. Alum mud is the residual left over from alum manufacture when produced by reacting bauxite with sulfuric acid. A laboratory NH volatilization study was conducted using 11 treatments: untreated poultry litter, poultry litter treated with liquid or dry alum, or eight new mixtures. All of the litter amendments tested resulted in significantly lower NH volatilization than untreated litter. Dry and liquid alum reduced NH losses by 86 and 75%, respectively. The eight new litter amendments reduced NH losses from 62 to 73% compared with untreated litter, which was not significantly different from liquid alum; the three most effective mixtures were not significantly different from dry alum. Water-extractable P (WEP) was significantly reduced by all of the amendments, three of which resulted in significantly lower WEP than dry alum. The most promising new amendments were mixtures of alum mud, bauxite, and sulfuric acid. The potential impact of these amendments could be enormous because they could be produced for less than half the price of alum while being as effective in reducing NH emissions and P runoff. PMID:27380093

  1. Efeito da temperatura no desempenho catalítico de óxidos de ferro contendo cobre e alumínio The effect of temperature on the catalytic performance of iron oxide with copper and aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genira Carneiro de Araujo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum and copper doped hematite was evaluated in the high temperature shift (HTS reaction at several temperatures in order to find catalysts that can work in different operational conditions. It was found that the catalysts work in kinetic regime in the range of 300-400 ºC. Both copper and aluminum increases the activity and selectivity. Aluminum acts as textural promoter whereas copper acts as structural one. The most promising catalyst is that with both copper and aluminum which showed higher activity and selectivity than a commercial sample. This catalyst has the advantages of being non toxic and can work at low temperatures.

  2. 凹凸棒土/聚合铝铁絮凝剂制备因素的研究%Study on The Factor of Preparation Attapulgite/Polymeric Iron Alum Fiocculant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晓娟; 梁卫东; 曹丰龙

    2011-01-01

    以亚铁盐和铝盐为原料,采用分步滴定法制备凹凸棒土/聚合铝铁复合絮凝剂(APAFC),考察了原料配比、反应温度、pH值对复合絮凝剂性能的影响.结果表明:在pH值为3、m(凹凸棒土):m(FeSO4):m(AICl3)为1:0.05:0.1、反应温度为60℃条件下,复合絮凝剂絮凝性能最佳.COD去除率为80%以上,浊度去除率为90%以上.%Attapulgite - existed aluminium and iron compound flocculating agent (APAFC) was prepared from ferrite salt and aluminium salt by the method of step-by-step dripping reaction. The effect of the quality ratio of raw materials, reaction temperature and pH value were observed. The experimental results showed that the best conditions of preparing attapulgite - existed iron and aluminium compound flocculating agent were that the mass ratio of attapulgite and FeSO4 and AlCl3 was 1: 0.05: 0.1, the reaction temperature was 60℃ and pH value was 3, the removal rate of COD and turbidity were more than 80% and 90% ,respectively.

  3. Uso do violeta de alizarina N (AVN como reagente espectrofotométrico na determinação de alumínio Use of the alizarine violet N (AVN as a spectrophotometric reagent for aluminium determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alailson Falcão Dantas

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes the application of the 4-Hidroxy-3-(2-hydroxynaphtylazo-benzenesulphonic acid (C.I. 15670, Alizarine Violet N (AVN, as a reagent for direct aluminium determination using molecular absorption spectrophotometry in the presence of tensoatives. Al(III cation reacts with AVN in pH 9.4, forming a red complex, stable for at least 24 hours, with absorption minimum at 607nm and, against a reagent blank, (epsiloncomplex - epsilonreagent = -2.71x10(4 L.mol-1.cm-1. The reaction occurs in the presence of a Triton-X100 and CTAB tensoatives mixture, in the presence of EDTA. Al(III determination is possible in the linear range of 50 up to 400ng.mL-1, with a detection limit of 41 ng.mL-1.

  4. Co2 na desidrogenação oxidativa do etilbenzeno utilizando catalisadores compostos de óxido de ferro e óxido de alumínio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pinheiro Braga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials containing aluminum and iron oxide were synthesized through the preparation of hybrid spheres and tested in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene in the presence of CO2. The catalytic results suggest that the high initial ethylbenzene conversion is due to the contribution of basic sites. These results also point to a competitive process between CO2 adsorption and the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene for the basic sites (lattice oxygen. In spite of the coke deposition is originating from ethylbenzene and CO2, the amount of carbonaceous deposits was smaller with the presence of CO2, if compared with the dehydrogenation in the absence of CO2.

  5. Relação entre o alumínio extraível com KCl e oxalato de amônio e a mineralogia da fração argila, em solos ácidos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Octávio de Mello Cunha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Em solos ácidos de ambiente mais tropical com esmectitas, assim como em solos altamente tamponados de ambiente subtropical, contendo esmectita com hidroxi-Al entrecamadas (EHE e, ou, vermiculita com hidroxi-Al entrecamadas (VHE, os teores de Al-KCl podem ser excepcionalmente altos; entretanto, em alguns casos não se manifestam efeitos fitotóxicos do elemento nas culturas. O Al "trocável" é tradicionalmente quantificado no extrato da solução de KCl 1 mol L-1 (Al-KCl, mas nem sempre esse elemento provém unicamente de formas trocáveis. Este trabalho objetivou investigar relações entre o Al extraído com solução de KCl e de oxalato de amônio com a mineralogia da fração argila. A quantificação do Al nos extratos de KCl e oxalato de amônio foi feita, respectivamente, por titulação com NaOH 0,02 mol L-1 padronizado e por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Foram utilizadas amostras de dois horizontes (A e B de 12 perfis de solo de cinco estados brasileiros (AC, PE, BA, RS e SC, com diferentes características mineralógicas, todos com teores de Al-KCl superior a 4 cmol c kg-1 no horizonte B. Dois perfis de SC (Rancho Queimado e Curitibanos, com níveis mais baixos de Al-KCl, foram incluídos para comparação. Os altos teores de Al-KCl evidenciaram-se relacionados com a mineralogia dos solos estudados. Nos solos ácidos com mais esmectitas, drenagem moderada ou imperfeita e oscilação do lençol freático houve evidências morfológicas, confirmadas pelas análises mineralógicas, de que no clima atual ocorre um processo de destruição de argilas, liberando Al que precipita como compostos amorfos. A alta concentração salina da solução de KCl dissolve parcialmente tais compostos, superestimando as formas trocáveis desse elemento, principalmente nos horizontes subsuperficiais. Nos solos ácidos do ambiente subtropical, os teores de Al-KCl também foram altos, embora com valores mais baixos do que nos com predomínio de esmectitas. Parte do Al-KCl nesses solos parece provir da dissolução de compostos orgânicos e de Al presente em entrecamadas de argilominerais 2:1. Os resultados demonstraram que o KCl 1 mol L-1 não foi adequado para estimar o Al "trocável" na maioria dos solos estudados.

  6. Síntese e caracterização de vermiculita mesoporosa obtida por modificação com sais complexos de alumínio e lantânio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos de aumento do espaçamento interplanar basal, distribuição de poros e área superficial de uma argila mesoporosa obtida a partir de vermiculita precursora, foram realizados por intercalação de oligômero poli-hidroxi catiônico Al13 e um misto (La xAl13-x obtido por dopagem com lantânio, seguida de calcinação para formação dos pilares. As caracterizações das amostras foram feitas por difração de raios X, espectroscopia Mössbauer, ressonância magnética nuclear do estado sólido (27Al MAS-NMR e isotermas de N2 (BET. A presença de lantânio na estrutura da vermiculita resultou no aumento de sua área e de porosidade.

  7. Estudo de corrosao sob tensao em tubos de aço inoxidável AISI 304 L, aspergidos termicamente com alumínio por arco elétrico

    OpenAIRE

    Brasil, Fabiano

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Um problema que esta sempre presente em tubulações expostas a meios que contém cloretos é a corrosão sob tensão (CST), fato este mais crítico quando as tubulações trabalham com temperatura elevada. Para avaliar a resistência a CST foram preparados dois protótipos, células de corrosão "CUI-Test.(corrosão sob isolamento) e CEL-Pot.(célula potenciodinâmica)", onde foram montados corpos de prova em forma de anéis, de tubos de aço inoxidável AISI 304L, contendo tensões residuais e tensões ...

  8. Efeito do alumínio na absorção e na utilização de macronutrientes em duas cultivares de arroz Aluminum effects on the uptake and utilization of macronutrients in two rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renilton Joaquim de Mendonça

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o efeito do Al na absorção e na utilização de alguns macronutrientes, as cultivares de arroz Fernandes e Maravilha, respectivamente, tolerante e sensível a esse metal, foram expostas ao Al, em solução nutritiva, durante 20 dias, quando determinaram-se os teores, a absorção líquida e a eficiência de utilização de P, K, Ca e magnésio. A absorção líquida e os teores desses macronutrientes na presença de Al decresceram na parte aérea e nas raízes das duas cultivares, especialmente na concentração mais elevada de Al e na cultivar sensível. Os macronutrientes que tiveram os teores mais reduzidos pelo Al nas raízes foram K>Mg>P e Ca>Mg=K>P e na parte aérea, Mg>Ca>P e Mg>Ca>P>K, nas cultivares tolerante e sensível, respectivamente. Os macronutrientes que tiveram a absorção mais reduzida pelo Al foram Mg>Ca>P>K, nas duas cultivares. Na presença de Al, a cultivar tolerante apresentou eficiência de utilização mais elevada de todos os macronutrientes. Os índices de utilização de P, Ca e Mg aumentaram na cultivar tolerante, mas decresceram em termos de P e K, aumentando apenas para Mg, na cultivar sensível. A tolerância diferencial dessas cultivares de arroz ao Al resulta, provavelmente, de suas diferenças em absorver, manter concentrações adequadas e utilizar com maior eficiência esses macronutrientes, principalmente Mg, Ca e fósforo.To evaluate the effect of Al on the uptake and utilization of some macronutrients, the rice cultivars Fernandes and Maravilha, respectively tolerant and sensitive to this metal, were exposed to Al in nutrient solution for 20 days, and the contents, uptake and efficiency of utilization of P, K, Ca and Mg were determined. The uptake and the contents of these macronutrients decreased in the presence of Al in the aerial parts and roots of both cultivars, especially at the higher Al concentration and in the Al sensitive cultivar. The macronutrient contents more reduced by Al in the roots were K>Mg>P and Ca>Mg=K>P and in the aerial parts were Mg>Ca>P and Mg>Ca>P>K in the tolerant and sensitive cultivars, respectively. The macronutrients uptake more reduced by Al were Mg>Ca>P>K in both cultivars. In the presence of Al, the tolerant cultivar showed higher efficiency of utilization of all studied macronutrients. The utilization indices of P, Ca and Mg increased in the tolerant cultivar, but decreased for P and K, increasing only for Mg in the sensitive cultivar. The results suggest that the differential tolerance of these rice cultivars to Al may be due to their differences in uptake, ability to keep adequate concentrations and to use these macronutrients with higher efficiency, especially Mg, Ca and phosphorus.

  9. Interactions between magnesium, calcium, and aluminum on soybean root elongation Interação entre magnésio, cálcio e alumínio na elongação radicular da soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Ribeiro da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Alleviation of Al rhizotoxicity by Ca and Mg can differ among species and genotypes. Root elongation of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] line N93-S-179 and cvs. Young and Ransom exposed to varying concentrations of Al, Ca and Mg were compared in two experiments using a vertically split root system. Roots extending from a surface compartment with limed soil grew for 12 days into a subsurface compartment with nutrient solution treatments maintained at pH 4.6 with either 0 or 15 µmol L-1 Al. Calcium and Mg concentrations in treatments ranging from 0 to 20 mmol L-1. Although an adequate supply of Mg was provided in the surface soil compartment for soybean top growth, an inclusion of Mg was necessary in the subsurface solutions to promote root elongation in both the presence and absence of Al. In the absence of Al in the subsurface solution, tap root length increased by 74 % and lateral root length tripled when Mg in the solutions was increased from 0 to either 2 or 10 mmol L-1. In the presence of 15 µmol L-1 Al, additions of 2 or 10 mmol L-1 Mg increased tap root length fourfold and lateral root length by a factor of 65. This high efficacy of Mg may have masked differences in Al tolerance between genotypes N93 and Young. Magnesium was more effective than Ca in alleviating Al rhizotoxicity, and its ameliorative properties could not be accounted for by estimated electrostatic changes in root membrane potential and Al3+ activity at the root surface. The physiological mechanisms of Mg alleviation of Al injury in roots, however, are not known.A redução na rizotoxidez de Al por Ca e Mg difere entre espécies e genótipos. A elongação radicular da linhagem N93-S-179 e cvs. Young e Ransom de soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.] exposta a concentrações variáveis de Al, Ca e Mg foi comparada em dois experimentos, usando um sistema de raízes subdivididas verticalmente. As raízes cresceram por 12 dias a partir de um compartimento superficial com solo corrigido para um compartimento subsuperficial com soluções nutritivas que continha os tratamentos e mantidas a pH 4,6. As concentrações de Ca e Mg nos tratamentos variaram de 0 a 20 mmol L-1. Embora tenha sido providenciado um suprimento adequado de Mg para o crescimento da parte aérea da soja no compartimento superficial com solo, a adição de Mg nas soluções subsuperficiais foi necessária para promover a elongação radicular tanto na presença como na ausência de Al. Na ausência de Al na solução em subsuperfície, o comprimento de raízes aumentou 74 % e o comprimento das raízes laterais triplicou quando Mg da solução foi aumentado de 0 para 2 ou 10 mmol L-1. Na presença de 15 µmol L-1 de Al, adições de 2 ou 10 mmol L-1 de Mg aumentaram o crescimento da raiz principal em quatro vezes e das raízes laterais por uma fator de 65. Esta elevada eficiência do Mg pode ter mascarado as diferenças na tolerância ao Al entre os genótipos N93 e Young. O Mg foi mais eficiente que o Ca para reduzir a rizotoxidez do Al, e sua propriedade protetora não pode ser explicada pelas mudanças eletrostáticas estimadas para o potencial da membrana e atividade do Al3+ na superfície da raiz. No entanto, os mecanismos fisiológicos envolvidos no efeito protetor do Mg contra a toxidez do Al às raízes ainda não são conhecidos.

  10. Pilarização de uma argila brasileira com poliidroxications de alumínio: preparação, caracterização e propriedades catalíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergher Sibele Berenice Castellã

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Montmorillonite clay from Brazil was pillared with aluminium polyhydroxications. The influence of aging of the pillaring solution and the concentration of the clay suspension on the properties of the prepared materials was studied. The materials were characterized by chemical analysis, XRD and pore analysis by N2 adsorption. The catalytic properties were evaluated in the cumene cracking reaction. Results showed that the pillarization process increases the basal spaces of natural clay from 9.7 to 18.5 Å and the surface area from 41 to 300 m²/g.

  11. Eletrodo íon-seletivo para determinação potenciométrica de alumínio(III em meio de fluoreto Ion-selective electrode for potentiometric determination of aluminium(III in fluoride medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Piccin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction and analytical evaluation of a coated graphite Al(III ion-selective electrode, based on the ionic pair formed between the Al(Fn3-n anion and tricaprylylmethylammonium cation (Aliquat 336S incorporated on a poly(vinylchloride (PVC matrix membrane are described. A thin membrane film of this ionic pair and dibutylphthalate (DBPh in PVC was deposited directly on a cylindric graphite rod (2 cm length x 0.5 cm diameter attached to the end of a glass tube using epoxy resin. The membrane solution was prepared by dissolving 40% (m/m of PVC in 10 mL of tetrahydrofuran following addition of 45% (m/m of DBPh and 15% (m/m of the ionic pair. The effect of membrane composition, fluoride concentration, and several concomitants as potential interferences on the electrode response were investigated. The aluminium(III ion-selective electrode showed a linear response ranging from 1.4 x 10-4 to 1.0 x 10-2 mol L-1, a detection limit of 4.0 x 10-5 mol L-1, aslope of -54.3±0.2mV dec-1 and a lifetime of more than 1 year (over 3000 determinations for each membrane. The slope indicates that the ion-selective electrode responds preferentially to the Al(F4- species. Application of this electrode for the aluminium(III determination in stomach anti-acid samples is reported.

  12. Trigo duro: tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, manganês e ferro em soluções nutritivas Durum wheat: tolerance to aluminum, manganese and iron toxicities in nutrient solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento diferencial de 23 linhagens de trigo duro (Triticum durum L. em compraração com os seguintes cultivares de trigo (T. aestivum L.: IAC-24, BH-1146, Siete Cerros e IAC-60, quanto aos níveis de Al3+ (0;0,2;0,4; 0,6; 0,8 e 1,0 mg/L, de Mn2+ (0,11; 300; 600 c 1.200 mg/L e de Fe2+ (0,56; 5; 10 e 20 mg/L em solução nutritiva. Os cultivares de trigo Siete Cerros (sensível à toxicidade de Al3+, BH-1146, IAC-60 e IAC-24 (tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, exibiram crescimento das raízes na presença de 1 mg/L de Al3+, e todas as linhagens de trigo duro avaliadas foram totalmente sensíveis a 0,4 mg/L de Al3+, com paralisação irreversível do crescimento das raízes. O aumento das concentrações de Mn2+(0,11 a 1.200 mg/L e de Fe2+ (0,56 a 20 mg/L nas soluções causou uma redução significativa no comprimento das raízes dos genótipos em estudo. As linhagens de trigo duro I (Avetoro "S" x Anhinga "S" - Purcell "S"/D.67.2, 2 (Cando - Yavaros "S", 6 (Chen "S" e 8 (Carcomum "S" apresentaram-se muito tolerantes à toxicidade de Mn2+ em relação ao controle 'Siete Cerros'. O 'Siete Cerros' e as linhagens de trigo duro 1, 6, 12 (CI 14955 x Yavaros "S"- Gediz "S"/Tropic Bird, 16 e 21 (Swan "S" c 20 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane/Ganso//Marte "S"/3/Tildillo "S"/4/ Memo "S" exibiram tolerância à presença de elevadas quantidades de Fe2+ nas soluções nutritivas.Twenty three durum wheat inbred lines were evaluated with four bread wheat cultivars (IAC-24, BH-1146, Siete Cerros and IAC-60 in three experiments, using nutrient solutions. In the first experiment, the following levels of Al3+ were used: 0; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0 mg/L; in the second experiment, the following levels of Mn2+ were used: 0.11; 300; 600 and 1.200 mg/L; and in the third experiment, Fe2+ was used at: 0.56; 5; 10 and 1.200 mg/L. The wheat cultivars Siete Cerros (sensitive to Al3+ toxicity and BH-1146, IAC-24 and IAC-60 (tolerant to Al3+ toxicity exhibited root growth in the presence of 1 mg/L of Al3+, and all evaluated durum wheat inbred lines were sensitive to 0.4 mg/L of Al3+, showing an irreversible root growth. As the Mn2+ and Fe2+ concentrations were increasead into the solutions, the root length of all studied genotypes presented a significant reduction. The durum wheat inbred lines 1 (Avetoro "S" x Anhinga "S" - Purcell "S"/ D.67.2, 2 (Cando - Yavaros "S", 6 (Chen "S" e 8 (Carcomum "S" showed high level of tolerance to manganese toxicity in relation to 'Siete Cerros' and the durum wheat inbred lines 1, 6, 12 (CI 14955 x Yavaros "S"- Gediz"S"/Tropic Bird, 16 and 21 (Swan 'S" and 20 (Boyeros "S"/Cocorit-71/5/Crane/Ganso//Marte"S"/3/TiIdillo"S"/4/Memo "S" exhibited tolerance to the presence of high levels of Fe2+ into the nutrient solutions.

  13. Avaliação do pH da rizosfera de genótipos de café em resposta à toxidez de alumínio no solo

    OpenAIRE

    BRACCINI MARIA DO CARMO LANA; MARTINEZ HERMINIA EMILIA PRIETO; BRACCINI ALESSANDRO DE LUCCA E; MENDONÇA SEBASTIÃO MARCOS DE

    2000-01-01

    Foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a relação entre pH da rizosfera e tolerância ao Al de cinco genótipos de café, na presença e na ausência de calagem. As plantas de café foram desenvolvidas em caixas plásticas, com as raízes próximas da tampa. Após 90 dias as tampas foram removidas e uma fina camada de agar contendo indicador foi derramada sobre a superfície. Também foram avaliados a produção de biomassa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, o comprimento...

  14. Determinação de cobre, alumínio e ferro em solos derivados do basalto através de extrações seqüenciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Antonio Carlos Saraiva da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper, aluminum and iron concentrations were determined in four geochemical fractions of three different basaltic soils from the northwest region of the Parana State, Brazil. The fractions examined were the reducible manganese dioxide and amorphous iron oxide, crystaline iron oxide, organic and residual. Metal concentrations were determined in the extracts by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. High Fe concentrations were extracted from the crystalline iron oxide (>20%, as well as the amorphous iron oxide (>12%. Copper was extracted from the amorphous and crystalline iron oxides in the range 5 to 12%, but low concentrations were bound to organic matter. Low concentrations of aluminum were extracted (<8% from the amorphous and crystaline iron oxides, and organic matter. High concentrations of aluminum were found in the residual fraction.

  15. Produção de matéria seca, crescimento radicular e absorção de cálcio, fósforo e alumínio por coffea canephora e coffea arabica sob influência da atividade do alumínio em solução Dry matter production, root growth and calcium, phosphorus and aluminum absorption by coffea canephora and coffea arabica under influence of aluminum activity in solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Marcio Mattiello

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de matéria seca, o crescimento radicular e a absorção e distribuição do Ca, P e Al nas folhas, no caule e nas raízes de dois clones de café conilon (Coffea canephora (Mtl 25 e Mtl 27 e de uma variedade de café Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica, cultivados em solução nutritiva com atividade crescente de Al3+. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos com capacidade para 5 L, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon, modificada. Após oito dias de adaptação, as plantas foram submetidas a concentrações de Al de 0, 500, 1.000 e 2.000 µmol L-1, que corresponderam a atividades de Al3+ em solução, estimadas pelo software GEOCHEM, de 20,68, 50,59, 132,9 e 330,4 µmol L-1, respectivamente. Foram determinados os teores de Ca, Al e P na planta. O sistema radicular foi separado, para determinação da área e do comprimento. A variedade Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica apresentou-se menos sensível ao Al3+, quando comparada aos clones de conilon (Coffea canephora. O clone de conilon Mtl 25 foi menos sensível ao Al3+ em relação ao Mtl 27. O aumento da atividade de Al3+ promoveu redução nos teores de P e Ca nas folhas e raízes do cafeeiro, especialmente nos clones Mtl 25 e Mtl 27. O acúmulo de Al no sistema radicular e a restrição do transporte para a parte aérea são importantes fatores na tolerância de plantas ao Al3+.This study had the objective of evaluating the dry matter production, root growth, and the absorption and distribution of Ca, P and Al in the leaves, stem and roots of two Conilon (Coffea canephora coffee clones (Mtl 25 and Mtl 27 and the coffee variety Catuaí Amarelo (Coffea arabica grown in nutrient solution with increasing Al3+ activity. The plants were cultivated in 5 L pots, containing modified Hoagland & Arnold nutrient solution. After eight days of adaptation, the plants were subjected to Al concentrations of 0, 500, 1.000 and 2.000 mol L-1, which corresponded to Al3+ activities of 20.68, 50.59, 132.9, and 330.4 mmol L-1, respectively in solution, estimated by the program GEOCHEM. The Ca, Al and P contents were quantified. The root system was separated to estimate area and length. The variety Catuaí Amarelo (Arabic Coffea was less Al3+ sensitive than the Conilon (Coffea canephora clones and Conilon Mtl 25 clone was less Al3+ sensitive than Mtl 27. A higher Al3+ activity resulted in a reduction of the P and Ca content in the coffee leaves and roots, especially in the clones Mtl 25 and Mtl 27. Al accumulation in the root system and the restriction of the transport to the aerial part are important factors in Al3+ tolerance of coffee plants.

  16. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  17. Extraction of Water Treatment Coagulant from Locally Abundant Kaolin Clays

    OpenAIRE

    Fidelis Chigondo; Benias Chomunorwa Nyamunda; Vuyo Bhebhe

    2015-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation is contributing to water pollution. There is a need to identify cheaper and efficient methods of removing contaminants as the demand for clean water rises. A study is carried out to investigate the extraction of alum from locally abundant kaolin clays using sulphuric acid. Alum is a coagulant that is used for raw water treatment. The kaolin clay and alum were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of particle size, calcination...

  18. Sewage water pollutants removal efficiency correlates to the concentration gradient of amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three coagulants viz. alum, FeCl/sub 3/ and Moringa oleifera seed extract were compared for treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater samples were collected from a drain near the Murree Road in Abbottabad city. The initial treatment depicted that alum was a suitable coagulant, while the other two caused color development and increased chemical oxygen demand in the effluent. Subsequently, wastewater samples were treatment with graded concentrations (4 32 mg.L/sup -1/ of alum in batch series, and shacked at 600-620 rpm for five minutes. The treated samples were analyzed for various water quality parameters to examine the effective coagulation and flocculation process in the wastewater. There was an increase in TDS and electrical conductivity with the increasing levels of alum above the optimized values (22 to 30 mg L/sup -1/). The process primary treatment strategy of wastewater treatment with alum is suitable for reducing the pollutants load in the sewer system. (author)

  19. Vitamins as influenza vaccine adjuvant components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintilio, Wagner; de Freitas, Fábio Alessandro; Rodriguez, Dunia; Kubrusly, Flavia Saldanha; Yourtov, Dimitri; Miyaki, Cosue; de Cerqueira Leite, Luciana Cezar; Raw, Isaias

    2016-10-01

    A number of adjuvant formulations were assayed in mice immunized with 3.75 µg of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09 influenza vaccine with vitamins A, D and/or E in emulsions or B2 and/or B9 combined with Bordetella pertussis MPLA and/or alum as adjuvants. Squalene was used as positive control, as well as MPLA with alum. The immune response was evaluated by a panel of tests, including a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test, ELISA for IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a and IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 quantification in splenocyte culture supernatant after stimulus with influenza antigen. Immunological memory was evaluated using a 1/10 dose booster 60 days after the first immunization followed by assessment of the response by HAI, IgG ELISA, and determination of the antibody affinity index. The highest increases in HAI, IgG1 and IgG2a titers were obtained with the adjuvant combinations containing vitamin E, or the hydrophilic combinations containing MPLA and alum or B2 and alum. The IgG1/IgG2a ratio indicates that the response to the combination of B2 with alum would have more Th2 character than the combination of MPLA with alum. In an assay to investigate the memory response, a significant increase in HAI titer was observed with a booster vaccine dose at 60 days after immunization with vaccines containing MPLA with alum or B2 with alum. Overall, of the 27 adjuvant combinations, MPLA with alum and B2 with alum were the most promising adjuvants to be evaluated in humans.

  20. Vitamins as influenza vaccine adjuvant components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintilio, Wagner; de Freitas, Fábio Alessandro; Rodriguez, Dunia; Kubrusly, Flavia Saldanha; Yourtov, Dimitri; Miyaki, Cosue; de Cerqueira Leite, Luciana Cezar; Raw, Isaias

    2016-10-01

    A number of adjuvant formulations were assayed in mice immunized with 3.75 µg of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) pdm09 influenza vaccine with vitamins A, D and/or E in emulsions or B2 and/or B9 combined with Bordetella pertussis MPLA and/or alum as adjuvants. Squalene was used as positive control, as well as MPLA with alum. The immune response was evaluated by a panel of tests, including a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test, ELISA for IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a and IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 quantification in splenocyte culture supernatant after stimulus with influenza antigen. Immunological memory was evaluated using a 1/10 dose booster 60 days after the first immunization followed by assessment of the response by HAI, IgG ELISA, and determination of the antibody affinity index. The highest increases in HAI, IgG1 and IgG2a titers were obtained with the adjuvant combinations containing vitamin E, or the hydrophilic combinations containing MPLA and alum or B2 and alum. The IgG1/IgG2a ratio indicates that the response to the combination of B2 with alum would have more Th2 character than the combination of MPLA with alum. In an assay to investigate the memory response, a significant increase in HAI titer was observed with a booster vaccine dose at 60 days after immunization with vaccines containing MPLA with alum or B2 with alum. Overall, of the 27 adjuvant combinations, MPLA with alum and B2 with alum were the most promising adjuvants to be evaluated in humans. PMID:27449155

  1. Avaliação do pH da rizosfera de genótipos de café em resposta à toxidez de alumínio no solo Rhizosphere pH evaluation of coffee genotypes in response to soil aluminum toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÃO MARCOS DE MENDONÇA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a relação entre pH da rizosfera e tolerância ao Al de cinco genótipos de café, na presença e na ausência de calagem. As plantas de café foram desenvolvidas em caixas plásticas, com as raízes próximas da tampa. Após 90 dias as tampas foram removidas e uma fina camada de agar contendo indicador foi derramada sobre a superfície. Também foram avaliados a produção de biomassa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, o comprimento e a superfície de raízes. Quando o solo foi corrigido observou-se o desenvolvimento da coloração amarela próximo às raízes, indicando o abaixamento do pH em H2O. O resultado foi confirmado pela avaliação do pH do solo e da rizosfera com variações de 0,2 e 0,3 unidades de pH. Por outro lado, na presença de Al não houve diferença entre o pH do solo e o da rizosfera, indicando que a alteração no pH desta não parece ser o mecanismo de tolerância ao Al em cafeeiros, uma vez que os genótipos sensíveis e tolerantes apresentaram o mesmo comportamento.This work was carried out in greenhouse aiming to evaluate the relationship between rhizosphere-pH and aluminum tolerance of five coffee genotypes, grown with or without soil liming. Coffee plants were grown in plastic boxes, with roots developing near the cover. After 90 days the lids were removed and a solid agar layer with pH indicator was placed on the surface of soil and roots. It was also evaluated roots and shoots dry biomass production and roots length and surface. When the soil was limed, it was observed the development of yellow color near the roots indicating a pH decrease. This result was confirmed by observing soil and rhizosphere-pH changes, varying between 0.2 and 0.3 units of pH. On the other hand, in the presence of Al it was not observed differences among soil and rhizosphere-pH, indicating that the change of pH induced by roots is not the mechanism of Al tolerance in coffee plants, since sensible and tolerant genotypes showed the same behavior.

  2. Efeitos do carbono na evolução de segundas-fases e na densificação do nitreto de alumínio com Y2O3 Effects of carbon on second-phase evolution and densification of aluminum nitride with Y2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Molisani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi investigado o efeito da adição do carbono na evolução de segundas-fases e na densificação do AlN com 4% em massa de Y2O3. A mudança de composição da segunda-fase do AlN com Y2O3 foi induzida pela adição de 0,5% e 1,0% em massa de carbono. A sinterização sob atmosfera de nitrogênio foi realizada em forno com elemento resistivo de tungstênio entre 1650 ºC e 1850 ºC. A evolução de segunda-fase mostrou uma tendência para formar fases mais ricas em ítrio com o aumento do teor de carbono, o que atrasou a densificação do AlN com Y2O3 devido ao aumento da temperatura de formação de fase líquida. O efeito prejudicial causado pela adição de carbono diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura de sinterização, pois todas as amostras atingiram quase completa densificação após sinterização a 1800 ºC. A adição de carbono induziu uma evaporação significativa de compostos durante a sinterização, mas o comportamento de densificação foi pouco influenciado pela redução na fração de fase líquida existente na temperatura de sinterização e pelo gás aprisionado no interior dos poros fechados.The effect of carbon addition on the second-phases evolution and on the densification of AlN with 4wt.%.Y2O3 was investigated. The change of second-phase composition of AlN with Y2O3 was induced by the addition of 0.5wt.% and 1.0wt.% carbon. Sintering under nitrogen atmosphere was performed in tungsten heated furnace between 1650 ºC and 1850 ºC. The second-phase evolution had a tendency to form Y-richer phases with increasing carbon content, which delayed the densification of AlN with Y2O3 due to the increase of liquid-phase formation temperature. The harmful effect caused by the addition of carbon was diminished with increasing sintering temperature, since all samples achieved almost full densification after sintering at 1800 ºC. The addition of carbon induced significant evaporation of compounds during sintering, but the densification behavior was little influenced by the reduction in liquid-phase fraction formed at sintering temperature or the entrapped gas inside the closed pores.

  3. Recrystallization and crystallographic texture in AA4006 aluminum alloy sheets produced by twin roll caster and direct chill processes Recristalização e textura cristalográfica de chapas produzidas por lingotamento contínuo e semicontínuo da liga de alumínio AA4006

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrício Mendes Souza; Ronald Lesley Plaut; Nelson Batista de Lima; Ricardo do Carmo Fernandes; Angelo Fernando Padilha

    2012-01-01

    A recrystallization study of cold rolled metallic sheets is very important to evaluate the softening temperature for subsequent annealing. Crystallographic texture evolves during metal rolling and recrystallization. These processing steps can lead to an optimization of the grain orientation distribution in a metal strip and can improve, for instance, the stamping process, hence leading to a product with aggregated value. Softening curves were determined and compared for two sheets of the AA40...

  4. Comparação de Diferentes Métodos Químicos como Extrantes de Alumínio em Solos Tiomorficos do Brasil e Colômbia / Comparison of Different Chemical Methods as Extrantes of Aluminum in Acid Sulphate Soils of Brazil and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Combatt Caballero

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. A acidificação do solo tiomórficos tem como consequênciaa solubilização de compostos de Al, o que ocasiona o aumento daconcentração de Al3+ na solução do solo. O objetivo, deste trabalhofoi determinar os teores de Al trocável e ativo extraídos com 12métodos analíticos em amostras de solos tiomórficos do Brasil eColômbia. Foi realizado um ensaio no laboratório com amostrasde 12 solos, nove do Estado do Espírito Santo (Brasil e três daColômbia. Os métodos avaliados foram: KCl 1 mol L-1, Ca(OAc20,5 mol L-1 pH 7, BaCl2 0,1 mol L-1, NH4OAc 1 mol L-1 pH 4,8, CuCl20,5 mol L-1 pH 2,8 e LaCl3 0,33 mol L-1 pH 4,0. Para comparação dosmétodos de extração, os tratamentos formaram um delineamentofatorial 12x12, dispostos em blocos casualizados com trêsrepetições. Foram utilizados analise de variância, estatísticadescritiva e contrastes para determinar a capacidade de extraçãode Al pelos métodos químicos. A determinação quantitativamostrou que o método com maior capacidade extratora de Al foi asolução de Na4P2O7. Os métodos que utilizam íons de cloreto, nãotamponados, conseguem extrair mais eficientemente Al dos solostiomórficos que a soluções extratoras de acetatos, sendo CuCl2 eLaCl3 as de maior eficiência. O aumento do tempo de agitação nãoresultou em maior eficiência na extração de Al entre as soluçõesnão tamponadas. / Abstract. The acidification of acid sulphate soil has as a result thesolubilization of Al compounds, which increases the concentrationof Al3+ in the soil solution. This study was carried out to evaluatethe levels of exchangeable and active Al extracted with 12analytical methods, in soil samples from acid sulphate soil fromBrazil and Colombia. It was conducted an laboratory investigationwith 12 samples soils, nine from Espirito Santo State (Brazil andthree from Colombia. The methods evaluated were: KCl 1 mol L-1,Ca(OAc2 0.5 mol L-1 pH 7, BaCl2 0.1 mol L-1, NH4OAc 1 mol L-1pH 4.8, CuCl2 0.5 mol L-1 pH 2.8 e LaCl3 0.33 mol L-1 pH 4.0. Forcomparison of extraction methods, the treatments were set as afactorial 12x12 design, arranged in a randomized block with threereplications. The analysis of variance, statistics descriptive andcontrasts were applied to determine the capacity of Al extractionby the chemical methods. The quantitative determination showedthat the method with higher extraction capacity of Al was theNa4P2O7 solution. The methods that use chloride ions unbuffered,are able to extract more efficiently the Al of the acid sulphate soilthan the solutions of acetates, being the CuCl2 and LaCl3 the oneswith highest efficiency. The increase in the stirring time did notincreased the extraction efficiency of Al among the non-bufferedsolutions.

