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Sample records for alum-precipitated measles vaccines

  1. Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources News Newsletters Events Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Measles ... it is eliminated from the body. Who Needs It? Children Children should get 2 doses of MMR ...

  2. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies comparing measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children; however, only 16 studies had specific information that MV had been provided at 4-13 months of age, many before 9 months of age. In the 10 best studies (4 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) control children did not receive MV during follow-up. In eight of these studies the vaccine efficacy against death (VED) was 60% or more. In four studies with information on MV provided both before and after 12 months of age, the all-cause mortality reduction was significantly larger for children vaccinated in infancy (VED=74%; 95% CI 51-86%) than for children vaccinated after 12 months of age (VED=29%; CI 8-46%). Prevention of measles explained little of the reduction in mortality. In five studies with information on measles infection, VED was 67% (51-78%) and when measles deaths were excluded, VED was only reduced to 65% (47-77%). One natural experiment compared MV at 4-8 months versus MV at 9-11 months of age and found significantly lower all-cause mortality with early vaccination, the difference being 39% (8-60%). Child mortality may be reduced if MV is given earlier than currently recommended by international organizations.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

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    V. A. Liashenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were effective in animal experiments, but they have not been tested in humans. The second group includes live attenuated mucosal measles vaccins applied in combination with immunomodulator(s, as aerosol and intranasally. Efficiency of these vaccines was tested and confirmed by immunization of children and adults. Mucosal measles vaccine induces local production of IgA measles antibodies, along with induced synthesis of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies against measles. The latter experimental variant could be a live attenuated measles vaccine containing some immunity-modulating agent. Elaboration of these variant was based on the known data about transient immunosuppressive activity of measles vaccine. An appropriate experimental variant represents a mixture of attenuated measles vaccine and synthetic immunomodulating agent (MP-2 peptide which protects T-lymphocytes from inhibitory effect of the measles virus. In present revue, some data are presented concerning the mechanisms of immunogenic activity and adverse effects of measles vaccines.

  4. Measles vaccination in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the current vaccination process and specific antibody in 212 children with pathology of nervous systems in age from 1 year to 6 years old, vaccinated against measles. The comparison group consisted of 36 children without neurological disease. 86 children (40,6% were vaccinated measles – mumps vaccine, and 126 children (59,4% only measles vaccine. Post-vaccination period in 77,8% immunized against measles, was uneventful, layering intercurrent infections was noted in 22,2% of vaccine’s, and demonstrated the development of viral respiratory infections, bronchitis, otitis media and exacerbation of underlying disease. It is shown that the level of specific antibody to measles in children with pathology of nervous systems at 30 days after vaccination was 5,04±0,16 log 2, which did not differ from the comparison group (5,88±0,31 log 2. No significant differences in the level of antibody in a smooth and complicated course of vaccination period were found. Immunization of children with disorders of the nervous system of live vaccines is quite effective and leads to the formation of protective antibody titers in all vaccinated.

  5. Attenuated Measles Virus as a Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Armando; Wang, Zili; Liniger, Matthias; Hangartner, Lars; Caballero, Michael; Pavlovic, Jovan; Wild, Peter; Viret, Jean Francois; Glueck, Reinhard; Billeter, Martin A.; Naim, Hussein Y.

    2007-01-01

    Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have an impressive record of safety, efficacy and ability to induce life-long immunity against measles infection. Using reverse genetics technology, such negative-strand RNA viruses can now be rescued from cloned DNA. This technology allows the insertion of exogenous genes encoding foreign antigens into the MV genome in such a way that they can be expressed by the MV vaccine strain, without affecting virus structure, propagation and cell targeting. ...

  6. Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, William J; Griffin, Diane E

    2012-01-14

    Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by measles virus and is one of the most devastating infectious diseases of man--measles was responsible for millions of deaths annually worldwide before the introduction of the measles vaccines. Remarkable progress in reducing the number of people dying from measles has been made through measles vaccination, with an estimated 164,000 deaths attributed to measles in 2008. This achievement attests to the enormous importance of measles vaccination to public health. However, this progress is threatened by failure to maintain high levels of measles vaccine coverage. Recent measles outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and the USA show the ease with which measles virus can re-enter communities if high levels of population immunity are not sustained. The major challenges for continued measles control and eventual eradication will be logistical, financial, and the garnering of sufficient political will. These challenges need to be met to ensure that future generations of children do not die of measles. PMID:21855993

  7. Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Moss, William J; Takeda, Makoto; de Swart, Rik L; Thompson, Kimberly M; Goodson, James L

    2016-01-01

    Measles is an infectious disease in humans caused by the measles virus (MeV). Before the introduction of an effective measles vaccine, virtually everyone experienced measles during childhood. Symptoms of measles include fever and maculopapular skin rash accompanied by cough, coryza and/or conjunctivitis. MeV causes immunosuppression, and severe sequelae of measles include pneumonia, gastroenteritis, blindness, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Case confirmation depends on clinical presentation and results of laboratory tests, including the detection of anti-MeV IgM antibodies and/or viral RNA. All current measles vaccines contain a live attenuated strain of MeV, and great progress has been made to increase global vaccination coverage to drive down the incidence of measles. However, endemic transmission continues in many parts of the world. Measles remains a considerable cause of childhood mortality worldwide, with estimates that >100,000 fatal cases occur each year. Case fatality ratio estimates vary from 5% in developing countries. All six WHO regions have set goals to eliminate endemic transmission of MeV by achieving and maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage accompanied by a sensitive surveillance system. Because of the availability of a highly effective and relatively inexpensive vaccine, the monotypic nature of the virus and the lack of an animal reservoir, measles is considered a candidate for eradication. PMID:27411684

  8. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

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    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with

  9. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qiaozhen; Hu Yali; Lu Pei-Shan; Zhao Hong; Yao Wenhu; Zhou Yi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased...

  10. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

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    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  11. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  12. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  13. Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

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    Edmonson, M B; Addiss, D G; McPherson, J T; Berg, J L; Circo, S R; Davis, J P

    1990-05-01

    A prolonged school-based outbreak of measles provided an opportunity to study "vaccine-modified" mild measles and secondary vaccine failure. Thirty-six (97%) of 37 unvaccinated patients had rash illnesses that met the Centers for Disease Control clinical case definition of measles, but 29 (15%) of 198 vaccinated patients did not, primarily because of low-grade or absent fever. Of 122 patients with seroconfirmed measles, 10 patients (all previously vaccinated) had no detectable measles-specific IgM and significantly milder illness than either vaccinated or unvaccinated patients with IgM-positive serum. Of 108 vaccinated patients with seroconfirmed measles, 17 patients (16%) had IgM-negative serology or rash illnesses that failed to meet the clinical case definition; their mean age (13 years), age at the time of vaccination, and time since vaccination did not differ from those of other vaccinated patients. The occurrence of secondary vaccine failure and vaccine-modified measles does not appear to be a major impediment to measles control in the United States but may lead to underreporting of measles cases and result in overestimation of vaccine efficacy in highly vaccinated populations. PMID:2278542

  14. Misplaced loss of confidence in measles vaccination: an investigation in a primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, N R

    1989-01-01

    Doubts were expressed about the effectiveness of measles vaccination during a measles outbreak in a Bristol primary school. Investigation of this outbreak showed that the vaccine uptake rate was 89%, vaccine effectiveness was 84% and that 57% of children developing measles had a history of previous measles vaccination. This apparent paradox arises because, for any vaccine that is not 100% effective, as the vaccine uptake rate rises so the percentage of cases previously vaccinated also rises. ...

  15. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill;

    2009-01-01

    of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup...... of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4......BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial...

  16. Stability of further-attenuated measles vaccines.

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    Mann, G F; Allison, L M; Lloyd, J S; Tam, P; Zuckerman, A J; Perkins, F T

    1983-01-01

    Accelerated stability tests on lyophilized measles vaccines show two distinct mechanisms of virus inactivation. A rapid initial loss of infectivity occurs only on exposure to temperatures above the ambient temperature. This loss is temperature related and may be attributable to the movement of residual moisture from the virus pellet into the void space of the vial. Subsequent inactivation of virus occurs at all temperatures as a first-order reaction that follows Arrhenius kinetics. Integration of values for these two components allows precise prediction of vaccine stability at any temperature. Analysis of the results obtained for greater than 30 vaccines shows that those which are stable for one week at 37 C have a predicted life of more than one year at 8 C. This simple test is now being applied to the identification of unstable products. The rate of this reaction is closely, if conservatively, matched by a time-temperature color indicator, which may be useful for monitoring vaccine quality. PMID:6879003

  17. An assessment of measles vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2006-2012

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    Alexis Pillsbury

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vaccine effectiveness analysis serves as a critical evaluation for immunization programmes and vaccination coverage. It also contributes to maintaining public confidence with the vaccine providers. This study estimated measles vaccine effectiveness at the population level using Australian national notifications data between 2006 and 2012. Methods: Notification data were obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Vaccination status was classified according to whether a case had received zero, one or two doses of measles-containing vaccine. Cases aged less than 1 year and those with unknown vaccination status were excluded. All children with disease onset between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012 who were born after 1996 were included. Cases were matched to controls extracted from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register according to date of birth and jurisdiction of residence. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated by conditional logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test data robustness. Results: Vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94.5–98.0% for one dose and 99.7% (95% CI: 99.2–99.9% for two doses of measles vaccine. For at least one dose, effectiveness was estimated at 98.7% (95% CI: 97.9–99.2%. Sensitivity analyses did not significantly alter the base estimates. Discussion: Vaccine effectiveness estimates suggested that the measles vaccine was protective at the population level between 2006 and 2012. However, vaccination coverage gaps may have contributed to recent measles outbreaks and may represent a serious barrier for Australia to maintain measles elimination status.

  18. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramsay, M E

    1994-04-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.

  19. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G;

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  20. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J; Albert, Steven M; Cakouros, Brigid E; Burke, Donald S

    2012-02-21

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with respect to their perceptions of vaccine and infection risks. We demonstrate that the pursuit of self-interest among vaccine skeptics often leads to vaccination levels that are suboptimal for a population, even if complete coverage is achieved among vaccine believers. The demand for measles vaccine across populations driven by individual self-interest was found to be more sensitive to the proportion of vaccine skeptics than to the extent to which vaccine skeptics misperceive the risk of vaccine. Furthermore, as the number of vaccine skeptics increases, the probability of infection among vaccine skeptics increases initially, but it decreases once the vaccine skeptics begin receiving the vaccination, if both behavioral groups are vaccinated according to individual self-interest. Our results show that the discrepancy between the coverages of measles vaccine that are driven by self-interest and those driven by population interest becomes larger when the cost of vaccination increases. This research illustrates the importance of public education on vaccine safety and infection risk in order to maintain vaccination levels that are sufficient to maintain herd immunity.

  1. Quantifying child mortality reductions related to measles vaccination.

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    Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the historical relationship between coverage of measles containing vaccines (MCV and mortality in children under 5 years, with a view toward ongoing global efforts to reduce child mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using country-level, longitudinal panel data, from 44 countries over the period 1960-2005, we analyzed the relationship between MCV coverage and measles mortality with (1 logistic regressions for no measles deaths in a country-year, and (2 linear regressions for the logarithm of the measles death rate. All regressions allowed a flexible, non-linear relationship between coverage and mortality. Covariates included birth rate, death rates from other causes, percent living in urban areas, population density, per-capita GDP, use of the two-dose MCV, year, and mortality coding system. Regressions used lagged covariates, country fixed effects, and robust standard errors clustered by country. The likelihood of no measles deaths increased nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage (ORs: 13.8 [1.6-122.7] for 80-89% to 40.7 [3.2-517.6] for ≥95%, compared to pre-vaccination risk levels. Measles death rates declined nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage, with benefits accruing more slowly above 90% coverage. Compared to no coverage, predicted average reductions in death rates were -79% at 70% coverage, -93% at 90%, and -95% at 95%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 40 years of experience with MCV vaccination suggests that extremely high levels of vaccination coverage are needed to produce sharp reductions in measles deaths. Achieving sustainable benefits likely requires a combination of extended vaccine programs and supplementary vaccine efforts.

  2. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L;

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units......) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  3. Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill;

    2014-01-01

    vaccinated with MV in the presence of maternal antibody and 32.3 per 1000 person-years without maternal antibody (mortality rate ratio [MRR], 0.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0-.52). In trial II (2003-2007), the mortality rate was 4.2 per 1000 person-years among children vaccinated in presence of maternal...... mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07-.64) between 4-6 months and 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4......BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. METHODS: To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data...

  4. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem. PMID:26436786

  5. Vaccination against Measles: evaluation of novel approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, also called morbilli or rubeola, is a highly contagious disease of humans. After an incubation period of 9-11 days characteristic clinical signs develop like coryza, cervical lymphadenitis, so-called Koplik's spots in the mouth, conjunctivitis, photophobia, myalgia, malaise, sne

  6. A measles epidemic threshold in a highly vaccinated population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against measles has successfully lowered the incidence of the disease and has changed the epidemic pattern from a roughly biennial cycle to an irregular sequence of outbreaks. A possible explanation for this sequence of outbreaks is that the vaccinated population is protected by solid herd immunity. If so, we would expect to see the fraction of susceptible individuals remaining below an epidemic threshold. An alternative explanation is the occurrence of occasional localised lapses in herd immunity that allow for major outbreaks in areas with a low vaccine coverage. In that case, we would expect the fraction of susceptible individuals to exceed an epidemic threshold before outbreaks occur. These two explanations for the irregular sequence of measles outbreaks can be tested against observations of both the fraction of susceptible individuals and infection attack rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have estimated both the fraction of susceptible individuals at the start of each epidemic year and the infection attack rates for each epidemic year in the Netherlands over a 28-y period. During this period the vaccine coverage averaged 93%, and there was no sustained measles transmission. Several measles outbreaks occurred in communities with low vaccine coverage, and these ended without intervention. We show that there is a clear threshold value for the fraction of susceptible individuals, below which only minor outbreaks occurred, and above which both minor and major outbreaks occurred. A precise, quantitative relationship exists between the fraction of susceptible individuals in excess of this threshold and the infection attack rate during the major outbreaks. CONCLUSION: In populations with a high but heterogeneous vaccine coverage, measles transmission can be interrupted without establishing solid herd immunity. When infection is reintroduced, a major outbreak can occur in the communities with low vaccine coverage. During

  7. Local public health response to vaccine-associated measles: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hau, Monica; Schwartz, Kevin L; Frenette, Crystal; Mogck, Isabelle; Jonathan B Gubbay; Severini, Alberto; Hiebert, Joanne; Shelley L Deeks; Shaun K Morris

    2013-01-01

    Background The most appropriate public health approach to vaccine-associated measles in immunocompromised patients is unknown, mainly because these cases are rare and transmission of vaccine-associated measles has not been previously documented. In this case report, we describe Peel Public Health’s response to a vaccine-associated measles case in an immunocompromised child in Ontario, Canada. Case presentation A five-year-old Canadian-born boy with a history of a hematopoetic stem cell transp...

  8. Vaccination against Measles: evaluation of novel approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Stittelaar, Koert

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, also called morbilli or rubeola, is a highly contagious disease of humans. After an incubation period of 9-11 days characteristic clinical signs develop like coryza, cervical lymphadenitis, so-called Koplik's spots in the mouth, conjunctivitis, photophobia, myalgia, malaise, sneezing and coughing lasting for about 1 week. Fever precedes the typical rash consisting of generalised maculopapular lesions that first appear on the face and soon after on the trunk and the extrem...

  9. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination administered after measles vaccine: increased female mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In low-income countries, children should receive 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and measles vaccine at 9 months of age. However, there is often a delay in administering the vaccines, and DTP is often given after measles vaccine. Previous observations suggest that this practice is associated with increased mortality for female, but not for male children. Within a vitamin A trial in Guinea-Bissau, vaccination status was registered at the time of measles vaccination at 9 months; 141 (31%) of 455 children were missing 1 or more DTP vaccines and were likely to receive them afterward. We examined whether missing DTP vaccine at this time point was associated with sex-differential effects on mortality. In female children, missing DTP was associated with 3.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-10.26) times higher risk of dying before 36 months of age, whereas it made no difference in male children (0.97 [0.34-2.80]). The result supports that receiving DTP after measles vaccine affects female children negatively.

  10. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  11. Timeliness vaccination of measles containing vaccine and barriers to vaccination among migrant children in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  12. Measles -- Q&A about Disease & Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications, such as pneumonia or encephalitis, and even death. Children younger than 5 years of age and adults ... rubella in the form of antibodies from their mothers. These antibodies can ... vaccine? Children should receive two doses of MMR vaccine–the ...

  13. Knowledge synthesis of benefits and adverse effects of measles vaccination: the Lasbela balance sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Neil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In preparation for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to increase the demand for measles vaccination in Lasbela district of Pakistan, a balance sheet summarized published evidence on benefits and possible adverse effects of measles vaccination. Methods The balance sheet listed: 1 major health conditions associated with measles; 2 the risk among the unvaccinated who contract measles; 3 the risk among the vaccinated; 4 the risk difference between vaccinated and unvaccinated; and 5 the likely net gain from vaccination for each condition. Results Two models revealed very different projections of net gain from measles vaccine. A Lasbela-specific combination of low period prevalence of measles among the unvaccinated, medium vaccination coverage and low vaccine efficacy rate, as revealed by the baseline survey, resulted in less-than-expected gains attributable to vaccination. Modelled on estimates where the vaccine had greater efficacy, the gains from vaccination would be more substantial. Conclusion Specific local conditions probably explain the low rates among the unvaccinated while the high vaccine failure rate is likely due to weaknesses in the vaccination delivery system. Community perception of these realities may have had some role in household decisions about whether to vaccinate, although the major discouraging factor was inadequate access. The balance sheet may be useful as a communication tool in other circumstances, applied to up-to-date local evidence.

  14. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other diseases. In populations with high levels of malnutrition and a lack of adequate health care, up ... intake and treatment of dehydration with WHO-recommended oral rehydration ... are key public health strategies to reduce global measles deaths. The measles ...

  15. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It spreads easily from person to person. It ... down Tiny white spots inside the mouth Sometimes measles can lead to serious problems. There is no ...

  16. Current vaccination status regarding measles among university students in Dresden, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Henna; Schübel, Jeannine; Bergmann, Antje; Kugler, Joachim; Voigt, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Germany aimed to eliminate measles by 2015, but vaccination coverage is still insufficient, especially in respect to adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional survey with 711 students studying a range of subjects showed a high acceptance regarding vaccination. Actual self-reported vaccination rates were lower; only 65.5% of medical students and 25.3%-39.4% of other student groups reported complete vaccination against measles. Of the students, 12.6%-45% did not know their vaccination status. Vaccination acceptance did not correlate with vaccination behavior: accessible vaccination opportunities at universities should be offered.

  17. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.;

    2008-01-01

    -Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4...... children developed measles; 19% of unvaccinated children had measles before 9 months of age. The monthly incidence of measles among the 441 children enrolled in the treatment arm was 0.7% and among the 892 enrolled in the control arm was 3.1%. Early vaccination with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine...... prevented infection; vaccine efficacy for children with serologically confirmed measles and definite clinical measles was 94% (95% confidence interval 77% to 99%), for admissions to hospital for measles was 100% (46% to 100%), and for measles mortality was 100% (-42% to 100%). The number needed to treat...

  18. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication.

  19. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication. PMID:27179915

  20. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall meet the special requirements prescribed in this section. (b) To detect virulent canine distemper virus, each of two canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the Master... from each vaccinate and individually tested for antibody against canine distemper virus. For a...

  1. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Tatem, A; Bjornstad, O N; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; Takahashi, S; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2015-05-01

    Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time to the nearest urban centre (⩾50 000 people) with vaccination data from Demographic Health Surveys to assess how remoteness affects coverage in 26 African countries. Building on a statistical mapping of coverage against age and geographical isolation, we quantified how modifying the rate and age range of vaccine delivery affects national coverage. Our scenario analysis considers increasing the rate of delivery of routine vaccination, increasing the target age range of routine vaccination, and enhanced delivery to remote areas. Geographical isolation plays a key role in defining vaccine inequity, with greater inequity in countries with lower measles vaccine coverage. Eliminating geographical inequities alone will not achieve thresholds for herd immunity, indicating that changes in delivery rate or age range of routine vaccination will be required. Measles vaccine coverage remains far below targets for herd immunity in many countries on the African continent and is likely to be inadequate for achieving rubella elimination. The impact of strategies such as increasing the upper age range eligible for routine vaccination should be considered. PMID:25119237

  2. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Tatem, A; Bjornstad, O N; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; Takahashi, S; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2015-05-01

    Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time to the nearest urban centre (⩾50 000 people) with vaccination data from Demographic Health Surveys to assess how remoteness affects coverage in 26 African countries. Building on a statistical mapping of coverage against age and geographical isolation, we quantified how modifying the rate and age range of vaccine delivery affects national coverage. Our scenario analysis considers increasing the rate of delivery of routine vaccination, increasing the target age range of routine vaccination, and enhanced delivery to remote areas. Geographical isolation plays a key role in defining vaccine inequity, with greater inequity in countries with lower measles vaccine coverage. Eliminating geographical inequities alone will not achieve thresholds for herd immunity, indicating that changes in delivery rate or age range of routine vaccination will be required. Measles vaccine coverage remains far below targets for herd immunity in many countries on the African continent and is likely to be inadequate for achieving rubella elimination. The impact of strategies such as increasing the upper age range eligible for routine vaccination should be considered.

  3. Sequence and immunogenicity of a clinically approved novel measles virus vaccine vector

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Amando; Liniger, Mathias; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Marty, René R.; Wiegand, Marian; Ilter, Orhan; Weibel, Sara; Billeter, Martin A.; Knuchel, Marlyse C.; Naim, Hussein Y

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus vaccine (MVbv) is a clinically certified and well-tolerated vaccine strain that has been given both parenterally and mucosally. It has been extensively used in children and has proven to be safe and effective in eliciting protective immunity. This specific strain was therefore chosen to generate a measles viral vector. The genome of the commercial MVbv vaccine strain was isolated, sequenced and a plasmid, p(+)MVb, enabling transcription of the viral antigenome and rescue of ...

  4. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K;

    1994-01-01

    conducted in Guinea-Bissau. To test for possible long term impact on the immune system, an investigation of T cell subsets was conducted among all children still residing in the community at 3 to 5 years of age. No differences were found between recipients of medium titer vaccine and controls. In the second......Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  5. [Influence of genetic and phenotypical factors on the efficiency of the vaccination of young children against diphtheria and measles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, L A; Shabaldin, A V; Semenova, E M; Glushkov, A N

    2006-01-01

    The child's sex was shown to influence the character of antibody formation only after immunization against diphtheria with live measles vaccine: girls exhibited stronger reaction to vaccination than boys. Children of different gender were found to have characteristic HLA DR markers of humoral immune response to diphtheria toxoid and measles vaccine. HLA DR7 proved to be the marker of low production of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and measles vaccine in boys.

  6. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  7. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.

  8. Vaccination coverage for measles, mumps and rubella in anthroposophical schools in Gelderland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.H.; Lier, A. van; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social clustering of unvaccinated children in anthroposophical schools occurs, as inferred from various measles outbreaks that can be traced to these schools. However, accurate vaccination coverage data of anthroposophical schools are not widely available. METHODS: In 2012, we performed

  9. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone Graff;

    2015-01-01

    -confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study......BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory...

  10. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    OpenAIRE

    Rammohan Anu; Awofeso Niyi; Fernandez Renae C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of p...

  11. Child mortality related to seroconversion or lack of seroconversion after measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K;

    1989-01-01

    When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than seroconvert...

  12. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenea Hailu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentation and may want to evaluate the subsequent impact on their supply chains, the series of steps required to get vaccines from their manufacturers to patients. The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks. Methods We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI. Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes. Results Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164% to means of 59% (range: 4-164%, 62% (range: 4-175%, and 67% (range: 5-192%, respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300% to means of 161% (range: 82-322%, 175% (range: 78-344%, and 198% (range: 88-402%, respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC. The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%. Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively. Conclusions The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per

  13. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik;

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...... of children having received DTP with or after measles vaccine....

  14. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had...... received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea......-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before...

  15. Asthma and allergy in children with and without prior measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Osuna, Christa Elyse; Steuerwald, Ulrike;

    2015-01-01

    -specific IgE was quantified in the child's serum, and at age 13, the children underwent skin prick tests (SPT). The child's vaccination card was reviewed at examinations. RESULTS: At age 5, 533 of 555 children had been vaccinated for MMR. After confounder adjustment we found early life MMR vaccination.......8% (CI 95%: -84.3%; -11.9%) in the vaccinated children. MMR vaccination was not significantly associated with allergic rhinoconjuctivitis symptoms, eczema, or SPT reactions at age 13. CONCLUSIONS: MMR vaccination early in life may have a protective effect against allergy at least up to age 7 and against......BACKGROUND: The existing literature on the association between measles vaccination and subsequent risk of allergic disease is inconclusive. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine whether measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination administered in early childhood was associated...

  16. The safety of measles vaccination%麻疹疫苗接种安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴智勤

    2012-01-01

    Measles remains one of the major causes of death among young children. Measles vaccination is one of the best measures to prevent measles,The safety surveillance of measles vaccination is a key factor to ensure immunization program implementation. This paper reviews the safety of measles vaccination,the surveillance of and response strategies for adverse reactions following measles vaccination.%麻疹仍是造成幼儿死亡的主要原因之一,麻疹疫苗接种是预防麻疹最有效的施措之一,对麻疹疫苗接种的安全性监测是保证免疫计划实施的关键因素.此文阐述了麻疹疫苗接种的安全性、对麻疹疫苗接种不良反应的监测以及应对接种不良反应的策略.

  17. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2013-01-01

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months....

  18. Long-term survival after Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H;

    1993-01-01

    In an urban area of Guinea-Bissau, 384 children were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing morbidity and mortality rates after receiving high-titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine administered from 4 months of age, with a control group receiving inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine at 4...

  19. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuil, J.; van de Putte, E.M.; Zwaan, C.M.; Koole, F.D.; Meire, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocy

  20. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi, stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP vaccines. Methods In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ≤74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+ every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-. After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines. Results For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05. The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05 and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05. In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05. While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+ and 67% (CH- response (P Conclusion Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

  1. Investigation of a Measles Outbreak in China to Identify Gaps in Vaccination Coverage, Routes of Transmission, and Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zheng

    Full Text Available A measles outbreak occurred in a western county of China in 2013, the year after China's historic nadir of measles. We conducted a field investigation to identify gaps in measles vaccination coverage and immunization program weaknesses, and to provide recommendations for measles outbreak response and immunization program improvement.We analyzed surveillance data from 2008 to 2013 to describe the measles epidemiology of the county. Measles-containing vaccine coverage was estimated using two methods: previously-reported administrative coverage and an estimation of coverage by clinic-kept vaccination records (n = 542. We conducted a rapid field coverage assessment in a migrant population village to evaluate coverage after emergency vaccination. We conducted a review of hospital records of measles cases to address the role hospital transmission played during the early stage of this outbreak.There were 153 cases in the outbreak, primarily among children too young to vaccinate, unvaccinated children less than 3 years old, and adults. Measles-containing vaccine coverage by the field assessment showed that 20% of children aged 8-17 months had zero doses, and 9% of ≥2 years old children had fewer than two doses. The vaccination statuses of all adult cases were either zero doses or unknown. At least 61% of cases had been hospitalized. The proportion of cases who had been hospital-exposed 7 to 21 days prior to rash onset decreased from 52% to 22% after hospitals strengthen their isolation measures.This outbreak was a result of measles vaccination coverage gaps among young children and adults, and insufficient hospital isolation of cases. The lower coverage seen in the field estimation compared with reported coverage showed that reported coverage could have been overestimated. Hospitals were sites of transmission in the early stage of the outbreak. A strict hospital isolation policy could decrease spread of measles. Emergency vaccination was associated

  2. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.  Created: 6/30/2014 by : National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Division of Viral Diseases; Healthcare Preparedness Activity (HPA); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/30/2014.

  3. Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign in Ethiopia using oral-fluid antibody surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigatu, Wondatir; Samuel, Dhan; Cohen, Bernard; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lemma, Eshetu; Brown, David W G; Nokes, James

    2008-09-01

    We undertook a study to demonstrate the potential contribution of oral-fluid (OF) antibody prevalence surveys in evaluating measles vaccine campaigns. In Asela town, southern Ethiopia, oral fluids were collected from 1928 children aged 9 months to 5 years attending for campaign immunization in December 1999 and 6 months later, from 745 individuals aged 9 months to 19 years, in the same location. Measles antibody status was determined by microimmune measles specific IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Antibody prevalence was estimated at 48% in children attending for vaccination (pre-campaign), and 85% post-campaign in the comparable age group. The estimated reduction in the susceptible proportion was 75%. In older children the proportion antibody negative post-campaign was 28% in 7-9 year olds, and 13% in 10-14 year olds levels of susceptibility which raise concern over continued measles transmission. This is the first evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign based on oral-fluid seroprevalence surveys and it demonstrates the merit of oral-fluid surveys in informing health authorities about vaccination strategy refinement.

  4. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have found no connection between this or any vaccine and autism. Reviews by all major health organizations in the ... elsewhere all found NO LINK between the MMR vaccine and autism. The study that had first reported a risk ...

  5. Correlates of first dose of measles vaccination delivery and uptake in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renae Fernandez; Anu Rammohan; Niyi Awofeso

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine health systems-related, familial, and cultural factors which influence the delivery and uptake of measles vaccination in Indonesia.Methods: Logistic regression analysis of data collected during the 2007Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey was undertaken by the authors to investigate these factors. The2007 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey dataset is a nationally representative, randomly sampled survey containing15 065 children aged between9and59 months.Results: 72.8% of children had received the measles vaccine. Vaccination coverage was similar for males and females; however, coverage was higher amongst urban children,80.1%, compared to68.5% in rural areas. The key findings of the regression analysis were congruent with the results of previous research targeting vaccination coverage. After controlling for all other factors, maternal age, maternal education, wealth, the use of a skilled birth attendant, and postnatal check-ups were positively and significantly (P< 0.01) correlated with measles vaccination. The number of children per household was negatively correlated (P<0.01).Conclusions: In order to enhance measles vaccination coverage in Indonesia, delivery to, and uptake by, rural and low socio-economic populations require substantial improvements. Mass health education and health systems improvements are also required.

  6. Primary Research of Immunological Mechanism of Combined Hepatitis A-Measles-Varicella Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying-hua; GUAN Feng; ZHANG Xi-zhen; ZHAO Hong-guang; LIU Jing-ye; LIN Cheng-he; WANG Peng-fu

    2011-01-01

    To explore the primary humoral and cellular immunological mechanism of the combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine, the mice were inoculated with hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine by intraperitoneally and two weeks later, blood was collected to observe the mice's immunological status. Antibody level was measured to appraise the humoral immunity. At the same time, T lymphocyte surface marker, NK cell activity, LAK cell activity,delayed type hypersensitivity of skin, M phagocytic function, mRNA level of cytokine IL-2 and IFN-γ plus lymphocyte transformation test were used to analyze the cellular immunity. The humoral immunity results show that the combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine produce the same antibody level as their corresponding univalent vaccine, and maintained fine immunogenicity and security. The result of cellular immunity shows that the combined vaccine could activate physical immunocyte, increase the regulative ability of cytokine, enhance the physical immune function and immune defense ability. The present research proved the security and better humoral and cellular immunity of combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine from the immunological point of view, which laid good foundation for further study and development.

  7. Effect of age on the risk of Fever and seizures following immunization with measles-containing vaccines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Fireman, Bruce; Lewis, Edwin; Nordin, James; Naleway, Allison; Jacobsen, Steven J; Jackson, Lisa A; Tse, Alison; Belongia, Edward A; Hambidge, Simon J; Weintraub, Eric; Baxter, Roger; Klein, Nicola P

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE The first dose of live attenuated measles-containing vaccines is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization among 12- to 23-month-old children. The combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization compared with the separately administered measles, mumps, and rubella and varicella vaccines. It is unknown whether the magnitude of these increased risks depends on age at immunization. OBJECTIVE To examine the potential modifying effect of age on the risk of fever and seizures following immunization with measles-containing vaccines. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study at 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites of a total of 840,348 children 12 to 23 months of age who had received a measles-containing vaccine from 2001 through 2011. EXPOSURES Any measles-containing vaccines and measles-containing vaccines by type. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Fever and seizure events occurring during a 42-day postimmunization observation period. RESULTS In the analysis of any measles-containing vaccines, the increased risk of seizures during the 7- to 10-day risk interval, using the remainder of the observation period as the control interval, was significantly greater among older children (relative risk, 6.5; 95% CI, 5.3-8.1; attributable risk, 9.5 excess cases per 10,000 doses; 95% CI, 7.6-11.5) than among younger children (relative risk, 3.4; 95% CI, 3.0-3.9; attributable risk = 4.0 excess cases per 10,000 doses; 95% CI, 3.4-4.6). The relative risk of postimmunization fever was significantly greater among older children than among younger children; however, its attributable risk was not. In the analysis of vaccine type, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in the risk of fever and 2-fold increase in the risk of seizures compared with measles, mumps, and

  8. Measles vaccine coverage and factors related to uncompleted vaccination among 18-month-old and 36-month-old children in Kyoto, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shigeru

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to low vaccine coverage, Japan has not only experienced outbreaks of measles but has also been exporting it overseas. This study aims to survey measles vaccine coverage and the factors uncompleted vaccination among community-living children. Methods Subjects were the parents whose children had undergone either an 18-month or a 36-month checkup publicly provided by Kyoto City during November 2001 to January 2002. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted. Results The coverage was 73.2% among the 18-month-old children (n = 2707 and 88.9% among the 36-month-old children (n = 2340, respectively. The following characteristics of mothers were related to uncompleted measles vaccination: aged below 30, working, concerned about the adverse events of the vaccine, and had insufficient knowledge. Similarly, the following characteristics among children were related to uncompleted measles vaccination: not the first-born child, interacting with other children in group settings. The coverage was the lowest among the children whose mothers were concerned about the adverse events of the vaccine without proper knowledge of measles and its vaccination. Conclusion To increase vaccine coverage among children, parents' awareness about measles and vaccination against it should be promoted, especially for working mothers. Efforts to enhance access to vaccination services and to communicate with parents about changing vaccination schedules are necessary.

  9. Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A. I.; V. Shanmugam; Switzer, W. M.; Tsang, S. X.; Fadly, A.; Thea, D.; Helfand, R; Bellini, W J; Folks, T M; Heneine, W

    2001-01-01

    The identification of endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) and endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines in current use has raised concern about transmission of these retroviruses to vaccine recipients. We used serologic and molecular methods to analyze specimens from 206 recipients of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine for evidence of infection with ALV and EAV. A Western blot assay for detecting antibodies to endogenous ALV was developed and ...

  10. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine...... is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar...

  11. Genetically defined race, but not sex, is associated with higher humoral and cellular immune responses to measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Emily A; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Larrabee, Beth R; Schaid, Daniel J; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-09-22

    In addition to host genetic and environmental factors, variations in immune responses to vaccination are influenced by demographic variables, such as race and sex. The influence of genetic race and sex on measles vaccine responses is not well understood, yet important for the development of much-needed improved measles vaccines with lower failure rates. We assessed associations between genetically defined race and sex with measles humoral and cellular immunity after measles vaccination in three independent and geographically distinct cohorts totaling 2872 healthy racially diverse children, older adolescents, and young adults. We found no associations between biological sex and either humoral or cellular immunity to measles vaccine, and no correlation between humoral and cellular immunity in these study subjects. Genetically defined race was, however, significantly associated with both measles vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses, with subjects genetically classified as having African-American ancestry demonstrating significantly higher antibody and cell-mediated immune responses relative to subjects of Caucasian ancestry. This information may be useful in designing novel measles vaccines that are optimally effective across human genetic backgrounds. PMID:27591105

  12. Towards Measles elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Mark; Sciberras, Maria

    2003-01-01

    In many European countries measles is still a cause of great public health concern. Outbreaks of the disease are still occurring because the degree of vaccination coverage required to interrupt transmission has not yet been achieved. Many countries have started to implement measles elimination strategies. These are primarily based on attaining a very high coverage of measles vaccination and strengthening measles surveillance systems.

  13. Early Onset Optic Neuritis Following Measles-Rubella Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Moradian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report two cases of optic neuritis with onset less than 24 hours following measles-rubella (MR vaccination. CASE REPORT: Two teenage patients developed acute optic neuritis 6 to 7 hours after MR booster vaccination. The first patient demonstrated bilateral papillitis and severe visual loss but improved significantly with pulse intravenous steroid therapy with methylprednisolone 500 mg/day. The second patient had unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and demonstrated excellent visual recovery without intervention. CONCLUSION: Acute optic neuritis is a rare complication of MR vaccination and may occur early after immunization.

  1. A population-based study of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2002-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish...... Civil Registration System, which assigns a unique identification number to every live-born infant and new resident in Denmark. MMR-vaccination status was obtained from the Danish National Board of Health. Information on the children’s autism status was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central...... the age at the time of vaccination, the time since vaccination, or the date of vaccination and the development of autistic disorder. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that MMR vaccination causes autism....

  2. "CHANGES IN THE EPIDEMILOGY OF MEASLES DUE TO MASS-VACCINATION IN IRAN (1961-1971 "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manteghi

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles is one of the viral and extremely contagious and acute diseases of childhood affecting almost all children. Prior to the discovery of the measles vaccine, the mortality from this disease was one of the highest child mortality figures, especially in the developing countries, with the death rate ranging over 5 to 10% of the infected? Before the vaccination program I was launched in the country, the number of cases of this disease varied between 150.000 to 500,000 during non epidemic and epidemic years, with the mortality more than 10 or 15 per cent the cases in rural and mountainous localities. The available statistics show that the highest figure of measles patient in Iran belongs to the 1-7 years age-group and the highest of its mortality belongs to the age between 1-2 years. In view of the high morbidity and mortality rates of this disease, and thanks to the quick growth under way in public health maters, gradually the significance of this grave problem was more felt. Thus, to control the disease, the ministry of health decided, in 19.6566, to carry out a study program with the help of the Institute of Public Health Research and, with the desired result on hand from the experimental vaccines, to launch a mass vaccination campaign against measles. Consequently, the mass vaccination program was started from 1967, with priority being given to rura1 area and mountainous localities. From 1970, with the cooperation of the ministry of health and Razi Institute the measles vaccine was produced within the country, and, by the end of 1971 the number of vaccinated children was about 3,517,547 which constitutes almost 37% of the susceptible population. The out come has been I an obvious decline in the prevalence and incidence of this disease and an outstanding change in its epidemiological trend. Thus, in the event that the rate of susceptible population coverage by this vaccine (a single shoot or which gives permanent or at least, a long immunity

  3. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys.......Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  4. A correlation of measles specific antibodies and the number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is observed after measles vaccination in 9 month old infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-León, Miguel L; Bonifaz, Laura C; Espinosa-Torres, Bogart; Hernández-Pérez, Brenda; Cardiel-Marmolejo, Lino; Santos-Preciado, José I; Wong-Chew, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) represents one of the main causes of death among young children, particularly in developing countries. Upon infection, MeV controls both interferon induction (IFN) and the interferon signaling pathway which results in a severe host immunosuppression that can persists for up to 6 mo after infection. Despite the global biology of MeV infection is well studied, the role of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) during the host innate immune response after measles vaccination remains largely uncharacterized. Here we investigated the role of pDCs, the major producers of interferon in response to viral infections, in the development of adaptive immune response against MeV vaccine. We report that there is a strong correlation between pDCs population and the humoral immune response to Edmonston Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccination in 9-month-old mexican infants. Five infants were further evaluated after vaccination, showing a clear increase in pDCs at baseline, one week and 3 months after immunization. Three months postvaccination they showed increase in memory T-cells and pDCs populations, high induction of adaptive immunity and also observed a correlation between pDCs number and the humoral immune response. These findings suggest that the development and magnitude of the adaptive immune response following measles immunization is directly dependent on the number of pDCs of the innate immune response. PMID:26075901

  5. A correlation of measles specific antibodies and the number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is observed after measles vaccination in 9 month old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-León, Miguel L; Bonifaz, Laura C; Espinosa-Torres, Bogart; Hernández-Pérez, Brenda; Cardiel-Marmolejo, Lino; Santos-Preciado, José I; Wong-Chew, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) represents one of the main causes of death among young children, particularly in developing countries. Upon infection, MeV controls both interferon induction (IFN) and the interferon signaling pathway which results in a severe host immunosuppression that can persists for up to 6 mo after infection. Despite the global biology of MeV infection is well studied, the role of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) during the host innate immune response after measles vaccination remains largely uncharacterized. Here we investigated the role of pDCs, the major producers of interferon in response to viral infections, in the development of adaptive immune response against MeV vaccine. We report that there is a strong correlation between pDCs population and the humoral immune response to Edmonston Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccination in 9-month-old mexican infants. Five infants were further evaluated after vaccination, showing a clear increase in pDCs at baseline, one week and 3 months after immunization. Three months postvaccination they showed increase in memory T-cells and pDCs populations, high induction of adaptive immunity and also observed a correlation between pDCs number and the humoral immune response. These findings suggest that the development and magnitude of the adaptive immune response following measles immunization is directly dependent on the number of pDCs of the innate immune response.

  6. Experimental studies on the prevention and treatment of chickenpox and herpes zoster with measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W H; Ming, Z L; Chen, Q; Li, Y

    1989-05-01

    In 151 chickenpox patients treated with live attenuated measles vaccine, the cure rate was 100%. In 145 cases of herpes zoster, the effective rate was 100% (completely cured in 91.7% and improved in 8.3%). In the treated group, the time needed for the subsidence of fever and skin rash and the duration of the disease were markedly shorter than those in the control group (P less than 0.01). It is particularly effective for alleviating pain, preventing and relieving postherpetic neuralgia in patients with zoster. The application of measles vaccine to the patients in the chickenpox incubation period might prevent the development of the disease, and decrease the incidence and death rate of varicella zoster virus infection in highly susceptible patients. The mechanism of its anti-viral action and production of interferon in the body is discussed.

  7. Measles Outbreak Associated with Vaccine Failure in Adults--Federated States of Micronesia, February-August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Moturi, Edna; Helgenberger, Louisa; Gopalani, Sameer V; Hales, Craig; Lam, Eugene; Sharapov, Umid; Larzelere, Maribeth; Johnson, Eliaser; Masao, Carolee; Setik, Eleanor; Barrow, Lisa; Dolan, Samantha; Chen, Tai-Ho; Patel, Minal; Rota, Paul; Hickman, Carole; Bellini, William; Seward, Jane; Wallace, Greg; Papania, Mark

    2015-10-01

    On May 15, 2014, CDC was notified of two laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), after 20 years with no reported measles. FSM was assisted by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and CDC in investigating suspected cases, identify contacts, conduct analyses to guide outbreak vaccination response, and review vaccine cold chain practices. During February–August, three of FSM’s four states reported measles cases: Kosrae (139 cases), Pohnpei (251), and Chuuk (3). Two thirds of cases occurred among adults aged ≥20 years; of these, 49% had received ≥2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). Apart from infants aged <12 months who were too young for routine vaccination, measles incidence was lower among children than adults. A review of current cold chain practices in Kosrae revealed minor weaknesses; however, an absence of historical cold chain maintenance records precluded an evaluation of earlier problems. Each state implemented vaccination campaigns targeting children as young as age 6 months through adults up to age 57 years. The preponderance of cases in this outbreak associated with vaccine failure in adults highlights the need for both thorough case investigation and epidemiologic analysis to guide outbreak response vaccination. Routine childhood vaccination coverage achieved in recent years limited the transmission of measles among children. Even in areas where transmission has not occurred for years, maintaining high 2-dose MCV coverage through routine and supplemental immunization is needed to prevent outbreaks resulting from increased measles susceptibility in the population. PMID:26421903

  8. Mumps caused by an inadequately attenuated measles, mumps and rubella vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, WJ; Mathias, RG

    2001-01-01

    PROBLEM: Reports of mumps following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunization.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mumps was caused by immunization or whether there was a concurrent epidemic of a wild strain of mumps.DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of surveillance data and a cohort study of three schools that participated in the campaign.OUTCOME MEASURES: Cases of clinical mumps and orchitis, and immunization history and records were reviewed. The MMR vaccine was produced by the Serum Instit...

  9. Measles Outbreak Associated With Low Vaccine Effectiveness Among Adults in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Craig M; Johnson, Eliaser; Helgenberger, Louisa; Papania, Mark J; Larzelere, Maribeth; Gopalani, Sameer V; Lebo, Emmaculate; Wallace, Greg; Moturi, Edna; Hickman, Carole J; Rota, Paul A; Alexander, Hinden S; Marin, Mona

    2016-03-01

    Background.  A measles outbreak in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia in 2014 affected many persons who had received ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). A mass vaccination campaign targeted persons aged 6 months to 49 years, regardless of prior vaccination. Methods.  We evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of MCV by comparing secondary attack rates among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts after household exposure to measles. Results.  Among 318 contacts, VE for precampaign MCV was 23.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -425 to 87.3) for 1 dose, 63.4% (95% CI, -103 to 90.6) for 2 doses, and 95.9% (95% CI, 45.0 to 100) for 3 doses. Vaccine effectiveness was 78.7% (95% CI, 10.1 to 97.7) for campaign doses received ≥5 days before rash onset in the primary case and 50.4% (95% CI, -52.1 to 87.9) for doses received 4 days before to 3 days after rash onset in the primary case. Vaccine effectiveness for most recent doses received before 2010 ranged from 51% to 57%, but it increased to 84% for second doses received in 2010 or later. Conclusions.  Low VE was a major source of measles susceptibility in this outbreak; potential reasons include historical cold chain inadequacies or waning of immunity. Vaccine effectiveness of campaign doses supports rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns in outbreak settings. PMID:27186587

  10. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  11. Exploring The Impact Of The US Measles Outbreak On Parental Awareness Of And Support For Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Nowak, Glen; Evans, Nathaniel J

    2016-02-01

    Despite consensus among health officials that childhood immunizations are a safe and effective means of protecting people from disease, some parents remain hesitant about vaccinating their children. This hesitancy has been linked to a lack of confidence in recommended vaccinations as well as a desire to delay or further space out scheduled vaccinations but also outright refusal of vaccines. Using two national surveys of parents of children ages five and younger, collected immediately prior to and in the weeks following the 2014-15 US measles outbreak, this study examined the awareness of this vaccine-preventable disease outbreak among parents and whether awareness of the outbreak affected their beliefs about childhood vaccination, confidence, and intentions. The study found that while most parents were aware of the outbreak, many were not, and the level of familiarity mattered, particularly on measures of confidence in vaccines and support for mandates requiring childhood vaccination. Increases in vaccine-related concerns were found as well, indicating that disease outbreaks foster not just awareness of vaccines and their potential to prevent disease but a range of parental responses. PMID:26858389

  12. Measles Outbreak Among Amish Highlights Need for Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particular, some parents are wary of the MMR vaccine because of a purported link to autism. That link, however, has its roots a study from the 1990s that was later found to be fraudulent. "It's a safe and effective vaccine," Gastanaduy said. If parents have any questions about ...

  13. An Epidemiological Study on Measles Cases with Vaccination History of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine%有麻疹减毒活疫苗接种史的麻疹病例流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳荣; 陈恩富; 李倩; 蒋征刚; 何寒青; 凌罗亚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the distribution characteristics of measles cases with vaccination history of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV ) and to provide base data for Measles control and prevention. Methods A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted to analyze measles cases with or without vaccination history of measles attenuated vaccine reported in Zhejiang province in 2009. Results The confirmed measles cases with vaccination history of measles vaccine was obviously lower than (16.44% ) non-measles cases (41.45%). The shortest interval between the latest MV vaccination and onset of measles case was Od, the longest is 25 years, with a median of 3 months. The occurrence of Measles of interval proportions <1 month, 1-11 months, 1-9 years, 10-25 years were 42.10%, 30.19%, 19.50%, 6.92% respectively. The interval distribution was different by age groups. Some symptoms were milder in the cases with MV history than that without MV history. For cases with different interval between recent MV vaccination and onset of measles, conjunctivitis was less in those of 6-10d than others. Conclusion Measles cases with MV history could be resulted from primary or secondary immunization failure, or time vaccinated at the late incubation period. Few cases may actually be vaccine reactions at 6-10d after vaccination.%目的 了解有麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)接种史的麻疹病例的分布特点,为查找原因及提出控制措施提供基础数据.方法 对浙江省2009年报告的有、无MV接种史的麻疹病例进行描述流行病学分析.结果 麻疹确诊病例中,有MV接种史的比例(16.44%)明显低于非麻疹病例(41.45%).末次接种距发病最短间隔为0d,最长为25年,中位数为3个月.接种后<1个月、1~11个月、1~9年、10~25年的发病构成分别为42.10%、30.19%、19.50%、6.92%,不同年龄组末次接种距发病时间分布不同.有MV接种史的麻疹病例与无接种史者相比

  14. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  15. Vaccine effectiveness and risk factors associated with measles among children presenting to the hospitals of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the risk factors regarding guardian's practices associated with development of Measles and also find out effectiveness of Measles vaccine among children less than 12 years of age presenting to the hospitals of Karachi. Study Design: Matched case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Multicenter surveillance was conducted in 11 public and private sector hospitals of Karachi from January 2011 to September 2012 in consultation with World Health Organization Measles Surveillance Cell. Methodology: Cases were children aged less than 12 years with Measles presenting to the hospitals. Controls for cases were enrolled from the same hospitals without Measles, matched for age and gender. Studied variables were analyzed by multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. Results: Measles cases were more likely to have mothers with lower education (adjusted matched Odds Ratio or mOR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2 - 7.6), for < 5 years of schooling adjusted mOR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0 - 5.7) for 6 - 10 years of schooling). Children with Measles were also more likely to be not given breast milk in initial 2 years of life (adjusted mOR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.0 - 7.0). Cases were also more likely to have never received vaccination (adjusted mOR: 10.1, 95% CI 4.5 - 22.5) and having no other children vaccinated at home (adjusted mOR: 3, 95% CI 1.5 - 5.3). Vaccine effectiveness for single dose was found to be 87.4 (95% CI: 76.1 - 93.4), while for two doses it was approximately 93% (95% CI: 86.2 - 96.6). Conclusion: For Measles elimination, mother's education on breast feeding and appropriate weaning practices is required. (author)

  16. A model to estimate the impact of changes in MMR vaccine uptake on inequalities in measles susceptibility in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Gary; Lee, Duncan; Robertson, Chris; Lawson, Andrew; Pollock, Kevin G

    2016-08-01

    An article published in 1998 by Andrew Wakefield in The Lancet (volume 351, pages 637-641) led to concerns surrounding the safety of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, by associating it with an increased risk of autism. The paper was later retracted after multiple epidemiological studies failed to find any association, but a substantial decrease in UK vaccination rates was observed in the years following publication. This paper proposes a novel spatio-temporal Bayesian hierarchical model with accompanying software (the R package CARBayesST) to simultaneously address three key epidemiological questions about vaccination rates: (i) what impact did the controversy have on the overall temporal trend in vaccination rates in Scotland; (ii) did the magnitude of the spatial inequality in measles susceptibility in Scotland increase due to the measles, mumps and rubella vaccination scare; and (iii) are there any covariate effects, such as deprivation, that impacted on measles susceptibility in Scotland. The efficacy of the model is tested by simulation, before being applied to measles susceptibility data in Scotland among a series of cohorts of children who were aged 2.5-4.5, in September of the years 1998 to 2014. PMID:27566772

  17. Evaluation of anti-measles and anti-mumps vaccination coverage in a cohort of youth in South-Centre of Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lo Magno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a cohort of young people from South Centre Sicily, Italy, in order to evaluate anti-measles anti-mumps vaccination coverage. It is shown that, in proportion, an antibody protection against mumps is greater than an antibody protection against measles and also it causes acute episodes in some subjects vaccinated.

  18. Immunological efficacy of Vaccination against Measles in Children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of current vaccination process of cellular, humoral immunity and specific antibody formation in 41 children with Down syndrome at the age of 1 year to 6 years old is observed. To prevent easles used measles vaccine (n=12, divaccine -measles-mumps (n=21 and or Priorix vaccine (n=8. The comparison group consisted of 63 children without Down syndrome. The post-vaccination period in 97,6% of children with Down syndrome cases are asymptomatic, only 2,4% of children mentioned layering of intercurrent diseases. The immunological status in children with Down syndrome is characterized by a significant decrease in the  umber leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and absolute number of CD20+, but functional activity of the cells is preserved. By 30 days after immunization they have increased leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD 95+cells. The number of antibodies significantly increased (6,63±0,33 compared to 5,79±0,32 log2, р < 0,05.

  19. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  20. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara;

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female-male...

  1. Evaluation of the eight-year period of compulsory measles vaccination in the Czech Socialist Republic (CSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejda, J

    1979-01-01

    The object of the study is the evaluation of a more than 8-year period of compulsory vaccination against measles in the CSR. So far, a total of 1,850,000 children have been vaccinated. A pronounced decrease has been achieved in morbidity while mortality and lethality reached zero values as early as in 1973. Changes occur in the epidemiological characteristic of measles manifested primarily by the shift of the age distribution of notified cases into older age groups, by continuous prolongation of interepidemic intervals and by gradual disappearances of typical seasonal incidence. Regular immunological surveys have become the most efficient tools in epidemiological surveillance of this infection and in monitoring the vaccination programme. The results of immunological surveys indeed led to the introduction in 1975 of so-called second vaccination compulsory for children starting the first year of school attendance. Up to the present, a total of 24,000 cases of measles have been recorded in children vaccinated earlier, i.e., 1.5% of the total of vaccinated children. It can be expected that measles as a mass disease will be eliminated from the territory of the CSR in the next few years.

  2. Trials of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Whittle, H; Mordhorst, Camilla;

    1994-01-01

    In two trials of measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau, children were randomized to receive either the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the Schwarz (SW) virus at 9-12 months. In the first trial a medium dose of EZ virus (40,000 p......, 18 and 55%, respectively, were positive in the ELISA and HAI tests. At 18-20 months, the children who had received the EZ vaccine had a seropositivity of 91% by the ELISA method and one of 89% by the HAI method. The equivalent values for the SW group of children were 100 and 96% respectively....... Antibody levels in the EZ group, as measured by either method, were significantly lower than the levels in the SW group. The serological results of the present study suggest that lowering the age at measles vaccination to below 9 months is feasible. However, further studies are needed to determine which...

  3. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months ...... with vaccines given several months later. This may have implications for the planning of future child intervention programs.......BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months...... for children randomized to early MV or no early MV; and second, from 9 to 17 months in children who had received two MV or one MV. Mortality rates (MR) were compared in Cox models producing mortality rate ratios (MRR). RESULTS: A total of 5141 children were randomized to NVAS (N=3015) or placebo (N=2126...

  4. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1. PMID:27523740

  5. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1.

  6. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  7. Measles update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Beginning May 19, 1998, and lasting through the middle of June, a follow-up vaccination campaign which used measles-mumps-rubella vaccine targeted 2,223,210 children, 1-4 years of age, in Venezuela. The vaccinations were performed at day care centers, health posts, and orphanages; door-to-door vaccination was conducted in rural areas. The measles epidemic began in 1992, with 22,321 confirmed cases of measles and 77 deaths; it lasted until early 1994, when there were 16,561 cases and 47 deaths. In 1994, the country launched a "catch-up" vaccination campaign which targeted all children between 9 months and 14 years of age; 98% coverage was reached. Between 1994 and 1996, when routine immunization services were used, the average coverage was 75%. Since the catch-up campaign, the number of confirmed measles cases decreased from 172 in 1995, to 89 in 1996, and to 27 in 1997. As of July 18, 1998, (epidemiological week 28), 452 suspected cases of measles were reported; none were confirmed. Another follow-up campaign will be conducted. In Bolivia, the measles outbreak began May 21, 1998, in areas bordering Argentina. The municipality of Yacuiba, in the department of Tarija, is primarily affected. The municipality, especially the localities of Yacuiba and Pocitos, borders the province of Salta in Argentina, and people cross the border often to shop. As of July 24, 1998, there were 49 suspected measles cases: 22 in Pocitos; 24 in Yacuiba; and 3 in El Palmar. 28 had serum samples taken, and 18 tested positive. The population group most affected were those between 1-4 years of age. A follow-up measles vaccination campaign, which targeted all children under 6 years of age regardless of their vaccination history, was conducted from June 1 to 21, 1998, in Salvador Masa (Argentina), in Pocitos, and in Yacuiba. As of August 10, 1998, in Argentina, 1874 confirmed measles cases and 11 deaths (6 under the age of 1 year) were reported. The first cases appeared in August 1997, in the

  8. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...... a randomized trial providing MV at age 4.5 and 9 months or MV only at age 9 months, thymic size was assessed by ultrasound at age 4.5 months, before randomization to early MV or no early MV, and 4 weeks later. Among 656 children, there was no effect of early MV on thymic size, the geometric mean size ratio...... being 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96-1.02). In a post hoc analysis early MV was associated with a negative effect in healthy children but a positive effect in ill children. In conclusion, early MV at age 4.5 months had no overall effect on thymus size 4 weeks later. Trial registration: http...

  9. Absence of detectable measles virus genome sequence in blood of autistic children who have had their MMR vaccination during the routine childhood immunization schedule of UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M A; Ozoemena, L C; O'Hare, A; Kidger, K A; Bentley, M L; Minor, P D

    2006-05-01

    Leukocyte preparations from children with documented evidence of MMR vaccination and confirmed diagnosis of autism were examined by several assays designed to target multiple regions of the measles virus genome sequence. No sample was found positive by any method. The assays applied were highly sensitive, specific and robust in nature, and were based on the amplification of measles virus RNA transcripts by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) as well as by conventional RT-PCR-nested PCR. The assays applied were potentially able to detect measles virus RNA down to single figure copy numbers per reaction. The amount of total nucleic acid extract of leukocytes subjected to various measles virus-specific investigations was several fold higher than minimally required of a sample where measles virus persistence is well documented. This study failed to substantiate reports of the persistence of measles virus in autistic children with development regression.

  10. Report on public health actions and vaccination strategies to monitor measles epidemic in Local Health Unit A in Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Spadea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: between May 2010 and october 2011 the unit of Preventive Medicine for the developmental ages of district IV, Health unit aSL rM/a, received 136 measles case notifications from the unit of Epidemiology and Prophylaxis of Infectious diseases.
    Methods: in accordance with the infectious diseases monitoring protocol, we introduced a series of preventive measures, such as monitoring subjects in contact with measles-infected patients, recommend- ing the administration of two Measles Mumps and rubella (MMr doses four weeks apart, and informing paediatricians, families and school teachers about the measles epidemic.
    Results: all the activities above led to an increased number of MMr doses administered and a significant improvement of measles immunization coverage among residents of the district IV health unit of rome. concerning MMr 1, in a sample cohort consisting of children ≤24 months, the immunization coverage increased from 77% on the 31/12/09 to 88% on the 31/12/11. Instead, for MMr 2, in a cohort of children ≤6 years, the same ratio improved from 51% on the 31/12/09 to 65% on the 31/12/11.
    Discussion: the results indicate a material increase in the immunization coverage once our public health actions and vaccination strategies had been implemented among young residents of district IV aSL rM/a...

  11. An evaluation of respiratory administration of measles vaccine for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav Suresh S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles was responsible for an estimated 100,000 deaths worldwide in 2008. Despite being a vaccine-preventable disease, measles remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Although a safe and effective injectable measles vaccine has been available for over 50 years it has not been possible to achieve the uniformly high levels of coverage (required to achieve measles eradication in most parts of the developing world. Aerosolised measles vaccines are now under development with the hope of challenging the delivery factors currently limiting the coverage of the existing vaccine. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments to assess the strengths and weaknesses of this emerging intervention to decrease the burden of childhood pneumonia. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging aerosol vaccines against measles relevant to several criteria of interest. Although there are a number of different aerosol vaccine approaches under development, for the purpose of this exercise, all were considered as one intervention. The criteria of interest were: answerability; cost of development, production and implementation; efficacy and effectiveness; deliverability, affordability and sustainability; maximum potential impact on disease burden reduction; acceptability to the end users and health workers; and effect on equity. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to the sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each

  12. 75 FR 48715 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ..., rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and trivalent influenza vaccines... we stopped vaccinating. 2. Who should get MMR vaccine and when? Children should get 2 doses of MMR.../vaccinecompensation vaccinecompensation. 7. How can I learn more? Ask your provider. They can give you the...

  13. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H;

    1994-01-01

    -titre measles vaccine have found increased mortality among female recipients, we examined whether EZ medium-titre vaccine was associated with any long-term impact on mortality, suppression of T-cells, or growth. The mortality rate ratio over 5 years of follow-up was 1.12 for EZ children compared with children......A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of high...... in the standard group (P = 0.63). Seventy-five percent of the children still residing in the area at 5 years of age took part in an immunological and anthropometric examination. There was no difference in T-cell subsets between the two groups. There was no difference in mid-upper-arm circumference, but EZ...

  14. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months...... of age (current policy). Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting The Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area. Participants 6648 children aged 4.5 months of age who had received three doses of diphtheria......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...

  15. In situ tumor vaccination with adenovirus vectors encoding measles virus fusogenic membrane proteins and cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis Hoffmann; Wibke Bayer; Oliver Wildner

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether intratumoral expression of measles virus fusogenic membrane glycoproteins H and "F (MV-FMG), encoded by an adenovirus vector Ad.MV-H/ F, alone or in combination with local coexpression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-21 or GM-CSF), can serve as a platform for inducing tumor-specific immune responses in colon cancer.METHODS: We used confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry to analyze cell-cell fusion after expression of MV-FMG by dye colocalization. In a syngeneic bilateral subcutaneous MC38 and Colon26 colon cancer model in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, we assessed the effect on both the directly vector-treated tumor as well as the contralateral, not directly vector-treated tumor. We assessed the induction of a tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response with a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay.RESULTS: We demonstrated in vitro that transduction of MC38 and Colon26 cells with Ad.MV-H/F resulted in dye colocalization, indicative of cell-cell fusion. In addition, in the syngeneic bilateral tumor model we demonstrated a significant regression of the directly vector-inoculated tumor upon intratumoral expression of MV-FMG alone or in combination with the tested cytokines. We observed the highest anti-neoplastic efficacy with MV-FMG and IL-21 coexpression. The degree of tumor regression of the not directly vector-treated tumor correlated with the anti-neoplastic response of the directly vector-treated tumor. This regression was mediated by a tumor-specific CTL response.CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that intratumoral expression of measles virus fusogenic membrane glycoproteins is a promising tool both for direct tumor treatment as well as for tumor vaccination approaches that can be further enhanced by cytokine coexpression.

  16. Noninterference of Rotavirus Vaccine With Measles-Rubella Vaccine at 9 Months of Age and Improvements in Antirotavirus Immunity: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K.; Fleming, Jessica A.; Victor, John C.; Yunus, Mohammad; Bari, Tajul Islam A.; Azim, Tasnim; Rahman, Mustafizur; Mowla, Syed Mohammad Niaz; Bellini, William J.; McNeal, Monica; Icenogle, Joseph P.; Lopman, Ben; Parashar, Umesh; Cortese, Margaret M.; Steele, A. Duncan; Neuzil, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The burden of rotavirus morbidity and mortality is high in children aged <5 years in developing countries, and evaluations indicate waning protection from rotavirus immunization in the second year. An additional dose of rotavirus vaccine may enhance the immune response and lengthen the period of protection against disease, but coadministration of this dose should not interfere with immune responses to concurrently given vaccines. Methods. A total of 480 9-month-old participants from Matlab, Bangladesh, were enrolled in a study with a primary objective to establish noninferiority of concomitant administration of measles-rubella vaccine (MR) and a third dose of human rotavirus vaccine (HRV; MR + HRV), compared with MR given alone. Secondary objectives included noninferiority of rubella antibody seroconversion and evaluating rotavirus IgA/IgG seroresponses in MR + HRV recipients. Results. Two months after vaccination, 75.3% and 74.3% of MR + HRV and MR recipients, respectively, had seroprotective levels of measles virus antibodies; 100.0% and 99.6%, respectively, showed anti–rubella virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroprotection. In the MR + HRV group, antirotavirus immunoglobulin A and IgG seropositivity frequencies before vaccination (52.7% and 66.3%, respectively) increased to 69.6% and 88.3% after vaccination. Conclusions. Vaccine-induced measles and rubella antibody responses are not negatively affected by concomitant administration of HRV. The HRV dose increases antirotavirus serum antibody titers and the proportion of infants with detectable antirotavirus antibody. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01700621. PMID:26823338

  17. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmila Mallik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders

  18. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-12-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system. PMID:23115416

  19. Factors associated with non-vaccination against measles in northeastern Brazil: Clues about causes of the 2015 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hermano A L; Correia, Luciano L; Campos, Jocileide S; Silva, Anamaria C; Andrade, Francisca O; Silveira, Dirlene I; Machado, Márcia M; Leite, Álvaro J; Cunha, Antônio J L A

    2015-09-11

    Measles is a highly contagious disease that can be effectively prevented through vaccination. The recent increase in vaccination coverage was successful in reducing the mortality globally of the disease by 74%. As a whole, the Americas have been considered a disease-free zone. However, it is known that if an immunization programs fails, there will be an accumulation of susceptible people that can lead to disease outbreaks. Recently, both the United States and Brazil faced outbreaks of measles. The present study aims to identify the determining factors of non-vaccination in Brazil in two different vaccination coverage moments, to provide clues as to the causes of current outbreaks. Data were drawn from five population-based cross-sectional studies that surveyed a representative sample of preschool children from 1987 to 2007 (9585 children in total). To assess children's vaccination status, two different information sources were used: information provided by mothers and information from children's health cards. Multivariate analyses with logistic binary regression models were conducted. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that in 1987, with 48.2% vaccination coverage, socioeconomic, maternal, nutritional factors and access to health facilities were important, while in 2007 (96.7% coverage), nutritional and maternal factors were important. Distinct patterns of determinants of non-vaccination were also found. In addition, the low coverage in 1987 resulted in a current pool of adults who were not immunized as children; this may have contributed to the beginning of the current Brazilian outbreak. Globally, there are two standards of vaccination coverage (low and high). Therefore, discussion of the determinants of non-vaccination is important. Our findings suggest vulnerable groups should receive special attention to ensure they are protected. It is also important to consider the possible impact of pools of adults not immunized. PMID:26215369

  20. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children No período de março de 1991 a abril de 1992, 250 casos de um total de 293 notificados como sarampo em Niterói, RJ foram estudados. Em 75,9% dos casos o sarampo ocorreu em pessoas de idade escolar (mediana: 11. História de exposição estava presmte em 149 pacientes. O local de transmissão variou de acordo com a idade sendo a escola o mais freqüentemente encoiitrado (45%. Em 127 casos o estado vacinai era conhecido e 76,4% deles tinham sido vacinados antes do primeiro aniversário. Em 68 casos uma ou mais complicações estavam presentes e em 8,9% deles a hospitalização foi necessária. Complicações foram mais freqüentes em menores de um ano de idade (55,6%. História de vacinação prévia não diminuiu o número de complicações dos casos estudados. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram mudanças na epidemiologia do sarampo, com alterações na distribuição etária dos casos da doença, leimido ã ocoiTência de importantes surtos da virose entre adolecentes e adultos jovens.

  1. Differential induction of type I interferons in macaques by wild-type measles virus alone or with the hemagglutinin protein of the Edmonston vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nguyen, Nguyen; Kato, Sei-Ich; Nagata, Kyosuke; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Measles vaccines are highly effective and safe; however, the mechanism(s) underlying their attenuation has not been well understood. In this study, type I IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) induction in macaques infected with measles virus (MV) strains was examined. Type I IFNs were not induced in macaques infected with wild-type MV. However, IFN-α was sharply induced in most macaques infected with recombinant wild-type MV bearing the hemagglutinin (H) protein of the Edmonston vaccine strain. These results indicate that the H protein of MV vaccine strains may have a role in MV attenuation. PMID:27278100

  2. [Attitudes and knowledge among parents who do not want their children to be vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella (MFR-vaccination)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haurum, J; Johansen, M

    1991-03-01

    In a questionnaire investigation concerning attitudes to and knowledge about MFR vaccination among 81 parents who did not want their children to be vaccinated against measles, mumps and German measles, the parents could be divided into two main groups with reasons formulated in advance: 41% stated that "infectious diseases are beneficial for children" including here their somatic and mental development and the parent-child relationship. The remaining parents based their attitudes on defective knowledge about MFR vaccination, fear of side effects, erroneous contraindications and attitudes such as: the MFR diseases are not serious and vaccination may cause serious disease, does not protect effectively or lowers the resistance of the population and that economy is a poor argument in favour of vaccination. Parents who were critical about the total information concerning the MFR programme were also more critical about their general practitioner than the remaining parents. 80% stated that the MFR programme had been introduced because it involved social economy while 56% thought that health benefits were the reason. It is concluded that further well-directed information about the MFR programme is essential, if the necessary vaccine coverage is to be obtained. PMID:2008713

  3. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia C.; Kabuluzi, Storn; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Mwansambo, Charles; Costello, Anthony; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Bar-Zeev, Naor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Methods Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Results Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7–36), 19 days (IQR 8–36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3–46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Conclusion Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes. PMID:27152612

  4. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzie Mvula

    Full Text Available Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV. We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting.Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression.Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36, 19 days (IQR 8-36 for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46 for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule.Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

  5. A ‘post-honeymoon’ measles epidemic in Burundi: mathematical model-based analysis and implications for vaccination timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Katelyn C.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mathematical model with realistic demography, we analyze a large outbreak of measles in Muyinga sector in rural Burundi in 1988–1989. We generate simulated epidemic curves and age × time epidemic surfaces, which we qualitatively and quantitatively compare with the data. Our findings suggest that supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) should be used in places where routine vaccination cannot keep up with the increasing numbers of susceptible individuals resulting from population growth or from logistical problems such as cold chain maintenance. We use the model to characterize the relationship between SIA frequency and SIA age range necessary to suppress measles outbreaks. If SIAs are less frequent, they must expand their target age range. PMID:27672515

  6. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. METHOD: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran. Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42 years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5, and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5. One hundred sixty-eight women (96% had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7% had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01, immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.

  7. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect...... on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo...... on cytokine responses differed by previous VAS: in previous VAS recipients, VAS increased the pro-inflammatory and T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses, whereas VAS decreased these responses in previously unsupplemented children. In previous VAS recipients, VAS was associated with increased IFN...

  8. INTRALESIONAL MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA (MMR VACCINE-AN EFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TOOL IN THE TREATMENT OF WART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are common cutaneous viral infection. Various therapeutic modalities have been using in treatment of wart, but none of them are standardised. Immunotherapy is new current approach in the treatment of wart. AIMS: To know the efficacy and safety profile of Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR Vaccine in the treatment of wart. METHODS: MMR vaccine was injected into a largest single wart intralesionally and subsequent injections given every 2 weeks apart for about 3 to 5 times. Every month followup of patients was done to know the clearance of wart. RESULTS: Complete remission of warts seen in 70.4% of patients, partial remission seen in 22.2% and no response was seen in 7.4% of patients. No serious adverse side effects were seen in the current study. CONCLUSION: MMR vaccine can be considered as a safe, effective, inexpensive intralesional immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of wart.

  9. Live attenuated measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus like particles covered with gp160ΔV1V2 is strongly immunogenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a live attenuated HIV vaccine is not currently considered for safety reasons, a strategy inducing both T cells and neutralizing antibodies to native assembled HIV-1 particles expressed by a replicating virus might mimic the advantageous characteristics of live attenuated vaccine. To this aim, we generated a live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) covered with gp160ΔV1V2 Env protein. The measles-HIV virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and induced the intense budding of HIV particles covered with Env. In mice sensitive to MV infection, this recombinant vaccine stimulated high levels of cellular and humoral immunity to both MV and HIV with neutralizing activity. The measles-HIV virus infected human professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and B cells, and induced efficient presentation of HIV-1 epitopes and subsequent activation of human HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell clones. This candidate vaccine will be next tested in non-human primates. As a pediatric vaccine, it might protect children and adolescents simultaneously from measles and HIV.

  10. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir Stay safe and healthy when traveling abroad. Measles spreads easily through coughing and sneezing. It ... vaccinated for measles before you travel . Are you traveling abroad? You might not think about measles when you ...

  11. Analysis of 7 measles cases associated with the first dose vaccination of measles and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine%7例首剂麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗相关麻疹病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东彦; 毛雯雯; 王中战; 张建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of measles cases associated with the immunization of measles and rubella (MR) combine vaccine and provide evidence for differential diagnosis of measles and MR vaccine associated measles. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of MR vaccine associated measles in Fengtai in 2011. Results Seven MR vaccine associated measles cases were laboratory confirmed in 2011. All the cases were infants aged 8-9 months receving the first dose of MR vaccine injection. All the vaccines used were qualified and in different batches. The incidence was 2. 5 per 10 000 doses. No time and space clustering of the cases was observed, and no second cases occurred. The clinical manifestations of the cases were characterized by respiratory symptom and short interval between fever and rash. Conclusion There are differences in clinical manifestations, laboratory detection results and epidemiological characteristics between measles cases and MR vaccine associated measles cases. Close attention should be paid in differential diagnosis.%目的 调查麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(measles and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine,MR)相关麻疹病例(a vaccine-associated measles case)的特点,与麻疹病例进行鉴别.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对丰台区2011年MR相关麻疹病例进行分析.结果 2011年丰台区实验室确诊7例MR相关麻疹病例,均为8~9月龄幼儿首次接种MR,所用疫苗均为合格疫苗,无批号聚集.发病率为2.5/万剂.病例发病无时间、地点聚集性,与麻疹病例无流行病学联系,亦无二代病例出现,临床表现无咳嗽及呼吸道卡他症状,发热与出疹间隔期短.结论 疫苗相关病例与麻疹病例在临床表现、实验室检测和流行病学特征上有所不同,基层工作者应在实际工作中加以鉴别.

  12. A serologic study of Measles in association with the history of vaccination in 7-11 years old children in Rey in 1371

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari Azad T; Naghavi M; Rakhshandeh

    1994-01-01

    201 blood samples were collected by cluster sampling from 7-11 years old children and measles antibody titer was measured by hemagglutination inhibition test. Despite testing all the sera, the results were analysed on the 139 samples that had documented vaccination records and no history of measles. Among 139 children 44 had received 2 doses of vaccine one dose before 12 and one after 15 months, 64 had one dose after 15 months, 29 had only one dose before 12 months and 2 had not received vacc...

  13. Sequence analysis of measles virus strains collected during the pre- and early-vaccination era in Denmark reveals a considerable diversity of ancient strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Schöller, S.; Schierup, M. H.;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis of the he...... lineages but merely members of an evolutionary continuum of pre-vaccination era MV strains which by chance or due to an improved capability survived the worldwide partial herd immunity accomplished through vaccination....

  14. Association of BCG, DTP, and measles containing vaccines with childhood mortality: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Weiser, Karla; López-López, José A; Kakourou, Artemisia; Chaplin, Katherine; Christensen, Hannah; Martin, Natasha K; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Reingold, Arthur L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects on non-specific and all cause mortality, in children under 5, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV); to examine internal validity of the studies; and to examine any modifying effects of sex, age, vaccine sequence, and co-administration of vitamin A. Design Systematic review, including assessment of risk of bias, and meta-analyses of similar studies. Study eligibility criteria Clinical trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies of the effects on mortality of BCG, whole cell DTP, and standard titre MCV in children under 5. Data sources Searches of Medline, Embase, Global Index Medicus, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, supplemented by contact with experts in the field. To avoid overlap in children studied across the included articles, findings from non-overlapping birth cohorts were identified. Results Results from 34 birth cohorts were identified. Most evidence was from observational studies, with some from short term clinical trials. Most studies reported on all cause (rather than non-specific) mortality. Receipt of BCG vaccine was associated with a reduction in all cause mortality: the average relative risks were 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.01) from five clinical trials and 0.47 (0.32 to 0.69) from nine observational studies at high risk of bias. Receipt of DTP (almost always with oral polio vaccine) was associated with a possible increase in all cause mortality on average (relative risk 1.38, 0.92 to 2.08) from 10 studies at high risk of bias; this effect seemed stronger in girls than in boys. Receipt of standard titre MCV was associated with a reduction in all cause mortality (relative risks 0.74 (0.51 to 1.07) from four clinical trials and 0.51 (0.42 to 0.63) from 18 observational studies at high risk of bias); this effect seemed stronger in girls than in boys. Seven observational studies

  15. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...... months of age the mortality rate ratio of children who received two doses of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those who received a single dose of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine or Schwarz vaccine at 9 months of age was 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 1...

  16. Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign by oral-fluid surveys in a rural Kenyan district: interpretation of antibody prevalence data using mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuma, E O; Okiro, E A; Bett, A; Abwao, J; Were, S; Samuel, D; Vyse, A; Gay, N; Brown, D W G; Nokes, D J

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a measles vaccine campaign in rural Kenya, based on oral-fluid surveys and mixture-modelling analysis. Specimens were collected from 886 children aged 9 months to 14 years pre-campaign and from a comparison sample of 598 children aged 6 months post-campaign. Quantitative measles-specific antibody data were obtained by commercial kit. The estimated proportions of measles-specific antibody negative in children aged 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years were 51%, 42% and 27%, respectively, pre- campaign and 18%, 14% and 6%, respectively, post-campaign. We estimate a reduction in the proportion susceptible of 65-78%, with approximately 85% of the population recorded to have received vaccine. The proportion of 'weak' positive individuals rose from 35% pre-campaign to 54% post-campaign. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the campaign in reducing susceptibility to measles and demonstrate the potential of oral-fluid studies to monitor the impact of measles vaccination campaigns.

  17. Description of two measles outbreaks in the Lazio Region, Italy (2006-2007. Importance of pockets of low vaccine coverage in sustaining the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magurano Fabio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the launch of the national plan for measles elimination, in Italy, immunization coverage remains suboptimal and outbreaks continue to occur. Two measles outbreaks, occurred in Lazio region during 2006-2007, were investigated to identify sources of infection, transmission routes, and assess operational implications for elimination of the disease. Methods Data were obtained from several sources, the routine infectious diseases surveillance system, field epidemiological investigations, and molecular genotyping of virus by the national reference laboratory. Results Overall 449 cases were reported, sustained by two different stereotypes overlapping for few months. Serotype D4 was likely imported from Romania by a Roma/Sinti family and subsequently spread to the rest of the population. Serotype B3 was responsible for the second outbreak which started in a secondary school. Pockets of low vaccine coverage individuals (Roma/Sinti communities, high school students facilitated the reintroduction of serotypes not endemic in Italy and facilitated the measles infection to spread. Conclusions Communities with low vaccine coverage represent a more serious public health threat than do sporadic susceptible individuals. The successful elimination of measles will require additional efforts to immunize low vaccine coverage population groups, including hard-to-reach individuals, adolescents, and young adults. An enhanced surveillance systems, which includes viral genotyping to document chains of transmission, is an essential tool for evaluating strategy to control and eliminate measles

  18. Effects of the live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, Marloes W; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Armbrust, Wineke; Swart, Joost; Gorter, Simone; de Vries, Lara D; Smits, Gaby P; van Gageldonk, Pieter G; Berbers, Guy A M; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The immunogenicity and the effects of live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are matters of concern, especially in patients treated with immunocompromising therapies. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether M

  19. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

  20. EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF A COMBINATION –MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA VACCINE IN THE TREATMENT OF PLANTAR WARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagat Sobhy Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The treatment of patients with plantar warts continues to be a frustrating matter for both primary care physicians and dermatologists. There are new trends towards the use of immunotherapy in treatment of warts, as the immune system seems to play an important role in the control of warts infection. Aim: Assessing the efficacy of intralesional injection of MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella in the treatment of plantar warts. Patients: One hundred patients complaining of plantar warts were included in this study. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1: This group included 50 patients subjected to intralesional injection of measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR. Group 2: This group included 50 patients as a control group and subjected to intralesional injection of 0.3 ml saline. Only single wart was injected. Injections were done at 3-weeks interval until complete clearance or for a maximum of 3 treatments. Follow up of patients was done every month for six months for clinical assessment of results and to show any recurrence. Results: Regarding the response of the target wart, MMR- treated group showed significantly higher rate of complete clearance compared with the control group (82% versus 0% respectively. The rate of partial response was 6% versus 30%, and the rate of no response was 12% versus 70%, respectively. Regarding the response of untreated distant warts, MMR-treated group showed 86.9% complete and 13.1% partial clearance of the warts whereas the control group showed 100% no response. This strongly indicates the development of a widespread HPV-targeted immunity as a response of antigen injection and represents a major advantage of the intra lesional immunotherapy. Conclusions: We found that treatment of plantar warts by MMR vaccine is effective, with good cure rates and excellent safety profile..

  1. Is there a 'regressive phenotype' of Autism Spectrum Disorder associated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine? A CPEA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer; Luyster, Rhiannon; Risi, Susan; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Dunn, Michelle; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan L; McMahon, William M; Goudie-Nice, Julie; Minshew, Nancy; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M Anne; Goldberg, Wendy A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Volkmar, Fred R; Lord, Catherine

    2006-04-01

    A multi-site study of 351 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 31 typically developing children used caregiver interviews to describe the children's early acquisition and loss of social-communication milestones. For the majority of children with ASD who had experienced a regression, pre-loss development was clearly atypical. Children who had lost skills also showed slightly poorer outcomes in verbal IQ and social reciprocity, a later mean age of onset of autistic symptoms, and more gastrointestinal symptoms than children with ASD and no regression. There was no evidence that onset of autistic symptoms or of regression was related to measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. The implications of these findings for the existence of a 'regressive phenotype' of ASD are discussed.

  2. The Reemergence of Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, C L; Safdar, N

    2015-12-01

    Measles, or rubeola, is a highly infectious, acute viral illness of childhood that is considered eliminated in the USA but has reemerged in the past few years. Globally, an estimated 20 million cases of measles continue to occur, and it remains a leading cause of death among young children. It is rare in the USA and other first world countries, but numerous outbreaks have occurred in the USA recently, due to a combination of factors including poor vaccine coverage and importation of cases among travelers returning from endemic areas. The diagnosis of measles is usually made clinically, when an individual presents with a constellation of symptoms including cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, high fever, and an erythematous maculopapular rash in a cephalocaudal distribution. Complications are common and include otitis media, pneumonia, encephalitis, and rarely death. A measles vaccine is available in two doses and provides excellent protection against the disease. Despite this, vaccination coverage, especially among young adults, remains poor. Given its resurgence in the USA and other countries, interventions are urgently needed to address low vaccination rates and vaccine hesitancy. Measles awareness should also be a priority among young clinicians, who may have never seen a case or are not familiar with the disease. PMID:26446612

  3. 南昌市儿童家长对麻疹疫苗再次强化免疫态度调查%Investigation on attitude about measles vaccine strengthen Immunization again among children s guardian in nanchang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊昌辉; 廖征; 文海蓉; 张艳霞; 彭时辉; 陈淑华; 李剑; 万刚凤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the children parents attitude about measles vaccine strengthen immunization, and provide scientific basis for elimination the measles. Method Using household survey method to investigate the children's parents. Results Attitude about Measles vaccine strengthen immunization among children's parents are different in gender, profession , spousea'profession. usual attitude of the children vaccinated. urban and rural locations, number of children, living witb children, vaccine safety, knowing measles vaccine strengthen immunization, vaccinating measles vaccine, and there are statistically significant difference between them. Conclusions Children's guardian'attitude about measles vaccine strengthen immunization are related to gender, profession, spouses'profession, usual attitude of the children vaccinated, urban and rural locations, number of children, living with children, vaccine safety, knowing measles vaccine strengthen immunization and vaccinating measles vaccine. Because of this we should take appropriate strategy to improve measles vaccine strengthen immunization coverage rates.%目的 了解儿童家长对再次麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度,为消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 采用入户调查方式对儿童家长进行调查.结果 儿童家长对麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度在性别、职业、配偶职业、平时对孩子接种疫苗态度、城乡位置、孩子数量、与孩子同住、接种疫苗安全、知道麻疹疫苗强化免疫及其孩子强化接种麻疹疫苗这10个方面的差异具有统计学意义.结论 儿童家长对于麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度与性别、职业、配偶职业、平时重视孩子接种疫苗态度、城乡位置、孩子数量、与孩子同住、接种疫苗安全、知道麻疹疫苗强化免疫及其孩子强化接种麻疹疫苗因素有关,应采取针对性策略,提高麻疹疫苗的强化接种率.

  4. 母亲接种麻疹疫苗对婴儿首针麻疹疫苗免疫效果的影响%Evaluation on the influence of mothers' measles vaccination before pregnancy on the immune effect of infant's first-dose measles vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永成; 高志刚; 张颖; 张之伦; 曲江文; 丁亚兴; 田宏; 陈德荣; 刘明珠

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价母亲接种麻疹疫苗后对婴儿首针麻疹疫苗免疫成功率的影响,了解孕妇和婴儿的麻疹抗体水平及其关系.方法 按照近10年内母亲是否接种含麻疹成分疫苗选择研究对象,追踪监测孕妇分娩前、新生儿出生时、婴儿8月龄免疫前和接种疫苗后1个月的麻疹IgG抗体水平,采用ELISA法检测.抗体效价>200 mIU/mL为阳性,>1 000 mIU/mL为保护性抗体水平阳性.采用t检验和卡方检验.结果 共调查107对研究对象,其中接种疫苗组41对,未接种疫苗组66对.母亲接种疫苗组新生儿麻疹保护性抗体阳性21名,占51.2%,未接种疫苗组阳性19名,占28.8%(x2 =5.436,P=0.020);新生儿麻疹保护性抗体几何平均效价(GMC)分别为735.3和566.7 mIU/mL(t'=2.064,P=0.043);两组分别检测36名和60名免疫前后的婴儿,母亲接种疫苗组首针免疫成功率为91.7%,未接种疫苗组为90.0%(校正x2=0.075,P=0.785);免疫后1个月麻疹保护性抗体GMC分别为1 055.6和926.0 mIU/mL(t=1.648,P=0.103).结论 母亲接种含麻疹成分疫苗后不影响8月龄婴儿首针麻疹疫苗的免疫成功率和抗体效价,能提高孕妇和新生儿麻疹保护性抗体阳性率,抗体效价也显著增高.%Objective To evaluate the influence of mothers' measles vaccination on the success rate of infants' first-dose measles vaccination and to access the relationship between mothers' anti-measles antibody levels and their infants'.Methods The recruited pregnant women were divided into two groups according to their measles vaccination history in recent 10 years,and their anti measles IgG antibody levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The anti-measles antibody levels of the corresponding infants were detected by ELISA at birth,8-months after birth (before measles vaccination)and one month after measles vaccination.The concentration of anti-measles IgG antibody >200 mIU/mL was considered as seropositive,and 1

  5. Seroprevalence of antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella, and serologic responses after vaccination among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected adults in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiwarith, Romanee; Praparattanapan, Jutarat; Nuket, Khanuengnit; Kotarathitithum, Wilai; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai

    2016-01-01

    Background After the global implementation of national immunization programs for prevention of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), the prevalences of protective antibodies to these viruses are high in general population. However, there are limited data among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected individuals. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to these viruses, and the serologic responses after vaccination among HIV-infected adults in Northern Thailand. Metho...

  6. Measles control: a global battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Measles kills about 1.4 million children each year. To bring about reductions in measles cases and deaths, WHO has made some recommendations. Public health officials at the community, district, and national levels need to achieve at least 90% measles vaccine coverage. This coverage level reduces cases and deaths, but may not stop transmission. The primary goal should be that health workers deliver at least 1 dose of measles vaccine to all children at the scheduled age. Several complementary strategies are needed within each country to achieve this high coverage. In situations where there is a high incidence of measles in a defined subgroup of older children, older children should receive extra doses of vaccine when they enter school. In-service training of hospital and clinic staff should reduce the number of missed opportunities (i.e., children who visit health facilities but who are not screened and administered needed immunizations). Public health workers need to identify reasons for high drop-out rates and take corrective action. Limited resources should be directed to high risk areas: areas with high population density, low measles immunization coverage, known vitamin A deficiency, or high reported measles incidence or death rate. Unimmunized urban poor children, underserved ethnic minorities, refugees, people in underserved border areas, children admitted to the hospital, and infants of HIV positive mothers comprise high risk groups. Measles outbreaks occur even in areas where measles immunization coverage is high. Control measures are not always effective, especially if taken late in an epidemic. At the very least, health officials should gather data on cases and death (e.g., date of onset and immunization status). They should determine why the outbreak took place. If possible, they should conduct a vaccine efficacy study. To reduce deaths from measles by 95%, immunization, treatment of measles and its complications at an early stage, and vitamin A

  7. Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as an intralesional immunotherapy in treatment of warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti N. Shah

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Intralesional immunotherapy with MMR vaccine was found to be a simple, effective, and safe treatment for warts. This study proved to be cost effective as patients can be treated with just 03 doses of MMR vaccine given at the interval of two weeks. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 472-476

  8. Case based measles surveillance in Pune: evidence to guide current and future measles control and elimination efforts in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sekhar Bose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011 are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. METHODS: Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. RESULTS: Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1. CONCLUSION: Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.

  9. Measles eradication: experience in the Americas.

    OpenAIRE

    de Quadros, C. A.; Hersh, B S; Nogueira, A. C.; Carrasco, P. A.; da Silveira, C. M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994, the Ministers of Health from the Region of the Americas targeted measles for eradication from the Western Hemisphere by the year 2000. To achieve this goal, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) developed an enhanced measles eradication strategy. First, a one-time-only "catch-up" measles vaccination campaign is conducted among children aged 9 months to 14 years. Efforts are then made to vaccinate through routine health services ("keep-up") at least 95% of each newborn cohort at...

  10. 常州市两次麻疹强化免疫效果比较%Comparison of Two Measles Vaccine Supplement Immunity Activity in Changzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琴; 郝超; 张建陶; 姚杏娟; 卞琛; 韩长磊; 凌良健

    2011-01-01

    目的 对比常州市两次麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)强化免疫(SIA)的效果,探讨麻疹控制措施.方法 用描述流行病学分析方法,对比常州市两次麻疹SIA效果.结果 2007年11月MV SIA后,2008年麻疹报告发病率为24.13/10万,较2007年上升91.66%;SIA后8个月麻疹发病同比平均上升118.57%;<15岁年龄组发病构成比同比上升11.17%;SIA前后常住、流动儿童麻疹疫苗接种率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).2009年4月开展MVSIA,SIA前麻疹发病同比平均上升221.30%;SIA后8个月麻疹发病同比平均下降88.69%,<15岁年龄组发病构成比同比下降50.03%;SIA后流动儿童麻疹疫苗接种率明显提高(P<0.05).结论 2007年MV SIA低覆盖是SIA后麻疹高发的主要原因,2009年开展的高质量MV SIA成功削平了麻疹发病高峰.政府参与、多部门配合是开展高质量MV SIA的基础.%Objective To Contrast two measles attenuated live vaccine(MV) supplementary immunization activity(SIA) in Changzhou city and approach measures of measles elimination.Methods Comparison of the different characteristics between two MV SIA was conducted with descriptive epidemiology.Results After SIA in Nov.2007, the reported measles incidence was 24.13/100 000, and increased by 91.60% in 2008 than that in 2007; During the following 8 months after MV SIA ,the reported measles incidence increased by 118.57% averagely; The constituent ratio of the group in which the age was less than 15 increased by 11.17% to the corresponding period of last year.There was no obvions change for the inoculation rate of measles from settled and floating population.Before SIA in Apr.2009, the reported measles incidence increased by 221.30% averagely and after SIA in 2009 ,the reported measles incidence decreased by 88.69% averagely; The constituent ratio the measles incidence in the group in which the age was less than 15 decreased 50.03% to the corresponding period of last year; The inoculation rate of

  11. Indoor Air Pollution and Delayed Measles Vaccination Increase the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in Children: Results from a Case-Control Study in Mwanza, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    PrayGod, George; Mukerebe, Crispin; Magawa, Ruth; Jeremiah, Kidola; Török, M. Estée

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality due to severe pneumonia during childhood in resource-constrained settings is high, but data to provide basis for interventions to improve survival are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe pneumonia in children aged under five years old in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a case-control study of children aged 2 to 59 months at Sekou-Toure regional hospital in Mwanza City, north-western, Tanzania from May 2013 to March 2014. Cases were children with severe pneumonia and controls were children with other illnesses. Data on demography, social-economical status, nutritional status, environmental factors, vaccination status, vitamin A supplementation and deworming, and nasopharyngeal carriage were collected and analysed using logistic regression. Results 117 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45 were cases and 72 controls. Cases were younger than controls, but there were no differences in social-economic or nutritional status between the two groups. In multiple regression, we found that an increased risk of severe pneumonia was associated with cooking indoors (OR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.4, 22.1), and delayed measles vaccination (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 14.8). The lack of vitamin A supplementation in the preceding six month and Enterobacter spp nasopharyngeal carriage were not associated with higher risk of severe pneumonia. Age ≥24 months (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.8) and not receiving antibiotics before referral (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) were associated with lower risk for severe pneumonia. Conclusions Indoor air pollution and delayed measles vaccination increase the risk for severe pneumonia among children aged below five years. Interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and to promote timely administration of measles vaccination are urgently needed to reduce the burden of severe pneumonia in children in Tanzania PMID:27508389

  12. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  13. Effect of socioeconomic deprivation on uptake of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination in Liverpool, UK over 16 years: a longitudinal ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, D; Macpherson, P; Farmer, S; Ghebrehewet, S; Seddon, D; Vivancos, R; Keenan, A

    2016-04-01

    Suboptimal uptake of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine by certain socioeconomic groups may have contributed to recent large measles outbreaks in the UK. We investigated whether socioeconomic deprivation was associated with MMR vaccine uptake over 16 years. Using immunization data for 72 351 children born between 1995 and 2012 in Liverpool, UK, we examined trends in vaccination uptake. Generalized linear models were constructed to examine the relative effect of socioeconomic deprivation and year of birth on MMR uptake. Uptake of MMR1 by age 24 months ranged between 82·5% in 2003 [95% confidence interval (CI) 81·2-83·7] and 93·4% in 2012 (95% CI 92·7-94·2). Uptake of MMR2 by age 60 months ranged between 65·3% (95% CI 64·4-67·4) in 2006 and 90·3% (95% CI 89·4-91·2) in 2012. In analysis adjusted for year of birth and sex, children in the most deprived communities were at significantly greater risk of not receiving MMR1 [risk ratio (RR) 1·70, 95% CI 1·45-1·99] and MMR2 (RR 1·36, 95% CI 1·22-1·52). Higher unemployment and lower household income were significantly associated with low uptake. Contrary to concerns about lower MMR uptake in affluent families, over 16 years, children from the most socioeconomically deprived communities have consistently had the lowest MMR uptake. Targeted catch-up campaigns and strategies to improve routine immunization uptake in deprived areas are needed to minimize the risk of future measles outbreaks. PMID:26542197

  14. Do children who receive an ‘early dose’ of MMR vaccine during a measles outbreak return for their regularly scheduled dose? A retrospective population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Simmonds, Kimberley A; Svenson, Jill; MacDonald, Shannon E

    2016-01-01

    Background Children under the age of 12 months may receive an early dose of measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine to provide short-term protection in the case of a disease outbreak. Following a measles outbreak in Alberta, Canada, there was concern that children who received an early dose may not be returning for their routinely scheduled dose at 12 months, leaving them vulnerable to disease in the long term. Methods This population-based study of children born between 2006 and 2014 used administrative health data to assess coverage and timeliness of the first routine dose of MMR vaccine administered at age 12–24 months for children who received an early dose of the vaccine due to a disease outbreak. We compared this group to children who received an early dose due to travel to a measles-endemic region and to children who did not receive an early dose. Results Only 5.5% of 366 351 children received an early dose. Coverage for the routine dose at age 24 months was 96.5% for children receiving an outbreak dose, 92.2% for those travelling to measles-endemic regions and 86.6% for those without an early dose (paHR): 1.52, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.60), followed by the travel group (aHR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34). Conclusions It is reassuring that the majority of children who received an early dose returned for their routine dose and did so in a timely manner. PMID:27580838

  15. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...... levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody...... levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age...

  16. Biological characterization of clones derived from the edmonston strain of measles virus in comparison with schwarz and CAM-70 vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Junqueira Borges

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Four virus clones were derived from the Edmonston strain of measles virus by repeated plaque purification. These clones were compared with the vaccine strains Schwarz and CAM-70 in terms of biological activities including plaque formation, hemagglutination, hemolysis and replication in Vero cells and chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF. Two clones of intermediate plaque yielded mixed plaque populations on subcultivation whereas the other two, showing small and large plaque sizes, showed stable plaque phenotypes. The vaccine strains showed consistent homogeneous plaque populations. All the Edmonston clones showed agglutination of monkey erythrocytes in isotonic solution while both vaccine strains hemagglutinated only in the presence of high salt concentrations. Variation in the hemolytic activity was observed among the four clones but no hemolytic activity was detected for the vaccine virus strains. Vaccine strains replicated efficiently both in Vero cells and CEF. All four clones showed efficient replication in Vero cells but different replication profiles in CEF. Two of them replicated efficiently, one was of intermediate efficiency and the other showed no replication in CEF. Two of the clones showed characteristics similar to vaccine strains. One in terms of size and homogeneity of plaques, the other for a low hemolytic activity and both for the efficiency of propagation in CEF.

  17. Live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella and the risk of hospital admissions for nontargeted infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Poulsen, Anja;

    2014-01-01

    , mumps, and rubella (MMR) is associated with lower rates of hospital admissions for infections among children in Denmark. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study of Danish children born 1997-2006 and followed up from ages 11 months to 2 years (last follow-up, August 31, 2008....... MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of hospital admissions for any infection, comparing receipt of MMR vs DTaP-IPV-Hib as the most recent vaccine. Risks, risk difference, and number needed to vaccinate were calculated for receiving MMR on time. RESULTS: The study included 495......,987 children contributing with 56,889 hospital admissions for any type of infection during 509,427 person-years (rate, 11.2 per 100 person-years). For the 456,043 children who followed the recommended schedule and received MMR after the third dose of DTaP-IPV-Hib, MMR (rate, 8.9 per 100 person-years) vs...

  18. Similar challenges but different responses: Media coverage of measles vaccination in the UK and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Peters, Hans Peter; Allgaier, Joachim; Lo, Yin-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    For several decades scholars have studied media reporting on scientific issues that involve controversy. Most studies so far have focused on the western world. This article tries to broaden the perspective by considering China and comparing it to a western country. A content analysis of newspaper coverage of vaccination issues in the UK and China shows, first, that the government-supported ‘mainstream position’ dominates the Chinese coverage while the British media frequently refer to criticism and controversy. Second, scientific expertise in the British coverage is represented by experts from the health and science sector but by experts from health agencies in the Chinese coverage. These results are discussed with respect to implications for risk communication and scientists’ involvement in public communication. PMID:23825271

  19. Similar challenges but different responses: Media coverage of measles vaccination in the UK and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Peters, Hans Peter; Allgaier, Joachim; Lo, Yin-Yueh

    2014-05-01

    For several decades scholars have studied media reporting on scientific issues that involve controversy. Most studies so far have focused on the western world. This article tries to broaden the perspective by considering China and comparing it to a western country. A content analysis of newspaper coverage of vaccination issues in the UK and China shows, first, that the government-supported 'mainstream position' dominates the Chinese coverage while the British media frequently refer to criticism and controversy. Second, scientific expertise in the British coverage is represented by experts from the health and science sector but by experts from health agencies in the Chinese coverage. These results are discussed with respect to implications for risk communication and scientists' involvement in public communication. PMID:23825271

  20. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiangning

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.

  1. Elimination of measles in the Americas.

    OpenAIRE

    Furesz, J.

    1996-01-01

    Of the 5551 confirmed measles cases reported in 1995 in the Americas, 2301 (41%) occurred in Canada. In this issue (see pages 1407 to 1413) Drs. Penny A. Sutcliffe and Elizabeth Rea describe a measles outbreak that occurred during that year in a highly vaccinated secondary school population in Toronto. Their findings support the use of a two-dose measles vaccination strategy. In this editorial the author explains how a two-dose strategy lowers the incidence of primary and secondary vaccine fa...

  2. The successful induction of T-cell and antibody responses by a recombinant measles virus-vectored tetravalent dengue vaccine provides partial protection against dengue-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-Mei; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Chung, Han-Hsuan; Hsieh, Chun-Hsiang; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Pan, Chien-Hsiung

    2016-07-01

    Dengue has a major impact on global public health, and the use of dengue vaccine is very limited. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a dengue vaccine made from a recombinant measles virus (MV) that expresses envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue-1 to 4. Following immunization with the MV-vectored dengue vaccine, mice developed specific interferon-gamma and antibody responses against dengue virus and MV. Neutralizing antibodies against MV and dengue viruses were also induced, and protective levels of FRNT50 ≥ 10 to 4 serotypes of dengue viruses were detected in the MV-vectored dengue vaccine-immunized mice. In addition, specific interferon-gamma and antibody responses to dengue viruses were still induced by the MV-vectored dengue vaccine in mice that were pre-infected with MV. This finding suggests that the pre-existing immunity to MV did not block the initiation of immune responses. By contrast, mice that were pre-infected with dengue-3 exhibited no effect in terms of their antibody responses to MV and dengue viruses, but a dominant dengue-3-specific T-cell response was observed. After injection with dengue-2, a detectable but significantly lower viremia and a higher titer of anti-dengue-2 neutralizing antibodies were observed in MV-vectored dengue vaccine-immunized mice versus the vector control, suggesting that an anamnestic antibody response that provided partial protection against dengue-2 was elicited. Our results with regard to T-cell responses and the effect of pre-immunity to MV or dengue viruses provide clues for the future applications of an MV-vectored dengue vaccine. PMID:26901482

  3. Determinants of European parents' decision on the vaccination of their children against measles, mumps and rubella: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Napoli, Giuseppe; Marchese, Valentina; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Casuccio, Alessandra; Vitale, Francesco; On Behalf Of The Esculapio Working Group

    2016-07-01

    Low measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunization levels in European children highlight the importance of identifying determinants of parental vaccine uptake to implement policies for increasing vaccine compliance. The aim of this paper is to identify the main factors associated with partial and full MMR vaccination uptake in European parents, and combine the different studies to obtain overall quantitative measures. This activity is included within the ESCULAPIO project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. ORs and CIs were extracted, sources of heterogeneity explored and publication bias assessed. Forty-five papers were retrieved for the qualitative study, 26 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The following factors were associated with lower MMR vaccine uptake: misleading knowledge, beliefs and perceptions on vaccines (OR 0.57, CI 0.37-0.87); negative attitudes and behaviors toward vaccination (OR 0.71, CI 0.52-0.98); demographic characteristics, such as different ethnicity in Southern populations (OR 0.44, CI 0.31-0.61), higher child's age (OR 0.80, CI 0.76-0.85); low socio-economic status (OR 0.64, CI 0.51-0.80), especially low income (OR 0.39, CI 0.25-0.60) and education (OR 0.64, CI 0.48-0.84), high number of children (OR 0.54, CI 0.42-0.69), irregular marital status (OR 0.80, CI 0.66-0.96). The factors explaining heterogeneity were country location, administration modality, collection setting and responses reported on MMR alone or in combination. Findings from this study suggest policy makers to focus communication strategies on providing better knowledge, correct beliefs and perceptions on vaccines, and improving attitudes and behaviors in parents; and to target policies to people of ethnic minority from Southern Europe, low educated and deprived, with higher number of children and non-married marital status. PMID:27163657

  4. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  5. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Lili; Lu, Changhong; Meng, Ying; Guan, Xiaoli; An, Hongjin; Zhang, Meizhong; Guo, Wenqin; Shang, Bo; Yu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85%) tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3%) tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection. PMID:27366157

  6. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq;

    2016-01-01

    for Penta and 3028 for MV (2907 co-administered with YF). During follow-up 112 children died. The female/male mortality rate ratio was 1.73 (1.11-2.70) following Penta and 0.38 (0.12-1.19) after MV (p=0.02 for same effect). Adjusting for maternal education or weight-for-age at the time of vaccination did......, DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated...... possible sex-differential mortality rates following Penta and MV+YF vaccination. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) registers vaccines given by the three government health centres in the study area and vital status through demographic surveillance. We assessed the association between sex and mortality...