  5. Extração simultânea de alumínio, cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sódio do solo com solução de cloreto de amônio Simultaneous extraction of aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium with ammonium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Boeira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, alguns laboratórios de análise de solo determinam Al, Ca e Mg trocáveis em extratos de KCl 1 mol L-1 e K e Na na solução extratora Mehlich-1, também usada na extração de fósforo. Outros laboratórios, que empregam a resina trocadora de ânions para P, avaliam também Ca, Mg e K no extrato, não sendo possível determinar Al e Na. Dessa forma, achou-se oportuno avaliar a extração com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 na determinação simultânea dos cinco cátions trocáveis: Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na, em comparação aos extratores KCl e Mehlich-1. Utilizaram-se amostras coletadas em áreas de cultivo de fruteiras irrigadas da região Nordeste e na área experimental da Embrapa Meio Ambiente em Jaguariúna (SP. Os métodos utilizados foram: (a extração simultânea dos cinco cátions com NH4Cl 1 mol L-1, e (b extração de Ca, Mg e Al com KCl 1 mol L-1, e de K e Na com o extrator Mehlich-1. A solução de NH4Cl 1 mol L-1 apresentou maior capacidade de extração de Mg do solo do que a solução de KCl 1 mol L-1; as duas soluções se equivaleram quanto à capacidade de extração de Ca e de Al. A solução de NH4Cl extraiu mais K e Na do que a solução Mehlich-1. Conclui-se que a solução de NH4Cl é uma opção conveniente para a extração de Al, Ca, Mg, K e Na trocáveis do solo.Currently, part of the soil testing laboratories of Brazil determine exchangeable Al, Ca, and Mg in a 1 mol L-1 KCl soil extract and exchangeable sodium and potassium in the Mehlich-1 soil extract, which is also used for phosphorus extraction. Other laboratories use an anion exchange resin for P and also determine Ca, Mg and K in the same extract, while Al and Na cannot be determined. For this reason, it was considered a good opportunity to evaluate the simultaneous extraction of the five exchangeable cations: Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na in a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl solution, and compare the results with those obtained with potassium chloride and Mehlich-1 extractants. The soil samples used were from Northeastern Brazil fruit growing region and from the Embrapa Environment Experimental Station, located in Jaguariúna County, São Paulo State. The employed methods were: (a simultaneous extraction of the five cations with a 1 mol L-1 NH4Cl; (b extraction of Ca, Mg, and Al with 1 mol L-1 KCl; and (c extraction of K and Na with the Mehlich-1 solution. The NH4Cl solution has a higher Mg extraction capacity than KCl, but they present similar Ca and Al extraction ability. The NH4Cl solution extracted more K and Na than the Mehlich-1 solution. It is concluded that the ammonium chloride solution is a convenient alternative for the extraction of exchangeable Al, Ca, Mg, K, and Na from soils.

  6. Estudo da oxidação de cerâmicas à base de carbeto de silício sinterizado via fase líquida utilizando nitreto de alumínio e óxido de ítrio como aditivos Study of oxidation in liquid phase sintered silicon carbide with addition of aluminum nitride and yttrium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Bondioli; Santos, C.; K. Strecker

    2008-01-01

    Materiais cerâmicos à base de carbeto de silício foram desenvolvidos através de sinterização via fase líquida usando AlN-Y2O3 como sistema de aditivos. Duas composições foram desenvolvidas utilizando pós de SiC e diferentes teores de AlN e Y2O3. Os pós foram misturados e homogeneizados, secados e subseqüentemente desaglomerados. As misturas do pó foram compactadas por prensagem uniaxial com subseqüente prensagem isostática a frio e os compactos foram sinterizados a 2080 ºC, por 1 h, em atmosf...

  7. Estudo da oxidação de cerâmicas à base de carbeto de silício sinterizado via fase líquida utilizando nitreto de alumínio e óxido de ítrio como aditivos Study of oxidation in liquid phase sintered silicon carbide with addition of aluminum nitride and yttrium oxide

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    M. J. Bondioli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Materiais cerâmicos à base de carbeto de silício foram desenvolvidos através de sinterização via fase líquida usando AlN-Y2O3 como sistema de aditivos. Duas composições foram desenvolvidas utilizando pós de SiC e diferentes teores de AlN e Y2O3. Os pós foram misturados e homogeneizados, secados e subseqüentemente desaglomerados. As misturas do pó foram compactadas por prensagem uniaxial com subseqüente prensagem isostática a frio e os compactos foram sinterizados a 2080 ºC, por 1 h, em atmosfera 0,2 MPa de N2. As amostras sinterizadas foram caracterizadas por difração de raios X e pela sua densidade relativa. O comportamento da oxidação foi investigado e relacionado ao teor de aditivos. Para tanto, as amostras foram submetidas aos ensaios de oxidação em temperaturas de 1200, 1300 e 1400 ºC, ao ar por 120 h. O ganho de massa das amostras foi traçado em função do tempo de exposição, obtendo a evolução da oxidação na superfície das amostras. A composição das fases cristalinas presentes nas superfícies oxidadas foi obtida utilizando difração de raios X. Baseados nos resultados foram determinados os coeficientes de crescimento parabólico da taxa de oxidação referentes a cada composição estudada. Os resultados indicam que as amostras apresentam oxidação com comportamento parabólico em todas as condições, sendo que as amostras contendo menor quantidade de Y2O3 em relação ao AlN apresentaram maior resistência a oxidação quando submetidas a temperatura de 1200 ºC; porém com o aumento da temperatura para 1400 ºC, as amostras contendo maior quantidade de Y2O3 em relação ao AlN apresentaram maior resistência à oxidação, fato relacionado com as fases intergranulares presentes no sistema, após a sinterização.Silicon carbide (SiC ceramics were developed by liquid phase sintering using AlN-Y2O3 as additive. Two compositions were obtained using different AlN-Y2O3 contents. The powders were mixed/homogenized and subsequently deagglomerated. Powder mixtures were compacted by cold isostatic pressing and sintered at 2080 ºC for 1h under 0.2 MPa-N2 atmosphere. Sintered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and relative density. The oxidation behavior was investigated and related to the additive content. Samples were submitted to the tests at 1200, 1300 and 1400 ºC in air for 120 h. Weight gain of the samples was plotted as a function of the exposure time, obtaining the evolution of the oxidation on the sample surfaces. The oxidized surfaces of samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The parabolic growing coefficient of the oxidation layer (k p were determined. The results indicate that the samples show parabolic behavior in all conditions. Samples with larger AlN content in relation to Y2O3 show larger oxidation resistance at 1200 ºC; however, with the increase of the temperature to 1400 ºC, the samples with smaller AlN content in relation to Y2O3 show larger oxidation resistance. This fact is related with the intergranular phases present in the system after sintering.

  8. Rota hidrometalúrgica de recuperação de molibdênio, cobalto, níquel e alumínio de catalisadores gastos de hidrotratamento em meio ácido Hydrometallurgical route to recover molybdenum, nickel, cobalt and aluminum from spent hydrotreating catalysts in acid medium

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    Ivam Macedo Valverde Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a hydrometallurgical route for processing spent commercial catalysts (CoMo and NiMo/Al2O3. Samples were preoxidized (500 ºC, 5 h in order to eliminate coke and other volatile species present. The calcined solid was dissolved in concentrated H2SO4 and water (1:1 vol/vol at 90 ºC; the insoluble matter was separated from the solution. Molybdenum was recovered by solvent extraction using tertiary amines at pH around 1.8. Cobalt (or nickel was separated by addition of aqueous ammonium oxalate at the above pH. Phosphorus was removed by passing the liquid through a strong anion exchange column. Aluminum was recovered by neutralizing the solution with NaOH. The route presented in this work generates less final aqueous wastes because it is not necessary to use alkaline medium during the metal recovery steps.

  9. Evidências da formação de monocamada de óxido de alumínio sobre sílica, através de reações de enxerto Evidence of aluminum oxide monolayer formation on a silica gel surface using grafting reactions

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    Julia M. D. Cónsul

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxide was dispersed on a commercial silica gel surface, using successive grafting reactions. The reaction products were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The progressive incorporation of aluminum, up to 5.5% (w/w, does not produce agglomeration of alumina, since changes in the original pore size distribution of the silica matrix were not observed. The aluminum oxide covers homogeneously the silica surface.

  10. Toxicidade e acúmulo de flúor em hortaliças nas adjacências de uma fábrica de alumínio Toxicity and fluoride accumulation in herbs grown in the vicinity of an aluminum plant

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    Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de acumulação de flúor e o percentual deste elemento removido pela lavagem, quatro espécies de hortaliças foram expostas em área poluída. Spondias dulcis foi utilizada como bioindicadora de reação e apresentou sintomas típicos em resposta ao poluente. Somente a salsa apresentou sintomas. Apesar de aparentemente sadias, as folhas das outras espécies utilizadas para estudos microscópicos, exceto da cebolinha, evidenciaram alterações na superfície, principalmente associados aos estômatos. Houve redução na espessura do limbo, mais acentuada no manjericão e na cebolinha, havendo formação de tecido de cicatrização na couve e condensação do conteúdo das células epidérmicas na salsa. As folhas subuladas e eretas da cebolinha favoreceram o menor acúmulo do poluente; já na salsa, as folhas laminares, recortadas e paralelas ao solo contribuíram para a maior retenção. A lavagem das folhas removeu 34,1 e 73,9% do flúor na cebolinha e na salsa, respectivamente, indicando que a maior parte do poluente encontrava-se internamente na cebolinha e externamente na salsa. O cultivo destas hortaliças em áreas poluídas por flúor é inadequado, pois os teores do poluente estão acima do recomendado para o consumo, mesmo após a lavagem das folhas.To assess fluoride accumulation potential and the percentage of fluoride removed by washing, four herb species were exposed to a polluted area. Spondias dulcis was used as a responsive bioindicator and showed typical fluoride response symptoms. Symptoms were observed only in parsley. Although apparently healthy, the leaves of the remaining herbs, except for chives, showed surface damage associated mainly with stomata when observed under the microscope. A reduction in leaf thickness was also observed, most prominently in basil and chives. Scar tissue was observed in kale, and a retraction of the protoplast of the epidermal cells was observed in parsley. The subulate, erect leaves of chives accumulated less fluoride; on the other hand, parsley leaves are laminar, lobed and parallel to the soil, which contributed to higher pollutant retention. Washing the leaves removed 34.1 and 73.9% of the fluoride on chives and parsley, respectively, indicating that for chives, most of the pollutant was found inside the leaves, while for parsley, the pollutant was located on the outside. Growing these herbs in fluoride-polluted areas is not recommended, since pollutant percentages are above levels recommended for consumption, even after washing the leaves.

  11. Tratamento biológico de efluentes de indústrias de papel após floculação e coagulação com sais de alumínio e polieletrólitos naturais

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    Edson M. dos Reis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The flocculation and sedimentation of recalcitrant organic compounds of high molecular weight using natural polyelectrolytes, extracted from the cactus Cereus peruvianus and Opuntia ficus indica, have been studied. Organic compounds of high molecular weight from effluents of paper and pulp industries are difficult for biological degradation. However, using a mixture of aluminum salts and natural polyelectrolytes, the aggregation and settling properties of recalcitrant organics were increased if compared with conventional methods of wastewater treatment using only aluminum or iron sulfate. After flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration, the effluent was submitted to biological degradation by activated sludge process. The main advantages of using a mixture of aluminum salts and natural polyelectrolytes were shorter time of flocculation, floccus of larger size and easier for filtration.The removal efficiency observed were:85-90% of aromatic compounds, 70-85% of chemical oxygen demand,and 91-97% of colour.

  12. Resposta ao calcário e ao fósforo de genótipos de trigo com diferentes tolerâncias ao alumínio Response to lime and phosphorus of wheat genotypes with different tolerance to aluminium

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    JOSÉ GUILHERME DE FREITAS

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a resposta, à calagem e ao fósforo, de quatro genótipos de trigo com diferentes tolerâncias à acidez do solo. Os experimentos foram instalados de 1987 a 1995 em um cambissolo ácido e de baixa fertilidade, sem irrigação e após pousio ou soja. O delineamento foi de blocos, em parcela subsubdividida, com quatro repetições. A parcela constou de três doses de calcário (0, 6,5 e 13 t ha-1; a subparcela, de três doses de P (0, 30 e 90 kg ha-1 de P2O5, e as subsubparcelas, de quatro genótipos (IAC-5, IAC-24, IAC-60 e Anahuac. O calcário foi aplicado no primeiro ano (1987 e reaplicado em 1991, e o P, anualmente, no sulco de semeadura. Os genótipos de trigo tolerantes à acidez (IAC-5 e IAC-60 se mostraram mais responsivos à calagem e à aplicação de P e, mesmo em solos parcialmente corrigidos, apresentaram maiores rendimentos de grãos do que o material sensível à acidez (Anahuac. A correção da acidez e a adubação fosfatada provocaram a diminuição da relação palha:grão por favorecer mais a produção de grãos do que o desenvolvimento vegetativo. Essa relação foi menor e mais constante no genótipo IAC-60, tolerante à acidez. Os genótipos IAC-5 e IAC-60 mostraram-se mais eficientes em relação ao aproveitamento do P aplicado para o rendimento de grãos em solos de baixa fertilidade.Field experiments were set up during nine years, in a low fertility, very acid Cambisol, with the objective of evaluating the response to lime and phosphorus of four wheat genotypes differing in tolerance to soil acidity. The experiments were carried out without irrigation, in randomized blocks with a split-split plot design, with four replications. The plots contained the three rates of limestone (0, 6.5, and 13 ton ha-1; the split-plots the rates of phosphorus (0, 30, and 90 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and the split-split plots the wheat varieties (IAC-5, IAC-24, IAC-60 and Anahuac. Lime was applied in the first year (1987 and reapplied in 1991; phosphorus was applied yearly. Wheat varieties tolerant to soil acidity (IAC-5 and IAC-60 were more responsive to limestone and phosphorus application and, even in soils with acidity partially neutralized, showed higher grain yields than the acid sensitive variety (Anahuac. Limestone and phosphorus caused a decrease in the straw:grain ratio because they increased the grain yield more than the vegetative growth. This ratio was lower and more stable with IAC-60. Genotypes IAC-5 and IAC-60 were the most efficient to use the applied phosphorus to produce grain. Yields of grain and straw, and plant size were usually more affected by phosphorus than by limestone application.

  13. Rebitagem por Fricção (“FricRiveting” de Liga de Alumínio 6056 T6 e Poliamida 6: Influência da Velocidade de Rotação na Formação da Zona de Ancoragem e no Desempenho Mecânico

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    Bruno Cordeiro de Proença

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O uso de estruturas híbridas metal-polímero é uma alternativa para a redução de peso e de consumo de combustível na indústria de transporte que visa minimizar a emissão de gases nocivos ao efeito estufa. A Rebitagem por Fricção (‘Friction Riveting é uma técnica relativamente nova para união de estruturas híbridas metal-polímero. O processo baseia-se na geração de calor friccional entre os componentes resultando na deformação plástica da extremidade do rebite metálico, que é ancorado dentro do componente polimérico. O presente estudo avaliou a viabilidade técnica da união de AA 6056 T6 e PA6, com foco na influência da velocidade de rotação do rebite no desempenho mecânico das juntas. A máxima temperatura atingida no processo aumentou com o acréscimo na velocidade de rotação, de 291 ± 6°C com 10000 rev/min para 375 ± 5°C com 15000 rev/min. A utilização de maiores valores de velocidade de rotação causou a deformação plástica da ponta do rebite durante a fase de fricção. Isso levou a juntas mecanicamente mais resistentes, devido à maior ancoragem do rebite metálico na placa polimérica. As juntas de AA 6056 T6-PA6 apresentaram bom desempenho de resistência à tração atingindo 85% da resistência à tração do rebite metálico. Portanto, verificou-se que é possível unir AA 6056 T6 e PA6 pela técnica de rebitagem por fricção e que a velocidade de rotação influencia diretamente a resistência à tração das juntas.

  14. Determinação espectrofotométrica de alumínio em concentrados salinos utilizados em hemodiálise empregando pré-concentração em fluxo Spectrophotometric aluminium determination in high salts concentrations solution used in hemodyalisis emploing preconcentration in flow injection

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    Maria do Socorro Silva Pereira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available An automatic flow injection procedure for spectrophotometric aluminium determination in purified water and solutions containing high salts concentrations used for hemodyalisis treatment was developed. The method was base on reaction of Al3+ with cianine eriochrome R (ECR after preconcentration using the AG50W-X8 cationic-exchange resin. Elution was carried out using a 1 % (m/v calcium chloride solution. The manifold comprised an automatic proporcional injector controlled by a computer equipped with an eletronic interface and software written in QuicBASIC 4.5 with facilities to control the injector and perform data acquisition. Samples with concentration ranging from 4.96 to 19.90 µg L-1 Al were analyzed and recoveries between 88 and 113% were obtained by using the standard addition method. Other profitable analytical characteristics such as a relative standard deviation 1.3 % (n = 10 for a typical sample 14.5 µg L-1 Al, a linear response ranging up to 60.0 µg L-1Al, and a sampling throughput of 10 determinations per hour were achieved. A detection limit of 4.2 µg L-1 Al was estimated as suggested by IUPAC.

  15. UPWARD FLOATING OF ALUM PARTICLE IN SEDIMENTATION BASIN OF THE INDONISIAN ASAM-ASAM POWER PLANT:CAUSE ANALYSIS AND COUNTERMEASURES%印尼ASAM-ASAM电厂沉淀池矾花上浮原因分析及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏

    2012-01-01

    印尼ASAM-ASAM电厂河水预处理系统中的高密度沉淀池在调试期间出现矾花上浮、出水浊度偏大等问题,经分析发现其主要是由沉淀池部分排泥阀损坏,污泥无法及时排出、系统进水不稳定、加药方式不当、搅拌效果不佳等造成絮凝效果较差所致.对此,采取改变排泥频率,增加搅拌器中的轴长度,控制进水流量变化,调整沉淀池斜板倾角等措施后,沉淀池出水浊度降至4 NTU左右,系统运行稳定.

  16. Capacidade máxima de adsorção de fósforo relacionada a formas de ferro e alumínio em solos subtropicais Maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity as related to iron and aluminum forms in subtropical soils

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    Cesar Crispim Vilar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O P é um dos macronutrientes primários essenciais para a produção vegetal. Apesar de ser o menos absorvido pelas plantas, é o mais utilizado nas adubações nos solos das regiões tropicais e subtropicais úmidas. Isso ocorre porque o P tem grande interação com os óxidos de Fe e Al, abundantes nessas condições. O estudo dessas interações é importante para se conhecer melhor a relação entre os constituintes do solo e a adsorção de P. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar como os componentes da fração argila antes e após a dissolução seletiva dos óxidos de Fe dos solos e alguns de seus atributos mineralógicos influenciam na capacidade máxima de adsorção de P (CMAP. Para isso, foram utilizadas 20 amostras da fração argila isolada do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná, as quais foram caracterizadas em seus atributos químicos e mineralógicos. Nesses solos, a CMAP e a área superficial específica externa (ASE foram determinadas na fração argila natural (CMAP, ASE e desferrificada (CMAPd, ASEd. Os valores de CMAP não apresentaram tendência definida com a dissolução seletiva dos óxidos de Fe. Em 13 amostras, a CMAPd foi maior do que a CMAP. Na fração argila natural, os teores de Fe d variaram entre 25,89 e 108,79, e os de Al d, entre 6,69 e 30,09 g kg-1. As formas de Al livre (Al d e de baixo grau de cristalinidade (Al o apresentaram maiores coeficientes de correlação com a CMAP e com a CMAPd (r = 0,66 e 0,70, respectivamente. Entre os atributos químicos analisados, o P remanescente (Prem pode ser utilizado na estimativa da CMAP.Phosphorus is among the macronutrients the least absorbed by plants. Nevertheless, the amount of P-containing fertilizers applied to humid tropical and subtropical soils in relatively high. The reason is the strong interaction between of P and Fe and Al oxides, which are abundant in these soils. The study of these interactions is fundamental to know more about the relations between phosphorus adsorption and soil constituents. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the minerals in the clay fraction, before and after selective dissolution of the iron oxides and of different soils and how some of their mineralogical properties affect the maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity (MPAC. For this purpose, chemical and mineralogical soil properties, were characterized in the clay fraction of the B-Horizons in 20 samples soil from the State of Paraná. In these soils the maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity (MPAC and the external specific surface area (SSA were determined in the clay fraction before (MPAC, SSA and after (MPACd, SSAd selective dissolution of the free iron oxides. No definite tendency of MPAC was observed with the selective dissolution of the iron oxides. The MPAC values were higher than the MPACd in seven and lower in 13 samples. In the clay fraction, Fe d levels ranged from 25.9 to 108.8 g kg-1; and Al d 6.7 to 30.1 g kg-1. The Al free (Al d and poorly crystalline forms (Al o were best correlated with MPAC and MPACd (r = 0.66 and 0.70, respectively. Among the chemical properties analyzed, remaining phosphorus (P-rem can be used to estimate MPAC.

  17. Avaliação do pH da rizosfera de genótipos de café em resposta à toxidez de alumínio no solo Rhizosphere pH evaluation of coffee genotypes in response to soil aluminum toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    SEBASTIÃO MARCOS DE MENDONÇA; HERMINIA EMILIA PRIETO MARTINEZ; Alessandro de Lucca e Braccini; MARIA DO CARMO LANA BRACCINI

    2000-01-01

    Foi realizado um experimento em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar a relação entre pH da rizosfera e tolerância ao Al de cinco genótipos de café, na presença e na ausência de calagem. As plantas de café foram desenvolvidas em caixas plásticas, com as raízes próximas da tampa. Após 90 dias as tampas foram removidas e uma fina camada de agar contendo indicador foi derramada sobre a superfície. Também foram avaliados a produção de biomassa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, o comprimento...

  18. Extraction of Water Treatment Coagulant from Locally Abundant Kaolin Clays

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    Fidelis Chigondo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industrialisation is contributing to water pollution. There is a need to identify cheaper and efficient methods of removing contaminants as the demand for clean water rises. A study is carried out to investigate the extraction of alum from locally abundant kaolin clays using sulphuric acid. Alum is a coagulant that is used for raw water treatment. The kaolin clay and alum were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The effects of particle size, calcination temperature, calcination time, acid-kaolin clay ratio, acid concentration, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction efficiency were investigated. The optimum leaching conditions for the calcined kaolin clay were found to be particle size 100 µm, acid-kaolin clay weight ratio 6 : 1, acid concentration 4 M, leaching temperature 100°C, and leaching time 90 min. Under optimised conditions, 66.95% (w/w aluminum sulphate was extracted. The results showed that sulphuric acid could be used on a large scale to extract alum from kaolin clay. The extracted alum showed similar structural and physical characteristics compared with commercial alum. A dosage of 40 mg/L of the extracted alum showed effective coagulant properties with a great potential of treating raw water.

  19. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR PURIFICATION OF WATER USING NATURAL COAGULANT

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    C. P. Pise

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of chemical coagulants is not suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies are carried out in laboratory scale on deionized and river water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments are carried out in three turbidity ranges: 150, 450, 1000 (NTU and the pH range 6-8. The efficiency of Moringa oleifera (MO seed extract and alum is examined with jar test, settling column and pilot test. The aim of this study is to find out the optimum combination of MO and alum using alum as a coagulant aid in household treatment of natural river surface water for domestic use. The various coagulant combinations with which the raw water from the river is treated include Moringa oleifera seed powder only, Alum coagulant only and blended Moringa oleifera seeds and alum in different combinations. When Moringa oleifera seed powder is used as the sole coagulant, a filter was needed to obtain an acceptable turbidity value but there was no need for pH adjustment or correction. Moringa oleifera seed powder can be used in treating household drinking water either as a sole coagulant or in combination with alum as a coagulant aid. The recommended ratio for the combined coagulant dose is 60% MO seed powder and 40% alum.

  20. Pembuatan Busa Poliuretan Alam Dari Isolasi Lignin Dengan Aditif Tawas Untuk Penjernihan Air

    OpenAIRE

    Syahidah, Zulfa Ummu

    2015-01-01

    This research purposed to learn the influence of the addition alum on foam polyurethane to flow time of the filtering brackish water. This research consists of some steps, are isolation of lignin from teak powder, synthesize of foam polyurethane-alum (50%-50%; 40%-60%; 30%-70%; 20%-80%; 10%-90%), characterization foam polyurethane-alum, analyze of permeability, and analyze parameter of brackish water include pH, turbidity, and total solid suspended (TSS). The brackish water before filtering u...

  1. Optimization of process parameters for COD removal by Coagulation Treatment using Box–Behnken design

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sangeetha; Sivakumar, V.; A Sudha; KS Priyenka Devi

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation treatment of sago wastewater was studied and laboratory studies were carried out using alum as coagulant. Coagulation treatment conditions were optimised through response surface methodology (RSM). Operational parameters namely dosage of alum (Al2 (SO4)3) (mg/l), pH and wastewater concentration (g/l) were varied between 50-150mg/l, 3–5 and 10-30g/l respectively. The results were analysed using Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimum condition at 100mg/l of alum dosage, 4.5 pH...

  2. Double catholyte electrochemical approach for preparing ferrate-aluminum: a compound dxidant-coagulant for water purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ferrate is an excellent water treatment agent for its multi-functions in oxidation, disinfection, coagulation and adsorption, but its coagulation ability depends on its dosage and is after its oxidation. This paper focuses on preparing a new kind of ferrate combined with alum to enhance its coagulation function for water purification. An effective electrolysis reactor was designed and employed in the test. Some key parameters in the process of electrolysis concerning the preparation efficiency, such as the current density, temperature and alkalinity were also investigated. The proper conditions for ferrate-alum preparation were determined. In the condition of 5V given voltage, 6h electrolyzing interval, below 2% alum concentration (in weight), a combined liquid ferrate-alum products was successfully prepared, which contained 0.0294 mol/L FeO42-, 0.0302 mol/L total soluble ferron with 2% Al2O3. There was no insoluble ferron produced by controlling an optimum electrochemical condition.

  3. Evaluation of geotextile filtration applying coagulant and flocculant amendments for aquaculture biosolids dewatering and phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastes contained in the microscreen backwash discharged from intensive recirculating aquaculture systems were removed and dewatered in simple geotextile bag filters. Three chemical coagulation aids, (aluminum sulfate (alum), ferric chloride, and calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime)), were tested in com...

  4. PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF TEXTILE FINISHING WASTEWATER FOR PROCESS REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a demonstration of multimedia filtration as an effective tertiary treatment for biologically treated textile wastewaters from two adjacent plants involved in dyeing and finishing fabrics of man-made fibers. Adding alum, polyelectrolytes, and powdered activate...

  5. Evaluation of hyaluronic acid-based combination adjuvant containing monophosphoryl lipid A and aluminum salt for hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Se-hee; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Noh, Young-Woock; Lim, Yong Taik

    2015-09-11

    Here, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and aluminum salt (Alum) were introduced into a hyaluronic acid (HA)-based combination vaccine adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). Although Alum is a well-known hepatitis B vaccine adjuvant that induces an enhanced humoral immune response, it cannot induce the cellular immune responses. On the other hand, MPLA has been generally reported to promote IFN-γ production via antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells, but it is not water soluble as a result of its long hydrophobic alkyl chains. To this end, water insoluble MPLA could be solubilized in an aqueous solution with the help of HA, which contains many carboxyl and hydroxyl groups that can be used to attach to the hydroxyl head groups of MPLA via hydrogen bonds. Three groups of mice were treated with either hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) alone, HBsAg_Alum complex, or HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex. The group immunized with the HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex exhibited a high increase in cellular immune response as well as in humoral immune response relative to the other two groups. The antibody, cytokine and T cell levels were most elevated in the group of mice immunized with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex, even at a 1μg/mice dose, and the magnitude was still maintained even after 8 weeks. Specifically, the antibody value was 120 times larger in mice vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex than in mice vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum complex designed similar to commercially available hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix B. The cytokine and T cell proliferation levels were 2 times and 6 times larger in mice adjuvanted with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex than in those vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum. The results therefore indicate that incorporating MPLA and Alum with HA can be a potent strategy to increase both the magnitude and the persistence of HBsAg-specific immune responses to protect hosts against hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:26271830

  6. Formulasi Sediaan Deodoran Antiperspiran Bentuk Batang (Stick) Dengan Aluminium Kalium Sulfat (Tawas)

    OpenAIRE

    Lase, Bertha Dwi Julinta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antiperspirant is a cosmetic which is used to suppress sweating by stricted pores of sweat glands, including eccrine and apocrine. Alum (potassium aluminum sulfate) is a traditional antiperspirant, which serves to improve body odor works by inhibiting the secretion of sweat with narrow the pores. In trade, alum is available in powder form antiperspirant deodorant. This form is less effective because it can be dissolved with sweat. Deodorant cosmetic preparations have several forms...

  7. Silica nanoparticles as the adjuvant for the immunisation of mice using hepatitis B core virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Lieknina, Ilva; Bogans, Janis; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Dishlers, Andris; Dekhtyar, Yuri; Pumpens, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have facilitated the development of silicon dioxide, or Silica, particles as a promising immunological adjuvant for the generation of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In the present study, we have compared the adjuvanting potential of commercially available Silica nanoparticles (initial particles size of 10-20 nm) with that of aluminium hydroxide, or Alum, as well as that of complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants for the immunisation of BALB/c mice with virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by recombinant full-length Hepatitis B virus core (HBc) protein. The induction of B-cell and T-cell responses was studied after immunisation. Silica nanoparticles were able to adsorb maximally 40% of the added HBc, whereas the adsorption capacity of Alum exceeded 90% at the same VLPs/adjuvant ratio. Both Silica and Alum formed large complexes with HBc VLPs that sedimented rapidly after formulation, as detected by dynamic light scattering, spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy. Both Silica and Alum augmented the humoral response against HBc VLPs to the high anti-HBc level in the case of intraperitoneal immunisation, whereas in subcutaneous immunisation, the Silica-adjuvanted anti-HBc level even exceeded the level adjuvanted by Alum. The adjuvanting of HBc VLPs by Silica resulted in the same typical IgG2a/IgG1 ratios as in the case of the adjuvanting by Alum. The combination of Silica with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) led to the same enhancement of the HBc-specific T-cell induction as in the case of the Alum and MPL combination. These findings demonstrate that Silica is not a weaker putative adjuvant than Alum for induction of B-cell and T-cell responses against recombinant HBc VLPs. This finding may have an essential impact on the development of the set of Silica-adjuvanted vaccines based on a long list of HBc-derived virus-like particles as the biological component. PMID:25436773

  8. Single and combination herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccines adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or monophosphoryl lipid A exhibit differential immunity that is not correlated to protection in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodai, Tansi; Chappell, Debbie; Christy, Clare; Cockle, Paul; Eyles, Jim; Hammond, Daisy; Gore, Katrina; McCluskie, Michael J; Evans, Dana M; Lang, Susanne; Loudon, Peter T; Townend, Tim; Wright, Paul; West, Kate; Bright, Helen

    2011-10-01

    Despite several attempts to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine for HSV-2, all have failed to show efficacy in the clinic. The most recent of these failures was the GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) subunit vaccine based on the glycoprotein gD with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). In a phase 3 clinical trial, this vaccine failed to protect from HSV-2 disease, even though good neutralizing antibody responses were elicited. We aimed to develop a superior, novel HSV-2 vaccine containing either gD or gB alone or in combination, together with the potent adjuvant CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CPG). The immunogenic properties of these vaccines were compared in mice. We show that gB/CPG/alum elicited a neutralizing antibody response similar to that elicited by gD/CPG/alum vaccine but a significantly greater gamma interferon (IFN-γ) T cell response. Furthermore, the combined gB-gD/CPG/alum vaccine elicited significantly greater neutralizing antibody and T cell responses than gD/MPL/alum. The efficacies of these candidate vaccines were compared in the mouse and guinea pig disease models, including a novel male guinea pig genital disease model. These studies demonstrated that increased immune response did not correlate to improved protection. First, despite a lower IFN-γ T cell response, the gD/CPG/alum vaccine was more effective than gB/CPG/alum in mice. Furthermore, the gB-gD/CPG/alum vaccine was no more effective than gD/MPL/alum in mice or male guinea pigs. We conclude that difficulties in correlating immune responses to efficacy in animal models will act as a deterrent to researchers attempting to develop effective HSV vaccines. PMID:21852545

  9. Performance enhancement of zero valent iron based systems using depassivators: Optimization and kinetic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaf, Karim Vayalunkal Karottu; Ambika, Selvaraj; Nambi, Indumathi Manivannan

    2016-10-01

    The long-term ability of Zero-Valent Iron (ZVI) in contaminant removal relies on the effectiveness of iron to serve as electron donor, which makes it a versatile remediation material. However, the formation of oxide and hydroxide layers results in passive layer on ZVI surface during contaminant removal hinders its reactivity. The focus of this research was to evaluate the performance of corrosive agents such as acetic acid (HAc), aluminium sulphate (Alum) and potassium chloride (KCl) as depassivators to overcome passivation for sustainability and longevity. Batch experiments using seven combinations of the above chemicals were conducted to optimize the dosage of depassivators based on passive layer removal. The influence of depassivators in catalytic activity of ZVI in removing Cr(6+) was evaluated. The passive layer on ZVI particles was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and confirmed by Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) analysis. The major mechanisms in passive layer removal was found to be H(+) ion embrittlement followed by uniform depassivation when [HAc] was used and pitting corrosion when [Alum] and [KCl]were used. All the seven sets of chemicals enabled depassivation, but considering the criteria of maximum depassivation, catalytic activity and long term reactivity the depassivation treatments were effective in order as [HAc-Alum] > [HAc-Alum-KCl] >[HAc] > [Alum] > [HAc-KCl] > [KCl] > [Alum-KCl]. The kinetic rate of ZVI using [HAc-Alum] and [Alum] was relatively unchanged over the pH range of 4-10, made it suitable for ex-situ remediation. This insignificant influence of initial pH in catalytic activity of ZVI along with the improvement in longevity and sustainability makes it suitable for effective water treatment applications. The present work has successfully demonstrated that chemical depassivation can restore considerable reactivity of ZVI in the existing permeable reactive barriers. PMID:27395028

  10. Utilização de diferentes tipos de policloretos de alumínio para purificação de hidrolisado de bagaço de cana através da técnica de coagulação e floculação Use of different kinds of aluminum polychloride in the sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate purification through coagulation and flocculation technics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Lima Noronha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the action of the flocculating agents Panfloc and Panclar a full factorial design 2³ and a Central Composite design 2² were carried out. The control variables were the flocculant concentration, pH and temperature. The response variables were phenolic compounds reduction and spectral area reduction. The best conditions of treatment was hydrolyzate at pH 9 for both coagulants, but the use of Panfloc was more effective in the phenolic compounds reduction (73.9% and spectral area reduction (65.8%.

  11. Utilização de diferentes tipos de policloretos de alumínio para purificação de hidrolisado de bagaço de cana através da técnica de coagulação e floculação Use of different kinds of aluminum polychloride in the sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate purification through coagulation and flocculation technics

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo de Lima Noronha; Christiane Reis Fonseca; Cássia Cavalcanti da Silva; Messias Borges Silva; Luís Fernando Figueiredo Faria

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the action of the flocculating agents Panfloc and Panclar a full factorial design 2³ and a Central Composite design 2² were carried out. The control variables were the flocculant concentration, pH and temperature. The response variables were phenolic compounds reduction and spectral area reduction. The best conditions of treatment was hydrolyzate at pH 9 for both coagulants, but the use of Panfloc was more effective in the phenolic compounds reduction (73.9%) and spect...

  12. Melhoramento do trigo: XXVII. Estimativas de variância, herdabilidade e correlações em populações híbridas para produção de grãos, tolerância a toxicidade de alumínio e altura das plantas Wheat breeding: XXVII. Variance, heritability and correlations in hybrid populations for grain yield, tolerance to aluminum toxicity and plant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando estimar a herdabilidade em sentido restrito para tolerância ao Al3+, altura das plantas e produção de grãos, bem como as correlações entre essas características, foram efetuados cruzamentos entre os cultivares BH-1146, tolerante ao Al3+ e de porte alto; IAC-24, tolerante ao Al3+ e de porte semi-anão, e Anahuac, sensível ao Al3+ e de porte semi-anão. Plântulas representando os pais, as gerações F1 e F2 e os retrocruzamentos para ambos os pais, foram testadas para a reação a 6 mg/litro de Al3+ em solução nutritiva. As plantas, devidamente identificadas, foram transplantadas para vasos localizados no telado. Os valores da herdabilidade em sentido restrito para altura das plantas foram altos para os cruzamentos BH-1146 x Anahuac (0,732 e IAC-24 x Anahuac (0,799, e moderado para BH-1146 x IAC-24 (0,432. Para o caráter tolerância ao Al3+, o valor da herdabilidade foi alto para o cruzamento BH-1146 x Anahuac (0,922 e moderado para os cruzamentos BH-1146 x IAC-24 (0,425 e IAC-24 x Anahuac (0,494. Os valores da herdabilidade para produção de grãos foram baixos para todos os cruzamentos, variando entre 0,037 e 0,195. As correlações fenotípicas entre a produção de grãos e a altura das plantas foram positivas e altamente significativas para todos os cruzamentos em estudo. As correlações fenotípicas entre produção de grãos e tolerância ao Al3+ foram não significativas para todos os cruzamentos, com exceção do BH-1146 x IAC-24, que foi positiva e altamente significativa. A correlação fenotípica entre a altura das plantas e a tolerância ao Al3+ foi somente significativa e positiva para o cruzamento BH-1146 x IAC-24. Os resultados sugerem somente ser possível selecionar plantas de porte semi-anão, tolerantes ao Al3+ e de alto potencial produtivo, desde que grandes populações segregantes sejam conduzidas para favorecer a identificação dos genótipos desejáveis originários das eventuais recombinações genéticas.Crosses were made involving the cultivars: BH-1146, tall and aluminum tolerant, IAC-24, semidwarf and aluminum tolerant and Anahuac, semidwarf and aluminum sensitive. Parents, F1's, F2's and reciprocal backcrosses were tested for their seedling reaction to 6mg/l of Al3+ in nutrient solution, in laboratory condition, and evaluated for grain yield and plant height at maturity in an experiment using pots, under a screen house in 1988 conditions at Experimental Center of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Narrow sense heritabilities estimates were moderate to high for plant height (0.432-0.799 and for aluminum tolerance (0.425-0.922 and low for grain yield (0.037-0.195. Phenotypic correlations between grain yield and plant height were positive and significant for all populations under study. Phenotypic correlations between grain yield and aluminum tolerance were non significant (except for the population BH-1146 x IAC-24. The phenotypic correlation between plant height and aluminum tolerance was only positive and significant for the population BH-1146 x IAC-24. Results suggest it would be possible to select semidwarf plants, with aluminum tolerance and with high yield potential if large segregating populations were used to identify desired genotypes originated from eventual recombinations.

  13. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  14. Effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted aluminum sulfate coagulation on the removal of humic acid and the formation potentials of tri-halomethanes and haloacetic acids in chlorination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinming Duan; Xiaoting Cao; Cheng Chen; Dongrui Shi; Genmao Li; Dennis Mulcahy

    2012-01-01

    The effects of addition of calcium hydroxide on aluminum sulphate (or alum) coagulation for removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and its subsequent effect on the formation potentials of two major types of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs),haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs),have been examined.The results revealed several noteworthy phenomena.At the optimal coagulation pH (i.e.6),the coagulation behavior of NOM water solutions versus alum dose,showed large variation and a consequent great change in the formation potentials of the DBPs at certain coagulant doses.However,with addition of a relatively small amount of Ca(OH)2,although the zeta potential of coagulated flocs remained almost the same,NOM removal became more consistent with alum dose.Importantly,also the detrimental effect of charge reversal on NOM removal at the low coagulant dose disappeared.This resulted in a steady decrease in the formation potentials of DBPs as a function of the coagulant dose.Moreover,the addition of Ca(OH)2 broadened the pH range of alum coagulation and promoted further reduction of the formation potentials of the DBPs.The enhancement effects of Ca(OH)2 assisted alum coagulation are especially pronounced at pH 7 and 8.Finally,synchronous fluorescence spectra showed that the reduction in DBPs formation potential by Ca(OH)2-assisted alum coagulation was connected to an enhanced removal of small hydrophobic and hydrophilic HA molecules.Ca(OH)2-assistance of alum coagulation appeared to increase substantially the removal of the hydrophilic HA fraction responsible for HAAs formation,prompting further reduction of HAA formation potentials.

  15. Biopersistence and brain translocation of aluminum adjuvants of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Kroum Gherardi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum is a crystaline compound widely used as an immunologic adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to the use of alum particles emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF lesion detected in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue/syndrome. MMF revealed an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells in presumably susceptible individuals, stressing the previous fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. We previously showed that poorly biodegradable aluminum-coated particles injected into muscle are promptly phagocytozed in muscle and the draining lymph nodes, and can disseminate within phagocytic cells throughout the body and slowly accumulate in brain. This strongly suggests that long-term adjuvant biopersistence within phagocytic cells is a prerequisite for slow brain translocation and delayed neurotoxicity. The understanding of basic mechanisms of particle biopersistence and brain translocation represents a major health challenge, since it could help to define susceptibility factors to develop chronic neurotoxic damage. Biopersistence of alum may be linked to its lysosome-destabilizing effect, which is likely due to direct crystal-induced rupture of phagolysosomal membranes. Macrophages that continuously perceive foreign particles in their cytosol will likely reiterate, with variable interindividual efficiency, a dedicated form of autophagy (xenophagy until they dispose of alien materials. Successful compartmentalization of particles within double membrane autophagosomes and subsequent fusion with repaired and re-acidified lysosomes will expose alum to lysosomal acidic pH, the sole factor that can solubilize alum particles. Brain translocation of alum particles is linked to a Trojan horse mechanism previously described for infectious particles (HIV, HCV, that obeys to CCL2 signaling the major inflammatory monocyte

  16. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment.

  17. Influential factors of formation kinetics of flocs produced by water treatment coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunde Wu; Lin Wang; Bing Hu; Jian Ye

    2013-01-01

    The growth rate and size of floc formation is of great importance in water treatment especially in coagulation process.The floc formation kinetics and the coagulation efficiency of synthetic water were investigated by using an on-line continuous optical photometric dispersion analyze and the analysis of water quality.Experimental conditions such as alum dosage,pH value for coagulation,stirring intensity and initial turbidity were extensively examined.The photometric dispersion analyze results showed that coagulation of kaolin suspensions with two coagulants (alum and polyaluminium chloride) could be taken as a two-phase process:slow and rapid growth periods.Operating conditions with higher coagulant doses,appropriate pH and average shear rate might be particularly advantageous.The rate of overall floc growth was mainly determined by a combination of hydraulic and water quality conditions such as pH and turbidity.The measurement of zeta potential indicates that polyaluminium chloride exhibited higher charge-neutralizing ability than alum and achieved lower turbidities than alum for equivalent Al dosages.Under the same operating conditions,the alum showed a higher grow rate,but with smaller floc size.

  18. Reuse the pulp and paper industry wastewater by using fashionable technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, K.; Maruthaiya, K.; Kotteeswaran, P.; Murugan, A.

    2016-09-01

    This proposed method is a promising way, which can be implemented in pulp and paper industries by effective removal of the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the resulting treated water may surely reuse to the other streams. Fourier Transformer Infra Red spectra confirmed the presence of the respective functional groups in the removed pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of Non-ferric Alum (NF Alum) and cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) with and without power boiler fly ash was also studied. The reduction efficiency of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) is evaluated at the optimum dosage of NF Alum, fly ash, and C-PAM. At the optimized pH attained from these coagulants using to treat the wastewater, the flocs formation/settling and the pollutant removal efficiency are encouraging and the resulting color of the wastewater is to 40 PtCo units from 330 PtCo units and COD to 66 mg/L from 218 mg/L. While using NF Alum alone with C-PAM for the treatment of wastewater, the highest reduction efficiency of COD is 97 mg/L from 218 mg/L and the color is 60 from 330 PtCo units at pH 4.8 was noted. From these observations, NF Alum and power boiler fly ash with C-PAM can effectively remove the pollutants from the pulp and paper mill wastewater and the water can be reused for other streams.

  19. The effects of adjuvants on CTL induction by V3:Ty-virus-like particles (V3-VLPs) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S J; Woodrow, S A; Gearing, A J; Adams, S E; Kingsman, A J; Layton, G T

    1996-07-01

    We have previously described the generation of HIV-1 V3-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) responses in BALB/c (H-2d) mice following immunization with Ty-virus-like particles carrying the V3 loop of gp120 (V3-VLPs) without adjuvant. In this study the effects of various adjuvants on CTL induction by V3-VLPs was examined. Mice immunized with V3-VLPs formulated in aqueous-based adjuvants, Detox, gamma-inulin, galactosaminylmuramyl dipeptide and Chemivax generated V3-specific CTL responses, although at reduced levels when compared to the no adjuvant group. V3-VLPs prepared in Alhydrogel, algamulin or as an oil emulsion in SAF-MF failed to generate V3-specific CTL responses. The mechanism whereby alum prevented the induction of a CTL response was investigated further. Immunization with V3-VLPs prepared in non-saturating doses of alum or alum plus EDTA primed for strong CTL responses, indicating that free VLPs do, but alum-bound VLPs do not enter the MHC class I processing pathway of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Furthermore, V3-VLPs with very low doses of alum led to an enhancement of the CTL response. The formulation of hybrid Ty-VLPs in oil based or precipitating adjuvants, therefore, inhibits access to the MHC class I processing pathway of APCs. The intact particulate structure of hybrid VLPs is therefore strictly necessary for CTL induction. PMID:8873390

  20. Effects of chemical blanching and salt content on quality of pickled chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachaiyo, P.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of blanching agents (citric acid and alum and the salt concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% (w/w on the quality of pickled chilli was studied. The results showed that both citric acid and alum hadno effect on pH, titratable acidity and moisture content of pickled chilli. However, the pickled chilli blanched in alum solution had lower counts of total microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria than those of pickled chilli blanched in citric acid solution indicating that alum had greater inhibitory effect on microbial growth than citric acid. On the other hand, the salt concentration affected the moisture content of pickled chilli.The moisture content of the pickled chilli increased as the salt concentration increased. In addition, the salt concentration also affected the microbial growth in pickled chilli. The data indicated that the growth oftotal microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria decreased as the salt concentration increased. This study showed that the combination of using alum solution as blanching agent and 20% salt exhibited greatest inhibitory effect on microbial growth.

  1. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment. PMID:26437662

  2. Application of psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid in semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamadani, Yasir A J; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Umar, Muhammad; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Adlan, Mohd Nordin

    2011-06-15

    Landfill leachate is a heavily polluted and a likely hazardous liquid that is produced as a result of water infiltration through solid wastes generated industrially and domestically. This study investigates the potential of using psyllium husk as coagulant and coagulant aid for the treatment of landfill leachate. Psyllium husk has been tested as primary coagulant and as coagulant aid with poly-aluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulfate (alum). As primary coagulant, the optimum dosage and pH for PACl were 7.2 and 7.5 g/L, respectively, with removal efficiencies of 55, 80 and 95% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. For alum, the optimum conditions were 11 g/L alum dosage and pH 6.5 with removal efficiencies of 58, 79 and 78% for COD, color and TSS, respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of COD, color and TSS were 64, 90 and 96%, respectively, when psyllium husk was used as coagulant aid with PACl. Based on the results, psyllium husk was found to be more effective as coagulant aid with PACl in the removal of COD, color and TSS as compared to alum. Zeta potential test was carried out for leachate, PACl, alum and psyllium husk before and after running the jar test to enhance the results of the jar test experiments. PMID:21507572

  3. Utensílios para alimentos e implicações nutricionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUINTAES Késia Diego

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Há grande variedade de materiais empregados na confecção de utensílios para os alimentos: barro, ferro, vidro, cerâmica, inox, pedra, alumínio e outros. Cerca de 43% de panelas vendidas atualmente nos Estados Unidos são de aço inoxidável. Outra parcela da população utiliza utensílios de alumínio. Este artigo visa especular a contribuição nutricional de utensílios usados na preparação de alimentos e feitos de três diferentes materiais (alumínio, ferro e aço inoxidável, através de revisão de literatura científica.

  4. Preparation and characterisation of polymeric lamellar substrate particles (PLSP)

    CERN Document Server

    Khairullah, N H M

    2002-01-01

    Polymer microparticles have tremendous potential as the next generation of adjuvant systems to replace the only adjuvant currently widely registered for human use, alum. Based on aluminium salts, alum adjuvants work as short-term depots of adsorbed protein/antigens that slowly 'leak' into the body's immune system, inducing immunity by invoking a humoral response. The main disadvantage of alum adjuvants is that they do not raise sufficient antibody levels to induce long-term immunity. Hence, booster administrations are required. This drawback presents the biggest factor in the failure of many vaccination programmes. Polymer microparticulate systems can be fashioned to deliver sub-unit and peptide antigens in a continuous or controlled rate over a desired period of time, avoiding the need for booster doses. The design of mucosal vaccines is now centred upon the use of these polymeric carriers. The mucosal route for immunisation has many advantages over the more conventional systemic route, the most important of...

  5. Treatment of wastewater effluents from paper-recycling plants by coagulation process and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjandi, Noushin; Younesi, Habibollah; Bahramifar, Nader

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a coagulation process was used to treat paper-recycling wastewater with alum coupled with poly aluminum chloride (PACl) as coagulants. The effect of each four factors, viz. the dosages of alum and PACl, pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD), on the treatment efficiency was investigated. The influence of these four parameters was described using response surface methodology under central composite design. The efficiency of reducing turbidity, COD and the sludge volume index (SVI) were considered the responses. The optimum conditions for high treatment efficiency of paper-recycling wastewater under experimental conditions were reached with numerical optimization of coagulant doses and pH, with 1,550 mg/l alum and 1,314 mg/l PACl and 9.5, respectively, where the values for reduction of 80.02 % in COD, 83.23 % in turbidity, and 140 ml/g in SVI were obtained.

  6. Utilização de alumina para a remoção de fluoretos em águas e efluentes

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarinho S. B.; Martinelli J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Foram produzidos 12 tipos de adsorventes de flúor a base de alumina granular seguindo duas rotas de processamento distintas. A primeira rota consistiu na precipitação de hidróxido de alumínio utilizando a técnica de sol-gel e a obtenção de microesferas por geleificação interna e externa. Utilizou-se como matéria prima nitrato de alumínio. A segunda rota consistiu na micropelotização mecânica utilizando-se hidróxido de alumínio produzido pelo processo Bayer e o uso de bauxita. Microesferas e m...

  7. A comparison between Moringa oleifera and chemical coagulants in the purification of drinking water - An alternative sustainable solution for developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    A research project was commissioned to investigate the performance of Moringa oleifera compared with that of aluminium sulphate (Al 2(SO 4) 3) and ferric sulphate (Fe 2(SO 4) 3), termed alum and ferric respectively. A series of jar tests was undertaken using model water, different raw water sources and hybrid water containing a mixture of both of these types of water. The model water consisted of deionised water spiked with Escherichia coli (E. coli) at 10 4 per 100 ml and turbidity (146 NTU) artificially created by kaolin. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 84% turbidity and 88% E. coli, whereas alum removed greater than 99% turbidity and E. coli. Low turbidity river water (<5 NTU), with an E. coli count of 605 colony forming units (cfu)/100 ml was treated with M. oleifera and ferric. Results showed an 82% and 94% reduction in E. coli for M. oleifera and ferric respectively. Tests on turbid river water of 45 NTU, with an E. coli count of 2650 cfu/100 ml, showed a removal of turbidity of 76% and E. coli reduction of 93% with M. oleifera. The equivalent reductions for alum were 91% and 98% respectively. Highly coloured reservoir water was also spiked with E. coli (10 4 cfu/100 ml) and turbidity (160 NTU) artificially created by kaolin; termed hybrid water. Under these conditions M. oleifera removed 83% colour, 97% turbidity and reduced E. coli by 66%. Corresponding removal values for alum were 88% colour, 99% turbidity and 89% E. coli, and for ferric were 93% colour, 98% turbidity and 86% E. coli. Tests on model water, using a secondary treatment stage sand filter showed maximum turbidity removal of 97% and maximum E. coli reduction of 98% using M. oleifera, compared with 100% turbidity and 97% E. coli for alum. Although not as effective as alum or ferric, M. oleifera showed sufficient removal capability to encourage its use for treatment of turbid waters in developing countries.

  8. Enhanced specific immune responses by CpG DNA in mice immunized with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen and HB vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Xingtai; Hu Zhongyu; He Peng; Zhang Xiancheng; Liang Zhenglun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis B vaccine adjuvant, alum, is generally used for vaccination although it does not stimulate Th1 immunity and 10% of the population has low or no antibody response. Efforts have been continued to find more efficient vaccine adjuvants for better antibody response as well as stimulation of Th1 immunity. Methods CpG DNA was used as an adjuvant for recombinant HBsAg to immunize 6- to 8-week-old female BALB/c mice with or without alum for different dosages. The producti...

  9. Pre-treatment for ultrafiltration: effect of pre-chlorination on membrane fouling

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wenzheng; Xu, Lei; Graham, Nigel; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Microbial effects are believed to be a major contributor to membrane fouling in drinking water treatment. Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is commonly applied in membrane cleaning, but its potential use as a pretreatment for controlling operational fouling has received little attention. In this study, the effect of adding a continuous low dose of NaClO (1 mg/l as active Cl) in combination with alum, before ultrafiltration, was compared with only alum as pretreatment. The results showed that the ad...

  10. Silica nanoparticles as the adjuvant for the immunisation of mice using hepatitis B core virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dace Skrastina

    Full Text Available Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have facilitated the development of silicon dioxide, or Silica, particles as a promising immunological adjuvant for the generation of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In the present study, we have compared the adjuvanting potential of commercially available Silica nanoparticles (initial particles size of 10-20 nm with that of aluminium hydroxide, or Alum, as well as that of complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants for the immunisation of BALB/c mice with virus-like particles (VLPs formed by recombinant full-length Hepatitis B virus core (HBc protein. The induction of B-cell and T-cell responses was studied after immunisation. Silica nanoparticles were able to adsorb maximally 40% of the added HBc, whereas the adsorption capacity of Alum exceeded 90% at the same VLPs/adjuvant ratio. Both Silica and Alum formed large complexes with HBc VLPs that sedimented rapidly after formulation, as detected by dynamic light scattering, spectrophotometry, and electron microscopy. Both Silica and Alum augmented the humoral response against HBc VLPs to the high anti-HBc level in the case of intraperitoneal immunisation, whereas in subcutaneous immunisation, the Silica-adjuvanted anti-HBc level even exceeded the level adjuvanted by Alum. The adjuvanting of HBc VLPs by Silica resulted in the same typical IgG2a/IgG1 ratios as in the case of the adjuvanting by Alum. The combination of Silica with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL led to the same enhancement of the HBc-specific T-cell induction as in the case of the Alum and MPL combination. These findings demonstrate that Silica is not a weaker putative adjuvant than Alum for induction of B-cell and T-cell responses against recombinant HBc VLPs. This finding may have an essential impact on the development of the set of Silica-adjuvanted vaccines based on a long list of HBc-derived virus-like particles as the biological component.

  11. O efeito do jateamento do esmalte na força de adesão na colagem de braquetes The effect of air abrasion in enamel adhesion of orthodontic bracket

    OpenAIRE

    Carla D'Agostini Derech; Juliana da Silva Pereira; Margareth Maria Gomes de Souza

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: o propósito deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar o efeito do jateamento com óxido de alumínio na adesão de braquetes ortodônticos e compará-lo à tradicional técnica de condicionamento ácido do esmalte. METODOLOGIA: foram utilizados 80 dentes bovinos distribuídos aleatoriamente entre quatro grupos, sendo que a superfície do esmalte foi tratada da seguinte maneira: grupo 1 (somente jateamento com óxido de alumínio), grupo 2 (profilaxia com pedra-pomes e condicionamento com ácido), grupo ...

  12. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is not a feature of all particulate vaccine adjuvants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Silke; Burkert, Kristina; Kemp, Roslyn;

    2014-01-01

    was common to many delivery systems. We prepared polymer-based chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs), lipid-based cubosomes, a water in oil emulsion of incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and alum formulations and examined inflammasome activation in vitro using murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells and human...... peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in vivo in mice. The formulations differed in their morphology, size and zeta-potential. Only the positively charged particles (CNPs and alum) were able to activate the inflammasome and increase the secretion of IL-1β. A decrease in the activation of the inflammasome...

  13. Treatment of wastewater from a paint industry using polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kori, M.M.; Gupta, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Eleven polyelectrolytes were tried separately to treat the wastewater from a paint manufacturing industry. Among these, Zetag 66, a cationic polyelectrolyte was found to be most effective. A dosage of 5 mg/L of this polyelectrolyte was found to be adequate to achieve 65% COD removal, 97% suspended solids removal, and 90% heavy metals removal. The use of this polyelectrolyte assumes significant importance as it eliminates the use of alum completely. This elimination of alum consumption results in considerable reduction of effluent treatment plant (ETP) sludge, which is a hazardous waste. The savings that results in the primary treatment is an added advantage.

  14. Seletividade do pirofosfato de sódio e de cloretos não tamponados (CuCl2 e LaCl3 como extratores de alumínio associado à matéria orgânica em solos de restinga do estado de São Paulo Selectivity of sodium pyrophosphate and unbuffered chlorides (CuCl2 and LaCl3 as extractants of aluminum bound to soil organic matter in soils of the sandy coastal plain in São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Rizzato Coelho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O Al em complexos com matéria orgânica do solo é comumente determinado por técnicas de dissolução seletiva. Um extrator comum para essa forma do elemento é o pirofosfato de sódio. Devido à sua falta de seletividade para algumas amostras de solos, extratores não tamponados de Al, como CuCl2 e LaCl3, têm sido recomendados. A seletividade do pirofosfato de sódio (Al p e dos cloretos não tamponados de cobre (AlCu e de lantânio (AlLa como extratores de Al ligado à matéria orgânica foi avaliada em 31 perfis de solos (Espodossolos e Neossolos Quartzarênicos, representativos das áreas sob vegetação de restinga do litoral paulista. Os resultados foram comparados aos obtidos com oxalato de amônio e KCl, seguindo-se as interpretações comumente observadas na literatura quanto à capacidade extratora e seletividade dos reagentes utilizados. Pirofosfato careceu de total seletividade para amostras que apresentaram formas inorgânicas de Al. Os reagentes CuCl2 e LaCl3, por sua vez, foram mais seletivos para as formas de Al orgânico nas mesmas amostras, cuja ordem de extractabilidade foi: Al p>AlCu>AlLa . As diferentes habilidades extratoras e as relações entre os reagentes utilizados possibilitaram convergir evidências analíticas a fim de analisar e interpretar algumas determinações, como saturação por Al no húmus e estabilidade das interações Corg-metal. Horizontes espódicos Bs, Bhs e Bsm detiveram a maior estabilidade da interação Corg-metal e saturação por Al no húmus entre todos os horizontes estudados. Dos resultados encontrados, conclui-se que todos os reagentes analisados podem ser utilizados como extratores de Al associado à matéria orgânica dos solos, uma vez que permitiram estabelecer relações e interpretações contundentes quanto ao entendimento da química dos complexos Al-húmus dos solos de restinga estudados. Esses extratores, portanto, são adequados e têm potencial para os estudos e entendimento dos processos envolvidos na gênese dos Espodossolos tropicais derivados de sedimentos quartzosos costeiros.Aluminum in complexes with soil organic matter is usually determined by selective extraction techniques. A common extractant for this Al form is sodium pyrophosphate. Due to its lack of selectivity for some soil samples, unbuffered Al extractants, such as CuCl2 and LaCl3, have been recommended. The selectivity of sodium pyrophosphate (Al p and of unbuffered Cu (AlCu and La (AlLa chlorides to extract aluminum bound to soil organic matter (Al-humus was evaluated in soil samples from 31 pedons (Spodosols and Quartzipsamments representative of the sandy coastal plains of the state of São Paulo. The results were compared with those obtained by ammonium oxalate and KCl and the extraction capacity and selectivity of the reagents interpreted as commonly used in the literature. Pyrophosphate was not totally selective for some samples containing inorganic aluminum. CuCl2 and LaCl3, in turn, were more selective for Al-humus in the same samples and their order of extractability was: Al p>AlCu>AlLa . Based on the different extraction capacities and the relations between the reagents used the analytic evidences were converged in order to analyze and interpret parameters such as Al saturation in the soil organic matter and stability of C-metal interactions. The stability of the interaction C-metal and humus Al saturation of all horizons studied was greater in the Bs, Bhs and Bsm spodic horizons. Based on the results it was concluded that all reagents studied can be used as Al extractants since they allow establishing relations and interpretations that may help understanding the complex chemistry of Al-humus on the studied Restinga soil. These extractors are therefore adequate and promising to study and understand processes involved in the genesis of tropical Spodosols derived from sandy coastal plain sediments.

  15. Job Sharing in the Schools: A Study of Nine Bay Area Districts. A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Ways to Work, Palo Alto, CA.

    Under job sharing, two people share responsibility for one full-time position. Each person has a permanent, part-time job with salary and fringe benefits prorated according to hours worked. Job sharing has been available in some Bay Area school districts for the last four years. For this preliminary report, nine districts--Alum rock, Fremont,…

  16. Removal of dispersant-stabilized carbon nanotubes by regular coagulants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Liu; Changli Liu; Jing Zhang; Daohui Lin

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation followed by sedimentation,as a conventional technique in the water treatment plant,can be the first line of defense against exposures of carbon nanotubes(CNTs)to aquatic organisms and human beings,which has been rarely documented.This study investigated the removal of dispersant-stabilized CNT suspensions by poly aluminum chloride(PAC1)and KAI(SO4)2·12H2O (alum),with a focus on the effects of dispersant type,coagulant type and dosage.PAC1 performed better than alum in the removal of tannic acid-,humic acid-,and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate-stabilized CNTs,but worse for polyethylene glycol octylphenyl ether(TX100)-stabilized CNTs.Neither coagulant could effectively precipitate cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-stabilized CNTs.The removal by PAC1 first increased up to a plateau and then decreased with the continued increase of coagulant dosage.However,the removal rates leveled off but did not decrease after achieving their highest level with the continued addition of alum.The coagulation and flocculation of the CNT suspensions by PAC1 could be regulated mainly by the mechanism of adsorption charge neutralization,whereas the coagulation by alum mainly involved electrical double-layer compression.

  17. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees

    2012-12-15

    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate.

  18. Inflammation triggers emergency granulopoiesis through a density-dependent feedback mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek W Cain

    Full Text Available Normally, neutrophil pools are maintained by homeostatic mechanisms that require the transcription factor C/EBPα. Inflammation, however, induces neutrophilia through a distinct pathway of "emergency" granulopoiesis that is dependent on C/EBPβ. Here, we show in mice that alum triggers emergency granulopoiesis through the IL-1RI-dependent induction of G-CSF. G-CSF/G-CSF-R neutralization impairs proliferative responses of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC to alum, but also abrogates the acute mobilization of BM neutrophils, raising the possibility that HSPC responses to inflammation are an indirect result of the exhaustion of BM neutrophil stores. The induction of neutropenia, via depletion with Gr-1 mAb or myeloid-specific ablation of Mcl-1, elicits G-CSF via an IL-1RI-independent pathway, stimulating granulopoietic responses indistinguishable from those induced by adjuvant. Notably, C/EBPβ, thought to be necessary for enhanced generative capacity of BM, is dispensable for increased proliferation of HSPC to alum or neutropenia, but plays a role in terminal neutrophil differentiation during granulopoietic recovery. We conclude that alum elicits a transient increase in G-CSF production via IL-1RI for the mobilization of BM neutrophils, but density-dependent feedback sustains G-CSF for accelerated granulopoiesis.

  19. [Determination of the nucleic acids in pig embryonic kidney cells by magnetic cytaphoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikov, V M; Maksimova, E V

    1989-01-01

    Gallocyanine-chrome alum-stained pig embryonic kidney cells have paramagnetic properties. They move under the influence of gradient magnetic field (magnetophoresis). The velocity of magnetophoresis is proportional to the content of nucleic acids in cells. This allows to estimate the content of nucleic acids per cell dry weight by magnetophoresis and analytical centrifugation. PMID:2473104

  20. Safety and enhanced immunogenicity of a hepatitis B core particle Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine formulated in adjuvant Montanide ISA 720 in a phase I trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, G.A.; Wetzel, K.; Calvo-Calle, J.M.; Nussenzweig, R.; Schmidt, A.; Birkett, A.; Dubovsky, F.; Tierney, E.; Gleiter, C.H.; Boehmer, G.; Luty, A.J.F.; Ramharter, M.; Thornton, G.B.; Kremsner, P.G.; Nardin, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Highly purified subunit vaccines require potent adjuvants in order to elicit optimal immune responses. In a previous phase I trial, an alum formulation of ICC-1132, a malaria vaccine candidate comprising hepatitis B core (HBc) virus-like particle containing Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CS

  1. 77 FR 8631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Rayed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... outlined in our proposed rule for these actions (75 FR 67552). Publication of the proposed rule opened a 60..., and a gray-blue or gray-green tinge in the beak cavity. The soft anatomy was described by Oesch (1984... (Olentangy River, and Big Darby and Alum Creeks); and Tippecanoe Lake, based on literature and museum...

  2. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  3. Application of chemical coagulation aids for the removal of suspended solids (TSS) and phosphorus from the microscreen effluent discharge of an intensive recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, J.M.; Ogden, S.R.; Sibrell, P.L.; Rishel, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation of two commonly used coagulation-flocculation aids (alum and ferric chloride) was conducted to determine optimum conditions for treating the backwash effluent from microscreen filters in an intensive recirculating aquaculture system. Tests were carried out to evaluate the dosages and conditions (mixing and flocculation stirring speeds, durations, and settling times) required to achieve optimum waste capture. The orthophosphate removal efficiency for alum and ferric chloride were greater than 90% at a dosage of 60 mg/L. Optimum turbidity removal was achieved with a 60-mg/L dosage for both alum and ferric chloride. Both alum and ferric chloride demonstrated excellent removal of suspended solids from initial total suspended solid values of approximately 320 mg/L to approximately 10 mg/L at a dosage of 60 mg/L. Flocculation and mixing speed and duration played only a minor role in the removal efficiencies for both orthophosphates and suspended solids. Both coagulation-flocculation aids also exhibited excellent settling characteristics, with the majority of the floc quickly settling out in the first 5 min.

  4. Removal of Heavy Metals from Textile Wastewater using Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normala Halimoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals such as lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu are widely used for production of colour pigments of textile dyes. Textile dyes pollutants are being released to the environment at various stages of operation therefore it is necessary that the pollutants are treated before discharge using zeolite with and without alum. A study was carried out to compare the effectiveness of treatment using zeolite with and without alum for the removal of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr in textile effluent. The concentrations of these heavy metals in the textile wastewater samples were reduced to more than 50 percent after treating with zeolite. The sequence in increasing order of removal efficiency of these heavy metals using zeolite was Cd < Pb < Cr < Cu. When the textile wastewater sample was treated using zeolite and 10 mg/L of alum, 80% of the heavy metals (Cd and Cu were removed. The most effective treatment prior to removal of heavy metals from textile wastewater sample is by using zeolite with the addition of 10 mg/L of alum as flocculants.

  5. Alumina-encapsulated vaccine formulation with improved thermostability and immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hangyu; Wang, Guangchuan; Li, Xiao-Feng; Li, Yaling; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Tang, Ruikang

    2016-05-11

    Developing vaccine formulations with excellent thermostability and immunogenicity remains a great challenge. By in situ encapsulating a live-attenuated strain of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) in alumina, we obtained a robust vaccine formulation named EV71@NanoAlum, which features significantly enhanced thermostability and immunogenicity. This attempt follows a material-based tactic for vaccine improvement. PMID:27098047

  6. Chemical pretreatment of combined sewer overflows for improved UV disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J; Farnood, R; Seto, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to better understand chemical pre-treatment of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) for subsequent ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. Approximately 200 jar tests were completed. Alum (Al2(S04)3·12H2O) resulted in a higher UV light transmission (UVT), and equivalent total suspended solids (TSS) removal, than ferric chloride (FeCl3). An alum dose of 20 mg/L increased the UVT of the raw CSO from 30 to 60% after settling. The addition of 100 mg/L of alum maximized UVT reaching approximately 85%. Flocculation did not increase UVT. However, it did improve the removal of TSS. Cationic polymers worked quickly compared with metal coagulants, but only reached a UVT of 60%. A high positive charge density on the polymer improved the removal of turbidity when compared with low charge, but did not affect UVT. If the goal is to maximise UVT, a very high alum dose may be preferred. If the goal is to minimize coagulant dose with moderate UV performance, cationic polymer at approximately 3 mg/L is recommended. PMID:26819393

  7. Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, J.G. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

  8. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper;

    , indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time...

  9. Synthetic TLR4 agonists enhance functional antibodies and CD4+ T-cell responses against the Plasmodium falciparum GMZ2.6C multi-stage vaccine antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Roeffen, Will; Singh, Susheel K;

    2016-01-01

    , liposomes, and alum) in C57BL/6 mice. Some, but not all, formulations containing either the synthetic TLR4 agonist GLA or SLA elicited the highest parasite-specific antibody titers, the greatest IFN-γ responses in CD4+ TH1 cells, and the highest percentage of multifunctional CD4+ T cells expressing IFN...

  10. BaxSr1−xTi1.02O3 metal–insulator–metal capacitors on planarized alumina substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Mauczok, R.; Keur, W.; Hueting, R.J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Nanocrystalline barium strontium titanate (BaxSr1−xTi1.02O3) thin films with a barium content of x=0.8, 0.9 and 1 have been fabricated in a metal–insulator–metal configuration on glass-planarized alumina substrates. Cost-effective processing measures have been utilized by using poly-crystalline alum

  11. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate...

  12. EVALUATION OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENTS FOR FLUX LOSS CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differing nanofiltration pretreatment approaches for Ohio River water were evaluated withthe intent of producing systems with varying degrees of biological fouling. The membrane feed water was alum-coagulated, settled, and filtered Ohio River water (SF-ORW). Five 1.8" x 12" N...

  13. 原平麻叶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋山

    2004-01-01

    Yuanping maye (fried dough twist) is a local specialty. Its preparation is a little bit complicated. The ingredients must include superfine flour, baking powder and sugar, plus oil, salt,alkali and alum. First add water,according to a ratio, to the flour to mix and knead it into a soft dough;

  14. Stacking Time and Aluminum Sulfate Effects on Polyether Ionophores in Broiler Litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doydora, Sarah A; Sun, Peizhe; Cabrera, Miguel; Thompson, Aaron; Love-Myers, Kimberly; Rema, John; Calvert, Vaughn; Pavlostathis, Spyros G; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    The use of ionophores as antiparasitic drugs plays an important role in US poultry production, especially in the broiler () industry. However, administered ionophores can pass through the bird's digestive system and appear in broiler litter, which, when applied to agricultural fields, can present an environmental hazard. Stacking (storing or stockpiling) broiler litter for some time might decrease the litter ionophore concentrations before land application. Because ionophores undergo abiotic hydrolysis at low pH, decreasing litter pH with acidic aluminum sulfate (alum) might also decrease ionophore concentrations. We assessed the change in ionophore concentrations in broiler litter in response to the length of time broiler litter was stored (stacking time) and alum addition. We spiked broiler litter with monensin and salinomycin, placed alum-amended litter (∼pH 4-5) and unamended litter (∼pH 8-9) into 1.8-m bins, and repeatedly sampled each bin for 112 d. Our findings showed that stacking broiler litter alone did not have an impact on monensin concentration, but it did slowly reduce salinomycin concentration by 55%. Adding alum to broiler litter reduced monensin concentration by approximately 20% relative to unamended litter, but it did not change salinomycin concentration. These results call for continued search for alternative strategies that could potentially reduce the concentration of ionophores in broiler litter before their application to agricultural soils. PMID:26641344

  15. Determining the location and nearest neighbours of aluminium in zeolites with atom probe tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Arslan, Ilke; Liu, Jia; Ristanovic, Zoran; Kovarik, Libor; Arey, Bruce W.; Lercher, Johannes A.; Bare, Simon R.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite catalysis is determined by a combination of pore architecture and Bronsted acidity. As Bronsted acid sites are formed by the substitution of AlO4 for SiO4 tetrahedra, it is of utmost importance to have information on the number as well as the location and neighbouring sites of framework alum

  16. Development of a Water Treatment Plant Operation Manual Using an Algorithmic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Cary A.