  7. Not all that rashes is measles:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is a major cause of infant mortality in third world countries, leading to approximately one million deaths each year. The WHO aims to globally eradicate measles virus at the beginning of the next century, which will need a major effort in particular in countries like Sudan. To achieve goal epidemiological studies I am needed to estimate the magnitude of the problem for which accurate diagnostic test are needed. We therefore conducted a study in El hag Yousif area (population 500 000) in Khartoum North where measles is prevalent despite vaccination effort by EPI. We studied the accuracy of the WHO criteria for clinical diagnosis in comparison with laboratory diagnosis during a one-year period. A total of 145 under five suspected measles cases were identified by active, case finding and examined. 111 cases fully complied with the WHO criteria for diagnosis of clinical measles. Out of 103 clinical measles cases, tested using prototype rapid measles test IgM Elisa and Pcr, 77(75%) were measles positive. A battery of virus test was run on 21 sera out of the 26(25%) measles negatives: Herpes virus-6, Epstein-Bar and Dengue viruses were detected in five, one and one case, respectively. It was concluded that one out of every four cases diagnosed by the clinical as measles rash is probably caused by other viruses. (Author)

  8. Epidemiology Characteristics of Measles before and after Supplementary Immunization Activities of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine in Beijing in 2010%北京市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动前后麻疹流行病学特征变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 卢莉; 马蕊; 吴疆; 庞星火

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析北京市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIAs)前后麻疹流行病学特征,评价控制麻疹效果,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 利用2005~2010年麻疹逐月发病数据建立自动回归滑动平均混合模型(Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average,ARIMA),预测2011年发病水平,采用描述流行病学方法,对北京市实施MV SIA前后麻疹监测数据进行分析.结果 预测实施MV SIA前麻疹发病率为49.5/100万,实施MV SIA后麻疹发病率为5/100万,较预测水平下降89.9%.各年龄组麻疹发病率均有大幅下降,削平了季节性流行高峰.实施MV SIA后,≤4岁和15~39岁人群麻疹发病仍占较大的构成比,分别为37.8%和53.1%.结论 北京市2010年实施MV SIA后,麻疹发病大幅下降.为进一步降低麻疹发病水平,应维持高水平常规免疫,提高MV及时接种率,加强学龄前散居儿童和成人查漏补种,最大程度提高免疫水平.%Objective To analyze the epidemiology characteristics of measles before and after measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Beijing in 2010, evaluate the effectiveness of MV SIA and provide the basis for elimination of measles. Methods Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was developed for forecasting measles incidence in 2011. Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on measles surveillance data during 2005-2011. Results Predicted measles incidence was 49.5/1,000,000 in 2011 before MV SIA. The measles incidence was 5/1,000,000 after MV SIA, descending 89.9% compared predicted incidence. MV SIA led to the sharp drop of the measles incidence among all age groups and flatted seasonal epidemic peak. The proportion of children of = 4 years and adults of 15-39 years old were 37.8 % and 53.1 % after MV SIA. Conclusion MV SIA of 2010 in Beijing played a significant role for measles

  9. Molecular strategies for the detection of measles virus in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Hypotheses. i) Atypical exposure to measles virus is a factor in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). ii) Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is a factor in the aetiology of autistic enteropathy. Aims. i) To compare a range of molecular techniques for measles RNA amplification. ii) To develop a sensitive and robust method for the detection of measles RNA. iii) To analyse clinical samples from IBD patients for the presence of measles RNA. iv) To analyse...

  10. Cotreatment of Congenital Measles with Vitamin A and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the measles vaccine has been part of routine national childhood vaccination programs throughout Europe, measles remains a public health concern. High numbers of cases and outbreaks have occurred throughout the European continent since 2011, and an increasing number of cases have been reported in Turkey since 2012. During a recent measles outbreak in Turkey, 2 pregnant women contracted measles prior to delivering preterm infants at Hacettepe University Hospital. Measles virus genomic RNA and IgM antibodies against measles were detected in the cord blood of infants and mothers in both cases. The infants were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and vitamin A. Transient thrombocytopenia was present in 1 infant and treated with an additional dose of IVIG and vitamin A. The infants were discharged, without complications, within 10 days of birth. The successful treatment of these cases suggests that infants who have been exposed to, or infected with, measles may benefit from cotreatment of vitamin A and IVIG.

  11. Evaluation on Effect of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine Supplementary Immunization Activities in Fujian Province in 2009%福建省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗强化免疫活动效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金凤; 蔡志坤; 潘伟毅; 杨秀惠; 陈俊磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV)supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)in Fujian province in 2009.Methods Comprehensively anslysing the data of the immunization coverage rate of MY SIAs, antibody level and the data of Measles Surveillance System.Results Total 5 544 453 targeted children of 8 months-14 years old were vaccinated, both reported and survey coverage were >95%, measles IgG antibody positive rate and the GMT level of the population immunized increased significantly.Measles incidence rate decreased to 96.03 % after supplementary immuization activities.The measles annual incidence rate was 0.14/100 000 after immunization between Apr 2009 and Mar 2010.The cases aged ≥ 15 years have a significant increase, the proportion of cases reached by 50.98%.Conclusion The incidence of measles fell to <1/100 000 after MV SIAs In order to remain the achievements of SIA in Fujian province in 2009, the routine immunization coverage rate and continue follow-up campaign should be conducted in time.%目的 评价福建省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)强化免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)效果.方法 综合分析SIA接种率、人群抗体水平和麻疹监测系统资料.结果 MV SIA共接种8月龄~14岁目标儿童5 544 453人,报告接种率和调查接种率均>95%,免疫后人群麻疹抗体阳性率和儿何平均滴度显著升高,麻疹发病率较SIA前下降了96.03%.从SIA后1个月算起,1年的时间全人群麻疹发病率为0.14/10万(2009年4月10日~2010年3月31日).但≥15岁病例构成达50.98%.结论 福建省2009年MV SIA效果显著,发病率己降至<1/10万.为保持SIA取得的成果,应在做好常规免疫的基础上,适时开展后续免疫.

  12. Survey on measles vaccination rate and measles antibody level in population in Luliang county of Yunnan province, 2010%2010年云南省陆良县人群麻疹接种率调查及抗体水平监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    资素琼; 赵文强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of measles vaccination and understand the measles antibody level in the population in Luliang. Methods Nine vaccination clinics in 3 townships (Zhongshu, Zhaokua and Majie) were selected by stratified and cluster samplings to conduct survey. Results Totally 390 people were surveyed. the overall measles vaccination rate was 94.10% . the serum antibody positive rate was 99.23% . The measles vaccination rate was 96.83% in Zhongshu, 93.85% in Zhaokua and 91.79% in Majie. The measles vaccination rate in age groups were as follows:71.74% in age group of <1 year old, 100% in age group of l -2 years old, 100% in age group of 3 -4 years old, 100% in age group of 5 -6 years old, 98% in age group of 7 -10 years old, 100% in age group of 11 -14 years old, 89.58% in age group of 15 -19 years old and 91.49% in age group of ≥20 years old. and the serum antibody positive rate was 95.65% in age group of <1 year old, 100% in age group of 1 -2 years old, lOO% in age group of 3 -4 years old, 100% in age group of 5 -6 years old, 98% in age group of 7 -10 years old, 100% in age group of 11 - 14 years old, lOO% in age group of 15 -19 years old and lOO% in age group of ≥20 years old. Conclusion The measles vaccination rate in Zhaokua and Majie should be increased to meet the requirement of > 95% in national immunization program. The serum antibody positive rates of measles in all age groups were >95% (indicating that the herd immunity had been formed) , which would facilitate the measles control and elimination.%目的 为客观评价云南省陆良县麻疹疫苗常规免疫接种情况和掌握人群免疫水平.方法 采取分层和整群抽样(PPS)方法抽取调查单位和调查点.全县共确定3个调查单位(中枢镇、召夸镇、马街镇),9个村级接种点为调查点.结果 共监测390人,麻疹接种率为94.10%,麻疹血清抗体阳性率为99.23%.中枢

  13. Laboratory confirmation of rubella infection in suspected measles cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Jadhav, Santoshkumar M

    2016-10-01

    As a part of measles outbreak based surveillance undertaken by the World Health Organization India, suspected measles cases were referred for the laboratory diagnosis at National Institute of Virology (NIV) Pune and NIV Unit Bengaluru. Altogether, 4,592 serum samples were referred during 2010-2015 from the States of Karnataka (n = 1,173), Kerala (n = 559), and Maharashtra (n = 2,860). Initially, serum samples were tested in measles IgM antibody EIA and samples with measles negative and equivocal results (n = 1,954) were subjected to rubella IgM antibody detection. Overall, 62.9% (2,889/4,592) samples were laboratory confirmed measles, 27.7% (542/1,954) were laboratory confirmed rubella and remaining 25.2% (1,161/4,592) were negative for measles and rubella. The measles vaccination status was available for 1,206 cases. Among the vaccinated individuals, 50.7% (612/1,206) were laboratory confirmed measles. The contribution of laboratory confirmed measles was 493 (40.8%) from Maharashtra, 90 (7.5%) from Karnataka, and 29 (2.4%) from Kerala. Since, 1/3rd of suspected measles cases were laboratory confirmed rubella, an urgent attention needed to build rubella surveillance in India. Additional efforts are required to rule out other exanthematous disease including Dengue and Chikungunya in measles and rubella negatives. J. Med. Virol. 88:1685-1689, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018071

  14. Progress toward regional measles elimination - worldwide, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert T; Murray, Jillian S; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2015-11-13

    In 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), with MDG4 being a two-thirds reduction in child mortality by 2015, and with measles vaccination coverage being one of the three indicators of progress toward this goal.* In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to fewer than five cases per million population; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (1).† In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan§ with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. WHO member states in all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. This report updates the 2000–2013 report (2) and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000–2014. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 73% worldwide, from 146 to 40 cases per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 79%, from 546,800 to 114,900. However, progress toward the 2015 milestones and elimination goals has slowed markedly since 2010. To resume progress toward milestones and goals for measles elimination, a review of current strategies and challenges to improving program performance is needed, and countries and their partners need to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems. PMID:26562349

  15. Measles - United States, January 4-April 2, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Nakia S; Gastanaduy, Paul A; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Redd, Susan B; Wallace, Gregory S

    2015-04-17

    Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness that can lead to complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and death. As a result of high 2-dose measles vaccination coverage in the United States and improved control of measles in the World Health Organization's Region of the Americas, the United States declared measles elimination (defined as interruption of year-round endemic transmission) in 2000. Importations from other countries where measles remains endemic continue to occur, however, which can lead to clusters of measles cases in the United States. To update surveillance data on current measles outbreaks, CDC analyzed cases reported during January 4-April 2, 2015. A total of 159 cases were reported during this period. Over 80% of the cases occurred among persons who were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status. Four outbreaks have occurred, with one accounting for 70% of all measles cases this year. The continued risk for importation of measles into the United States and occurrence of measles cases and outbreaks in communities with high proportions of unvaccinated persons highlight the need for sustained, high vaccination coverage across the country. PMID:25879894

  16. Measles (Rubeola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rubeola) is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory system that is caused by a virus. It does ... has measles, particularly if the child is an infant or has any medication or condition that weakens the immune system. Call the doctor immediately if the child has ...

  17. 2010年玉溪市儿童麻疹强化免疫接种率快速评估%Rapid assessment on supplementary immunization coverage rate for measles vaccination among children in Yuxi City in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽清; 张耀喜; 李秀华; 杨晓娟; 祁昆; 任志艳; 杨晶; 张丽芳; 王卫华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the effect of supplementary immunization for lire attenuated measles virus vaccine ( MV) in Yuxi City in 2010, summarize experience, and provide the basis for developing the immunization strategies and of measles elimination. [ Methods]The urban area and two districts were sampled from every county, and rapid assessment for field immunization coverage rate was conducted among 30 children in each object area. [Results]The supplementary immunization coverage rate for measles vaccination in Yuxi city was 99. 66%. The supplementary immunization coverage rates for measles vaccination of different age groups reach 99.36% , and those of children with different inhabitation types were above 97.78%. The local and migrant children who had no immunization history were concentrated in 8 months old to 2 years old. [ Conclusion] The measles supplementary immunization in Yuxi City in 2010 has achieved the expected target. In order to realize the target of measles elimination, it is important to strengthen the management in floating children, and duly find and eliminate the immunization blank population.%目的 评估玉溪市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)后续强化免疫效果,总结经验,为控制并加快消除麻疹工作进程制定针对性的免疫策略提供依据.方法 每县抽取城区和2个乡镇各30名目标儿童进行现场接种率快速评估.结果 全市麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率为99.66%,不同年龄段麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率均在99.36%以上;不同居住形式麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率均在97.78%以上,0剂次免疫史该县及外地的儿童均集中分布于8月龄~2岁年龄组.结论 玉溪市2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫达到了预期的目标.加强流动儿童管理,发现并适时消除免疫空白人群是实现2012年消除麻疹目标的工作重点.

  18. Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Oliver WC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an effective measles vaccine has been available for almost 40 years, in 2000 there were about 30 million measles infections worldwide and 777,000 measles-related deaths. The history of smallpox suggests that achieving measles eradication depends on several factors; the biological characteristics of the organism; vaccine technology; surveillance and laboratory identification; effective delivery of vaccination programmes and international commitment to eradication. Discussion Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only reservoir for the virus, which causes a visible illness and infection leading to life-long immunity. As the measles virus has only one genetic serotype which is relatively stable over time, the same basic vaccine can be used world-wide. Vaccination provides protection against measles infection for at least 15 years, although efficacy may be reduced due to host factors such as nutritional status. Measles vaccination may also confer other non-specific health benefits leading to reduced mortality. Accurate laboratory identification of measles cases enables enhanced surveillance to support elimination programmes. The "catch-up, keep-up, follow-up" vaccination programme implemented in the Americas has shown that measles elimination is possible using existing technologies. On 17th October 2003 the "Cape Town Measles Declaration" by the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Childrens Fund called on governments to intensify efforts to reduce measles mortality by supporting universal vaccination coverage and the development of more effective vaccination. Summary Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is technically feasible. Growing international support to deliver these programmes means that measles, like smallpox, may very well become a curiosity of history.

  19. Measles-associated encephalopathy in children with renal transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A; Jeyaratnam, D; Haworth, F; Sinha, M D; Hughes, E; Cohen, B; Jin, L; Kidd, I M; Rigden, S P A; MacMahon, E

    2006-06-01

    Two children, boys of 8 and 13 years, presented with measles-associated encephalopathy several years after kidney transplantation for congenital nephrotic syndrome. In the absence of prior clinical measles, the neurological symptoms initially eluded diagnosis, but retrospective analysis of stored samples facilitated the diagnosis of measles-associated encephalopathy without recourse to biopsy of deep cerebral lesions. Each had received a single dose of measles mumps and rubella vaccine before 12 months of age. Prior vaccination, reduction of immunosuppression and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and ribavirin may have contributed to their survival. Persistent measles virus RNA shedding, present in one child, was not controlled by treatment with i.v. ribavirin. Two years later, both patients continue to have functioning allografts with only minimal immunosuppression. These cases illustrate the difficulty in diagnosing measles-associated encephalopathy in the immunocompromised host, even in the era of molecular diagnostics, and highlight the renewed threat of neurological disease in communities with incomplete herd immunity.

  20. Four years of measles elimination in the Czech Socialist Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejda, J

    1987-01-01

    In 1982, Czechoslovakia succeeded in eliminating measles infection throughout the country. The paper describes the strategy of the measles immunization program following its introduction in 1969, showing it to reflect the objective epidemiological situation as revealed by the regular immunological surveys carried out in a broad population sample. As it turned out, decisive for achieving and maintaining a permanent measles elimination in the country was the introduction of second vaccination into the regular immunization schedule. Since 1982, its timing of is from 6 to 10 months after primary immunization. Over the 4-year period between 1982 and 1985, confirmed measles occurred only sporadically in the CSR, 115 cases altogether, and of these as many as 67 were classified as imported or their immediate contacts (38 measles patients were tourists from abroad). Of these 115 measles cases, 52 had had vaccination prior to acquiring the disease, 46 were individuals who had never before been vaccinated and in the remaining 17 patients no vaccination data were available. The vaccine failures, at least in 18 cases, could have been explained by the primary immunization prior to reaching 15 months of age. According to the estimates, at least 670 thousand cases of measles, 470 deaths, 100 thousand complications and some 33 thousand hospitalizations had been averted between 1972 and 1985 on the territory of CSR as a result of the introduction of the measles immunization program in Czechoslovakia. PMID:3429851

  1. Analysis on effectiveness of measles attenuated live vaccine supplementary immunization activities in Nanchang at 2009%南昌市2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗强化免疫活动效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖征; 彭时辉; 文海蓉; 张艳霞; 熊昌辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价2009年南昌市麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)强化免疫活动(SupplementaryImmunization Activities,SLA)效果,为消除麻疹提供依据.方法 对南昌市2009年10月麻疹疫苗强化免疫期间的摸底调查、现场接种、评估报告等资料和强化免疫前后的中国疾病预防控制信息系统中麻疹疫情资料进行综合分析.结果 该次强化免疫共接种目标儿童988959剂次,报告接种率为97.91%(988959/1010096),快速评估调查接种率为96.94%(1745/1800);MV SIA后人群麻疹抗体阳性率、保护率分别为91.99%、70.83%,抗体GMT从免疫前的1∶555上升到免疫后的1∶1625.28,免疫前后人群麻疹抗体GMT差异有统计学意义(t=4.795,P=0.000).本次强化免疫共报告疑似预防接种异常反应(Adverse Events Following Immunization,AEFI)25例,发生率为2.53/10万;强化免疫后的2009年11月~2010年10月全市报告麻疹病例10例,发病率为0.20/10万,较2008年11月~2009年10月同期病例明显减少.结论 高质量的MV SIA能迅速提高人群的抗体水平,降低麻疹发病率,适时开展MV SIA是加速麻疹控制最安全有效的措施之一.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIA) in Nanchang in 2009 and provide basis for elimination measles. Method Collecting the data of basic investigation, scene vaccination and evaluation reports during measles vaccine supplementary immunization time of October 2009, all them comprehensive analysis with the data before and after supplementary immunization which collected from China Disease Prevention and Control Information System. Results This supplementary immunization had inoculation goal children 988 959 times, the reporting inoculation rate was 97.91% (988 959/1 010 096), the rapid assessment survey inoculation rate was 96. 94% (1 745/1 800) . MV SIA measles antibody positive rate, protection

  2. Characteristics of patients with measles admitted to allied hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles, a virus borne droplet infection, is one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite presence of a safe and cost-effective vaccine. Objective of our study was to identify the characteristics of measles patients admitted to Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst patients admitted with measles in paediatric units of Rawalpindi Medical College Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. A standard proforma was used to collect data from the respondents. Results: A total of 55 patients (mean age-29.36 months) with measles were included in the study. 65.5% children were vaccinated while 34.5% were not vaccinated. Among those vaccinated 14 were male. Out of the vaccinated children 52.6% were residents of middle class areas, 31.6% lower middle class area, 10.5% upper middle class areas and 5.3% rural areas. In 55.0% of patients who were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles at nine month of age the estimated calendar months of vaccination was March to April while in 30% the overall climatic period of vaccination was of summer (May to September). Twenty one study subjects were exposed to a case of measles in the family and thirty five out of all developed at least one known complication of the disease. Pneumonia was the most common complication reported in patients (63.6%) followed by diarrhoea (27.3%). Conclusion: Majority of the patients suffering from measles were not vaccinated and the most common reason for failure to immunize children was lack of awareness. Educated and well off fathers were more likely to get their children immunized. The vaccinated children who developed measles majority were vaccinated during months of March, April and May. (author)

  3. Analysis of quality control for measles vaccine,live, from 2008 to 2012%2008-2012年麻疹减毒活疫苗的质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易敏; 刘长暖; 权娅茹; 陈震; 李长贵; 袁力勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize results for the quality control and discuss the quality status of measles vaccine , live, applied for lot release from 2008 to 2012 .Methods By reviewing the lots summary protocol and testing the crucial items , in combination with trend analysis , the comprehensive quality for measles vaccine , live, was analyzed .Results The qual-ity for domestic measles vaccine , live was consistent during the recent 5 years, the ratio of obtained certification of lot re-lease is 98.6%.The virus titers of all lots are satisfied with the acceptance criteria of 2010 Chinese Pharmacopoeia , but eight lots were withdrawn by manufactures because of out of trend .Conclusion The data presented here demonstrate that safety and efficiency for the domestic measles vaccine , live on market are guaranteed by the improvement of the vaccine quality and production process , lot release program and the application of trend analysis .%目的:对中国2008-2012年连续5年麻疹减毒活疫苗(简称麻疹疫苗)的批签发情况进行总结,评价其麻疹疫苗的总体质量。方法通过对送检样品的资料审查和关键项目的实验室检定,采用趋势分析法对病毒滴度等进行分析和比较,回顾麻疹疫苗质量的整体情况。结果中国麻疹疫苗整体质量较好,批签发通过率为98.6%。疫苗关键指标数据稳定,病毒滴度100%符合国家标准,其中8批疫苗病毒滴度由于超过警戒线企业主动撤检。结论中国麻疹减毒活疫苗的质量稳中有升。国家疫苗批签发程序对确保上市疫苗的质量发挥重要作用,趋势分析在批签发中的应用更加严格保证了上市疫苗的安全性和有效性。

  4. 麻疹病毒疫苗株沪191和宁波麻疹病毒流行株血清交叉中和试验结果分析%Study on the Cross Neutralizing Antibody between Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine S191 and the Measles Epidemic Strain in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅燕; 许国章; 董红军; 胡逢蛟; 马瑞; 陆圣诞; 焦素黎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the protective level of the current measles vaccine (Shanghai 191. S191) and provide evidence for formulating effective strategies of measles prevention. Methods Neutralizing antibody levels to measles vaccine virus strain S191 and wild type virus strain Ningbo2008-06 from different kinds person' s serum were tested by trace neutralization test. Results The geometric mean titer(GMT)to S191 of primarily vaccination serum, acute phase serum of patients immunized with measles vaccine, serum of convalescence patients, serum of pre-emergency vaccination and serum of post-emergency vaccination werel :35.23,:4.16,: 231.74, : 37.81 and 1:61.03 respectively ;while the GMT to Ningbo 2008-06 of the above serum were 1:19.04,: 2.21,: 596.62,: 32.25 and 1:67.54 respectively. The GMT of the serum of primarily vaccine immunization and the serum of acute phase patients against S191 were 1.85 (t=2.537, P<0.05)and 1.88(t=-2.696, P<0.05) times of those against Ningbo 2008-06 respectively. The GMT of the serum of convalescence patients against Ningbo 2008-06 was 2.57 (t=-3.054, P<0.05) times of that against S191.There was no significant difference between the GMT against S191 and Ningbo2008-06 in post-emergency vaccination serum. For infants, their serum' s GMT against S191 and Ningbo2008-06 declined with their growing up. The GMT against Ningbo2008-06 in 6months and 8months old group were 1:2.60 and 1:1.24 respectively. Conclusions The current measles vaccine S191 can neutraliae Ningbo2008-06,but the neutralizing ability decreased. Emergency vaccination can significantly increasebody s neutralization antibody titer to measles. The antibody from mother almost has no protection after 6 months. It is the time to revise current measles immunization strategies.%目的 分析麻疹病毒疫苗株[上海(沪)191,Shanghai191;S191]的免疫保护性,为探讨有效预防控制麻疹的措施提供参考.方法 用微量中和试验测定不同人群血清

  5. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political in

  6. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, Northern Philippines, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Ma Justina; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Tayag, Enrique; Magpantay, Rio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years). Thirty-two were male (64%). Twenty (40%) were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64%) cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72%) received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96%) knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles. PMID:27766180

  7. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, northern Philippines, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods: Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results: There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years. Thirty-two were male (64%. Twenty (40% were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64% cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72% received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96% knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion: This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles.

  8. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, 2004–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariyam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly contagious viral infection causing large outbreaks all over the world. Despite the availability of safe and cost effective vaccine, measles remained endemic with persistent periodic outbreaks in the Horn of Africa. The aim of this study is to characterize laboratory confirmed measles cases in Amhara Regional State, which was one of the highly affected regions in Ethiopia. Method A suspected measles case was defined as any person presenting with fever, maculopapu...

  9. Protein-protein and protein-small-molecule inhibitor interactions in the measles virus replication complex

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie A Krumm

    2013-01-01

    The disease measles is caused by the highly contagious measles virus (MeV). MeV belongs to the paramyxovirus family together with respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza viruses and metapneumovirus. Paramyxoviruses are responsible for major pediatric morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of an effective MeV vaccine, measles case numbers increased alarmingly in the past few years especially in Europe. The return of endemic measles in the European population can directly be...

  10. Estimating the Number of Measles-Susceptible Children and Adolescents in the United States Using Data From the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    2016-07-15

    Despite high measles vaccination rates in the United States, imported measles cases have led to outbreaks in the United States. These outbreaks have not led to sustained measles transmission; however, with each birth cohort of children not fully vaccinated against measles, measles-susceptible individuals accumulate in the population. The total number of measles-susceptible children and adolescents in the United States is unknown. We used age-specific measles vaccination data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2008-2013) to estimate the number of measles-susceptible children aged 17 years or younger, accounting for vaccine effectiveness, infant protection from maternal antibodies, and loss of immunity following childhood cancer treatment. Approximately 12.5% of US children and adolescents are susceptible to measles, with the highest levels of susceptibility being observed in children aged 3 years or younger (24.7% are susceptible to measles). In sensitivity analyses, we found that a sustained decrease in measles vaccination coverage from 91.9% (2013 level) to 90.0% (2009 level) would add nearly 1.2 million susceptible children and adolescents (thus making 14.2% of those aged 17 years or younger susceptible to measles). This reemphasizes the need for high measles vaccination coverage to support population-level immunity and prevent reestablishment of indigenous measles transmission in the United States. PMID:27338281

  11. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities. PMID:22647743

  12. CLINICAL PROFILE OF MEASLES IN CHILDREN ADMITTED TO A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles affects about 20 million people a year. Even with greater than 80% immunization cover, the number of children with measles has registered a steep rise. A retrospective chart review was carried out on all cases of measles admitted to the paediatric wards of a tertiary care medical college hospital in a rural area in north Kerala. A total of 31 cases of measles (n=31 were admitted to the paediatric ward. Age at admission of 67.8% of the patients was above 6 years. The average age of the sample was 7.52 years (S. D = 3.19. Amongst the clinical features, fever and rash were seen in 100%, coryza in 83.8% and conjunctivitis in 67.7%. Koplik spots, pathognomonic of measles were seen only in 32.3%. About 61.3% of those with measles were previously immunized. Regarding the vitamin A supplementation status , only 19.4% of the childr en were administered vitamin A. The fact that 61% of children who developed measles had actually received measles vaccination during infancy , and that majority (67% of them were >6 years at the time of presentation , points to the drop in the protective im munity , after a single dose of measles vaccine, as age advances. To conclude , Measles is now a re - emerging infectious disease and a second dose of measles vaccine to boost up the existing immunity would turn out to be a corner stone in subsequent measles e limination.

  13. Suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero a cepas vacinais do vírus do sarampo Susceptibility of Vero cell line to vaccine strains of the measles virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Sayoko Takata

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero ao vírus do sarampo é bem conhecida e sua utilização no controle da potência da vacina contra o sarampo é amplamente difundida. Com o objetivo de comparar a suscetibilidade de células Vero empregadas em titulações, amostras provenientes de dois laboratórios controladores (Vero IB e Vero INCQS, foram testadas frente a três cepas vacinais: Moraten, Schwarz e Biken CAM-70. Foram titulados 72 lotes de vacinas contra o sarampo, sendo 25 produzidos com a cepa Moraten, 24 com a cepa Schwarz e 23 com a cepa Biken CAM-70. A análise estatística dos resultados obtidos nas titulações, feita através dos testes Limites para uma Média e "t" de Student, mostrou que para as cepas Moraten e Biken CAM-70, as diferenças de títulos não foram estatisticamente significantes, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a cepa Schwarz, para a qual as células Vero IB se mostraram mais sensíveis.Vero cells used by distinct measles vaccine control laboratories had their susceptibility to Moraten, Schwarz and Biken CAM-70 vaccine strains assayed. Of a total of 72 lots of measles vaccine whose potency was titrated by microtechnique in two Vero cell samples (Vero IB and Vero INCQS, 25 had been produced with Moraten strain, 24 with Schwarz and 23 with Biken CAM-70. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that both Vero cells assayed presented comparable susceptibility to Moraten and Biken CAM-70 strains. As to the Schwarz strain, Vero IB cells were more susceptible than the other cell sample tested, thus confirming the existence of different sensitivities of Vero cells to some measles vaccine strains, or even to viruses derived from the same strain but with different passage histories. An altered cell susceptibility to virus replication may significantly alter the results in potency testing. Such alteration may be caused not only by the adoption of distinct protocols for the maintenance of cell cultures by

  14. 应用麻疹发病率估算麻疹疫苗首剂接种率的效果%An evaluation of immunization coverage of the first dose of measles containing vaccine using incidence rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万仓; 林献丹; 王志刚; 郑晓春; 陈玲萍; 孙肖瑜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the immunization coverage of the first dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV1 )by using the incidence of measles in Wenzhou City.Methods Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze measles cases that reported in Wenzhou city from 2007 to 2012 and evaluate the immunization coverage of the first dose of measles containing vaccine.Results The average annual incidence rate was 10.46/100 000 from 2007 to 2012,and the annual incidence rate was 43.44/100 000 for children aged from 8 months to 83 months (42.59%).Based on the proportion of immunized measles cases vaccine effectiveness (VE)of MCV,the evaluated coverage rate of MCV1 was 73.80% (VE=90%)or 84.92% (VE=95%)in children aged from 13 to 83 months.The evaluated coverage rate of MCV1 was 83.25%(VE=90%)or 90.86%(VE=95%)in local children and 69.5 1%(VE=90%)or 82.02%(VE=95%)in migrating children.The timely immunization rate of MCV1 was 59.48% (VE =90%)or 74.59% (VE =95%).Conclusion The coverage rate and timely coverage rate of MCV1 are still low.It is important to strengthen the management of migrating population and enhance propaganda to ensure a high level vaccination rate to accelerate the elimination of measles.%目的:评价温州市含麻疹成分疫苗(MCV)首剂(MCV1)接种率。方法采用描述性流行病学方法,对温州市2007-2012年报告的麻疹病例分析并对MCV1接种率进行评价。结果温州市2007-2012年麻疹年均发病率为10.46/10万。其中8~83月龄麻疹年均发病率为43.44/10万(占总病例数的42.59%)。13~83月龄儿童MCV1接种率为73.80%(疫苗效力VE=90%)或84.92%(VE=95%);本地、流动儿童MCV1接种率分别为83.25%和69.51%(VE=90%)或90.86%和82.02%(VE=95%),MCV1及时接种率分别为59.48%(VE=90%)或74.59%(VE =95%)。结论温州市MCV1接种率和及时接种率均较低。应加强流动人口管理,提高MV接种率和及时率。

  15. 湖北省农村地区2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫结果分析%Evaluation on the supplementary immunization activity (SIAS)of the attenuated live measles vaccine (MV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎; 许智; 谭晓东; 叶建君; 张迟; 赵明江; 占发先

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation of the supplementary immunization activities (SIAS) of the attenuated live measles vaccine (MV) in Hubei's rural district in 2010. Methods Four hundred and seventy four children between 8 months and 4 yean old were selected with multi-stage stratified cluster sampling in rural area of Hubei. The self-designed questionnaire about MV SIAS was used for field visit and questionnaire survey. SPSS 17.0 was applied for data a-nalysis. Results The immunization coverage rate was 96. 6% , the supplementary inoculation rate after massive immunization stage was 50. 0%. The satisfaction rate of the parents for service attitude, environment and organization were 97. 2% , 96.7% and 97. 8% respectively. Three children had never received any measles vaccination,accounting for 6%o. Conclusion The immunization coverage rate was 95% , reaching the expected target. Further effort is needed to increase the supplementary inoculation rate. Those children never received measles vaccination should be the priority population for the elimination of measles.%目的 评估湖北省2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫在农村实施的情况.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法抽取湖北省6个郊区(县)8月龄~4岁儿童共474人,采用自编的调查表,以现况调查的方式进行入户问卷调查.结果 本次调查麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率为96.6%,集中接种后,补种率为50%;家长对于接种时医务人员的服务态度、接种点环境、接种组织情况满意者分别为97.2%、96.7%、97.8%;麻疹疫苗接种零剂次者3人,占调查样本的6‰.结论 湖北省农村地区2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率达到了95%的目标.

  16. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause;

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines decades ago and joint global public health efforts to eliminate measles, this vaccine-preventable disease continues to pose threats to children's health worldwide. During 2013 and 2014, measles virus was introduced into Denmark through several...

  17. Nosocomial measles cluster in Denmark following an imported case, December 2008-January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, C; Bottiger, Be; Plesner, A;

    2009-01-01

    A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule....

  18. 喷雾型与皮下注射型麻疹减毒活疫苗血清学效果比较的Meta分析%Comparison on serological effect of aerosolized measles vaccine and subcutaneous measles vaccine: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昱; 陈雅萍; 唐学雯; 沈灵智; 郭静

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较喷雾型麻疹减毒活疫苗(AMV)和皮下注射型麻疹减毒活疫苗(SMV)接种后抗体阳转率,评价血清学效果.方法 检索美国国家医学图书馆数据库和Cochrane协作网图书馆等数据库,将研究接种AMV和SMV后比较血清学效果的随机对照实验(RCT)和前瞻性对照研究(PS)的文献全部纳入分析,用RevMan5.1进行分析.结果 共纳入9篇文献,6篇为RCT研究,3篇PS研究,共纳入研究对象2 349名(AMV组1 289名、SMV组1 060名).总体上AMV抗体阳转率与SMV差异无统计学意义(OR=0.91,95%CI:0.36~2.31,P>0.05);6篇RCT文献合并后,AMV抗体阳转率与SMV差异无统计学意义(OR=1.32,95%CI:0.43 ~4.01,Z=0.49,P>0.05);4~18月龄儿童AMV抗体阳转率是SMV的17%(OR=0.17,95%CI:0.04~0.70,P<0.01);5~14岁组AMV抗体阳转率是SMV的3.45倍(OR =3.45,95%CI:1.62~7.35,P<0.01).结论 AMV与SMV的血清学效果无明显差异,小年龄组中SMV接种后血清学效果高于AMV,而大年龄组中AMV接种后血清学效果高于SMV.%Objective To compare the different seroconversion rates after vaccination of aerosolized measles vaccine (AMV) and subcutaneous measles vaccine (SMV).Methods National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Cochrane Library databases were searched to retrieve all randomized controlled trials (RCT) or controlled prospective study (tS) on comparison of serological effect (SE) after vaccination of AMV and SMV.Statistical analysis was performed by RevMan5.1 software.Results Nine studies (6 RCT documents and 3 PS documents) were selected,including 2 349 subjects enrolled in the study (n=1 289 in AMV group,n=1 060 in SMV group).No significant difference was found in seroconversion rate after AMV compared to SMV (OR=0.91,95% CI:0.36-2.31,P>0.05).In 6 RCT designs,no statistically difference was noted in seroconversion rate between AMV and SMV (OR=1.32,95% CI:0.43-4.01,Z=0.49,P>0.05).The seroconversion rate of AMV was 0

  19. Measles - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Farsi (فارسی) Portuguese (português) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Farsi (فارسی) MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine English ( ...

  20. Serological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with vaccine coverage Achados sorológicos durante um surto de sarampo em uma população com alta cobertura vacinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange A. Oliveira

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, serum samples for IgM detection were collected from 112 clinical measles cases reported to the Health Department of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The positivity exceeded 90% for specimens collected from the 5th to the 29th day after the onset of the disease. After day 30 a decline in IgM detection was observed, although positivity has been detected up to 90 days after the onset of the symptoms. Forty-four patients (48.9% with an IgM response had a history of prior measles vaccination. In 5 of the 22 measles-IgM negative cases the infection was due to other agents (rubella: 4 cases, dengue: 1 case. These results show that sensitivity of the test employed for confirming suspected measles cases is high, even in vaccinated patients.No período de março/1991 a abril/1992, foram escolhidas 112 amostras sanguíneas para a detecção de anticorpos da classe IgM de casos de sarampo notificados à Divisão de Epidemiologia da Fundação Municipal de Saúde de Niterói, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A positividade ultrapassou 90% para os espécimens colhidos entre o 5º e o 29º dia após o início da doença. A partir do 30º dia foi observado um declínio na detecção de IgM, embora positividade tenha sido constatada até noventa dias do início dos sintomas. História de vacinação prévia estava presente em 48,9% destes pacientes. Dos 22 casos restantes, em 5 a infecção era devido a outros agentes (rubéola: 4 casos, dengue: 1 caso. Estes resultados demonstram que a sensibilidade do teste empregado para confirmação de casos suspeitos de sarampo é elevada mesmo em pacientes vacinados.

  1. Effectiveness Assessment of the Supplementary Immunization Activities for Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine in Anhui Province in 2009%安徽省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴智勤; 唐继海; 张伟青; 易厦晖; 刘丹青; 何纳

    2012-01-01

    目的 对安徽省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)的流行病学效果进行评估,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对安徽省2009年MV SIA前后的相关数据进行统计分析.结果 安徽省于2009年10月,对全省8月龄~14岁儿童开展MV SIA.SIA后的2010年,安徽省麻疹发病数和发病率均降至2004年以来的最低水平,分别为439例和0.72/10万;削平了麻疹发病高峰;2010年≤14岁各年龄别麻疹发病率均比2009年大幅度下降.结论 适时开展高质量的MV SIA,能有效控制麻疹流行,减少麻疹发病.MV SIA作为常规免疫的补充,是消除麻疹的重要策略之一.%Objective To evaluate the effect of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV ) supplementary immunization activities (SI As) in Anhui province in 2009, and to provide the reference for measles elimination. Methods Collecting measles epidemiology data before and after the MV SIA of 2009. Analyze the data with descriptive epidemiology. Results The MV SIAs in Anhui province were implemented in the October of 2009. The target population of the SIAs are the children aged from 8 months to 14 years. In 2010, both the number of reported measles cases and the measles incidence dropped to the lowestlevel since 2004, which were 439 cases and 0.72/100,000 respectively. The measles incidence of each age group among the children of 0-14 years old in 2010 dropped a lot comparing with that of 2009. Conclusions Carrying out high quality of SIAs at suitable time can control the epidemic of measles quickly, and decrease measles morbidity. Being a supplementary method for routine immunization, SIA is one of the important strategies to eliminate measles.

  2. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  3. CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEASLES AT SIR RONALD ROSS INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth Bhatt; Kalyani; Shankar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles remain a leading vaccine - preventable cause of child mortality worldwide and is still a public health problem. According to the World Health Organization ( WHO ), more than 20 million people are affected by measles each year with 95% of measles deaths occurring in countries that have weak health infrastructures. Out breaks of Measles are still common in India. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of th e present study were to determi...

  4. Does Measles Immunization Reduce Diarrhoeal Morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddaiah V.P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: 1. Will measles vaccination reduce the incidence and during of diarrhoeal episodes in children? 2. Will measles vaccination reduce the morbidity load because of diarrhoea? Objectives: 1. To provide measles immunization to rural children 9 to 24 months of age. 2. to study the occurrence of diarrhoeal episodes by domicillary visits every month for a period of 1 year. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Rural area in the state of Haryana. Participants: Children between the ages of 9 and 24 months with parental informed consent. Study variables: diarrhoeal episodes per child/year, duration of diarrhoea. Outcome Variable: the difference between the two groups (immunized and non- immunized of attack rate and duration of diarrhoeal episodes. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test. Results: immunization coverage was 75%. Attack rates of diarrhoea in immunized children (1.6/child/year was no different to that in the non- immunized (1.5/child/year. The mean duration of diarrhoea in both groups was 2.3 days. The prevalence diarrhoea in immunized and non-immunized was 3.85 and 3.67 respectively. Conclusion: Measles vaccination has no impact on diarrhoeal morbidity.

  5. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Photos Recommend ...

  6. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  7. Measles control and elimination in Somalia: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Naouri, Boubker; Mirza, Imran Raza; Hirsi, Abdurazak; Mohammed, Abdurahman; Omer, Mohammed; Dualle, Abdi Hassan; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Despite enormous challenges, Somalia has been successfully implementing accelerated measles control activities since 2005. Through innovative strategies and with the support of local and international partners, the country has shown potentials of implementing measles mortality reduction activities in complex emergencies. Measles incidence has been reduced by >80% after the measles catch-up campaigns of 2005-2007, and national reported measles routine immunization coverage with first dose measles containing vaccine has reached 59% for the first time in 2009. However, the near collapse of the health care system and the ongoing insecurity continue to hamper the implementation of recommended measles control and elimination strategies in some parts of the country, making these achievements fragile. Somalia exemplifies the challenges in meeting measles elimination goals in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean region. As the region is entering its 2010 measles elimination goals, it appears necessary to establish realistic and flexible interim goals for measles control in Somalia that will take into consideration the specificities of the country. Maintaining flexibility in conducting field operations, securing financial resources, multiplying opportunities for measles vaccination, and improving disease monitoring systems will remain vital to sustain and improve current achievements.

  8. Lack of Measles Transmission to Susceptible Contacts from a Health Care Worker with Probable Secondary Vaccine Failure - Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson; Klein, Ron; Popescu, Saskia; Rose, Karen; Kretschmer, Melissa; Carrigan, Alice; Trembath, Felicia; Koski, Lia; Zabel, Karen; Ostdiek, Scott; Rowell-Kinnard, Paula; Munoz, Esther; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Sylvester, Tammy

    2015-08-01

    On January 23, 2015, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) was notified of a suspected measles case in a nurse, a woman aged 48 years. On January 11, the nurse had contact with a patient with laboratory-confirmed measles associated with the Disneyland theme park-related outbreak in California. On January 21, she developed a fever (103°F [39.4°C]), on January 23 she experienced cough and coryza, and on January 24, she developed a rash. The patient was instructed to isolate herself at home. On January 26, serum, a nasopharyngeal swab, and a urine specimen were collected. The following day, measles infection was diagnosed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing of the nasopharyngeal swab and urine specimen and by detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of her symptoms and laboratory results, the patient was considered to be infectious.

  9. Lack of Measles Transmission to Susceptible Contacts from a Health Care Worker with Probable Secondary Vaccine Failure - Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson; Klein, Ron; Popescu, Saskia; Rose, Karen; Kretschmer, Melissa; Carrigan, Alice; Trembath, Felicia; Koski, Lia; Zabel, Karen; Ostdiek, Scott; Rowell-Kinnard, Paula; Munoz, Esther; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Sylvester, Tammy

    2015-08-01

    On January 23, 2015, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) was notified of a suspected measles case in a nurse, a woman aged 48 years. On January 11, the nurse had contact with a patient with laboratory-confirmed measles associated with the Disneyland theme park-related outbreak in California. On January 21, she developed a fever (103°F [39.4°C]), on January 23 she experienced cough and coryza, and on January 24, she developed a rash. The patient was instructed to isolate herself at home. On January 26, serum, a nasopharyngeal swab, and a urine specimen were collected. The following day, measles infection was diagnosed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing of the nasopharyngeal swab and urine specimen and by detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of her symptoms and laboratory results, the patient was considered to be infectious. PMID:26247437

  10. Preventable measles among U.S. residents, 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-26

    Elimination of endemic measles has been achieved in the United States; however, measles continues to be imported from areas of the world where the disease remains endemic, resulting in substantial morbidity and expenditure of local, state, and federal public health resources. Measles among U.S. residents results from returning residents who become infected while living or traveling abroad, from contact or association with an infected traveler, or from an unknown source. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC by state and local health departments regarding confirmed measles cases among U.S. residents during 2001-2004; an illustrative case report is included. The majority of measles cases occurring among U.S. residents can be prevented by following current recommendations for vaccination, including specific guidelines for travelers. PMID:16121120

  11. 安徽省380例8~11月龄麻疹病例含麻疹成分疫苗及时接种情况分析%Analysis on Timely Inoculation of Measles-containing Vaccine for 380 Cases from the Age of 8-11 Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆志坚; 丁旭; 唐继海; 苏颖; 沈永刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the timely inoculation rate of Measles cases by the data of measlescontaining vaccine (MCV) inoculation information from the measles surveillance system (MSS) and Childhood Immunization Information Management System(CIIMS),and to provide reference for developing strategies of measles elimination.Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the MCV inoculation information.Results Timely inoculation rate is less than 5% for 380 measles cases from the Age of 8-11 months.The inoculation rate of the children of 11 months is 32.37%.Most cases occurred in 1-2 weeks(10%) after vaccination,while 35.26% of them had immunization history after onset Measles.There is significant difference of inoculation information between MSS and CIIMS.Conclusion It is very important to inoculate vaccine timely,distinguish the general reaction after inoculation,implement interrogation system,reduce incidence after inoculation,improve the MSS basic information and accurate vaccination information.%目的 通过麻疹监测系统(Measles Surveillance System,MSS)和儿童预防接种信息管理系统(Childhood Immunization Information Management System,CIIMS)中,含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)预防接种的信息研究,分析病例的及时接种率,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对MCV预防接种信息进行统计分析.结果 380例8~11月龄麻疹病例MCV及时接种率<5%,11月龄累计预防接种率为32.37%,接种后1、2周内发病最多(10%),发病后有免疫史的占35.26%,MSS和CIIMS的预防接种信息的免疫史记录差异有统计学意义.结论 及时接种MCV尤为重要,应区分预防接种后的一般反应,落实问诊制度,减少发病后的预防接种,提高MSS和CIIMS的基本信息和预防接种信息采集准确性.

  12. Measles outbreaks: what does it represent for the elimination strategy in the region of the Americas? A call for the action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Aguero, María L; Camacho-Badilla, Kattia; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    The US is experiencing a large multi-state measles outbreak that started in California in 2014. At this time, no source case for the outbreak has been identified. Measles was declared eliminated in the US in 2000, because at that time, there were high coverage rates with the two-dose schedule and these vaccines have been very immunogenic. Measles is still endemic in many parts of the world, and outbreaks can occur when unvaccinated groups are exposed to imported measles virus. The current multi-state outbreak underscores the ongoing risk of measles importation, the need for high measles vaccination coverage rates, and the importance of a prompt and appropriate public health response to individual cases and outbreaks. The US outbreak threatens measles control in the Americas. Strengthening immunization programs and keeping vaccination coverage rates above 95% with a two-dose schedule will be necessary for measles control strategies in the Americas. PMID:26065443

  13. A unique measles B3 cluster in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands linked to air travel and transit at a large international airport, February to April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Lochlainn, Laura; Mandal, Sema; de Sousa, Rita; Paranthaman, Karthik; van Binnendijk, Rob; Ramsay, Mary; Hahné, Susan; Brown, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a joint measles outbreak investigation between public health officials in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands following detection of a measles cluster with a unique measles virus strain. From 1 February to 30 April 2014, 33 measles cases with a unique measles virus strain of genotype B3 were detected in the UK and the Netherlands, of which nine secondary cases were epidemiologically linked to an infectious measles case travelling from the Philippines. Through a combination of epidemiological investigation and sequence analysis, we found that measles transmission occurred in flight, airport and household settings. The secondary measles cases included airport workers, passengers in transit at the same airport or travelling on the same flight as the infectious case and also household contacts. This investigation highlighted the particular importance of measles genotyping in identifying transmission networks and the need to improve vaccination, public health follow-up and management of travellers and airport staff exposed to measles. PMID:27074646

  14. 无明胶保护剂在麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗中的应用%Application of gelatin-free stabilizer to live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石金辉; 刘兴文; 单宝龙; 彭健; 张华超; 朱芮波; 公殿力; 郑海发

    2012-01-01

    目的 研制一种安全有效的无明胶保护剂,并应用于麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗的制备.方法 制备麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗原液,取同一批麻疹病毒原液,分别加入不同成分和配比的无明胶保护剂,制成成品,以含明胶保护剂作对照,检测成品外观、病毒滴度及水分,确定保护剂的成分,再确定保护剂的配比.将麻疹与风疹病毒原液混合,加入筛选出的无明胶保护剂,制备麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(共3批),同时制备3批含明胶保护剂对照疫苗.按《中国药典》三部(2010版)要求对联合疫苗原液、半成品、成品进行检定;分别将制备的联合疫苗于2~8℃放置3和6个月,检测疫苗外观、病毒滴度及水分的变化,于37℃放置1、2、3、4周,检测病毒滴度的变化;按《中国药典》二部(2010版)要求进行过敏试验.结果 含海藻糖和右旋糖酐成分的保护剂为首选保护剂.制备的无明胶保护剂联合疫苗原液、半成品及成品的各项检定指标均符合《中国药典》三部(2010版)要求;无明胶保护剂联合疫苗成品于2~8℃放置6个月的水分和病毒滴度及37℃放置4周的病毒滴度与对照组疫苗相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);注射了无明胶保护剂联合疫苗的豚鼠在试验期内均未发生过敏反应,符合《中国药典》二部(2010版)的要求.结论 无明胶保护剂对麻疹和风疹病毒具有较好的保护作用.%Objective To prepare a safe and effective gelatin-free stabilizer and apply to live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine. Methods Bulk of live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine was prepared. The bulks of measles virus of the same batch were added with gelatin-free stabilizers with various formula respectively to prepare final product, then observed for appearance and determined for virus titer and moisture, using those prepared with gelatin-containing stabilizers as control

  15. Measles case fatality rate in Bihar, India, 2011-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj V Murhekar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar-one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. METHODS: We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. RESULTS: The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.30. CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22% and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%. On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age <5 years, SC/ST status and non-administration of vitamin A during illness. Outbreaks with longer interval between the occurrence of first case and notification of the outbreak also had a higher rate of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases.