    This document describes the steps to be followed in the development of a prescription manual for training of water treatment plant operators. Suggestions on how to prepare both flow and narrative prescriptions are provided for a variety of water treatment systems, including: raw water, flocculation, rapid sand filter, caustic soda feed, alum feed,…

  17. CONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT AND DIRECT FILTRATION: TREATMENT AND REMOVAL OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON AND TRIHALOMETHANE PRECURSORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    After describing the fundamentals of coagulation of humic substances for alum and cationic polyelectrolytes, field studies of two conventional-type water treatment plants are discussed. THM formation through the plants is examined, and removals of total organic carbon (TOC) and T...

  18. Vliv preoxidace manganistanem draselným na koagulaci látek produkovaných sinicemi

    OpenAIRE

    Pivokonská, L. (Lenka); Čermáková, L. (Lenka); Pivokonský, M.; Janda, V.

    2015-01-01

    Possibility of enhanced removal of organic matter produced by cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa by means of preoxidation using potassium permanganate followed by coagulation with alum is described. Efficacy of TOC removal was higher using peroxidation than that of without permanganate application. From the viewpoint of TOC removal, the process with peroxidation was more robust regarding coagulant dose and pH value.

  19. 77 FR 29636 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Corridor Project, To Construct an Extension of the Capitol Light Rail System from Alum Rock Station to the... Mexico and South Atlantic and its Estuaries of LA, MS, AL, and NC and extending out to the limit of the U... Supplement EIS, USFS, AK, Bell Island Geothermal Leases, To Update Analysis in the Programmatic EIS...

  20. 21 CFR 330.12 - Status of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs previously reviewed under the Drug Efficacy Study (DESI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), published in the Federal Register of April 9, 1971 (36 FR 6842). (iv) Sulfo-Van Ointment (DESI 2230... identical, similar and related products (21 CFR 310.6). Deferral of requirements is not appropriate for the..., chlorobutanol, phenol, camphor, alum, and isopropyl alcohol. (b) Zirnox Topical Lotion,...

  1. Adjuvant-dependent innate and adaptive immune signatures of risk of SIVmac251 acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Monica; Gordon, Shari N; Fourati, Slim; Schifanella, Luca; Liyanage, Namal P M; Cameron, Mark; Keele, Brandon F; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Chung, Amy W; Dowell, Karen G; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Brown, Eric P; Ackerman, Margaret E; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego A; Whitney, Stephen; Doster, Melvin N; Binello, Nicolo; Pegu, Poonam; Montefiori, David C; Foulds, Kathryn; Quinn, David S; Donaldson, Mitzi; Liang, Frank; Loré, Karin; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A; McDermott, Adrian; Ma, Zhong-Min; Miller, Christopher J; Phan, Tran B; Forthal, Donald N; Blackburn, Matthew; Caccuri, Francesca; Bissa, Massimiliano; Ferrari, Guido; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi; Ferrari, Maria G; Thompson, DeVon; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Phogat, Sanjay; Barnett, Susan W; Tartaglia, Jim; Venzon, David; Stablein, Donald M; Alter, Galit; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2016-07-01

    A recombinant vaccine containing Aventis Pasteur's canarypox vector (ALVAC)-HIV and gp120 alum decreased the risk of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial. The substitution of alum with the more immunogenic MF59 adjuvant is under consideration for the next efficacy human trial. We found here that an ALVAC-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and gp120 alum (ALVAC-SIV + gp120) equivalent vaccine, but not an ALVAC-SIV + gp120 MF59 vaccine, was efficacious in delaying the onset of SIVmac251 in rhesus macaques, despite the higher immunogenicity of the latter adjuvant. Vaccine efficacy was associated with alum-induced, but not with MF59-induced, envelope (Env)-dependent mucosal innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that produce interleukin (IL)-17, as well as with mucosal IgG to the gp120 variable region 2 (V2) and the expression of 12 genes, ten of which are part of the RAS pathway. The association between RAS activation and vaccine efficacy was also observed in an independent efficacious SIV-vaccine approach. Whether RAS activation, mucosal ILCs and antibodies to V2 are also important hallmarks of HIV-vaccine efficacy in humans will require further studies. PMID:27239761

  2. Inhibitory effects of TLR7/8ligand R-848on IgE production of murine in vivo%Inhibitory effects of TLR7/8 ligand R-848 on IgE production of murine in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Erxia; Wu Changyou

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether R-848 could inhibit IgE production of mice immunized with OVA plus ALUM in vivo.Methods BALB/c mice were immunized s.c on the back with PBS,OVA,OVA plus R-848,OVA plus CpG,OVA plus ALUM,and OVA plus ALUM in R-848 or CpG every two weeks for three times.The blood from the mice was harvested after the last immunization,and the concentration of OVA specific or total IgE,IgG1 and IgG2a in the sera was determined;the splenocytes from the immunized mice were harvested and cultured with or without OVA for 3 days,and the concentration of IL-4 and IFNγ in the supernatants was determined.Results Firstly,we investigated that R-848 as Th1 adjuvant could enhance the production of OVA specific IgG2a in mice immunized with OVA.Secondly,further study showed that R-848 could inhibit the production of OVA specific IgE and total IgE,and promote the production of OVA specific IgG2a in the sera of mice immunized with OVA plus ALUM.Moreover,the results of ELISA showed that R-848 inhibiting IgE production was related to its reducing IL-4 production and enhancing IFNγ production.Conclusion R-848 could inhibit IgE production of mice immunized with OVA plus ALUM in vivo.

  3. Changes in the quality of river water before, during and after a major flood event associated with a La Niña cycle and treatment for drinking purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Aslam, Zeeshan; Lewis, Rosmala; Chow, Christopher; Wang, Dongsheng; Drikas, Mary; van Leeuwen, John

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of organics present in the lower reaches of a major river system (the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia) before (March-July 2010), during (December 2010-May 2011) and after (April-December 2012) a major flood period was investigated. The flood period (over 6months) occurred during an intense La Niña cycle, leading to rapid and high increases in river flows and organic loads in the river water. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased (2-3 times) to high concentrations (up to 16mg/L) and was found to correlate with river flow rates. The treatability of organics was studied using conventional jar tests with alum and an enhanced coagulation model (mEnCo©). Predicted mean alum dose rates (per mg DOC) were higher before (9.1mg alum/mg DOC) and after (8.5mg alum/mg DOC) than during the flood event (8.0mg alum/mg DOC), indicating differences in the character of the organics in raw waters. To assess the character of natural organic matter present in raw and treated waters, high performance size exclusion chromatography with UV and fluorescence detectors were used. During the flood period, high molecular weight UV absorbing compounds (>2kDa) were mostly detected in waters collected, but were not evident in waters collected before and afterwards. The relative abundances of humic-like and protein-like compounds during and following the flood period were also investigated and found to be of a higher molecular weight during the flood period. The treatability of the organics was found to vary over the three climate conditions investigated.

  4. Effect of two-stage coagulant addition on coagulation-ultrafiltration process for treatment of humic-rich water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Chen, Zhong-lin; Yu, Wen-zheng; Shen, Ji-min; Gregory, John

    2011-08-01

    A novel two-stage coagulant addition strategy applied in a coagulation-ultrafiltration (UF) process for treatment of humic-rich water at neutral pH was investigated in this study. When aluminum sulfate (alum) doses were set at a ratio of 3:1 added during rapid mix stage and half way through flocculation stage, the integrated process of two-stage alum addition achieved almost the same organic matter removal as that of conventional one-stage alum addition at the same overall dose. Whereas membrane fouling could be effectively mitigated by the two-stage addition exhibited by trans-membrane pressure (TMP) developments. The TMP developments were found to be primarily attributed to external fouling on membrane surface, which was closely associated with floc characteristics. The results of jar tests indicated that the average size of flocs formed in two-stage addition mode roughly reached one half larger than that in one-stage addition mode, which implied a beneficial effect on membrane fouling reduction. Moreover, the flocs with more irregular structure and lower effective density resulted from the two-stage alum addition, which caused higher porosity of cake layer formed by such flocs on membrane surface. Microscopic observations of membrane surface demonstrated that internal fouling in membrane pores could be also remarkably limited by two-stage alum addition. It is likely that the freshly formed hydroxide precipitates were distinct in surface characteristics from the aged precipitates due to formation of more active groups or adsorption of more labile aluminum species. Consequently, the flocs could further connect and aggregate to contribute to preferable properties for filtration performance of the coagulation-UF process. As a simple and efficient approach, two-stage coagulant addition strategy could have great practical significance in coagulation-membrane processes. PMID:21704354

  5. Evaluating the efficacy of rBmHATαc as a multivalent vaccine against lymphatic filariasis in experimental animals and optimizing the adjuvant formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakshinamoorthy, Gajalakshmi; Kalyanasundaram, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Developing an effective vaccine against lymphatic filariasis will complement the WHO's effort to eradicate the infection from endemic areas. Currently 83 different countries are endemic for this infection and over 1 billion people are at risk. An effective vaccine coupled with mass drug administration will reduce the morbidity and social stigma associated with this gruesome disease. Several potential vaccine candidates that can confer partial protection in experimental animals have been reported from different laboratories. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available for this disease. Among the several vaccine antigens identified from our laboratory, three most promising antigens; rBmHSPαc (α crystalline domain and c-terminal extension of Heat Shock Protein 12.6), rBmALT-2 (Abundant larval transcript) and rBmTSP LEL (Tetraspanin large extracellular loop) was further developed as a recombinant fusion protein vaccine (rBmHATαc). In a mouse model this fusion protein vaccine gave close to 68% protection following a challenge infection. To improve the vaccine efficiency of rBmHATαc, in this study we evaluated various preparations of alum (AL007, AL019, Alhydrogel and Imject® Alum) as adjuvants. Our results show that mice immunized with rBmHATαc formulated in AL007 (alum from IDRI) and/or AL019 (alum plus TLR-4 agonist from IDRI) gave the highest IgG antibody titer compared to other groups. Subsequent in vivo challenge experiments confirmed that >95% protection can be achieved when AL007 or AL019 was used as the adjuvant. However, when Imject® Alum or alhydrogel was used as the adjuvant only 76% and 72% protection respectively could be achieved. These results show that AL007 or AL019 (IDRI) is an excellent choice of adjuvant for the rBmHATαc vaccine against B. malayi L3 in mice. PMID:24211167

  6. Immunization with hepatitis B vaccine accelerates SLE-like disease in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Arango, María-Teresa; Kivity, Shaye; Katzav, Aviva; Gilburd, Boris; Blank, Miri; Tomer, Nir; Volkov, Alex; Barshack, Iris; Chapman, Joab; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2014-11-01

    Hepatitis-B vaccine (HBVv) can prevent HBV-infection and associated liver diseases. However, concerns regarding its safety, particularly among patients with autoimmune diseases (i.e. SLE) were raised. Moreover, the aluminum adjuvant in HBVv was related to immune mediated adverse events. Therefore, we examined the effects of immunization with HBVv or alum on SLE-like disease in a murine model. NZBWF1 mice were immunized with HBVv (Engerix), or aluminum hydroxide (alum) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 8 and 12 weeks of age. Mice were followed for weight, autoantibodies titers, blood counts, proteinuria, kidney histology, neurocognitive functions (novel object recognition, staircase, Y-maze and the forced swimming tests) and brain histology. Immunization with HBVv induced acceleration of kidney disease manifested by high anti-dsDNA antibodies (p < 0.01), early onset of proteinuria (p < 0.05), histological damage and deposition of HBs antigen in the kidney. Mice immunized with HBVv and/or alum had decreased cells counts mainly of the red cell lineage (p < 0.001), memory deficits (p < 0.01), and increased activated microglia in different areas of the brain compare with mice immunized with PBS. Anxiety-like behavior was more pronounced among mice immunized with alum. In conclusion, herein we report that immunization with the HBVv aggravated kidney disease in an animal model of SLE. Immunization with either HBVv or alum affected blood counts, neurocognitive functions and brain gliosis. Our data support the concept that different component of vaccines may be linked with immune and autoimmune mediated adverse events.

  7. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P < 0.05) than alum except for BmVAH antigen. In vitro ADCC assay showed that inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P < 0.01 and as cocktail P < 0.05, respectively) than alum. The results had confirmed the capability of inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice. PMID:25041426

  8. Immune enhancement by novel vaccine adjuvants in autoimmune-prone NZB/W F1 mice: relative efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Swapan K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccines have profoundly impacted global health although concerns persist about their potential role in autoimmune or other adverse reactions. To address these concerns, vaccine components like immunogens and adjuvants require critical evaluation not only in healthy subjects but also in those genetically averse to vaccine constituents. Evaluation in autoimmune-prone animal models of adjuvants is therefore important in vaccine development. The objective here was to assess the effectiveness of experimental adjuvants: two phytol-derived immunostimulants PHIS-01 (phytanol and PHIS-03 (phytanyl mannose, and a new commercial adjuvant from porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS-H, relative to a standard adjuvant alum. Phytol derivatives are hydrophobic, oil-in water diterpenoids, while alum is hydrophilic, and SIS is essentially a biodegradable and collagenous protein cocktail derived from extracellular matrices. Results We studied phthalate -specific and cross-reactive anti-DNA antibody responses, and parameters associated with the onset of autoimmune disorders. We determined antibody isotype and cytokine/chemokine milieu induced by the above experimental adjuvants relative to alum. Our results indicated that the phytol-derived adjuvant PHIS-01 exceeded alum in enhancing anti-phthalate antibody without much cross reactivity with ds-DNA. Relatively, SIS and PHIS-03 proved less robust, but they were also less inflammatory. Interestingly, these adjuvants facilitated isotype switching of anti-hapten, but not of anti-DNA response. The current study reaffirms our earlier reports on adjuvanticity of phytol compounds and SIS-H in non autoimmune-prone BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These adjuvants are as effective as alum also in autoimmune-prone NZB/WF1 mice, and they have little deleterious effects. Conclusion Although all adjuvants tested impacted cytokine/chemokine milieu in favor of Th1/Th2 balance, the phytol compounds fared better in

  9. An adjuvanted respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein induces protection in aged BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherukuri Anu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV causes significant disease in the elderly, in part, because immunosenescence impairs protective immune responses to infection in this population. Despite previous and current efforts, there is no RSV vaccine currently licensed in infants or elderly adults. Adjuvanted RSV subunit vaccines have the potential to boost waning immune responses and reduce the burden of RSV disease in the elderly population. Results We used an aged BALB/c mouse model to evaluate immune responses to RSV Fusion (F protein in the absence and presence of an alum adjuvant. We demonstrate that aged BALB/c mice immunized with alum-adjuvanted RSV F protein had significantly reduced lung viral titers at day 4 following challenge with wild-type (wt RSV. Serum neutralizing antibody titers measured on day 27 correlated with protection in both young and aged vaccinated mice, although the magnitude of antibody titers was lower in aged mice. Unlike young mice, in aged mice, alum-adjuvanted RSV F did not induce lung TH2-type cytokines or eosinophil infiltration compared to non-adjuvanted F protein following wt RSV challenge. Conclusion Our studies demonstrate that neutralizing anti-RSV antibody titers correlate with protection in both young and aged BALB/c mice vaccinated with RSV F protein vaccines. The F + alum formulation mediated greater protection compared to the non-adjuvanted F protein in both young and aged mice. However, while alum can boost F-specific antibody responses in aged mice, it does not completely overcome the reduced ability of a senescent immune system to respond to the RSV F antigen. Thus, our data suggest that a stronger adjuvant may be required for the prevention of RSV disease in immunosenescent populations, to achieve the appropriate balance of protective neutralizing antibodies and effective TH1-type cytokine response along with minimal lung immunopathology.

  10. Treatment of sugar beet thick juice spent wash by chemical and natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of treatment of wastewater from bioethanol production by aluminium sulfate and natural coagulant extracted from common bean seed was studied. The highest coagulation activity at pH 6.5 is reached with analum dose of 1 g/l, but only a little lower coagulation activities were obtained by the dose of 0.05 and 0.10 g/l, which is more favorable for economic and environmental reasons. When natural coagulant from common bean was applied the highest coagulation activity, 14.3%, at pH 6.5 is reached with a dose of 0.5 ml/l. However, when common bean natural coagulant was used simultaneously with alum, the highest turbidity removal resulting in 24% coagulation activity was achieved and this was more efficient than when alum or natural coagulant were used.

  11. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction. PMID:23648758

  12. Effective flocculation of fine mineral suspensions using Moringa oleifera seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, T.M. [Bureau of Mines, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using Moringa oleifera seeds, or the active components of the seeds, in the clarification of waters containing suspended mineral fines. In comparative testing using a hematite suspension, the flocculating activity of Moringa oleifera seeds was better than alum. Twenty milligrams of seed powder was sufficient to clarify the hematite to near zero turbidity, while the same amount of alum had a minimal effect on turbidity. Extracts were prepared from the seeds in an attempt to separate the proteins. A crude protein extract was enriched by lowering the pH to 6.0. Only 0.08 mg/L of the enriched extract was required to flocculate a minusil suspension. Environmentally friendly protein flocculants could theoretically be produced and enhanced with recombinant DNA techniques as an alternative to chemical flocculants currently used in water treatment.

  13. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction.

  14. Comparison of coagulation and MIEX pre-treatment processes for bacterial and turbidity removal, utilizing real-time optical monitoring techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, K; Cruaux, L; Fabris, R; Morran, J; Ho, L; Drikas, M

    2014-01-01

    Jar testing and flow cytometry were used in conjunction with photometric dispersion analysis (PDA) to assess conventional alum coagulation with and without magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) pre-treatment for turbidity and bacterial removal capacity. Treatment assessment included powdered activated carbon (PAC) and pre-chlorination of the MIEX-treated raw water. Floc particles were subjected to shear forces after settling and re-suspended to gauge bacterial release potential, floc breakage and re-aggregation. MIEX in conjunction with alum coagulation achieved improved coagulation as measured by PDA but did not increase bacterial log removal value (LRV) in comparison with conventional coagulation. Pre-chlorination and PAC addition were seen to improve bacterial removal and coagulation, respectively, but were less effective for bacterial LRVs when they were used in conjunction during coagulation. PMID:24645488

  15. Treatment of oil refinery wastewater using crude Coprinus cinereus peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, K.; Buchanan, I. D.; Smith, D. W. [University of Alberta, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    Enzymatic treatment of oil refinery wastewater was investigated using crude peroxidase derived from the fungus Coprinus cinereus (CIP), and hydrogen peroxide. Further objectives were to investigate the effects of residual organic compounds in the crude enzyme, and compare the performance of CIP to those of purified horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) in the treatment of a strong refinery wastewater. Phenols in the wastewater were converted to coloured polymeric products and then removed by coagulation with alum. As a result of the enzymatic treatment and alum coagulation of the wastewater containing 6.4 mM total phenol, the chemical oxygen demand and the 5-d biochemical oxygen demand were reduced by 52 per cent and 58 per cent, respectively. Reduction of the oxygen demands notwithstanding, the dissolved organic materials in the crude CIP were not affected by either of these processes and tended to remain in the treated wastewater. 31 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  16. Concentrating Ge in zinc hydrometallurgical process with hot acid leaching-halotrichite method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何静; 唐谟堂; 鲁君乐; 刘中清; 杨声海; 姚维义

    2003-01-01

    In recovering Ge and Ag from the calcine and fume dusts mixture of Huidong Lead-zinc Mine, the flow sheet of hot acid leaching-halotrichite method mainly consists of neutral leaching, low-acid leaching, high acid leaching and jarosite precipitation. In the ten circulation periods, the technology flow sheet was carried out smoothly.The loss of Ge in halotrichite residue is less than 5.0%, when iron is precipitated by using ferric potassium alum instead of common Na or ammonium alum and the conditions are controlled at temperature about 95 ℃ for more than 3 h, pH values below 1.5. Ge and Ag are concentrated in the high acid leached residue, and their contents are 0. 032% and 0. 162%, respectively, and the total recovery and direct recovery of zinc are 98.94% and 96.15%, respectively.

  17. Influência da incorporação de partículas de SiC na microestrutura e no comportamento tribológico de compósitos Al/SiCp com gradiente funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, A C; L. A. Rocha; Gomes, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Devido à boa relação entre densidade e resistência mecânica apresentada pelos compósitos de matriz de alumínio, estes materiais têm-se destacado em algumas aplicações industriais. Com efeito, a adição de reforços cerâmicos às ligas de alumínio, nomeadamente partículas de SiC, resulta na melhoria das suas propriedades mecânicas com particular impacto no aumento da resistência ao desgaste, ampliando o seu campo de aplicação como tribo-materiais. O desenvolvimento complementar de gradientes func...

  18. Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo D. Drummond

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The biochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.Alumínio (Al é um dos principais fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento de plantas em solos ácidos, reduzindo substancialmente a produtividade agrícola. Na América do Sul, cerca de 66% da superfície do solo apresenta acidez, onde a alta saturação de alumínio é uma das maiores limitações à prática agrícola. Apesar do crescente número de estudos, uma compreensão completa das bases bioquímicas e moleculares da tolerância ao alumínio em plantas está longe de ser alcançada. No caso da cana-de-açúcar, não há nada publicado sobre a regulação g

  19. Advax-Adjuvanted Recombinant Protective Antigen Provides Protection against Inhalational Anthrax That Is Further Enhanced by Addition of Murabutide Adjuvant

    OpenAIRE

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita; Tod J Merkel

    2014-01-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax a...

  20. Study of Immunization against Anthrax with the Purified Recombinant Protective Antigen of Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Singh,Yogendra; Ivins, Bruce E.; Leppla, Stephen H.

    1998-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA) of anthrax toxin is the major component of human anthrax vaccine. Currently available human vaccines in the United States and Europe consist of alum-precipitated supernatant material from cultures of toxigenic, nonencapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Immunization with these vaccines requires several boosters and occasionally causes local pain and edema. We previously described the biological activity of a nontoxic mutant of PA expressed in Bacillus subtilis. In ...

  1. Immunization with a Recombinant, Pseudomonas fluorescens-Expressed, Mutant Form of Bacillus anthracis-Derived Protective Antigen Protects Rabbits from Anthrax Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Matthew D.; Wilder, Julie A.; Mega, William M.; Hutt, Julie A.; Kuehl, Philip J.; Valderas, Michelle W.; Chew, Lawrence L.; Liang, Bertrand C.; Squires, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA), one of the components of the anthrax toxin, is the major component of human anthrax vaccine (Biothrax). Human anthrax vaccines approved in the United States and Europe consist of an alum-adsorbed or precipitated (respectively) supernatant material derived from cultures of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Approved vaccination schedules in humans with either of these vaccines requires several booster shots and occasionally causes adverse inject...

  2. Complement C3d conjugation to anthrax protective antigen promotes a rapid, sustained, and protective antibody response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi V Kolla

    Full Text Available B. anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. Pathogenesis is primarily mediated through the exotoxins lethal factor and edema factor, which bind protective antigen (PA to gain entry into the host cell. The current anthrax vaccine (AVA, Biothrax consists of aluminum-adsorbed cell-free filtrates of unencapsulated B. anthracis, wherein PA is thought to be the principle target of neutralization. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of the natural adjuvant, C3d, versus alum in eliciting an anti-PA humoral response and found that C3d conjugation to PA and emulsion in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA imparted superior protection from anthrax challenge relative to PA in IFA or PA adsorbed to alum. Relative to alum-PA, immunization of mice with C3d-PA/IFA augmented both the onset and sustained production of PA-specific antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies to the receptor-binding portion (domain 4 of PA. C3d-PA/IFA was efficacious when administered either i.p. or s.c., and in adolescent mice lacking a fully mature B cell compartment. Induction of PA-specific antibodies by C3d-PA/IFA correlated with increased efficiency of germinal center formation and plasma cell generation. Importantly, C3d-PA immunization effectively protected mice from intranasal challenge with B. anthracis spores, and was approximately 10-fold more effective than alum-PA immunization or PA/IFA based on dose challenge. These data suggest that incorporation of C3d as an adjuvant may overcome shortcomings of the currently licensed aluminum-based vaccine, and may confer protection in the early days following acute anthrax exposure.

  3. Breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) promotes dendritic cell maturation in vitro and enhances Th2 inflammation in murine model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qian; Chai, Shou-jie; Qian, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Min; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine the roles of breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) in regulating dendritic cell maturation and in pathology of acute asthma. Methods: Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were prepared, and infected with adenovirus over-expressing BRP-39. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of acute asthma was made in female BALB/c mice by sensitizing and challenging with chicken OVA and Imject Alum. The transfected BMDCs were adoptively transferred into OVA-treated mice via in...

  4. Effect of Milling Time on Microstructure and Properties of AA6061/MWCNTS Composite Powders / Wpływ Czasu Mielenia Na Strukturę I Własności Proszk Ów Kompozytowyc H AA6061/MWCNTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiczek B.; Dobrzański L.A.; Macek M.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to determine the effect of milling time on microstructure as well as technological properties of aluminium matrix nanocomposites reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using powder metallurgy techniques, including mechanical alloying. The main problem of the study is the agglomeration and uneven distribution of carbon nanotubes in the matrix material and interface reactivity also. In order to reach uniform dispersion of carbon nanotubes in alum...

  5. Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, hundreds of materials have been tried as adjuvant; however, only aluminum-based adjuvants continue to be used widely in the world. Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and alum constitute the main forms of aluminum used as adjuvants. Among these, aluminum hydroxide is the most commonly used chemical as adjuvant. In spite of its wide spread use, surprisingly, the mechanism of how aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants exert their beneficial effects is still not fully und...

  6. Pemanfaatan Biji Asam Jawa (Tamarindus indica) Sebagai Koagulan Alternatif Dalam Proses Penjernihan Limbah Cair Industri tahu

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Pemanfaatan biji asam jawa yang selama ini hanya sebagai limbah yang jarang digunakan perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut untuk pengolahan limbah cair, yang lebih ekonomis dan ramah lingkungan. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh biji asam jawa sebagai koagulan, pH limbah cair industri tahu, ukuran partikel biji asam jawa dan kombinasi biji asam jawa dengan alum terhadap persentase penurunan turbiditas, TSS dan COD limbah cair industri tahu dengan menggunakan metode koagulasi-flokulasi...

  7. Caractérisation du transport moléculaire vésical : applications cliniques et pharmacologiques

    OpenAIRE

    Moch, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Bladder diseases are numerous and mostly require medication. Drugs can be administered by intravesical route, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing systemic side effects. We are interested in four drugs: potassium alum, lidocaine hydrochloride, methylprednisolone hemisuccinate, mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG). Mathematical modelling of drug transport through bladder wall is proposed considering scarce literature on this route of administration. The permeability of aluminu...

  8. Biodegradable polylactide microspheres enhance specific immune response induced by Hepatitis B surface antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Shaohui; Wei, Qiang (Ethan); Liang, Zhenglun; Ma, Guanghui; Wang, Lianyan; An, Wenqi; Ma, Xiaowei; Fang, Xin; He, Peng; Li, Hemin; Hu, Zhongyu

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HB) infection caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common liver disease in the world. HB vaccine, when administered in conjunction with alum adjuvants, induces Th2 immunity that confers protection against HBV. However, currently available vaccine formulations and adjuvants do not elicit adequate Th1 and CTL responses that are important for prevention of maternal transmission of the virus. Microspheres synthesized from poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly (D, L...

  9. Polycation-decorated PLA microspheres induce robust immune responses via commonly used parenteral administration routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Wang, Lianyan; Liu, Qi; Jia, Jilei; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Weifeng; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2014-12-01

    Recombinant viral subunit-based vaccines have gained increasing attention due to their enhanced safety over the classic live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines. The low immunogenicity of the subunit antigen alone, however, requires the addition of an adjuvant to induce immunity. Particulate-based delivery systems have great potential for developing new vaccine adjuvants, compared to traditional aluminum-based saline adjuvants. The physicochemical properties of particulate vaccines have been extensively investigated; however, few studies have focused on how the administration route of various adjuvant-antigen combinations impacts the efficacy of the immune response. Here, for the first time, the viral Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was combined with aluminum-based or cationic-microsphere (MP) based adjuvants to investigate the characteristics of immune responses elicited after immunization via the subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal routes respectively. In vitro, the MP-based vaccine significantly increased dendritic cell (DC) activation with up-regulated CD40 and CD80 expression and IL-12 production compared to alum-based vaccine. After immunization, both MP and alum-based vaccines produced increased IgG titers in mice. The administration route of these vaccines did influenced immune responses. The MP-based vaccine delivered via the intramuscular route yielded the highest levels of the IgG2a isotype. The alum-based vaccine, delivered via the same route, produced an IgG1-dominated humoral immune response. Moreover, subcutaneous and intramuscular immunizations with MP-based vaccine augmented Granzyme B, Th1-type cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ), and Th2 cytokine IL-4 secretions. These results demonstrate that MP-based vaccines have the capacity to induce higher cellular and humoral immune response especially via an intramuscular administration route than an alum-based vaccine. PMID:25466267

  10. A Proteolytic Cascade Controls Lysosome Rupture and Necrotic Cell Death Mediated by Lysosome-Destabilizing Adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Brojatsch; Heriberto Lima; Alak K Kar; Jacobson, Lee S.; Stefan M Muehlbauer; Kartik Chandran; Felipe Diaz-Griffero

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have linked necrotic cell death and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins to the adaptive immune response mediated by the lysosome-destabilizing adjuvants, alum and Leu-Leu-OMe (LLOMe). However, the mechanism by which lysosome-destabilizing agents trigger necrosis and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins is poorly understood. The proteasome is a cellular complex that has been shown to regulate both necrotic cell death and proteolysis of inflammatory proteins. We found that the p...

  11. Integrated chemical treatment of municipal wastewater using waste hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmad; Malik, Amir Haider; Rashid, Naim; Wu, Donglei

    Dilemmas like water shortage, rapid industrialization, growing human population and related issues have seriously affected human health and environmental sustainability. For conservation and sustainable use of our water resources, innovative methods for wastewater treatment are continuously being explored. Advance Oxidation Processes (AOPs) show a promising approach to meet specific objectives of municipal wastewater treatment (MWW). The MWW samples were pretreated with Al 2(SO 4) 4·8H 2O (Alum) at different doses 4, 8, 12-50 mg/L to enhance the sedimentation. The maximum COD removal was observed at alum treatments in range of 28-32 mg/L without increasing total dissolved solids (TDS). TDS were found to increase when the alum dose was increased from 32-40 mg/L. In the present study, the optimum alum dose of 30 mg/L for 3 h of sedimentation and subsequent integrated H 2O 2/UV treatment was applied (using 2.5 mL/L of 40% waste H 2O 2 and 35% fresh H 2O 2 separately). Organic and inorganic pollutants, contributing towards chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity and total dissolved solids were degraded by H 2O 2/UV. About 93% COD, 90% BOD and 83% turbidity reduction occurred when 40% waste H 2O 2 was used. When using fresh H 2O 2, 63% COD, 68% BOD and 86% turbidity reduction was detected. Complete disinfection of coliform bacteria occurred by using 40% H 2O 2/UV. The most interesting part of this research was to compare the effectiveness of waste H 2O 2 with fresh H 2O 2. Waste H 2O 2 generated from an industrial process of disinfection was found more effective in the treatment of MWW than fresh 35% H 2O 2.

  12. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Secor, Eric R.; Szczepanek, Steven M.; Castater, Christine A.; Adami, Alexander J.; Matson, Adam P.; Rafti, Ektor T.; Linda Guernsey; Prabitha Natarajan; McNamara, Jeffrey T.; Craig M. Schramm; Thrall, Roger S.; Silbart, Lawrence K.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr), a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). However, sBr's effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization...

  13. AcEST: DK962501 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available =Elaeis guinee... 203 8e-51 tr|A9SVZ6|A9SVZ6_PHYPA Predicted protein OS=Physcomitrella paten... 203 8e-51 tr|Q94KH9|Q94KH9_AVIMR Alum...inium induced protein OS=Avicennia ma... 199 1e-49 tr|B4YYA6|B4YYA6_THEHA ST7-5-2 O

  14. Modulation of immune tolerance with a Chinese traditional prescription inhibits allergic rhinitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Qiang Xie; Jie Liu; Zhen Long; Dao-Fa Tian; Chang-Qing Zhao; Ping-Chang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background : Allergic diseases substantially affect human health and social economy. The pathogenesis is to be further understood. The effect of current therapeutic remedies on allergic diseases is not satisfactory. Aims : This study aimed to inhibit allergic rhinitis in a mouse model with a Chinese traditional medical prescription, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. Material and Methods : A mouse AR model was developed with ovalbumin (OVA) plus adjuvant alum. The AR clinical symptoms and immune pathology ...

  15. Effects of Sohamhyoong-Tang on Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Reaction in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, So Hyun; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub; Kim, Dae Ki; Park, Min Cheol

    2016-01-01

    IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and excessive Th2 cells activation are major features of various allergic diseases. Sohamhyoong-tang has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Sohamhyoong-tang extract (SHHTE) on allergic symptoms and inflammatory responses in ovalbumin- (OVA-) sensitized BALB/c mice. The mice were sensitized with OVA and alum at 2-week intervals and then orally given SHHTE for 13 days fol...

  16. Silica Nanoparticles as the Adjuvant for the Immunisation of Mice Using Hepatitis B Core Virus-Like Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Dace Skrastina; Ivars Petrovskis; Ilva Lieknina; Janis Bogans; Regina Renhofa; Velta Ose; Andris Dishlers; Yuri Dekhtyar; Paul Pumpens

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology and nanomaterials have facilitated the development of silicon dioxide, or Silica, particles as a promising immunological adjuvant for the generation of novel prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In the present study, we have compared the adjuvanting potential of commercially available Silica nanoparticles (initial particles size of 10-20 nm) with that of aluminium hydroxide, or Alum, as well as that of complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvants for the immunisatio...

  17. GLUT2 Immunoreactivity in Gomori-positive Astrocytes of the Hypothalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Young, John K.; McKenzie, James C.

    2004-01-01

    A specialized subtype of astrocyte, the Gomori-positive (GP) astrocyte, is unusually abundant and prominent in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. GP astro-cytes possess cytoplasmic granules derived from degenerating mitochondria. GP granules are highly stained by Gomori's chrome alum hematoxylin stain, by the Perl's reaction for iron, or by toluidine blue. The source of the oxidative stress causing mitochondrial damage in GP astrocytes is uncertain, but such damage could arise from the ...

  18. Removal of congo red and methylene blue from waste water using coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The textile industry has been condemned as being one of the world's worst offenders in terms of pollution Because of increasing population and industrial developments, a huge amount of wastewater is discharged to the environment above the level that the nature can eliminate. Many techniques like oxidation, reduction, physical treatment and biological method are available for removal of colored dyes from wastewater. The work presented here involved the decolorisation of wastewater containing congo red and methylene blue using various coagulants such as alum, bentonite and lime. The effect of various experimental factors such as dosage of coagulants, contact time between coagulant and dye and concentration of dyes and working environment like shaking and static was studied. Under static condition alum give almost 43% removal of congo red while with 10 minutes shaking 74 % removal of 80 dye was achieved with same coagulant. The highest removal of congo red was found to be 99.5 % by using alum after 30 minutes of shaking but in case of methylene blue it intensified the color and gave negative results. Lime gave only 33 % color removal of congo red under static conditions while 57% color was removed under shaking conditions. Maximum color removal achieved by lime was 89% at 40 minutes with shaking condition. Lime gave 60% removal of methylene blue in static condition and 90% removal in shaking condition and maximum absorbance at 80 ppm was 90%. Bentonite also used for the removal of methylene blue and gave 89% removal in shaking condition. By increasing shaking time %age removal increased to 100% at 40 min. And amount of coagulant increased the removal efficiency it attained 100% in both lime and bentonite coagulant for methylene blue Overall alum was found to be better coagulant for the removal of congo red from its aqueous solution. Lime and bentonite both proved better and economical for removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution at lab scale. (author)

  19. Cake layers and long filtration times protect ceramic micro-filtration membranes for fouling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to decrease membrane fouling of a ceramic microfiltration system and at the same time increase the recovery. A conventional operation in micro- and ultrafiltration is an in-line coagulation and a frequent hydraulic backwash. The idea about these frequent backwashes is to limit the accumulation of fouling on the membrane. But the cake layer of iron or alum flocks can also protect the membrane for pore blocking and a frequent backwash can expose the membrane f...

  20. Factors influencing the immune response. II. Effects of the physical state of the antigen and of lymphoreticular cell proliferation on the response to intraperitoneal injection of bovine serum albumin in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinckard, R. N.; Weir, D. M.; McBride, W. H.

    1967-01-01

    The injection of Corynebacterium parvum at the same time as centrifuged bovine albumin has been shown not to have the adjuvant effect found when C. parvum is injected 6 days before. The implication of this is discussed and related to mechanisms of antibody synthesis. Whereas particulate alum-precipitated centrifuged bovine albumin was shown to be more effective than centrifuged bovine albumin in inducing primary antibody stimulation, the reverse was true for secondary stimulation by the intraperitoneal route. PMID:6035197

  1. Protective Properties of Flavonoid Extract of Coagulated Tofu (Curdled Soy Milk) Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ndatsu Yakubu; Umaru Alhassan Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The total flavonoid contents of the various coagulated tofu and the hepatoprotective potential of all tofu flavonoid extracts were investigated. Tofu was prepared from locally sourced coagulants (steep water, alum, lemon, and lemon peel ash extract). Total flavonoid contents of all coagulated tofu were investigated as established in vitro flavonoid assay. The hepatoprotective activities of tofu flavonoid extracts against acetaminophen-induced hepatic cell toxicity in rats was also investigate...

  2. Pest Management of Japanese Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and a Study of Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Injury on Primocane-bearing Caneberries in Southwest Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Maxey, Laura Michele

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments (2007-2009) and laboratory bioassays (2009) tested the efficacy of insecticides with short pre-harvest intervals, caneberry cultivar susceptibility, and geranium toxicity for reducing Japanese beetle (JB) activity on primocane-bearing caneberries. Deltamethrin, chlorantraniliprole, bifenthrin, lime-alum, and thyme oil reduced JB activity in the field. Deltamethrin, chlorantraniliprole, acetamiprid, an azadirachtin and pyrethrin mixture, an azadirachtin and neem oil extract...

  3. Greenhouse and laboratory study for the land application of water treatment residual

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Jay B.

    1991-01-01

    The disposal of water treatment residual has received little attention due to a lack of regulation, funding, and concern about their environmental impacts. Many treatment plants discharge alum residual directly into nearby water courses or dewater them for landfilling. If suitable land is available, land application of residual is cost effective and has the potential for negligible effects on the environment and may prove to be a long-term solution to the disposal problem. This...

  4. Application of Polyelectrolyte in Turbidity Removal from Surface Water

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Mahvi; Razavi, M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important treatment processes in surface water treatment plants is coagulation. Surface waters such as rivers and lakes contain suspended particles and turbidity. With the aid of coagulants, and by flocculation process, followed by sedimentation and filtration, these impurities can be removed from raw waters these days, besides conventional chemicals such as Alum and Ferric chloride, polymers are getting common. Polymers can be used as pretreatment and filt...

  5. Ontogeny of Toll-like and NOD-like receptor-mediated innate immune responses in Papua New Guinean infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisciandro, Joanne G; Prescott, Susan L; Nadal-Sims, Marie G; Devitt, Catherine J; Pomat, William; Siba, Peter M; Tulic, Meri C; Holt, Patrick G; Strickland, Deborah; van den Biggelaar, Anita H J

    2012-01-01

    Studies addressing the ontogeny of the innate immune system in early life have reported mainly on Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in infants living in high-income countries, with little or even no information on other pattern recognition receptors or on early life innate immune responses in children living under very different environmental conditions in less-developed parts of the world. In this study, we describe whole blood innate immune responses to both Toll-like and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor agonists including the widely used vaccine adjuvant 'alum' in a group of Papua New Guinean infants aged 1-3 (n = 18), 4-6 (n = 18), 7-12 (n = 21) and 13-18 (n = 10) months old. Depending on the ligands and cytokines studied, different age-related patterns were found: alum-induced IL-1β and CXCL8 responses were found to significantly decline with increasing age; inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ) responses to TLR2 and TLR3 agonists increased; and IL-10 responses remained constant or increased during infancy, while TNF-α responses either declined or remained the same. We report for the first time that whole blood innate immune responses to the vaccine adjuvant alum decrease with age in infancy; a finding that may imply that the adjuvant effect of alum in pediatric vaccines could be age-related. Our findings further suggest that patterns of innate immune development may vary between geographically diverse populations, which in line with the 'hygiene hypothesis' particularly involves persistence of innate IL-10 responses in populations experiencing higher infectious pressure. PMID:22649499

  6. Ontogeny of Toll-like and NOD-like receptor-mediated innate immune responses in Papua New Guinean infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne G Lisciandro

    Full Text Available Studies addressing the ontogeny of the innate immune system in early life have reported mainly on Toll-like receptor (TLR responses in infants living in high-income countries, with little or even no information on other pattern recognition receptors or on early life innate immune responses in children living under very different environmental conditions in less-developed parts of the world. In this study, we describe whole blood innate immune responses to both Toll-like and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptor agonists including the widely used vaccine adjuvant 'alum' in a group of Papua New Guinean infants aged 1-3 (n = 18, 4-6 (n = 18, 7-12 (n = 21 and 13-18 (n = 10 months old. Depending on the ligands and cytokines studied, different age-related patterns were found: alum-induced IL-1β and CXCL8 responses were found to significantly decline with increasing age; inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ responses to TLR2 and TLR3 agonists increased; and IL-10 responses remained constant or increased during infancy, while TNF-α responses either declined or remained the same. We report for the first time that whole blood innate immune responses to the vaccine adjuvant alum decrease with age in infancy; a finding that may imply that the adjuvant effect of alum in pediatric vaccines could be age-related. Our findings further suggest that patterns of innate immune development may vary between geographically diverse populations, which in line with the 'hygiene hypothesis' particularly involves persistence of innate IL-10 responses in populations experiencing higher infectious pressure.

  7. Comparison of Diffrent Coagulants Efficiency for Treatment of Hamedan Landfills Leachate Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hasanvand

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:In Iran , indicated that the municipal landfill leachate has been one of the major problem for environment. In the operations, leachate treatment is a very difficult and expensive process. Although, young leachate can be treated easily by biological treatment, COD removal efficiency are usually low due to high ammonium ion content and the presence of toxic compounds such as metal ions. Treatment of leachate is necessary.The aim of this study is reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demond (COD and Total Suspended Solids (TSS from hamedan city sanitary landfill leachate by three coagulants: alum, PAC and ferrous sulfate."nMaterials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of treatment of landfill leachate by a coagulation-flocculation process. The effects of different amounts of coagulant and different pH values on the coagulation processes were compared."nResults:Result shown the high efficiency for reduction of CODby PAC in pH=12 and concentration of 2500(mg/l (62.66%, and by alum in pH=12 and concentration of 1000 (mg/l (60% , by ferrous sulfate in pH=2 and concentration of 1000 (mg/l (70.62%. Also result shown the high efficiency for TSS removal by PAC in pH=12 and 2500(mg/l concentration of PAC was 58.37%, with alum in pH=2 and 1500 (mg/l concentration of alum was39.14% , by ferrous sulfate in pH=7 and 2500(mg/l concentration of ferrous sulfate was 35.58%."nConclusion:The best coagulant for COD removal is ferrous sulfate.The physico-chemical process may be used as a useful pretreatment step, especially for fresh leachates, prior to post-treatment (polishing step for partially stabilized leachates.

  8. Effects of Different Mordants on Silk Fabric Dyed with Onion Outer Skin Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Gias Uddin

    2014-01-01

    At present, a higher demand is put towards the use of natural dyes due to increased awareness of the environmental and health hazards associated with the synthesis and use of synthetic dyes. This research was conducted using onion outer skins as a potential source of natural plant dyes. In this study, extraction of dye was carried out in aqueous boiling method. Premordanting technique was followed using different mordants, namely alum, ferrous sulphate, tin, tannic acid, tartaric acid, and th...

  9. 无矾红薯粉丝加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 吴卫国; 杨韵

    2014-01-01

    红薯粉丝在制作过程中,多数添加了明矾,但明矾中的铝对人体危害极大,从制作工艺的科学性出发,通过试验研究得出不添加明矾的红薯粉丝加工条件为粉团含水量50%,加芡量40%,加水温度50℃。在添加剂的确认试验中,确定添加5%的绿豆淀粉、0.3%的复合磷酸盐和0.4%的黄原胶对粉丝品质有很显著的改善作用,其品质接近于添加了0.3%明矾的红薯粉丝。%Sweet potato noodle in the production process, the majority of added alum, but the aluminum alum great harm to humans, experimental scientific nature of the production process from starting, through experimental study results do not add alum sweet potato vermicelli processing conditions: dough moisture content of 50%, with 40% of the amount of gravy, add water temperature is 50 ℃. Experimental confirmation of additives, it is determined of mung bean starch with 5%, 0.3% of the phosphate compound and 0.4% of xanthan gum to the sweet potato vermicelli very significant quality improvement, its quality is close to added 0.3%alum sweet potato noodles.

  10. The Immunomodulatory Role of Adjuvants in Vaccines Formulated with the Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 against Onchocerca volvulus in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Hess

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In some regions in Africa, elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible with mass drug administration, although there is concern based on several factors that onchocerciasis cannot be eliminated solely through this approach. A vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus would provide a critical tool for the ultimate elimination of this infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that immunization of mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, when formulated with alum, induced protective immunity. It was hypothesized that the levels of protective immunity induced with the two recombinant antigens formulated with alum would be improved by formulation with other adjuvants known to enhance different types of antigen-specific immune responses.Immunizing mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with alum, Advax 2 and MF59 induced significant levels of larval killing and host protection. The immune response was biased towards Th2 with all three of the adjuvants, with IgG1 the dominant antibody. Improved larval killing and host protection was observed in mice immunized with co-administered Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with each of the three adjuvants as compared to single immunizations. Antigen-specific antibody titers were significantly increased in mice immunized concurrently with the two antigens. Based on chemokine levels, it appears that neutrophils and eosinophils participate in the protective immune response induced by Ov-103, and macrophages and neutrophils participate in immunity induced by Ov-RAL-2.The mechanism of protective immunity induced by Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, with the adjuvants alum, Advax 2 and MF59, appears to be multifactorial with roles for cytokines, chemokines, antibody and specific effector cells. The vaccines developed in this study have the potential of reducing the morbidity associated with onchocerciasis in humans.

  11. Silica-based cationic bilayers as immunoadjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Ribeiro Ana M; da Costa Maria; Faquim-Mauro Eliana; Santana Mariana RA; Lincopan Nilton

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. Results Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6...

  12. Cu vi parolas Esperante?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej; Pettyn

    1999-01-01

    LA DEKA LECIONOKiom da mono vi bezonas?—Barbara:Mi foriras aeti ion pormani.u vi deziras ion de mi?—Sinjoro Petro(la edzo de Barbara):Aetu por mi skatolon da cigaredoj aǔeble...aetu por mi du skatolojn dacigaredoj kaj unu skatolon da alume-toj.—B:Bone.u vi ankoraǔ deziras ion?—P:Ne,dankon.Estasio.u vihavas monon?

  13. Use of nanoparticular and soluble anionic celluloses in coagulation-flocculation treatment of kaolin suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Henrikki; Sirviö, Juho; Sundman, Ola; Hormi, Osmo; Niinimäki, Jouko

    2012-05-01

    In this work, the effectiveness of a novel, combined coagulation-flocculation treatment based on alum and soluble or nanoparticular anionic derivatives of dialdehyde cellulose, ADAC, was evaluated by studying the removal of colloidal material in a model suspension containing kaolin. Four different ADACs with varying degrees of substitution, size and water solubility were synthesized by periodate oxidation and sulfonation of cellulose. The effects of ADAC dosage, solution pH and temperature on flocculation were studied by measuring residual turbidity of the settled suspension. Moreover, the charge densities, sizes, ζ-potentials and stability of the ADACs in aqueous solutions were studied. The combined treatment was effective in the removal of colloidal particles, as demonstrated by reduced residual turbidity with remarkably lower total chemical consumption compared with coagulation with alum alone. Of the ADACs, samples with lower solubility that contained cellulose nanoparticles performed better than the fully water-soluble sample. Due to the restricted pH tolerance of alum, the combined treatment was effective only at acidic conditions (pH < 5), although the ADACs were found to be stable in a much broader pH range (pH of 3 to about 9). ADACs also retained strong activity at higher temperatures (30-60 °C) and after several days of storage in aqueous solution. PMID:22341833

  14. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2014-07-01

    Arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) runoff from fields fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not known if heavy metal runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to determine the main factors affecting As and Cu concentrations in runoff water from pastures receiving poultry litter applications. Rainfall simulation studies were conducted to determine the effects of the following treatments on metal runoff: (i) aluminum sulfate (alum) additions, (ii) diet modification using phytase or high available phosphorus corn, (iii) fertilizer type, (iv) poultry litter application rate, and (v) time until the first runoff event occurs after poultry litter application. Results showed that alum additions to poultry litter significantly decreased As and Cu concentrations in runoff water. Copper concentrations were highest in runoff from poultry litter from birds fed phytase diets compared with other diets; however, this effect may have been a result of wet storage conditions rather than diet. Triple superphosphate applications resulted in the lowest heavy metal concentrations in runoff water among all fertilizer treatments, while normal poultry litter resulted in the highest concentrations. Arsenic and Cu concentrations increased in runoff water as poultry litter application rates increased and decreased with increasing time until the first runoff event. These data indicate that adding alum to poultry litter, a cost-effective best management practice, which also results in lower P runoff and ammonia emissions, may also be an effective tool in reducing metal runoff. PMID:25603088

  15. PILOT PLANT STUDY ON NATURAL WATER COAGULANTS AS COAGULAN AIDS FOR WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B BINA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural plant coagulants have an important role to play in provision of portable water to rural communities in the developing world. The plant material that their coagulation properties have been confirmed in previous lab scale studies and can be found widely in Iran was selected as coagulant aids. Pilot plant study was done to evaluate the efficiency of natural material such as Starch/Gum Tragacanth, Fenugreek and Yeast as coagulant aids in conjunction with comercial alum. Methods: The pilot was placed in Isfahan Water Treatment Plant (IWTP and efficiency of these materials in removal of turbidity from raw water enters the IWTP was evaluated. The results indicated while these materials were used as coagulant aids in concentration of 1-5 mg/l conjunction with alum are able to reduced the turbidity and final residuals turbidity meets the standards limits. Results: The coagulation efficiency of these material were found to be effected by certain physico-chemical factors, namely, concentration of suspended solids, divalent cation metal and time of agitation. The relative importance of these variable was evaluated. The results of COD test proved that the natural coagulant aids in the optimum doses produce no any significant organic residual. Discussion: Economical considerations showed that using of these material as coagulant aids can cause reduction in alum consumption and in some cases are more econmical than synthetic polyelectrolyte.

  16. Improvement of wastewater treatment by use of natural coagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Prodanović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An activated sludge and other organic sludges from wastewater treatment processes are usually anaerobically digested prior to application on land. The purpose of digestion is to convert bulky, odorous sludges to relatively inert material that can be rapidly dewatering. The important benefit of this process is a biogas production, too. It is proper to enlarge primary sludge production in a primary settler by adding some coagulation aids, with aim to increase a biogas production, as much as possible. The most common coagulant is alum, but presence of large quantities of aluminum salts in sludge has a harmful impact on digestion and digested sludge application. Some natural coagulants, that have a numerous advantages, can be used instead of alum. Natural coagulants could be extracted from a different plant material, and considering the fact that they are of organic nature, the biogas yield can be enhanced by their presence. A plant material that remains after extraction can be used as a feed. The aim of this paper is a consideration of potential environmental benefits of substitution of alum by natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in sewage wastewater treatment process.

  17. Adjuvant effect of B domain of staphyloccocal protein A displayed on the surface of hepatitis B virus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Ahn, Keum-Young; Bae, Kyung Dong; Lee, Jiyun; Sim, Sang Jun; Lee, Jeewon

    2016-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid-based recombinant particles, which display both major hydrophilic region of HBV surface antigen (HBV-MHR) and B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (SPAB ), were produced using Escherichia coli as expression host. SPAB was used as an adjuvant to elicit the immune response to HBV-MHR, and its adjuvant effect in the immunized mice was estimated with varying the position and amount of SPAB on the HBV capsid particles. Compared to the emulsified aluminum gel (alum gel) that is a currently commercialized vaccine adjuvant, SPAB caused the significantly higher level of anti-HBV immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and seroconversion rate, and notably SPAB at the most surface-exposed position on the recombinant particle led to the highest immune response. Moreover, SPAB caused much lower ratio of IgG1 to IgG2a compared to alum gel, indicating that helper T-cell 1-mediated immune response (responsible for cytotoxic T-cell stimulation) is relatively more stimulated by SPAB , unlike alum gel that mainly stimulates helper T-cell 2-mediated immune response (responsible for B-cell stimulation). Although HBV-MHR and HBV capsid particle were used as proof-of-concept in this study, SPAB can be used as a highly effective adjuvant with other disease-specific antigens on the surface of other virus-like particles to produce various recombinant vaccines with high potency. PMID:26222886

  18. The ovine nasal mucosa: an alternative tissue site for mucosal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgmen, Bradley J; Lofthouse, Shari A; Meeusen, Els N T

    2006-02-01

    The ovine nasal mucosal environment has histological and ultrastructural features that resemble well-known inductive sites of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. In the present study, the nasal mucosa was assessed as a potential mucosal tissue site for delivering vaccines to sheep. Sheep were immunized by either injection with the model antigen, Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH), and aluminium hydroxide gel (alum) or by aerosol spray with KLH with and without cholera toxin (CT). Sheep immunized by injection with KLH/alum and aerosol spray with KLH/CT induced strong anti-KLH IgG and IgA serum antibody responses as well as specific T cell memory. Anti-KLH IgG1 responses were significantly higher following immunization by injection and no significant differences in anti-KLH IgG2 responses were detected between groups. Sheep immunized with KLH by aerosol spray without CT did not produce serum antibody and T cell memory responses. Antibody-secreting cells were present in the parotid lymph nodes (draining lymph nodes) of sheep immunized with KLH/alum and KLH/CT, but secreted only Ag-specific IgG1, and not IgG2 or IgA. These results suggest that aerosolization of soluble antigen formulations with CT may provide an alternative method of delivering nasal vaccines to sheep and other large animal species, and that further improvements in antigen penetration of nasal tissues may dramatically improve the strength of the immune response.

  19. Chitosan and Sodium Alginate Combinations Are Alternative, Efficient, and Safe Natural Adjuvant Systems for Hepatitis B Vaccine in Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelAllah, Nourhan H.; Boseila, Abeer A.; Amin, Magdy A.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infections represent major public health problem and are an occupational hazard for healthcare workers. Current alum-adjuvanted HBV vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent HBV infection. However, the vaccine has some limitations including poor response in some vaccinee and being a frost-sensitive suspension. The goal of our study was to use an alternative natural adjuvant system strongly immunogenic allowing for a reduction in dose and cost. We tested HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) adjuvanted with chitosan (Ch) and sodium alginate (S), both natural adjuvants, either alone or combined with alum in mouse model. Mice groups were immunized subcutaneously with HBsAg adjuvanted with Ch or S, or triple adjuvant formula with alum (Al), Ch, and S, or double formulations with AlCh or AlS. These were compared to control groups immunized with current vaccine formula or unadjuvanted HBsAg. We evaluated the rate of seroconversion, serum HBsAg antibody, IL-4, and IFN-γ levels. The results showed that the solution formula with Ch or S exhibited comparable immunogenic responses to Al-adjuvanted suspension. The AlChS gave significantly higher immunogenic response compared to controls. Collectively, our results indicated that Ch and S are effective HBV adjuvants offering natural alternatives, potentially reducing dose. PMID:27493674

  20. Prediction of DOM removal of low specific UV absorbance surface waters using HPSEC combined with peak fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linan Xing; Rolando Fabris; Christopher W. K. Chow; John van Leeuwen; Mary Drikas; Dongsheng Wang

    2012-01-01

    High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) is used in water quality research primarily to determine the molecular weight distribution of the dissolved organic matter (DOM),but by applying peak fitting to the chromatogram,this technique can also be used as a tool to model and predict DOM removal.Six low specific UV absorbance (SUVA) source waters were treated using coagulation with alum and both the source and treated water samples were analysed using HPSEC.By comparing the molecular weight profiles of the source and treated waters,it was established that several DOM components were not effectively removed by alum coagulation even after high dosage alum treatment.A peak-fitting technique was applied based on the concept of linking the character (molecular weight profile) of the recalcitrant organics in the treated water with those of the source water.This was then applied to predict DOM treatability by determining the areas of the peaks which were assigned to removable organics from the source water molecular weight profile after peak fitting,and this technique quantified the removable and non-removable organics.The prediction was compared with the actual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal determined from jar testing and showed good agreement,with variance between 2% and 10%.This confirmed that this prediction approach,which was originally developed for high SUVA waters,can also be applied successfully to predict DOC removal in low SUVA waters.

  1. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice.

  2. Levamisole is a potential facilitator for the activation of Th1 responses of the subunit HBV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Du, Xiaogang; Zhao, Gang; Jin, Huali; Kang, Youmin; Xiao, Chong; Liu, Mingyu; Wang, Bin

    2009-08-01

    Chemical compounds activating innate responses may present potential adjuvants for the vaccine development. Levamisole (LMS), demonstrated as a potent adjuvant for DNA and viral killed vaccines in our previous studies, may activate such responses. To confirm this notion, LMS combined with the recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) was investigated. Compared to the vaccination with rHBsAg alone, LMS could up-regulate the expressions of TLR7&8, MyD88, IRF7 and their downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha, which promote DCs activation. Strikingly, we find that the combination of LMS and alum adjuvant synergistically enhances immunogenicity of rHBsAg and leads to a robust cell-mediated response demonstrated by the higher level of IgG2a/IgG1, T cell proliferation, and importantly, a high level of antigen-specific CTL and IFN-gamma production within these activated CD8(+) T cells. The achieved robust responses are at a comparative level with CpG+alum used as a positive control adjuvant in mice. The combination of LMS+alum with rHBsAg may provide a cost-effective, safe, and effective therapy to treat those individuals chronically infected by HBV, since antigen-specific cellular immunity is implicated for the clearance of HBV chronic infection. PMID:19549606

  3. Removal of arsenic and iron removal from drinking water using coagulation and biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-02-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC), biological aerated filter (BAF), alum coagulation and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated to remove iron and arsenic contaminants from drinking water. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, the removal efficiency for arsenic and iron was 63% and 58% respectively using alum, and 47% and 41% respectively using Moringa oleifera. The removal of both contaminants increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. Biological processes were more effective in removing these contaminants than coagulation. Compared to BAF, BAC gave greater removal of both arsenic and iron, removing 85% and 74%, respectively. Longer contact time for both processes could reduce the greater concentration of arsenic and iron contaminants. The addition of coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) and a biological process (with 15 or 60 min contact time) could significantly increase removal efficiency, and the maximum removal was observed for the combination of alum and BAC treatment (60 min contact time), with 100% and 98.56% for arsenic and iron respectively. The reduction efficiency of arsenic and iron reduced with the increase in the concentration of dissolved organics in the feedwater due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and heavy metals.

  4. Removal of arsenic and iron removal from drinking water using coagulation and biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-02-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC), biological aerated filter (BAF), alum coagulation and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated to remove iron and arsenic contaminants from drinking water. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, the removal efficiency for arsenic and iron was 63% and 58% respectively using alum, and 47% and 41% respectively using Moringa oleifera. The removal of both contaminants increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. Biological processes were more effective in removing these contaminants than coagulation. Compared to BAF, BAC gave greater removal of both arsenic and iron, removing 85% and 74%, respectively. Longer contact time for both processes could reduce the greater concentration of arsenic and iron contaminants. The addition of coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) and a biological process (with 15 or 60 min contact time) could significantly increase removal efficiency, and the maximum removal was observed for the combination of alum and BAC treatment (60 min contact time), with 100% and 98.56% for arsenic and iron respectively. The reduction efficiency of arsenic and iron reduced with the increase in the concentration of dissolved organics in the feedwater due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and heavy metals. PMID:26837833

  5. Dyeing of γ-irradiated cotton with natural flavonoid dye extracted from irradiated onion shells (Allium cepa) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Fazal-ur; Adeel, Shahid; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Nasir, Faiza; Akhtar, Nasim; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-11-01

    Powder of Onion shells as a source of natural flavonoid dye (Quercetin) and cotton fabrics were exposed to absorbed doses of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy using Cs-137 gamma irradiator. Irradiated and un-irradiated dye powder was used for extraction of quercetin as well as antibacterial, hemolytic and antioxidant activities were also determined to observe the effect of radiation. Furthermore, color strength and colourfastness of irradiated fabrics were improved by using pre and post-mordants such as alum and iron. It is found that 4 kGy is the optimal absorbed dose for extraction of natural quercetin extracted from onion shells while maximum color strength and acceptable fastness properties are obtained on dyeing of irradiated fabric at 60 °C keeping M:L of 1:30 using 10% alum as pre-mordant and 6% alum as post-mordant. Gamma irradiation has not only improved the color strength of the dye using irradiated cotton but also that of colourfastness properties.

  6. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Secor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD. However, sBr’s effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization was unknown and is the aim of the present study. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and challenged with 7 days OVA aerosol. sBr 6 mg/kg/0.5 ml or PBS vehicle were administered throughout sensitization. Lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, spleen, and lymph nodes were processed for flow cytometry and OVA-specific IgE was determined via ELISA. sBr treatment throughout OVA-alum sensitization significantly reduced the development of AAD (BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes. OVA-specific IgE and OVA TET+ cells were decreased. sBr reduced CD11c+ dendritic cell subsets, and in vitro treatment of DCs significantly reduced CD44, a key receptor in both cell trafficking and activation. sBr was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD upon antigen challenge. These results provide additional insight into sBr's anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties and rationale for translation into the clinical arena.

  7. Bromelain Inhibits Allergic Sensitization and Murine Asthma via Modulation of Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Eric R; Szczepanek, Steven M; Castater, Christine A; Adami, Alexander J; Matson, Adam P; Rafti, Ektor T; Guernsey, Linda; Natarajan, Prabitha; McNamara, Jeffrey T; Schramm, Craig M; Thrall, Roger S; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of atopic conditions has increased in industrialized countries. Persisting symptoms and concern for drug side-effects lead patients toward adjunctive treatments such as phytotherapy. Previously, we have shown that Bromelain (sBr), a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple, Ananas comosus, inhibits ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of allergic airway disease (AAD). However, sBr's effect on development of AAD when treatment is administered throughout OVA-alum sensitization was unknown and is the aim of the present study. C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and challenged with 7 days OVA aerosol. sBr 6 mg/kg/0.5 ml or PBS vehicle were administered throughout sensitization. Lung, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), spleen, and lymph nodes were processed for flow cytometry and OVA-specific IgE was determined via ELISA. sBr treatment throughout OVA-alum sensitization significantly reduced the development of AAD (BAL eosinophils and lymphocytes). OVA-specific IgE and OVA TET(+) cells were decreased. sBr reduced CD11c(+) dendritic cell subsets, and in vitro treatment of DCs significantly reduced CD44, a key receptor in both cell trafficking and activation. sBr was shown to reduce allergic sensitization and the generation of AAD upon antigen challenge. These results provide additional insight into sBr's anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties and rationale for translation into the clinical arena.

  8. UV-protection of Natural and Synthetic Fabrics by Surface Treatment under the effect of Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic and natural fabrics were surface coated with gamma radiation curable novel formulations. These formulations were based on naturally occurring Alum individually and in binary mixture with ZnO beside different functional oligomers and monomers. The physical properties of the treated fabrics were evaluated in terms of ultraviolet protection, moisture regain, and water absorption. Also, the effect of coating formulations on the crystallinity was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) showed that the formulation containing 30% of Alum caused a significant UPF values (50+) according to standard rating over untreated fabrics. When ZnO was incorporated in the formulation, the UPF factor was increased by two folds. A decrease in the moisture regain and water absorption of fabrics was featured with ZnO, however, in case of Alum a decrease followed by an increase was observed. In conclusion, these novel coats could be taken as an nontoxic alternative UV-resist finishing agents for fabrics

  9. 浸泡对市售盐渍海蜇皮及海蜇头影响分析%Analysis of Soaking for Commercial Salted Jellyfish and Jellyfish Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜; 朱敬萍; 金雷; 鲍静姣

    2016-01-01

    Based on the experimental study on the soaking time, the content of salt, water and alum of jellyfish and jellyfish head was got. The experimental results showed that the water in jellyfish came up to 96. 0% and 96. 6% after 16 h and 24 h, the salt of jellyfish was down to 1. 82% and 0. 19%, the alum of jellyfish was down to 0. 28% and 0. 11% in the same time. The water in jellyfish head came up to 95. 4% and 97. 8% after 16 h and 24 h, the salt of jellyfish was down to 2. 80% and 0. 28%, the alum of jellyfish was down to 0. 28% and 0. 10% in the same time. It turned out that fresh water soaking can reduce the amount of salt and alum in jellyfish and jellyfish head. The salt of jellyfish and jellyfish head can reduce to about 0. 2% ~0. 3% after 24 h, and the salty taste was almost impossible to tell. Alum content was lowered to 0. 1%, it was far lower than the state of aluminum daily limit value of 0. 004 g.%通过对浸泡时长的实验研究,以期得到对海蜇皮和海蜇头的盐分、水分及明矾含量影响的客观了解。实验结果显示,海蜇皮浸泡16 h和24 h后水分含量分别达到96.0%和96.6%,盐分降至1.82%和0.19%,明矾含量降至0.28%和0.11%;海蜇头浸泡16 h和24 h后水分含量达到95.4%和97.8%,盐分降至2.80%和0.28%,明矾含量降至0.28%和0.10%。结果表明,淡水浸泡能有效降低海蜇皮和海蜇头的盐分和明矾含量,且经过24 h海蜇皮和海蜇头的盐分可降至0.2%~0.3%左右,味觉几乎无法辨别到咸味,明矾含量也可降至0.1%左右,远低于国家对铝元素每日摄入限量值0.004 g。

  10. THE USE OF MORINGA SEED EXTRACT IN WATER PURIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyan Safiya Yahaya

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of treated water makes most people in the rural communities to resort to readily available sources which are normally of low quality exposing them to waterborne diseases. It is in this light that this research was carried out to confirm the effectiveness of powder extracted from mature-dried Moringa oleifera seeds which is commonly available in most rural communities of Africa. This was done using Completely Randomised Design with loading doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 g/l of the powder processed from Moringa seeds, and potash aluminium sulphate (alum as coagulant. A control (water from the pond with only distilled water without alum and Moringa treatments was also included. The turbidity, pH, and conductivity and total coliform were determined for all the samples. The turbidity for the samples ranged from log100.37 to log101.00NTU while the conductivity ranged from log101.56 to log102.86µS/cm. The 6 g/l treatment of Moringa and 4 and 6 g/l potash alum treatments gave values that are acceptable according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for safe drinking water. The control sample gave the higher extremes values which are unacceptable. The pH values (7.29 to 7.89 obtained for the treatments were in the recommended range set by World Health Organization (WHO. Comparative studies with potash alum showed that the seed was effective in the sedimentation of inorganic and organic matter in raw water. It reduced the total microbial and coliform counts by 55% and 65%, respectively, after 24 hours whereas potash alum achieved 65% and 85% reduction under similar condition. The Most Probable Number per 100 ml for total coliform counts had values from 3 to 23 at 95% confidence limits. The Moringa treatment gave lower counts. Findings of this research lend support to earlier works recommending the use of Moringa for water treatment.

  11. 城市景观水体混凝除藻过程对氮元素协同去除特性初探%Removal of Algae and Nitrogen from Urban Landscape Waters by Coagulation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦卫东; 刘瑜; 陈强; 龚春明; 曹英兰; 罗专溪; 魏群山

    2012-01-01

    With the cleaning of urban landscape waters as the objective, the removal of algae and nitrogen by coagulation was investigated. The results showed that high DOC concentration inhibits the removal of algae. A composite of polyaluminium chloride (PAC1) and Alum as well as PAC1 were better than other flocculants (Alum and FeCl3) in removing algae turbidity from urban landscape waters. PAC1 + Alum was also better in the removal of nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon ( DOC). Under a certain flocculant dosage, a lower pH benefited the removal of algae, DOC and even dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). For this kind of water, the removal processes of total nitrogen (TN ) and DON were well correlated, indicating that the removal of TN was mainly through the removal of DON. However, the removal process of DON was not synchronous with that of DOC, illustrating a heterogeneous composition of DON in DOC. This needs to be investigated by further research in the future.%以城市景观水体净化为目标,考察混凝除藻同时去除氮元素的特性和影响因素.结果发现,水体内较高的DOC(溶解性有机质)含量会阻碍藻浊度的去除.聚合氯化铝(PACl)以及PAC1与硫酸铝(Alum)的复合剂(PACl+ Alum)对藻浊度的去除效果均相对单独使用PAC1或Alum较好,其中PACl+ Alum对其他物质(如氮、DOC等)的去除效果也相对单独使用PAC1或Alum更佳;在同样的最佳投药量时,低pH条件能获得更好的藻浊度去除率;对氮元素去除的进一步研究发现,DON(溶解性有机氮)的去除特征和过程与TN(总氮)非常一致,表明该水体TN的去除主体上是通过DON的去除实现的;低pH条件同样有利于氮和DOC的去除;但DOC与DON去除的不同步性,说明DOC中的DON成分和性质是非均一性的,是未来可进一步深入研究的重要方向.