  16. 云南省麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动效果评价%Effect Evaluation on Supplementary Immunization Activities of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文; 黄国斐; 罗梅; 李立群; 张杰; 李徽; 丁峥嵘

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of supplementary immunization activities (SIA)of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV).Methods Collecting immunization data of SIA,field investigation,the population antibody level and data from notifiable diseases reporting system.Analyzing the data with descriptire epidemiology.Result The coverage of SIA of Measles vaccine was 97.90% and 98.10% during 2009-2011 respectively.The coverage rate are > 85% in 90% township by fast evaluation.The population antibody level was 87.22% and 95.03%.Before MV SIA(Jan.-Oct.2008),the measles incidence was 2850 cases,with an incidence rate of 6.314/100,000.After MV SIA,the measles incidence was reduced to 638 cases and the incidence rate to 1.404/100,000 in the same period in 2009 and to 86 cases with the incidence of 0.187/100,000 in 2010.By the end of 2010,the reported measles incidence and incidence rate reduced to the lowest level in the history.ConcIusion The effectiveness of MV SIA was good in Yunnan province in the year of 2008 and 2010.On the basis of routine immunization,MV SIA can rapidly improve herd immunity and effectively block the dissemination of measles virus.For realizing the goal of Measles elimination,it is necessary to improve and maintain the coverage of routine immunization and SIAs,strengthen surveillance and management,conduct evaluation and supervision.%目的 评估云南省2008年和2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)控制麻疹的效果.方法 收集云南省2008年、2010年MV SIA接种、现场调查、人群抗体水平及法定传染病报告系统的麻疹疫情资料,应用描述流行病学方法评价控制效果.结果 2008年和2010年,MV SIA报告接种率分别为97.90%和98.21%;报告>90%的乡(镇)快速评估接种率>85%;人群麻疹抗体监测阳性率分别为87.22%和95.03%.MV SIA前,即2008年1~10月,麻疹报告发病2850

  17. Clinical outcome in measles patients hospitalized with complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is a highly communicable viral illness and is common cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. Keeping in view the high prevalence of measles in the developing world, we carried out this study to look into the complicated measles cases and clinical outcome in patients admitted in children ward of Ayub Teaching Hospital. Detailed history and physical examination of all the hospitalized patients with complication of measles were recorded in a proforma. Immunization and nutritional status of each admitted patient was assessed and the clinical outcome of measles was compared with demographic profile. one hundred thirty six hospitalized patients with complications of measles were studied. There was 60.3% male and 57.3% of patients were vaccinated against measles. Malnourished patients were 71.35% and had longer hospital stay (>5 days). Pneumonia (39.7%) and diarrhoea (38.2%) were the commonest complications. Seven children died and encephalitis (57.1%) was the commonest cause of death. The most common complications of measles are pneumonia and diarrhoea with dehydration requiring admission. Malnutrition results in more complications and longer hospital stay. Mortality is significantly associated with encephalitis. (author)

  18. Severe Measles Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rafat, Cédric; Klouche, Kada; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Messika, Jonathan; Roch, Antoine; Machado, Sonia; Sonneville, Romain; Guisset, Olivier; Pujol, Wilfried; Guérin, Claude; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Mrozek, Natacha; Darmon, Michaël; Chemouni, Frank; Schmidt, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract France has recently witnessed a nationwide outbreak of measles. Data on severe forms of measles in adults are lacking. We sought to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, treatment, and prognostic aspects of the disease in adult patients who required admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 36 adults admitted to a total of 64 ICUs throughout France for complications of measles from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011. All cases ...

  19. 2010年北京市麻疹疫苗强化免疫宣传效果评价%Effect evaluation of propaganda on measles vaccine mass immunization campaign in Bejjing in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌云; 黄梨煜; 石建辉; 胡洋; 刘辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 为了保证2010年北京市麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动顺利实施,对其宣传效果进行评价,为调整宣传策略提供科学依据.方法 以北京市居民为调杏对象,采用以Mitofsky-Waksberg法进行分阶段抽样,于2010年9月分别在麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动开展前、中及后期开展电话调查,评价宣传效果.结果 在麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动开展前、中及后期,调查对象对"北京市所有8月龄至14周岁儿童在2010年9月11~20日免费接种麻疹疫苗"的强化免疫政策知晓率分别为52.1%,76.6%和73.3%;家中有8月龄至14周岁儿童的调查对象对该政策知晓率分别为71.5%,92.7%和96.2%;有8月龄至14周岁儿童的家长已经或计划给孩子接种强化免疫的麻疹疫苗的行为意向或行为持有率分别为94.9%、97.5%、97.6%差别具有统计学意义.调查对象获取麻疹疫苗强化免疫政策信息途径主要是大众媒体.结论 北京市麻疹疫苗强化免疫宣传活动效果显著,大众媒体和社区动员相结合可有效促进麻疹疫苗强化免疫政策的传播和目标人群积极主动接种麻疹疫苗.%Objective To evaluate the effect of propaganda on measles vaccine mass immunization campaign in Beijing in 2010, which helped the decision maker adjusted the propaganda on measles vaccine mass immunization campaign to ensure the maximum effectiveness of the propaganda.Methods Adopted two-stage Mitofsky-Waksberg telephone survey of Beijing residents, quantitative data was collected by using computer assisted telephone survey system of Beijing Public Health Hotline (12320) Service Center, and descriptive analysis methods and chi-square test were used to analyze those data.Results As for the three times telephone survey findings, 52.1%, 76.6% and 73.3% the respondents knew the policy of the free measles vaccination program with the goal of reaching children aged between eight months and fourteen years old from September 11 through

  20. Implementation and Effect Evaluation of Supplementary Immunization of Measles Vaccine in Beichen District of Tianjin in 2008%天津市北辰区2008年麻疹疫苗强化免疫实施与效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国和

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结评价2008年天津市北辰区麻疹疫苗强化免疫的效果。方法 利用2007-2009年大疫情报告麻疹发病资料、麻疹专报网专报资料等,总结分析2008年麻疹疫苗强化免疫的效果。结果 该次强化免疫报告接种率,总计调查人数71 581人,接种70 710人,接种率98.78%。评估接种率99.75%,达到目标人群麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率>95%的要求。与强化免疫前的2007、2008年相比,2009年北辰区麻疹发病率显著下降。结论 北辰区2008年麻疹疫苗强化免疫达到预期总目标。%[Objective]To summarize and evaluate the effect of supplementary immunization of measles vaccine in Beichen district of Tianjin in 2008. [ Methods] Using the measles data from large epidemic report and the information from measles special report network during 2007 -2009, the effect of supplementary immunization of measles vaccine was summarized and analyzed. [Results] A total of 71 581 people were surveyed, 70 710 people were inoculated, and the coverage rate was 98.78% . The assessment coverage rate was 99. 75% , and it accorded with the requirement which the coverage rate of supplementary immunization of measles vaccine a-mong target population should reach 95%. Compared with 2007 and 2008 without supplementary immunization, the incidence of measles in 2009 decreased significantly in Beichen district. [ Conclusion ] The supplementary immunization of measles vaccine in Beichen district in 2008 achieves the expected overall target.

  1. 含麻疹成分疫苗常规免疫首剂接种率评价指标分析%Analysis of indexes used to evaluate immunization coverage rate of first dose of measles containing vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮莉萍; 张丽; 唐宁; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To obtain an objective index of evaluating the immunization coverage rate of first dose of measles containing vaccine ( MCV,) by comparison of the indexes in Guizhou Province. Methods: Multistage random sampling method was applied to draw subjects from healthy children who had no measles history and aged from 8 months to 6 years of age. The investigated immunization coverage rate (IIR) and the estimated immunization coverage rate ( EIR) were evaluated according to the positive rate of measles antibody as a gold standard, and the data of incidence cases as a reference. Results:The IIR was 86.0% for the group aged from 8 months to 1 year, 90. 1% for the group aged from 2 to 3 years and 90. 2% for the group aged from 4 to 6 years. The adjusted estimated immunization coverage rate (AIIR) was 89. 8% , 94. 8% and 95. 3% , respectively. Given the vaccine efficacy ( VE) was 82. 9% , the EIR1 was 59. 8% , 71. 6% and 77. 9% , respectively and the AEIR1 was 68. 2% , 79. 7% and 86. 8% , respectively; given the VE was 95% , the EIR1 was 84. 3% , 90. 1% and 92. 7% , respectively, and the AEIR1 was 88.6% , 93.4% and 96. 0% , respectively. The EIR2 was 97. 9% , 94. 5% and 91. 4% , respectively. The relative difference was from 0 to 2.4% when compared with the estimated positive rate of AIIR and AEIR1 given the VE was 95% with the actual positive rate of measles antibody, the difference had no statistical significance (P >0. 05 ). The relative error was low for the estimate positive rates of AIIR and EIR2 and AEIR1 (given the VE was 95% ) for the children that had not suffered from measles, the relative error varied from 7.0% to 15. 8%. Conclusion: The investigated immunization coverage rate after adjustment and the AEIR1 ( VE 95% ) were in line with the actual positive rate of measles antibody, which suggests that we should set an integral evaluation system for the immunization coverage rate based on AIIR and AEIR1.%目的:对贵州省含麻疹成分疫苗(measles

  2. German measles outbreak bursts in two unvaccinated border hilly districts of Northern Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Surender N Gupta; Naveen Gupta; Nirankar S Neki

    2012-01-01

    Background: We investigated German measles outbreak as a suspected one of measles to confirm diagnosis and recommend for control and prevention. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of German measles as the occurrence of febrile rash in any resident of the eight villages from 20 th October to 16 th January, 2007. Case patients were line listed and information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, traveling, treatment history, vaccination status, and pregnancy status were...

  3. What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know About Measles and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-07-01

    From January 1 to April 3, 2015, 159 people from 18 states and the District of Columbia were reported as having measles. Most cases are part of an outbreak linked to a California amusement park. Because measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, most U.S. clinicians are unfamiliar with the condition. We reviewed information on the current outbreak, measles manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and infection-control recommendations. To identify information on measles and pregnancy, we reviewed reports with 20 or more measles cases during pregnancy that included data on effects on pregnant women or pregnancy outcomes. These reports were identified through MEDLINE from inception through February 2015 using the following strategy: (((pregnan*) AND measles) AND English[Language]) NOT review[Publication Type]. Reference lists also were reviewed to identify additional articles. Pregnant women infected with measles are more likely to be hospitalized, develop pneumonia, and die than nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm birth, and low birth weight, are associated with maternal measles; however, the risk of congenital defects does not appear to be increased. No antiviral therapy is available; treatment is supportive. Early identification of possible cases is needed so that appropriate infection control can be instituted promptly. The recent measles outbreak highlights the role that obstetric health care providers play in vaccine-preventable illnesses; obstetrician-gynecologists should ensure that patients are up to date on all vaccines, including measles-containing vaccines, and should recommend and ideally offer a measles-containing vaccine to women without evidence of measles immunity before or after pregnancy.

  4. Measles outbreaks in displaced populations: a review of transmission, morbidity and mortality associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamigaki Taro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease with a significant public health impact especially among displaced populations due to their characteristic mass population displacement, high population density in camps and low measles vaccination coverage among children. While the fatality rate in stable populations is generally around 2%, evidence shows that it is usually high among populations displaced by disasters. In recent years, refugees and internally displaced persons have been increasing. Our study aims to define the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors associated with measles outbreaks in displaced populations. Methods We reviewed literature in the PubMed database, and selected articles for our analysis that quantitatively described measles outbreaks. Results A total of nine articles describing 11 measles outbreak studies were selected. The outbreaks occurred between 1979 and 2005 in Asia and Africa, mostly during post-conflict situations. Seven of eight outbreaks were associated with poor vaccination status (vaccination coverage; 17-57%, while one was predominantly due to one-dose vaccine coverage. The age of cases ranged from 1 month to 39 years. Children aged 6 months to 5 years were the most common target group for vaccination; however, 1622 cases (51.0% of the total cases were older than 5 years of age. Higher case-fatality rates (>5% were reported for five outbreaks. Consistent factors associated with measles transmission, morbidity and mortality were vaccination status, living conditions, movements of refugees, nutritional status and effectiveness of control measures including vaccination campaigns, surveillance and security situations in affected zones. No fatalities were reported in two outbreaks during which a combination of active and passive surveillance was employed. Conclusion Measles patterns have varied over time among populations displaced by natural and man-made disasters. Appropriate

  5. 民工子弟学校新生麻疹疫苗接种及家长认知情况调查%Study on cognition condition about measles vaccine and immunization among freshmen' s parents in schools for children of migrant workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎桂福; 费金花; 郑英杰; 郁晞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the basic situation of freshmen' s measles vaccine and their parents' cognition on measles vaccine and immunization in schools for children of migrant workers, and explore the influencing factors of the immunization coverage of measles in Qingpu District, Shanghai. Methods 606 freshmen were sampled by multistage random sampling method. The parents of them were investigated by a questionnaire. Results 38. 29% of freshmen couldn' t show their immunization record, 37. 95% of them had been inoculated with measles vaccine at least 2 doses. The doses of measles vaccine and the awareness of the parents' were associated with kind of school, place of birth, household incoming, number of family child, age of the parents and parental education level ( P < 0. 05 ). The average score of the parents awareness was 2. 72, meanwhile, 68. 98% were lower than 3. 88. 94% of the parents thought measles vaccine was necessary to their children. 89.61% of them got measles related knowledge from health care workers, plat materials, radio and TV. Conclusion The immunization coverage of measles vaccine was low in investigated schools, meanwhile, the parents' awareness rate of measles vaccine and immunization was low. Targeted strategy should be carried to change the population' s behaviors of immunization from the passive status into active.%目的 了解上海市青浦区民工子弟学校新生麻诊疫苗接种情况及其家长对接种认知情况,探讨民工子弟麻疹疫苗接种的影响因素.方法 通过多阶段随机整群抽样方法,在全区抽取606名民工子弟学校新入校学生,对学生家长进行问卷调查.结果 606名新生中,38.29%的学生无预防接种证或丢失,37.95%的学生麻疹疫苗接种≥2剂,接种次数和知晓率与学校类别、出生地、此前就学地、家庭经济收入、家庭孩子数、父母年龄、父母文化程度等因素有关,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).

  6. Acute and long-term changes in T-lymphocyte subsets in response to clinical and subclinical measles. A community study from rural Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Samb, B; Whittle, H;

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of long-term suppression of T-lymphocyte subsets, we examined children exposed to measles at home during an epidemic in rural Senegal, at time of exposure and 1 and 6 months later. The measles case fatality ratio was 1%. Subclinical measles was common among vaccinated...

  7. The Application Value of Strengthening Measles Vaccine to Block Biphase Displacement for People of Childbearing Age before Pregnancy%育龄人群孕前强化麻疹疫苗对阻断“双相移位”的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀侠; 孙宝霞

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨育龄人群强化麻疹疫苗(MV)注射前后麻疹免疫水平,进一步分析育龄男女麻疹免疫水平对消除麻疹的影响,为最终实现消除麻疹目标提供科学依据.方法选择本院22-35岁育龄医护人员60名,观察MV注射前及注射后26个月的麻疹免疫水平的差异,并采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA),对其MV免疫前后的血清分别检测IgM和IgG抗体.结果育龄男女接种MV前后χ2检验结果:在1200水平上,χ2=7.32,P<0.05;在1800水平,χ2=10.25,P<0.05;注射前后麻疹免疫水平有统计学差异.结论育龄男女或夫妻双方孕前及时、安全接种MV,既可提高育龄人群麻疹抗体水平,同时也可提高出生8月龄婴儿麻疹疫苗初免之前胎传麻疹抗体水平,从而有效降低25岁以上人群及8月龄内婴儿麻疹发病,达到“一代免疫,两代受益”的效果,对阻断“双相移位”具有重要意义.%Objectives Explore the measles immunity levels before and after strengthening measles vaccine(MV) injection for childbearing age population, and further analyze the impact of the childbearing aged women and men's measles immunization level on measles elimination to provide a scientific basis for the ultimate realization of the measles elimination goal. Methods Select 60 child-bearing aged hospital medical staff ranged from 22 to 35 -year-old and observe the differences in measles immunization levels before and after 26 months of MV injection, also adopt enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay test(ELISA) to detect the IgM and IgG antibodies of serum before and after its MV immunity. Results The χ2 test result before and after the women and men of reproductive age were inoculated: in 1 200 level, χ2=7.32, P<0.05, in 1 800 level, χ2=10.25, P<0.05; there exists statistical differences in measles immunization levels before and after the injection. Conclusion Women and men of reproductive age or couples inoculate MV timely and safely before

  8. 育龄人群孕前强化麻疹疫苗对阻断“双相移位”的应用价值%The Application Value of Strengthening Measles Vaccine to Block Biphase Displacement for People of Childbearing Age before Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀侠; 孙宝霞

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Explore the measles immunity levels before and after strengthening measles vaccine(MV) injection for childbearing age population, and further analyze the impact of the childbearing aged women and men's measles immunization level on measles elimination to provide a scientific basis for the ultimate realization of the measles elimination goal. Methods Select 60 child-bearing aged hospital medical staff ranged from 22 to 35 -year-old and observe the differences in measles immunization levels before and after 26 months of MV injection, also adopt enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay test(ELISA) to detect the IgM and IgG antibodies of serum before and after its MV immunity. Results The χ2 test result before and after the women and men of reproductive age were inoculated: in 1 200 level, χ2=7.32, P<0.05, in 1 800 level, χ2=10.25, P<0.05; there exists statistical differences in measles immunization levels before and after the injection. Conclusion Women and men of reproductive age or couples inoculate MV timely and safely before pregnancy can not only improve the level of measles antibody of childbearing aged people but also can improve the 8 -month-old infants' measles antibody level of fetal transmission of measles before measles vaccine, which is able to effectively reduce the incidence of measles among people over 25 years old and below 8 -month-old infant, so that the effect of ‘one generation immune while two generations benefit' can be achieved. It is significant for blocking biphase displacement.%  目的探讨育龄人群强化麻疹疫苗(MV)注射前后麻疹免疫水平,进一步分析育龄男女麻疹免疫水平对消除麻疹的影响,为最终实现消除麻疹目标提供科学依据.方法选择本院22-35岁育龄医护人员60名,观察MV注射前及注射后26个月的麻疹免疫水平的差异,并采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA),对其MV免疫前后的血清分别检测IgM和IgG抗体.结果育龄男女接种MV前后χ2

  9. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children children 1-14 years old, 22% (n = 1,769) were unvaccinated and 70% (n = 5,518) had received one dose of a measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination. PMID:26967661

  10. Evolution and Use of Dynamic Transmission Models for Measles and Rubella Risk and Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-07-01

    The devastation caused by periodic measles outbreaks motivated efforts over more than a century to mathematically model measles disease and transmission. Following the identification of rubella, which similarly presents with fever and rash and causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in infants born to women first infected with rubella early in pregnancy, modelers also began to characterize rubella disease and transmission. Despite the relatively large literature, no comprehensive review to date provides an overview of dynamic transmission models for measles and rubella developed to support risk and policy analysis. This systematic review of the literature identifies quantitative measles and/or rubella dynamic transmission models and characterizes key insights relevant for prospective modeling efforts. Overall, measles and rubella represent some of the relatively simplest viruses to model due to their ability to impact only humans and the apparent life-long immunity that follows survival of infection and/or protection by vaccination, although complexities arise due to maternal antibodies and heterogeneity in mixing and some models considered potential waning immunity and reinfection. This review finds significant underreporting of measles and rubella infections and widespread recognition of the importance of achieving and maintaining high population immunity to stop and prevent measles and rubella transmission. The significantly lower transmissibility of rubella compared to measles implies that all countries could eliminate rubella and CRS by using combination of measles- and rubella-containing vaccines (MRCVs) as they strive to meet regional measles elimination goals, which leads to the recommendation of changing the formulation of national measles-containing vaccines from measles only to MRCV as the standard of care. PMID:27277138

  11. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly

  12. The Health Economic Evaluation for Application of Measles Attennuated Live Vaccine Immunization at Different Period in Zhejiang Province%浙江省不同时期麻疹减毒活疫苗应用效果的卫生经济学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符剑; 何寒青; 赵艳荣; 陈恩富; 李倩; 凌罗亚; 唐学雯

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价浙江省不同时期麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)接种的效果与效益.方法 通过自回归移动平均模型测算麻疹的发病与死亡人数,结合8个县现场调查数据和特尔斐( Delphi)法专家咨询结果,计算工作成本与疾病负担,并分冷链前期(1978~1984年)、冷链时期(1985~1998年)和免疫规划时期(1 999~2007年),对浙江省MV接种进行成本效果分析(Cost Effectiveness,CE)分析、成本效益(Cost Benefit,CB)分析和成本效用(Cost Utility,CU)分析.结果 1978~2007年,浙江省MV使用成本共计1.59亿元,通过实施MV接种,减少麻疹发病3 947 390例,减少死亡112 780例,减少经济损失98.18亿元,减少伤残标化寿命年(Disability-adjusted Life Year,DALY)损失372.23亿.CE为每40元投入便能减少1例麻疹发病,每1410元投入便能减少1例因麻疹死亡.合计CB比为1∶61.75,CU比为1∶234.10DALY.结论 浙江省实施MV接种的CE、CB和CU均十分显著,应继续加强冷链配置和规范化预防接种门诊建设,提高预防接种质量,确保MV及时、有效接种.%Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of measles vaccination during different period in Zhejiang province. Methods Field investigation in 8 counties of Zhejiang province and Delphi consulting were conducted to calculate the costs of measles immunization and diseases burden of Measles. The time series model (ARIMA, autoregressive integrated moving average model) were used to estimate the predicted incidence and mortality of measles. CEA (cost effectiveness analysis), CBA(cost benefit analysis)and CUA(cost utility analysis)to appraise the health economic efficiency were developed during different period (1978-1984, 1985-1998, 1999-2007). Results The incidence and the related mortality rate of measles were reduced to very low level. The total costs for application of the Measles vaccine was 159 million YUAN (Renminbi, RMB)from 1978 to 2007. The

  13. INFLUENCE OF PROCESS CONDITIONS ON MEASLES VIRUS STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant measles viruses are currently tested in clinical trials as oncolytic agent to be applied in cancer therapy. Contrary to their use as vaccine where 103 infectious virus particles per dose are needed, for cancer therapy 109 virus particles should be provided per dose. This leads to other challenges for the production process when compared to vaccine production. This study presents measles virus stability with regard to conditions during production and storage of the virus. Relevant process parameters such as temperature (4-37°C, pH (pH 4-11, conductivity (1.5 to 137.5 mS cm-1 and oxygen partial pressure were analyzed. The infectivity of measles virus particles decreased highly at 37 and 32°C, while at 22 and 4°C it remained stable for several hours or even days, respectively. The thermal inactivation reactions followed first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters enthalpy and entropy were estimated. Towards changes in pH measles virus particles were very sensitive, while no inactivation could be observed with varying conductivity. Measles virus incubation at an oxygen partial pressure of 100% did not lead to any loss of infectivity. The results show which parameters should be considered and controlled strongly in the production process to further raise measles virus yields for the high amount needed in cancer therapy approaches.

  14. Measles (lecture, continuing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article discusses differential diagnosis during different measles periods. Routine and confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, including cytological, serological and molecular genetic methods is outlined. Criteria of suspected, probable and proved diagnosis of measles cases are provided. Principles of diagnosis formulation according to WHO criteria are described. Complications of measles ac¬cording to cause (viral and bacterial, by different systems and particularities in high risk patients are considered. Complications of measles from central nervous system are described in details. Therapeutic management of measles is described in details, including indications for hospital admission, etiotropic therapy, strict indications for steroids and immunoglobulins prescription, vitamin A in dosages, therapy of complications, indications for antibiotics usage and other pathogenetic therapy. Specific therapy of measles complications from central nervous system is outlined. Active and passive immunization, anti-epidemic activities, patient follow-up after episode of measles and disease prognosis are described. The literature reference list consists of 121 items, including Cyrillic, Latin articles and electronic resources.

  15. Atypical measles syndrome: unusual hepatic, pulmonary, and immunologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H M; Krugman, S

    1981-01-01

    The atypical measles syndrome is a relatively new disease that was first recognized 15 years ago. Initially, it occurred in children who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. It was characterized by a two- to three-day prodrome of high fever, cough, headache, and myalgia followed by a rash that resembled Rocky Mountain spotted fever, scarlet fever, or varicella and associated with roentgenographic evidence of pneumonia with or without pleural effusion. This report highlights three unusual manifestations of this syndrome: 1) transient hepatitis, 2) persistence of pulmonary lesions for several years, and 3) occurrence of excessively high measles hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers. Today, this syndrome occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults.

  16. Monitoring results of immunization successful rate of measles and rubella combined vaccine in Daxingin District of Beijing City in 2011%2011年北京市大兴区麻风疫苗基础免疫成功率监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金凤; 侯文俊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To know the immunization effect of measles and rubella combined vaccine on 8 -month-old infants in Daxin-gin District of Beijing City in 2011, ,and provide a basis for immunization strategy. [Methods]The serum samples of 8 -month-old infants were collected before and 1 month after immunization of measles and rubella combined vaccine, then the IgG antibody of measles and rubella were detected- [ Results ] After immunization , the positive rate of measles antibody was 100% , and GMT reached 1 : 1385. 52; 33 cases were rubella IgG positive with the positive rate of 82. 5% , and GMT reached 1: 31.18. [ Conclusion]The immunogenicity of measles ingredient in current measles and rubella combined vaccine is good in this district, but the effect of rubella ingredient is not so good. Therefore, revaccination is necessary.%目的 了解北京市大兴区2011年8月龄儿童接种麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(简称麻风疫苗)后的免疫效果,为制定麻疹免疫策略提供依据.方法 采集40名8月龄儿童麻风疫苗免疫前、免疫后1个月双份血标本,分别进行麻疹、风疹IgG抗体测定.结果 免后麻疹抗体阳性40人,阳性率100%,GMT 1∶1 385.52;风疹抗体阳性33人,阳性率82.50%,GMT1∶31.18.结论 该区现行的麻风疫苗所包含的麻疹成分免疫原性好,风疹成分免疫效果较差,应进行风疹疫苗复种弥补.

  17. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMA ROBO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with fever”. The diagnosis was established by clinical signs, confirmed by serologic results. Sera samples from all the suspected cases were tested for Measles IgM by ELISA and molecular genotyping of virus by the regional reference laboratory. Results: According to the case definition 16 cases were actively found, 13 (77% were female and 3 (23% male. The mean age was 7.1 years (range: three months to 23 years. Most of the patients had Koplik spots, coryza and conjunctivitis. All cases were unvaccinated. All patients recovered and no fatal cases. Conclusion: Gaps of low vaccine coverage facilitated the measles infection to spread. The vaccination of this community it difficult despite the commitement of the health staff. Families with their children are in ongoing migration all over the country and abroad. As a response to stop the spread of the measles outbreak, the district epidemiological service in Elbasan with the support from the national institute of public health, organised a mass vaccination campaign.

  18. Identification of peptide sequences as a measure of Anthrax vaccine stability during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Gail; Wheeler, Jun X.; Rijpkema, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    The UK anthrax vaccine is an alum precipitate of a sterile filtrate of Bacillus anthracis Sterne culture (AVP). An increase in shelf life of AVP from 3 to 5 years prompted us to investigate the in vivo potency and the antigen content of 12 batches with a shelf life of 6.4 to 9.9 years and one bulk with a shelf life of 23.8 years. All batches, except for a 9.4-year-old batch, passed the potency test. Mass spectrometry (MS) and in-gel difference 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (DIGE) were use...

  19. Contagious Comments: What Was the Online Buzz About the 2011 Quebec Measles Outbreak?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jennifer A; Susan Quach; Huy Hao Dao; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Quan, Sherman D; Maryse Guay

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing t...

  20. Rapid identification of Beijing measles vaccine virus and wild virus by multiplex real-time fluorescent PCR%应用多重实时荧光PCR技术快速鉴别北京麻疹疫苗病毒与野病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萌; 黄芳; 陈维欣; 董梅; 张铁钢; 吴疆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify wild measles virus and vaccine virus by detection nucleic acid of clinical samples from measles patients with immunization history circulating in Beijing through muhiplex real-time fluorescent PCR technology.Methods From July 2011 to Fetbruary 2012,10 throat swabs and 15 urine specimens were collected from 16 suspected measles patients who were 8 -9 months old infants with immunization history in Beijing.The specificity of multiplex real-time fluorescent PCR was firstly tested by measles vaccine virus,wild virus and other respiratory virus.Then the vaccine virus and wild virus were titrated and diluted to test the sensitivity of the PCR method.The result was then compared with it analyzed by PCR-RFLP method.Meanwhile,the clinical sample of the measles patients were tested and confirmed by sequencing method.Results The primer-probe sets of Fam,Joe and Cy5 showed great specificity of measles virus,and could distinguish the measles vaccine virus and wild virus well.The sensitivity of this method to detect measles vaccine virus reached 0.1 CCID50/0.1 ml:and the sensitivity to wild virus reached 0.006 CCID50/0.1 ml; which were both higher than the sensitivity of PCR-RFLP method.Out of the 16 measles patients with vaccination history,3 were negative and the other 13 all belonged to measles virus genotype A,and were confirmed to be vaccine virus by sequencing method.Conclusion Multiplex real-time PCR method is accurate,rapid and sensitive to identify measles vaccine virus and wild virus.The method could greatly help us to find measles patients and to identify the vaccine-related cases.%目的 应用多重实时荧光PCR技术对北京地区有免疫史麻疹患者临床样本进行核酸检测,鉴别麻疹野病毒和疫苗病毒.方法 于2011年7月至2012年2月在北京采集16例8~9月龄初免后疑似麻疹患者的10份咽拭子和15份尿液标本.先用麻疹疫苗病毒、野病毒和其他呼吸道病毒检测多重实时荧光PCR方

  1. Immune Response and Clinical Reaction to Measles Vaccine in 6-month old Infants%6月龄婴儿麻疹疫苗免疫效果及人体反应观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢莉; 王文胜; 王岩; 柳银芝; 王冬梅; 郭舫如; 辜荫华

    2001-01-01

    In vaccine era, measles antibody in women of childbearing age is vaccine-induced, and the maternal antibody of their infants disappeared in advance. In big city, such as Beijing, more and more <8 month-old infants who do not reach the first immunization age are attacked by measles virus. We selected 119*"6 month-old infants, giving them measles vaccine (MV) , to observe their immune response and clinical reaction. The results showed the maternal antibody in 84% of the 6 month-old infants before vaccination were negative, and the antibody level in rest of them were very low. After MV vaccination, their seropositive rate reached 86.6%, the immunization successful rate was 80.7%, the GMT was 1∶528.45, the rates for fever and rash were 16.8% and 2.52% respectively, suggesting that the first vaccination of MV in 6 month-old infants is feasible. Compared with infants primarily vaccinated at 8 months old, both the immunization successful rate and GMT were lower. This means that there is interference of residual maternal antibody with vaccine but most chiefly contributes to the immature development of the immune system of the infants (age related factor). We recommend to give the first dose of MV to infants of 6 months old and the second dose at 1 year old, but before doing this, it is necessary to do cost effectiveness analysis and to explore new MV with good antigenicity to infants of lower age.%疫苗时代育龄期妇女体内麻疹抗体多为麻疹疫苗所介导,所生婴儿母传抗体消失提前,未及初免月龄已成为易感者。针对北京市及其它一些大城市<8月龄婴儿麻疹发病越来越突出的情况,为控制该人群发病,选取北京市户籍的6月龄婴儿119人进行麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)免疫效果及人体反应观察。结果显示:6月龄婴儿中有84%母传抗体已阴转,阳性者抗体水平也极低。接种MV后抗体阳性率达到86.6%,免疫成功率为80.7%,

  2. the temperature dropped to normal When Rash Had appeared For 12 Hours:an atypical Case of Measles in adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ling Liu; Chun-wei Wang; Ying Liu; Ping Zhou; Xiao-juan Li; Hui-yuan Si; Hong-wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A twenty-eight-year-old male patient with five-day’s fever (the highest body tempreture reached 39.4℃) and 10-hour’s rash (first on face) presented to the department of emergency for “drug rash”, at that time his temperature was 38.6℃. Two hours later, his temperature fell to normal. Then this patient’s entire body rash increased signiifcantly and lasted for 13 hours. Serum measles antibody IgM(+) conifrmed the measles diagnosis. He had received measles vaccine as a baby. Clinicians should be aware of this atypical clinical manifestation of adult measles. If this kind of patients were misdiagnosed as drug rash and given corticosteroid, measles disease may be aggravated. Speciifc serum measles antibody testing may be the only reliable method for differential diagnosis, but the earliest time point for examining the antibodies of measles still needs precise research.

  3. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  4. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  5. Spotlight on measles 2010: measles outbreak in Ireland 2009-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gee, S

    2010-01-01

    Measles cases are increasing in Ireland, with 320 cases notified since August 2009. Nearly two-thirds of these cases (n=206) were unvaccinated. In the early stages of the outbreak a substantial number of cases were linked to the Traveller community with some cases also reported among the Roma community, other citizens from eastern Europe and children whose parents objected to vaccination. By February 2010, there had been considerable spread to the general population.

  6. Practical observations from an epidemiological investigation of a measles outbreak in a district of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, accounting for nearly half of the morbidity associated with global vaccine preventable diseases. Regular outbreaks of Measles are reported in India, of which only a few are investigated. This study was conducted in the Shivpuri District of Madhya Pradesh (India to investigate and asses various epidemiological factors associated with measles outbreak. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 randomly selected sub-centers in 8 blocks of the Shivpuri District of Madhya Pradesh, covering 212 villages, selected by cluster sampling. The villages, which had reported measles cases, were extensively investigated by the field teams through extensive house-to-house surveys during 12-19 May 2004. Results: A total of 1204 cases with 14 deaths were reported with an attack rate of 6.2% and a case fatality rate of 1.2%. In this study, 17.7% of the cases reported post-measles complications with diarrhea as the most common post measles complication. The routine measles vaccine and Vitamin A supplementation in the area was also less than 30%. Conclusions: The majority of the cases had occurred in the unvaccinated children and in under 5 year old population. There are repeated outbreaks and a long delay in reporting of the cases. The occurrence of cases, in a reasonable proportion of the vaccinated population, points toward the fact that there is a possibility of a vaccine failure in older children. This study calls for an improved surveillance system, an improvement in the cold chain, and enhancements for measles vaccination if India is to achieve the goal of measles elimination.

  7. Anafilaxia associada à vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola Anafilaxia asociada a la vacuna contra sarampión, varicela y rubéola Anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Maria Novadzki

    2010-04-01

    sensibilización por algún componente residual de la vacuna y posible reacción cruzada con el dextrano.A case-control study was carried out aiming to describe the cases and causes of anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella. A total of 22 reported cases in children who showed mucocutaneous manifestations, during the Campanha Nacional de Vacinação (Brazilian Vaccination Campaign, conducted in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, in 2004, were studied. In addition, 66 children, who were next to these cases and did not show a symptomatology after the vaccine was applied, were selected. Serum measurements of antibodies for vaccine antigens and total IgE, specific IgE antibody measurements for several allergens, and skin tests were performed. Vaccine response was adequate, specific IgE measurement and skin tests showed that potential allergens in vaccines and atopy were not associated with anaphylactic reactions. Skin tests with the vaccine and dextran were positive in the cases exclusively, suggesting sensitization to certain residual components of the vaccine and possible cross-reaction with dextran.

  8. Measles: United States, January--May 20, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness that can lead to serious complications and death. Endemic or sustained measles transmission has not occurred in the United States since the late 1990s, despite continued importations (1). During 2001--2008, a median of 56 (range: 37--140) measles cases were reported to CDC annually (2); during the first 19 weeks of 2011, 118 cases of measles were reported, the highest number reported for this period since 1996. Of the 118 cases, 105 (89%) were associated with importation from other countries, including 46 importations (34 among U.S. residents traveling abroad and 12 among foreign visitors). Among those 46 cases, 40 (87%) were importations from the World Health Organization (WHO) European and South-East Asia regions. Of the 118, 105 (89%) patients were unvaccinated. Forty-seven (40%) patients were hospitalized and nine had pneumonia. The increased number of measles importations into the United States this year underscores the importance of vaccination to prevent measles and its complications. PMID:21617634

  9. Population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, M.G. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel))

    1981-11-01

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 ..mu..l of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with /sup 125/I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed.

  10. Measles HI-antibody levels in Lagos children, Nigeria: a follow-up study to resurgence of measles in Lagos metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyefolu, A O; Omilabu, S A

    2001-01-01

    A total of 138 children aged between 0-36 months were bled and screened for measles haemagglutination inhibiting (HI)-antibody. Twenty seven children were from age group (0-4) months with 16 (59.3%) seropositive while, 67 and 44 were bled in the group (5-9) and > or = 12 months with 29 (43.3%) and 31 (70.5%) sero positive sera respectively. The distribution of the antibody titre pattern among various age groups suggest vaccination against measles should be at age 9 month. The antibody titres pattern of seroconverted vaccinees also showed that the vaccine administered at our study centre were potent enough to elicit good and protective immune response in vaccinees when given at age 9 month. Our study agrees with the current policy of vaccinating children against measles at age 9 months in Nigeria and should therefore be continued. Based on observations in this study, we suggest; continued administration of the Edmonston-Zagreb strain of measle vaccine currently-in-use in Nigeria, mother's breast-feeding of children for a longer period before the apporpriate age for vaccination, and the possible administration of Vitamin A-a potent immune enhancer, as a supplement during immunization programmes in Nigeria. The introduction of a booster dose of measles vaccine at elementary school age in order to care for the residual unvaccinated children may be a good strategy for measles eradication necessary to be considered in Nigeria and might probably forestall instances of measles outbreaks in children during their second year in school. PMID:11922159

  11. Measles outbreak investigation in Zaka, Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomerai Kufakwanguzvarova W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A measles outbreak was detected at Ndanga Hospital in Zaka district Masvingo Province on the 5th of May 2010 and there were five deaths. Source of infection was not known and an investigation was carried out to determine factors associated with contracting measles in Zaka district. Materials and methods A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a person residing in Zaka district who developed signs and symptoms of measles or tested IgM positive from 06 May 2010 to 30 August 2010. A control was a person residing in the same community who did not have history of signs and symptoms of measles during the same period. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire (translated into shona was used to solicit information from cases and controls. Ethical consideration like written consent from all participants, respect and confidentiality were observed. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the medical research Council of Zimbabwe and the provincial Medical Directors Masvingo. Epi info was used to calculate frequencies, odds ratios and perform logistic regression to control for confounding variables. Findings A total of 110 cases and 110 controls were recruited. Most cases (63.03% were from the apostolic sect while 44.7% of controls were from orthodox churches. Contact with a measles case [AOR= 41.14, 95% CI (7.47-226.5],being unvaccinated against measles [AOR= 3.96, 95%CI (2.58-6.08] and not receiving additional doses of measles vaccine [AOR 5.48, 95% CI (2.16-11.08] were independent risk factor for contracting measles. Measles vaccination coverage for Zaka district was 75%. The median duration for seeking treatment after onset of illness was three days (Q1=2; Q3=7. There were no emergency preparedness plans in place. Conclusion This outbreak occurred due to a large number of unvaccinated children and a boarding school that facilitated person to person transmission. We recommend mandatory

  12. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  13. Avaliação das condições de estocagem de vacinas vivas, atenuadas contra o sarampo, em postos de vacinação credenciados e em centros de saúde do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil An assessment of the storage conditions of live, attenuated vaccines against measles, in authorized vaccination centers and in health services in S. Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio França Mendes

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar as condições de estocagem de vacinas vivas, atenuadas contra o sarampo, da rede de vacinação do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, foram visitados 71 Postos de Vacinação Credenciados particulares (PVC, assim como 117 Centros de Saúde oficiais (CS, sobre os quais interessava saber a respeito da qualidade da estocagem a frio. Os parâmetros adotados foram: a temperatura das geladeiras de uso (+2 a +8°C e de estoque (+ 8°C; b validade do produto; c título das vacinas conservadas nestas geladeiras, avaliado pela inoculação de diluições das amostras de vacinas em células Vero; d proteção à luz. Dos CS pesquisados, 85,33% apresentaram geladeiras com temperatura de acordo com a recomendada e 100% das vacinas neles estocadas com título e validade satisfatórios. Nos PVC foram encontrados, com maior freqüência, lotes de vacina fora do prazo de validade (14,49%, com títulos abaixo do mínimo requerido (3,53% e geladeiras de uso e de estoque com temperaturas inadequadas (33,80%. Necessário se faz que as condições de estocagem das vacinas contra o sarampo (temperatura e proteção à luz, prevalentes no momento, sejam melhoradas e que as bulas passem a acompanhar o produto a eles entregue, para que os responsáveis pela vacinação obedeçam as recomendações do laboratório produtor com relação às condições de estocagem, validade e administração do imunobiológico, uma vez que a pesquisa revelou que estas não são observadas com o rigor necessário.In the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, health centers sponsored by the State, as well as private health services, located in throughout large districts, are in charge of the vaccination against the various diseases affecting children, including measles. In the present study three of the above mentioned districts, covering 385 State Health Centers (SHC and 200 Private Health Services (PHS were surveyed. From these totals 117 SHC and 71 PHS were chosen for the evaluation of: a

  14. Successful control and impending elimination of measles in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Gouya, Mohamad M; Azad, Talat Mokhtari; Soltanshahi, Rambod; Sabouri, Azam; Naouri, Boubker; Alexander, James P

    2011-07-01

    Measles is still one of the most common infectious killers of children in the world, especially in developing countries. In Iran, during the prevaccine era, 150,000-500,000 cases of measles were reported annually, with a death rate of 10%-15%. After the establishment of Expanded Program on Immunization program in 1984, vaccination rates for the first and second doses of measles vaccine increased to >90% by the mid-1990s, and the number of measles cases decreased to 2652 in 1996. In response to increased numbers of cases in older age groups during 1996-2002, a nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign was conducted in 2003, and 33,100,000 persons (99%) aged 5-25 years were vaccinated. During 2004-2009, 221 laboratory-confirmed measles cases (<1 case per million population) were detected, primarily in rural areas and among migrant groups who traveled to or came from high-incidence countries. High routine immunization coverage, low disease incidence, and surveillance system data suggest that interruption of endemic virus transmission might have already been achieved in Iran, but challenges remain and continued efforts are needed to sustain this accomplishment.

  15. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  16. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  17. Clinical observation of epithelial herpes simplex keratitis treated by live attenuated measles vaccine%麻疹减毒活疫苗治疗上皮型单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静; 张明昌; 向其元

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨麻疹减毒活疫苗治疗上皮型单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎(HSK)的临床效果.方法 选取在钟祥市人民医院眼科门诊确诊的60例(60眼)上皮型HSK患者,随机分为对照组和试验组,每组30例.对照组给予更昔洛韦滴眼液滴眼,每日8次;试验组球结膜下注射麻疹减毒活疫苗,隔日1次,每次0.5 mL,联合更昔洛韦滴眼液滴眼,每日8次,治疗3周.观察治疗后1、2、3周的治疗效果,随访2a,观察其复发率.结果 对照组在治疗后第1、2、3周的症状与体征评分分别为2.533±0.507、2.133±0.730、1.433±0.728,试验组分别为2.200±0.252、1.800±0.761、1.067±0.254,2组各相应时间点评分比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后第1、2、3周2组间各时间对应点角膜知觉情况比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对照组在治疗后第2、3周眼部炎症反应的治愈率分别为13.33% (4/30)、26.67%(8/30),试验组分别为33.33% (10/30)、66.67% (20/30),2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).随访2a,对照组复发率为26.67%,试验组为6.67%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)).2组患者均未出现明显不良反应.结论 应用更昔洛韦滴眼液联合麻疹减毒活疫苗球结膜下注射治疗上皮型HSK具有治愈率高、不良反应少、复发率低等优点.%Objective To investigate clinical effect of epithelial herpes simplex keratitis( HSK) treated by live attenuated measles vaccine. Methods Sixty epithelial HSK patients diagnosed at Zhongxiang people's hospital were enrolled. All the patients were divided into control group and experimental group randomly ,30 patients in each group. The control group patients were treated by ganciclovir eye drops,8 times per day,while experimental group patients were treated by ganciclovir eye drops (8 times per day) as well as sub-conjunctival injection oflive attenuated measles vaccine(0.5 mL per time, every other day). All patients were treated

  18. Evaluation on Immunization Coverage Rate of the First-Dose Measles Containing Vaccine in Tianjin%天津市含麻疹成分疫苗首剂接种率评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁亚兴; 孙静; 田宏; 陈伟; 黄海涛; 万丽霞; 高志刚; 张颖

    2015-01-01

    目的 对天津市含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles Containing Vaccine,MCV)首剂(MCV1)接种率进行评价.方法 2009-2012年采用多阶段随机抽样法抽取天津市8月龄~6岁健康儿童开展麻疹血清学抗体监测,以麻疹抗体阳性率来评价该年龄组MCV1接种率.结果 2009-2012年天津市8月龄~6岁组MCV1调查接种率(Investigated Immunization Coverage Rate,IIR)分别为92.59%、98.25%、99.04%和98.53%;当疫苗效力(Vaccine Efficacy,VE)取82.9%和95%时,2009-2011年估算接种率(Estimated Immunization Coverage Rate,EIR)分别为15.45%、60.67%、77.82%和38.46%、84.07%、92.31%;免疫规划信息系统统计的全市MCV1接种率分别为:95.46%、96.47%、98.11%和99.03%.血清学监测抗体阳性率2009-2012年分别为94.22%、97.07%、96.91%和95.45%,经统计分析,除2012年外,IIR、EIR和信息系统接种率估算出来的抗体阳性率和血清学监测阳性率之间有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 血清学监测能评价疫苗接种率,真实反映人群免疫力.

  19. The Costs and Valuation of Health Impacts of Measles and Rubella Risk Management Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Odahowski, Cassie L

    2016-07-01

    National and global health policymakers require good information about the costs and benefits of their investments in measles and rubella immunization programs. Building on our review of the existing measles and rubella health economics literature, we develop inputs for use in regional and global models of the expected future benefits and costs of vaccination, treatment, surveillance, and other global coordination activities. Given diversity in the world and limited data, we characterize the costs for countries according to the 2013 World Bank income levels using 2013 U.S. dollars (2013$US). We estimate that routine immunization and supplemental immunization activities will cost governments and donors over 2013$US 2.3 billion per year for the foreseeable future, with high-income countries accounting for 55% of the costs, to vaccinate global birth cohorts of approximately 134 million surviving infants and to protect the global population of over 7 billion people. We find significantly higher costs and health consequences of measles or rubella disease than with vaccine use, with the expected disability-adjusted life year (DALY) loss for case of disease generally at least 100 times the loss per vaccine dose. To support estimates of the economic benefits of investments in measles and/or rubella elimination or control, we characterize the probabilities of various sequelae of measles and rubella infections and vaccine adverse events, the DALY inputs for health outcomes, and the associated treatment costs. Managing measles and rubella to achieve the existing and future regional measles and rubella goals and the objectives of the Global Vaccine Action Plan will require an ongoing commitment of financial resources that will prevent adverse health outcomes and save the associated treatment costs. PMID:26249331

  20. [The State of Measles and Rubella in the WHO European region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Ben Mamou, Myriam; Shefer, Abigail; Jankovic, Dragan; Deshevoy, Sergei; Butler, Robb

    2015-01-01

    The long-standing and widespread use of vaccines against measles has resulted in a dramatic decline in cases and measles mortality worldwide compared with the pre-vaccination era.All regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have measles elimination goals and the WHO regions of the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific also have rubella elimination goals. This article aims to report on progress toward elimination of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region based on the latest available data. We also discuss current challenges and actions needed to reach this goal in the Region. Despite substantial progress made towards controlling measles and rubella, the countries of the WHO European Region continue to face challenges in interrupting endemic transmission of these diseases. Widespread outbreaks and endemic transmission of measles and rubella persisted in some countries of the Region in 2014 and have continued in 2015. Interrupting endemic transmission in each and every country is necessary to declare elimination for the entire Region. High population immunity and high-quality surveillance are the cornerstones to eliminate measles and rubella. In the absence of sustained political commitment and implementation of the required strategies by all countries, the goal of eliminating these diseases in the WHO European Region is at stake. PMID:26580789

  1. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Immunoglobulin M Antibodies against Measles Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Roodbari, F.; Roustai, M. H.; A Mostafaie; Soleimanjdahi, H.; Foroshani, R. Sarrami; F Sabahi

    2003-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious respiratory virus infection, with typical clinical symptoms including maculopapular rash, fever, cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis. Despite implementation of widespread vaccination programs throughout the world, the rates of global morbidity and mortality are still considerable. This study was performed to design a reliable indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM). First, human IgM was purified, and th...

  2. Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Jensen, Ryan L

    2003-04-01

    Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P vaccine virus revealed that the antibody was directed against a protein of approximately 74 kd molecular weight. The antibody to this antigen was found in 83% of autistic children but not in normal children or siblings of autistic children. Thus autistic children have a hyperimmune response to measles virus, which in the absence of a wild type of measles infection might be a sign of an abnormal immune reaction to the vaccine strain or virus reactivation.

  3. Epidemiological investigation of mixed outbreaks of measles/varicella in hilly villages of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuptaSN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background On 26th September 2006, a local health worker informed us about sudden increased number of cases of fever and rash in three villages of district Kangra. We investigated the suspected outbreak to confirm diagnosis and recommendation to prevent and control.Methods A case of measles was defined as occurrence of fever with rash in a child between six months to 17 years of age, from 26th September to 2nd week of January, 2007. The information on age, sex, symptoms, signs, date of onset, residence, traveling history treatment taken and assessment of cold chain system was collected. The outbreak was described by place, time and person characteristics. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study among children between 10 months and 15 years of age to estimate the vaccine efficacy. We confirmed diagnosis clinically, epidemiologically and serologically. Results We identified 29/35 measles and 6/35 were confirmed as epidemiologically linked unvaccinated chickenpox case patients. The overall attack rate (AR was 8.13%; maximally in the age group of 11-17 years ranging in between 17-35%. Sex specific AR was more (17% in females. There was neither any death nor any serious complications. The proportion of the children vaccinated was 95% for measles but nil for varicella. Of 35 case-patients, 27 (78% were vaccinated for measles only with no vitamin A supplementation (relative risk: 5.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.90 – 14.77. The measles vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 82%. 3/3 case-patients for measles IgM antibodies and 2/3 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested positive by PCR and D4 measles strain genotyped.Conclusion Measles/varicella outbreaks were confirmed. We recommended varicella vaccination, second dose opportunity for measles and vitamin A supplementation to all cases in affected areas.

  4. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, F

    2007-12-01

    A suggested association between certain childhood vaccines and autism has been one of the most contentious vaccine safety controversies in recent years. Despite compelling scientific evidence against a causal association, many parents and parent advocacy groups continue to suspect that vaccines, particularly measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs), can cause autism.

  5. Measles vaccination status and related factors among infants in Ouhai district in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province%浙江省温州市瓯海区麻疹疫苗免疫接种状况及其影响因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀敏; 刘丽琳; 陈佩; 郑剑勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the vaccination rate and timely vaccination rate of measles containing vaccine (MV) immunization among local and migrant infants and the related factors of missing vaccination or non-timely vaccination, and provide scientific evidence to develop strategy of eliminating measles. Methods The multistage cluster sampling survey was conducted among 225 local children and 225 migrant children who were born between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2010. Results The first dose vaccination rates of MV were 99.56% and 97. 33% , the qualified vaccination rates were 97. 33% and 91. 56% , the timely vaccination rates were 76. 44% and 63. 56% and the second dose vaccination rates of MV were 99. 33% and 90. 58% respectively in local children and migrant children. Among the children who missed vaccination or received non timely vaccination, 67.51% were due to illness. Conclusion The activities of providing the second immunization opportunity and supplementary immunization of MV in migrant children had made great achievement in Ouhai n recent years, but the management of MV vaccination and health education about vaccination should be strengthened to improve the vaccination rate and timely vaccination rate of MV.%目的 了解浙江省温州市瓯海区本地和外来儿童麻疹疫苗(MV,包括含麻疹成分疫苗)接种率和及时接种率,分析未接种和不及时接种原因,为制定消除麻疹免疫策略提供科学依据.方法 采用分阶段整群抽样方法,调查2007年4月1日至2010年3月31日出生的本地和外来儿童各225名.结果 本地儿童MV初免接种率、初免合格接种率、初免及时接种率和复免接种率分别为99.56%、97.33%、76.44%和99.33%;外地儿童MV初免接种率、初免合格接种率、初免及时接种率和复免接种率分别为97.33%、91.56%、63.56%和90.58%.未接种和不及时接种MV以“孩子患病未去接种和孩子患病医生不予接种”等为主,占67.51

  6. "The study of Measles cases and suspected cases in southern Tehran (1379 "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalilan M "

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Measles, as one of the most contagious diseases, because of the risks of mortality, mental and physical disabilities which may afflict on the patients, has always been so important to the scientists and researchers. With respect to burden of diseases, numerous measures have been taken to control and eliminate measles. In our country, vaccination is considered as the most important strategy to control the measles, however, the surveillance on the patients is on the second place. Screening (Active & passive, prompt and appropriate control of measles in high risk areas can help to control the disease. Materials and Methods: There are 1375283 people with a variety of demographic traits who live in southern Tehran. Southern Tehran covering 10th, 11th, 16th, 17th, 19th divisions of Tehran municipality consists of high risk areas. Because of too many immigrants, overcrowded areas, malnutrition and poverty, the south of Tehran is considered as one of high risk areas, predisposed to measles epidemics. So in 1999, a cross-sectional study was done. Results: On 230 subjects suspected to be measles in south of Tehran, 147 subjects were diagnosed as measles by para clinic evidence, 121 subjects of which were men. Most of these were of the age 20 to 24 years old who lived in the eleventh part of Tehran municipality area. The majority of patients were found among soldiers who lived in dormitories in Horr garrison and military training college located on the above-mentioned area. Unfortunately, most of them did not have reliable history of vaccination. Most of these patients had been in close contact with the colleagues who were measled (61.2 percent. The rate of measles incidence during winter soars at most. Conclusion: The most important factor to be researched is that, the age of these patients differs much from what is expected, due to unknown reason.

  7. 江西省麻疹强化免疫后疑似预防接种异常反应病例分析%STUDY ON THE ADVERSE EVENTS FOLLOWING IMMUNIZATION AFTER THE MEASLES VACCINE FOLLOW-UP IMMUNIZATION IN JIANGXI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭世成; 涂秋凤; 吴静; 谭祥勇; 张洪荣

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析江西省麻疹强化免疫后报告的疑似预防接种异常反应病例,评价AEFI监测系统运转情况、疫苗的安全性和预防接种服务质量.[方法]通过网络平台AEFI监测系统收集报告的麻疹强化后AEFI个案数据,采用描述性方法对相关指标进行流行病学分析.[结果]江西省麻疹疫苗强化后共报告AEFI病例115例,报告发生率为12.7/100万剂,南昌报告病例最多占21.7%;所有病例中过敏性紫癜61例,占53.0%;所有病例中有35.7%的病例有发热症状,有13.9%有局部红肿.[结论]麻疹疫苗的安全性和预防接种服务质量良好.但江西省AEFI监测系统敏感性不高,有待进一步加强.%[Objective] To analyse the epidemiological characters of the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) after the measles vaccine follow-up immunization, evaluate the running state of the AEFI surveillance system, the safety of the measles vaccine. [Methods] Collected the AEFI cases from the AEFI surveillance system and analysed it with the descriptive methodology. [Results] 115 AEFI cases was reported after the measles vaccine follow-up immunization, the reported inci dence rate was 12.7 pre 1 million doses, 21.7% of all the reported AEFI cases reported in Nanchang city. Anaphylactoid purpu ra patients were 61 cases, accounting for 53.0%; About 35.7% cases had the fever and 13.9% cases had symptoms of red swelling of the skin. [Results] The safety and the quantity of the vaccine is well, but the sensitivity of the AEFI surveillance system must be improved in the future.

  8. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Measles Cases and Outbreaks Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... ol: Casos y brotes de sarampión Number of measles cases by year since 2010 Year Cases 2010 ...

  9. [Report on a measles epidemic in the Ústí nad Labem Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmal, J; Limberková, R

    2015-09-01

    The Czech Republic is a measles free country where only isolated, mostly imported cases have been reported. A measles epidemic that occurred in the Ústí nad Labem Region is presented, with the first case diagnosed early in February 2014 and the last one reported in August 2014. The index case and source of infection to other susceptible patients was an adult male with a history of travel to India. The diagnosis of measles was difficult to make as the patient presented with feverish condition due to co-infection with dengue fever, chikungunya, and measles. The primary measles outbreak occurred in contacts and spread to health workers of the Masaryk Hospital in Ústí nad Labem. The infection further spread to the general population of adults. In total, 305 persons presented with suspected measles. One hundred and eighty-six and of them (61%) met the criteria for a confirmed case (positive clinical symptoms and laboratory test). Fifty (16.4%) patients developed typical clinical symptoms and were epidemiologically linked to confirmed cases, but turned out to be antibody negative. In 69 (22.6%) patients, measles were ruled out. Cases were confirmed by the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against the measles virus or by RT--PCR. Nearly all cases were verified by the National Reference Laboratory for Rubella, Measles, Mumps, and Parvovirus B 19 of the National Institute of Public Health in Prague. In response to the epidemic, apart from common anti-epidemic measures, emergency vaccination was provided to health professionals of the Masaryk Hospital in Ústí nad Labem. Within two weeks after vaccination, a considerable decline in cases was seen in the vaccinated group. Measles most often occurred in persons born in 1970-1980, but were also observed in the smallest, non-vaccinated children (32 cases). Isolated cases also emerged in duly vaccinated children and adolescents. General recommendations are provided based on practical experience from the epidemic. PMID

  10. Risk factors associated with the outbreak of measles in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Pakistan, three consecutive epidemics of measles in 2012 - 13 affected many thousands of children. Objectives: To determine the risk factors associated with the outbreak of measles in Lahore. Methods: A population based case-control study with 1: 1 case to control ratio was conducted in Lahore. Pur posive Sampling was done. Results: Out of 100 subjects 50 were cases and 50 were controls. Demographic characteristics were described. The risk estimation was done by Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Logistic regression analysis was employed at significance of alpha 0.05. Among cases 89% children> 9 months of age, 57% males and 43% females came from highly populated areas with lack of vaccine availability (75%), mostly belonging to middle socioeconomic status (83%) and educated families (63%). Fifty five percent were vaccinated against measles from hospital or dispensary and few from mobile teams. 79% had history of travel to epidemic areas and history of breast feeding was present in 66%. Coexisting illness along with measles was present in 30% and 28% had Vitamin - A deficient diet. Twenty four percent parents showed lack of confidence in immunization program. Nineteen per- cent measles patient's mothers were sick and treated during pregnancy. The lack of cold chain, lack of awareness of expanded program of immunization, and malnutrition were found statistically significant. Conclusion: The lack of Expanded Program of Immunization, transmission from surroundings and coexisting illness were found significant in measles epi- demic. (author)

  11. Evaluation of MMR Vaccination and Autism Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective cohort study of autism in all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998 and those receiving measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccination is reported from the Danish Epidemiology Science Center, Aarhus, Denmark.

  12. MMR vaccine and autism: an update of the scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Frank; Thompson, William W

    2004-02-01

    An hypothesis published in 1998 suggested that measles-mumps-rubella vaccine may cause autism as a result of persistent measles virus infection of the gastrointestinal tract. Results of early studies were not supportive and in 2001 a review by the Institute of Medicine concluded that the evidence favors the rejection of a causal relationship at the population level between measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autistic spectrum disorder. Studies published since the Institute of Medicine report have continued not to find an increased risk of autistic spectrum disorder associated with measles-mumps-rubella. The vaccine also has not been found to be associated with a unique syndrome of developmental regression and gastrointestinal disorders. The evidence now is convincing that the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine does not cause autism or any particular subtypes of autistic spectrum disorder.

  13. Epidemiological and molecular approaches for management of a measles outbreak in Liguria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, A; Alicino, C; Patria, A G; Parodi, V; Carloni, R; Turello, V; Comaschi, M; Moscatelli, P; Orengo, G; Martini, M; De Florentiis, D

    2010-06-01

    Since March 2010 a measles outbreak has been occurred in Genoa, Liguria, an administrative Region in Northern Italy. Epidemiological and molecular data on the outbreak, obtained from the passive mandatory notification system, the laboratory surveillance and an innovative syndrome surveillance system, were investigated. Overall 39 cases were reported in the urban area. Information about demography, vaccination status, hospitalization and geographic distribution of measles cases are available. 19 cases (48.7%) were laboratory-confirmed and were characterized by sequence analysis: 18 strains belonged to genotype D8, so identifying a new measles variant within the Liguria population. Adopted control measures seem to have limited viral circulation. The outbreak allowed to test the efficacy of the 3 surveillance systems active in Liguria, highlighting their advantages and some important limitations. More efforts are needed to collect and integrate any epidemiological and virological available data in order to better describe the local measles transmission dynamics.

  14. The role of travel in measles outbreaks in Australia - An enhanced surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, C R; Karki, S; Sheikh, M; Zwar, N; Heywood, A E

    2016-08-17

    Many developed countries, like Australia, maintain a high population level immunity against measles, however, there remains a risk of acquisition of measles in non-immune travellers and subsequent importation into Australia leading to localised outbreaks. In this study, we estimate the incidence of measles and describe characteristics including immunisation and pre-travel health seeking behaviour of notified cases of measles in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia between February 2013 and January 2014. Cases were followed up by telephone interview using a questionnaire to collect information of demographic and travel characteristics. In NSW, the incidence was highest in age group 0-9years (20/million population) whereas in Victoria the highest incidence was observed in 10-19 (23/million population) years group. Out of 44 cases interviewed, 25 (56.8%) had history of travel outside of Australia during or immediately prior to the onset of measles. Holiday (60%) was the main reason for travel with 44% (11/25) reporting visiting friends and relatives (VFR) during the trip. The major reason described for not seeking prior medical advice before travel were "no perceived risk of diseases" (41%) and "previous overseas travel without any problem" (41%). Of the 25 measles cases with recent overseas travel during the incubation period, one reported a measles vaccine prior to their recent trip. Four cases were children of parents who refused vaccination. Twenty out of 25 (80.0%) had attended mass gathering events. Young adults and VFR travellers should be a high priority for preventive strategies in order to maintain measles elimination status. PMID:27449078

  15. A Vectored Measles Virus Induces Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Antibodies While Protecting Macaques against Measles Virus Challenge▿

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle, Jorge Reyes; Devaux, Patricia; Hodge, Gregory; Wegner, Nicholas J.; McChesney, Michael B.; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) acute and chronic infections remain a major worldwide health problem. Towards developing an anti-HBV vaccine with single-dose scheme potential, we engineered infectious measles virus (MV) genomic cDNAs with a vaccine strain background and expression vector properties. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression cassettes were inserted into this cDNA and three MVs expressing HBsAg at different levels generated. All vectored MVs, which secrete HBsAg as subviral partic...

  16. Modeling and Managing the Risks of Measles and Rubella: A Global Perspective, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Cochi, Stephen L

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, the use of vaccines led to significant decreases in the global burdens of measles and rubella, motivated at least in part by the successive development of global control and elimination targets. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) includes specific targets for regional elimination of measles and rubella in five of six regions of the World Health Organization by 2020. Achieving the GVAP measles and rubella goals will require significant immunization efforts and associated financial investments and political commitments. Planning and budgeting for these efforts can benefit from learning some important lessons from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Following an overview of the global context of measles and rubella risks and discussion of lessons learned from the GPEI, we introduce the contents of the special issue on modeling and managing the risks of measles and rubella. This introduction describes the synthesis of the literature available to support evidence-based model inputs to support the development of an integrated economic and dynamic disease transmission model to support global efforts to optimally manage these diseases globally using vaccines. PMID:27424287

  17. Systematic Review of Health Economic Analyses of Measles and Rubella Immunization Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Odahowski, Cassie L

    2016-07-01

    Economic analyses for vaccine-preventable diseases provide important insights about the value of prevention. We reviewed the literature to identify all of the peer-reviewed, published economic analyses of interventions related to measles and rubella immunization options to assess the different types of analyses performed and characterize key insights. We searched PubMed, the Science Citation Index, and references from relevant articles for studies in English and found 67 analyses that reported primary data and quantitative estimates of benefit-cost or cost-effectiveness analyses for measles and/or rubella immunization interventions. We removed studies that we characterized as cost-minimization analyses from this sample because they generally provide insights that focused on more optimal strategies to achieve the same health outcome. The 67 analyses we included demonstrate the large economic benefits associated with preventing measles and rubella infections using vaccines and the benefit of combining measles and rubella antigens into a formulation that saves the costs associated with injecting the vaccines separately. Despite the importance of population immunity and dynamic viral transmission, most of the analyses used static models to estimate cases prevented and characterize benefits, although the use of dynamic models continues to increase. Many of the analyses focused on characterizing the most significant adverse outcomes (e.g., mortality for measles, congenital rubella syndrome for rubella) and/or only direct costs, and the most complete analyses present data from high-income countries. PMID:25545778

  18. Tumor cell marker PVRL4 (nectin 4 is an epithelial cell receptor for measles virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan S Noyce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine and laboratory adapted strains of measles virus can use CD46 as a receptor to infect many human cell lines. However, wild type isolates of measles virus cannot use CD46, and they infect activated lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages via the receptor CD150/SLAM. Wild type virus can also infect epithelial cells of the respiratory tract through an unidentified receptor. We demonstrate that wild type measles virus infects primary airway epithelial cells grown in fetal calf serum and many adenocarcinoma cell lines of the lung, breast, and colon. Transfection of non-infectable adenocarcinoma cell lines with an expression vector encoding CD150/SLAM rendered them susceptible to measles virus, indicating that they were virus replication competent, but lacked a receptor for virus attachment and entry. Microarray analysis of susceptible versus non-susceptible cell lines was performed, and comparison of membrane protein gene transcripts produced a list of 11 candidate receptors. Of these, only the human tumor cell marker PVRL4 (Nectin 4 rendered cells amenable to measles virus infections. Flow cytometry confirmed that PVRL4 is highly expressed on the surfaces of susceptible lung, breast, and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Measles virus preferentially infected adenocarcinoma cell lines from the apical surface, although basolateral infection was observed with reduced kinetics. Confocal immune fluorescence microscopy and surface biotinylation experiments revealed that PVRL4 was expressed on both the apical and basolateral surfaces of these cell lines. Antibodies and siRNA directed against PVRL4 were able to block measles virus infections in MCF7 and NCI-H358 cancer cells. A virus binding assay indicated that PVRL4 was a bona fide receptor that supported virus attachment to the host cell. Several strains of measles virus were also shown to use PVRL4 as a receptor. Measles virus infection reduced PVRL4 surface expression in MCF7 cells, a

  19. An outbreak investigation of measles after the tsunami in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsanam M Balasubramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tsunami struck the entire coastline of Tamil Nadu on 26 th December 2004. After tsunami an outbreak of measles was reported by media in Cuddalore district due to overcrowding of people in relief camps. We had to investigate and report within 12 hours upon this outbreak of measles and determine whether it was related to the tsunami. Materials and Methods: Investigation was done by interviewing health care workers, by visiting villages from where measles was reported and confirmed serologically among children, by looking for clustering of cases and probing for possible reasons for the outbreak. Results : By the day the investigation was carried out, 27 cases had been reported. Of these, 13 cases were from a village not affected by tsunami. There was clustering of cases in a single street in this village. Other reported cases were from villages affected by tsunami, but there was no clustering. No cases were reported from relief camps. All the affected children were above 3 years of age and were immunized previously against measles. No data were available on occurrence of measles in previous years, but it was ascertained that cases of measles occurred around the same season. No common source was identified. Interview with the health workers revealed that reconstituted vaccine was used more than 4 h after reconstitution. A faulty technique was used in route of administration in the immunization. Health workers also said that after the age of 1 year a non-immunized child was not given the vaccine. Conclusions: There was a localized outbreak of measles, but was not related to tsunami. Probable source could not be identified. Possible reasons for outbreak were the faulty use of vaccine and technique of administration. This investigation shows that though in some field situations it may not be possible, or even necessary, to carry out a full-fledged epidemiological investigation, following the epidemiological principles can lead to concrete

  20. Measles among U.S.-bound refugees from Malaysia--California, Maryland, North Carolina, and Wisconsin, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    On August 26, 2011, California public health officials notified CDC of a suspected measles case in an unvaccinated male refugee aged 15 years from Burma (the index patient), who had lived in an urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, which is experiencing ongoing measles outbreaks. Currently, approximately 92,000 such refugees are living in urban communities in Malaysia. Resettlement programs in the United States and other countries are ongoing. The health and vaccination status of urban refugees are largely unknown. PMID:21937975

  1. Analysis on Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles Before and After Attenuated Live Vaccine Supplementary Immunization Activities in Zhuhai from 2005 to 2011%珠海市2005-2011年麻疹减毒活疫苗强化免疫前后麻疹流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晖; 阮峰; 关天姬; 尹锡玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological features of measles before and after attenuated live vaccine supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the data collected from web- based reporting system of national notifiable infectious diseases in Zhuhai City from January 2005 to December 2011. We compared the data between before and after SIAs. Results The reported attack rate of measles in Zhuhai was gradually increased during the period of 2005-2008 (7.35/100,000-32.68/100,000). After conducting SIAs in May, 2009, the attack rate was significantly decreased (3.49/100,000). The seasonal pattern was from April to August before SIAs, but it disappeared after SIAs. No statistically significant difference was found in age distribution, area distribution, and immunization history between before and after SIAs. Conclusions Attenuated live vaccine supplementary immunization activity is an important measure that can be used in eliminating and controlling measles.%目的 分析珠海市麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)强化免疫(SIA)前后麻疹流行病学特征.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法对2005年1月-2011年12月珠海市麻疹监测系统报告数据进行分析,以2009年4月珠海市MV SIA为分界点进行比较.结果 珠海市2005-2008年麻疹报告发病率逐年递增(7.35/10万~32.68/ 10万),2009年SIA后报告发病率明显下降到3.49/10万;SA前麻疹发病高峰集中在4-8月,SIA后无明显发病季节高峰.SIA前后年龄分布、病例地区分布、免疫接种差异均无统计学意义.结论 麻疹强化是消除控制麻疹的重要措施.

  2. Combining Global Elimination Of Measles And Rubella With Strengthening Of Health Systems In Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Jon Kim; Cochi, Stephen L; Cooper, Louis Z; Klein, Jonathan D

    2016-02-01

    Global efforts to eliminate measles and rubella can be combined with other actions to accelerate the strengthening of health systems in developing countries. However, there are several challenges standing in the way of successfully combining measles and rubella vaccination campaigns with health systems strengthening. Those challenges include the following: achieving universal vaccine coverage while integrating the initiative with other primary care strategies and developing the necessary health system resilience to confront emergencies, ensuring epidemiological and laboratory surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases, developing the human resources needed to effectively manage and implement national strategies, increasing community demand for health services, and obtaining long-term political support. We describe lessons learned from the successful elimination of measles and rubella in the Americas and elsewhere that strive to strengthen national health systems to both improve vaccine uptake and confront emerging threats. The elimination of measles and rubella provides opportunities for nations to strengthen health systems and thus to both reduce inequities and ensure national health security. PMID:26858388

  3. Post-Ebola Measles Outbreak in Lola, Guinea, January–June 20151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Adela Paez; Kourouma, Mamadou; Derrough, Tarik; Baldé, Mamadou; Honomou, Patric; Kolie, Nestor; Mamadi, Oularé; Tamba, Kaduono; Lamah, Kalaya; Loua, Angelo; Mollet, Thomas; Lamah, Molou; Camara, Amara Nana; Prikazsky, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    During public health crises such as the recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, breakdowns in public health systems can lead to epidemics of vaccine-preventable diseases. We report here on an outbreak of measles in the prefecture of Lola, Guinea, which started in January 2015. PMID:27191621

  4. Post-Ebola Measles Outbreak in Lola, Guinea, January–June 2015 1

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, Jonathan E.; Jimenez, Adela Paez; Kourouma, Mamadou; Derrough, Tarik; Baldé, Mamadou; Honomou, Patric; Kolie, Nestor; Mamadi, Oularé; Tamba, Kaduono; Lamah, Kalaya; Loua, Angelo; Mollet, Thomas; Lamah, Molou; Camara, Amara Nana; Prikazsky, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    During public health crises such as the recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, breakdowns in public health systems can lead to epidemics of vaccine-preventable diseases. We report here on an outbreak of measles in the prefecture of Lola, Guinea, which started in January 2015.

  5. Modeling Measles Transmission in the North American Amish and Options for Outbreak Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Kisjes, Kasper H

    2016-07-01

    Measles outbreaks in the United States continue to occur in subpopulations with sufficient numbers of undervaccinated individuals, with a 2014 outbreak in Amish communities in Ohio pushing the annual cases to the highest national number reported in the last 20 years. We adapted an individual-based model developed to explore potential poliovirus transmission in the North American Amish to characterize a 1988 measles outbreak in the Pennsylvania Amish and the 2014 outbreak in the Ohio Amish. We explored the impact of the 2014 outbreak response compared to no or partial response. Measles can spread very rapidly in an underimmunized subpopulation like the North American Amish, with the potential for national spread within a year or so in the absence of outbreak response. Vaccination efforts significantly reduced the transmission of measles and the expected number of cases. Until global eradication, measles importations will continue to pose a threat to clusters of underimmunized individuals in the United States. Aggressive outbreak response efforts in Ohio probably prevented widespread transmission of measles within the entire North American Amish. PMID:26103154

  6. Comparative seroprevalence of measles virus immunoglobulin M antibodies in children aged 0–8 months and a control population aged 9–23 months presenting with measles-like symptoms in selected hospitals in Kaduna State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaitan AE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AE Olaitan, EE Ella, JB Ameh Department of Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria Background: Measles remains the leading cause of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality in developing countries, with its greatest incidence in children younger than 2 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of measles virus in children (aged 0–8 months and older children (aged 9–23 months presenting with measles-like symptoms. Methods: A total of 273 blood samples comprising 200 from children aged 0–8 months and 73 from children aged 9–23 months were collected and analyzed for measles virus IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: An overall prevalence of 21.2% was obtained, with a prevalence of 6.5% in children aged 0–8 months and 61.6% in children aged 9–23 months. The prevalence of measles virus increased with age in children aged 0–8 months and decreased with age in older children (aged 9–23 months, showing a significant association between measles virus and age of the child (P=0.000. A higher prevalence was found in females (27.5% than in males (16.3% and this difference was significant (odds ratio 1.942, P=0.025. There was no significant association with the level of parental education, parental occupation, or number of children in the family (P>0.05. With respect to children's vaccination status and breastfeeding, there was a significant association (P<0.05. The marital status of the family, place of residence, and household size showed no significant association with the prevalence of measles virus. However, a significant association was observed in relation to maternal measles history (odds ratio 2.535, P=0.005 and maternal vaccination status (odds ratio 1.791, P=0.049, as well as between measles virus infection and all presenting symptoms, except for vomiting, malaria, typhoid, and pneumonia, which showed no significant association (P>0.05. Conclusion: The findings of

  7. German measles outbreak bursts in two unvaccinated border hilly districts of Northern Himachal Pradesh, India

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    Surender N Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated German measles outbreak as a suspected one of measles to confirm diagnosis and recommend for control and prevention. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of German measles as the occurrence of febrile rash in any resident of the eight villages from 20 th October to 16 th January, 2007. Case patients were line listed and information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, traveling, treatment history, vaccination status, and pregnancy status were collected. The outbreak was described by time, place, and person characteristics. Diagnosis was confirmed clinically, epidemiologically, and serologically; first to measles, scrub typhus and later to German measles viruses. Results: We identified 116 cases in eight villages (112/116 clinically and 04/116 laboratory confirmed. The overall attack rate (AR was 11%; highest in the age group of 11-20 years (range 13% to 44%. Sex specific AR for male was 12%. All case patients were <20 years of age with a median age of 12 years. Complication rate was 05%, but no death reported on account of German measles. No pregnant woman was found to be affected. None of them were immunized against rubella. Four tested positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to rubella out of eight samples. Thirty three percent (38/116 had their treatment of choice to the modern medicine. Conclusion: German measles outbreak was confirmed in unvaccinated populations, which was possibly due to the frequent traveling of Bengali colony vendors′ case patients to other areas. We advised the local health authorities to provide MR vaccination to the unexposed in eight affected and neighboring villages.

  8. Progress in the elimination of measles and congenital rubella in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bonanni, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Despite the launch of a WHO European Region strategic plan 2005-2010 for eliminating measles and rubella and preventing congenital rubella (CR) infection, measles and rubella are still circulating in Europe. Increased transmission and outbreaks of measles in Europe were still observed in 2011. In Italy, the objectives of the National Plan (2003-2007) for measles elimination have not yet been achieved. The goal of measles elimination and incidence reduction of CR cases has been postponed to 2015 by the Italian Ministry of Health through the implementation of the new National Plan 2010-2015 which will require (1) the achievement of more than 95% coverage with 1 dose and two doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV), respectively, within 24 mo and within 12 y of age; (2) supplementary vaccination activities aimed at susceptible populations including adolescents, young adults and those at risk (health care and educational workers, military, groups "hard to reach" like nomads); and in addition, (3) reduction to less than 5% in the proportion of susceptible women of childbearing age (especially immigrant women). Experiences at regional level, like in Tuscany, have shown promising results in order to create an integrated surveillance system between regional and local health authorities, university and laboratory and in the future, to validate elimination. Moreover, the evaluation of all preventive activities performed in Tuscany during the last decade, immunization coverage data, sero-epidemiological population profile and incidence of measles and rubella cases has highlighted critical points which should be improved and good practices already implemented which should be maintained in the future in order to reach the new goals.

  9. 新疆麻疹流行现状和控制策略%Analysis of current epidemiological situation of measles and strategies for controlling measles in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉莲; 戴述齐

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze the current epidemiological situation of measles and to put forward strategies for controlling measles in Xinjiang. Methods A descriptive epidemiology was performed to survey incidence of measles in Xinjiang from 1953~1999. Results  The highest incidence rate of 1 155.14 per 100 000 was reported in 1964. Since 1 965, the measles incidence had dramatically decreased with using measles vaccine in Xinjiang, particularly the action of launching EPI program since 1984. The l owest incidence rate of 7.85 per 100 000 was achieved in 1990. From 1990~1 999 cases mostly concentrated on preschool and school children. Seasonal distri b ution of measles was in April and May. Conclusions It is urgent to improve efficacy of measles vaccine, to establish measles epidemiological an d laboratory surveillance system, and to strengthen immunization for measles and controlling of the outbreak.%目的 分析新疆麻疹流行的现状并提出控制策略 。方法 用描述流行病学方法对1953~1999年新疆麻疹发病情况分析。 结果 1964年报告发病率为1 155.14/10万。 自1965年开始使用麻疹疫苗(MV)以来,特别是1984年开展计划免疫活动以后,我区麻疹 的发病率大幅度下降,流行强度明显降低,到1990年发病率已降至历史最低水平7.85/10万 。1990~1999年麻疹主要在学龄前儿童和小学生中发病,冬春高发,其中4、5月份发病数 最多。结论 应建立监测系统,开展麻疹强化免疫活动,控制麻疹爆发。

  10. Investigation on egg allergy in the population of receiving measles vaccine from 8 months to IS years in baoshan city yunnan province%云南省保山8月龄~15岁麻疹疫苗接种人群鸡蛋过敏现况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安柱; 郑维斌; 李园园; 林冬梅; 马崇会; 马占钦

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过了解云南省保山市5县(区)8月龄~15岁麻疹疫苗接种人群鸡蛋过敏的患病率,估计因鸡蛋过敏而不能接种麻疹减毒活疫苗的免疫空白人群规模,从而为保山市消除麻疹以及接种过程中可能出现的过敏反应制订相应的策略提供基线资料.方法 采取现况调查,具体为对8月龄~15岁即将接种麻疹减毒活疫苗的儿童进行问卷调查,同时对有过敏史的再进行个案调查.结果 调查8月龄~15岁麻疹疫苗接种人群502 561人,患病率为3.94/万,鸡蛋过敏儿童198人,平均年龄为(8.30±4.27)岁,患病率在年龄上差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),性别上差异有统计学意义,男/女(122/76,P<0.001);5县(区)鸡蛋过敏患病率不全相同(P<0.001);鸡蛋过敏儿童可出现皮疹、腹痛、腹泻、唇肿、呕吐、发热等临床症状.个体与个体之间临床表现不完全一致,但有共同点就是出现临床症状前有食用鸡蛋病史.其中,鸡蛋过敏者有1个临床症状者79例(占48.99%),有2个临床症状者66例(占33.33%),有3个临床症状着33例(占16.67%),有4个临床症状者2例(占1.01%).结论 本次调查反映了鸡蛋过敏人群在麻疹减毒活疫苗接种对象中占有一定的比例,这类人不能接种含微量鸡蛋蛋白组份的麻疹减毒活疫苗.因此,为实现我国政府作出的到2012年消除麻疹承诺,制订相应的策略消除免疫空白人群显得尤为重要.在接种疫苗前,对这类鸡蛋过敏人群进行规模估计对保山消除麻疹有相当重要的意义.%Objective To learn the incidence rate of egg allergy in the population who received measles vaccines which were from 8 months to 15 years old in Baoshan City Yunnan province, estimated the number of children without receiving vaccines, in order to provide data for making strategies in the process of inoculation and eliminate it. Method To do a croas - section study by questionnaires, investigation the children from

  11. CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEASLES AT SIR RONALD ROSS INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Srikanth Bhatt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measles remain a leading vaccine - preventable cause of child mortality worldwide and is still a public health problem. According to the World Health Organization ( WHO , more than 20 million people are affected by measles each year with 95% of measles deaths occurring in countries that have weak health infrastructures. Out breaks of Measles are still common in India. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of th e present study were to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and to discuss the complicated cases that were diagnosed at around Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases ( SRRIT&CD , Nallakunta , Hyderabad. METHODS : All cases admitted at SRRIT&CD , Nallakunta , Hyderabad with signs and symptoms of Measles were studied during the period January 2013 to December 2014.This study included a study population of 1427 cases and the results were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1427 cases of Measles were diagnosed in two year period ( 2013 - 2014 . The majority of the patients were children with slight male predominance. Most of the patients had history of either partial or non - immunization. Most common clinical feature was fever , generalized weakness and rash. Other symptoms like conjunctivitis , coryza ( R unny nose , cough and small spots with white or bluish - white centers on an erythematous base on the buccal mucosa ( Koplik spots . Seventeen cases were presented with com plications like encephalitis , pneumonia , febrile convulsions and diarrhea etc ., CONCLUSION: Measles continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. This study provides clinical and epidemiological characteristics to assess the overall burden of the disease as disease outbreaks are very commonly reported despite of various immunization programmes. There are several reasons for continued Measles outbreaks in these countries. There is no organized system of surveillance of Measles cases , a nd hence

  12. Gaps in the 2010 measles SIA coverage among migrant children in Beijing: evidence from a parental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojiang; Xiao, Suowei; Chen, Binli; Sa, Zhihong

    2012-08-24

    China suffers from high incidence of measles partly due to high population mobility and low vaccination rates among migrants. In this study, we assessed the vaccination coverage of the nationwide measles supplementary immunization activity (SIA) of 2010 and its determinants among migrant children in Beijing. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews with the caregivers of 589 migrant children at train and long-distance bus stations in January 2011, when migrants were traveling home for the Chinese New Year holiday. We estimated that 83.4% of migrant children aged 8 months to 14 years received the measles vaccine during the SIA. This estimated coverage is lower than the official report of 96% among all eligible children in Beijing. Factors associated with being unvaccinated through the SIA included children being at home or in the kindergarten, living in a single-child family, and having a parent who was unaware of the SIA or who had a low level of trust in the government-administered measles campaign. We recommend more focused targeting on migrant children in future measles vaccination campaigns, improved immunization service delivery in unregulated migrant-run kindergartens and at the community level, as well as development of more effective communication methods to reach disadvantaged migrants.

  13. Prediction Analysis for Measles Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ayako; Ohtomo, Norio; Tanaka, Yukio; Sawamura, Sadashi; Olsen, Lars Folke; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2003-12-01

    A newly devised procedure of prediction analysis, which is a linearized version of the nonlinear least squares method combined with the maximum entropy spectral analysis method, was proposed. This method was applied to time series data of measles case notification in several communities in the UK, USA and Denmark. The dominant spectral lines observed in each power spectral density (PSD) can be safely assigned as fundamental periods. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated using these fundamental periods can essentially reproduce the underlying variation of the measles data. An extension of the LSF curve can be used to predict measles case notification quantitatively. Some discussions including a predictability of chaotic time series are presented.

  14. Measles eradication in the Americas: experience in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venczel, Linda; Dobbins, James; André, Jean; Laender, Fernando; Izurieta, Héctor; Delorme, Patrick; Voltaire, Henri-Claude

    2003-05-15

    On 8 March 2000 a case of laboratory-confirmed measles was detected in Haiti. Over the ensuing months, an explosive epidemic occurred that spread to 8 of the 9 departments of Haiti, including the nation's capital, Port au Prince. After peaking in the last half of November 2000, the epidemic began a rapid decline. The date of onset for the last confirmed case was 26 September 2001. During the 18 months of the epidemic, 1149 cases were confirmed. To control the epidemic, various strategies were employed, including vaccination campaigns that used fixed posts and door-to-door activities. Critical factors in the success of these campaigns were thorough training and supervision of field staff; a high-quality door-to-door vaccination strategy; multiple visits to homes; and monitoring of vaccine coverage by household during the course of the campaigns. PMID:12721903

  15. An Investigation on Measles Out Break in Navagam Village of Surendranagar District of Gujarat, India in 2008

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    Jaydip R Oza, Mallika Chavada, Jagruti Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An outbreak of measles was reported from a Navagam village of Surendranagar District, Gujarat, in July 2008. The present study was conducted to investigate and assess various epidemiological features associated with measles outbreak. Methods: A community based cohort study was carried out in Navagam village of Surendranagar district during month of June 2008. Suspected cases were detected through active case finding in the community. Children <15 years of age with symptoms of Fever and rash and cough or coryza or conjunctivitis (Red eye in Navagam area of Kharaghoda PHC, Surendranagar district from 1st June, 2008 to 1st August, 2008 were identified as case in present outbreak. Blood samples were taken for IgM antibody detection. Results: The study covered 326 houses having 777children. An overall attack rate 11.17% was almost equal in both male & female. Among measles cases, 45 (49.45% had post measles complications. As much as 69.23% children with measles had received measles vaccination in the past. Out of 11 blood samples, 10 were positive for IgM antibody. Conclusions: The outbreaks occurred due to poor vaccine coverage levels and an inefficient surveillance system which failed to generate early warning signals.

  16. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattet, Philippe; Alves, Lisa; Herren, Michael; Aguilar, Hector C

    2016-04-01

    Measles virus (MeV), a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV)-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options. PMID:27110811

  17. Measles epidemic in Switzerland and other parts of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Commission

    2008-01-01

    There has been a measles epidemic in Switzerland since November 2006. By April 2008 the number of cases had reached almost 2500, with over 1300 since the beginning of the year alone. All cantons are affected but to varying degrees, the largest number of cases occurring in the north and east of the country. In all cases, the low vaccination coverage is responsible for the spread of this highly contagious disease. The contagious period starts 4 days before the rash appears and lasts until 4 days afterwards. In the event of infection, children must be kept away from school and measures must be taken to protect those who come into contact with them, which may include vaccination if the infection is less than 72 hours old. The Swiss and international health authorities recommend the following measures to prevent the spread of the disease: those who have already contracted the disease, received 2 doses of the vaccine (often in the form of the combined MMR - measles, mumps, rubella...

  18. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Plattet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options.

  19. The Impact of Immunization Control Activities on Measles Outbreaks in Akwa Ibom State, South-South, Nigeria

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    Bassey Enya B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase of vaccination rates means that fewer children will be vulnerable to vaccine preventable diseases such as measles, which will invariably result in a drop in the infant mortality and morbidity rates. Objective: To assess the impact of the implementation of measles reduction strategies from 2006 to 2008 using the quarterly national program for immunization (NPI in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Method: Following informed consent, individuals presenting with febrile rash illnesses were routinely bled and tested for measles specific IgM using commercially available ELISA kit-MV-ELISA (Enzygnost; Behring Diagnostics, Marburg, Germany in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Results: A total of four hundred and four individuals comprising of 216 vaccinated and 188 unvaccinated, presenting with febrile rash illness were screened for measles specific IgM antibodies as indication of active infection between January 2006 and December 2008 out of which 122 (30.2% had detectable levels of measles antibodies. Among the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, 32 (14.8% and 90 (47.9% respectively were detected with measles IgM antibodies. The highest and lowest antibody levels were detected in 2006 (vaccinated: 54.7%; unvaccinated: 78.4% and 2008 (vaccinated: 1.2%; unvaccinated: 12% respectively. The distribution of measles burden by year show an overall decline in prevalence from 70% in 2006, 8.9% in 2007 to 3.7% in 2008. While, children under the age of 5 similarly had a decline in measles incidence of 73.3%, 10.7% and 3.3% respectively. Sex distribution of infection within the 3-year period shows that more females (37.4% than males (21.2% expressed measles IgM antibodies, and active infection was detected more in the rural (31.4% than urban area (27.7%. However, findings indicate a tremendous decline in active infection in the rural areas from 67% in 2006 to 0% in 2008, and in the urban areas from 78% in 2006 to 9.3% in 2008

  20. Measles Induced Death in Eastеrn Europe

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    Ananiev Ju.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The infectious disease of measles is becoming a rarity in the member states of the European Union. After the implementation of the mandatory immunization calendar, cases of measles among children rarely encounter while those that have been registered usually pass lightly and without any significant complications. We present two cases of a measles-type infection with a fatal outcome for two children - 4 and 11 years of age respectively - who had not been immunized by the time of the event and who developed an unfolding clinical picture with the respective complications. In a number of countries in the European Union (as well as within some ethnical groups, the Roma population included, standard-type vaccinations may appear to be problematic. The most frequently encountered complications, resulting from such “blunders”, are pneumonia and encephalitis but controlling the clinical symptoms is not always possible because of: 1 late medical intervention due to the poor knowledge ability of the respective ethnical group (overdue contact with the specialized medical personnel, as well as 2 the superposed bacterial infections which unmask the initial diagnosis. Obtaining a clear picture of the symptoms in such patients is difficult. In the rare cases, when the therapy is rewarded with some success, patients remain partial or permanent invalids because of the irreversible damage to the brain and/or the functions of the lungs.

  1. Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Protein Epitopes: The Basis of Antigenic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Maino; Bürckert, Jean-Philippe; Kanou, Kazuhiko; Maenaka, Katsumi; Muller, Claude P.; Takeda, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Globally eliminating measles using available vaccines is biologically feasible because the measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) protein is antigenically stable. The H protein is responsible for receptor binding, and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. The immunodominant epitope, known as the hemagglutinating and noose epitope, is located near the receptor-binding site (RBS). The RBS also contains an immunodominant epitope. Loss of receptor binding correlates with an escape from the neutralization by antibodies that target the epitope at RBS. Another neutralizing epitope is located near RBS and is shielded by an N-linked sugar in certain genotype strains. However, human sera from vaccinees and measles patients neutralized all MV strains with similar efficiencies, regardless of the N-linked sugar modification or mutations at these epitopes. Two other major epitopes exist at a distance from RBS. One has an unstructured flexible domain with a linear neutralizing epitope. When MV-H forms a tetramer (dimer of dimers), these epitopes may form the dimer-dimer interface, and one of the two epitopes may also interact with the F protein. The neutralization mechanisms of antibodies that recognize these epitopes may involve inhibiting the H-F interaction or blocking the fusion cascade after MV-H binds to its receptors. PMID:27490564

  2. Resurgence of measles in a country of elimination: interim assessment and current control measures in the Republic of Korea in early 2014

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    Tae Un Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 2014, the Republic of Korea has experienced a resurgence of measles cases. Among the 220 cases confirmed as measles during epidemiological weeks 1–20 (December 29, 2013 to May 17, 2014, 10 imported cases were identified. The predominant genotype was B3, which reflects the circulating measles virus in adjacent countries. Even with the verification of measles elimination in March 2014 by the World Health Organization, recent importation has been related to international travel. Targeted control measures have been implemented in addition to proper isolation and patient care. A vigilant surveillance system and high levels of vaccine coverage should be maintained to sustain the measles elimination status.

  3. Estimating measles transmission potential in Italy over the period 2010-2011

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    Marco Ajelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent history of measles epidemiology in Italy is characterized by the recurrence of spatially localized epidemics. AIM: In this study we investigate the three major outbreaks occurred in Italy over the period 2010-2011 and estimate the measles transmission potential. The epidemics mainly involved individuals aged 10-28 years and the transmission potential, measured as effective reproduction number - i.e. the number of new infections generated by a primary infector - was estimated to be 1.9-5.9. RESULTS: Despite such high values, we found that, in all investigated outbreaks, the reproduction number has remained above the epidemic threshold for no more than twelve weeks, suggesting that measles may hardly have the potential to give rise to new nationwide epidemics. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the performed analysis highlights the need of planning additional vaccination programs targeting those age classes currently showing a higher susceptibility to infection, in order not to compromise the elimination goal by 2015.

  4. Explaining seasonal fluctuations of measles in Niger using nighttime lights imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, N; Tatem, A J; Ferrari, M J; Grais, R F; Djibo, A; Grenfell, B T

    2011-12-01

    Measles epidemics in West Africa cause a significant proportion of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality. Epidemics are strongly seasonal, but the drivers of these fluctuations are poorly understood, which limits the predictability of outbreaks and the dynamic response to immunization. We show that measles seasonality can be explained by spatiotemporal changes in population density, which we measure by quantifying anthropogenic light from satellite imagery. We find that measles transmission and population density are highly correlated for three cities in Niger. With dynamic epidemic models, we demonstrate that measures of population density are essential for predicting epidemic progression at the city level and improving intervention strategies. In addition to epidemiological applications, the ability to measure fine-scale changes in population density has implications for public health, crisis management, and economic development. PMID:22158822

  5. External Quality Assessment for the Detection of Measles Virus by Reverse Transcription-PCR Using Armored RNA.

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    Dong Zhang

    Full Text Available In recent years, nucleic acid tests for detection of measles virus RNA have been widely applied in laboratories belonging to the measles surveillance system of China. An external quality assessment program was established by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories to evaluate the performance of nucleic acid tests for measles virus. The external quality assessment panel, which consisted of 10 specimens, was prepared using armored RNAs, complex of noninfectious MS2 bacteriophage coat proteins encapsulated RNA of measles virus, as measles virus surrogate controls. Conserved sequences amplified from a circulating measles virus strain or from a vaccine strain were encapsulated into these armored RNAs. Forty-one participating laboratories from 15 provinces, municipalities, or autonomous regions that currently conduct molecular detection of measles virus enrolled in the external quality assessment program, including 40 measles surveillance system laboratories and one diagnostic reagent manufacturer. Forty laboratories used commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR kits, with only one laboratory applying a conventional PCR method developed in-house. The results indicated that most of the participants (38/41, 92.7% were able to accurately detect the panel with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Although a wide range of commercially available kits for nucleic acid extraction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used by the participants, only two false-negative results and one false-positive result were generated; these were generated by three separate laboratories. Both false-negative results were obtained with tests performed on specimens with the lowest concentration (1.2 × 104 genomic equivalents/mL. In addition, all 18 participants from Beijing achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Overall, we conclude that the majority of the laboratories evaluated have reliable diagnostic capacities for the detection

  6. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred to...

  7. Low molecular weight measles immunoglobulin M in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and acute measles.

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, J. H.; Simpson, D. M.; Trudgett, A.; Hopkins, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty eight patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were investigated. Five patients who previously had measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) detected in unfractionated serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had measles IgM exclusively in the low molecular weight (LMW) fractions of serum and CSF. Measles IgM had previously not been found in unfractionated serum from 33 patients but was detected exclusively in the LMW fractions of serum from 30 patients. Seven children with acute measl...

  8. Possible nosocomial transmission of measles in unvaccinated children in a Singapore public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Tay

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measles is an acute, highly communicable viral disease, with measles outbreaks usually occuring in settings where there are unvaccinated populations. After being notified of a cluster of five measles cases in a Singapore public hospital in August 2011, the Ministry of Health Singapore conducted an outbreak investigation.Methods: Active case detection was conducted, and all notified cases’ movement history within the hospital were reviewed to determine any common exposures in place and time. Cases were classified as nosocomial if they had contact with other measles cases in the hospital seven to 21 days before onset dates. Laboratory testing included serological and molecular diagnostic methods.Results: Of the 14 cases, seven cases were nosocomial cases. Investigations identified two wards where cases were epidemiologically linked. Two cases in Ward A were of D8 genotype and genotypically 100% identical, thus confirming a common source of infection. The six cases in Ward B (including one transferred from Ward A had overlapping periods of admission and three cases were of the same D8 genotype, with a single nucleotide difference.Discussion: The epidemiological linkages of the cases and laboratory findings suggest nosocomial transmission in Wards A and B. As a result of this investigation, the hospital implemented a new policy of isolating suspected measles cases instead of waiting until they had been laboratory confirmed. This investigation emphasizes the importance of early identification and isolation of suspected measles cases within health care institutions and reinforces the requirement for high measles vaccination coverage of health care workers.

  9. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  10. Naturally processed measles virus peptide eluted from class II HLA-DRB1*03 recognized by T lymphocytes from human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first report of the direct identification of a HLA-DRB1*03 measles-derived peptide from measles virus infected EBV-transformed B cells. We purified HLA-DR3-peptide complexes from EBV-B cells infected with measles virus (Edmonston strain) and sequenced the HLA-DR3-peptides by mass spectrometry. A class II peptide, derived from a measles phosphoprotein, ASDVETAEGGEIHELLRLQ (P1, residues 179-197), exhibited the capacity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells to proliferate. Our data provides direct evidence that the antigenic peptide of measles virus was processed by antigen-presenting cells, presented in the context of HLA class II molecules, and was recognized by peripheral blood T cells from healthy individuals previously immunized with measles vaccine. The approach described herein provides a useful methodology for the future identification of HLA-presented pathogen-derived epitopes using mass spectrometry. The study of cell-mediated immune responses to the measles-derived peptide in immune persons should provide significant insight into the design and development of new vaccines

  11. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  12. Fatal measles pneumonitis during Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Lafarge, Marion; Escaut, Lélia; Stern, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-10-08

    The treatment of measles pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults is not established. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute pneumonia during a measles infection. On day 13, intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulins were administrated. On day 18, the patient developed acute respiratory failure. An examination of transbronchial pulmonary biopsies showed Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells that are pathognomonic of measles pneumonitis. The patient died despite aggressive supportive care. Our case and a review of literature show that measles pneumonitis is routinely fatal in patients with cancer. We suggest that antiviral drugs should be considered as soon as the diagnosis has been established.

  13. Travelling waves and spatial hierarchies in measles epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, B. T.; Bjørnstad, O. N.; Kappey, J.

    2001-12-01

    Spatio-temporal travelling waves are striking manifestations of predator-prey and host-parasite dynamics. However, few systems are well enough documented both to detect repeated waves and to explain their interaction with spatio-temporal variations in population structure and demography. Here, we demonstrate recurrent epidemic travelling waves in an exhaustive spatio-temporal data set for measles in England and Wales. We use wavelet phase analysis, which allows for dynamical non-stationarity-a complication in interpreting spatio-temporal patterns in these and many other ecological time series. In the pre-vaccination era, conspicuous hierarchical waves of infection moved regionally from large cities to small towns; the introduction of measles vaccination restricted but did not eliminate this hierarchical contagion. A mechanistic stochastic model suggests a dynamical explanation for the waves-spread via infective `sparks' from large `core' cities to smaller `satellite' towns. Thus, the spatial hierarchy of host population structure is a prerequisite for these infection waves.

  14. Measles outbreak investigation in a remote area of Solomon Islands, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Diau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a measles outbreak and health service response in a remote location in Malaita, Solomon Islands. Methods: Epidemiological review of cases who presented to the Atoifi Adventist Hospital (AAH during the outbreak period from July to December 2014. Rumour surveillance was used to gather information on unreported cases. Results: A total of 117 cases were reported to AAH. The incidence rate was 123 per 10 000 individuals. Fifty-six per cent (66/117 of cases were hospitalized. Children under 5 years had the highest number of cases (n = 41 with 10 cases below 6 months old. The age-specific incidence rate of children under 5 years was 278.5 per 10 000 individuals. Eighty-two per cent of reported cases were 18 years old or younger. Rumour surveillance revealed about three quarters of children in one area of the East Kwaio Mountains had suspected measles not reported to AAH. There were three unreported deaths from measles outside AAH. During the outbreak, a total of 2453 measles-rubella vaccines were given in the AAH catchment area. Conclusion: A high incidence rate was observed in children and young people aged 18 years or younger, reflecting low childhood vaccination coverage. More than 50% of cases required hospitalization due to disease severity and challenges of accessing health services. The rumour surveillance discovered many unreported cases in the mountain areas and a few deaths possibly linked to the outbreak. Improvement of registration methods and follow-up systems and setting up satellite clinics are planned to improve measles surveillance and vaccination coverage.

  15. Molecular evolution of measles viruses circulated in Taiwan 1992-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rota Paul A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic analyses of viral samples from 74 laboratory confirmed measles cases occurring in Taiwan during 1992-2008 identified six viral genotypes D3, D5, D9, G2, H1 and H2. The most frequently detected genotype, H1, was associated with outbreaks in 1994 and 2002, and was the likely indigenous genotype in 1992. In response to the outbreaks, two catch-up campaigns were launched and a routine second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at entry to elementary school was introduced. The vaccination campaigns successfully reduced the number of measles cases in Taiwan, and many of the more recent cases can be traced to importations, primarily from other Asian countries. A number of measles genotypes which were associated with outbreaks in other Asian countries were detected among the more recent cases. The more recent genotype H1 viruses had sequences that were identical to those currently circulating in China or associated with international importation of virus.

  16. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections.

  17. Fotossensibilidade e termoestabilidade de vacinas contra o sarampo (cepa Biken CAM-70 liofilizadas e/ou reconstituídas para administração Photosensitivity and stability of freeze-dried and reconstituted (Biken CAM-70 strain measles vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda de Rizzo

    1990-02-01

    ou reconstituídos para administração apresentaram, além de baixa estabilidade ao calor, pouca homogeneidade com relação a este parâmetro.Three different lots of measles vaccines produced with the Biken CAM-70 virus strain were requested from the central cold store of the Public Health Department of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, and assays on photosensitivity at 2-8° C, and on stability at 28, 36.5 and 45° C were carried out to find out for how long these vaccines would maintain their minimum potency, established as being 3.70 log10 or 5000 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose per human dose. The analysis of the adjusted straight regression lines indicated that, with the passage of time, the potency of lyophilized or reconstituted vaccines, as well as of vaccines exposed to or protected from light decreased. Light-exposed vaccines, however, became less potent than vaccines protected from the light. None of the vaccine lots studied, reconstituted and stored at 2-8° C, exhibited homogeneity as to sensitivity to light. When freeze-dried vaccines had their photosensitivity studied at 2-8° C, lots 1 and 2 presented greater thermal degradation when exposed to light than when protected from it. However, in both instances, it was found that potency fell bellow that taken as minimum for the Biken CAM-70 virus strain. At all other temperatures considered, even when protected from light, lots 1 and 2 did not retain the minimum potency. Lot 3 kept the expected stability for 60 days at 2-8° C when protected from light and for 40 days when unprotected, but its thermal degradation at other temperatures was more intense (28° C: 5 days; 36.5° C: 2 days; 45° C: 0.5 day. Taking into account the potency that measles vaccines produced with the Biken CAM-70 virus strain are required to contain in order to induce effective immunity, the three vaccine lots studied were found to possess low thermal stability and to lack homogeneity both in the freeze-dried as well as in

  18. Morbidity and mortality pattern of hospitalized children with measles at mayo hospital, lahore (epidemic 2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major outbreak of measles took place in Punjab recently (2013), leading on to increase in hospitalized cases of measles in children wards, with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to find out morbidity and mortality pattern of hospitalized cases of measles and associated factors. Design: Prospective case series conducted at Pediatric Department Mayo Hospital, Lahore for 7 months, i.e. from 1st Jan to 31st Jul 2013 Methods:A total of 628 cases of measles were admitted in the children ward, Unit II, Mayo Hospital, Lahore from Jan-Jul 2013. The diagnosis was assigned using WHO criteria. Cases were admitted through emergency on 24 hour basis and managed in HDU and Measles isolation section. Chest X-Ray and blood complete examination was done in all cases. Complications were noted and managed along with eye consultations where necessary. Data was recorded in a predesigned proforma and entered in computer. Results: 628 admitted cases were enrolled, with comparable sex distribution, having mean age 30.8+-26.25 months and mean weight 9.69+-4.14 Kg. Eighty three percent cases were below 6 years of age (33% <1 year), 71% cases were under weight and 68% were wasted (WHO classification). Sixty six percent cases had not received measles vaccination, 144 (23%) cases had received a single dose and 71 cases (12.2%) had received two doses before admission. Majority of cases belonged to Lahore city and its peri-urban areas (83%). Pneumonia (80%), diarrhea (37%), and encephalitis (7.7%) were common complications. Eye complications (corneal ulcers, keratitis, perforation and blindness) were seen in 7.3% cases. Being under weight, H/O improper measles immunization, presence of anemia, pneumonia and encephalitis were statistically significant risk factors for mortality. The case fatality rate was 8.76%. Conclusion:Recent Measles outbreak further highlights the importance of strengthening the need for routine and mass vaccination for all children. In a

  19. Spread of Measles Virus in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-06

    Dr. Paul Rota, team lead for the Measles Laboratory, Division of Viral Diseases, at CDC, talks about a measles virus survey in Europe, 2008-2011.  Created: 10/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/6/2011.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and...