  12. Relative Coagulation Effectiveness of Jatropha curcas Press Cake (Physic Nut and Aluminium Sulphate in Purifying Domestic Sewage

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    Kamoru Akanni ADENIRAN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted on the relative effectiveness of using press cake of dried Jatropha curcas (Physic nut seed and alum (Aluminium sulphate for the purification of domestic sewage. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD replicated three times. Physical and chemical properties of domestic sewage were investigated before and after the purification exercise. Treatments imposed included: the control culture (no alum and Jatropha, 10 mg/l of Aluminium Sulphate (alum treatment, 80 mg/l of J. curcas treatment, 100 mg/l of J. curcas treatment and 120 mg/l of J. curcas treatment. The results showed that for the total dissolved solids, cultured tanks treated with 80 mg/l of J. curcas reduced the sewage concentration from 30.1 mg/l to 23.20 mg/l, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD was reduced from 30.55 mg/l to 30.10 mg/l, increased acidity from 5.33 mg/l to 5.66 mg/l, reduced alkalinity from 6.35 mg/l to 6.0 mg/l, reduced pH from 7.6 to 6.55, and likewise 10 mg/l of alum also reduced pH from 7.6 to 6.55. The cultured tanks treated with 120 mg/l of J. curcas performed best in reducing turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD of the sewage. The turbidity was reduced from 5.99 NTU to 5.6 NTU; 120 mg/l of J. curcas also reduced total hardness from 9.6 mg/l to 7.15 mg/l, total solids from 55.6 mg/l to 55.17 mg/l. Cultured tanks treated with 10 mg/l of alum reduced total dissolved solids from 30.1 mg/l to 24.30 mg/l, while those treated with 80 mg/l of J. curcas reduced it from 30.1 mg/l to 23.20 mg/l, 100 mg/l and 120 mg/l of J. curcas reduced it to 25.20 mg/l. Total suspended solids increased from 25.5 mg/l to 30.96 mg/l for 10 mg/l of alum, to 30.22 mg/l for 80 mg/l of J. curcas, 30.26 mg/l for 100 mg/l of J. curcas and 30.38 mg/l for 120 mg/l of J. curcas. Conductivity increased withion the study period from 525 μS/cm to 830 μS/cm for 10 mg/l of alum, to 590 μS/cm for 80 mg/l of J. curcas, 634 μS/cm for 100 mg/l of J

  13. Quality of poultry litter submitted to different treatments in five consecutive flocks Qualidade da cama de frango submetida a diferentes tratamentos em cinco lotes consecutivos

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    Fernando Carlos Loch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the effects of poultry litter treatment on moisture content, pH, density and volatilized ammonia for five consecutive flocks of broiler chicken breeding. It was used 640 birds per flock as a complete randomized design with eight treatments and four replicates. The treatments were the following: 1 non-treated litter; 2 litter submitted to in-house composting; 3 litter treated with aluminum sulfate; 4 litter submitted to gypsum; 5 litter treated with quicklime; 6 litter treated with dolomitic limestone; 7 litter treated with zeolite and 8 litter treated with charcoal. Chopped elephant-grass hay was used as poultry litter in all flocks. Fermentation in the shed increased moisture content of the litters in the second and first flocks on 21 and 42 days of breeding, respectively. There was no difference on density among treatments. Aluminum sulfate reduced pH of the litters in all flocks at 21 days of breding. On 42 days of breeding, pH of the litters was reduced in the litters with aluminum sulfate and gypsum in the first, second and forth flocks. On 21 days, aluminum sulfate reduced the volatilized ammonia in the first, third and forth flocks, and on 42 days, there was a reduction of volatilized ammonia in the litters with aluminum sulfate in the forth flock. Aluminum sulfate can improve quality of poultry litter of chopped elephant-grass hay by reducing pH and ammonia volatilization.Foram avaliados os efeitos do tratamento da cama de frango sobre o teor de umidade, o pH, a densidade e a amônia volatilizada durante cinco lotes consecutivos de criação de frangos de corte. Foram utilizadas 640 aves por lote em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: 1 cama não-tratada; 2 cama submetida à compostagem dentro do galpão; 3 cama tratada com sulfato de alumínio; 4 cama tratada com gesso agrícola; 5 cama tratada com cal virgem; 6 cama tratada com calcário dolomítico; 7

  14. Organic matter removal from oil-water emulsions by electrocoagulation - 1: thermodynamic analysis Remoção de matéria orgânica de emulsões óleo-água por eletrocoagulação - 1: análise termodinâmica

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    Rodolfo Maia Rangel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic analysis of the organic matter (chemical oxygen demand - COD removal from synthetic oil-water emulsions by the electrocoagulation process was performed with the objective of determining the most stable ionic species under diverse pH and aluminum concentration conditions and identifying possible removal mechanisms. The analysis suggests that the predominant species during the reactive stage are the amorphous aluminum hydroxide (for the mononuclear speciation of aluminum and the positively charged trimeric species, Al3(OH45+ (for the polynuclear speciation of aluminum. The emulsion destabilization probably occurs by charge neutralization, carried out jointly by the polynuclear species and by positively charged aluminum hydroxide. This sorption mechanism is likely to be the primary coagulation mechanism during the reactive stage. The formation of aluminum hydroxide and/or oxide during the stabilization stage may also take place, which indicates the gradual change of the dominant removal mechanism to sweep flocculation.Uma análise termodinâmica da remoção de matéria orgânica (DQO de emulsões sintéticas óleo-água, pelo processo de eletrocoagulação, foi feita com o objetivo de determinar as espécies iônicas mais estáveis, em diferentes condições de pH e concentração de alumínio, de modo a identificar os possíveis mecanismos de remoção. A análise sugere que as espécies predominantes, durante o estágio reativo, são o hidróxido de alumínio amorfo (para a especiação mononuclear do alumínio e a espécie trimérica positivamente carregada, Al3(OH4(5+ (para a especiação polinuclear do alumínio. A desestabilização da emulsão, provavelmente, ocorre por meio de neutralização de carga, conduzida, conjuntamente, pela espécie polinuclear e por partículas de hidróxido de alumínio positivamente carregadas. Esse mecanismo de sorção deve ser o mecanismo primário de coagulação, durante o estágio reativo

  15. Multiplicação in vitro e aclimatação de Vernonia condensata Baker In vitro multiplication and acclimation of Vernonia condensata Baker

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    M.A.A. Vicente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie medicinal Vernonia condensata, vulgarmente conhecida por alumã, pertencente à família Asteraceae, possui propriedades analgésicas e de proteção gástrica. A crescente utilização dessa planta no Nordeste, pelas propriedades terapêuticas, justifica a necessidade de medidas que minimizem o impacto de sua exploração nas reservas naturais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi multiplicar in vitro plantas de alumã sob diferentes concentrações de BAP e aclimatá-las. Gemas axilares foram desinfestadas em solução de álcool etílico 70%, durante 2 minutos e em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (2% de cloro ativo na concentração de 3:1, durante 15 minutos, seguido de três lavagens em água destilada estéril. Os tratamentos para multiplicação consistiram em doses de BAP (0,0; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 mg L-1 em meio MS semi-sólido. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 repetições, contendo 10 gemas por repetição. Após 30 dias de cultivo observou-se maior taxa de explantes responsivos, 84% na concentração de 1,0 mg L-1 de BAP, com produção de 4,0 brotos/explante. Nos tratamentos 3,0; 4,0 e 5,0 mg L-1 ocorreu hiperhidricidade nas folhas. As microplantas de alumã provenientes da metodologia utilizada neste trabalho alcançaram 100% de sobrevivência na aclimatação.The medicinal species Vernonia condensata, commonly known as "alumã", belongs to the family Asteraceae and has analgesic and gastric protective properties. The increasing use of this plant in the Northeast of Brazil due to its therapeutic properties justifies the need of measures to minimize the impact of its exploitation in natural reserves. The aim of this study was to multiply, in vitro, "alumã" plants under different BAP levels, acclimating them. Axillary buds were sterilized in 70% (v/v alcohol solution for 2 minutes and in 75% sodium hypochlorite solution (2% active chlorine at 3:1 concentration for 15 minutes, followed by

  16. Single-agent maintenance therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis of 26 randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoning; Ma, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefit of maintenance therapy has been confirmed in patients with non-progressing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after first-line therapy by many trials and meta-analyses. However, since few head-to-head trials between different regimens have been reported, clinicians still have little guidance on how to select the most efficacious single-agent regimen. Hence, we present a network meta-analysis to assess the comparative treatment efficacy of several single-agent maintenance therapy regimens for stage III/IV NSCLC. Methods A comprehensive literature search of public databases and conference proceedings was performed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) meeting the eligible criteria were integrated into a Bayesian network meta-analysis. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) and the secondary outcome was progression free survival (PFS). Results A total of 26 trials covering 7,839 patients were identified, of which 24 trials were included in the OS analysis, while 23 trials were included in the PFS analysis. Switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine and switch-pemetrexed were identified as the most efficacious regimens based on OS (HR, 0.64; 95% CrI, 0.45–0.92) and PFS (HR, 0.54; 95% CrI, 0.26–1.04) separately. According to the rank order based on OS, switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine had the highest probability as the most effective regimen (52%), while switch-pemetrexed ranked first (34%) based on PFS. Conclusions Several single-agent maintenance therapy regimens can prolong OS and PFS for stage III/IV NSCLC. Switch-racotumomab-alum vaccine maintenance therapy may be the most optimal regimen, but should be confirmed by additional evidence.

  17. Enhanced specific immune responses by CpG DNA in mice immunized with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen and HB vaccine

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    Wang Xingtai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B vaccine adjuvant, alum, is generally used for vaccination although it does not stimulate Th1 immunity and 10% of the population has low or no antibody response. Efforts have been continued to find more efficient vaccine adjuvants for better antibody response as well as stimulation of Th1 immunity. Methods CpG DNA was used as an adjuvant for recombinant HBsAg to immunize 6- to 8-week-old female BALB/c mice with or without alum for different dosages. The production of HBsAb, CD80 and CD86 from dendritic cells, and cytokines IL-10, IL12, etc., were analyzed and compared for the performance of immunization. Results 5-20 μg CpG DNA had the best co-stimulation effect of HBsAb serum conversion for mice vaccinated with recombinant expressed HBsAg. The mice vaccinated with recombinant 20 μg CpG DNA and regular vaccine (containing alum adjuvant had the highest concentration of antibody production. IL-12b, IL-12a and IL10 mRNA reached to the peak level between 3 and 6 hours after the CpG DNA induction in splenocytes. The expression levels of CD80 and CD86 leucocyte surface molecules were increased with 20 μg CpG DNA alone or with 20 μg CpG DNA and 4 μg HBsAg. Conclusions Our results confirmed the adjuvant effect of CpG DNA for HBsAg in the mouse model. The increase of IL10 and IL12 production suggested the involvement of Th1 cell activation. The activation of CD80 and CD86 molecules by CpG-ODN might be part of the mechanism of T/B cells coordination and the enhancement of recombinant HBsAg induced immune response.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF CHITOSAN AS NATURAL COAGULANT AID IN TREATING TURBID WATERS

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    B. Bina ، M. H. Mehdinejad ، M. Nikaeen ، H. Movahedian Attar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer disease, and more interest has been considered on the development of natural coagulants such as chitosan. Chitosan, a natural linear biopolyaminosaccharide, is obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitosan as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The optimum pH was observed between 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. The optimum doses of alum and chitosan when used in conjunction, were 10mg/L and 1mg/L, 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L, and 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L in low, medium and high turbidities, respectively. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between %74.3 to %98.2 by alum in conjunction with chitosan. Residual Al+3 in treated water was less than 0.2 mg/L, meeting the international guidelines. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 2-4 log units within the first 1 to 2 hr of treatment. Hardness removal efficiency decreased when the total hardness increased from 102 to 476mg/L as CaCO3. At low initial turbidity, chitosan showed marginally better performance on hardness, especially at the ranges of 100 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3. In conclusion, coagulant aid showed a useful method for coagulation process. By using natural coagulants, considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.

  19. Removing Boron from an Aqueous Solution Using Turmeric Extract-Aided Coagulation-Flocculation

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    Azhar Abdul Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boron exists in an environment naturally either through weathering of rocks or volcanic activity but due to anthropogenic activity, boron had been distributed widely into our surroundings. Boron was a problematic pollutant due to the difficulty to remove it from the water. Turmeric which had been widely used as a spice and traditional medicine, were investigated to determine its capabilities to aid in coagulation-flocculation process to remove boron. Optimizing coagulation-flocculation process might be effective to remove boron to a lower concentration. Approach: In this study, the optimum parameter for pH, dose of aluminium sulfate (alum and a dose of turmeric extract were determined by conducting a set of jar test experiment. The coagulation-flocculation process was performed to study the effectiveness of the turmeric extract as a coagulant aid in boron removal. Results: The result demonstrated that coagulation-flocculation process with the aid of turmeric extract can remove boron effectively at optimum conditions rather than coagulation-flocculation process without the aid of turmeric extract. The optimum conditions for boron removal were achieved at pH 7, an alum dosage of 18, 367 mg L-1 and turmeric extract dosage of 82 mg L-1. Conclusion/Recommendations: Result showed that removal of boron depends on pH, alum dosage and turmeric extract dosage. The boron removal percentage of the aqueous solution using the coagulation-flocculation process aided by the addition of turmeric extract and without the addition of turmeric extract were 95 and 62%, respectively. In addition, there was a significance difference between both processes. Turmeric extract as a coagulant aid demonstrated promising performance in boron removal and can be used as an alternative treatment to treat boron-containing wastewater.

  20. Skin vaccination against cervical cancer associated human papillomavirus with a novel micro-projection array in a mouse model.

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    Holly J Corbett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Better delivery systems are needed for routinely used vaccines, to improve vaccine uptake. Many vaccines contain alum or alum based adjuvants. Here we investigate a novel dry-coated densely-packed micro-projection array skin patch (Nanopatch™ as an alternate delivery system to intramuscular injection for delivering an alum adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine (Gardasil® commonly used as a prophylactic vaccine against cervical cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Micro-projection arrays dry-coated with vaccine material (Gardasil® delivered to C57BL/6 mouse ear skin released vaccine within 5 minutes. To assess vaccine immunogenicity, doses of corresponding to HPV-16 component of the vaccine between 0.43 ± 0.084 ng and 300 ± 120 ng (mean ± SD were administered to mice at day 0 and day 14. A dose of 55 ± 6.0 ng delivered intracutaneously by micro-projection array was sufficient to produce a maximal virus neutralizing serum antibody response at day 28 post vaccination. Neutralizing antibody titres were sustained out to 16 weeks post vaccination, and, for comparable doses of vaccine, somewhat higher titres were observed with intracutaneous patch delivery than with intramuscular delivery with the needle and syringe at this time point. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Use of dry micro-projection arrays (Nanopatch™ has the potential to overcome the need for a vaccine cold chain for common vaccines currently delivered by needle and syringe, and to reduce risk of needle-stick injury and vaccine avoidance due to the fear of the needle especially among children.

  1. Detection of zinc oxide and cerium dioxide nanoparticles during drinking water treatment by rapid single particle ICP-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) entering water systems are an emerging concern as NPs are more frequently manufactured and used. Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) methods were validated to detect Zn- and Ce-containing NPs in surface and drinking water using a short dwell time of 0.1 ms or lower, ensuring precision in single particle detection while eliminating the need for sample preparation. Using this technique, information regarding NP size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved ion concentrations was obtained simultaneously. The fates of Zn- and Ce-NPs, including those found in river water and added engineered NPs, were evaluated by simulating a typical drinking water treatment process. Lime softening, alum coagulation, powdered activated carbon sorption, and disinfection by free chlorine were simulated sequentially using river water. Lime softening removed 38-53 % of Zn-containing and ZnO NPs and >99 % of Ce-containing and CeO2 NPs. Zn-containing and ZnO NP removal increased to 61-74 % and 77-79 % after alum coagulation and disinfection, respectively. Source and drinking water samples were collected from three large drinking water treatment facilities and analyzed for Zn- and Ce-containing NPs. Each facility had these types of NPs present. In all cases, particle concentrations were reduced by a minimum of 60 % and most were reduced by >95 % from source water to finished drinking water. This study concludes that uncoated ZnO and CeO2 NPs may be effectively removed by conventional drinking water treatments including lime softening and alum coagulation. PMID:26960902

  2. SURVEY OF HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES LEACHATE OF ISFAHAN CITY AND THEIR REDUCTION METHOD

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    A.A.R PARVARESH

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In duration steps of collection, transfer and disposal of solid wastes and also change of solid wastes to compost, produced leachate includes various pollutants such as heavy metals. The amounts of heavy metals don"t easily degrate in environment and would be concentrated in food chain and caused many problems for environment and human. Thus, the goal of present research is to investigation of heavy metals concentration in municipal solid wastes leachate of Isfahan city and reduction method for this case. Methods. leachate from four transfer station and composting plant was sampled ten times and in the first stage, quality of samples was evaluated from pH, COD, total solids (TS, total volatile solids (TYS, total fixed solids (TFS and heavy metals such as Cadmium, Chromium, Zinc, Copper and Nickel viewpoints. Chemical coagulants such as lime, alum and ferric chloride were applied using the Jar test to reduce heavy metals concentration. Results. The results revealed that mean concentration of heavy metals Cd, Cr. Zn Cu and Ni in leachate was equal to 0.63, 1.22, 7.42, 2.15 and 2.22 mg/l respectively and also the results of statistical analysis (ANOVA showed no significant difference between heavy metals concentration in various stations (P > 0.05. The results of Jar test revealed that optimum pH for chemical precipitation, and also optimum concentration of the three coagulants were 2400, 1400 and 1000 mg/l respectively. Discussion. Under this study elements concentration of leachate as compared with effluent standard (Environmental Protection Agency were exceeded the limits. Alum with 75-95 percent removal has the highest effciency as compared to other coagulants, lime with 70-88 percent removal and ferric chloride with 65-85 percent removal are in next order. Erom economical aspect, lime is cost benefit, ferric chloride and alum are in raked next respectively.

  3. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  4. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application. PMID:26053923

  5. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond B Brennan

    Full Text Available Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  6. Phosphorus recycling potential assessment by a biological test applied to wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braak, Etienne; Auby, Sarah; Piveteau, Simon; Guilayn, Felipe; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) recycling as mineral fertilizer from wastewater activated sludge (WAS) depends on the amount that can be dissolved and separated from the organic matter before the final crystallization step. The aim of the biological phosphorus dissolution potential (BPDP) test developed here was to assess the maximum amount of P that could be biologically released from WAS prior that the liquid phase enters the recovery process. It was first developed for sludge combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride. Because carbohydrates are known to induce acidification during the first stage of anaerobic digestion, sucrose was used as a co-substrate. Best results were obtained after 24-48 h, without inoculum, with a sugar/sludge ratio of 0.5 gCOD/gVS and under strict anaerobic conditions. Up to 75% of the total phosphorus in sludge from a wastewater treatment plant combining enhanced biological phosphorus removal and iron chloride phosphorus removal could be dissolved. Finally, the test was applied to assess BPDP from different sludge using alum compounds for P removal. No dissolution was observed when alum polychloride was used and less than 20% when alum sulphate was used. In all the cases, comparison to chemical acidification showed that the biological process was a major contributor to P dissolution. The possibility to crystallize struvite was discussed from the composition of the liquids obtained. The BPDP will be used not only to assess the potential for phosphorus recycling from sludge, but also to study the influence of the co-substrates available for anaerobic digestion of sludge. PMID:26786893

  7. Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Novel Isoform of EG95 (EG95-5G1 From Echinococcus granulosus in BALB/C Mice.

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    Majid Pirestani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease of humans and various herbivorous domestic animals transmitted by the contact with domestic and wild carnivores, mainly dogs and foxes. The aim of this study is the production, purification and evaluation immunogenicity of new construction of EG95 protein.The recombinant plasmid pET32-a+ used for Eg95 expression was constructed with the EG95 gene of Echinococcus granulosus fused with the thioredoxin tag. This recombinant clone was over expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21 (DE-3. The expressed fusion protein was found almost entirely in the insoluble form (inclusion bodies in cell lysate. The purification was performed under denaturing conditions in the presence of 8M urea by Ni-NTA column and dialysis. The purified recombinant proteins were confirmed with western blot analysis using polyclonal antiserum. To find out the immunogenicity of the purified protein, the BALB/c mice (10 mice/group were immunized by injecting 20 μg rEG95 protein formulated in Freund's and alum adjuvant.Immunization of mice with rEG95 using CFA/IFA and alum adjuvant generated high level of total antibody. In proliferation assay, the lymphocytes were able to mount a strong proliferative response with related production of IFN-γ, IL-12 and TNF-α but with low secretion of either IL-4 or IL-10. The humoral and cellular immune responses against rEG95 suggested a mixed Th1/Th2 response with high intensity toward Th1.Our findings suggest that new construct of rEG95 formulated with CFA/IFA and alum adjuvant elicited strong cellular and humoral responses supporting further development of this vaccine candidate.

  8. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian black shales at the northern margin of the Variscan mountain belt (Germany and Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippen, D.; Uffmann, A.K.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR)

    2013-08-01

    Ongoing exploration on unconventional gas resources in Central Europe led to a focus of interest on Paleozoic black shale formations. The work presented here comprises diverse assessment-critical data of potentially economic black shale formations of the Carboniferous, including mineralogy, geochemical data, petrophysical data and geological parameters such as burial and thermal history. The sampled and investigated Paleozoic black shales are highly mature to overmature in terms of oil generation, although some gas generation potential remains. Especially the shales of the uppermost Mississippian (Upper Alum Shale/Chokier Formation) have high contents of organic carbon, are tens of meters thick and reached the gas window. Adjacent carbonates are often stained black and rich in solid bitumen, indicating a former oil impregnation of these reservoirs. Furthermore, the geochemical and petrophysical properties of the Upper Alum Shale and Chokier Formation black shales are similar to those of already producing shale gas plays like the Barnett shale in the USA. These shale sequences are enriched in silica, needed for enhanced fraccability performance at production stage. Although all hydrocarbon potential for the Mississippian shales is exhausted, a high retention potential of thermally generated gas is favored by thick overlying sequences of greywackes and shales in most of the investigated areas. Based on these observations, the Upper Alum Shale and the Chokier formation can be regarded as potential gas shale targets. Any exploration will have to take place north of the outcrop areas, because present-day Mississippian strata are completely eroded south of the studied outcrops. Most other Mississippian and Pennsylvanian black shales are relatively thin and are therefore not considered as primary targets for shale gas plays. (orig.)

  9. Natural organic matter(NOM) removal from surface water by coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Bao-yu; YUE Qin-yan

    2005-01-01

    Poly-aluminum-chloride-sulfate(PACS) with different SO42-/Al3+ mole ratios and bacicity(γ) of 2.0 was synthesized using AlCl3· 6H2O, Al2 (SO4)3· 18H2O and Na2CO3 as raw materials. The effect of SO24-/Al3+ ratio on the performance of PACS for removal of natural organic matter(NOM) with humic-rich actual water was examined. It was found that PACS with SO42-/Al3+ mole ratio of 0.0664achieved the best NOM removal results and was selected to investigate its performance in comparison with PAC, FeCl3 and alum (Al2(SO4)3 ·18H2 O). The experimental results showed that the optimum NOM removals were achieved at pH 5.0-8.2 and the dose of about5.0 mg/L as Al both for the selected PACS and PAC, at pH 5.0-6.0 and the dose of about 7.0 mg/L as Fe for FeCl3, and at pH 5.0-7.0 and the dose of about 7.0 mg/L as Al for alum, respectively. At the optimum conditions, the selected PACS achieved the best NOM removal result, followed by PAC, FeCl3, and then alum. The concentration of residual aluminum in treated water by the selected PACS and PAC under the optimum coagulant conditions was approximately 115 μg/L, which can completely comply with the regulated limits.

  10. PEWARNA ALAMI BATIK DARI TANAMAN NILA (Indigofera DENGAN KATALIS ASAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Astuti Handayani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigo is a natural blue dye substance of batik extracted from the leaves of indigo plant, which is eco-friendly and non-carcinogenic. To be able to extract an indigo dye substance, the indican glycosides contained in the leaves of the plant is first hydrolyzed into Indigo indoxyl and glucose by using either the dilute mineral acids or enzymes. The indoxyl is then oxidized to indigo. In this experiment, the extraction of the blue dye substance of indigo plant was carried out by method of acidifying. The observations made on the variation of the concentration of hydrochloric acid, the aeration time, the acids, and the type of binding substances. The material used in the experiment included the 2 months old of Indigo leaves, hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, sugar, lime, alum and tunjung (Ferrous sulfate. The equipments used in the aeration were beaker glass and the air pump.The process was initiated by soaking the indigo leaves in acid with a specific concentration for 24 hours. The filtrate was then oxidized by flowing the air using the air pump for 12 hours. Then, the sample was applied by immersing the fabric in a solution of the binding substances consisted of Ferrous sulfate, alum, and lime. The experiment results show that higher concentration of indigo was obtained from the longer aeration time. By comparing different type of acids, the extraction using 0.01 M H2SO4 shows better than using HCl in the same concentration. The highest indigo concentration produced by the extraction using 0.01 M H2SO4 was 29.20 ppm, while the highest concentration produced from the extraction using 0.01 M HCl was 26.88 ppm. The use of different type of binding substances on the fabric, giving the appearance of different colors. The binding substance of Tunjung produces the dark blue color, lime produces greenish blue colour, and alum produces a blue color.

  11. PEWARNA ALAMI BATIK DARI KULIT SOGA TINGI (Ceriops tagal DENGAN METODE EKSTRAKSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Astuti Handayani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic coloring techniques shift the natural coloring techniques because the process is much easier, and the resulting color is more diverse. However, it comes into doubts if the synthetic color materials is continuously used because the produced waste harms the human health and indirectly polutes the environment. Hence, the bark of soga tingi which contains tanin as natural coloring subtances can be used as a substitute for synthetic dyes for Batiks. The extraction of tanin from the soga tingi bark is carried out in the refluxed equipment set. The materials used in the study consist of ethanol, aquadest, soga tingi bark, alum, lime, and tunjung. The experiment is done by varying the solvents and the extraction time. The solvent of ethanol-aquadest used in the experiment varied at the ethanol concentration of 96%, 70%, 30%, and without ethanol. The bark of soga tingi is dried and crushed into powder. The ratio of materials and solvent used in the experiment is 1:4 m/v. The extraction run at temperature of 700 oC for 3 hours. The coloring substances is subsequently analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The coloring substances made of soga tingi bark is applied by adding other key components such as alum, lime, and tunjung. The experimental results show the extraction of tanin from soga tingi bark yield the highest tanin (24,343 ppm when solvent of 96% ethanol is used. Moreover, the extraction for 3 hours yield higher tanin concentration than 2 hours. This dye has been applied on the fabric using 3 types of key substances. To the key substances in form of tunjung produce black color, lime produces a brown color, and alum produces a reddish-brown color.

  12. Estudo da coagulação aplicada à filtração direta descendente Evaluating coagulation applied to direct downflowing filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Prado Cunha Costa dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho compara-se o desempenho dos coagulantes Cloreto Férrico, Sulfato de Alumínio, Sulfato Férrico e Hidróxi-Cloreto de Alumínio - isoladamente ou combinados com polímeros catiônicos - na redução da cor aparente, turbidez e fitoplâncton visando ao tratamento por filtração direta descendente. Os ensaios foram realizados em reatores estáticos e em unidade piloto, empregando água captada em reservatório de acumulação. Os resultados obtidos com os coagulantes analisados nas dosagens recomendadas para filtração direta forneceram valores de cor aparente e turbidez em acordo com a Portaria 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Não foi significativa a diferença, para o nível de significância de 5%, entre os coagulantes testados em escalas de bancada e piloto.The present work compares several coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and aluminum hydrochloride - each by itself or with cationic polymers applied to in line downflowing direct filtration, as to their effectiveness in reducing apparent color, turbidity, and phytoplankton. The tests were carried out in static reactors and in a pilot unit, using natural water drawn from the reservoir of a water treatment plant. Coagulants used in dosages recommended for direct filtration yielded values of apparent color and turbidity that complied with Brazilian government regulations. There was no significant difference among them in either bench or pilot scale at a 95% reliability interval.

  13. Lipid Nanoparticles with Accessible Nickel as a Vaccine Delivery System for Single and Multiple His-tagged HIV Antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weili; Jain, Anekant; O'Carra, Ronan; Woodward, Jerold G; Li, Wenxue; Li, Guanhan; Nath, Avindra; Mumper, Russell J

    2009-07-01

    Lipid-based nanoparticles (NPs) with a small amount of surface-chelated nickel (Ni-NPs) were developed to easily formulate the HIV his-tagged Tat protein, as well as to formulate and co-deliver two HIV antigens (his-p24 and his-Nef) on one particle. Female BALB/c mice were immunized by s.c. injection with his-Tat/Ni-NP formulation (1.5 μg Tat-his/mouse) and control formulations on day 0 and 14. The day 28 anti-Tat specific IgG titer with his-Tat/Ni-NP was significantly greater than that with Alum/his-Tat. Furthermore, splenocytes from his-Tat/Ni-NP immunized mice secreted significantly higher IFN-γ than those from mice immunized with Alum/his-Tat. Although Ni-NPs did not show better adjuvant activity than Tat-coated anionic NPs made with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS/NPs), they were less toxic than SDS/NPs. The initial results indicated that co-immunization of mice using his-p24/his-Nef/Ni-NP induced greater antibody response compared to using Alum/his-p24/his-Nef. Co-delivery of two antigens using Ni-NPs also increased the immunogenicity of individual antigens compared to delivery of a single antigen by Ni-NPs. In conclusion, Ni-NPs are an efficient delivery system for HIV vaccines including both single antigen delivery and multiple antigen co-delivery. PMID:21966230

  14. Detection of zinc oxide and cerium dioxide nanoparticles during drinking water treatment by rapid single particle ICP-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) entering water systems are an emerging concern as NPs are more frequently manufactured and used. Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) methods were validated to detect Zn- and Ce-containing NPs in surface and drinking water using a short dwell time of 0.1 ms or lower, ensuring precision in single particle detection while eliminating the need for sample preparation. Using this technique, information regarding NP size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved ion concentrations was obtained simultaneously. The fates of Zn- and Ce-NPs, including those found in river water and added engineered NPs, were evaluated by simulating a typical drinking water treatment process. Lime softening, alum coagulation, powdered activated carbon sorption, and disinfection by free chlorine were simulated sequentially using river water. Lime softening removed 38-53 % of Zn-containing and ZnO NPs and >99 % of Ce-containing and CeO2 NPs. Zn-containing and ZnO NP removal increased to 61-74 % and 77-79 % after alum coagulation and disinfection, respectively. Source and drinking water samples were collected from three large drinking water treatment facilities and analyzed for Zn- and Ce-containing NPs. Each facility had these types of NPs present. In all cases, particle concentrations were reduced by a minimum of 60 % and most were reduced by >95 % from source water to finished drinking water. This study concludes that uncoated ZnO and CeO2 NPs may be effectively removed by conventional drinking water treatments including lime softening and alum coagulation.

  15. Tailoring subunit vaccine immunity with adjuvant combinations and delivery routes using the Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain as an antigen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Lan

    Full Text Available The development of an effective vaccine is critical for prevention of a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV pandemic. Some studies have indicated the receptor-binding domain (RBD protein of MERS-CoV spike (S is a good candidate antigen for a MERS-CoV subunit vaccine. However, highly purified proteins are typically not inherently immunogenic. We hypothesised that humoral and cell-mediated immunity would be improved with a modification of the vaccination regimen. Therefore, the immunogenicity of a novel MERS-CoV RBD-based subunit vaccine was tested in mice using different adjuvant formulations and delivery routes. Different vaccination regimens were compared in BALB/c mice immunized 3 times intramuscularly (i.m. with a vaccine containing 10 µg of recombinant MERS-CoV RBD in combination with either aluminium hydroxide (alum alone, alum and polyriboinosinic acid (poly I:C or alum and cysteine-phosphate-guanine (CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN. The immune responses of mice vaccinated with RBD, incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA and CpG ODN by a subcutaneous (s.c. route were also investigated. We evaluated the induction of RBD-specific humoral immunity (total IgG and neutralizing antibodies and cellular immunity (ELISpot assay for IFN-γ spot-forming cells and splenocyte cytokine production. Our findings indicated that the combination of alum and CpG ODN optimized the development of RBD-specific humoral and cellular immunity following subunit vaccination. Interestingly, robust RBD-specific antibody and T-cell responses were induced in mice immunized with the rRBD protein in combination with IFA and CpG ODN, but low level of neutralizing antibodies were elicited. Our data suggest that murine immunity following subunit vaccination can be tailored using adjuvant combinations and delivery routes. The vaccination regimen used in this study is promising and could improve the protection offered by the MERS-CoV subunit vaccine by eliciting

  16. Mucosal immunization with attenuated Salmonella Typhi expressing anthrax PA83 primes monkeys for accelerated serum antibody responses to parenteral PA83 vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Galen, James E.; Chinchilla, Magaly; Marcela F. Pasetti; Wang, Jin Yuan; Zhao, LiCheng; Arciniega-Martinez, Ivonne; Silverman, David J.; Levine, Myron M.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA was genetically engineered for stable plasmid-based expression of protective antigen of anthrax toxin (PA83) fused with the export protein ClyA (ClyA-PA83). The priming potential of CVD 908-htrA expressing ClyA-PA83 was assessed in 12 rhesus and 20 cynomolgus macaques immunized mucosally (intranasally) on days 0 and 14. A parenteral boost with purified PA83 plus alum was given to rhesus macaques on days 42 and 225; cynomolgus monke...

  17. Development of precursors to produce metallic foams

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Bruno Pinto

    2011-01-01

    As espumas metálicas produzidas por metalurgia de pós têm vindo a ser cada vez mais utilizadas nas mais diversas aplicações. Actualmente estes materiais estão a ser utilizados em estruturas ultraleves, de absorção de energia e de amortecimento sonoro em veículos automóveis, comboios, eléctricos e aeronaves. O principal objectivo desta dissertação prendeu-se com o desenvolvimento de material precursor de qualidade para o fabrico de espumas de ligas de Alumínio. Para o efeito foram testados ...

  18. Removal of glyphosate from aqueous environment by adsorption using water industrial residual

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Y. S.; Zhao, Y.Q.; Sorohan, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the glyphosate adsorption by water treatment residual (termed as alum sludge) in dewatered form (DAS) and liquid form (LAS). Batch adsorption tests were carried out with DAS at different pH, particle size and DAS mass. Standard jar tests were conducted with LAS at two different concentrations (3 g/l and 5 g/l) for glyphosate adsorption. Thereafter, the glyphosate-enriched LAS (after adsorption tests) was subjected to sludge conditioning procedure with polymer LT25 as c...

  19. Preparation and Application of New Porous Environmental Ceramics Filter Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; WU Jianfeng; JIN Jianhua; LIU Xinming

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of environmental ceramics medium which was made of industrial solid wastes discharged by Shandong Alum Corporation has been used in the process of drinking water treatment. New techniques were introduced to ensure its remarkable advantages such as high porosity and strength. The results of practical application show that this sort of filter medium has shorter filtration run, shorter mature period and higher filter deposit capability compared with traditional sand filter medium. Moreover, up to 25%- 30% of the daily running costs are expected to be reduced by using this ceramics medium.

  20. The beginning of uranium production in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of uranium available in the Estonian black alum (Dictyonema) shale created intense interest towards this low-grade ore in the very beginning of the atomic era. Various selective leaching and concentration technologies were tried with both roasted and native shale, at first at the Narva Pilot Plant and thereafter at the Sillamaee. Even though most of the USSR leading research and development centers participated in this effort, industrial uranium production turned out to be both technologically possible, but at the same time economically untenable at this time, just as it was the case in Sweden. (author)

  1. Microspectrophotometric quantitation of nucleic acid and protein in irradiated epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, C J; Giménez, I B; Cabrini, R L

    1976-03-01

    Nucleic acid and proteins of newborn rat tail subjected to local X-irradiation were microspectrophotometrically studied. Feulgen, gallocyanine chrom-alum and naphthol yellow S methods were performed for demonstration of DNA, total nucleic acid and proteins respectively. The amount of proteins and total nucleic acid increases concomitantly with reactional acanthosis. However, the proteins and nucleic acid decrease as from day 3 post-irradiation. A tentative interpretation of the results would point to a giantization of the epidermic cells not only caused by aqueous imbition but also by an actual increase of the cellular protoplasm. PMID:1258094

  2. Induction of IFN-γ cytokine response against hepatitis B surface antigen using melittin

    OpenAIRE

    Dezfuli, Hoda Taghizadeh; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Eidi, Akram; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang; Pakravan, Nafiseh; Amini, Safie; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Aim In this study we co-administered melittin along with HBsAg/alum vaccine to investigate if it helps elicitation of Th1/Th2 response. Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a life-threatening liver infection, which can lead to chronic liver disease. Vigorous T cell responses are stimulated at acute, self-limiting HBV infection, while chronic HBV infection elicits very weak T cell responses. The prevalence of HBV infection has been decreased by the approved vaccination approach usin...

  3. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity of the Dyed Silk Fabrics with Some Natural Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Alkan, Rezan; TORGAN, Emine; AYDIN, Canan; Karadag, Recep

    2015-01-01

    In this study, silk fabric is dyed with natural indigo. Dyed silk fabric with natural indigo was cut in the 20x20 cm2 size. Excluding a fabric, all fabrics were mordanted in the same percentage with alum metal (KAl(SO4)2.12H2O). Then, silk fabrics for green color dyeing are dyed separately with weld (Reseda luteola), gall oak (Quercus infectoria Olivier) and together weld (Reseda luteola) and gall oak (Quercus infectoria) in different percentage. Antimicrobial functionality of the twenty seve...

  4. Formulações de argamassas controladoras de humidade ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Bruno Joel Simões

    2011-01-01

    No presente trabalho utilizou-se argamassas de estrutura porosa para controlo da humidade relativa em meios fechados. À argamassa padrão, à base de cal aérea e cimento, adicionou-se vários adjuvantes, em proporções distintas. Os adjuvantes utilizados foram a vermiculite expandida, pós expansivos de alumínio e o poliacrilato de sódio, de forma a alterar a estrutura porosa da argamassa. A introdução dos referidos adjuvantes provoca alterações nas propriedades da argamassa, como tal, as diver...

  5. Optimização de uma estrutura para absorção de energia de impacto

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Tiago Daniel Heliodoro

    2008-01-01

    A partir de um modelo automóvel proposto por um designer foram modeladas, em software CAD comercial, estruturas compatíveis para o chassis e para a carroçaria, seguindo algumas das práticas usadas na indústria automóvel. A estrutura modelada foi sujeita a testes de simulação numérica, usando o ABAQUS, um software comercial que usa o Método dos Elementos Finitos. Foram usados dois materiais, um aço e um alumínio, de modo a poder tomar uma decisão sobre o material mais apropri...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF ANILINE AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS REMOVAL BY COOXIDATION USING AGARICUS BISPORUS TYROSINASE

    OpenAIRE

    Sevastyanov, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation of joint oxidation of aniline and phenolic compounds in aqueoussolutions using the isolated tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus mushrooms was conducted. It is shown, that quantitative bioconversion of aniline is achieved by addition of phenol and other rapidly oxidized phenolic compounds (p-chlorophenol, o-, m-cresols)to it’s solution (0,25 mmol/dm3). Products of aniline and phenols oxidation – quinoneimines and quinones, were removed with a help of aluminium-potassium alums....

  7. Oral Bromelain Attenuates Inflammation in an Ovalbumin-Induced Murine Model of Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Secor, Eric R.; Carson, William F.; Anurag Singh; Mellisa Pensa; Guernsey, Linda A.; Craig M. Schramm; Thrall, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain, a widely used pineapple extract with cysteine protease activity, has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects in a variety of immune system models. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of orally administered bromelain in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine model of acute allergic airway disease (AAD). To establish AAD, female C57BL/6J mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal (i.p.) OVA/alum and then challenged with OVA aerosols for 3 days. Mice were gavag...

  8. Segurança das condições de aplicação de herbicidas com aerobarco em plantas daninhas aquáticas no lago da Hidrelétrica de Jupiá Safety of aquatic herbicide application using an airboat

    OpenAIRE

    J.G. Machado Neto; E.D. Velini; U.R. Antuniassi; L.F. Bravin; M.S. Nery

    2006-01-01

    Os objetivos deste trabalho foram quantificar as exposições dérmicas (EDs) e respiratórias (ERs) proporcionadas ao piloto e ao seu ajudante nas aplicações de herbicidas para o controle de plantas daninhas aquáticas com aerobarco; classificar essas condições de trabalho em seguras ou inseguras; e calcular a necessidade de controle das exposições (NCE) e o tempo de trabalho seguro (TTS). O aerobarco utilizado tinha casco de alumínio (4,85 x 2,42 m) e acionamento por hélice acoplada a motor a ga...

  9. Electrolytic surface hardening of steel,castiron and aluminium-bronze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Keshav Paknik a r

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrolytic hardening process w as developed in USSR in the 1950s. The process w as developed but w as not com m ercially exploited. There is no evidence of w ork done on this process in India. The author has done this originalw ork applied to different m aterials like steel, castiron and alum inum -bronze.This paper gives details ofm icrostructuraltransform ations along w ith hardness value achieved. There is vitalscope for this process to becom e viable for surfacehardening and selective hardening ofsm allcom ponents.

  10. La Educación Física en la escuela secundaria rural desde un entorno virtual : Experiencia de una propuesta de clase mediante herramientas virtuales

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano, Hernán Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Durante el ciclo lectivo 2010 en la provincia de Río Negro se lanza un proyecto con intenciones de mejorar la oferta educativa y dar respuestas a las demandas de educación secundaría que se presentaban en los parajes rurales de la provincia. Se creó el CEM rural (en entorno virtual) que básicamente consiste en el dictado de clases mediante una plataforma educativa moodle, para estudiantes de parajes rurales de toda la provincia que estén en condiciones de cursar la escuela secundaria.Los alum...

  11. Comparação de vários materiais de cobertura através de índices de conforto térmico Comparison of various roof coating materials through thermal comfort indexes

    OpenAIRE

    K.B. Sevegnani; H. Ghelfi Filho; I.J.O. da Silva

    1994-01-01

    O comportamento térmico de diferentes materiais de cobertura foi estudado através dos índices de conforto. Para as condições de verão, estudou-se o efeito do índice de Temperatura de Globo e Umidade (ITGU) e da Carga Térmica Radiante (CTR) no interior de abrigos. As telhas de fibra transparente, alumínio e zinco foram os mais recentes materiais inseridos neste projeto. Além delas, foram estudados os comportamentos das telhas de barro, cimento amianto e térmica. Para a avaliação dos índices de...

  12. Identification of peptide sequences as a measure of Anthrax vaccine stability during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Gail; Wheeler, Jun X.; Rijpkema, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    The UK anthrax vaccine is an alum precipitate of a sterile filtrate of Bacillus anthracis Sterne culture (AVP). An increase in shelf life of AVP from 3 to 5 years prompted us to investigate the in vivo potency and the antigen content of 12 batches with a shelf life of 6.4 to 9.9 years and one bulk with a shelf life of 23.8 years. All batches, except for a 9.4-year-old batch, passed the potency test. Mass spectrometry (MS) and in-gel difference 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (DIGE) were use...

  13. Concentration of bauxite fines via froth flotation Concentração de finos de bauxita por flotação

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Salles Kurusu; Arthur Pinto Chaves; Christian Fonseca de Andrade; Claret Antônio Vidal Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Companhia Brasileira de Alumínio (CBA) has bauxite processing plants at Poços de Caldas and Itamarati de Minas, and a new processing plant at Miraí that has been operating since June, 2008; all of them are in the State of Minas Gerais. The plants haveunits for the crushing, scrubbing and screening operations. The screened oversize is the concentrate or washed bauxite. At Itamarati de Minas, the fines are de-slimed and concentrated by gravity separation of the iron-titanium minerals in Reicher...

  14. Concentration of bauxite fines via gravity concentration Concentração de finos de bauxita por concentração densitária

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Pinto Chaves; Mauricio Bergerman; Claret Antonio Vidal Abreu; Nilson Bigogno

    2009-01-01

    Companhia Brasileira de Alumínio (CBA) has a preparation plant at Itamarati de Minas, MG. This plant washes two different kinds of bauxite ore, one originating from the laterization of gnaisses and another from amphybolites. Both ores have the same behavior in the coarser size fractions but behave differently under 0.355 mm (42# Tyler). In these small sizes, gneissic ores are rich in quartz and amphybolitic ores are rich in iron and titanium bearing ores. The unit operations are: scrubbing of...

  15. Petroleum systems modelling of the Muensterland Basin and Ruhr Basin with special emphasis on unconventional gas resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uffmann, A.K.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal

    2013-08-01

    A 3D petroleum system model was built for the area of the northern Rhenish Massif and Muensterland/Ruhr Basin in order to reconstruct burial and temperature histories as well as petroleum generation and storage. The basin contains numerous potential unconventional gas reservoirs, i.e. more than 100 Pennsylvanian (Westphalian and upper Namurian) coal seams and several black shales of Pennsylvanian and Mississippian age. The focus here is on the Upper Alum Sahle ('Hangende Alaunschiefer') representing the uppermost Mississippian.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DE PRODUTOS ALTERNATIVOS NO CONTROLE DE PRAGAS E NA QUALIDADE FISIOLÓGICA DE SEMENTES DE FEIJÃO MACASSAR ARMAZENADAS

    OpenAIRE

    Hosaneide Farias Lima; Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno; Genildo Bandeira Bruno; Ivanoska Salgado de Assis Bandeira

    1999-01-01

    RESUMO Avaliou-se a eficiência de produtos naturais e do produto químico fosfeto de alumínio, na qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes de feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) variedade Cariri, no município de Solânea, PB, durante seis meses de armazenamento. Empregou-se o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado, com arranjo fatorial 9 x 7, representado por nove tratamentos e sete períodos de armazenamento, com quatro repetições. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes ...

  17. Relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in adaptive immunity to Bordetella pertussis: towards the rational design of an improved acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pádraig J Ross

    Full Text Available Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging infectious disease despite the introduction of safer acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa. One explanation for this is that Pa are less protective than the more reactogenic whole cell pertussis vaccines (Pw that they replaced. Although Pa induce potent antibody responses, and protection has been found to be associated with high concentrations of circulating IgG against vaccine antigens, it has not been firmly established that host protection induced with this vaccine is mediated solely by humoral immunity. The aim of this study was to examine the relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in host immunity to infection with B. pertussis and in immunity induced by immunization with Pw and Pa and to use this information to help rationally design a more effective Pa. Our findings demonstrate that Th1 and Th17 both function in protective immunity induced by infection with B. pertussis or immunization with Pw. In contrast, a current licensed Pa, administered with alum as the adjuvant, induced Th2 and Th17 cells, but weak Th1 responses. We found that IL-1 signalling played a central role in protective immunity induced with alum-adsorbed Pa and this was associated with the induction of Th17 cells. Pa generated strong antibody and Th2 responses, but was fully protective in IL-4-defective mice, suggesting that Th2 cells were dispensable. In contrast, Pa failed to confer protective immunity in IL-17A-defective mice. Bacterial clearance mediated by Pa-induced Th17 cells was associated with cell recruitment to the lungs after challenge. Finally, protective immunity induced by an experimental Pa could be enhanced by substituting alum with a TLR agonist that induces Th1 cells. Our findings demonstrate that alum promotes protective immunity through IL-1β-induced IL-17A production, but also reveal that optimum protection against B. pertussis requires induction of Th1, but not Th2 cells.

  18. Oral administration of bovine whey proteins to mice elicits opposing immunoregulatory responses and is adjuvant dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    AFUWAPE, A O; TURNER, M W; STROBEL, S

    2004-01-01

    Most studies investigating the induction of oral tolerance (OT) use purified proteins such as ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and beta-lactoglobulin (β-LG). Little information is available regarding the induction of OT to a protein mixture, e.g. cow's milk. In this study we compared the regulatory mechanisms induced after the oral administration of a whey protein concentrate (WP) derived from cow's milk following immunization with two different adjuvants, complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) and alum. OVA was used as a control antigen. Animals were given a single feed of these proteins at an equivalent dose of 1 mg/g body weight before they were immunized seven days later with the antigen in Freund's adjuvant or alum. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were suppressed by both a feed of WP and OVA after immunization with CFA. However, only OVA feeding suppressed antigen specific IgG responses. In an attempt to investigate whether WP would tolerize the more susceptible IgE responses, alum immunization replaced CFA as the adjuvant used for systemic immunizations. WP, after a single feed, significantly primed for DTH and IgE responses indicating oral sensitization to WP. In contrast, OVA suppressed DTH, IgE and IgG responses. Antigen specific proliferation of mononuclear cells was suppressed in mice fed OVA, but primed in those fed with WP. In addition cells taken from sensitized mice fed WP up-regulated levels of specific interleukin (IL) -4, -10 and -12 in vitro whereas these cytokines were suppressed in cultures from tolerant WP fed mice. Global suppression was obtained in cultures from tolerant OVA fed mice. TGF-β was not detected in draining PLN cell cultures of either tolerant or sensitized mice. These data suggest that a whey protein mixture induces divergent responses following immunization with either CFA or alum despite being fed at an identical dose. We suggest that that the choice of the adjuvant may determine the immunoregulatory

  19. Poli(Etileno Naftalato) - PEN: uma revisão do seu histórico e as principais tendências de sua aplicação mundial Poly(ethylene naphtalate) - PEN: historical review and main trends in world application

    OpenAIRE

    Edilene de Cássia D Nunes; José Augusto M. Agnelli; Roberto A. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Este artigo contém uma revisão sobre o Poli(etileno naftalato) - PEN e também inclui vários aspectos relacionados com as blendas poliméricas Poli(etileno tereftalato) - PET / Poli(etileno naftalato) - PEN. O artigo é resultado de um desenvolvimento conjunto da Alcoa Alumínio S.A.- Divisão de Embalagens e do Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar), que tem como objetivo pesquisar o tema aqui abordado.This paper presents a review on poly(ethylene na...

  20. Membranas poliméricas de PE-g-MA-Al/AlPO4 impregnado com Fe, Al - utilização na recuperação de efluentes de galvanoplastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Andrade de Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidas membranas filtrantes de materiais híbridos de polietileno de alta densidade modificado com anidrido maleico e ionizado com hidróxido de alumínio (PE-g-MA-Al (matriz orgânica e fosfato de alumínio amorfo puro (AlPO4 ou impregnado com ferro e/ou alumínio (fase dispersa inorgânica. Essas membranas foram obtidas nas composições de PE-g-MA-Al (M1, PE-g-MA-Al/AlPO4 (M2, PE-g-MA-Al/AlPO4-Al (M3, PE-g-MA-Al/AlPO4-Fe (M4 e PE-g-MA-Al/AlPO4-Fe,Al (M5, na proporção de 97/3% em massa, pelo método de "casting", usando xileno à quente e sob refluxo, como solvente. As técnicas de espectroscopia na região do infravermelho (FTIR, difração de raios X (DRX, análise termogravimétrica (TGA, análise textural, tensão superficial e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV serviram para comprovar a influência da natureza dos materiais e da metodologia usada na confecção das membranas na incorporação da fase inorgânica na matriz polimérica e nas propriedades dos materiais híbridos resultantes. A aplicação das membranas na recuperação de metais presentes no efluente de galvanoplastia mostrou que a presença do ferro e/ou alumínio influenciou na morfologia e nas propriedades texturais desses materiais, e consequentemente na utilização como membranas mesoporosas de ultrafiltração, com os melhores resultados apresentados por M1 e M3 na recuperação de ferro (32 e 35% e zinco (62 e 60%.

  1. Educación física como componente socializador en la inclusión del alumnado con discapacidad motriz. Estudio de casos en la etapa de Educación Primaria, La

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Hernández, Mercedes

    2005-01-01

    [spa] El estudio plantea el objetivo de conocer el componente socialitzador de la Educación Física (EF)en la inclusión del alumnado con discapacidad motriz y, por lo tanto, detectar y analizar las evidencias que pueden condicionar la inclusión de este alumnado en las sesiones de EF y evidenciar qué modelo y qué estrategias educativas favorecen la socialización de este alumnado en nuestra área. El estudio se ha basado en el seguimiento de tres casos a lo largo de un curso académico. Tres alum...

  2. Microspectrophotometric quantitation of nucleic acid and protein in irradiated epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucleic acid and proteins of newborn rat tail epidermis subjected to local X-irradiation were microspectrophotometrically studied. Feulgen, gallocyanine chrom-alum and naphthol yellow S methods were performed for demonstration of DNA, total nucleic acid and proteins respectively. The amount of proteins and total nucleic acid increases concomitantly with reactional acanthosis. However, the proteins and nucleic acid decrease as from day 3 post-irradiation. A tentative interpretation of the results would point to a giantization of the epidermic cells not only caused by aqueous imbition but also by an actual increase of the cellular protoplasm. (orig.)

  3. Editorial: el curriculum médico y la investigación científica

    OpenAIRE

    Revista, Facultad de Medicina

    2012-01-01

    Es preocupante la poca participación de los alumnos en los programas de investigación de la Facultad. No hay un mejor factor determinante de la formación médica que la investigación, la cual crea en el alum no esa actitud de inconformidad con lo que meramente le trasmiten, haciendo que indague dentro del método científico con pensamiento crítico en procura de sus propias respuestas, creándose así, un gran medio para promover su autoformación.

  4. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2016-09-01

    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report that this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for

  5. Tensão superficial dinâmica e ângulo de contato de soluções aquosas com surfatantes em superfícies artificiais e naturais Dynamic surface tension and contact angle of water solutions with spray surfactants in artificial and natural surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina A. R. Iost; Carlos G. Raetano

    2010-01-01

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de surfatantes em soluções aquosas sobre a tensão superficial dinâmica e ângulo de contato das gotas em diferentes superfícies: artificiais (lâmina de vidro e de óxido de alumínio) e naturais (superfícies adaxiais de folhas de Euphorbia heterophylla, Ipomoea grandifolia e Brachiaria plantaginea). Seis formulações de surfatantes (Antideriva®; Uno®; Pronto 3®; Li-700®; Supersil® e Silwet L-77®), respectivamente nas doses recomendadas do produto comercial (0...

  6. Eletrofiação do poli (álcool vinílico via solução aquosa Electrospinning of aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Guerrini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi sintetizado o poli(álcool vinílico (PVOH através da hidrólise alcalina do poli (acetato de vinila. As mantas nanofibrílicas de PVOH foram processadas através da eletrofiação das soluções de PVOH/água e PVOH/água/cloreto de alumínio, ambos na concentração de 12,4% m/v. A morfologia das fibras foi analisada através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. O grau de cristalinidade dos materiais foi medido por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC e difração raios x de alto ângulo (WAXD. Os efeitos da tensão elétrica aplicada e da presença de cloreto de alumínio foram verificados na morfologia e no diâmetro médio das fibras de PVOH. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as fibras de PVOH na ausência do cloreto de alumínio apresentaram diâmetros maiores do que na presença do cloreto de alumínio devido à diferença observada na condutividade elétrica das soluções. Variando-se a tensão de 15 a 18 kV foi observado um decréscimo 140 nm no diâmetro médio das fibras. A cristalinidade das fibras eletrofiadas com sal e sem sal é menor do que para o PVOH isotrópico.Poly(vinyl alcohol (PVOH was prepared by solution polymerization of vinyl acetate. PVOH nanofibers were produced by electrospinning in aqueous solution of 12.4% w/v with and without 1% v/v of aluminum chloride. The nanofiber morphology was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The degree of cristallinity was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and wide-angle x ray diffraction (WAXD. The effects of electric voltage and the addition of aluminum chloride were verified on the morphology and average fiber diameter. The results showed that the PVOH nanofibers without aluminum chloride had diameters higher than the nanofibers prepared with the salt due to the different electrical conductivity of the solutions. A decrease of 140 nm on the average diameter fibers was observed when the voltage varied from 15 to

  7. Caracterização sensorial de amêndoas de castanha-de-caju fritas e salgadas

    OpenAIRE

    Janice R. LIMA; SILVA Maria Aparecida A. P. da; GONÇALVES Lireny A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Amêndoas de castanha-de-caju fritas e salgadas foram acondicionadas em três embalagens flexíveis (PP/PE=polipropileno/polietileno; PETmet/PE= polietileno tereftalato metalizado/polietileno; PET/Al/PEBD= polietileno tereftalato/alumínio/polietileno de baixa densidade) com diferentes propriedades de barreira ao vapor de água e ao oxigênio. As amêndoas foram armazenadas durante 1 ano, a 30° C e 80% de umidade relativa. No final do período de 1 ano de armazenamento, realizou-se análise sensorial ...

  8. Anti-idiotype immunization of cancer patients: modulation of the immune response.

    OpenAIRE

    Herlyn, D.; Wettendorff, M; Schmoll, E.; Iliopoulos, D; Schedel, I.; Dreikhausen, U; Raab, R.; Ross, A H; Jaksche, H.; Scriba, M

    1987-01-01

    Thirty patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were treated with alum-precipitated polyclonal goat anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) to monoclonal anti-CRC antibody CO17-1A (Ab1) in doses between 0.5 and 4 mg per injection. All patients developed anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab3) with binding specificities on the surfaces of cultured tumor cells similar to the specificity of Ab1. Furthermore, the Ab3 competed with Ab1 for binding to CRC cells. Fractions of Ab3-containing sera obtai...

  9. Immunization with a Recombinant, Pseudomonas fluorescens-Expressed, Mutant Form of Bacillus anthracis-Derived Protective Antigen Protects Rabbits from Anthrax Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Reed

    Full Text Available Protective antigen (PA, one of the components of the anthrax toxin, is the major component of human anthrax vaccine (Biothrax. Human anthrax vaccines approved in the United States and Europe consist of an alum-adsorbed or precipitated (respectively supernatant material derived from cultures of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Approved vaccination schedules in humans with either of these vaccines requires several booster shots and occasionally causes adverse injection site reactions. Mutant derivatives of the protective antigen that will not form the anthrax toxins have been described. We have cloned and expressed both mutant (PA SNKE167-ΔFF-315-E308D and native PA molecules recombinantly and purified them. In this study, both the mutant and native PA molecules, formulated with alum (Alhydrogel, elicited high titers of anthrax toxin neutralizing anti-PA antibodies in New Zealand White rabbits. Both mutant and native PA vaccine preparations protected rabbits from lethal, aerosolized, B. anthracis spore challenge subsequent to two immunizations at doses of less than 1 μg.

  10. Proteomics-identified Bvg-activated autotransporters protect against bordetella pertussis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouw, Daan; Gouw, Daan de; de Jonge, Marien I; Jonge, Marien I de; Hermans, Peter W M; Wessels, Hans J C T; Zomer, Aldert; Berends, Alinda; Pratt, Catherine; Berbers, Guy A; Mooi, Frits R; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease of humans caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite high vaccination coverage, pertussis has re-emerged globally. Causes for the re-emergence of pertussis include limited duration of protection conferred by acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) and pathogen adaptation. Pathogen adaptations involve antigenic divergence with vaccine strains, the emergence of strains which show enhanced in vitro expression of a number of virulence-associated genes and of strains that do not express pertactin, an important aP component. Clearly, the identification of more effective B. pertussis vaccine antigens is of utmost importance. To identify novel antigens, we used proteomics to identify B. pertussis proteins regulated by the master virulence regulatory system BvgAS in vitro. Five candidates proteins were selected and it was confirmed that they were also expressed in the lungs of naïve mice seven days after infection. The five proteins were expressed in recombinant form, adjuvanted with alum and used to immunize mice as stand-alone antigens. Subsequent respiratory challenge showed that immunization with the autotransporters Vag8 and SphB1 significantly reduced bacterial load in the lungs. Whilst these antigens induced strong opsonizing antibody responses, we found that none of the tested alum-adjuvanted vaccines - including a three-component aP - reduced bacterial load in the nasopharynx, suggesting that alternative immunological responses may be required for efficient bacterial clearance from the nasopharynx.

  11. Effects of humic acid on physical and hydrodynamic properties of kaolin flocs by particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Runsheng; Zhang, Xihui; Xiao, Feng; Li, Xiaoyan; Cai, Zhonghua

    2011-07-01

    The physical and hydrodynamic properties of kaolin flocs including floc size, strength, regrowth, fractal structure and settling velocity were investigated by in situ particle image velocimetry technique at different humic acid concentration. Jar-test experimental results showed that the adsorbed humic acid had a significant influence on the coagulation process for alum and ferric chloride. Kaolin flocs formed with the ferric chloride were larger and stronger than those for alum at same humic acid concentration. Floc strength and regrowth were estimated by strength factor and recovery factor at different humic acid concentration. It was found that the increased humic acid concentration had a slight influence on the strength of kaolin flocs and resulted in much worse floc regrowth. In addition, the floc regrowth after breakage depended on the shear history and coagulants under investigation. The changes in fractal structure recorded continuously by in situ particle image velocimetry technique during the growth-breakage-regrowth processes provided a supporting information that the kaolin flocs exhibited a multilevel structure. It was proved that the increased humic acid concentration resulted in decrease in mass fractal dimension of kaolin flocs and consequently worse sedimentation performance through free-settling and microbalance techniques.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites; Toxoplasma gondii vs radiacao ionizante: estudo da imunidade intestinal em camundongos C57Bl/6j experimentalmente vacinados com taquizoitos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez. E-mail: galisteo@usp.br

    2004-07-01

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  13. Adjuvantes:Un componente esencial de las vacunas de Neisseria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Acevedo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants may be classified into delivery systems and immune potentiator or modulator molecules based on their mechanism of action. Neisseria vaccines containing traditional adjuvants such as aluminium salts have existed for long time, but meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroups, particularly serogroup B, continues to be a global health problem. Novel strategies have applied in silico and recombinant technologies to develop "universal" antigens (e.g. proteins, peptides and plasmid DNA for vaccines, but these antigens have been shown to be poorly immunogenic even when alum adjuvanted, implying a need for better vaccine design. In this work we review the use of natural, detoxified, or synthetic molecules in combination with antigens to activate the innate immune system and to modulate the adaptive immune responses. In the main, antigenic and imune potentiator signals are delivered using nano-, micro-particles, alum, or emulsions. The importance of interaction between adjuvants and antigens to activate and target dendritic cells, the bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems, will be discussed. In addition, nasal vaccine strategies based on the development of mucosal adjuvants and Neisseria derivatives to eliminate the pathogen at the site of infection provide promising adjuvants effective not only against respiratory pathogens, but also against pathogens responsible for enteric and sexually transmitted diseases.

  14. Enhanced coagulation for high alkalinity and micro-polluted water: the third way through coagulant optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; Ni, Jinren; Chow, Christopher W K

    2008-04-01

    Conventional coagulation is not an effective treatment option to remove natural organic matter (NOM) in water with high alkalinity/pH. For this type of water, enhanced coagulation is currently proposed as one of the available treatment options and is implemented by acidifying the raw water and applying increased doses of hydrolyzing coagulants. Both of these methods have some disadvantages such as increasing the corrosive tendency of water and increasing cost of treatment. In this paper, an improved version of enhanced coagulation through coagulant optimization to treat this kind of water is demonstrated. A novel coagulant, a composite polyaluminum chloride (HPAC), was developed with both the advantages of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and the additive coagulant aids: PACl contains significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products, which is less affected by the pH of the raw water than traditional coagulants (alum and ferric salts); the additives can enhance both the charge neutralization and bridging abilities of PACl. HPAC exhibited 30% more efficiency than alum and ferric salts in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and was very effective in turbidity removal. This result was confirmed by pilot-scale testing, where particles and organic matter were removed synergistically with HPAC as coagulant by sequential water treatment steps including pre-ozonation, coagulation, flotation and sand filtration.

  15. Analysis and optimization of coagulation and flocculation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritha, V.; Srinivas, N.; Srikanth Vuppala, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    Natural coagulants have been the focus of research of many investigators through the last decade owing to the problems caused by the chemical coagulants. Optimization of process parameters is vital for the effectiveness of coagulation process. In the present study optimization of parameters like pH, dose of coagulant and mixing speed were studied using natural coagulants sago and chitin in comparison with alum. Jar test apparatus was used to perform the coagulation. The results showed that the removal of turbidity was up to 99 % by both alum and chitin at lower doses of coagulant, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L, whereas sago has shown a reduction of 70-100 % at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 g/L. The optimum conditions observed for sago were 6 and 7 whereas chitin was stable at all pH ranges, lower coagulant doses, i.e., 0.1-0.3 g/L and mixing speed—rapid mixing at 100 rpm for 10 min and slow mixing 20 rpm for 20 min. Hence, it can be concluded that sago and chitin can be used for treating water even with large seasonal variation in turbidity.

  16. APLIKASI KOAGULAN ALAMI DARI TEPUNG JAGUNG DALAM PENGOLAHAN AIR BERSIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Prihatinningtyas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize can be used as natural coagulant in water treatment process.The aim of this research was find the optimum condition on water treatment using natural coagulant from maize. Maize extract made by dissolving 5 grams of maize into 100 ml NaCl. The solution separated by centrifugation. The supernatant named extract of maize. Extract of maize loaded onto column packed with Amberlite and produced ionic maize.The active components are carboxyl, hydroxyl and amides groups. Ionic maize yield better turbidity removal than extract of maize. Coagulation withh high initial turbidity gave high efficiency of turbidity removal than low turbidity. Coagulation process runs efficiently at pH 5 because at that point the isoelectric point was obtained. The flowrate less than 0.03 m/ min, the alum will provide the efficiency of suspended solids removal greater than extract of maize. While the over flowrate higher than 0.03 m / min, settling velocity of kaolin using alum and extract of maize are the same.

  17. A comparative study of coagulation, granular- and powdered-activated carbon for the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent organic pollutants in the environment and their occurrence causes toxicological effects on humans. We examined different conventional coagulant treatments such as alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride in removing these compounds. These were then compared with a natural coagulant (Moringa oleifera). We also investigated the powdered-activated carbon (PAC) and granular-activated carbon (GAC) for removing these compounds. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, polyaluminium chloride led to a higher reduction of PFOS/PFOA compared with alum which in turn was higher than ferric. The removal efficiency increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. M. oleifera was very effective in reducing PFOS and PFOA than conventional coagulants, with a reduction efficiencies of 65% and 72%, respectively, at a dose of 30 mg/L. Both PAC and GAC were very effective in reducing these compounds than coagulations. PAC led to a higher reduction in PFOS and PFOA than GAC due to its greater surface area and shorter internal diffusion distances. The addition of PAC (10 min contact time) with coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) significantly increased the removal efficiency, and the maximum removal efficiency was for M. oleifera with 98% and 94% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. The reduction efficiency of PFOS/PFOA was reduced with the increase in dissolved organic concentration due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and PFOS/PFOA.

  18. Use of Water Extract of Moringa Oleifera Seeds (WEMOS in Raw Water Treatment in Makurdi, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aho, I.M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Availability of clean water is a serious problem, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where conventional treatment methods are inappropriate due to high cost and low availability of chemical coagulants like alum. The paper presents the use of moringa seeds extract as alternative to alum in raw water treatment. Preliminary engineering properties such as jar test, speeds of flocculation; 98, 196 and 260rpm; detention and setting times were conducted to determine the integrity of moringa extract as a natural coagulant. The results shows that at the speed of 98rpm and settling time of 1 hour, 85 – 89% removal of solids was achieved, while 41 – 59%, 63 – 80% removal of solids were possible at 260rpm and 196rpm respectively. Similarly, after 2 hours of settling time, 93 – 96%, 64 – 75%, 65 – 80% removal of solids were obtained at 98rpm, 260rpm and 196rpm respectively. The treatment suggests optimum performance at low and medium speeds better than maximum speed of flocculation. It is suggested that further investigation be carried out on particle sizes of moringa oleifera seeds powder.

  19. Utilization of plant-based natural coagulants as future alternatives towards sustainable water clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Sook Yan; Prasad, Krishna Murthy Nagendra; Wu, Ta Yeong; Raghunandan, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah; Ramanan, Ramakrishnan Nagasundara

    2014-11-01

    Rapid industrial developments coupled with surging population growth have complicated issues dealing with water scarcity as the quest for clean and sanitized water intensifies globally. Existing fresh water supplies could be contaminated with organic, inorganic and biological matters that have potential harm to the society. Turbidity in general is a measure of water cloudiness induced by such colloidal and suspended matters and is also one of the major criteria in raw water monitoring to meet the stipulated water quality guidelines. Turbidity reduction is often accomplished using chemical coagulants such as alum. The use of alum is widely associated with potential development of health issues and generation of voluminous sludge. Natural coagulants that are available in abundance can certainly be considered in addressing the drawbacks associated with the use of chemical coagulants. Twenty one types of plant-based natural coagulants categorized as fruit waste and others are identified and presented collectively with their research summary in this review. The barriers and prospects of commercialization of natural coagulants in near future are also discussed.

  20. Immunoadjuvant effect of diethylcarbamazine in experimental filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasurama Jawaharlal, Jeya Prita; Rajaiah Prabhu, Prince; Gandhirajan, Anugraha; Krishnan, Nithya; Perumal, Kaliraj

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic filariasis caused by tissue dwelling nematodes is endemic in 73 countries and drugs have been administered to control or stop the infection. Resurgence of the infection after mass drug administration necessitates the study of several parasite antigens or adjuvants for vaccine developments. In this study, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) was evaluated for its efficacy as adjuvant against the filarial parasite; Brugia malayi microfilariae (mf) by combining with the Escherichia coli expressed recombinant BmShp-1 protein. Shp-1 is one of the sheath proteins expressed by adult female and microfilarial stage of the filarial parasite. Hence, immunoprophylactic efficacy of Shp-1 using DEC and alum adjuvants was compared in BALB/c mice model by an in situ micropore chamber method. Shp-1 antibody titre was high when the mice were immunized with Shp-1 along with DEC and they exhibited balanced Th1/Th2 profile. DEC also induced significantly high T-cell proliferation (P<0.001) when stimulated with Shp-1 compared to alum. Significantly high percentage protection against B. malayi microfilariae was observed in Shp-1+DEC immunized mice groups (P<0.05) and hence it is concluded that the need of repeated drug administration can be controlled when there is a possibility of developing protective immunity in the host against mf by vaccination.

  1. Single particle ICP-MS characterization of titanium dioxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-02-01

    One of the most direct means for human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) released into the environment is drinking water. Therefore, it is critical to understand the occurrence and fate of NPs in drinking water systems. The objectives of this study were to develop rapid and reliable analytical methods and apply them to investigate the fate and transportation of NPs during drinking water treatments. Rapid single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) methods were developed to characterize and quantify titanium-containing, titanium dioxide, silver, and gold NP concentration, size, size distribution, and dissolved metal element concentration in surface water and treated drinking water. The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatments (including lime softening, alum coagulation, filtration, and disinfection) to remove NPs from surface water was evaluated using six-gang stirrer jar test simulations. The selected NPs were nearly completely (97 ± 3%) removed after lime softening and alum coagulation/activated carbon adsorption treatments. Additionally, source and drinking waters from three large drinking water treatment facilities utilizing similar treatments with the simulation test were collected and analyzed by the SP-ICP-MS methods. Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti were present in the river water samples, but Ag and Au were not present. Treatments used at each drinking water treatment facility effectively removed over 93% of the Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti from the source water.

  2. Exotic trilobites from the uppermost Cambrian Series 3 and lower Furongian of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żylińska, Anna; Weidner, Thomas; Ahlgren, John; Ahlberg, Per

    2015-03-01

    Seventeen taxa of exotic trilobites representing eight families are described from the olenid- and agnostoid-dominated strata of the uppermost Cambrian Series 3 and lower Furongian alum shale facies of Sweden and from glacial erratic boulders of Denmark. Only five taxa are assigned to species level, i.e., Maladioidella abdita (Salter, 1866), Olentella rara (Westergard, 1922), Pedinocephalus peregrinus (Henningsmoen, 1957), Ptychoparia pusilla (Westergard, 1922), and Westergaardella olenorum (Westergard, 1922), whereas the others are left under open nomenclature or remain unrecognized. Most are described for the first time from the Cambrian of Scandinavia. Their affinities point to a strong connection with East Gondwana, Laurentia, Kazakhstania and Siberia. Exotic trilobites appear in the succession directly after periods of very low oxygen concentration in the Alum Shale Sea; their occurrences correspond to the ranges of agnostoid arthropods in the succession and seem to be linked to global transgressive events causing an influx of cool and/or oxygen-depleted waters onto the shelf of the Baltica palaeocontinent.

  3. Preparation and comparative evaluation of different adjuvanted toxoid vaccines against enterotoxaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate toxoid vaccines against enterotoxaemia in goats. Pure culture of Clostridium perfringens type D was used, already isolated and characterized by Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Epsilon toxin was extracted; the extracted toxin was subjected to LD/sub 50/ determination and then with the help of formalin inactivation was done. The resulting toxoids were adjuvanted with two adjuvants including Montanide ISA 206 and Aluminium hydroxide gel (Alum). The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of prepared toxoid vaccines and commercial vaccine procured from VRI, Lahore, Pakistan were studied and compared initially in an experimental trial on rabbits and then in field trials on goat. Field trial was conducted on 72 goats divided into four equal groups (n=18). The Indirect Haemagglutination Test (IHA) was used to evaluate the antibody titer and challenge protection test was performed in rabbits. The results showed that antibody titers were significantly higher (P< 0.05) for in group vaccinated with Montanide ISA -206 adjuvanted toxoid vaccine. The geometric mean titer of Montanide group was 203.19, 456 and 670 at 14, 21 and 28 days post vaccination as compared to 181.02, 298.63 and 456.14 of Alum group on same days. Montanide vaccinated group also exhibited highest protection percentage (100%) post challenge as compared to 85.71%, 71.42% and 14.29% of group B, C and D, respectively. (author)

  4. Contribuição ao estudo de efluentes de indústrias de celulose e papel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Bitencourt Frizzo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente estudo descreve os tratamentos alternativos a que foi submetido o efluente secundário de uma indústria de celulose kraft branqueada. As amostras do efluente foram analisadas quanto ao teor de cloretos e  de elementos-traço (zinco, cobre, chumbo e cádmio e, a seguir, foram tratadas com sulfato de alumínio ou cloreto férrico, como floculantes, utilizando-se, ainda, resíduos sólidos do processo industrial ("dreg", "grit", cinza pesada e carvão ativo, como auxiliares de floculação. Foi observada uma significativa redução do teor de cloretos e de elementos-traço nos efluentes finais, com o uso combinado de sulfato de alumínio/carvão ativo 2 e cloreto férrico/resíduos industriais, respectivamente.

  5. Trichosanthin functions as Th2-type adjuvant in induction of allergic airway inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Wang; Kairui Mao; Shuhui Sun; Guomei Lin; Xiaodong Wu; Gang Yao; Bing Sun

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand the pathogenesis of asthma induced by natural allergens, which could exclude the interference of artificial adjuvant and provide insights of natural immune response in the disease. In the present study, we show that Trichosanthin (TCS) could induce airway inflammation even without the help of alum. Further-more, TCS appeared capable of replacing alum to promote OVA-specific airway inflammation. TCS induced accu-mulation of IL-4-producing eosinophiis in peritoneum at an early stage and the adjuvant function of TCS was elimi-nated by blockage of IL-4 at this stage. Finally, the eosinophils triggered by TCS from WT mice, but not from IL-4-deficient mice were shown to function as adjuvant for the induction of OVA-specific Th2 responses. Our data indicate that TCS is not only an allergen, but also a Th2-type adjuvant modulating the switching of immune responses to a Th2 pathway. This chain of events results from IL-4 production by eosinophils at an early stage of TCS-priming. In conclusion, TCS may be useful as a Th2 adjuvant, and innate immune cells, such as eosinophils, may be a good target to study the initiation of Th2 response.

  6. Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

  7. Occurrence and treatment of wastewater-derived organic nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyang; Kim, Youngil; Westerhoff, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) derived from wastewater effluent can participate in reactions that lead to formation of nitrogenous chlorination by-products, membrane fouling, eutrophication, and nitrification issues, so management of DON is important for both wastewater reuse applications and nutrient-sensitive watersheds that receive discharges from treated wastewater. This study documents DON occurrence in full-scale water/wastewater (W/WW) treatment plant effluents and assesses the removal of wastewater-derived DON by several processes (biodegradation, coagulation, softening, and powdered activated carbon [PAC] adsorption) used for advanced treatment in wastewater reuse applications. After varying levels of wastewater treatment, the dominant aqueous nitrogenous species shifts from ammonia to nitrate after aerobic processes and nitrate to DON in tertiary treatment effluents. The fraction of DON in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) accounts for at most 52% in tertiary treated effluents (median=13%) and 54% in surface waters impacted by upstream wastewater discharges (median=31%). The 5-day biodegradability/bioavailability of DON (39%) was higher, on average, than that of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 26%); however, upon chlorination, the DON removal (3%) decreased significantly. Alum coagulation (with ≥8 mg/L alum per mg/L DOC) and lime softening (with pH 11.3-11.5) removedPAC adsorption preferentially removed more DOC than DON by 10% on average. The results provided herein hence shed light on approaches for reducing organic nitrogen content in treated wastewater. PMID:21741064

  8. Integrated membrane systems incorporating coagulation, activated carbon and ultrafiltration for the removal of toxic cyanobacterial metabolites from Anabaena circinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, M B; Richard, Y; Ho, L; Chow, C W K; O'Neill, B K; Newcombe, G

    2011-01-01

    The use of integrated membrane systems (a train of treatment processes incorporating one or more membranes) is increasing globally as the technology is very effective for the production of high quality drinking water. In this investigation a laboratory scale integrated membrane system (IMS) featuring coagulation, powdered activated carbon (PAC) and ultrafiltration (UF) was investigated for the removal of an Australian strain of the cyanobacteria Anabaena circinalis and the cyanotoxin it produced. Three coagulants were compared, aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH), aluminium sulphate (alum) and an engineered aluminium coagulant referred to as high performance aluminium chlorohydrate (HPAC). PAC (Acticarb PS1000) was tested to determine adsorption of extracellular saxitoxin. Removal of A. circinalis cells was 100% by UF alone and the removal of cells prior to the membrane by coagulation reduced fouling attributed to algogenic organic material. Alum was the least efficient coagulant for removal of cells while ACH and HPAC were similar. Saxitoxin removal reached a maximum of 80% using ACH and PAC. The UF-IMS was challenged using a natural bloom of A. circinalis that occurred in the Myponga Reservoir in South Australia. PMID:21508543

  9. Impact of adjuvants on CD4(+) T cell and B cell responses to a protein antigen vaccine: Results from a phase II, randomized, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux-Roels, Geert; Marchant, Arnaud; Levy, Jack; Van Damme, Pierre; Schwarz, Tino F; Horsmans, Yves; Jilg, Wolfgang; Kremsner, Peter G; Haelterman, Edwige; Clément, Frédéric; Gabor, Julian J; Esen, Meral; Hens, Annick; Carletti, Isabelle; Fissette, Laurence; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Burny, Wivine; Janssens, Michel; Moris, Philippe; Didierlaurent, Arnaud M; Van Der Most, Robbert; Garçon, Nathalie; Van Belle, Pascale; Van Mechelen, Marcelle

    2016-08-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of different adjuvants combined with a model antigen (HBsAg) were compared. Healthy HBV-naïve adults were randomized to receive HBs adjuvanted with alum or Adjuvant Systems AS01B, AS01E, AS03A or AS04 at Days 0 and 30. Different frequencies of HBs-specific CD4+ T cells 14days post dose 2 but similar polyfunctionality profiles were induced by the different adjuvants with frequencies significantly higher in the AS01B and AS01E groups than in the other groups. Antibody concentrations 30days post-dose 2 were significantly higher in AS01B, AS01E and AS03A than in other groups. Limited correlations were observed between HBs-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses. Injection site pain was the most common solicited local symptom and was more frequent in AS groups than in alum group. Different adjuvants formulated with the same antigen induced different adaptive immune responses and reactogenicity patterns in healthy naïve adults. The results summary for this study (GSK study number 112115 - NCT# NCT00805389) is available on the GSK Clinical Study Register and can be accessed at www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com.

  10. Recombinant lipidated dengue-3 envelope protein domain III stimulates broad immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chen-Yi; Liu, Shih-Jen; Hsieh, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Mei-Yu; Tsai, Jy-Ping; Liu, Hsueh-Hung; Chen, I-Hua; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Hsin-Wei

    2016-02-17

    The linkage of an immunogen with a toll-like receptor ligand has great potential to induce highly potent immune responses with the initial features of antigen-presenting cell activation. In the current study, we expressed recombinant dengue-3 envelope protein domain III (D3ED III) in lipidated form using an Escherichia coli-based system. The recombinant lipidated dengue-3 envelope protein domain III (LD3ED III) augments the expression levels of IL-12 family cytokines. LD3ED III-immunized mice enhance wide ranges of T cell responses as indicated by IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-21 production. Additionally, LD3ED III-immunized mice increase the frequencies of anti-D3ED III antibody producing cells. The boosted antibody titers cover various IgG isotypes, including IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3. Importantly, LD3ED III-immunized mice induce neutralizing antibody capacity associated with a reduction of viremia levels after challenges. In contrast, mice that are immunized with D3ED III formulated with aluminum phosphate (D3ED III/Alum) only enhance Th2 responses and boost IgG1 antibody titers. Neither neutralizing antibody responses nor the inhibition of viremia levels after challenge is observed in mice that are immunized with D3ED III/Alum. These results suggest that LD3ED III can induce broad profiles of cellular and humoral immune responses.

  11. Dewatering of alumino-humic sludge: impacts of hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bache, D H; Papavasilopoulos, E N

    2003-08-01

    The paper draws together information on factors which influence the conditioning and dewatering behaviour of an alum sludge gained from the coagulation of a low-turbidity coloured water. A principal focus is the potential impact of aluminium hydroxide on the sludge character. Background information is provided on the composition of the source floc for the domain pH 6.0-6.5 and Al>2.0mg/l. From this, there were many pointers to the presence of Al(OH)(3)(s) within the floc. A series of comparisons were made between an alum sludge and a hydroxide suspension at a concentration equivalent to the coagulant fraction within the sludge. The parameters studied included floc size, floc density, polymer adsorption and dewatering behaviour at different time-scales. In all cases, there were strong similarities in the behaviour of the two suspensions-indicating the potential impact of the hydroxide. There was also evidence of common features being displayed by both the organic fractions and the hydroxide. It was suggested that some of the behavioural features might emanate from a common fractal structure within the source floc, the fractal dimension (approximately 1) being insensitive to composition.

  12. A comparative study of coagulation, granular- and powdered-activated carbon for the removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent organic pollutants in the environment and their occurrence causes toxicological effects on humans. We examined different conventional coagulant treatments such as alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride in removing these compounds. These were then compared with a natural coagulant (Moringa oleifera). We also investigated the powdered-activated carbon (PAC) and granular-activated carbon (GAC) for removing these compounds. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, polyaluminium chloride led to a higher reduction of PFOS/PFOA compared with alum which in turn was higher than ferric. The removal efficiency increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. M. oleifera was very effective in reducing PFOS and PFOA than conventional coagulants, with a reduction efficiencies of 65% and 72%, respectively, at a dose of 30 mg/L. Both PAC and GAC were very effective in reducing these compounds than coagulations. PAC led to a higher reduction in PFOS and PFOA than GAC due to its greater surface area and shorter internal diffusion distances. The addition of PAC (10 min contact time) with coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) significantly increased the removal efficiency, and the maximum removal efficiency was for M. oleifera with 98% and 94% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. The reduction efficiency of PFOS/PFOA was reduced with the increase in dissolved organic concentration due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and PFOS/PFOA. PMID:25860623

  13. Conventional drinking water treatment and direct biofiltration for the removal of pharmaceuticals and artificial sweeteners: A pilot-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Michael J; Andrews, Susan A; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-02-15

    The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and artificial sweeteners are of concern to water providers because they may be incompletely removed by wastewater treatment processes and they pose an unknown risk to consumers due to long-term consumption of low concentrations of these compounds. This study utilized pilot-scale conventional and biological drinking water treatment processes to assess the removal of nine PhACs and EDCs, and two artificial sweeteners. Conventional treatment (coagulation, flocculation, settling, non-biological dual-media filtration) was compared to biofilters with or without the addition of in-line coagulant (0.2-0.8 mg Al(3+)/L; alum or PACl). A combination of biofiltration, with or without in-line alum, and conventional filtration was able to reduce 7 of the 9 PhACs and EDCs by more than 50% from river water while artificial sweeteners were inconsistently removed by conventional treatment or biofiltration. Increasing doses of PACl from 0 to 0.8 mg/L resulted in average removals of PhACs, EDCs increasing from 39 to 70% and artificial sweeteners removal increasing from ~15% to ~35% in lake water. These results suggest that a combination of biological, chemical and physical treatment can be applied to effectively reduce the concentration of EDCs, PhACs, and artificial sweeteners.

  14. INFLUÊNCIA DOS MATERIAIS DE COBERTURA NA TEMPERATURA INTERNA DAS CONSTRUÇÕES INFLUENCE OF COVER MATERIALS IN THE INTERNAL TEMPERATURE OF RURAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Kravchenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foi testado o comportamento da temperatura interna de ambientes fechados, quando cobertos com telhas de fibrocimento, alumínio, francesas e o capim Jaraguá (Hyparrhenia rufa. As condições mais favoráveis foram observadas nos ambientes cobertos com o capim e, em segundo lugar, com as telhas francesas, vindo a seguir as de alumínio. As condições mais drásticas foram constatadas nos ambientes cobertos com as telhas de fibrocimento de cor vermelha (em maior grau e cinza (em menor grau, onde ocorreram as maiores amplitudes térmicas.

    Temperature changes were observed in enclosed shelters covered with different roofing materia1s. The best thermis conditions occurred in the shelters covered with thatch (Hyparrhenia rufa. The second and third best temperatures were found, respectively, in the shelters covered with clay tile roofing and aluminum roofing. The least favorable temperatures were found in shelters covered with corrugated, asbestos—cement sheet roofing, with the shelters covered with gray—tinted sheets registering lower temperatures than the shelters covered with the red—tinted sheets.

  15. Enhanced coagulation for turbidity and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal from river Kansawati water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sumit; Goel, Sudha

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine optimum coagulant doses for turbidity and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) removal and evaluate the extent to which TOC can be removed by enhanced coagulation. Jar tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine optimum doses of alum for the removal of turbidity and Natural Organic Matter (NOM) from river water. Various other water quality parameters were measured before and after thejar tests and included: UV Absorbance (UVA) at 254 nm, microbial concentrations, TDS, conductivity, hardness, alkalinity, and pH. The optimum alum dose for removal of turbidity and TOC was 20 mg/L for the sample collected in November 2009 and 100 mg/L for the sample collected in March 2010. In both cases, the dose for enhanced coagulation was significantly higher than that for conventional coagulation. The gain in TOC removal was insignificant compared to the increase in coagulant dose required. This is usual for low TOC (alkalinity water. Other water samples with higher TOC need to be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of enhanced coagulation.

  16. Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa oleifera seed coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuptawat, Hitendra; Folkard, G K; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2007-04-01

    Moringa oleifera is a pan tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain a high quality edible oil (up to 40% by weight) and water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. The use of this natural coagulant material has not yet realised its potential. A water extract of M. oleifera seed was applied to a wastewater treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. The study was laboratory based using an actual wastewater. Overall COD removals of 50% were achieved at both 50 and 100mg/l M. oleifera doses. When 50 and 100mg/l seed doses were applied in combination with 10mg/l of alum, COD removal increased to 58 and 64%, respectively. The majority of COD removal occurred during the filtration process. In the tests incorporating alum, sludge generation and filter head loss increased by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. These encouraging treatment results indicate that this may be the first treatment application that can move to large scale adoption. The simple water extract may be obtained at minimal cost from the presscake residue remaining after oil extraction from the seed. The regulatory compliance issues of adopting 'new materials' for wastewater treatment are significantly less stringent than those applying to the production of potable water. PMID:16987603

  17. Rehabilitation work after chemical extraction of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, uranium was mined from the Straz pod Ralskem deposit by leaching with sulfuric acid in a very environmentally unfriendly manner. Rehabilitation work, which is in progress, aims to reduce the concentration of contaminants in the Cenomanian and Turonian groundwater bodies to an acceptable level. The rehabilitation project was divided into 2 stages: (1) prevention of vertical diffusion of contamination into unaffected areas by creating a sub-balance of solutions, and (2) sub-balance of solutions in combination with a processing of the contaminants and reduction of the contamination level to a preset value. Among the crucial provisions is the operation of the SLKR I evaporator where the solution, previously freed from uranium, is processed into condensate which is drained into the Ploucnice river, concentrated solution which, after dilution, is returned to the leaching fields, crystalline alum, and mother liquors. The production of alum has been increasing since 2002 and its reprocessing to aluminium sulfate is in the trial stage. Rehabilitation of the Turonian groundwater body is a challenge. Sanitation targets have been set till 2010. (P.A.)

  18. Mensuração digital da radiopacidade de diferentes cimentos obturadores resinosos e de base zinco-enólica = Digital radiopacity measurement of different resin- and zinc oxide-based root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodanezi, Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a radiopacidade produzida por sete cimentos comercialmente disponíveis (AH Plus, Epiphany, Sealapex, Acroseal, Sealer 26, Endomethasone and Endofill e um em estágio experimental (MBP. Metodologia: Depois de homogeneizados os materiais, o teste de radiopacidade foi executado conforme a especificação no 57 da ANSI/ADA. Radiografou-se os espécimes junto a uma escala de Alumínio e as imagens resultantes foram digitalizadas. As densidades radiográficas expressas em milímetros de Alumínio (mm Al foram comparadas por meio da análise de variância e teste de Tukey (α=0. 05. Resultados: Os cimentos AH Plus (10 mm Al e Epiphany (9 mm Al apresentaram as maiores radiopacidades seguidos pelo Sealapex (8 mm Al, Endofill (7 mm Al, Endométhasone (7 mm Al, MBP (7 mm Al e Sealer 26 (6 mm Al. Acroseal (5 mm Al mostrou a menor radiopacidade entre os cimentos testados (P<0. 05. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que as diferentes radiopacidades dos cimentos testados estão acima do nível mínimo recomendado pela especificação nº 57 da ANSI/ADA

  19. Removal of humic and tannic acids by adsorption-coagulation combined systems with activated biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chanil; Phal, Narong; Oh, Jeill; Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Jang, Min; Yoon, Yeomin

    2015-12-30

    Despite recent interest in transforming biomass into bio-oil and syngas, there is inadequate information on the compatibility of byproducts (e.g., biochar) with agriculture and water purification infrastructures. A pyrolysis at 300°C yields efficient production of biochar, and its physicochemical properties can be improved by chemical activation, resulting in a suitable adsorbent for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), including hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances, such as humic acids (HA) and tannic acids (TA), respectively. In this study, the adsorption affinities of different HA and TA combinations in NOM solutions were evaluated, and higher adsorption affinity of TA onto activated biochar (AB) produced in the laboratory was observed due to its superior chemisorption tendencies and size-exclusion effects compared with that of HA, whereas hydrophobic interactions between adsorbent and adsorbate were deficient. Assessment of the AB role in an adsorption-coagulation hybrid system as nuclei for coagulation in the presence of aluminum sulfate (alum) showed a synergistic effect in a HA-dominated NOM solution. An AB-alum hybrid system with a high proportion of HA in the NOM solution may be applicable as an end-of-pipe solution. PMID:26340547

  20. Polarized immune responses modulated by layered double hydroxides nanoparticle conjugated with CpG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shiyu; Rolfe, Barbara E; Zhang, Bing; Mohammed, Yousuf H; Gu, Wenyi; Xu, Zhi P

    2014-11-01

    Modulation of the immune response is an important step in the induction of protective humoral and cellular immunity against pathogens. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using a nanomaterial conjugated with the toll-like receptor (TLR) ligand CpG to modulate the immune response towards the preferred polarity. MgAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterial has a very similar chemical composition to Alum, an FDA approved adjuvant for human vaccination. We used a model antigen, ovalbumin (OVA) to demonstrate that MgAl-LDH had comparable adjuvant activity to Alum, but much weaker inflammation. Conjugation of TLR9 ligand CpG to LDH nanoparticles significantly enhanced the antibody response and promoted a switch from Th2 toward Th1 response, demonstrated by a change in the IgG2a:IgG1 ratio. Moreover, immunization of mice with CpG-OVA-conjugated LDH before challenge with OVA-expressing B16/F10 tumor cells retarded tumor growth. Together, these data indicate that LDH nanomaterial can be used as an immune adjuvant to promote Th1 or Th2 dominant immune responses suitable for vaccination purposes. PMID:25145853

  1. Enhanced removal of heavy metals in primary treatment using coagulation and flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pauline D; Girinathannair, Padmanabhan; Ohlinger, Kurt N; Ritchie, Stephen; Teuber, Leah; Kirby, Jason

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the removal efficiencies of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc from raw wastewater by chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) and to attain a total suspended solids removal goal of 80%. Operating parameters and chemical doses were optimized by bench-scale tests. Locally obtained raw wastewater samples were spiked with heavy metal solutions to obtain representative concentrations of metals in wastewater. Jar tests were conducted to compare the metals removal efficiencies of the chemical treatment options using ferric chloride, alum, and anionic polymer. The results obtained were compared with those from other studies. It was concluded that CEPT using ferric chloride and anionic polymer is more effective than CEPT using alum for metals removal. The CEPT dosing of 40 mg/L ferric chloride and 0.5 mg/L polymer enhanced heavy metals removal efficiencies by over 200% for chromium, copper, zinc, and nickel and 475% for lead, compared with traditional primary treatment. Efficient metals capture during CEPT can result in increased allowable headworks loadings or lower metal levels in the outfall. PMID:18605386

  2. Comprehensive Mechanism Analysis of Mesoporous-Silica-Nanoparticle-Induced Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiupeng; Li, Xia; Yoshiyuki, Kazuko; Watanabe, Yohei; Sogo, Yu; Ohno, Tadao; Tsuji, Noriko M; Ito, Atsuo

    2016-05-01

    A plain mesoporous silica nanoparticle without any immunomodulatory molecules significantly enhances anticancer immunity in vivo. Comprehensive mechanism of mesoporous-silica-nanoparticle-induced cancer immunotherapy is analyzed in this paper. The mesoporous silica nanoparticle promotes both Th1 and Th2 immune responses, as it accelerates lymphocytes proliferation, stimulates IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokine secretion by lymphocytes ex vivo, and increases IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, and IgA antibody titers in mice serum compared with those of alum and adjuvant-free groups. Moreover, the mesoporous silica nanoparticle enhances effector memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations in three most important immune organs (bone marrow, lymph node, and spleen) of mice compared with those of alum and adjuvant-free groups three months after adjuvant injection. The present study paves the way for the application of mesoporous silica nanoparticle as immunoadjuvant for cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase: a candidate Helicobacter pylori vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Avril A; Morales, Veronica Athie; Mulligan, Linda; Faheem, Nazia; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot P

    2012-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important etiological agent of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) and mannosylated AhpC (mAhpC) as candidate vaccines in the C57BL/6J mouse model of H. pylori infection. Recombinant AhpC was cloned, over-expressed and purified in an unmodified form and was also engineered to incorporate N and C-terminal mannose residues when expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Mice were immunized systemically and mucosally with AhpC and systemically with mAhpC prior to challenge with H. pylori. Serum IgG responses to AhpC were determined and quantitative culture was used to determine the efficacy of vaccination strategies. Systemic prophylactic immunization with AhpC/alum and mAhpC/alum conferred protection against infection in 55% and 77.3% of mice, respectively. Mucosal immunization with AhpC/cholera toxin did not protect against infection and elicited low levels of serum IgG in comparison with systemic immunization. These data support the use of AhpC as a potential vaccine candidate against H. pylori infection. PMID:22512976

  4. Optimization of conventional water treatment plant using dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Khezri Seyed; Bahareh, Ghafari; Elahe, Dadvar; Pegah, Dadras

    2015-12-01

    In this research, the mathematical models, indicating the capability of various units, such as rapid mixing, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, and the rapid sand filtration are used. Moreover, cost functions were used for the formulation of conventional water and wastewater treatment plant by applying Clark's formula (Clark, 1982). Also, by applying dynamic programming algorithm, it is easy to design a conventional treatment system with minimal cost. The application of the model for a case reduced the annual cost. This reduction was approximately in the range of 4.5-9.5% considering variable limitations. Sensitivity analysis and prediction of system's feedbacks were performed for different alterations in proportion from parameters optimized amounts. The results indicated (1) that the objective function is more sensitive to design flow rate (Q), (2) the variations in the alum dosage (A), and (3) the sand filter head loss (H). Increasing the inflow by 20%, the total annual cost would increase to about 12.6%, while 20% reduction in inflow leads to 15.2% decrease in the total annual cost. Similarly, 20% increase in alum dosage causes 7.1% increase in the total annual cost, while 20% decrease results in 7.9% decrease in the total annual cost. Furthermore, the pressure decrease causes 2.95 and 3.39% increase and decrease in total annual cost of treatment plants.

  5. Impact of adjuvants on CD4(+) T cell and B cell responses to a protein antigen vaccine: Results from a phase II, randomized, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux-Roels, Geert; Marchant, Arnaud; Levy, Jack; Van Damme, Pierre; Schwarz, Tino F; Horsmans, Yves; Jilg, Wolfgang; Kremsner, Peter G; Haelterman, Edwige; Clément, Frédéric; Gabor, Julian J; Esen, Meral; Hens, Annick; Carletti, Isabelle; Fissette, Laurence; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Burny, Wivine; Janssens, Michel; Moris, Philippe; Didierlaurent, Arnaud M; Van Der Most, Robbert; Garçon, Nathalie; Van Belle, Pascale; Van Mechelen, Marcelle

    2016-08-01

    Immunogenicity and safety of different adjuvants combined with a model antigen (HBsAg) were compared. Healthy HBV-naïve adults were randomized to receive HBs adjuvanted with alum or Adjuvant Systems AS01B, AS01E, AS03A or AS04 at Days 0 and 30. Different frequencies of HBs-specific CD4+ T cells 14days post dose 2 but similar polyfunctionality profiles were induced by the different adjuvants with frequencies significantly higher in the AS01B and AS01E groups than in the other groups. Antibody concentrations 30days post-dose 2 were significantly higher in AS01B, AS01E and AS03A than in other groups. Limited correlations were observed between HBs-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses. Injection site pain was the most common solicited local symptom and was more frequent in AS groups than in alum group. Different adjuvants formulated with the same antigen induced different adaptive immune responses and reactogenicity patterns in healthy naïve adults. The results summary for this study (GSK study number 112115 - NCT# NCT00805389) is available on the GSK Clinical Study Register and can be accessed at www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com. PMID:27236001

  6. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  7. FT-IR reflection spectra of single crystals: resolving phonons of different symmetry without using polarised radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    METODIJA NAJDOSKI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR reflection spectra, asquired at nearnormal incidence, were recorded from single crystals belonging to six crystal systems: CsCr(SO42.12H2O (alum, cubic, K2CuCl2·2H2O (Mitscherlichite, tetragonal, CaCO3 (calcite, hexagonal, KHSO4 (mercallite, orthorhombic, CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum, monoclinic and CuSO4·5H2O (chalcantite, triclinic. The acquired IR reflection spectra were further transformed into absorption spectra, employing the Kramers-Kronig transformation. Except for the cubic alums, the spectra strongly depend on the crystal face from which they were recorded; this is a consequence of anisotropy. Phonons of a given symmetry (E-species, in tetragonal/hexagonal and B-species, in monoclinic crystals may be resolved without using a polariser. The spectrum may be simplified in the case of an orthorhombic crystal, as well. The longitudinal-optical (LO and transversal-optical (TO mode frequencies were calculated in the case of optically isotropic and the simplified spectra of optically uniaxial crystals.

  8. Efeitos de floculantes na concentração de micro e macronutrientes em biofertilizante suíno - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v30i2.5463

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso Celso Gonçalves Júnior

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar quimicamente as fases sólida e líquida de biofertilizante suíno, separadas com diferentes floculantes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tipos de floculantes, sendo cinco doses de cada floculante, com cinco repetições. A separação foi efetuada por meio de floculação/decantação por 1h após a adição do floculante. Realizou-se a caracterização química das fases sólida e líquida do biofertilizante, a partir da determinação de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe e Mn. Na fase líquida, o objetivo de diminuir os macronutrientes foi atingido quando se utilizaram as doses 10 e 20 mL da combinação entre calcário dolomítico + hidróxido de cálcio, e os micronutrientes foram reduzidos quando foram utilizados os floculantes sulfato de alumínio e hidróxido de cálcio + sulfato de alumínio.

  9. Coagulation of micro-polluted Pearl River water with IPF-PACls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi; SUN Wei; WANG Dong-sheng; TANG Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    Water samples collected from early March 2001 to the end of April 2002 at the branch of Pearl River around the Guangzhou City were analyzed for its micro-polluted characteristics. The coagulation behavior of polyaluminum chlorides(PACls) was then examined focusing on the effect of primary water quality and speciation distribution. The results showed that PACls exhibit better coagulation efficiency than alum in accordance with the different speciation.The turbidity removal property of PACls is evidently better than alum at Iow dosage. While in neutral zone (about 6.5-7.5), the turbidity removal of PACls decreases owing to the restabilization of particles at higher dosage. The organic matters in raw water exhibit marked influence on coagulation. In acidic zone, organic matters complex with polymer species and promote the formation of flocs. With an increase in pH, the complexation of organics with polymer species gradually decreases, and the removal of organics mainly depends on adsorption. The effect is evidently improved with the raise of B value.

  10. Padronização da densidade mineral óssea (DMO do acessório do carpo em eqüinos atletas da raça Quarto de Milha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulcano Luiz Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eqüinos da raça Quarto de Milha, 30 machos e 30 fêmeas com idade entre 42 e 48 meses, apresentando a epífise distal do rádio fechada, em plena atividade esportiva, foram analisados quanto à densidade mineral óssea (DMO do acessório do carpo, tendo os valores expressos em milímetros de alumínio (mmAl. As radiografias da estrutura óssea, juntamente com uma escala de alumínio (penetrômetro foram analisadas por meio de um programa computacional, especialmente desenvolvido para medida da densidade óptica em imagem radiográfica. O valor médio encontrado para as fêmeas foi de 4,49?0,69mmAl, com idade média de 43?2 meses e, para os machos, de 4,43 ? 0,81mmAl, com idade média de 45?2 meses, não havendo diferença significativa na DMO entre os sexos.

  11. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment: a physicochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physicochemical study for the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater was performed. Objective of the laboratory investigation was to study the removal of color, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), turbidity and phenol and bring them up to the allowable limits for reuse purposes. Efficiency of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration followed by activated carbon adsorption was determined. It was found that tested coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, and ferrous sulphate) are not much effective and required high dosage for the removal; of TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity. Alum was found to be more effective among tested coagulants and reduce TSS, BOD, COD and turbidity 79.6%, 34.8, 48.6% and 69.2% respectively. Sand filtration further reduced the studied parameters 97.7%, 95.7%, 93.9% and 76.9% respectively. As the concentration of phenol in the studied pharmaceutical wastewater was 100 mg/l, granular activated carbon was used to remove phenol up to the allowable limit for reuse purpose. Activated carbon adsorption further reduces phenol, TDS, TSS, BOD, and COD up to 99.9%, 99.1%, 21.4%, 81.3% and 71.1% respectively. High removal of color observed after activated carbon adsorption. It was concluded that the suggested treatment scheme is suitable to bring the effluent quality up to the water quality standards. (author)

  12. Silk corduroy dyeing with alizarin%绢丝灯芯绒的茜素染色工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡苏英; 董婷

    2012-01-01

    Post-mordant dyeing of silk corduroy is carried out with ferric suifate and alum as mordant respectively. Effects of pH value of dyeing bath, mordant dosage and dyeing time are discussed, and the optimum dyeing process is determined as follows: mordant dyeing for 20 ~30 min with ferric sulfate 10.0 g/L and pH value 6 ~7 or mordant dyeing for 15 min with alum 10.0 g/L and pH value 2 ~3. The mordant dyeings have good color fastness.%以硫酸铁、明矾为媒染剂,采用茜素对绢丝灯芯绒进行后媒法染色,探讨染液pH值、媒染剂用量和媒染时间等因素对染色效果的影响,得到的优化染色工艺为:硫酸铁媒染剂用量10.0g/L,pH值6~7,媒染时间20~25min;或明矾用量10.0g/L,pH值2~3,媒染时间15min左右,染色织物的各项色牢度良好.

  13. Solubilização de fostatos por microrganismos na presença de fontes de carbono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Silva Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de solubilização de fosfatos por bactérias e fungos cultivados em meio de cultura GEL (Glicose-Extrato de Levedura, suplementado com diferentes formas de fosfatos (cálcio, alumínio e ferro e fontes de carbono (celulose, amido, sacarose, glicose, frutose e xilose, foi avaliado em laboratório. O crescimento, o diâmetro da área solubilizada e a relação halo/colônia variaram conforme o tipo de microrganismo e a fonte de fósforo e de carbono. Dos 57 isolados utilizados, 56 formaram halo na presença de fosfato de cálcio e cinco apenas na presença de fosfato de alumínio e nenhum foi capaz de solubilizar fosfato de ferro. Contudo, seis isolados cresceram melhor no meio com fosfato de ferro em comparação com o meio testemunha. As maiores colônias e halos foram observados nos isolados de Rhizopus e Aspergillus, enquanto as maiores relações halo/colônia foram encontradas em Paecilomyces e Penicillium. Todos os isolados cresceram no meio GEL base (testemunha sem açúcar, mas a solubilização ocorreu apenas na presença de carbono adicionado ao meio, destacando-se xilose, glicose, frutose e sacarose.

  14. Metronomic Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Chemotherapy Combined with 1E10 Anti-Idiotype Vaccine in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Soriano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of low doses of cytotoxic agents continuously for prolonged periods is an alternative for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have developed resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The combination of metronomic chemotherapy with therapeutic vaccines might increase the efficacy of the treatment. Twenty one patients with metastatic breast cancer in progression and a Karnosky index ≥60%, were treated with metronomic chemotherapy (50 mg of cyclophospamide orally daily and 2.5 mg of methotrexate orally bi-daily, in combination with five bi-weekly subcutaneous injections of 1 mg of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 anti-idiotype MAb (1E10-Alum, followed by reimmunizations every 28 days. Five patients achieved objective response, eight showed stable disease and eight had disease progression. Median time to progression was 9,8 months, while median overall survival time was 12,93 months. The median duration of the response (CR+PR+SD was 18,43 months (12,20–24,10 months, being higher than 12 months in 76,9% of the patients. Overall toxicity was generally mild. Metronomic chemotherapy combined with 1E10-Alum vaccine immunotherapy might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer due to its potential impact on survival and patient quality of live, low toxicity and advantages of the administration.

  15. 人偏肺病毒多表位抗原的小鼠免疫应答%Evaluation of the immune response to human metapneumovirus multi-epitope antigen in an mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓燕; 郭丽茹; 孔梅; 邹明; 苏旭

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价本实验室构建的人偏肺病毒多表位抗原( MEA )的免疫应答水平。方法4~6周龄雌性SPF级BALB/c小鼠分为7组:MEA+含CpG基序的寡聚脱氧核苷酸( oligodeoxynucle-otides containing CpG motifs ,CpG ODN)腹腔注射组i.p.,MEA+Alum腹腔注射组i.p.,MEA+Alum+CpG ODN腹腔注射组i.p.,MEA+CpG ODN滴鼻组i.n.,MEA+Alum+CpG ODN滴鼻组i.n.,以上5组分别于0 d、14 d、21 d免疫3次;MEA+Quickantibody5W肌肉注射组i.m.,分别于0 d、21 d免疫2次,同时设未处理对照组,末次免疫后2周杀鼠进行相应检测。采用ELISA法检测血清IgG、IgG1、IgG2a和IgA抗体,MTS法进行淋巴细胞增殖试验,LDH法检测杀伤性T淋巴细胞杀伤活性,流式细胞仪检测CD4+/CD8+T细胞,悬浮芯片法检测脾细胞分泌细胞因子。结果 MEA免疫后除滴鼻免疫组外,其他组均产生了高滴度IgG抗体,抗体效价均>104。除滴鼻免疫组外,其余各组IgG1与IgG2a抗体均显著存在。3组免疫动物血清中检测到了IgA,其中MEA+Alum+CpG ODN i.p.组IgA效价最高为2.15×103。与对照组相比,MEA+Alum i.p.、MEA+Alum+CpG ODN i.p.和 MEA+Quickantibody5W i.m.淋巴细胞增殖指数有明显增高(P<0.05)。腹腔免疫组及MEA+Quickantibody5W 肌肉免疫组CTL杀伤活性均明显增强(P<0.05)。 MEA+CpG ODN i.p组Th1型细胞因子均分泌增多,其中IL-2和IFN-γ增幅最明显,3种Th2型细胞因子分泌均明显增多。 MEA+Alum i.p.组IFN-γ稍有增加, IL-4、IL-5、IL-10均明显增加,MEA+Alum+CpG ODN i.p.组IFN-γ增幅最明显,IL-4、IL-5、IL-10均明显增加。 MEA+Quickantibody5W i.m组IFN-γ增幅最明显,IL-5、IL-10明显增加,GM-CSF也明显增加。除滴鼻免疫组外,其余各组脾细胞中CD4+/CD8+T细胞稍有增加(P<0.05)。结论 MEA在不同佐

  16. Geologic map of the Gila Hot Springs 7.5' quadrangle and the Cliff Dwellings National Monument, Catron and Grant Counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratté, James C.; Gaskill, David L.; Chappell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Gila Hot Springs quadrangle is of geologic interest with respect to four major features, which are: 1)\tThe caves of the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument 2)\tThe hot springs associated with the faults of the Gila Hot Springs graben 3)\tThe Alum Mountain rhyolite dome and eruptive center 4)\tA proposed segment of the southeastern wall of the Gila Cliff Dwellings caldera The Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument consists of two tracts. The caves that were inhabited by the Mogollon people in the 14th century are in the main tract near the mouth of Cliff Dweller Canyon in the Little Turkey Park 7.5' quadrangle adjoining the northwest corner of the Gila Hot Springs quadrangle. The second tract includes the Cliff Dwellings National Monum