  1. The Host Cell Receptors for Measles Virus and Their Interaction with the Viral Hemagglutinin (H Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Tzung Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemagglutinin (H protein of measles virus (MeV interacts with a cellular receptor which constitutes the initial stage of infection. Binding of H to this host cell receptor subsequently triggers the F protein to activate fusion between virus and host plasma membranes. The search for MeV receptors began with vaccine/laboratory virus strains and evolved to more relevant receptors used by wild-type MeV. Vaccine or laboratory strains of measles virus have been adapted to grow in common cell lines such as Vero and HeLa cells, and were found to use membrane cofactor protein (CD46 as a receptor. CD46 is a regulator that normally prevents cells from complement-mediated self-destruction, and is found on the surface of all human cells, with the exception of erythrocytes. Mutations in the H protein, which occur during adaptation and allow the virus to use CD46 as a receptor, have been identified. Wild-type isolates of measles virus cannot use the CD46 receptor. However, both vaccine/laboratory and wild-type strains can use an immune cell receptor called signaling lymphocyte activation molecule family member 1 (SLAMF1; also called CD150 and a recently discovered epithelial receptor known as Nectin-4. SLAMF1 is found on activated B, T, dendritic, and monocyte cells, and is the initial target for infections by measles virus. Nectin-4 is an adherens junction protein found at the basal surfaces of many polarized epithelial cells, including those of the airways. It is also over-expressed on the apical and basal surfaces of many adenocarcinomas, and is a cancer marker for metastasis and tumor survival. Nectin-4 is a secondary exit receptor which allows measles virus to replicate and amplify in the airways, where the virus is expelled from the body in aerosol droplets. The amino acid residues of H protein that are involved in binding to each of the receptors have been identified through X-ray crystallography and site-specific mutagenesis. Recombinant measles

  2. Analysis of measles antibody level monitoring results of Qiaojia County from 2013 to 2015%巧家县2013-2015年麻疹抗体水平监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝泓; 毛宗荣; 易灵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the measles antibody level of Qiaojia County from 2013 to 2015,to provide the measles prevention and control data of Qiaojia county.Methods:The measles antibody survey data were selected.They were divided into groups according to the measles vaccination history.838 cases had the vaccination history,28 cases had no vaccination history.The measles antibody(IgG) was detected.Results:In 838 cases with the vaccination history,790 cases of measles antibody were positive, the positive rate was 94.3%.In 28 cases with no vaccination history,10 cases of measles antibody were positive,the positive rate was 35.7% .Conclusion:The effect of measles vaccination in Qiaojia county is satisfactory,but it still needs to be further strengthened in order to improve the immune effect.%目的:了解巧家县2013-2015年麻疹抗体水平,为巧家县提供麻疹防治资料.方法:收集麻疹抗体调查的资料,根据麻疹疫苗接种史进行分组,有接种史838例,无接种史28例,对麻疹抗体(IgG)进行检测.结果:有麻疹疫苗接种史838例,麻疹抗体阳性790例,阳性率94.3%;无接种史28例,麻疹抗体阳性10例,阳性率35.7%.结论:巧家县麻疹疫苗接种效果满意,但仍需要进一步加强,以提高免疫效果.

  3. Imaging findings of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the chest radiography and MSCT findings of measles pneumonia in adults. Methods: One hundred and sixty three measles patients underwent chest radiography, MSCT was performed in 3 of them. Measles pneumonia was confirmed in 10 patients (6.13%). Results: Eight of 10 patients had abnormal appearances in initial chest radiography. The characteristic chest radiographic findings were ground-glass opacities (n=6) and bronchial wall thickening (n=2). MSCT showed bilateral multiple ground-glass opacities in 1 patient, unilateral patchy ground-glass opacities with lobular distribution in the right upper lung in 2 patients. Conclusions: Familiarizing with radiographic and MSCT appearances of measles pneumonia in adults is very important for the differential diagnosis and appropriate management of measles pneumonia. Normal initial chest radiography cannot exclude the involvement of the lungs. (authors)

  4. Immune status of health care workers to measles virus: evaluation of protective titers in four measles IgG EIAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.; Hall, M.A.; Vreeswijk, J.; Vries, J.J. de; Vossen, A.C.; Hulscher, H.I. Ten; Kerkhof, J.; Smits, G.P.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.; Binnendijk, R.S. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the recognition of a measles case in a hospital in The Netherlands, health care workers (HCW) from the premises were screened by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measles IgG to identify persons at risk for measles. At least 10% of the HCW were tested measles IgG-negati

  5. The Measles and Free Riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Katharine

    2016-07-01

    This article takes up a game-theoretic perspective on California's recently passed bill (SB 277) that closes all nonmedical exemptions for school-mandated vaccination. Such a perspective characterizes parental decisions to vaccinate their children as a collective action problem and reveals the presence of an incentive to free ride-to enjoy the benefits of others' efforts to vaccinate their children without vaccinating one's own. This article defends California's legislation as a reasonable means of overcoming the free rider problem and of ensuring that the burdens of vaccination are shared equally. PMID:27348831

  6. Comparison of measles complications in well nourished and mal-nourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is the most common and the most infectious of the viral infections of childhood. It can cause severe pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, and death. A significant proportion of deaths due to measles in young children worldwide are attributable to low weight for age. To compare the measles complications in well-nourished and mal-nourished children, this cross-sectional study was conducted at Paediatric out-patient department and paediatric unit 1 Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur. Total 120 patients were included in the study. All patients presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of measles according to WHO criteria. These patients were divided into well nourished and malnourished according to the modified Gomez classification. Both groups were evaluated for measles complications like pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulceration, thrombocytopenia, otitis media and myocarditis by detailed history and complete physical examination, and statistically analysed. In the studied patients, 75 were males and 45 were females. Mean age was 23 months. Fifty-nine (49.2%) patients were well-nourished and 61 (50.8%) were undernourished. Fifty-two (43.3%) patients were having pneumonia. Fifty-three (44.2%) patients were having diarrhoea. Twenty-six (21.7%) patients were having encephalitis. Corneal ulceration was found in 9 (7.5%) patients. Thrombocytopenia and otitis media was present in 1 patient in each group. Fourteen patients expired. Measles is a global epidemic problem having many serious complications, including pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulcerations etc. Moreover these complications are more frequent in under nourished children. Efforts should be made to improve the nutritional status of the children and to eradicate this disease by effective vaccination. (author)

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of measles and effects of supplementary immunization activity of measles vaccine in 2005-2014 in Zhongshan%2005-2014年中山市麻疹疫情流行病学特征及强化免疫效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王翠玲; 吕海英; 周海; 李雷; 蔡乾春; 陈小红

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析中山市2005-2014年麻疹流行病学特征,评估麻疹疫苗(MeaslesVac cine,MV)强化免疫(Supplementary Immunization Activity,SIA)对麻疹流行病学特征的影响,为制定防控策略提供科学依据.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,监测数据进行统计分析.结果 MV SIA前、后中山市麻疹年均发病率分别为49.6/10万和4.6/10万,SIA后较SIA前下降了90.7%;SIA前、后病例季节分布无变化,主要集中于4~9月;SIA前、后8月龄~14岁病例各占病例总数的59.8%和35.0%.SIA前、后散居儿童构成比由58.6%上升为65.0%;幼托儿童构成比由12.7%下降为2.5%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).无免疫史和免疫史不详的病例占病例总数的76.4%.结论 MV SIA能迅速降低麻疹发病率,免疫空白人群是发病的重点人群.建议在做好常规免疫的基础上,每隔3年开展一轮MV SIA,使我市麻疹发病水平维持在一个较低水平,最终达到消除麻疹的目标.

  8. Impact of vaccination on the incidence of measles in Mozambique in the period 2000 to 2011 Impacto de la vacunación sobre la incidencia del sarampión en Mozambique durante el período de 2000-2011 Impacto da vacinação sobre a incidência de sarampo em Moçambique no período de 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Manuel Muloliwa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to contribute to the better planning of measles elimination actions in Mozambique, by considering the impact of vaccination actions over the period 2000 to 2011. Descriptive and ecological studies and case records made available by the Ministry of Health were used to analyze measles vaccination coverage. Statistical analysis was performed using time series and spatial analysis. Vaccine coverage rates ranged from 82% to 99%. Coverage rates in Maputo city were under 70% and in Niassa province they were over 100%. Coverage showed a clustered pattern in the districts. The measles incidence rate was 1.58 per 100,000 inhabitants (0.00-40.08 per 100,000 inhabitants; districts bordering neighboring countries presented high incidence rates. Although measles morbidity and mortality has decreased in Mozambique, vaccine coverage has been insufficient to interrupt measles transmission. Enhanced surveillance, including investigation of cases and outbreaks, and improvements in measles vaccination are recommended in order to achieve a homogenous coverage rate of ≥ 95% for both routine and mass vaccination campaigns.El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar las acciones de eliminación del sarampión en Mozambique, considerando el impacto del programa de vacunación a lo largo del período de 2000-2011. Se revisaron los datos de vacunación y casos de sarampión, disponibles en el Ministerio de Salud. Se aplicaron análisis de series temporales y técnicas estadísticas de análisis espacial. Las coberturas variaron entre un 82% y un 99% por nivel. En las provincias, la Ciudad de Maputo tuvo coberturas por debajo de un 70%, mientras que la provincia de Niassa tuvo coberturas por encima de un 100%. Las coberturas presentaron un patrón espacial que se modificó con el tiempo. La tasa de incidencia de sarampión en el país fue de un 1,58 (0,00-40,08 distritos por 100 mil habitantes. Los distritos que tienen fronteras con pa

  9. Measles monitoring and epidemic situation analysis in Heze City in 2011%菏泽市2011年麻疹监测与疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景顺; 马敬仓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the operation level of measles monitoring system, do a good job for measles monitoring and epidemic emergency disposal, and to provide basic data for confirming measles elimination. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the data of measles surveillance and control in our city in 2011. Results 70 suspected measles cases were reported in 2011. The investigating rate was 97.14% within 48 hours after report. The collecting rate of blood serum sample was 85.71% among sporadic cases, while the report rate of blood serum sample was 96.67% after being tested within 7 days. 31 cases were confirmed measles, which were sporadic, and most confirmed cases were under 2 years old. Conclusion The measles monitoring information management system is running well in our city in 2011, and the important progress is made about measles elimination work than 2010. To raise and maintain high level of measles vaccination, including the routine immunization of measles vaccine and timely supplementary immunization of measles-containing vaccines are the focus in the nearly future.%目的 提高麻疹监测系统运转水平,切实做好麻疹监测和疫情应急处置工作,并为证实消除麻疹工作提供基础资料.方法 对2011年菏泽市麻疹监测与控制资料进行描述分析.结果 2011年菏泽市报告麻疹疑似病例70例.麻疹疑似病例报告后48 h内调查率为97.14%,散发病例血标本采集率为85.71%,血标本结果7 d内报告率为96.67%.麻疹确诊病例31例,呈散发,发病以2岁以下儿童为主.结论 菏泽市2011年麻疹监测信息报告管理系统运转情况良好,全市2011年消除麻疹工作较2010年取得重要进展.提高并维持高水平麻疹疫苗接种率,包括常规免疫工作和高质量做好麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动是今后的工作重点.

  10. Measuring populations to improve vaccination coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Nita; Djibo, Ali; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    In low-income settings, vaccination campaigns supplement routine immunization but often fail to achieve coverage goals due to uncertainty about target population size and distribution. Accurate, updated estimates of target populations are rare but critical; short-term fluctuations can greatly impact population size and susceptibility. We use satellite imagery to quantify population fluctuations and the coverage achieved by a measles outbreak response vaccination campaign in urban Niger and compare campaign estimates to measurements from a post-campaign survey. Vaccine coverage was overestimated because the campaign underestimated resident numbers and seasonal migration further increased the target population. We combine satellite-derived measurements of fluctuations in population distribution with high-resolution measles case reports to develop a dynamic model that illustrates the potential improvement in vaccination campaign coverage if planners account for predictable population fluctuations. Satellite imagery can improve retrospective estimates of vaccination campaign impact and future campaign planning by synchronizing interventions with predictable population fluxes. PMID:27703191

  11. 麻腮风联合减毒活疫苗中新霉素残留量微生物学检测方法的建立%Development of a microbiological method for detection of residual neomycin content in live attenuated measles, mumps and rubella combined vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常艳; 杨美琴; 李景云; 胡昌勤

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立麻腮风联合减毒活疫苗(Measles,mumps and rubella vaccine,MMR)中新霉素残留量的微生物学检测方法,并进行验证.方法 采用管碟法测定新霉素含量,并以新霉素浓度的对数和抑菌圈半径的平方值绘制标准直线.对建立的方法进行同质性、最低检出限、加样回收率及精密度验证.结果 建立的方法在新霉素浓度为0.24~4.18U/ml的范围内线性关系良好,R2=0.997 8;新霉素标准品与供试品的剂量反应直线的回归方程的斜率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),即标准品与供试品间可满足同质性的要求;该方法的最低检出限为0.05 U/ml;该方法检测新霉素浓度约为0.5和1.0 U/ml的混合溶液,回收率分别为99.22%和99.86%;日内RSD为1.09%,日间RSD为1.42%.结论 建立了一种适用于定量测定MMR中新霉素残留量的微生物学检测方法,该方法操作简便,结果可靠,可用于MMR的常规质量控制.%Objective To develop and verify a microbiological method for detection of residual neomycin content in live attenuated measles, mumps and rubella combined vaccine (MMR). Methods The neomycin content was determined by cylinder plate method, based on which a standard curve was plotted with the log of neomycin concentration against the square of radius of bacteriostatic ring. The developed method was verified for homogeneity, limit of detection (LOD), recovery rate and precision. Results The developed method showed good linearity within a neomycin concentration range of 0. 24 ~ 4. 18 U/ ml (R2 - 0. 997 8). No significant difference was observed between the slopes of dose-response curves of standard neomycin and test samples (P> 0. 05), which met the requirements for homogeneity. The LOD of the developed method was 0. 05 U / ml. By the developed method, the recovery rates of mixed samples at neomycin concentrations of 0. 5 and 1. 0 U/ml were 99. 22% and 99. 86%, while the intra- and inter-RSDs were 1. 09

  12. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  13. A review of data needed to parameterize a dynamic model of measles in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrison Louis P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic models of infection transmission can project future disease burden within a population. Few dynamic measles models have been developed for low-income countries, where measles disease burden is highest. Our objective was to review the literature on measles epidemiology in low-income countries, with a particular focus on data that are needed to parameterize dynamic models. Methods We included age-stratified case reporting and seroprevalence studies with fair to good sample sizes for mostly urban African and Indian populations. We emphasized studies conducted before widespread immunization. We summarized age-stratified attack rates and seroprevalence profiles across these populations. Using the study data, we fitted a "representative" seroprevalence profile for African and Indian settings. We also used a catalytic model to estimate the age-dependent force of infection for individual African and Indian studies where seroprevalence was surveyed. We used these data to quantify the effects of population density on the basic reproductive number R0. Results The peak attack rate usually occurred at age 1 year in Africa, and 1 to 2 years in India, which is earlier than in developed countries before mass vaccination. Approximately 60% of children were seropositive for measles antibody by age 2 in Africa and India, according to the representative seroprevalence profiles. A statistically significant decline in the force of infection with age was found in 4 of 6 Indian seroprevalence studies, but not in 2 African studies. This implies that the classic threshold result describing the critical proportion immune (pc required to eradicate an infectious disease, pc = 1-1/R0, may overestimate the required proportion immune to eradicate measles in some developing country populations. A possible, though not statistically significant, positive relation between population density and R0 for various Indian and African populations was also

  14. Cell tropism and pathogenesis of measles virus in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-ich eKato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MV is an enveloped negative strand RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, and causes one of the most contagious diseases in humans. Experimentally infected non-human primates are used as animal models for studies of the pathogenesis of human measles. We established a reverse genetics system based on a highly pathogenic wild-type MV (IC-B strain. Infection of monkeys with recombinant MV strains generated by reverse genetics enabled analysis of the molecular basis of MV pathogenesis. In addition, recombinant wild-type MV strains expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein enable visual tracking of MV-infected cells in vitro and in vivo. To date, 3 different molecules have been identified as receptors for MV. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150, expressed on immune cells, is a major receptor for MV. CD46, ubiquitously expressed in all nucleated cells in humans and monkeys, is a receptor for vaccine and laboratory strains of MV. The newly identified nectin-4 (also called PVRL4 is an epithelial cell receptor for MV. The impact of MV receptor usage in vivo on disease outcomes is now under investigation.

  15. Systematic Review of Measles and Rubella Serology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Odahowski, Cassie L

    2016-07-01

    Serological tests provide information about individual immunity from historical infection or immunization. Cross-sectional serological studies provide data about the age- and sex-specific immunity levels for individuals in the studied population, and these data can provide a point of comparison for the results of transmission models. In the context of developing an integrated model for measles and rubella transmission, we reviewed the existing measles and rubella literature to identify the results of national serological studies that provided cross-sectional estimates of population immunity at the time of data collection. We systematically searched PubMed, the Science Citation Index, and references we identified from relevant articles published in English. We extracted serological data for comparison to transmission model outputs. For rubella, serological studies of women of child-bearing age provide information about the potential risks of infants born with congenital rubella syndrome. Serological studies also document the loss of maternal antibodies, which occurs at different rates for the different viruses and according to the nature of the induced immunity (i.e., infection or vaccine). The serological evidence remains limited for some areas, with studies from developed countries representing a disproportionate part of the evidence. The collection and review of serological evidence can help program managers identify immunity gaps in the population, which may help them better understand the characteristics of individuals within their populations who may participate in transmission and manage risks. PMID:26077609

  16. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  17. Engineered measles virus Edmonston strain used as a novel oncolytic viral system against human hepatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary, malignant pediatric liver tumor in children. The treatment results for affected children have markedly improved in recent decades. However, the prognosis for high-risk patients who have extrahepatic extensions, invasion of the large hepatic veins, distant metastases and very high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels remains poor. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. An attenuated strain of measles virus, derived from the Edmonston vaccine lineage, was genetically engineered to produce carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We investigated the antitumor potential of this novel viral agent against human HB both in vitro and in vivo. Infection of the Hep2G and HUH6 HB cell lines, at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) ranging from 0.01 to 1, resulted in a significant cytopathic effect consisting of extensive syncytia formation and massive cell death at 72–96 h after infection. Both of the HB lines overexpressed the measles virus receptor CD46 and supported robust viral replication, which correlated with CEA production. The efficacy of this approach in vivo was examined in murine Hep2G xenograft models. Flow cytometry assays indicated an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Intratumoral administration of MV-CEA resulted in statistically significant delay of tumor growth and prolongation of survival. The engineered measles virus Edmonston strain MV-CEA has potent therapeutic efficacy against HB cell lines and xenografts. Trackable measles virus derivatives merit further exploration in HB treatment

  18. A Chimeric Human-Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Expressing Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Is Attenuated for Replication but Is Still Immunogenic in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadopoulos, Mario H.; Surman, Sonja R.; Riggs, Jeffrey M.; Collins, Peter L.; Murphy, Brian R.

    2001-01-01

    The chimeric recombinant virus rHPIV3-NB, a version of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) that is attenuated due to the presence of the bovine PIV3 nucleocapsid (N) protein open reading frame (ORF) in place of the HPIV3 ORF, was modified to encode the measles virus hemagglutinin (HA) inserted as an additional, supernumerary gene between the HPIV3 P and M genes. This recombinant, designated rHPIV3-NBHA, replicated like its attenuated rHPIV3-NB parent virus in vitro and in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of rhesus monkeys, indicating that the insertion of the measles virus HA did not further attenuate rHPIV3-NB in vitro or in vivo. Monkeys immunized with rHPIV3-NBHA developed a vigorous immune response to both measles virus and HPIV3, with serum antibody titers to both measles virus (neutralizing antibody) and HPIV3 (hemagglutination inhibiting antibody) of over 1:500. An attenuated HPIV3 expressing a major protective antigen of measles virus provides a method for immunization against measles by the intranasal route, a route that has been shown with HPIV3 and respiratory syncytial virus vaccines to be relatively refractory to the neutralizing and immunosuppressive effects of maternally derived virus-specific serum antibodies. It should now be possible to induce a protective immune response against measles virus in 6-month-old infants, an age group that in developing areas of the world is not responsive to the current measles virus vaccine. PMID:11581420

  19. 2006-2010年中英两国主流报纸对麻疹疫苗的科技报道研究%A Study on Scientific Report of Measles Vaccine in Mainstream Newspapers in China and UK from 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任杰

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of a content analysis of Chinese and British newspaper coverage of measles/MMR vaccination in a five-year period 2006-2010. By comparing China with a western country and discussing a better function for scientific reporting and scientist s' involvement in public communication, it aims to expand the research vision of science communication in China as well as making a modest contribution to the globalization of research on vaccine controversies.%本文遴选2006-2010年中英两国主流报纸对麻疹疫苗和MMR的新闻报道样本,采用内容分析方法以“科学的确定性与不确定”和“政府政策意见趋向”为主线分析了不同媒体环境下针对防治麻疹病疫苗的科学报道模式。通过比较研究中西方不同国家的政府、媒体以及科学家如何针对麻疹疫苗争议对公众进行正确健康疏导以及危机处理方式,拓展了科学普及的研究视野并试图从中总结出更加合理的科技报道模式。科学争议以及危机处理需要科学界与媒体正确的引导,随着网络科技报道数量的增加,传统媒体需要重视其他渠道的科技信息,尤其是来自于科学界的信息,从而对原有科技报道模式做出调整和改善。

  20. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author)

  1. MFR-vaccination og autisme - et populationsbaseret followupstudie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Summary A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. Ugeskr Læger 2002; 164: 5741-4. Introduction: It has been suggested that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination causes autism. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all...... confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.07). There was no association between age at vaccination, time since vaccination or calendar period at time of vaccination and development of autistic disorder. Discussion: This study provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that MMR vaccination causes autism....... children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was established based on data from the Danish Civil Registration System. A unique person identifiable number given to all subjects enabled linkage with other national registries. MMR vaccination status was obtained from the Danish...

  2. Vaccination coverage in French 17-year-old young adults: an assessment of mandatory and recommended vaccination statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblot, F; Robin, S; Chubilleau, C; Giraud, J; Bouffard, B; Ingrand, P

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to assess vaccination coverage (VC) in 17-year-old French young adults (YAs) participating in one mandatory Day of Defence and Citizenship (DDC). Between June 2010 and May 2011, YAs participating in 43 randomly selected mandatory sessions of the DDC programme in Poitou-Charentes (France) were asked to provide their personal vaccination record. Tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae b, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination status were assessed at ages 2, 6, 13 and 17 years. Of 2610 participants, 2111 (81%) supplied documents for evaluation. Of these, 1838 (87%, M:F sex ratio 0·96) were aged 17 years (9% of the global population of this age in the area). The assessment of the 17-year-olds demonstrated the following rates of complete vaccination: diphtheria-tetanus-polio 83%; measles, mumps and rubella 83%; pertussis 69%; H. influenzae b 61%; human papillomavirus 47%; and hepatitis B 40%. At age 6 years, only 46% had received two doses of the vaccine against measles. The YAs were not aware of their status but were in favour of vaccination. VC in YAs is insufficient, particularly for hepatitis B, pertussis and measles. Combined vaccines and the simplification of vaccination schedules should improve VC. Preventive messages should focus on YAs.

  3. Modeling seasonal measles transmission in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenguo; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    A discrete-time deterministic measles model with periodic transmission rate is formulated and studied. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined and used as the threshold parameter in determining the dynamics of the model. It is shown that the disease will die out if R0 1 . Parameters in the model are estimated on the basis of demographic and epidemiological data. Numerical simulations are presented to describe the seasonal fluctuation of measles infection in China.

  4. Trained innate immunity as underlying mechanism for the long-term, nonspecific effects of vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Bastiaan A; Arts, Rob J W; van Crevel, Reinout;

    2015-01-01

    provide protection against certain infections in vaccination models independently of lymphocytes. This process is regulated through epigenetic reprogramming of innate immune cells and has been termed "trained immunity." It has been hypothesized that induction of trained immunity is responsible...... for the protective, nonspecific effects induced by vaccines, such as BCG, measles vaccination, and other whole-microorganism vaccines. In this review, we will present the mechanisms of trained immunity responsible for the long-lasting effects of vaccines on the innate immune system....

  5. Use of measles supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) as a delivery platform for other maternal and child health interventions: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, Mira; Sharma, Jitendar K; Jit, Mark; Verguet, Stéphane

    2013-02-18

    Measles supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) offer children in countries with weaker immunization delivery systems like India a second opportunity for measles vaccination. They could also provide a platform to deliver additional interventions, but the feasibility and acceptability of including add-ons is uncertain. We surveyed Indian programme officers involved in the current (2010-2012) measles SIAs concerning opportunities and challenges of using SIAs as a delivery platform for other maternal and child health interventions. Respondents felt that an expanded SIA strategy including add-ons could be of great value in improving access and efficiency. They viewed management challenges, logistics, and safety as the most important potential barriers. They proposed that additional interventions be selected using several criteria, of which importance of the health problem, safety, and contribution to health equity figured most prominently. For children, they recommended inclusion of basic interventions to address nutritional deficiencies, diarrhoea and parasites over vaccines. For mothers, micronutrient interventions were highest ranked.

  6. MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard;

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outcome...... of febrile seizures following vaccination. OBJECTIVES: To estimate incidence rate ratios (RRs) and risk differences of febrile seizures following MMR vaccination within subgroups of children and to evaluate the clinical outcome of febrile seizures following vaccination. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS......: Incidence of first febrile seizure, recurrent febrile seizures, and subsequent epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 439,251 children (82%) received MMR vaccination and 17,986 children developed febrile seizures at least once; 973 of these febrile seizures occurred within 2 weeks of MMR vaccination. The RR...

  7. Towards measles elimination in Italy: monitoring herd immunity by Bayesian mixture modelling of serological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fava, Emanuele; Shkedy, Ziv; Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Manfredi, Piero

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of post-vaccination serological data poses nontrivial issues to the epidemiologists and policy makers who want to assess the effects of immunisation programmes. This is especially true for infections on the path to elimination as is the case for measles. We address these problems by using Bayesian Normal mixture models fitted to antibody counts data. This methodology allows us to estimate the seroprevalence of measles by age and, in contrast to conventional methods based on fixed cut-off points, to also distinguish between groups of individuals with different degrees of immunisation. We applied our methodology to two serological samples collected in Tuscany (Italy) in 2003 and in 2005-2006 respectively, i.e., before and after a large vaccination campaign targeted to school-age children. Besides showing the impact of the campaign, we were able to accurately identify a large pocket of susceptible individuals aged about 13-14 in 2005-2006, and a larger group of weakly immune individuals aged about 20 in 2005-2006. These cohorts therefore represent possible targets for further interventions towards measles elimination.

  8. Re-evaluation of the basic procedures involved in the storage of measles vaccine in public health units of the municipality of Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange A. Oliveira

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the first visit seventeen public health units were visited again and evaluated as to standards of storage recommended by the Brazilian Immunization Programme. In 100% of the units, refrigerators and proper inside location of vaccines in the refrigerator were adequatety or regularfy maintained and checked, respectively. However, when control of temperature was checked, onfy 64.7% presented adequate storage conditions. In 94.1 % of the units, health workers complained of lack of immediate technical support in emergency situations. In 55.2 % the titers vaccine samples of were under the minimal recommended potency. It is necessary that the factors concerning the cold chain be continualfy evaluated so that the quality of the vaccines that will be used is not affected.Quatro anos após a primeira visita, dezessete Unidades Sanitárias do Município de Niterói - RJ foram visitadas novamente e reavaliadas de acordo com as normas técnicas específicas estabelecidas pelo Programa Nacional de Imunização. Constatou-se que em 100% das Unidades visitadas os cuidados com os refrigeradores e a arrumação das vacinas no interior dos aparelhos eram adequados ou regulares mas quanto ao controle de temperatura dos refrigeradores este percentual caía para 64,7%. De todos os itens avaliados, o mais problemático foi o apoio técnico imediato frente a situações de emergência, considerado insuficiente em 94,1% dos casos. Em 55,2% das amostras vacinais recolhidas das unidades sanitárias, os títulos estavam abaixo da potência mínima preconizada para tal produto no momento da aplicação. Verifica-se, deste modo, a necessidade de uma contínua avaliação dos fatores que intervém na cadeia de frio evitando-se, assim, que seja comprometida a qualidade das vacinas a serem utilizadas.

  9. [Lack of association between MMR vaccination and the incidence of autism in children: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Kiełtyka, Agnieszka; Majewska, Renata

    2009-01-01

    The matched case-control study has been undertook to investigate whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine may be casually associated with autism in children. Cases were children to 14-year old with diagnosis of core autism or atypical autism. Controls were matched on age, sex and general practice. The 96 cases and 192 controls were included. The study provides strong evidence against association of autism with both MMR and a single measles individual vaccine. Additionally children vaccinated with MMR, regardless of age of vaccination (to 18th, 24th and 36th month of life), had risk equal half of that of single measles vaccinated (for vaccinated to 18th month OR=0.41 95%PU: 0.20-0.85). Our findings confirm that MMR vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of autism in children.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  11. Vaccination rates in a multicultural population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der M.F.; Diepenmaat, A.C.M.; Pel, J.M.; Hira Sing, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To establish whether there are social or cultural groups of children in Amsterdam with relatively low vaccination coverage for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, and poliomyelitis (DPTP), and for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). METHODS: All of the 57,382 children aged between 5 and 12 years an

  12. Structural basis of efficient contagion: measles variations on a theme by parainfluenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Mathieu; Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    A quartet of attachment proteins and a trio of fusion protein subunits play the cell entry concert of parainfluenza viruses. While many of these viruses bind sialic acid to enter cells, wild type measles binds exclusively two tissue-specific proteins, the lymphatic receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM), and the epithelial receptor nectin-4. SLAM binds near the stalk-head junction of the hemagglutinin. Nectin-4 binds a hydrophobic groove located between blades 4 and 5 of the hemagglutinin β-propeller head. The mutated vaccine strain hemagglutinin binds in addition the ubiquitous protein CD46, which explains attenuation. The measles virus entry concert has four movements. Andante misterioso: the virus takes over the immune system. Allegro con brio: it rapidly spreads in the upper airway's epithelia. 'Targeting' fugue: the versatile orchestra takes off. Presto furioso: the virus exits the host with thunder. Be careful: music is contagious.

  13. 中国近年含麻疹成分疫苗补充免疫活动前后麻疹发病情况分析%Analysis on the Incidence of Measles before and after Supplementary Immunization Activities with Measles-containing Vaccine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭楚生; 王华庆

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解中国(未包括香港、澳门特别行政区和台湾地区,下同)近年含麻疹成分疫苗(Measlescontaining Vaccine,MCV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIAs)的效果,为完善MCV免疫策略提供参考.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法,对我国2004~2011年MCV SIAs资料与麻疹发病资料进行统计分析.结果 MCV SIAs对降低麻疹发病总体效果明显,但各省(自治区、直辖市,下同)效果有一定差异.2004~2011年,开展MCV SIAs第二年与MCV SIAs当年相比,目标儿童麻疹发病数,初次实施MCV SIAs的省最高降幅为99.54%,最低降幅为73.38%,中位数为96.14% (P25 =90.78%,P75 =97.97%);第二次实施MCV SIAs的省最高降幅为99.89%,最低降幅为16.67%,中位数为86.21%;第三次实施MCV SIAs的省最高降幅为91.89%,个别省不降反升,中位数为85.63% (P25=67.95%,P75=96.00%).MCV SIAs后,低麻疹发病率持续时间长短不一,最长的4年,最短的≤1年.结论 MCV SIAs后,麻疹发病总体呈下降显著,但MCV SlAs后控制麻疹的效果取决于SIAs和常规免疫质量;消除麻疹的关键是保持高水平的常规免疫接种率(两剂次≥95%),MCV SIAs是低接种率地区阻断麻疹流行、迅速建立免疫屏障的一种补充免疫的策略.

  14. Routine vaccinations associated with divergent effects on female and male mortality at the paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu;

    2005-01-01

    was 0.54 (0.28-0.97). Among children having received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio (OPV) as the last vaccines, girls had higher case fatality than boys, the mortality ratio being 1.63 (1.03-2.59). The female to male ratios were significantly inversed for DTP and OPV versus measles......, the Bandim Health Project maintained a register of all children from the study area hospitalised at the paediatric ward of the central hospital in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. The study included 2079 hospitalised children aged 1.5-17 months coming from the Bandim study area. Among children whose vaccination card...... had been seen at admission, the case fatality ratio for measles-vaccinated children versus measles-unvaccinated children was 0.51 (0.27-0.98), the beneficial effect being significantly stronger for girls than for boys (test of interaction, p=0.050). The protective effect of measles vaccine remained...

  15. 成人麻疹患者护理及预防措施%Nursing care of adult patients with measles and preventive measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林桂梅

    2015-01-01

    本文探讨成人麻疹的临床护理及预防措施。通过对成人麻疹患者20例开展临床护理及健康宣教,全部治愈出院,未发生并发症及造成医源性的麻疹感染和流行。因此,加强预防接种是控制麻疹发病率的基本措施,做好麻疹患者的护理和管理也是预防麻疹发病率的关键。%In this paper,we explored the nursing care of adult patients with measles and preventive measures.20 adult patients with measles were given clinical nursing and health education,and they were all cured,and there was no complication and cause of iatrogenic infection and epidemic of measles.Therefor,to strengthen the vaccination is the basic measure to control the incidence of measles,and good nursing and management for patients with measles is the key to prevent the incidence of measles.

  16. Epidemic situation and research progress of measles in children%儿童麻疹流行及研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立飞; 刘作义

    2008-01-01

    Since the live attenuated vaccine of measles is widely used in the world, the epidemic, morbility and mortality of measles have been controlled and relieved to a great extent. However, the epidemic regularity and clinical manifestation of measles have changed a lot, some variants of measles also have been found. In order to comprehend and control the measles effectively, the associated reports of measles in recent 5 years are reviewed.%自全球广泛使用麻疹减毒活疫苗以来,儿童麻疹的流行、发病率及病死率已经得到很大程度控制和减轻.但是,近几年麻疹的流行规律和临床特征发生了不少变化,麻疹病毒也出现了一些变异.为了更好地认识和控制麻疹,此文对近5年麻疹研究有关文献进行了综述.

  17. Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles in Rizhao City during 2005 -2010%2005-2010年日照市的麻疹流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜洁琼; 李桂双; 刘贤利; 宋艳娟; 苗伟; 张伟; 王茂慈

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析日照市2005-2010年麻疹流行病学特征和预防控制措施,为进一步制定消除麻疹策略及措施提供依据.方法 对日照市2005-2010年麻疹发病情况及采取消除麻疹策略和措施进行描述流行病学分析.结果 日照市2010年麻疹报告发病率为0.071/10万,初步达到消除麻疹的目标.2005-2010年均以3~6月为麻疹发病高峰;年龄别发病率以15岁以上年龄组最高;麻疹病例主要为无麻疹减毒活疫苗(measles attennuated live vaccine,MV)免疫史或免疫史不详者;共发生麻疹暴发疫情3起,其中2起暴发病例均为输入性病例.结论 日照市消除麻疹取得显著进展,高质量的强化免疫(SIA)和查漏补种是减少麻疹发病和阻断麻疹病毒传播的重要手段.应继续保持和巩固高水平儿童基础免疫接种率,加强麻疹疑似病例的监测,做好暴发疫情的预警与控制工作,从而彻底实现消除麻疹的目标.%[Objective] To analyze the epideraiological characteristics and preventive measures of measles in Rizhao City during 2005 -2010, and provide evidence for developing strategy and measures to eliminate measles. [Methods] The descriptive epidemiology was applied to analyze the incidence of measles in Rizhao City during 2005 - 2010 and the adoption of strategy and measures to eliminate measles. [Results] The reported measles incidence was 0.071/100 000 in 2010 which achived the goal of eliminating measles preliminarily. The peak incidence of measles appeared during March to June from 2005 to 2010, children aged ^ 15 years had the highest incidence. Most measles cases had not immune history or unknown immune history of MV. Three measles outbreaks occurred; measles cases of 2 outbreaks were all imported cases. [Conclusion] Significant progress on measles elimination has been a-chieved in Rizhao City. High quality SIA and leakage searching with vaccination are the important means to reduce the incidence of measles and

  18. 2004-2011年江苏省宜兴市麻疹疫情及防控情况分析%Epidemiology of measles and its prevention and control in Yixing , Jiangsu , 2004 -2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丽敏; 张华君; 谭文文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles and progress in measles prevention and control in Yixing, and provide evidence to accelerate measles elimination. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of measles and the data of measles vaccination in Yixing from 2004 to 2011. Results A total of 331 measles cases were reported in Yixing during this period with the average annual incidence of 3. 29/Iakh. The incidence peak was in spring. The cases mainly occurred in floating population and were mainly distributed in infants and in adults. Conclusion It is essential to conduct supplementary immunization activity of measles, improve the timeliness of measles vaccination and increase the coverage in floating population to control and eliminate measles in Yixing.%目的 了解近几年江苏省宜兴市麻疹流行病学特征及麻疹防控情况,为加速消除麻疹提供依据.方法 对2004 -2011年麻疹病例及全市麻苗免疫情况进行流行病学分析.结果 宜兴市麻疹发病为散发,平均发病率为3.29/10万.发病高发季节为春季,发病以流动人口为主,年龄向大年龄组及小婴儿两端漂移.结论 应适时开展麻疹疫苗强化免疫,提高麻疹疫苗接种及时率,消除流动人口的免疫空白,是宜兴市控制和消除麻疹的重点.

  19. [Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases by vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M

    1997-04-01

    Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases are surveyed. Patients of poliomyelitis has recently been drastically reduced by world-wide administrating live vaccines. In view of rare incidence of paralysis after giving live vaccine, adoption of inactivated vaccine has recently been reconsidered. A live varicella vaccine was developed and has been world-wide used for normal and high-risk children. Incidence of zoster in vaccinated acute leukemic children is several times higher in those who with rash after vaccination as compared with those without rash, and as no or few rash appears after vaccination of normal children, it is expected that vaccination of normal children would lead to reduction of zoster after their aging. Measles encephalitis has rapidly been reduced by world-wide use of live vaccines. Mouse-brain derived vaccine against Japanese encephalitis(JE) has been used in Asian countries. Development of tissue-culture derived JE vaccine is under way. PMID:9103901

  20. A simple model to quantitatively account for periodic outbreaks of the measles in the Dutch Bible Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Martin; Brak, Bastiaan

    2015-04-01

    In the Netherlands there has been nationwide vaccination against the measles since 1976. However, in small clustered communities of orthodox Protestants there is widespread refusal of the vaccine. After 1976, three large outbreaks with about 3000 reported cases of the measles have occurred among these orthodox Protestants. The outbreaks appear to occur about every twelve years. We show how a simple Kermack-McKendrick-like model can quantitatively account for the periodic outbreaks. Approximate analytic formulae to connect the period, size, and outbreak duration are derived. With an enhanced model we take the latency period in account. We also expand the model to follow how different age groups are affected. Like other researchers using other methods, we conclude that large scale underreporting of the disease must occur.

  1. Serological Survey of Effect of Measles-containing Vaccine Supplementary Immunization Activity in Shanghai, 2010%上海市2010年含麻疹成分疫苗补充免疫活动后1个月和1年血清学效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白庆瑞; 汤素文; 时影影; 李智; 黄卓英; 孙晓冬

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析上海市2010年含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activity,SIA)后1个月和1年,儿童麻疹抗体水平变化,评价SIA的血清学效果.方法 在上海市2010年MCV SIA中,按照多阶段分层随机抽样方法,选取8月龄~14岁的研究对象,分别于SIA前、SIA后1个月和1年采集血标本,采用酶联免疫吸附试验检测麻疹免疫球蛋白(Immunoglobulin,Ig)G,分析抗体的变化情况.结果 SIA前、SIA后1个月和1年,分别采集到453人、405人和186人血标本.SIA前麻疹抗体阳性[>200毫国际单位/毫升(mIU/ml)]率为98.23%,几何平均浓度(Geometric Mean Concentration,GMC)为1818.44 mIU/ml.SIA后1个月抗体阳性率为100.00%,GMC为4639.85mIU/ml;SIA后1年抗体阳性率为96.24%,GMC为1517.49mIU/ml.经逻辑斯谛(Logistic)回归分析显示,SIA距离上一次接种MCV时间越长,SIA后抗体越倾向于升高.结论 SIA后1个月抗体水平升高明显,而SIA后1年抗体水平又下降到SIA前的水平.

  2. The re-emergency and persistence of vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO C.N. BORBA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of vaccination worldwide dramatically reduced the incidence of pathogenic bacterial and viral diseases. Despite the highly successful vaccination strategies, the number of cases among vaccine preventable diseases has increased in the last decade and several of those diseases are still endemic in different countries. Here we discuss some epidemiological aspects and possible arguments that may explain why ancient diseases such as, measles, polio, pertussis, diphtheria and tuberculosis are still with us.

  3. Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles in Fuzhou City during 2008-2010%福州市2008-2010年麻疹流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杨伟; 陈杨; 羊晶晶; 姚栩

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解福州市麻疹流行病学特征,探讨加速控制麻疹的策略.方法 对2008-2010年所有麻疹病例个案调查资料进行流行病学统计分析.结果 2008-2010年全市麻疹年平均报告发病率为0.721/10万,以散发为主.4、5月为麻疹高发季节,15岁以下儿童病例数占全部病例数的64.08%.病例中有麻疹疫苗免疫史者占19.72%,无免疫史者占27.46%,免疫史不详者占52.82%.结论 通过全市大规模的强制性加强麻疹疫苗预防接种,2009年起麻疹发病率明显减少.今后在加强麻疹疫苗常规免疫工作的同时,应继续做好大年龄组儿童的强化免疫工作.加强麻疹监测,进一步提高人群的免疫水平,减少麻疹易感人群是消除麻疹的关键.%[Objective]To learn the epideroiological characteristics of measles in Fuzhou city, explore the strategies for strengthening the control of measles. [Methods]The investigation data of all measles cases from 2008 to 2010 were analyzed with epidemio-logical method. [Results] During 2008 -2010, the average annual reported incidence of measles was 0.721/lakh, which was dominated by sporadic cases. The peak season was April and May. 64.08% of patients were children under 15 years old. 19.72% of cases had history of measles vaccination, 27. 46% had no immunization history, and 52. 82% had unknown immunization history. [ Conclusion] After compulsory measles vaccination, the incidence of measles has decreased significantly since 2009. In future, the conventional immunization of measles should be strengthened, and the supplementary immunization among children in senior age group should be implemented. Strengthening the monitoring of measles, improving the immune level among population and reducing the high-risk population are the keys of measles elimination.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  5. The growing risk from measles and other childhood infections in the wake of Ebola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Saki; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Moss, William J.; Truelove, Shaun A.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola epidemic in West Africa has caused significant morbidity and mortality. The outbreak has also disrupted health care services, including childhood vaccinations, creating a second public health crises. We project that after 6–18 months of disruptions, a large connected cluster of children unvaccinated for measles will accumulate across Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. This pool of susceptibility increases the expected size of a regional outbreak from 127,000 to 227,000 cases after 18 months, resulting in 2,000–16,000 additional deaths (comparable to the numbers of Ebola deaths reported thus far). There is a clear path to avoiding outbreaks of childhood vaccine-preventable diseases once the threat of Ebola begins to recede: an aggressive regional vaccination campaign aimed at age groups left unprotected due to health care disruptions. PMID:25766232

  6. Measles Epidemiology and Progress Towards Measles Elimination in China, 2011%中国2011年麻疹流行病学特征与消除麻疹进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 郝利新; 苏琪茹; 马静; 张燕; 曹雷; 罗会明

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析中国(未包括香港、澳门特别行政区和台湾地区,下同)2011年麻疹流行病学特征和采取的措施,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 对全国麻疹发病、麻疹监测系统(Measles Surveillance System,MSS)运转指标及采取的消除麻疹措施进行描述流行病学分析.结果 全国2011年麻疹报告发病率为0.74/10万,较2010年下降74.12%,降至历史新低.西藏、新疆、青海、甘肃、陕西省(自治区,下同)报告发病率居全国前5位,新疆、四川、浙江、陕西、甘肃省麻疹病例数居全国前5位,5个省的病例数占全国病例总数的57.61%.年龄别发病率以<5岁儿童最高(8.21/10万),其中尤以<1岁儿童(23.52/10万)和1岁儿童(8.87/10万)最高.≤1岁病例占病例总数的53.90%,≥15岁病例占27.58%.全国2011年共报告疑似麻疹病例34642例,排除麻疹病例报告发病率为1.84/10万,疑似麻疹病例48h内完整调查率93.30%,散发疑似麻疹病例血标本采集率90.37%,血清学检测结果7d内报告率93.85%,62起麻疹爆发中血清学确诊比例为98.39%,采集病原学标本的起数占75.81%.全国共报告223例麻疹病例的病原学标本基因亚型鉴定结果,221例为Hla基因亚型,2例为d11基因型.结论 中国预防控制麻疹成效显著,麻疹发病水平降至历史新低,MSS运转质量进一步提高.但要达到消除麻疹目标仍需更大努力,应将提高适龄儿童含麻疹成份疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)及时、全程接种率作为核心的免疫措施,继续做好重点地区MCV的集中查漏补种和麻疹疫情的调查与处置,杜绝二代病例的发生,从而阻断麻疹病毒持续传播,最终实现消除麻疹.%Objective This study is to analyze the epidemiological characteristics and summarize progress towards measles elimination in China (exclude Hongkong and Macao Special Administrative Region, and Taiwan Sheng) in 2011, so as to provide evidence for measles

  7. Wild-type measles virus is intrinsically dual-tropic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto eTakeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious disease that causes temporary and severe immunosuppression in patients. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM expressed on cells of the immune system functions as a receptor for measles virus (MV. In addition to SLAM, vaccine strains of MV also use a ubiquitously expressed complement regulatory protein, CD46, as a receptor, whereas wild-type (wt MV strains do not use this receptor. However, recent studies have indicated that SLAM is not the sole receptor for wt MV strains. These strains have an intrinsic ability to enter both immune and epithelial cells using distinct receptor binding sites in their hemagglutinin (H protein. Recently, a clear answer was obtained through the identification of an epithelial MV receptor, nectin4, expressed at adherens junctions, thereby greatly improving our knowledge of MV receptors. It is now clear that MV specifically targets two cell types, immune cells and epithelial cells, using SLAM and nectin4, respectively. MV loses the ability to use either SLAM or nectin4 when it possesses specific mutations in the H protein. However, nectin4-blind MV still infects SLAM-positive immune cells efficiently (SLAM-tropic, and conversely, SLAM-blind MV infects nectin4-positive epithelial cells efficiently (nectin4-tropic. In this regard, MV is intrinsically dual-tropic to immune cells and epithelial cells. Although many aspects and molecular mechanisms underlying immunosuppressive effects and a highly contagious nature of MV still remain to be elucidated, analyses of physiological functions of these two receptors would provide deep insights into MV pathogenesis.

  8. The characteristics of Internet media's dissemination of Measles Vaccine Supplemental Immunization Activities in 2010%"2010年全国麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动"网络媒体报道的传播特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑; 陶茂萱

    2013-01-01

    目的 以"2010年全国麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动"为例,了解此项活动在网络传播中的报道特点,为今后的新闻宣传工作提供工作参考.方法 使用传播学中的内容分析方法,选择4个网站作为收集报道的目标网络媒体.将人民网、新华网作为官方网络媒体代表,腾讯网和新浪网作为商业网络媒体代表,从报道的框架构建和报道内容两方面进行统计分析.结果 官方网络媒体(65.3%)在麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动前期发布信息数量高于商业网络媒体(57.9%),中期低于商业网络媒体(24.7%vs 34.8%);官方网络媒体标题语义向性负面文章(1.9%)比例低于商业网络媒体(8.9%);商业网络媒体各目录文章比例划分较为平均,官方网络媒体三级目录文章最多(52.9%);官方网络媒体报道内容中,领导行为(11.6%)、政策宣传(71.2%)、麻疹预防措施(29.4%)均高于商业网络媒体,已发生的不良反应(2.1%)和接种事故(0.0%)均低于商业网络媒体,以上差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在把握不同网络媒体传播特点的情况下,卫生部门可以采取不同的沟通策略,针对网络媒体中丰富的目录类别,设计不同议题,对健康相关信息展开深入细致的讨论,让公众从多角度科学地认知健康传播信息.%Objective To summarize the characteristics of internet media' s dissemination on Measles Vaccine Supplemental Immunization Activities in 2010 ( MVSIA) , and provide the suggestion for the future propaganda work. Methods Four websites were taken as target internet medias with the method of content analysis. In the four websites, there were 2 official medias, people, com. en and xinhua. com, and 2 commercial medias, sina. com. en and tencent. com. The statistical analysis was made with report' s frame and content. Results The official websites released 798 reports, while the commercial websites, 1101. The official reports of prophase, the mid and late stage of

  9. Epidemiologic and laboratory surveillance of the measles outbreak in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, February 2014-April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimović-Bešić, I; Šeremet, M; Hübschen, J M; Hukić, M; Tihić, N; Ahmetagić, S; Delibegović, Z; Pilav, A; Mulaomerović, M; Ravlija, J; Muller, C P; Dedeić-Ljubović, A

    2016-06-01

    A measles outbreak with two epidemic waves involving 4649 probable and laboratory-confirmed cases was recorded in six out of ten cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina between February 2014 and April 2015. The majority of the patients had never received measles vaccination (3115/4649, 67.00%), and the vaccination status of another 23% was unknown (1066/4649). A total of 281 blood samples were tested serologically. Virus detection was performed using 44 nasopharyngeal swabs. About 57% (161/281) of the laboratory-investigated sera were immunoglobulin M positive, and 95% (42/44) of the swabs were reverse transcriptase-PCR positive. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences obtained from 30 swab samples showed circulation of two variants of genotype D8, but no genotype D4 strains as detected in 2007. Similar involvement of all age groups indicates a problem with vaccine refusal resulting from antivaccination activities in addition to gaps in immunization coverage during the war and postwar period (1992-1998). Differences in ethnicity, vaccine coverage, compliance with review policies of vaccination records and potentially also travel habits may partially explain why only six of ten cantons were affected by the outbreak. The second epidemic wave may in part be due to large-scale migrations due to catastrophic floods in 2014. As a result of the epidemic, 6- to 12-month-old children may now be vaccinated against measles during outbreaks, and public health recommendations for interventions have been strengthened. Additional efforts are required to implement the measures throughout the cantons. PMID:26928202

  10. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when...... this study was conducted. The WHO assesses coverage by 12 months of age. The sequence of vaccines may have an effect on child mortality, but is not considered in official statistics or assessments of programme performance. We assessed vaccination coverage and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations by 12...... and 24 months of age. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Bandim Health Project's (BHP) rural Health and Demographic Surveillance site covers 258 randomly selected villages in all regions of Guinea-Bissau. Villages are visited biannually and vaccination cards inspected...

  11. Analysis on measles surveillance and effect of measles elimination in Fuyang, 2009~2011%阜阳市2009~2011年麻疹监测与消除麻疹效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓东; 万俊峰; 赵仲达; 徐海洋; 李国岚; 张威

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析阜阳市2009~2011年麻疹监测结果与消除麻疹干预效果,为如期消除麻疹提供理论依据.方法 采用描述流行病学方法对麻疹监测数据进行统计分析.结果 2009~2011年麻疹监测系统报告疑似麻疹1 447例,实验室诊断为麻疹394例,临床诊断399例,≥15岁及﹤18个月龄儿童发病较高,分别占25.3%和28.6%.18个月龄内儿童发病率逐年增高;8个月龄以上人群未免疫接种和免疫史不详者占57.7%,应免疫2剂次无确切全程免疫史的占85%以上.结论 阜阳市消除麻疹干预措施效果显著,通过麻疹疫苗强化、查漏补种等,麻疹发病率逐年下降,2011年达历史最低水平;≥8个月龄人群麻疹疫苗漏种或不全程接种是麻疹发病的主要因素;﹤8个月龄和﹥15岁人群属免疫空白和薄弱人群,推行育龄妇女和15岁以上麻疹疫苗强化免疫工作值得探讨.%Objective To understand the epidemic feature of measles and the effect of measles elimination in Fuyang from 2009 to 2011 so as to provide scientific evidence for measles elimination. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the epidemiology of measles from 2009 to 2011 based on the data collected from Measles Surveillance System. Results A total of 1 447 suspected cases ( 394 cases in laboratory diagnosis ; 399 cases in clinical diagnosis ) were reported in Fuyang from 2009 to 2011. There was obvious age difference in the onset of measles. The total amount of measles cases centered on the population with 15 years older and children less than 18 months, which accounted for 25. 3% and 28. 6% respectively. The incidence of measles for children with age between 0 to 18 months increased year by year. Conclusion The intervention measures for measles elimination are proved to be effective in Fuyang. The incidence in 2011 is the lowest for recent years. Omitting vaccination is the major factor in the occurrence of measles. It is worth study for

  12. Measles: epidemiological diagnostic study, in Peri-urban area in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    200 cases of clinical measles in El Hag Yousif area and K. C. E. H, A. G. H. between (March 97-August 98) were studied for epidemiological parameters: 39(20%) were infants, 112 (55%) were 1 to 5 years old and 49 (25%) were over 5 years. History of measles vaccination was obtained in 87 (44%). 150 cases were studied in details: overcrowding was observed in 73 patients (48.6%), 63 patients (42%) gave history of house hold contact, 142 patients (94.6%) had intercurrent infections and 60 (40%) were cases of severe measles: 35 (58%) were females, 7 (20%) of them died with severe infections, the overall mortality was 16 (CFR= 8%). The newly developed prototype field test was done for 66 (46.2%), it was positive in 55 (83.3%), negative in 6 (9%) and doubtful in 5 (7.7%). In comparison with standard specific IgM ELISA test: ELISA test was positive in 47/55, 8 patients had false positive field test (14.5%), 4 with negative field test had a positive ELISA = 4/6 false negative field test (66.6%), so the field test is not sensitive and not specific. (Author)

  13. Vaccines and autism: a tale of shifting hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Jeffrey S; Offit, Paul A

    2009-02-15

    Although child vaccination rates remain high, some parental concern persists that vaccines might cause autism. Three specific hypotheses have been proposed: (1) the combination measles-mumps-rubella vaccine causes autism by damaging the intestinal lining, which allows the entrance of encephalopathic proteins; (2) thimerosal, an ethylmercury-containing preservative in some vaccines, is toxic to the central nervous system; and (3) the simultaneous administration of multiple vaccines overwhelms or weakens the immune system. We will discuss the genesis of each of these theories and review the relevant epidemiological evidence.

  14. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred...... to vaccination at a paediatric ward despite changed recommendations in other countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with egg allergy presented with anaphylactic/allergic reactions to MMR vaccination and to discuss whether Danish recommendations should be upheld....

  15. Epidemic Models for SARS and Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Recent events have led to an increased interest in emerging infectious diseases. This article applies various deterministic models to the SARS epidemic of 2003 and a measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 1999-2000. We take a historical approach beginning with the well-known logistic curve and a lesser-known extension popularized by Pearl and Reed…

  16. Epidemiological characteristics of measles in Pingguo County of Guangxi from 2001-2011%2001-2011年广西壮族自治区平果县麻疹流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建华; 蒙世庭

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Pingguo County, explore the effective measles control policies, and provide a scientific basis for sustainable measles elimination. [ Methods] The descriptive epidemiological analysis was applied to analyze the incidence of measles, and the strategy and measures to eliminate measles in Pingguo County during 2001-2011. [Results] During 2001-2005, the average annual incidence of measles was 20. 15/lakh, the peak season was January to May, the disease mainly occurred in four towns where surrounding the county town, most of patients were children aged 8 month to 7 years old. A majority of measles cases havent received the immunity, which was related to the weak link of children EPI management. There were five measles outbreaks with 1 death case. During 2006-2009, the average annual incidence of measles was 0.72/lakh, and most were scattered cases. No measles cases were reported from 2010-2011, which indicated that the goal of measles elimination has been achieved. [ Conclusion] Low coverage of routine measles vaccination is the main cause of the high incidence of measles. The supplementary immunization and revaccination are the effective measures of measles elimination. The goal of measles elimination has been achieved in Pingguo County, and it is necessary to keep the high coverage of measles vaccination in susceptible population, strengthen the monitoring of imported measles cases, to achieve the goal of sustainable measles elimination.%目的 通过了解平果县麻疹流行病学特征,探讨有效的控制策略,为持续消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 对2001-2011年麻疹发病情况及采取消除麻疹的策略和措施进行描述流行病学分析.结果 2001-2005年麻疹年平均发病率为20.15/10万,发病季节高峰在1-5月,县城周边4镇为高发乡镇,发病年龄以8月~<7岁儿童组最高,麻疹病例主要为无免疫史,与儿童的计划免疫管理存

  17. Eradicating diseases: The effect of conditional cash transfers on vaccination coverage in rural Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Tania; Maluccio, John A

    2009-05-01

    Despite significant global efforts to improve vaccination coverage against major childhood diseases, vaccination rates are below 90%. To eradicate diseases such as measles, however, vaccination rates close to 95% are needed. We use a randomized experiment to investigate the effect of a demand incentive, a conditional cash transfer program, in improving vaccination coverage in rural Nicaragua. Double-difference estimates show the program led to large increases in vaccination coverage, and these resulted in vaccination levels greater than 95% for some vaccines. Effects were especially large for children who are typically harder to reach with traditional supply-side interventions.

  18. 消除麻疹定义的演变及证实%Evolvement on the Definition of Measles Elimination and Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹锡玲; 罗会明; 梁晓峰

    2011-01-01

    Since measles elimination was first proposed before measles vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1962, definitions of measles elimination have evolved and progressed from" assuming a reduction to zero of the incidence of measles "to" the absence of endemic measles transmission", and "incidence of measlesmeasles elimination as" the absence of endemic measles transmission in a defined geographical area(e.g.region)for≥l2 months under the presence of a well performing surveillance system", which emphasized the significance of well performing measles surveillance system. Measles elimination requires an objective, external verification process. The WHO Regional Offices for the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe and Western Pacific have established or are establishing processes and criteria for verification of measles elimination, which including vaccination coverage, disease incidence, virological surveillance, comprehensive surveillance quality, and sustainability of national immunization programmes. National verification committee ( NVC ) is necessary to be established in China to evaluate the target and indicators of measles elimination are achieved objectively and independently.%1962年,美国批准使用麻疹疫苗前夕,即提出消除麻疹(Measles Elimination)这一富有挑战性的目标.此后消除麻疹的定义不断发展演变、完善细化,从“假定麻疹发病率为0”,至“阻断本土麻疹病毒传播”以及“发病率< 1/100万作为消除麻疹的可操作性定义”等.2010年12月,世界卫生组织(WHO)定义消除麻疹:麻疹监测系统(Measles Surveillance System,MSS)运转良好的前提下,明确的地理区域内无本土麻疹病毒传播≥12个月.强调MSS运转良好的重要性.消除麻疹要求有客观的、外部的证实过程.WHO美洲区(Regional Office for the Americas,AMRO)、东地中海区(Regional Office for

  19. New preventive strategy to eliminate measles, mumps and rubella from Europe based on the serological assessment of herd immunity levels in the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans, P

    2013-07-01

    Herd immunity blocks the transmission of measles, mumps and rubella in a population group when the prevalence of positive serologic results (p) is higher than a critical value (p c), known as the herd immunity threshold. A new preventive strategy should be developed in order to achieve the elimination of measles, rubella and mumps in Europe based on the serological assessment of herd immunity levels in different population groups. This strategy could detect population groups without herd immunity (p herd immunity and prevent outbreaks. The serological assessment of herd immunity levels in Catalonia, Spain, showed that herd immunity had not been established for measles and mumps in schoolchildren (5-9 years of age) and youths/younger adults (15-29 years of age), and that the additional vaccination coverage required to establish herd immunity in these groups was 1-7%. The new preventive strategy should be used to detect priority population groups for preventive and surveillance activities in European countries.

  20. Combining vitamin A and vaccines: convenience or conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis is based on 11 papers from 1995-2010. The studies have mainly taken place at the Bandim Health Project in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, but a reanalysis of a randomised trial from Ghana is also included. My research has explored the consequences of combining high-dose vitamin A supplementation and childhood vaccines. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with increased mortality. To protect against the consequences of vitamin A deficiency the World Health Organization recommends that high-dose vitamin A supplements be given together with routine vaccines to children between 6 months and 5 years of age in more than 100 low-income countries. The recommendation is based on logistical considerations. The consequences of combining vitamin A and vaccines were not investigated in randomised trials prior to the implementation of this policy - it was assumed that the interventions were independent. My first project aimed to study the effect on the immune response to measles of providing vitamin A together with measles vaccine. We found that the two interventions were not independent. Vitamin A enhanced the antibody response to measles vaccine given at 9 months of age significantly, especially in boys. The effects were sustained over time; the children who had received vitamin A with their measles vaccine were more protected against measles at 6-8 years of age. Though vitamin A supplementation had a beneficial effect on the immune response to measles vaccine, it intrigued me that the effect of vitamin A supplementation on overall mortality was not always beneficial. While vitamin A was beneficial when given after 6 months of age, and two studies had shown a beneficial effect when given at birth, all studies testing the effect between 1-5 months of age had found no effect. These time windows are dominated by three different childhood vaccines: BCG vaccine given at birth, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine given between 1-5 months of age, and measles

  1. Analysis on coverage rate of primary immunization of measles vaccine among migrant children in Yiwu,Zhejiang province from 2007 to 2010%2007-2010年浙江省义乌市流动儿童麻疹疫苗初次免疫情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 胡昱; 戚小华; 楼灵巧; 骆淑英; 唐学雯; 陈恩富

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the coverage rate of primary immunization of measles containing vaccine (MCV1) among migrant children in Yiwu,Zhejiang province.Methods Household cluster sampling survey and probability proportion to size sampling method were adopted.A total of 967 migrant children born from 1st July 2007 to 1st July 2010 and their caregivers were selected as target population.Standard face-to-face interviews were conducted to investigate the subjects' knowledge,attitude,practice (KAP) of immunization,MCV1 vaccination and determinants.Multi-variable weighted average score method was adopted to evaluate the result of our survey on KAP.Kaplan-Meier analysis was adopted to assess the coverage of MCV1 and Cox regression analysis was adopted to explore the influencing factors associated with the coverage of MCV1.Results Out of the 967 children,104 were born in 2007,accounting for 10.8% ; 301 were born in 2008,accounting for 31.1% ; 343 were bom in 2009,accounting for 35.5% and 219 were born in 2010,accounting for 22.6%.Among the surveyed caregivers,71.9% (695/967) were mothers and 90.2% (872/976) were migrant from other provinces.According to the result of survey on KAP among caregivers,56.2% (543/967) scored ≥ 4 points on knowledge,75.8% (734/967) scored ≥4 points on attitude and 48.7% (471/967) scored ≥ 4 points on behavior.86.6% (838/967) of surveyed caregivers' education levels were under junior middle school.85.9% (831/967) of the migrant children were born in hospitals.36.3% (351/967) of the surveyed families' household income were under 2000 yuan per month.32.7% (316/967) of surveyed caregivers waited less than 15 min for immunization for each time.Coverage rate of MCV1 was 85.9% (831/967; 95% CI:83.7%-88.1%).The timely coverage rates at 8 months,12 months,and 24 months were 58.8% (569/967 ; 95% CI:55.5%-62.1%),88.2% (853/967; 95% CI:86.0%-90.4%) and 98.6% (953/967; 95% CI:97.8%-99.4

  2. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098

  3. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B Gilkey

    Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  4. Two highly immunized hilly areas versus double measles outbreak investigations in district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India, in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender N Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated two sequential outbreaks of measles in seven villages of Kangra, to confirm the diagnosis and to formulate recommendations for prevention and control. Methods: We defined a case of measles as occurrence of fever with rash in a child aged six months to 17 years during the period 3 rd September to 23 rd November 2006. We collected information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, treatment taken, traveling history and vaccination status. We described the outbreak by time, place and person. We estimated vaccine coverage and efficacy in the affected villages. We confirmed diagnosis clinically, serologically and through genotyping of the virus. Results: We identified 69 cases. Overall attack rates ranged between 4.2% and 6%. All case patients were between 6 years to 11 years of age. Age-specific attack rate in double outbreaks ranged in between 1.7% and 21.6%, the highest being in the age range 11-17 years. No deaths or complications were reported. The epidemic curve was suggestive of typical propagated pattern. The first outbreak imported virus after an interschool game competition (relative risk, 6.44%; 95% confidence interval, 3.81-10.91; followed by the second outbreak, in which people exchanged foods in the festival in one infected village of the first outbreak (relative risk, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.90-14.77; P < .001. The calculated immunization coverage (93% coincided nearly with administrative claims. The vaccine efficacies were estimated to be 85% and 81% in the first and second outbreaks respectively. Eleven of the 16 case patients were tested for measles IgM antibodies, while two nasopharyngeal swabs were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and are genotyped D4 measles strain. Vitamin A supplementations were only given in four villages. Conclusion: Measles outbreaks were confirmed in high-immunization-coverage areas. We recommended (i second dose opportunity for measles in

  5. Keep Kids Current on Vaccines (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-24

    The Vaccines for Children program was created in response to a major measles epidemic. This podcast discusses the program’s efforts to provide vaccinations for children whose parents cannot afford them.  Created: 3/24/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/24/2014.

  6. Analysis on Surveillance of Measles Epidemiology in Jiangxi Province%江西省麻疹流行病学监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 涂秋凤; 邹秋平

    2001-01-01

    为进一步了解江西省麻疹流行状况,以达到控制麻疹的目的,对江西省1999年至2000年1~10月的麻疹流行病学监测资料进行了分析。结果显示,全省报告麻疹3!184例,死亡1例。麻疹发病主要在15岁以下儿童,7~10岁为麻疹高发年龄段,有免疫史的麻疹病例集中在4~10岁。麻疹病例分布广泛,流行模式为散发与暴发并存,局部麻疹暴发影响了全省麻疹发病强度。预防和控制麻疹暴发是我省目前控制麻疹的基本策略。%We analyzed the surveillance data of measles from January 1999 to October 2000 in Jiangxi Province for the aim of measles control. The results showed that 3*!184 measles cases were reported from the province and 1 reported case died. Most of the reported measles cases were under 15 years old. The incidence of measles in age group between 7-10 years old was higher than that in other age groups and most of the reported cases having vaccination histroy were 4-10 year old children. Both the sporadic and epidemic measles in some districts existed at the same time and the reported measles cases extensively distributed in all districts of Jiangxi Province. The outbreaks of measles in some districts had affected the morbidity of measles of the whole province To prevent and control measles outbreak are the main effective measures to control this disease.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Italy during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Magurano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In view of the goal of measles elimination, it is of great importance to assess the circulation of wild-type measles virus (MV. Genetic analysis is indispensable to understand the epidemiology of measles. A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2008, with over 4000 cases reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system introduced in 2007, 37% of which were laboratory confirmed. METHODS. Urine and saliva samples were collected during 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of measles sequences was performed in order to understand the epidemiological situation of wild-type (MV circulation in that period. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Data showed predominant circulation of the genotype D4. Genotypes A, D8, D9 and H1 were also detected in a small number of samples, probably representing imported cases.

  8. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve.

  9. Vaccination coverage of patients with inborn errors of metabolism and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Marta; De Lonlay, Pascale; Menni, Francesca; Parini, Rossella; Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-11-27

    To evaluate vaccination coverage of children and adolescents with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) and the attitudes of their parents towards vaccination, the vaccination status of 128 patients with IEM and 128 age- and gender-matched healthy controls was established by consulting the official vaccination chart. In children with IEMs, compared with healthy controls, low vaccination rates and/or delays in administration were observed for pneumococcal conjugate, meningococcus C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin, and influenza vaccines. Among the parents of IEM patients, vaccine schedule compliance was primarily driven by the doctors at the hospital's reference centres; among the parents of the healthy controls, compliance was driven by the primary care paediatricians. These results show that IEM patients demonstrate sub-optimal vaccination coverage. Further studies of the different vaccines in each IEM disorder and educational programmes aimed at physicians and parents to increase immunization coverage in these patients are urgently needed.

  10. Clinical characteristics of 207 measles cases with etiological diagnosis%经病原学确诊的207例儿童麻疹临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 邓莉; 郑崇光; 邓洁; 陈冬梅; 钱渊

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To understand the influence of measles vaccination on clinical manifestations of measles in children, different characteristics of measles in infants and children in order to improve early diagnosis of measles by analyzing the characteristics of measles cases with laboratory confirmed etiological data. Methods Clinical data were collected from children who visited the Department of Outpatient Infectious Diseases and hospitalized with clinical diagnosis of measles and confirmed by measles specific IgM and measles virus N gene fragment from January 2002 to December 2010. Measles specific IgM antibodies were tested using serum samples with ELISA. Measles virus N gene fragment was amplified from specimens of throat swabs and fresh urine by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ). Analyses were performed in vaccinated and unvaccinated cased separately. Results ① In total, 207 cases of measles in children with etiological diagnosis were analyzed, including 123 males and 84 females, 53 vaccinated and 154 unvaccinated. Age distribution ranged from 0 to 15 years, including 69 cases ( 33. 3% ) of younger than 8 months ( who had not reached the age for primary measles vaccination ), and 45 cases ( 21. 7% ) of younger than 1 year of age. ②Cases with Beijing local residency was more common in vaccinated group than that in unvaccinated group. The peak incidence was found in April for all cases in two groups. 15.4% ( 24/154 ) cases with known exposure history in measles unvaccinated group and in unvaccinated group and 16. 9% ( 9/53 ) in measles vaccinated group, with no significant difference between two groups. ③The proportions of measles with symptoms of mucosa spots ( Koplik spots ) and cough were significantly lower in vaccinated group than in unvaccinated group while the other symptoms had no significant difference betweentwo groups. ④ Of 154 unvaccinated cases, 97 were younger than 1 and 57 older than 1 year old. Symptoms of eyes was

  11. Measles transmission in health care waiting rooms: implications for public health response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Conaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seventeen cases of locally acquired measles occurred in South Western Sydney and Sydney local health districts between July and October 2011. Three of the cases were known to have at least one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine. Seven cases were infected within a health care setting waiting room by five index cases. Current national protocols require follow-up of all susceptible contacts in the same waiting room for any length of time for up to two hours after the index case has left.Methods: Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Information included: demographics, illness and activities during the exposure and infectious periods. Health care settings provided arrival and discharge times, maps of floor layouts and location of patients during stay.Results: All health care setting transmission occurred in cases who were present at the same time as their index cases, with cross-over time ranging from 20 to 254 minutes. No index case was isolated. Index cases were between day four and six of illness when transmission occurred. None of the five index cases and one of seven secondary cases had received at least one dose of MMR vaccine. Of the seven secondary cases, two were one year of age, one was 17 years old and four were between 30 and 39 years old.Conclusion: As Australia moves towards measles elimination, follow-up of cases is important; however, with limited public health resources a targeted response is vital. In this small but well-documented series of secondary cases acquired in a health care setting, all were infected following direct, proximate contact of at least 20 minutes. Changes to the national guidelines may be warranted, ensuring that limited resources are focused on following up contacts at greatest risk of disease.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of the transmission of measles: Beyond the mass action principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Nouredine; Clerc, Jean Pierre

    2002-04-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation of the transmission of measles within a population sample during its growing and equilibrium states by introducing two different vaccination schedules of one and two doses. We study the effects of the contact rate per unit time ξ as well as the initial conditions on the persistence of the disease. We found a weak effect of the initial conditions while the disease persists when ξ lies in the range 1/L-10/L (L being the latent period). Further comparison with existing data, prediction of future epidemics and other estimations of the vaccination efficiency are provided. Finally, we compare our approach to the models using the mass action principle in the first and another epidemic region and found the incidence independent of the number of susceptibles after the epidemic peak while it strongly fluctuates in its growing region. This method can be easily applied to other human, animal, and plant diseases and includes more complicated parameters.

  13. The study of countermeasures on measles control in infants%小月龄婴儿麻疹发病控制对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王联君; 康顺爱; 刘英; 姜晓春; 孙丽英; 姜忠林

    2001-01-01

    目的 了解育龄妇女、新生儿麻疹抗体水平及其关系,婴儿胎传抗体衰减情况,不同月龄婴儿对麻疹疫苗的免疫应答情况,探讨减少小月龄麻疹病例的对策。方法 采用ELISA方法测定血清中麻疹IgG抗体水平。结果 58对育龄妇女及其婴儿中有51对麻疹抗体相同,7对不同,但只相差1个滴度,且两者抗体均处于低水平。通过对胎传抗体追踪观察发现,新生儿抗体水平不高,3月龄时降低50%,6月龄和8月龄降到15%左右,抗体水平很低,几乎无保护作用,且6月龄和8月龄婴儿接种疫苗后免疫成功率间无差别。 结论 说明母婴麻疹抗体间有密切关系, 由于目前育龄妇女麻疹抗体水平低,因此,可通过对育龄妇女接种麻疹疫苗来提高婴儿抗体水平,同时建议在某些地区将麻疹初免时间从8月龄提前到6月龄时进行。%Objective To understand: a) measles antibody levels in puerpera and their newborns, and the relation between them, b) maternal transferred measles antibody level of different age group infants, c) immunization rates of success in 6 and 8 month old infants, d) to study measles control countermeasures on infants. Method To test measles IgG antibody levels of infant's blood using ELISA method. Results Antibody levels of measles in 58 pairs of mother and their newborns, 51 pairs were the same, while 7 pairs were different. Measles antibody levels in newborns was not high and reduced to 50% in 3 months, 20% in 6 months, and 15% in 8 months. The antibody levels in 6 and 8 month olds were low, nearly no protection to children. It was found that rates of immunization success and the antibody distribution were not statistically different between 6 and 8 months olds after measles vaccination. Conclusion It was found that the measles antibody level in most matured women was low. Since mother's measles antibody level has close relation to their newborns, it seems

  14. Measles in India: Challenges & recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by Morbillivirus, with a secondary attack rate in excess of 80%, that usually affects children (1). However, multiple outbreaks of the disease have even been reported among adults in heterogeneous settings (urban areas, university campuses, disaster sites, during international travel, etc.) (2–5). The disease is characterized by the presence of fever, cough, and coryza, followed by the appearance of a typical rash (1, 6). The disease is generally transm...

  15. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  16. 成人麻疹32例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 32 Cases with Measles in Adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵彬; 张文福

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of measles inadult. Method The clinical data of 32 cases with measles in adult were analyzed retrospectively. Result In 32 cases with measles, the onset of 25 cases with measles (78.13%) occurred from March to May, the mean age of onset was 20.4 years. 29 patients (90.63%) were soldiers and students at school, 10 cases had obvious inoculation history against measles, 13 cases (40.63%) had no obvious symptoms, severe complications were less and their prognosis was good. Conclusion The measles in adult is diverging and tends to occur at the end of spring and at the beginning of summer. The sick rate is high in young and adult people. The vaccination against measles in young people can control its spread and epidenic, relieve its clinical symptoms and decrease its complications.%目的 探讨成人麻疹临床特点。方法 对32例成人麻疹的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果 32例患者中,3~5月份发病25例(78.13%);发病年龄平均20.4岁,战士和在校学生共29例(90.63%),10例有明确的麻疹疫苗接种史,不典型病例13例(40.63%),严重并发症不多,预后良好。结论 成人麻疹散发,流行季节有向春末夏初推移趋势。以青壮年发病率高。加强对青少年麻疹疫苗的强化免疫,可控制成人麻疹的传播和流行,减轻临床症状,减少严重并发症。

  17. Measles Epidemic in Guang'an, 2008-2010%2008-2010年广安市麻疹疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁富; 刘小华; 廖红英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Guang'an from 2008 to 2010, and provide scientific evidence for measles control and elimination. Methods Measles cases reported in Guang'an during 2008 -2010 was analyzed by using descriptive epidemiology method. Results During these 3 years, 40 cases of measles were reported, with the annaul average incidence rate was 0. 29/105. The male to female ratio was 2. 08: 1. Cases were mainly distributed in children aged 0 to 14 years, accounting for 85. 00% of the total, in which scattered children were most, accounting for 47. 50% , followed by preschool children and the students, accounting for 27. 5% and 12. 5% respectively. Thirty - two cases were immune blank, accounting for 80. 0%. Conclusion Children were high - risk population of measles in Guang'an, so that surveillance should be strengthened to improve routine immunization rate of measles vaccine, and reduce the incidence of measles.%目的 分析广安市2008 - 2010年的麻疹疫情,为控制和消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 采用描述流行病学对2008-2010年广安市麻疹病例进行分析.结果 3年间共报告麻疹40例,3年平均发病率0.29/10万;男∶女=2.08∶1;病例主要分布于0~14岁儿童,占85.00%;散居儿童发病最多,占病例总数的47.50%,其次是幼托儿童和学生,分别占病例总数的27.5%、12.5%.免疫空白32人,占80.0%.结论 广安市儿童为麻疹的高发人群,应加强麻疹疫情监测,提高麻疹疫苗基础免疫接种率,降低麻疹发病率.

  18. Rationalizing the development of live attenuated virus vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lauring, Adam S.; Jones, Jeremy O.; Andino, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of the protective effects of vaccinia inoculation, vaccination has been one of the medicine’s greatest successes. The design of vaccines against viral disease has evolved considerably over the last 50 years. Classically attenuated viruses, those created by passaging a virus in cultured cells, have proven to be an effective means for preventing many viral diseases, including smallpox, polio, measles, mumps, and yellow fever. However, empiric attenuation is not a r...

  19. Vaccine Hesitancy in Children—A Call for Action

    OpenAIRE

    Annabelle de St. Maurice; Edwards, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunizations have made an enormous impact on the health of children by decreasing childhood morbidity and mortality from a variety of vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. The eradication of polio from Nigeria and India is one of the most recent victories for one of the greatest technological advances in human history. Despite these international successes, the United States has experienced the re-emergence of measles, driven largely by increasing parental refusal of vaccines. Pediatrician...

  20. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children. PMID:22953473

  1. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children.

  2. [Vaccination status of children in the Vienna area (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, T

    1978-12-01

    The vaccination status was investigated in 1482 patients between the ages of 1 and 14 years admitted to hospital with scarlet fever. Most of the patients were vaccinated against tuberculosis (97.7%), diphtheria, tetanus and whooping-cough (95.3%) and poliomyelitis (94.1%), relatively few against measles (21.1%) and very few indeed against mumps (0.7%) and tick-borne encephalitis (1.9%). The booster vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria had been omitted in more than 40%. Although the beneficial results of vaccination against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus and poliomyelitis remained more or less the same, the tendency towards vaccination did not spread as might have been anticipated. On the contrary, the extent of vaccination decreased, especially during the past years. In the same way the tendency towards vaccination against measles showed a sudden slowing down after a period of rapid increase. This implies that vaccination of children does not tend towards perfection. The vaccination rates differ widely between foreign children living in Vienna and natives. Although the foreigners show a similar vaccination distribution pattern as the natives, the numbers of unvaccinated children are much higher.

  3. Anti-Infectious Human Vaccination in Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, Enrico; Salemi, Simonetta; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled to develop hepatitis B, acellular pertussis, papillomavirus, and rotavirus recombinant vaccines. Great successes have been achieved in the fight against infectious diseases, including the smallpox global eradication, the nearly disappearance of polio, the control of tetanus, diphtheria, measles, rubella, yellow fever, and rabies. However, much work should still be done for improving old vaccines, such as BCG, anthrax, smallpox, plague, or for developing effective vaccines against old or emerging infectious threats, such as human-immunodeficiency-virus, malaria, hepatitis C, dengue, respiratory-syncytial-virus, cytomegalovirus, multiresistant bacteria, Clostridium difficile, Ebola virus. In addition to search for innovative and effective vaccines and global infant coverage, even risk categories should adequately be protected. Despite patients under immunosuppressive therapy are globally increasing, their vaccine coverage is lower than recommended, even in developed and affluent countries. PMID:26606466

  4. Sex-differential and non-specific effects of routine vaccinations in a rural area with low vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Nielsen, Jens; Benn, Christine Stabell;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the potential sex-differential and non-specific effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) in a rural area of Senegal. METHODS: The 4133 children born in the area between 1996 and 1999 were included in the study....... Vaccinations were provided at three health centres. Vaccine information was collected through 3-monthly home visits. The survival analysis compared the effects of BCG and DTP according to the following sequence of vaccinations: BCG-first, BCG+DTP1-first, or DTP1-first. We compared DTP and MV between 9 and 24...

  5. Effect of alum co-adjuvantation of oil adjuvant vaccine on emulsion stability and immune responses against haemorhagic septicaemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS, caused by Pasteurella multocida, is the most important bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes in India. Oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV is the most potent vaccine available for the control of HS. The study aims to evaluate the effect of alum co-adjuvantation of OAV on emulsion stability and immune response.Materials and Methods: Two different oil adjuvant vaccines viz., standard oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine (A–OAV were prepared with Pasteurella multocida antigen. Emulsion stability was tested by centrifugation, storage at 37 oC for 3 months and microscopy. Immune responses were evaluated by ELISA antibody titer, CD4, CD8 T cell populations and survival post challenge by P. multocida in mice.Results: The separation of aqueous and oil phase of emulsion by centrifugation and storage test were 0 and 6.76% in A-OAV as compared to 11.00 and 26.39% in OAV, respectively. The mean droplet size was significantly smaller (p<0.01 in A–OAV as compared to OAV. The A–OAV recorded higher ELISA antibody titer (p<0.05 up to 21st days post vaccination, and higher CD4 (p>0.05 and CD8 T cell (p<0.05 populations compared to OAV. The A–OAV group conferred 100% protection after challenge with both 100 LD50 and 1000 LD50 as compared to 100 and 60% respective protection by OAV group.Conclusion: The results indicates that A–OAV had better emulsion stability, produces higher level of CD4, CD8 T cells and antibody titer with better protection compared to oil adjuvant vaccine.

  6. 林西县2014年成年人麻疹流行病学特征分析%Analysis on Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles in 2014 in Linxi County Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖崟丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and analyze adult measles epidemic characteristic in 2014 in Linxi county and control ing measures of measles epidemic, to provide scientific basis for measles prevention and controlling strategies. Methods To describe the epidemiological methods to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in 2014 in Linxi county. Results Between April 2014 and June 2014, Linxi county, the measles incidence of 12 cases, cases cover my county four townships, incidence of 4.98/10. Conclusion The accumulation of susceptible population and aggregation is a major cause of Linxi county 2014 measles epidemic. Ensure high level of measles vaccination rates, and improve the routine immunization coverage is the key to control and eliminate measles.%目的:描述、分析林西县2014年成年人麻疹流行特征,探讨控制麻疹流行的措施,为制定麻疹防控策略提供科学依据。方法应用描述流行病学方法对林西县2014年麻疹流行情况进行分析。结果2014年4~6月,林西县麻疹发病数为12例,病例覆盖我县4个乡镇,发病率达到4.98/10万。结论易感人群的积累和聚集是导致林西县2014麻疹流行的主要原因。确保高水平麻疹疫苗接种率,是提高常规免疫接种率是控制和消除麻疹的关键措施。

  7. The analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 patients with adult measles%成人麻疹99例流行病学和临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of adult measles,and to search methods for preventing and controlling measles epidemic. Methods The clinical data of 99 patients with adult measles were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results The incidence of adult measles showed increasing trend. The patients with adult measles had the typical clinical manifestations including severe systemic toxic responses, high fever(79/99,79.80%),diarrhea(60/99,60.60%)and liver dysfunction(54/99,54.54%). Measles was easily misdiagnosed in earlier period(58/99,58.58%). But the incidence of complicationg was less(12/99,12.12%). Conclusions The key to prevent and control measles is diagnosing ,segregating and treating patients with measles in earlier period and vaccination in susceptible population.%目的 探讨本次成人麻疹流行病学和临床特点,以期更好的预防和控制麻疹.方法 对住院的99例麻疹患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 成人麻疹发病有增加趋势,临床症状典型,中毒症状重,多高热(79/99,79.80%)腹泻者多见(60/99,60.60%),易损害肝脏(54/99,54.54%),并发症不多(12/99,12.12%),早期容易误诊(58/99,58.58%).结论 对麻疹患者早诊断、早隔离、早治疗,对易感者加强麻疹疫苗接种是预防和控制麻疹的关键.

  8. 林西县2014年成年人麻疹流行病学特征分析%Analysis on Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles in 2014 in Linxi County Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖崟丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:描述、分析林西县2014年成年人麻疹流行特征,探讨控制麻疹流行的措施,为制定麻疹防控策略提供科学依据。方法应用描述流行病学方法对林西县2014年麻疹流行情况进行分析。结果2014年4~6月,林西县麻疹发病数为12例,病例覆盖我县4个乡镇,发病率达到4.98/10万。结论易感人群的积累和聚集是导致林西县2014麻疹流行的主要原因。确保高水平麻疹疫苗接种率,是提高常规免疫接种率是控制和消除麻疹的关键措施。%Objective To describe and analyze adult measles epidemic characteristic in 2014 in Linxi county and control ing measures of measles epidemic, to provide scientific basis for measles prevention and controlling strategies. Methods To describe the epidemiological methods to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in 2014 in Linxi county. Results Between April 2014 and June 2014, Linxi county, the measles incidence of 12 cases, cases cover my county four townships, incidence of 4.98/10. Conclusion The accumulation of susceptible population and aggregation is a major cause of Linxi county 2014 measles epidemic. Ensure high level of measles vaccination rates, and improve the routine immunization coverage is the key to control and eliminate measles.

  9. 安徽省1997~2010年麻疹发病人群分布特征分析%Analysis on the Characteristics of Population Distribution of Measles Cases in Anhui Province during 1997-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴智勤; 唐继海; 张伟青; 刘丹青; 何纳

    2012-01-01

    目的 对安徽省1997~2010年麻疹发病人群分布特征进行分析,为制定消除麻疹策略提供参考.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法,对麻疹发病人群分布的相关数据进行统计分析.结果 安徽省1997~2010年麻疹发病仍属于小年龄人群发病模式,主要集中在学龄前儿童和小学生,<15岁儿童仍是麻疹高发年龄段.2005年以来,<1岁发病构成比上升明显.结论 提高麻疹减毒活疫苗及时接种率,保持高水平的人群免疫力,是阻断麻疹传播的根本措施.%Objective To analyze the characteristics of population distribution of measles cases in Anhui province during 1997-2010, and provide evidence for the strategies of measles elimination. Methods Colleting the data of population distribution of measles cases during 1997-2010 in Anhui province, and analyze the data by descriptive epidemiology. Results From 1997 to 2010, most of measles cases were found among the children aged 0-14 years old in Anhui province. And most of measles cases are preschool children and pupils. The proportion of measles cases aged < 1 year increased significantly since 2005. Conclusions Improving the timely coverage rate of measles vaccine inoculation in order to maintain a high level of herd immunity is the fundamental measure for preventing the measles epidemic.

  10. Measles in Italy, laboratory surveillance activity during 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fortuna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO/Europe developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. This study describes the measles laboratory surveillance activity performed by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità during 2010. METHODS: Urine, oral fluid and capillary blood samples from 211 suspected measles cases arrived to the NRL from different regions of Italy for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Serological and/or molecular assays were performed; after molecular detection, positive samples were sequenced and genotyped. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 85% (180/211 of the specimens were confirmed as measles cases and 139 of these were analyzed phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a co-circulation of D4 and D8 genotypes for the reviewed period.

  11. Keep Kids Current on Vaccines (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-24

    Twenty years ago, the Vaccines for Children program was created in response to a major measles epidemic. This program provides vaccinations for children whose parents cannot afford them. In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger discusses the importance of keeping children up-to-date on their vaccinations.  Created: 3/24/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/24/2014.

  12. The contribution of vaccination to global health: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has made an enormous contribution to global health. Two major infections, smallpox and rinderpest, have been eradicated. Global coverage of vaccination against many important infectious diseases of childhood has been enhanced dramatically since the creation of WHO's Expanded Programme of Immunization in 1974 and of the Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunization in 2000. Polio has almost been eradicated and success in controlling measles makes this infection another potential...

  13. Book review: deadly choices: how the anti-vaccine movement threatens us all

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, Edward,

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, California suffered the largest and deadliest outbreak of whooping cough in more than fifty years. In recent years, other diseases with available vaccines such as measles and mumps have also made a comeback. Infectious-disease expert Paul Offit argues that the root cause of these epidemics can be traced to a group whose vocal proponents insist that vaccines are harmful, despite evidence to the contrary. Edward Larkin explores how America’s anti-vaccine culture is turning around.

  14. 惠州市2004-2010年麻疹流行病学特征分析%Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of measles in Huizhou City, 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方巧云; 曾健君; 刘燕; 罗泽燕; 杨剑英; 琚雄飞

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解惠州市麻疹流行特征和预防控制措施,为进一步控制和消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法,分析2004-2010年惠州市麻疹疫情特点;采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测血清麻疹IgM抗体.结果 2004-2010年惠州市共报告麻疹病例2 842例,年平均发病率11.69/10万,发病模式以散发为主,病例分布广泛,并有明显的季节性,5~7月是麻疹高发季节,14岁以下年龄组为麻疹高发年龄.病例中无免疫史和免疫史不详者占90.04%.结论 应进一步加强麻疹疫苗(measles vaccine,MV)的基础免疫接种工作,消除免疫空白,适时开展MV强化免疫,提高免疫覆盖率.同时要考虑对大年龄组人群接种MV,继续加强麻疹监测.%Objective This study was conducted to find out the epidemiological characteristics of measles and e-valuate the measles for its control and prevention. Methods Statistical analysis was conducted on the data of measles inci-dence in Huizhou City from 2004 to 2010. ELISA was adopted to detect IgM antibody in serum. Results A total of 2 842 cases were reported during the seven-year period, the annually average morbidity was 11.69/100 000. A sporadic epidemic pattern was evident with widely distributed affected cases and significant seasonality. Measles mainly occurred during May to July, the incidence of measles between 0-14 years old groups was higher than that of the other age groups. Unimmu-nized cases or cases with unknown immunization history accounted for 90.04% of the overall cases. Conclusions Routine immunization of measles should be reinforced and boost vaccination should be carried out in proper time to prevent and con-trol measles, at the same time the measles campaign should be implemented to adult. In addition, perfecting measles sur-veillance system must be taken.

  15. Measles Epidemics Among Children in Vietnam: Genomic Characterization of Virus Responsible for Measles Outbreak in Ho Chi Minh City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van H. Pham

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Measles viruses responsible for outbreaks in Southern Vietnam belonged to a genotype D8 variant group which had unique amino acid sequences in the N gene. Our report provides important genomic information about the virus for measles elimination in Southeast Asia.

  16. Analysis of the measles epidemic trend in Donghe district of Baotou city during year 1959-2008%1959~2008年包头市东河区麻疹流行趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemic trend of measles in Donghe District during the year 1959 ~ 2008,to fully grasp the epidemic dynamics of measles,and provide scientific basis for developing measles elimination strategy. Methods We collect the data of measles report through a method of retrospective survey,using excell2003 for statistical data processing. Results The incidence rate of measles and the constituent ratio of Donghe District,were overall downward trend.Spring is the peak of the disease,the age of onset ranged from 3 months to 50 years old,childhood had the highest incidence of the disease. Conclusion To strengthen Routine vaccination of measles vaccine for floating population,to develop measles antibody detection in a specific population,timely replant measles vaccine to prevent measles outbreaks and rebound.%目的:了解1959~2008年东河区麻疹的流行趋势,全面掌握麻疹的流行动态,为制订消除麻疹策略提供科学依据。方法用回顾性调查的方法搜集了麻疹疫情报告资料并用Excel2003对数据进行统计处理。结果东河区麻疹的发病率、发病构成总体呈下降趋势,春季是发病的高峰期,发病年龄介于3个月~50岁之间,儿童发病数最多。结论加强对流动人口麻疹疫苗的常规接种,在特定人群中开展麻疹抗体检测,及时进行麻疹疫苗补种,防止出现麻疹疫情反弹。

  17. 母亲外周血与脐带血麻疹抗体水平研究%Study of Maternal and Cord Blood Measles Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙群英; 黎海芪; 曾利花; 宾冬梅; 宋湛

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究母亲、新生儿麻疹抗体水平与麻疹发病的关系.方法 采集60名妊娠母亲外周静脉血与脐带血分离血清,采用ELISA法检测麻疹IgG抗体水平.结果 妊娠母亲外周静脉血、脐带血麻疹IgG抗体浓度分别为(4.883±4.687) ng/ml、(7.280±6.061) ng/ml;妊娠母亲麻疹IgG抗体浓度同正常育龄妇女(P>0.05);母亲平均血清麻疹IgG浓度低于新生儿(P<0.05);母血与脐血麻疹IgG抗体水平呈正的直线相关关系(r=0.946,P=0.000);曾有麻疹感染史的母亲静脉血麻疹IgG抗体浓度明显增加(β=0.259,t=2.058,P=0.044);自然感染麻疹母亲的脐血麻疹IgG浓度显著高于曾接种麻疹疫苗母亲的脐血麻疹IgG (P< 0.05).结论 母亲麻疹IgG抗体水平是影响婴儿麻疹发病率的重要原因.%OBJECTIVE To study the relations between the incidence of measles and the blood measles antibody in mothers and new bom infants. METHODS Maternal and cord blood samples from 60 pregnant women were collected and centrifuged, and the serum was separated. ELISA was conducted to establish the measles antibody IgG in serum of pregnant women. RESULTS The rate of measles antibody IgG for the pregnant women's maternal and cord blood were 4.8S3±4.687ng/ml and 7.280± 6.061ng/ml respectively. The rate of measles antibody IgG of the controlled pregnant women was the same as that of normal reproductive women (P > 0.05). The average measles antibody IgG of the mothers was lower than that of the newborn infants (P < 0.05), and a linear positive correlation between the measles antibody IgG of the maternal blood and that of the cord blood was exhibited (r = 0.946, P = 0.000). An obvious increase in measles antibody IgG had been noted in mothers previously infected with measles (β = 0.259, t = 2.058, P = 0.044), and their measles antibody IgG in the cord blood is much higher than that of those who have received measles vaccine IgG (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION The measles antibody IgG of

  18. 2010年台州市麻疹流行病学特征分析%Epidemiologicai analysis of measles in Taizhou City in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文; 王连华; 王滨有

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the epidemiology of measles in Taizhou in 2010 and provide the evidence for the measles elimination strategies. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the data of measles cases in Taizhou City, which was collected from the China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention. Results A total of 99 measles cases were confirmed in Taizhou City in 2010 which mainly occurred during April-June. The incidence among the children<12 months was high, accounting for 33. 33% of the total cases, the cases at the age of 20 - 40 years also had a small incidence peak. The cases without vaccination history or unknown vaccination history accounted for 76.76 % and the cases among the floating population accounted for 23.23 %. 26.26 % measles cases accounted for hospital infection. Conclusions The infants aged<12 months are the priority population for the measles control. It is urgent to enhance the routine primary vaccination among younger age children and vaccination reseeding among proper age children opportunely, and to increase measles vaccine cover age among the children in immigrant population and improve the measles surveillance in order to prevent and control measles outbreak.%目的 了解2010年浙江省台州市麻疹发病情况并分析其流行病学特征.方法 根据中国疾病监测信息报告管理系统的专病管理系统资料,对2010年台州市麻疹流行病学特征进行描述性分析.结果 2010年台州市确诊麻疹病例99例,主要发生在4~6月,年龄小于1周岁组为麻疹高发年龄组,占总病例数的33.33%,20~40岁年龄组存在发病小高峰.无免疫史者和免疫史不详者占76.76%.流动人口病例数占总病例数的23.23%,麻疹病例院感史例数占26.26%.结论 年龄小于1周岁婴儿为麻疹控制中的重点人群.应尽可能提高儿童麻疹疫苗接种的及时性,加大查漏补种工作的力度,提高外来流动儿童的免疫覆盖率,

  19. 2004-2009年攀枝花市麻疹流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles in Panzhihua, 2004-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝羲; 魏小庆

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析2004 -2009年攀枝花市麻疹监测系统的麻疹流行病学特征.方法 收集攀枝花市2004 -2009年麻疹专病监测资料,采用描述性流行病学方法进行分析.结果 2004-2009年麻疹发病呈现为2个高峰,2004年报告麻疹413例,报告发病率38.75/10万,其中225例为暴发病例;2007年麻疹报告643例,报告发病率59.54/10万;2009年发病降到历史最低水平,为0.92/10万.以每年12月至次年2月为发病高峰;病例主要集中在城乡结合部和边远少数民族地区;总体以巧岁以下儿童发病为主,但小于8月龄和大于15岁病例所占比例有逐年增加趋势;麻疹病例中无免疫史的和免疫史不详的占全部麻疹病例的66.32%,流动人口麻疹病例中有免疫史的占其病例的10.68%.结论 2004-2009年攀枝花市麻疹发病率波动较大,总体呈下降趋势,发病出现明显的季节分布,病例中无免疫史和免疫史不详比例较高.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Panzhihua under measles surveillance system from 2004 to 2009. Methods Data from national notifiable disease reporting system and the measles surveillance system from 2004 to 2009 was collected and analyzed by the method of descriptive epidemiology. Results The incidence of measles presented two peaks during 2004 - 2009. In 2004, 413 cases of measles were reported, reported incidence rate was 38. 75/105, im which 225 cases for outbreak; 643 cases of measles were resported in 2007 , reported incidence rate was 59. 54/105 ; by the year of 2009, incidence dropped by historically lowest level, as 0. 92/105. The incidence peaked from December to the next February. Cases were mainly concentrated in urban and remote ethnic minority areas. The overall incidence of measles mainly occurred in children under the age of 15, but the incidence in cases less than 8 months old and more than 14 years old were mcreased by years. Measles cases with no vaccination history

  20. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  1. [Public laboratories for vaccine production: a new paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, A; di Fabio, J L; de Quadros, C

    1998-10-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, public laboratories that produce vaccines have contributed in varying degrees to the control and eradication of vaccine-preventable diseases, and several of them are manufacturing vaccines that are routinely applied in national immunization programs, such as the vaccine against tuberculosis (made with the bacillus of Calmette-Guérin, BCG), the triple vaccine against diphtheriatetanus-pertussis (DTP), tetanus toxoid (TT), the vaccine against measles and the oral vaccine against polio. Thanks to recent scientific strides, one can foresee an important increase in the number of safe and effective vaccines that will be available in the near future for use in routine vaccination programs. However, there are high costs involved in developing such vaccines and in protecting the intellectual property rights involved, and few laboratories in Latin America have the technical capacity to research and develop these vaccines. Such factors will affect the speed with which they are assimilated into vaccination programs in countries of the Region. Currently, public laboratories that manufacture vaccines in the Region are not equipped to compete in this new scenario and run the risk of being completely outmarketed. Thus, they must radically change their style of management and their scientific and technical capabilities, backed by a commitment from governments to improve and strengthen those political and financial aspects that can assure that national laboratories participate in the sustainable supply of vaccines to immunization programs, as well as in researching, developing, and producing new vaccines. PMID:9924504

  2. Prevalence of antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella in the childhood population in Singapore, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, L W; Lai, F Y; Tey, S H; Cutter, J; James, L; Goh, K T

    2013-08-01

    We undertook a national paediatric seroprevalence survey of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) in Singapore to assess the impact of the national childhood immunization programme against these three diseases after introduction of the trivalent MMR vaccine in 1990. The survey involved 1200 residual sera of Singapore residents aged 1-17 years collected from two hospitals between 2008 and 2010. The overall prevalence of antibodies against measles, mumps and rubella was 83∙1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 80∙9-85∙1], 71.8% (95% CI 69∙1-74∙2) and 88∙5% (95% CI 86∙6-90∙2), respectively. For all three diseases, the lowest prevalence was in children aged 1 year (47∙8-62∙3%). The seroprevalence of the vaccinated children declined over time. The national MMR immunization programme is effective in raising the herd immunity of the childhood population, although certain age groups are more susceptible to infection, in particular, those who are not eligible for vaccination at age <15 months.

  3. 病原学确诊成人麻疹53例临床特征分析%Clinical characteristics analysis of 53 adult measles cases with etiologic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成栋; 李真; 王燕; 张雪梅; 白爱华

    2015-01-01

    . 05) in the clinical manifestation,but the duration of fever,rash,the rash of abnormal sequential time,gastrointestinal symptoms,the incidence of two groups had no significant difference( P ﹥ 0. 05). ③Lymphocyte absolute value and percentage in the measles group decreased significantly( P﹤ 0. 05);ALT,CK - MB,LDH were significantly higher( P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion The clinical manifestation of measles is not typical,sug-gesting to strengthen vaccination on over 16 years old young,which has important significance to reduce the incidence rate of measles.

  4. Varicella vaccination in Europe – taking the practical approach

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    Sadzot-Delvaux Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varicella is a common viral disease affecting almost the entire birth cohort. Although usually self-limiting, some cases of varicella can be serious, with 2 to 6% of cases attending a general practice resulting in complications. The hospitalisation rate for varicella in Europe ranges from 1.3 to 4.5 per 100,000 population/year and up to 10.1% of hospitalised patients report permanent or possible permanent sequelae (for example, scarring or ataxia. However, in many countries the epidemiology of varicella remains largely unknown or incomplete. In countries where routine childhood vaccination against varicella has been implemented, it has had a positive effect on disease prevention and control. Furthermore, mathematical models indicate that this intervention strategy may provide economic benefits for the individual and society. Despite this evidence and recommendations for varicella vaccination by official bodies such as the World Health Organization, and scientific experts in the field, the majority of European countries (with the exception of Germany and Greece have delayed decisions on implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccination, choosing instead to vaccinate high-risk groups or not to vaccinate at all. In this paper, members of the Working Against Varicella in Europe group consider the practicalities of introducing routine childhood varicella vaccination in Europe, discussing the benefits and challenges of different vaccination options (vaccination vs. no vaccination, routine vaccination of infants vs. vaccination of susceptible adolescents or adults, two doses vs. one dose of varicella vaccine, monovalent varicella vaccines vs. tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines, as well as the optimal interval between two doses of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines. Assessment of the epidemiology of varicella in Europe and evidence for the effectiveness of varicella vaccination provides support for

  5. Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants.

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    Beth Holder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV are persistent herpesviruses that have various immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. Both viruses are usually acquired in infancy in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region where childhood vaccines are less effective than in high income settings. To establish whether there is an association between these two observations, we tested the hypothesis that infection with one or both viruses modulate antibody responses to the T-cell independent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the T-cell dependent measles vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infection with EBV and CMV was diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific IgM in the peripheral blood or by the presence of IgG at higher levels than that found in umbilical cord blood. Anti-meningococcus IgG and IgM were quantified by ELISA. Anti-measles antibody responses were quantified by haemagglutinin antibody inhibition assay. Infants infected with EBV had reduced IgG and IgM antibody responses to meningococcal polysaccharides and to measles vaccine. Infection with CMV alone predicted no changes in the response to meningococcal polysaccharide. While CMV alone had no discernable effect on the antibody response to measles, the response of infants infected with both CMV and EBV was similar to that of infants infected with neither, suggesting that the effects of CMV infection countered the effects of EBV on measles antibody responses. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory study indicate that infection with EBV is associated with reduced antibody responses to polysaccharides and to measles vaccine, but suggest that the response to T-cell dependent antigens such as measles haemagglutinin may be restored by infection with CMV.

  6. Childhood vaccination in informal urban settlements in Nairobi, Kenya: Who gets vaccinated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettarh Remare R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trends in global vaccination coverage have shown increases with most countries reaching 90% DTP3 coverage in 2008, although pockets of undervaccination continue to persist in parts of sub-Saharan Africa particularly in the urban slums. The objectives of this study were to determine the vaccination status of children aged between 12-23 months living in two slums of Nairobi and to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Methods The study was carried out as part of a longitudinal Maternal and Child Health study undertaken in Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. These slums host the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS run by the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC. All women from the NUHDSS area who gave birth since September 2006 were enrolled in the project and administered a questionnaire which asked about the vaccination history of their children. For the purpose of this study, we used data from 1848 children aged 12-23 months who were expected to have received all the WHO-recommended vaccinations. The vaccination details were collected during the first visit about four months after birth with follow-up visits repeated thereafter at four month intervals. Full vaccination was defined as receiving all the basic childhood vaccinations by the end of 24 months of life, whereas up-to-date (UTD vaccination referred to receipt of BCG, OPV 1-3, DTP 1-3, and measles vaccinations within the first 12 months of life. All vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards which were sighted during the household visit as well as by recall from mothers. Multivariate models were used to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Results Measles coverage was substantially lower than that for the other vaccines when determined using only vaccination cards or in addition to maternal recall. Up-to-date (UTD coverage with all vaccinations

  7. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Measles, Rubella and Varicella among Asylum Seekers Arriving in Lower Saxony, Germany, November 2014-October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toikkanen, Salla E; Baillot, Armin; Dreesman, Johannes; Mertens, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The number of asylum seekers arriving in Germany has increased rapidly since 2014 and cases of vaccine-preventable diseases at reception centres were reported. Asylum seekers 12 years and older arriving in Lower Saxony were serologically screened for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella between November 2014 and October 2015. We calculated the seroprevalence from the screening data by disease, country of origin and age group and compared them to literature-based herd immunity thresholds in order to identify immunisation gaps. In total, 23,647 specimens were included in our study. Although the vast majority of asylum seekers tested positive for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella, the seroprevalences were not sufficient to ensure herd immunity. The seroprevalences varied substantially between countries of origin and increased with age. Immunisation of asylum seekers against measles, rubella and varicella is needed and the detailed information on seroprevalences among subgroups of asylum seekers can be used for targeted immunisations at reception centres. PMID:27376309

  8. Analysis on measles antibody levels and immune effect of reproductive women%育龄妇女麻疹抗体水平及免疫效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖征; 文海容; 彭时辉; 熊昌辉; 张艳霞; 吴越; 冯长华

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解南昌市育龄妇女麻疹抗体水平,探讨育龄妇女接种麻疹疫苗的可行性,为完善麻疹免疫策略及控制麻疹疫情提供依据.方法:在南昌市的12个县(区)随机抽取健康育龄妇女,观察育龄妇女强化接种麻疹疫苗(MV)前后的麻疹IgG抗体,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测麻疹IgG抗体.结果:南昌市育龄期妇女麻疹抗体血清几何平均滴度(GMT)为1:482.64,抗体阳性率为80.79%,有随年龄增长呈下降的趋势;流动育龄期妇女麻疹抗体GMT和抗体阳性率均高于常住育龄期妇女,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);有免疫史与无免疫史两组麻疹抗体GMT和抗体阳性率差异均有统计学意义(P =0.000),有免疫史者高于无免疫史者;育龄期妇女强化接种MV后麻疹抗体GMT为1:1 616.47,抗体阳性率为98.52%,均显著高于接种前,差异有统计学意义(P=0.000).结论:建议对育龄妇女婚前接种含麻疹成分的疫苗,提高育龄期妇女麻疹抗体水平,降低育龄妇女和MV初始免疫月龄前婴儿麻疹发病率.%Objective: To know the measles antibody levels of reproductive women in Nanchang, to study the feasibility of vaccinating measles vaccination ( MV) , in order to provide the basis for control of measles outbreaks. Methods; The healthy reproductive women in 12 counties (districts) of Nanchang were randomly selected , and the measles IgG antibody were observed before and after vaccinating MV by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (EUSA) . Results: The geometric mean titer (GMT) of measles antibody serum of the reproductive women in Nanchang was 1: 482. 64, the positive rate of measles antibody was 80. 79% , and had a trend of drop along with the age; GMT and the positive rate of measles antibody of the floating reproductive women were higher than the permanent reproductive women, the differences were statically significant ( P < 0.05); GMT and the positive rate of measles antibody in having

  9. Is it Right Time to Introduce Mumps Vaccine in Indias Universal Immunization Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S R; Hamde, V S

    2016-06-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella are vaccine preventable diseases. However, morbidity and mortality due to these diseases remain largely unnoticed in India. Measles has received much attention; mumps and rubella still need to garner attention. According to the World Health Organization, near-elimination of mumps could be achieved by maintaining high vaccine coverage using a two-dose strategy. However, Government of India has not yet decided on mumps vaccine. In this review, we have reviewed sero-prevalence studies, vaccine studies, outbreak investigations, virus isolation and virus genotyping studies on mumps. Overall, mumps seems to be a significant public health problem in India, but does not garner attention due to the absence of a surveillance and documentation system. Thus, inclusion of mumps antigen in the Universal immunization program would have added advantages, the economic burden imposed by the cost of the vaccine offset by a reduction in disease burden. PMID:27376598

  10. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  11. 120份麻疹疑似病例血清麻疹IgM抗体检测分析%Analysis of 120 Measles Measles Suspected Cases of Serum IgM Antibody Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普毅; 白圆圆; 雷金; 孙立

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical significance of measles suspected cases of measles IgM antibody in serum detection . Methods:Selected 120 suspected measles cases , collected serum samples , using ELISA experimental methods to detect measles IgM anti-body.Results:7 cases measles IgM antibody positive , positive rate was 5.8%, 98 cases rubella IgM antibody positive , positive rate was 81.67%, 0-3d time from eruption to collect blood antibody positive rate was lower than 4-22d, measles suspected cases and confirmed cases of illness were concentrated from March to May , the highest rates in March , the age of onset was 25 d to 41 years old, mainly in children under the age of 7 and 20 to 39, adult, history of immune patients were significantly lower than the incidence of patients had no history of immunization .Conclusion:Detection of serum IgM antibody for measles suspected cases diagnosed in time , strengthen the sus-ceptible crowd of measles vaccine inoculation , plays an important role for controlling measles .%目的:探讨麻疹疑似病例血清麻疹IgM抗体检测的临床意义。方法:选取本地区医院收治的120份麻疹疑似病例,采集其血清标本,使用酶联免疫吸附实验方法(ELISA)检测麻疹和风疹IgM抗体。结果:7例麻疹IgM抗体呈阳性,确诊率为5.8%,98例风疹IgM抗体呈阳性,阳性率为81.67%,麻疹出疹距离采血时间0~3dIgM抗体阳性率明显低于4~22天,麻疹疑似病例与确诊病例发病时间均集中于3~5月份,其中3月份发病率最高,发病年龄25天~41岁,发病年龄主要集中于7岁以下的儿童和20~39岁的成年,有免疫史患者的发病率明显低于无免疫史的患者。结论:检测血清麻疹IgM抗体利于及时确诊疑似病例,加强对易感染人群的麻疹疫苗的预防接种,对于控制麻疹传染具有重要作用。

  12. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  13. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  14. 中宁县2006~2010年麻疹监测分析%Analysis on monitoring of measles in Zhongning County from 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振华; 肖雄; 王静

    2013-01-01

    目的 客观评价中宁县麻疹监测系统现状,探讨控制和消除麻疹的策略.方法 对中宁县2006~2010年麻疹流行病学监测,采取控制措施和进展结果进行分析.结果 中宁县麻疹发病率由2007年的0.73/10万上升至2010年的102.26/10万,年龄发病呈现1岁组儿童和15岁以上人群上升趋势的“双向移位”现象;流动人口病例≤14岁儿童中无免疫史者占比例较大为96.3%;麻疹疑似病例各项监测指标提高到75%以上.结论 中宁县加速控制和消除麻疹,应继续加强对麻疹病例监测和流动人口麻疹疫苗接种管理工作.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate monitoring system situation of measles in Zhongning, and provide control and elimination strategy of measles. METHODS Analyzed the epidemiological surveillance, control measures and progress results of measles in Zhongning from 2006 to 2010. RESULTS The incidence of measles increased from 0.73/100 000 in 2007 to 102.26/100 000 in 2010. Age incidence showed one year infants and 15-year-old and older population had the rising trend of "two-way shift" phenomenon. Flow of cases≤14 years old without immune history accounted for a larger proportion of 96.3%, the monitoring indicators of suspected measles cases had improved more than 75%. CONCLUSION In order to accelerate the control and elimination of measles, we should continue to strengthen the monitoring of measles cases and the management of measles vaccination in floating population.

  15. A review of testing used in seroprevalence studies on measles and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimech, Wayne; Mulders, Mick N

    2016-07-29

    Seroprevalence studies are an essential tool to monitor the efficacy of vaccination programmes, to understand population immunity and to identify populations at higher risk of infection. An overarching review of all aspects of seroprevalence studies for measles and rubella published between 1998 and June 2014 was undertaken and the findings reported elsewhere. This paper details the considerable variation in the testing formats identified in the review. Apart from serum/plasma samples, testing of oral fluid, breast milk, dry blood spots and capillary whole blood were reported. Numerous different commercial assays were employed, including microtitre plate assays, automated immunoassays and classical haemagglutination inhibition and neutralisation assays. A total of 29 of the 68 (43%) measles and 14 of the 58 (24%) rubella studies reported qualitative test results. Very little information on the testing environment, including quality assurance mechanisms used, was provided. Due to the large numbers of testing systems, the diversity of sample types used and the difficulties in accurate quantification of antibody levels, the results reported in individual studies were not necessarily comparable. Further efforts to standardise seroprevalence studies may overcome this deficiency. PMID:27340096

  16. Vaccine Hesitancy: Causes, Consequences, and a Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-12-01

    Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the

  17. Vaccine hesitancy: Causes, consequences, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-11-27

    Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the

  18. Vaccines and immunotherapies for the prevention of infectious diseases having cutaneous manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jashin J; Huang, David B; Pang, Katie R; Tyring, Stephen K

    2004-04-01

    Although the development of antimicrobial drugs has advanced rapidly in the past several years, such agents act against only certain groups of microbes and are associated with increasing rates of resistance. These limitations of treatment force physicians to continue to rely on prevention, which is more effective and cost-effective than therapy. From the use of the smallpox vaccine by Jenner in the 1700s to the current concerns about biologic warfare, the technology for vaccine development has seen numerous advances. The currently available vaccines for viral illnesses include Dryvax for smallpox; the combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine; inactivated vaccine for hepatitis A; plasma-derived vaccine for hepatitis B; and the live attenuated Oka strain vaccine for varicella zoster. Vaccines available against bacterial illnesses include those for anthrax, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Currently in development for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes are vaccines for HIV, herpes simplex virus, and human papillomavirus. Other vaccines being investigated for prevention are those for cytomegalovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, hepatitis C, and dengue fever, among many others. Fungal and protozoan diseases are also subjects of vaccine research. Among immunoglobulins approved for prophylactic and therapeutic use are those against cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A and B, measles, rabies, and tetanus. With this progress, it is hoped that effective vaccines soon will be developed for many more infectious diseases with cutaneous manifestations. PMID:15034501

  19. Measles outbreak--California, December 2014-February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Winter, Kathleen; Hacker, Jill; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James; Harriman, Kathleen

    2015-02-20

    On January 5, 2015, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized, unvaccinated child, aged 11 years with rash onset on December 28. The only notable travel history during the exposure period was a visit to one of two adjacent Disney theme parks located in Orange County, California. On the same day, CDPH received reports of four additional suspected measles cases in California residents and two in Utah residents, all of whom reported visiting one or both Disney theme parks during December 17-20. By January 7,seven California measles cases had been confirmed, and CDPH issued a press release and an Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X) notification to other states regarding this outbreak. Measles transmission is ongoing.

  20. Compliance to compulsory vaccination: strategies and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, G; Caramello, S; Vaudetto, S

    1995-06-01

    This report is devoted to analyze the effect that compulsory vaccination has on the compliance of the population, compared with the results obtained by massive campaigns for optional vaccinations. The implementation of a specific software for the management of individual schedules helps to reach a substantial complete coverage of the individuals for the first ones, while improving but incomplete results regard the vaccines against pertussis and measles-mumps-rubella, optional in Italy. The optimization of data management at the local health unit level improves the quality and the satisfaction of the work performed by the personnel, but has a limited effect on the already nearly complete coverage for the compulsory immunizations. The mounting percentage of children immunized with optional vaccines can be explained both by the massive campaigns of information conducted in recent years and by the better tracking of individual immunization schedules.

  1. Business travelers: vaccination considerations for this population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Leder, Karin; Wilson, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Illness in business travelers is associated with reduced productivity on the part of the employee as well as the employer. Immunizations offer a reliable method of preventing infectious diseases for international business travelers. The authors review the travel patterns of business travelers, available data on illnesses they encounter, their potential travel-associated risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and recommendations on immunizations for this population. Routine vaccines (e.g., measles, tetanus and influenza) should be reviewed to assure that they provide current coverage. The combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine with a rapid schedule offers options for those with time constraints. Other vaccine recommendations for business travelers need to focus on their destinations and activities and underlying health, taking into account the concept of cumulative risk for those with frequent travel, multiple trips or long stays.

  2. Analysis on the epidemiological characteristics of measles patients and risk factors%浅谈麻疹患者流行病学特点与发病危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段向阳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of measles patients. Methods 200 cases of measles patients as research subjects, retrospective analysis of clinical data. Results The incidence of measles distributed in age from 2 to 15 years old;no difference in incidence between men and women;resident population is higher than the incidence of migrants;3 to August for multiple months;50 cases of patients with history of measles immunization, 150 patients did not measles immunization. Conclusion Measles epidemic of measles immunization may not standardized, vaccine antibody titers decreased, climate change has a relationship;complications mainly bronchitis, liver damage.%目的:探讨麻疹患者的流行病学特点与发病危险因素。方法选取200例麻疹患者作为研究对象,回顾性分析患者的临床资料。结果麻疹发病年龄多分布于2~15岁;男女发病率无差别;常驻人口发病率高于流动人口;3~8月为多发月份;50例患者有麻疹免疫接种史,150例患者未接种麻疹免疫。结论麻疹流行可能与麻疹免疫接种不规范、疫苗抗体滴度下降、气候环境变化有关系;其并发症主要有支气管炎、肝损害等。

  3. Detection of Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Gene by RT-PCR%麻疹病毒H基因的特异性逆转录-聚合酶链反应检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅燕; 卢亦愚; 张严峻

    2001-01-01

    Using RT-PCR, we can detect measles virus hemagglutinin gene (H gene) of 635bp length directly from measles vaccine strain Shanghai-191, Edmonston strain, nasopharyngeal aspirates and throat swabs of the measles patients. The primers of RT-PCR based on H gene sequence of measles virus did not give the same products from rubella virus and influenza viruses (A1, A3, B). By second PCR amplification, the minimum quantity of measles virus required to give a positive signal was<0.01TCID50. Since the IgM antibody positive rate in early stage of measles patients is always low, the specificity and sensitivity of RT-PCR method may help diagnosing measles cases.%采用逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)直接从麻疹疫苗沪191株、Edmonston株以及临床麻疹患者的含漱液和咽拭子中检测出635bp的特异性H基因目的条带;而对风疹病毒和流行性感冒甲1型、甲3型、乙型病毒均未检测到相应条带。通过对RT-PCR产物的第2次扩增,可以使检测的灵敏度达到0.01TCID50。针对麻疹患者发病初期血清中IgM抗体阳性率偏低的特点,可以利用该方法的特异性和敏感性对临床麻疹病例作辅助处理。

  4. Vaccine Hesitancy in Children—A Call for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle de St. Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunizations have made an enormous impact on the health of children by decreasing childhood morbidity and mortality from a variety of vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. The eradication of polio from Nigeria and India is one of the most recent victories for one of the greatest technological advances in human history. Despite these international successes, the United States has experienced the re-emergence of measles, driven largely by increasing parental refusal of vaccines. Pediatricians should be trained to be very knowledgeable about vaccines and should continue to advocate for parents to immunize their children.

  5. Morbillivirus Experimental Animal Models: Measles Virus Pathogenesis Insights from Canine Distemper Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Morbilliviruses share considerable structural and functional similarities. Even though disease severity varies among the respective host species, the underlying pathogenesis and the clinical signs are comparable. Thus, insights gained with one morbillivirus often apply to the other members of the genus. Since the Canine distemper virus (CDV causes severe and often lethal disease in dogs and ferrets, it is an attractive model to characterize morbillivirus pathogenesis mechanisms and to evaluate the efficacy of new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. This review compares the cellular tropism, pathogenesis, mechanisms of persistence and immunosuppression of the Measles virus (MeV and CDV. It then summarizes the contributions made by studies on the CDV in dogs and ferrets to our understanding of MeV pathogenesis and to vaccine and drugs development.

  6. Mitophagy switches cell death from apoptosis to necrosis in NSCLC cells treated with oncolytic measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mao; Meng, Gang; Jiang, Aiqin; Chen, Aiping; Dahlhaus, Meike; Gonzalez, Patrick; Beltinger, Christian; Wei, Jiwu

    2014-06-15

    Although apoptotic phenomena have been observed in malignant cells infected by measles virus vaccine strain Edmonston B (MV-Edm), the precise oncolytic mechanisms are poorly defined. In this study we found that MV-Edm induced autophagy and sequestosome 1-mediated mitophagy leading to decreased cytochrome c release, which blocked the pro-apoptotic cascade in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCs). The decrease of apoptosis by mitophagy favored viral replication. Persistent viral replication sustained by autophagy ultimately resulted in necrotic cell death due to ATP depletion. Importantly, when autophagy was impaired in NSCLCs MV-Edm-induced cell death was significantly abrogated despite of increased apoptosis. Taken together, our results define a novel oncolytic mechanism by which mitophagy switches cell death from apoptosis to more efficient necrosis in NSCLCs following MV-Edm infection. This provides a foundation for future improvement of oncolytic virotherapy or antiviral therapy. PMID:25004098

  7. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    ALMA ROBO; AGIM VERCANI; ARTAN SIMAKU; ERIDA NELAJ; EUGENA TOMINI; SILVA BINO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with ...

  8. Investigation and Handling of the Outbreak of Adult Measles Case in Guizhou Province%贵州省一起高校麻疹爆发疫情的调查及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 陈建; 叶新贵; 穆秋玥; 唐小敏; 吴德飞; 张明英; 王应刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analysis the investigation and Conduction of the outbreak of adult measles case in Guizhou Province. Methods Information on epidemiology and clinical manifestation of the case was collected from interview the keyperson and referring to related medical records. Medical observation was undergone among the close contacts of the cases. Serum of the measles cases during acute phases were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect special antibody. Result There were 5 adult measles cases in Anshun collage during 9 Jun.-24 Jun. In 2009 in Cuizhou Province. All measles cases" were male. Three cases were 20 years old; two cases were 21 years old,measles antibody IgM of 4 measles cases is positive. After that* no measles case was found in this college again. 5 cases of measles vaccination history are not available, the first measles case had a travelling history. Conclusion The isolation cure of measles cases, the immunization coverage investigation, actively searched for measles cases, take disinfect of the environment and health education were conducted in Anshun college to control measles outbreak, no additional measles case was found. The outbreak of adult measles in Anshun college indicated that measles case surveillance and health education should be strengthened in college.%目的 分析贵州省一起高校学生麻疹爆发疫情的调查及处理情况.方法 访谈病例发病前后情况,查阅临床病历,对病例及其密切接触者进行医学观察.采集病例血标本应用酶联免疫吸附试验进行检测.结果 2009年6月9~24日在安顺学院发生学生麻疹爆发疫情.本次疫情共发现5例麻疹病例,均为男性,其中20岁3例,21岁2例;5例病例麻疹减毒活疫苗接种史均不详;5例血标本麻疹IgM抗体阳性4例.结论 采取了包括隔离治疗、主动搜索、环境消毒、健康教育等多项措施,阻断了疫情的蔓延.此起高校学生麻疹爆发疫情的发

  9. Vaccines for viral diseases with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentjens, Mathijs H; Yeung-Yue, Kimberly A; Lee, Patricia C; Tyring, Stephen K

    2003-04-01

    Vaccines against infectious diseases have been available since the 1800s, when an immunization strategy against smallpox developed by Jenner gained wide acceptance. Until recently, the only vaccination strategies available involved the use of protein-based, whole killed, and attenuated live virus vaccines. These strategies have led to the development of effective vaccines against a variety of diseases with primary or prominent cutaneous manifestations. Effective and safe vaccines now used worldwide include those directed against measles and rubella (now commonly used together with a mumps vaccine as the trivalent MMR), chickenpox, and hepatitis B. The eradication of naturally occurring smallpox remains one of the greatest successes in the history of modern medicine, but stockpiles of live smallpox exist in the United States and Russia. Renewed interest in the smallpox vaccine reflects concerns about a possible bioterrorist threat using this virus. Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic virus endemic to tropical areas of South America and Africa. An effective vaccine for this virus has existed since 1937, and it is used widely in endemic areas of South America, and to a lesser extent in Africa. This vaccine is recommended once every 10 years for people who are traveling to endemic areas. Advances in immunology have led to a greater understanding of immune system function in viral diseases. Progress in genetics and molecular biology has allowed researchers to design vaccines with novel mechanisms of action (eg, DNA, vector, and VLP vaccines). Vaccines have also been designed to specifically target particular viral components, allowing for stimulation of various arms of the immune system as desired. Ongoing research shows promise in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination for viral infections with cutaneous manifestations. Further studies are necessary before vaccines for HSV, HPV, and HIV become commercially available. PMID:12757257

  10. Sex-based differences in immune function and responses to vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sabra L.; Marriott, Ian; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2015-01-01

    Females typically develop higher antibody responses and experience more adverse reactions following vaccination than males. These differences are observed in response to diverse vaccines, including the bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, the yellow fever virus vaccine and influenza vaccines. Sex differences in the responses to vaccines are observed across diverse age groups, ranging from infants to aged individuals. Biological as well as behavioral differences between the sexes are likely to contribute to differences in the outcome of vaccination between the sexes. Immunological, hormonal, genetic and microbiota differences between males and females may also affect the outcome of vaccination. Identifying ways to reduce adverse reactions in females and increase immune responses in males will be necessary to adequately protect both sexes against infectious diseases. PMID:25573105

  11. Does the effect of vitamin A supplements depend on vaccination status?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Aaby, Peter; Bale, Carlito;

    2012-01-01

    who had diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine as their last vaccine (3680 children, adjusted MRR=1.29 (0.52; 3.22), p=0.04 for interaction). Conclusion The effect of VAS differed by most recent vaccination, being beneficial after measles vaccine but not after diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.......Objective Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) is estimated to reduce all-cause mortality by 24%. Previous studies indicate that the effect of VAS may vary with vaccination status. The authors evaluated the effect of VAS provided in campaigns on child survival overall and by sex and vaccination status...... 2008 for children between 6 and 35 months of age. Vaccination status was ascertained by inspection of vaccination cards. All children were followed prospectively. Outcome measures Mortality rates for supplemented and non-supplemented children were compared in Cox models providing mortality rate ratios...

  12. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  13. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio de Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.

  14. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  15. Genotyping of circulating measles strains in Italy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Baggieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. In Italy, laboratory surveillance activity is implemented by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome. The role of the National Reference Laboratory is to strengthen surveillance systems through rigorous case investigation and laboratory confirmation of suspected sporadic cases and outbreaks. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus is an essential component of the laboratory-based surveillance. This study describes the molecular characterization of measles virus strains isolated during 2010. METHODS: Dried blood spots, urine and oral fluid samples were collected from patients with a suspected measles infection. Serological tests were performed on capillary blood, and viral detection was performed on urine and oral fluid samples through molecular assay. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The phylogenetic analysis showed a co-circulation of genotypes D4 and D8, and sporadic cases associated to genotypes D9 and B3. Then, molecular epidemiology of measles cases permitted to establish that D4 and D8 were the endemic genotypes in Italy during 2010.

  16. Investigation on the level of maternal transferred measles antibody in neonates and relative factors%新生儿母传麻疹抗体水平与相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方; 王珊; 王晨; 李书明; 张国辉; 黄平

    2012-01-01

    ) , the ability of maternal transferred measles antibody in neonates whose mothers was less than 30 years old was statistically significantly higher than that in neonates whose mothers was 30 years old or more than 30 years old (t = 2. 636, P = 0. 009) . Conclusion; Maternal measles antibody level and the ability of maternal transferred measles antibody are important factors affecting neonatal antibody level; at this stage, enhancing measles vaccine immunization is an important method to control the onset of measles in infants, when the premature infants and neonates born by mothers of older age were threatened by measles, it is considered that vaccination with measles vaccine should be advanced to six months.·%目的:了解新生儿及其母亲麻疹抗体水平,探讨新生儿与母体抗体水平关系以及影响新生儿抗体水平的可能因素,为控制小月龄儿童麻疹发病提供有效建议.方法:采集孕妇产前静脉血和新生儿脐带血共156对,使用ELLSA方法进行麻疹IgG抗体水平检测.结果:母亲麻疹抗体几何平均浓度为546.48 mIU/ml,新生儿为746.64 mIU/ml,是母亲的1.37倍;母亲麻疹抗体对数浓度与新生儿的呈正相关,相关系数为0.883(P=0.000);母亲麻疹抗体水平与母亲年龄、户籍和出生地等因素的关系有统计学意义,30岁及以上组母亲的麻疹抗体几何平均浓度高于30岁以下组(t=-2.078,P=0.039),外省户籍母亲的麻疹抗体儿何平均浓度高于北京市户籍组(t=-2.073,P=0.040),两两比较发现农村地区出生母亲的麻疹抗体几何平均浓度高于城市组(LSD法:P=0.005);胎传抗体能力与胎龄、母亲年龄的关系有统计学意义,两两比较发现胎龄38 ~40周的新生儿其胎传抗体能力高于胎龄小于38周的新生儿(LSD法:P=0.014),母亲年龄在30岁以下组的新生儿胎传抗体能力高于30岁及以上组(t =2.636,P=0.009).结论:母亲麻疹抗体水平和胎传抗体能力是影响新生儿抗体水平

  17. Acute encephalitis associated with measles: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.Y.; Cho, W.H.; Kim, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, H.D. [Department of Paediatrics, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, I.O. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110744 (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    We document the MRI features in six patients aged 5-14 years with acute encephalitis following measles. The diagnosis was made on a characteristic morbiliform rash and detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The symptoms of encephalitis occurred 1-11 days after the appearance of the rash. All patients underwent MRI within 1-4 days of the onset of neurological symptoms. Diffusion weighted images (DWI) were obtained in three patients. In all patients, T2-weighted images showed widely distributed, multifocal high signal in both cerebral hemispheres with swelling of the cortex, with bilateral, symmetrical involvement of the putamen and caudate nucleus. The lesions had showed low apparent diffusion coefficients. Three patients showed subacute gyriform haemorrhage, and asymmetrical gyriform contrast enhancement on follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  18. Vaccinations for Neuroinfectious Disease: A Global Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovitch, Emily C; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Vaccines for neuroinfectious diseases are becoming an ever-increasing global health priority, as neurologic manifestations and sequelae from existing and emerging central nervous system infections account for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. The prevention of neurotropic infections can be achieved through globally coordinated vaccination campaigns, which have successfully eradicated nonzoonotic agents such as the variola viruses and, hopefully soon, poliovirus. This review discusses vaccines that are currently available or under development for zoonotic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including Japanese and tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, Zika, encephalitic equine viruses, and chikungunya. Also discussed are nonzoonotic agents, including measles and human herpesviruses, as well as select bacterial, fungal, and protozoal pathogens. While therapeutic vaccines will be required to treat a multitude of ongoing infections of the nervous system, the ideal vaccination strategy is pre-exposure vaccination, with the ultimate goals of minimizing disease associated with zoonotic viruses and the total eradication of nonzoonotic agents. PMID:27365085

  19. Perfil epidemiológico do sarampo no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, de 1996 a 2000 Measles epidemiology in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 1996-2000

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    Maria Cristina de Sousa Santos Faversani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo ecológico, baseado nos dados secundários da vigilância epidemiológica e usando município como unidade de análise, mostrou que as coberturas da vacina contra sarampo foram menores de níveis necessários para erradicação (95% e controle (90% em grande parte do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, antes e durante a epidemia de 1997, principalmente da segunda dose da vacina, prevista para 15 meses de idade dentro da vacina triviral. Houve melhora nos anos seguintes, mas continuou faltando a homogeneidade da cobertura. Baixas coberturas vacinais foram associadas com maior incidência de sarampo, mas, no ano epidêmico de 1997, surtos menores de sarampo ocorreram até em alguns municípios com coberturas acima de 95% no primeiro ano de vida, com maior concentração naqueles com baixa cobertura da vacina triviral. Cerca de 80% dos casos de sarampo no período de 1996-2000 ocorreram entre escolares e jovens adultos. A circulação do vírus do sarampo no ano anterior e a densidade populacional aumentaram o risco de sarampo. Dois casos importados em 2004 ilustram bem porque ainda não podemos falar de erradicação e sim de eliminação do sarampo no Estado.This ecological study, based on an analysis of secondary data from epidemiological surveillance and using the municipality (county as the unit of analysis, showed that measles vaccine coverage was lower than necessary for eradication (95% and control (90% in many municipalities in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, both before and during the last epidemic in 1997, particularly regarding the second dose of the vaccine, applied as a component of the MMR vaccine, scheduled at 15 months of age. Low vaccine coverage was associated with higher measles incidence. However, during the 1997 epidemic small-scale measles outbreaks were recorded even in municipalities with first-dose coverage of 95% or higher, particularly among those which also had low second-dose coverage for MMR

  20. Dilemmas of a vitalizing vaccine market: lessons from the MMR vaccine/autism debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragesjö, Fredrik; Hallberg, Margareta

    2011-03-01

    A number of issues related to vaccines and vaccinations in society are discussed in this paper. Our purpose is to merge an analysis of some recent changes in the vaccine market with social science research on the relationship between citizens and authorities. The article has two empirical parts. The first shows how the vaccine market, which for many years has had immense financial problems, nowadays seems to becoming economically vitalized, mostly due to the production of new and profitable vaccines. However prosperous the future may appear, certain reactions from the public regarding vaccination initiatives offer insight into inherent problems of vaccine policies in many Western countries. In the second part of the article, these problems are exemplified with the recent controversy over the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine. We conclude that in spite of the improving profit-margins, the vaccine market remains vulnerable and insecure. Vaccines are permeated by society, even more so than pharmaceutics that are used to cure or alleviate illnesses. Radical changes in financial conditions with promises of a more profitable market will not, we argue, solve other even more fundamental problems.

  1. Anestesia em criança com síndrome de Guillain-Barré após vacina de sarampo: relato de caso Anestesia en un niño con síndrome de Guillain-Barré después de la vacuna de sarampión: relato de caso Anesthesia in Guillain-Barré pediatric patient after measles vaccination: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio Tonelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A síndrome de Guillain-Barré após vacina de sarampo é rara. O diagnóstico muitas vezes é tardio, o que leva a um aumento da morbidade. O presente relato apresenta um caso avançado e os cuidados especiais exigidos durante a anestesia. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, com quatro anos de idade com síndrome de Guillain-Barré desde um ano de idade, foi submetido a gastrostomia sob anestesia geral sem intercorrências, com sevoflurano e sem bloqueadores neuromusculares. CONCLUSÕES: O caso ilustra a raridade etiológica de uma síndrome importante na prática anestésica assim como os eventos adversos pós-vacinação, a melhor escolha para a equipe anestésica e as complicações da síndrome de Guillain-Barré na infância.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El síndrome de Guillain-Barré después de la vacuna de sarampión es rara. El diagnóstico en la mayoría de las veces es tardío, lo que lleva a un aumento de la morbidez. Este actual relato presenta un caso avanzado y todas las atenciones especiales exigidas durante la anestesia. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo masculino, con cuatro años de edad con síndrome de Guillain-Barré desde hace un año de edad, fue sometido a gastrostomía bajo anestesia general sin intercurrencias, con sevoflurano y sin bloqueadores neuromusculares. CONCLUSIONES: El caso ilustra la rareza etiológica de una síndrome importante en la práctica anestésica, así como los eventos adversos pos-vacunación, la mejor elección para el equipo anestésico y las complicaciones de la síndrome de Guillain-Barré en la infancia.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guillain-Barré syndrome following measles vaccination is uncommon. Diagnosis is often delayed, leading to increased morbidity. This report describes an advanced Guillain-Barré case and the special approaches required during anesthesia. CASE REPORT: Male patient, four years old, with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at 1 year of

  2. 2006-2010年南宁市兴宁区麻疹流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles in Xingning District of Nanning City during 2006 -2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹军; 麻巍峨; 陈汉平; 方艳晖; 吴丹琴

    2011-01-01

    proportion of adult measles. [Conclusion] Strengthening measles immunization rate, combining EPI and supplementary measles vaccination is the effective way to reduce the incidence of measles. Implementation of checking vaccination certificates was the fundamental approach to protect the school-age children against measles. The long-term immunization management mechanism formed by health departments, community organizations , police station, etc can help to improve the measles immunization coverage of floating children. The earlier age of primary immunization of measles to 6 months of age and immunization on women of childbearing age before pregnancy are the effective measures to reduce the measles incidence of < 8-month-old children.

  3. Measles in Changping District of Beijing, 2010%2010年北京市昌平区麻疹流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective In order to understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles in 2010, provide evidence for developing scientific and targeted prevention and control measures of measles in future. Methods Descriptive research methods were used for epidemiological analysis with 2010 measles epidemic information. Results A total of 239 cases of measles were reported in Changping district in 2010 with the annual incidence rate of 30. 87/105 per year. Area clustering was obvious, the concentration of population flow between urban and rural areas had a higher incidence of measles, such as Dongxiaokou town and Beiqijia town. The incidence peaked from April to June (70.29%). Among 239 cases of measles, 57.32% were > 15 years old, 28.03% were < 1 years old, that indicated the adult and young age groups onset mode. There were 21. 34% , 76. 57% and 2. 09% of the cases with immune history, non - immune history and unknown immune history. For if there was an fever, cough, catarrhal symptoms, coriolis spot, lymph node enlargement and joint pain, the course of measles, no significantly difference was observed between goups with different immune history. The blood collection rate of suspected measles cases was 92. 01%. The laboratory confirmed cases accounted for 86. 19% of all cases. Conclusion Improving routine immunization rate, strengthening the measles epidemic monitoring and disposal are the key work of measles district control. Strict execution nursery and entrance children inoculation certificate inspection, college students' measles vaccination are the key to eliminate the immune blank and establishing immunological barrier.%目的 为了解2010年麻疹疫情特点,为今后制定科学的、有针对性的预防控制麻疹措施提供依据.方法 利用描述性研究方法,对2010年麻疹疫情资料进行流行病学分析.结果 2010年昌平区麻疹发病239例,发病率为30.87/10万.昌平区麻疹发病有地区聚集性,东小口、北七家等流动人

  4. Surveillance of atibody lvel of measles among healthy population in Huaihua City%怀化市健康人群麻疹抗体水平监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉蓉; 瞿中武; 谢文

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解怀化市健康人群麻疹抗体水平和人群免疫状况,为有效地实施麻疹预防措施和控制策略提供科学依据.方法 2010年对7个年龄组共347名健康人群采集静脉血,用酶联免疫吸附试验法进行麻疹特异性LgG抗体水平检测.结果 麻疹抗体阳性率为86.74%.不同区(县)麻疹抗体阳性率之间差异无统计学意义(x2=3.47,P>0.05);不同年龄组麻疹抗体阳性率差异有统计学意义(x2=41.64,P≤0.05);男性与女性麻疹抗体阳性率之间差异无统计学意义(x2=0.37,P>0.05);城市与农村抗体阳性率之间差异无统计学意义(x2=0.49,P>0.05).结论 该市健康人群麻疹抗体水平低于95%,为实现消除麻疹目标,应在大年龄组儿童、育龄妇女及成人中进行麻疹疫苗接种,提高并维持全人群较高的麻疹抗体水平.%[Objective]To understand the measles antibody level of healthy population in Huaihua City and immunization status of people, and provide a scientific basis for the effective implementation of measles prevention and control strategies. [Methods] In 2010, venous blood samples of 347 healthy people from 7 age groups were collected for the detection of specific IgG antibody levels of measles by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. [ Results] The positive rate of measles antibody was 86. 74%. The positive rate of measles antibody was significantly different between different districts ( counties ) ( x2= 3. 47 , P > 0. 05) ; the positive rate of measles antibody between different age groups was significantly different ( x2 =41. 64, P≤0. 05 ) ; measles antibody positive rate was not significantly different genders (x2=0. 37, P>0. 05) ; and that was not significantly different between urban and rural area ( x2= 0.49, P > 0. 05 ). [ Conclusion] The measles antibody level in healthy population is less than 95% in this city. In order to achieve the goal of measles elimination, measles vaccination should be

  5. 1999-2010年山东省泰安市麻疹流行特征与防控策略探讨%Epidemiology of measles in Taian city from 1999 to 2010 and discussion of strategy for measles prevention and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱国

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles and the prevention and control measures in the period of measles elimination. Methods The analysis was conducted on the incidence data of measles in Taian from 1999 to 2010 to understand the measles cases distributions in this area and related factors. Results The local outbreaks often influenced the epidemic strength in whole T, aian in the year with high incidence of measles. The proportion of measles cases in urban area and suburb had increased since 2005. The cases in children less than 2 years old and adults accounted for high proportion of the total measles cases. The cases in infants less than 8 months old were correlated with nosocominal infection, medical care seeking was the major infection route. The incidence peak of measles was still in spring during a year. The epidemic strength in a year was related with the cases in last winter and the first and last cases in that year. Conclusion It is necessary to strengthen the measles immunization in key area and risk population on the basis of mass measles vaccination. It is essential to conduct measles patients' triage and isolation treatment to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Infection source surveillance, detecting case in low incidence period and early response of outbreak would facilitate the reduction of the case number during the incidence peak period of April.%目的 探讨麻疹消除阶段的流行规律与防控策略.方法 根据泰安市麻疹监测与防控资料,分析1999-2010年泰安市麻疹确诊病例三间分布特征及其影响因素.结果 在麻疹高发年份,局部疫情常左右全市流行强度,2005年以后,城区及附近乡镇病例构成增加;现阶段1岁左右病例与成年人病例构成病例主体,<8月龄病例与医源性感染有相关性,就诊途径成为主要感染方式;麻疹疫情仍存在春季季节高峰与夏秋季季节低谷,流行强度与上年度冬季病例及当年

  6. National calendar of preventive vaccination: problems, solutions and results in Saratov region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchaikin V.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available National immunization calendar of Russia includes 11 entities that are carried out against the mass vaccination of children. And at the present time there is a high incidence of tuberculosis, whooping cough, measles incidence is increasing. In the article the causes have been analyzed, some possible solutions have been drawn.

  7. MMR-Vaccine and Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Negative Results Presented from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tokio; Kurosawa, Michiko; Inaba, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) is a cause of regressive autism. As MMR was used in Japan only between 1989 and 1993, this time period affords a natural experiment to examine this hypothesis. Data on 904 patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were analyzed. During the period of MMR usage no…

  8. Routine vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries: further arguments for accelerating support to child vaccination services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Tao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The Expanded Programme on Immunization was introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO in all countries during the 1970s. Currently, this effective public health intervention is still not accessible to all. This study evaluates the change in routine vaccination coverage over time based on survey data and compares it to estimations by the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF. Design: Data of vaccination coverage of children less than 5 years of age was extracted from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted in 71 low- and middle-income countries during 1986–2009. Overall trends for vaccination coverage of tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and measles were analysed and compared to WHO and UNICEF estimates. Results: From 1986 to 2009, the annual average increase in vaccination coverage of the studied diseases ranged between 1.53 and 1.96% units according to DHS data. Vaccination coverage of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and measles was all under 80% in 2009. Non-significant differences in coverage were found between DHS data and WHO and UNICEF estimates. Conclusions: The coverage of routine vaccinations in low- and middle-income countries may be lower than that previously reported. Hence, it is important to maintain and increase current vaccination levels.

  9. Measles reporting completeness during a community-wide epidemic in inner-city Los Angeles.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewert, D P; S Westman; Frederick, P D; Waterman, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of measles underreporting among preschool-age children. In two community surveys conducted in inner-city Los Angeles during 1990 and 1991, respondents were asked whether preschool-age children in their households had ever been ill with measles. Information about measles episodes was obtained and medical records were reviewed, when available. A probable measles case was defined as having 3 or more days of rash with fever of 38.3 degrees centigrade...

  10. Nucleoprotein gene analysis of the wild-type measles viruses circulated in Beijing in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢正德; 申昆玲; 许文波; 照日格图; 朱贞

    2004-01-01

    @@ The hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes are the most variable regions on the genome of the measles virus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the H and/or N genes has been used to describe different genetic groups of wild-type measles virus.1-3 This genetic information has been used in molecular epidemiological studies to identify the transmission pathways of measles virus. The present study was conducted to reveal the genotype of measles viruses which circulated in Beijing in 2001.

  11. [Towards a new vaccine economy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, P; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    When Jonas Salk announced in the mid-50s the availability of a new vaccine against poliomyelitis, the world had the impression that it was now controlling infectious diseases. In fact, the success of this vaccine has been considerable and although some innovations lead to the launch of vaccines against flu, measles, rubella or mumps, the world vaccine market remained remarkably stable till the mid-80s. However, since 1984 (launch of the hepatitis B vaccine) there have been very substantial changes and further change is expected in the next ten years in the world market. Today, big companies are making a concentrated supply: Pasteur Mérieux with its subsidiary Connaught, SmithKline Beecham who acquired the Belgian company RIT, and Merck & Co. who is joining its forces with Pasteur Mérieux. Medium sized and small companies remain and reflect the situation of the past, but must work hard to secure their long term existence eventhough the world demand is going to double before the year 2000. Very substantial technological innovations explain to a large extent the development of the supply: progress in molecular biology, and particularly genetic engineering, lead to recombinant vaccines of which hepatitis B is the best example with worldwide sales in the range of $600 million a year. Similarly, conjugation technologies have allowed the development of new vaccines against meningitis, particularly Haemophilus influenzae type b. More recently, an efficacious vaccine against hepatitis A has been launched and many new products will be marketed in the next years against herpes, Lyme disease, and agents of other meningitis, etc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921683

  12. STUDY ON EPIDEMIC STATUS AND THE ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF MEASLES IN INFANTS IN TIANJIN%天津市婴儿麻疹流行状况及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆晓艳; 曲江文; 丁亚兴; 田宏; 雷玥; 高志刚; 齐秀英

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand epidemic status and the associated factors of measles in infants in Tianjin, so as to provide strategies for the control of measles. [Methods] Measles surveillance data and survey data were analyzed by using epidemiological method. IgG antibody against measles were detected in infants by ELLSA. [Results] The incidence of measles in infants aged below one year was the highest in annual year, and the constituent ratios of infant measles cases to all cases in creased from 2005 to 2009. 73.97% of measles cases aged from eight month to one year were not immunized by measles vaccine. IgG antibody against measles from mother in infants aged below eight months old decreased along with the growing of month. The positive rate of IgG antibody in infants aged seven months old decreased to 16.67%. History of visiting hospital was significantly related to measles, and its OR was 15.4. [Conclusion] The incidence of measles in infants aged below one year is the highest and the constituent ratios of infant measles cases to all cases increased from 2005 to 2009. Lack of immunization, lower level of antibody against measles from mother and the history of visiting hospital were associated with the high risk of the infant measles.%[目的]分析天津市婴儿麻疹流行状况及相关因素,为控制麻疹提出策略.[方法]对天津市历年法定传染病报告系统麻疹监测数据和流行病学调查资料进行分析,用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)间接法检测麻疹 IgG 抗体.[结果]天津市麻疹发病显示明显的年龄分布特点,2005~2009 年间均是 1 岁以下婴儿发病率最高,婴儿麻疹占麻疹病例的构成比呈增高趋势.73.97%的 8 月龄~1 岁婴儿麻疹病例未进行过免疫接种.8 月龄以下婴儿随月龄增长抗体阳性率逐渐下降,7 月龄时抗体阳性率降至 16.67%.医院就诊史与 1 岁以下婴儿麻疹有关,OR=15.4.[结论]天津市 2005~2009 年间麻疹发病均是 1 岁以

  13. 225例成人麻疹临床特征及流行病学分析%Clinical features and epidemiological analysis of measles in 225 adult patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫峥; 张建中; 徐天敏

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析总结成人麻疹的临床特征,为临床工作积累经验.方法 回顾性分析2007年1月至2011年1月我院诊治的225例成人麻疹患者发病时间、职业、地区分布、疫苗接种史、接触史、临床表现,并发症及治疗转归等临床资料.结果 本组成人麻疹患者以发热、咳嗽、流涕、皮疹为主要临床表现,52%有麻疹接触史,96%麻疹病毒抗体阳性,90%肝功能异常.治疗以抗病毒和保肝对症治疗为主.并发症以肝损害、电解质紊乱多见,少数并发支气管炎、心肌炎.结论 近年成人麻疹病例呈增多趋势,且成人麻疹病情复杂,病程长,全身中毒症状重,易于并发肝损害,早期积极治疗是关键,预后良好.%Objective To analyze and summarize the clinical features of adult measles and accumulate experience for clinical work. Methods The clinical data of onset tune, occupation, geographical distribution, vaccination history, exposure history, clinical manifestations, complications and treatment outcome were retrospectively analyzed in 225 patients with adult measles in our hospital from Jan. 2007 to Jan. 2011. Results The main symptoms with adult measles patients were fever, cough, runny nose, and rash. 52% of the patients had a history of exposure to measles, 96% with measles virus-IgM positive, and 90% with liver dysfunction. Antiviral and symptomatic therapy was the main treatment strategy for measles. Complications such as liver damage, electrolyte disorders were more common, and a small number of patients were with bronchitis and myocarditis. Conclusion Adult measles cases showed an increasing trend in recent years, and complex condition, longer duration, heavy symptoms of systemic poisoning and easy to concurrent liver damage occurred. Early and active treatment is the key to a good prognosis.

  14. 河南省息县2009-2010年麻疹流行特征及控制策略%Epidemiological characteristics and control strategy of measles in Xi County of Henan Province from 2009-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方学军; 徐超; 邹浩

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Xi County of Henan Province from 2009-2010, and explore the strategy for its control and elimination. [Methods] Descriptive epidemiological analysis was performed on the measles cases reported by measles surveillance system from 2009-2010. [Results] Measles cases were reported in 90% villages and towns of Xi County, the reported incidence in 2009 and 2010 was 11.31/100 000 and 1.18/100 000, without death cases. The incidence in 2009 increased significantly compared with that in 2007 and 2008, most cases appeared in spring, with peak incidence in April. The infants < 8 months had the maximum of measles cases among age groups from 2009-2010, 59.54% were children under 3 years old. The ratio of male to female was 2.20:1, the 2-years-ld accounted for 80.85% of cases without immunization history. The reported vaccination rate of township school-age children was above 95% during the campaign of MMR vaccine e-mergency vaccination in March 2010. The incidence of measles was controlled well and it decreased to a low level in 2010. [Conclusion] The measles patients constitution has changed (the small -month-old groups and older age groups) which relates with immunization gaps, fetal transfer of antibodies insufficient and nosocomial infections. The enhancement of measles vaccination a-mong school-age children and focus groups, improvement of vaccination rates and quality of measles surveillance, and strict nosocomial infections control are the main measures for measles control.%目的 了解河南省息县2009-2010年麻疹流行病学特征,探讨控制和消除麻疹策略.方法 对息县2009-2010年麻疹监测系统报告的麻疹病例进行描述流行病学分析.结果 息县有90%的乡镇有麻疹病例报告,2009年报告发病率11.31/10万,2010年发病率1.18/10万,无病例死亡.2009年较2007年、2008年有明显上升,春季高发,4月份达到高峰.2009-2010年<8

  15. Adolescent Vaccination Strategies: Interventions to Increase Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Corinne E; Brady, Rebecca C; Battley, Reuben O; Huggins, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    While vaccines have decreased the burden of disease, many adolescents still remain under-immunized, particularly for human papillomavirus (HPV) and influenza. We review the most current data regarding adolescent immunizations in the United States and discuss proven strategies that work for increasing vaccination rates. Strategies that have been shown to improve rates include provider feedback, immunization information systems (or registries), and enhanced access outside of provider offices, such as school-based immunization programs. Overall, practices may want to consider multimodal quality improvement approaches to enhance practice vaccination rates. The public health and cost benefits of immunizing adolescents are well known, yet recent measles outbreaks in the United States have highlighted issues with state immunization laws and vaccine refusals. Providers should be clear in their advice regarding vaccines and use effective reminder strategies as parents commonly cite not having enough information or knowledge that a vaccine was needed for their adolescent. Additional research is needed regarding adolescent consent for vaccines, as well as adolescent and parental refusal, in order to design systems that will help inform families and allow for widespread vaccine availability. PMID:27146296

  16. Update on autism spectrum disorder: vaccines, genomes, and social skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Teena M

    2015-04-01

    Despite making significant progress in understanding autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its genetic underpinnings, controversy remains regarding ASD and its historical, erroneous association with vaccines. This controversy includes the latest anti-vaccine movement that caused a recurrence of the almost vanquished measles and mumps diseases. The history of ASD, complexities of research involving ASD genetics, and benefits of social skills training are explored. PMID:25800558

  17. 北京市怀柔区2007~2010年麻疹发病情况分析%Epidemiological Analysis of Measles Incidence in Huairou District of Beijing from 2007 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉琴

    2011-01-01

    目的:总结分析2007~2010 年北京市怀柔区麻疹流行病学特征,为预防控制麻疹疫情提供科学依据.方法:利用麻疹病例个案流调资料,对麻疹发病特征进行流行病学分析.结果:麻疹发病以春季为主,发病人群以0岁组和15 岁组以上人群为主;散居儿童发病最多,占33.75%;病例主要分布在城镇、城乡结合部,占发病总数的70%;有免疫史病例占总病例的20%.结论:本区麻疹防治工作时间应以春季为主,人群应以0岁组和15 岁以上为主,提高麻疹疫苗的及时接种率及适时地加强免疫是预防麻疹最有效、最经济的手段.%Objective:To analyze the 2007~2010 epidemiological characteristics of measles in Huairou District of Beijing, for the prevention and control of measles outbreak and to provide the scientific basis.Methods:Use epidemiological investigation information of measles cases, to epidemiological analysis the epidemiological characteristics of measles.Results: Measles cases in Huairou District, mainly in spring, and mainly occurred among the age group of 0 and above 15; scattered children have the highest incidence, accounting for 33.75%; cases are mainly in towns and urban fringe, accounting for 70% of the total cases; the cases with vaccination history accounts for 20% of the total cases.Conclusion:The time of Measles prevention and control in this area should be mainly in spring, the crowd should be mainly 0 age group and above 15 year- old age group, to improve the coverage rate of measles vaccine in a timely manner and to strengthen measles immunization is the most effective and economic means/method.

  18. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective