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Sample records for alum-precipitated measles vaccines

  1. Comparative evaluation of antibody response in rabbits vaccinated with toxoid, alum precipitated and alum precipitated oil adjuvant enterotoxaemia vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Rai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the newly formulated enterotoxaemia vaccine having oil and alum adjuvants, with presently available toxoid and alum precipitated vaccines. Materials and Methods: Three types of enterotoxaemia vaccines, namely toxoid (TV, alum precipitated (APV and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine (AOV were prepared using a highly toxigenic strain of Clostridium perfringens type D procured from Division of Biological Standardization, IVRI, Izatnagar. Humoral immunity generated in rabbits with these vaccines was then quantified using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and mice neutralization test (MNT. Results: Out of three enterotoxaemia vaccines tested, alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine produced higher and persistent antibody titre for more than 45 days without any booster dose and did not produce any untoward reactions at the injection site. Alum precipitated vaccine elicited better and persistent immune response than toxoid vaccine though it was less than alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine. In MNT, alum precipitated and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccines showed protection at 45th day of post vaccination while toxoid vaccine showed only up to 28th day. Conclusion: Results of the study unfolded the synergistic role of adjuvants in the induction of better and persistent immune response and also indicated the superiority of alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine over the currently available toxoid and alum precipitated enterotoxaemia vaccines. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 200-204

  2. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  3. Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources News Newsletters Events Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Measles ... it is eliminated from the body. Who Needs It? Children Children should get 2 doses of MMR ...

  4. Immune Response After Measles Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A.K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles immunization of 192 under 5 years of age children was undertaken and the overall seroconversion was 76.0%. Seroconversion rate in the age group of 9-12 months was 70.9% and it was 100% after one year. Immune response in malnourished children was more as compared to normal children. There were negligible side reactions after measles vaccination, and this vaccine passed normal potency tests under field conditions.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Liashenko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were ...

  6. Arthritis after mumps and measles vaccination.

    OpenAIRE

    Nussinovitch, M; Harel, L; Varsano, I

    1995-01-01

    Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine carries a risk of joint symptoms particularly in children under 5 years. A boy who presented with an inflamed knee after measles and mumps vaccination is reported; synovial fluid aspirated from the joint contained 4.3 x 10(9)/l leucocytes. It is thought that the mumps component is the aetiological cause of acute monoarthritis.

  7. Decline of Measles-Specific Immunoglobulin M Antibodies after Primary Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Helfand, Rita F.; Howard E. Gary; Atkinson, William L.; Nordin, James D.; Keyserling, Harry L.; Bellini, William J.

    1998-01-01

    Detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) has become the standard diagnostic method for laboratory confirmation of measles. In outbreaks, the interpretation of an IgM-positive result can be complicated when persons with suspected measles receive a dose of measles vaccine as part of outbreak control measures. This investigation evaluated the decay of measles-specific IgM antibodies 1 to 4 months after primary vaccination with measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMRII). Serum sample...

  8. Measles vaccination in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The data on the current vaccination process and specific antibody in 212 children with pathology of nervous systems in age from 1 year to 6 years old, vaccinated against measles. The comparison group consisted of 36 children without neurological disease. 86 children (40,6% were vaccinated measles – mumps vaccine, and 126 children (59,4% only measles vaccine. Post-vaccination period in 77,8% immunized against measles, was uneventful, layering intercurrent infections was noted in 22,2% of vaccine’s, and demonstrated the development of viral respiratory infections, bronchitis, otitis media and exacerbation of underlying disease. It is shown that the level of specific antibody to measles in children with pathology of nervous systems at 30 days after vaccination was 5,04±0,16 log 2, which did not differ from the comparison group (5,88±0,31 log 2. No significant differences in the level of antibody in a smooth and complicated course of vaccination period were found. Immunization of children with disorders of the nervous system of live vaccines is quite effective and leads to the formation of protective antibody titers in all vaccinated.

  9. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Qiaozhen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased susceptibility to measles in young infants in China. Measles IgG in 24 measles infants ≤ 9 months of age and their vaccinated mothers was quantitatively measured. The mean measles neutralizing titer in the vaccinated mothers and in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles were compared. Results All the mothers were confirmed to be vaccinated successfully by the presence of measles IgG. Six vaccinated mothers were positive for measles IgM and had high concentrations of measles IgG and the neutralizing antibody, indicating underwent natural boosting. The mean measles neutralizing titer in 18 vaccinated mothers without natural boosting were significantly lower than that in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles (1:37 vs 1:182, P Conclusions Our results suggest that infants born to mothers who acquired immunity to measles by vaccination may get a relatively small amount of measles antibody, resulting in loss of the immunity to measles before the vaccination age. Measures to improve the immunity in young infants not eligible for measles vaccination would be critical to interrupt the measles transmission in China.

  10. Attenuated Measles Virus as a Vaccine Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Armando; Wang, Zili; Liniger, Matthias; Hangartner, Lars; Caballero, Michael; Pavlovic, Jovan; Wild, Peter; Viret, Jean Francois; Glueck, Reinhard; Billeter, Martin A.; Naim, Hussein Y.

    2007-01-01

    Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have an impressive record of safety, efficacy and ability to induce life-long immunity against measles infection. Using reverse genetics technology, such negative-strand RNA viruses can now be rescued from cloned DNA. This technology allows the insertion of exogenous genes encoding foreign antigens into the MV genome in such a way that they can be expressed by the MV vaccine strain, without affecting virus structure, propagation and cell targeting. ...

  11. Outbreak of measles in a highly vaccinated secondary school population.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, P A; Rea, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors associated with measles vaccine effectiveness and the effect of two doses of vaccine on measles susceptibility during an outbreak. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A secondary school in the City of Toronto. SUBJECTS: The entire school population (1135 students 14 to 21 years of age). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Risk of measles during an outbreak associated with age at first measles vaccination, length of time since vaccination, vaccination before 1980 ...

  12. Mothers' concept of measles and attitudes towards the measles vaccine in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Odebiyi, A I; Ekong, S C

    1982-01-01

    The attitude of Nigerian mothers, mainly Yoruba, towards measles vaccine and other aspects of prevention are influenced by different perceptions of the cause of measles. There is a significant correlation between the literacy of mothers and their belief in the efficacy of measles vaccine but not between their ages and belief. The mothers' perception of measles is a function of their socioeconomic characteristics, with the lower socioeconomic group tending more to define measles within the sup...

  13. Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, William J; Griffin, Diane E

    2012-01-14

    Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by measles virus and is one of the most devastating infectious diseases of man--measles was responsible for millions of deaths annually worldwide before the introduction of the measles vaccines. Remarkable progress in reducing the number of people dying from measles has been made through measles vaccination, with an estimated 164,000 deaths attributed to measles in 2008. This achievement attests to the enormous importance of measles vaccination to public health. However, this progress is threatened by failure to maintain high levels of measles vaccine coverage. Recent measles outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and the USA show the ease with which measles virus can re-enter communities if high levels of population immunity are not sustained. The major challenges for continued measles control and eventual eradication will be logistical, financial, and the garnering of sufficient political will. These challenges need to be met to ensure that future generations of children do not die of measles. PMID:21855993

  14. Serological evaluation of a measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, C. M.; Bennett, V J; Jefferson, N; Mayon-White, R. T.

    1988-01-01

    Combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination is soon to become available in Britain in the routine immunisation programme. A controlled study was performed in 319 children, aged 13 months, to assess the antibody response and clinical reactions to a new combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in comparison with a single component measles vaccine. In the children who received the combined vaccine, seroconversion was established in 93% for measles, 99% for rubella, and 100% for mumps. I...

  15. Immune response to measles vaccine in Peruvian children.

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista-López Norma L.; Vaisberg Abraham; Kanashiro Rosa; Hernández Herminio; Ward Brian J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response in Peruvian children following measles vaccination. METHODS: Fifty-five Peruvian children received Schwarz measles vaccine (about 10(3) plaque forming units) at about 9 months of age. Blood samples were taken before vaccination, then twice after vaccination: one sample at between 1 and 4 weeks after vaccination and the final sample 3 months post vaccination for evaluation of immune cell phenotype and lymphoproliferative responses to measles and non-m...

  16. Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Moss, William J; Takeda, Makoto; de Swart, Rik L; Thompson, Kimberly M; Goodson, James L

    2016-01-01

    Measles is an infectious disease in humans caused by the measles virus (MeV). Before the introduction of an effective measles vaccine, virtually everyone experienced measles during childhood. Symptoms of measles include fever and maculopapular skin rash accompanied by cough, coryza and/or conjunctivitis. MeV causes immunosuppression, and severe sequelae of measles include pneumonia, gastroenteritis, blindness, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Case confirmation depends on clinical presentation and results of laboratory tests, including the detection of anti-MeV IgM antibodies and/or viral RNA. All current measles vaccines contain a live attenuated strain of MeV, and great progress has been made to increase global vaccination coverage to drive down the incidence of measles. However, endemic transmission continues in many parts of the world. Measles remains a considerable cause of childhood mortality worldwide, with estimates that >100,000 fatal cases occur each year. Case fatality ratio estimates vary from 5% in developing countries. All six WHO regions have set goals to eliminate endemic transmission of MeV by achieving and maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage accompanied by a sensitive surveillance system. Because of the availability of a highly effective and relatively inexpensive vaccine, the monotypic nature of the virus and the lack of an animal reservoir, measles is considered a candidate for eradication. PMID:27411684

  17. Aerosolized measles and measles-rubella vaccines induce better measles antibody booster responses than injected vaccines: randomized trials in Mexican schoolchildren.

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett John V.; Fernandez de Castro Jorge; Valdespino-Gomez Jose Luis; Garcia-Garcia Ma de Lourdes; Islas-Romero Rocio; Echaniz-Aviles Gabriela; Jimenez-Corona Aida; Sepulveda-Amor Jaime

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare antibody responses and side-effects of aerosolized and injected measles vaccines after revaccination of children enrolling in elementary schools. METHODS: Vaccines for measles (Edmonston-Zagreb) or measles-rubella (Edmonston-Zagreb with RA27/3) were given by aerosol or injection to four groups of children. An additional group received Schwarz measles vaccine by injection. These five groups received vaccines in usual standard titre doses. A sixth group received only 1000 ...

  18. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

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    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with

  19. CD46 Measles Virus Receptor Polymorphisms Influence Receptor Protein Expression and Primary Measles Vaccine Responses in Naive Australian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Clifford, Holly D.; Hayden, Catherine M.; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Zhang, Guicheng; Le Souëf, Peter N.; Richmond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of measles vaccines, infants continue to die from measles. Measles vaccine responses vary between individuals, and poor immunogenicity is likely to preclude protection against measles. CD46 is a ubiquitously expressed specific receptor for vaccine strains of measles virus. CD46 polymorphisms have not been functionally investigated but may affect CD46 protein expression, which in turn may mediate primary measles antibody responses in infants. In a cohort of children ag...

  20. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qiaozhen; Hu Yali; Lu Pei-Shan; Zhao Hong; Yao Wenhu; Zhou Yi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased...

  1. Live measles vaccine: a 21 year follow up.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, C

    1987-01-01

    21 years after receiving Schwartz strain live measles vaccine 4500 trial participants showed a continuing high level of protection compared with those who were unvaccinated. Over the last seven years of the follow up no cases of measles were reported in vaccinated participants who had had close contact with the disease. Immunity induced by the vaccine seems to survive the challenge of close contact with measles in young children, even after 21 years.

  2. Measles vaccine effectiveness and risk factors for measles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Akramuzzaman Syed M.; Cutts Felicity T.; Hossain Md J.; Wahedi Obaidullah K.; Nahar Nazmun; Islam Darul; Shaha Narayan C.; Mahalanabis Dilip

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vaccine effectiveness and to assess risk factors for measles in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHOD: A case-control study, involving 198 cases with 783 age-matched neighbourhood controls and 120 measles cases with 365 age-matched hospital controls, was conducted in 1995-96 in three large hospitals in Dhaka. FINDINGS: Measles vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 80% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 60-90%) using neighbourhood controls; very similar results were obtained using hos...

  3. Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. METHODS: To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data...... measles antibody and 14.5 per 1000 person-years without measles antibody (MRR, 0.29; 95% CI, .09-.91). Possible confounding factors did not explain the difference. In a combined analysis, children who had measles antibody detected when they received their first dose of MV at 4-6 months of age had lower...

  4. Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sudfeld, Christopher R; Navar, Ann Marie; Halsey, Neal A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The current strategy utilized by WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to reach the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy 2010 measles reduction goal includes increasing coverage of measles vaccine, vitamin A treatment and supplementation in addition to offering two doses of vaccine to all children. Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental (QE) studies in order to determine effect estimates of measles v...

  5. Vaccine Refusal a Driving Force Behind Measles Outbreaks, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157778.html Vaccine Refusal a Driving Force Behind Measles Outbreaks, Study ... than half of the cases involved unvaccinated children. Vaccine refusal was also often the culprit in whooping ...

  6. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Ab; Vries, Petra

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated whole virus or viral subunits, depends largely on the matching of vaccine strain and circulating virus. Measles vaccines, which are based on attenuated live virus, have been quite effective in control...

  7. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsay, M. E.; Moffatt, D; O'Connor, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles...

  8. The genetic basis for interindividual immune response variation to measles vaccine: new understanding and new vaccine approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Kennedy, Richard B.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The live-attenuated measles vaccine is effective, but measles outbreaks still occur in vaccinated populations. This warrants elucidation of the determinants of measles vaccine-induced protective immunity. Interindividual variability in markers of measles vaccine-induced immunity, including neutralizing antibody levels, is regulated in part by host genetic factor variations. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of measles vaccine immunogenetics relative to the perspectiv...

  9. Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, M B; Addiss, D G; McPherson, J T; Berg, J L; Circo, S R; Davis, J P

    1990-05-01

    A prolonged school-based outbreak of measles provided an opportunity to study "vaccine-modified" mild measles and secondary vaccine failure. Thirty-six (97%) of 37 unvaccinated patients had rash illnesses that met the Centers for Disease Control clinical case definition of measles, but 29 (15%) of 198 vaccinated patients did not, primarily because of low-grade or absent fever. Of 122 patients with seroconfirmed measles, 10 patients (all previously vaccinated) had no detectable measles-specific IgM and significantly milder illness than either vaccinated or unvaccinated patients with IgM-positive serum. Of 108 vaccinated patients with seroconfirmed measles, 17 patients (16%) had IgM-negative serology or rash illnesses that failed to meet the clinical case definition; their mean age (13 years), age at the time of vaccination, and time since vaccination did not differ from those of other vaccinated patients. The occurrence of secondary vaccine failure and vaccine-modified measles does not appear to be a major impediment to measles control in the United States but may lead to underreporting of measles cases and result in overestimation of vaccine efficacy in highly vaccinated populations. PMID:2278542

  10. Misplaced loss of confidence in measles vaccination: an investigation in a primary school.

    OpenAIRE

    Hicks, N R

    1989-01-01

    Doubts were expressed about the effectiveness of measles vaccination during a measles outbreak in a Bristol primary school. Investigation of this outbreak showed that the vaccine uptake rate was 89%, vaccine effectiveness was 84% and that 57% of children developing measles had a history of previous measles vaccination. This apparent paradox arises because, for any vaccine that is not 100% effective, as the vaccine uptake rate rises so the percentage of cases previously vaccinated also rises. ...

  11. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G; Thårup, J; Poulsen, A; Sodemann, Morten; da Silva, M C; Whittle, H

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.6%,...... vaccination. These data suggest that it will be necessary to vaccinate before age 9 months to control measles in hyperendemic urban African areas....

  12. A short clinical review of vaccination against measles

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous, Leen Khader; Barlow, Gavin; Metcalfe, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    Major epidemics of measles are again in the news across the UK because of our failure to maintain population herd immunity. This situation has occurred primarily because of a loss of public confidence in the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine, which was never restored following the Wakefield debacle, and a lack of awareness of the potential morbidity and mortality associated with measles. This article provides healthcare professionals with a succinct overview of important clinical aspec...

  13. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial of...... different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup of...... children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4...

  14. Stability of further-attenuated measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G F; Allison, L M; Lloyd, J S; Tam, P; Zuckerman, A J; Perkins, F T

    1983-01-01

    Accelerated stability tests on lyophilized measles vaccines show two distinct mechanisms of virus inactivation. A rapid initial loss of infectivity occurs only on exposure to temperatures above the ambient temperature. This loss is temperature related and may be attributable to the movement of residual moisture from the virus pellet into the void space of the vial. Subsequent inactivation of virus occurs at all temperatures as a first-order reaction that follows Arrhenius kinetics. Integration of values for these two components allows precise prediction of vaccine stability at any temperature. Analysis of the results obtained for greater than 30 vaccines shows that those which are stable for one week at 37 C have a predicted life of more than one year at 8 C. This simple test is now being applied to the identification of unstable products. The rate of this reaction is closely, if conservatively, matched by a time-temperature color indicator, which may be useful for monitoring vaccine quality. PMID:6879003

  15. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J.; Albert, Steven M.; Cakouros, Brigid E.; Burke, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with res...

  16. Measles virus: A pathogen, vaccine, and a vector

    OpenAIRE

    Naim, Hussein Y.

    2014-01-01

    Measles was an inevitable infection during the human development with substantial degree of morbidity and mortality. The severity of measles virus (MV) infection was largely contained by the development of a live attenuated vaccine that was introduced into the vaccination programs. However, all efforts to eradicate the disease failed and continued to annually result in significant deaths. The development of molecular biology techniques allowed the rescue of MV from cDNA that enabled important...

  17. An assessment of measles vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pillsbury

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vaccine effectiveness analysis serves as a critical evaluation for immunization programmes and vaccination coverage. It also contributes to maintaining public confidence with the vaccine providers. This study estimated measles vaccine effectiveness at the population level using Australian national notifications data between 2006 and 2012. Methods: Notification data were obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Vaccination status was classified according to whether a case had received zero, one or two doses of measles-containing vaccine. Cases aged less than 1 year and those with unknown vaccination status were excluded. All children with disease onset between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012 who were born after 1996 were included. Cases were matched to controls extracted from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register according to date of birth and jurisdiction of residence. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated by conditional logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test data robustness. Results: Vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94.5–98.0% for one dose and 99.7% (95% CI: 99.2–99.9% for two doses of measles vaccine. For at least one dose, effectiveness was estimated at 98.7% (95% CI: 97.9–99.2%. Sensitivity analyses did not significantly alter the base estimates. Discussion: Vaccine effectiveness estimates suggested that the measles vaccine was protective at the population level between 2006 and 2012. However, vaccination coverage gaps may have contributed to recent measles outbreaks and may represent a serious barrier for Australia to maintain measles elimination status.

  18. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramsay, M E

    1994-04-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.

  19. Multigenic Control of Measles Vaccine Immunity Mediated by Polymorphisms in Measles Receptor, Innate Pathway, and Cytokine Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; O’Byrne, Megan; Jacobson, Robert M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Measles infection and vaccine response are complex biological processes that involve both viral and host genetic factors. We have previously investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms on vaccine immune response, including measles vaccines, and have shown that polymorphisms in HLA, cytokine, cytokine receptor, and innate immune response genes are associated with variation in vaccine response but do not account for all of the inter-individual variance seen in vaccinated populations. In...

  20. VACCINATION OF PATIENTS WITH ONCOLOGY DISEASES AGAINST MEASLES AND MUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One hundred and seven children (45 girls and 62 boys in the age of 20 months — 14 years old (mean 9,62±0,37 suffered from acute lymphoblast leukosis and solid tumors in history have been examined in the clinic of Research Institute of children infections of FMBA. The vaccination history was studied in all children and the titers of specific antibodies to measles and mumps viruses as well as immune status were determined. 83,8% and 85,4% of studied children had no protection against measles and mumps respectively or had low titers of antibodies. Immunological examination of these children conducted within 4 months after finishing of therapy revealed absence of immunodeficiency. It gave opportunities to vaccinate or revaccinate these children against mentioned infections. Fifty three children were immunized against measles and 47 — against mumps. Application of live vaccines was safe because majority of vaccinated against measles (81,1% and mumps (82,9% children had mild vaccination process. It was established that to increase immunological efficacy of vaccination using of polyoxidony during 5 days before vaccination and 5 days after vaccination is reasonable.

  1. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L; Kristiansen, H; Thårup, J; Poulsen, A; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M; Knudsen, K; Clotilde da Silva, M

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units) of...... Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  2. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC MMR (Measles, Mumps, & Rubella) Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/ ... Vaccine information statement: MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, and ... Web site. www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mmr. ...

  3. Identification of Primary and Secondary Measles Vaccine Failures by Measurement of Immunoglobulin G Avidity in Measles Cases during the 1997 São Paulo Epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Pannuti, Cláudio S.; Morello, Ricardo José; José Cássio de MORAES; Curti, Suely Pires; Ana Maria S. Afonso; Camargo, Maria Cláudia Corrêa; de Souza, Vanda A. U. F.

    2004-01-01

    Despite almost universal use of measles vaccines in recent decades, epidemics of the disease continue to occur. Understanding the role of primary vaccine failure (failure to seroconvert after vaccination) and secondary vaccine failures (waning immunity after seroconversion) in measles epidemics is important for the evaluation of measles control programs in developing countries. After a measles epidemic in São Paulo, Brazil, 159 cases previously confirmed by detection of specific immunoglobuli...

  4. Assessment of coverage levels of single dose measles vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the consequences of low coverage levels of a single dose of measles vaccine. Results: mean age observed in measles cases was 2 years and 8 months with a range from 3 months to 8 years. Maximum number of cases reported were <1 year of age (n=22,32%). Fifty percent of cases were seen among vaccinated children. Seventy-five percent (n=51) had history of contact with a measles case. Pneumonia was the commonest complication followed by acute gastroenteritis, encephalitis, febrile convulsions, oral ulcers, oral thrush, eye changes of vitamin-A deficiency and pulmonary tuberculosis (T.B.) in descending order of frequency. Fifty four cases were successfully treated for complications of measles and discharged. Nine cases left against medical advice. Five patients died all of them had encephalitis either alone (n=1) or in combination with pneumonia and acute gastroenteritis (n=4). Conclusion: There is a dire need to increase the immunization coverage to reduce the rate of vaccine failure and achieve effective control of measles.(author)

  5. Measles virus hemagglutinin: structural insights into cell entry and measles vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TakaoHashiguchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Measles is one of the most contagious viral diseases, and remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The measles virus (MV, a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, enters cells through a cellular receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, CD46 or nectin-4. Entry is mediated by two MV envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H and the fusion (F protein. The H protein mediates receptor attachment, while the F protein causes membrane fusion. The interaction between the H and F proteins is essential to initiate the cell entry process. Recently determined crystal structures of the MV H protein unbound and bound to SLAM or CD46 have provided insights into paramyxovirus entry and the effectiveness of measles vaccine.

  6. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K;

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were cond...

  7. Successful respiratory immunization with dry powder live-attenuated measles virus vaccine in rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wen-Hsuan; Griffin, Diane E.; Rota, Paul A.; Papania, Mark; Cape, Stephen P.; Bennett, David; Quinn, Brian; Sievers, Robert E.; Shermer, Charles; Powell, Kenneth; Adams, Robert J.; Godin, Steven; Winston, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Measles remains an important cause of childhood mortality worldwide. Sustained high vaccination coverage is the key to preventing measles deaths. Because measles vaccine is delivered by injection, hurdles to high coverage include the need for trained medical personnel and a cold chain, waste of vaccine in multidose vials and risks associated with needle use and disposal. Respiratory vaccine delivery could lower these barriers and facilitate sustained high coverage. We developed a novel single...

  8. Independence of Measles-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Robert M.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    With a larger, independent cohort and more sophisticated measures, we sought to confirm our work that indicated independence of humoral and cellular immunity following measles vaccination. We recruited an age-stratified random cohort of 764 healthy subjects from all socio-economic strata, all with medical-record documentation of two age-appropriate doses of measles-containing vaccine. We quantified measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels and assayed the IFN-γ ELISPOT response to measles...

  9. Frequency of Measles Virus-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Subjects Seronegative or Highly Seropositive for Measles Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Dhiman, Neelam; Jacobson, Robert M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of measles immunization is due to humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Little is known about cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to measles vaccine virus, the relative contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to variability in such immune responses, and the immunologic longevity of the CMI after measles vaccination in humans. Our study characterizes cellular immune response in subjects seronegative or highly seropositive for measles vaccine immunoglobulin G-specific antibod...

  10. A measles epidemic threshold in a highly vaccinated population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against measles has successfully lowered the incidence of the disease and has changed the epidemic pattern from a roughly biennial cycle to an irregular sequence of outbreaks. A possible explanation for this sequence of outbreaks is that the vaccinated population is protected by solid herd immunity. If so, we would expect to see the fraction of susceptible individuals remaining below an epidemic threshold. An alternative explanation is the occurrence of occasional localised lapses in herd immunity that allow for major outbreaks in areas with a low vaccine coverage. In that case, we would expect the fraction of susceptible individuals to exceed an epidemic threshold before outbreaks occur. These two explanations for the irregular sequence of measles outbreaks can be tested against observations of both the fraction of susceptible individuals and infection attack rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have estimated both the fraction of susceptible individuals at the start of each epidemic year and the infection attack rates for each epidemic year in the Netherlands over a 28-y period. During this period the vaccine coverage averaged 93%, and there was no sustained measles transmission. Several measles outbreaks occurred in communities with low vaccine coverage, and these ended without intervention. We show that there is a clear threshold value for the fraction of susceptible individuals, below which only minor outbreaks occurred, and above which both minor and major outbreaks occurred. A precise, quantitative relationship exists between the fraction of susceptible individuals in excess of this threshold and the infection attack rate during the major outbreaks. CONCLUSION: In populations with a high but heterogeneous vaccine coverage, measles transmission can be interrupted without establishing solid herd immunity. When infection is reintroduced, a major outbreak can occur in the communities with low vaccine coverage. During

  11. A Randomized Trial of a Standard Dose of Edmonston-Zagreb Measles Vaccine Given at 4.5 Months of Age: Effect on Total Hospital Admissions

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cesario L.; Benn, Christine S.; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non–measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine ...

  12. Local public health response to vaccine-associated measles: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hau, Monica; Schwartz, Kevin L; Frenette, Crystal; Mogck, Isabelle; Jonathan B Gubbay; Severini, Alberto; Hiebert, Joanne; Shelley L Deeks; Shaun K Morris

    2013-01-01

    Background The most appropriate public health approach to vaccine-associated measles in immunocompromised patients is unknown, mainly because these cases are rare and transmission of vaccine-associated measles has not been previously documented. In this case report, we describe Peel Public Health’s response to a vaccine-associated measles case in an immunocompromised child in Ontario, Canada. Case presentation A five-year-old Canadian-born boy with a history of a hematopoetic stem cell transp...

  13. Antibody response and clinical reactions in children given measles vaccine with immunoglobulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Lingam, S.; Miller, C L; Clarke, M; Pateman, J

    1986-01-01

    Antibody responses and clinical reactions to three measles vaccines (Attenuvax, Mevilin, and Rimevax) injected into the opposite arm to immunoglobulin were assessed in 45 children with brain disorders making them susceptible to fits if given measles vaccine alone. In this small study no unacceptable reactions occurred and in only three cases was the antibody response minimal or absent. More children in this special category should be considered for vaccination against measles in this way.

  14. Vaccination against Measles: evaluation of novel approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Stittelaar, Koert

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, also called morbilli or rubeola, is a highly contagious disease of humans. After an incubation period of 9-11 days characteristic clinical signs develop like coryza, cervical lymphadenitis, so-called Koplik's spots in the mouth, conjunctivitis, photophobia, myalgia, malaise, sneezing and coughing lasting for about 1 week. Fever precedes the typical rash consisting of generalised maculopapular lesions that first appear on the face and soon after on the trunk and the extrem...

  15. Measles Outbreak in a Vaccinated School Population: Epidemiology, Chains of Transmission and the Role of Vaccine Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkowane, Benjamin M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of measles occurred in a high school with a documented vaccination level of 98 percent. When measles is introduced in a highly vaccinated population, vaccine failures may play some role in transmission but such transmission is not usually sustained. (Author/LHW)

  16. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rura...

  17. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  18. 75 FR 48715 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... these materials is included in a December 17, 1999 Federal Register notice (64 FR 70914). Proposed... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  19. Timeliness vaccination of measles containing vaccine and barriers to vaccination among migrant children in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  20. Measles -- Q&A about Disease & Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications, such as pneumonia or encephalitis, and even death. Children younger than 5 years of age and adults ... rubella in the form of antibodies from their mothers. These antibodies can ... vaccine? Children should receive two doses of MMR vaccine–the ...

  1. Post-vaccine measles in a child with concomitant influenza, Sicily, Italy, March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramuto, F; Dones, P; D Angelo, C; Casuccio, N; Vitale, F

    2015-01-01

    We describe the occurrence of measles in an 18 month-old patient in Sicily, Italy, in March 2015, who received the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine seven days before onset of prodromal symptoms. Measles virus infection was confirmed by PCR and detection of specific immunoglobulin; viral genotyping permitted the confirmation of a vaccine-associated illness. The patient had a concurrent influenza virus infection, during a seasonal epidemic outbreak of influenza. PMID:26027483

  2. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other diseases. In populations with high levels of malnutrition and a lack of adequate health care, up ... intake and treatment of dehydration with WHO-recommended oral rehydration ... are key public health strategies to reduce global measles deaths. The measles ...

  3. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It spreads easily from person to person. It ... down Tiny white spots inside the mouth Sometimes measles can lead to serious problems. There is no ...

  4. Reasons for measles cases not being vaccinated with MMR: investigation into parents' and carers' views following a large measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, P; Keenan, A; Ghebrehewet, S

    2016-03-01

    Uptake rates for the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine have been below the required 95% in the UK since a retracted and discredited article linking the MMR vaccine with autism and inflammatory bowel disease was released in 1998. This study undertook semi-structured telephone interviews among parents or carers of 47 unvaccinated measles cases who were aged between 13 months and 9 years, during a large measles outbreak in Merseyside. Results showed that concerns over the specific links with autism remain an important cause of refusal to vaccinate, with over half of respondents stating this as a reason. A quarter stated child illness during scheduled vaccination time, while other reasons included general safety concerns and access issues. Over half of respondents felt that more information or a discussion with a health professional would help the decision-making process, while a third stated improved access. There was clear support for vaccination among respondents when asked about current opinions regarding MMR vaccine. The findings support the hypothesis that safety concerns remain a major barrier to MMR vaccination, and also support previous evidence that experience of measles is an important determinant in the decision to vaccinate. PMID:26265115

  5. Asthma and allergy in children with and without prior measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Osuna, Christa Elyse; Steuerwald, Ulrike;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The existing literature on the association between measles vaccination and subsequent risk of allergic disease is inconclusive. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine whether measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination administered in early childhood was associated with...

  6. Measles Seroprevalence in Chiradzulu District, Malawi: Implications for Evaluating Vaccine Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Polonsky, Jonathan A.; Juan-Giner, Aitana; Hurtado, Northan; Masiku, Charlie; Kagoli, Matthew; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported measles vaccination coverage is frequently used to inform vaccination strategies in resource-poor settings. However, little is known to what extent this is a reliable indicator of underlying seroprotection, information that could provide guidance ensuring the success of measles control and elimination strategies.

  7. Gender differentials in the timing of measles vaccination in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rammohan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles is a highly contagious but vaccine-preventable disease. Gender differences in measles vaccination outcomes have been widely reported in India. Objective: An overlooked factor is whether female children are less likely to be vaccinated age-appropriately. Methods: In this paper we use data from the nationally representative 2008 District Level Household Survey (DLHS to analyse if there are any gender differences in the propensity to vaccinate a child for measles, and, among the vaccinated sample, whether there are any gender differences in the probability of age-appropriate measles vaccination. Results: Our analysis confirms that girls have both a significantly lower probability of being vaccinated and of being vaccinated age-appropriately.

  8. Nonfebrile Seizures after Mumps, Measles, Rubella, and Varicella-Zoster Virus Combination Vaccination with Detection of Measles Virus RNA in Serum, Throat, and Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Eckerle, Isabella; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Santibanez, Sabine; Buderus, Stephan; Hillmann, Matthias; Drosten, Christian; Eis-Hübinger, Anna Maria

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a child presenting with nonfebrile seizures 6 and 13 days after the first vaccination with a measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (MMRV) combination vaccine. Measles virus RNA was detected in the patient's serum, throat, and urine. Genotyping revealed the Schwarz vaccine virus strain.

  9. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication. PMID:27179915

  10. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.;

    2008-01-01

    -Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4...... prevented infection; vaccine efficacy for children with serologically confirmed measles and definite clinical measles was 94% (95% confidence interval 77% to 99%), for admissions to hospital for measles was 100% (46% to 100%), and for measles mortality was 100% (-42% to 100%). The number needed to treat to...

  11. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... shall meet the special requirements prescribed in this section. (b) To detect virulent canine distemper virus, each of two canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of the Master... from each vaccinate and individually tested for antibody against canine distemper virus. For a...

  12. Development and evaluation of the TD97 measles virus vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Morita, M.; Katoh, M.; Kidokoro, M.; Saika, S.; Yoshizawa, S.; Hashizume, S.; Horiuchi, K.; Okabe, N.; Shinozaki, T. (Chiba Serum Institute (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    The TD97 strain vaccine virus was prepared from the Tanabe strain measles virus by low-temperature passages in primary cell cultures and ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis. The TD97 strain exhibited the following characteristics: highly temperature sensitive, neither multiplying nor forming any plaques at 40 degrees C in Vero cells; genetically stable, maintaining high temperature sensitivity after ten successive passages in CE cells at 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C; and M proteins of this virus about 1 KD slower in mobility in SDS-PAGE than that of the Tanabe strain. The TD97 strain was further confirmed to be attenuated by an inoculation test into primate brain. In field trials, 752 healthy children were inoculated with a live virus vaccine prepared with this strain, and the following results were obtained: the seroconversion rate was 97% (517/533), and the average HI antibody titer was 2(5.2). An antibody-increasing effect was also observed in children who were initially seropositive. In children who seroconverted, the rates of fever were 15.7% (55/351) for 37.5 degrees C or higher and 4.0% (14/351) for 39 degrees C or higher. The rash rate was 7.7% (27/351), and the incidence of local reaction was 5.4% (19/351). The TD97 strain is thus considered to be suitable in use for an attenuated measles vaccine.

  13. Measles -- Recommendations for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... require proof of either two doses of the measles vaccine or evidence of past measles infection at the ... avoided for 28 days following receipt of the measles vaccine or the MMR vaccine. updated July 23, 2008 ...

  14. Evaluation of a two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination schedule in a cohort of college athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Coté, T R; Sivertson, D; Horan, J M; Lindegren, M L; Dwyer, D M

    1993-01-01

    Despite high vaccination levels, measles outbreaks continue to occur among vaccinated adults. In response, new guidelines call for two doses of measles vaccine. To determine seroprevalence and response to vaccination in seronegative persons, we tested serums from 256 college athletes at a Maryland State college by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, vaccinated seronegatives, then re-tested vaccinees. High school records were obtained for persons seronegative to measles. Of 256 students, 53 (21...

  15. Sequence and immunogenicity of a clinically approved novel measles virus vaccine vector

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga, Amando; Liniger, Mathias; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Marty, René R.; Wiegand, Marian; Ilter, Orhan; Weibel, Sara; Billeter, Martin A.; Knuchel, Marlyse C.; Naim, Hussein Y

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus vaccine (MVbv) is a clinically certified and well-tolerated vaccine strain that has been given both parenterally and mucosally. It has been extensively used in children and has proven to be safe and effective in eliciting protective immunity. This specific strain was therefore chosen to generate a measles viral vector. The genome of the commercial MVbv vaccine strain was isolated, sequenced and a plasmid, p(+)MVb, enabling transcription of the viral antigenome and rescue of ...

  16. Persistence of Antibodies Induced by Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine in Children in India

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Raut; Mr. P.S. Kulkarni; Phadke, M. A.; S. S Jadhav; Kapre, S. V.; Dhere, R. M.; Dhorje, S. P.; Godse, S. R.

    2008-01-01

    Antibody levels in 41 Indian girls were measured 6 years after measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. Rates of seropositivity were 88% (measles antibodies), 95% (mumps antibodies), and 100% (rubella antibodies). The MMR vaccine induces long-term immunity in a majority of vaccinees; however, due to the observation of some seronegative vaccinees, the policy of administering a second dose of the MMR vaccine seems appropriate.

  17. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Tatem, A; Bjornstad, O N; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; Takahashi, S; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2015-05-01

    Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time to the nearest urban centre (⩾50 000 people) with vaccination data from Demographic Health Surveys to assess how remoteness affects coverage in 26 African countries. Building on a statistical mapping of coverage against age and geographical isolation, we quantified how modifying the rate and age range of vaccine delivery affects national coverage. Our scenario analysis considers increasing the rate of delivery of routine vaccination, increasing the target age range of routine vaccination, and enhanced delivery to remote areas. Geographical isolation plays a key role in defining vaccine inequity, with greater inequity in countries with lower measles vaccine coverage. Eliminating geographical inequities alone will not achieve thresholds for herd immunity, indicating that changes in delivery rate or age range of routine vaccination will be required. Measles vaccine coverage remains far below targets for herd immunity in many countries on the African continent and is likely to be inadequate for achieving rubella elimination. The impact of strategies such as increasing the upper age range eligible for routine vaccination should be considered. PMID:25119237

  18. Immune response to 1 and 2 dose regimens of Measles vaccine in Pakistani children

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Hamidah; Akram, Dure Samin; Chandir, Subhash; Khan, Aamir J.; Memon, Ashraf; Halsey, Neal A.

    2013-01-01

    Measles is a significant problem in Pakistan despite vaccine coverage rates reported at 80%. The purpose of this study was to determine the serologic response in children after one dose of measles vaccine at 9 mo versus two doses at 9 and 15 mo of age. From March through December 2006, children were enrolled from immunization clinics and squatter settlements in Karachi. Blood samples were taken from children in Group A at 9–10 mo of age prior to measles vaccine and 8 to 11 weeks later; from c...

  19. Multicenter Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of an Attenuated Measles Vaccine for NHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joann L; McChesney, Michael B; Christe, Kari L

    2015-10-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral disease in NHP. The infection can range from asymptomatic to rapidly fatal, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in captive populations. In addition to appropriate quarantine practices, restricted access, the immunization of all personnel in contact with NHP, and the wearing of protective clothing including face masks, measles immunization further reduces the infection risk. Commercially available measles vaccines are effective for use in NHP, but interruptions in their availability have prevented the implementation of ongoing, consistent vaccination programs. This need for a readily available vaccine led us to perform a broad, multicenter safety and immunogenicity study of another candidate vaccine, MVac (Serum Institute of India), a monovalent measles vaccine derived from live Edmonston-Zagreb strain virus that had been attenuated after 22 passages on human diploid cells. PMID:26473350

  20. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone Graff;

    2015-01-01

    was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory......BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... included 888 RSV hospital contacts in 128,588 person years of follow up (rate 6.8/1000 person years). Having MMR as the most recent vaccine was associated with a reduced rate of RSV hospital contacts compared with having DTaP-IPV-Hib as the most recent vaccine (Incidence rate ratio (IRR), 0.75; 95...

  1. Profiling of Measles-Specific Humoral Immunity in Individuals Following Two Doses of MMR Vaccine Using Proteome Microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Whitney L. Simon; Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Warner, Nathaniel D.; Grill, Diane E.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Comprehensive evaluation of measles-specific humoral immunity after vaccination is important for determining new and/or additional correlates of vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Methods: We used a novel proteome microarray technology and statistical modeling to identify factors and models associated with measles-specific functional protective immunity in 150 measles vaccine recipients representing the extremes of neutralizing antibody response after two vaccine doses. Result...

  2. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  3. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Maria I

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.

  4. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.

  5. Vaccination coverage for measles, mumps and rubella in anthroposophical schools in Gelderland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.H.; Lier, A. van; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social clustering of unvaccinated children in anthroposophical schools occurs, as inferred from various measles outbreaks that can be traced to these schools. However, accurate vaccination coverage data of anthroposophical schools are not widely available. METHODS: In 2012, we performed

  6. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and measles vaccine in an English population, 1979–1998

    OpenAIRE

    Seagroatt, V; Goldacre, M.

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: To study the hospitalised incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) from 1979 to 1998; and to determine whether the introduction of the measles vaccination programme was associated with an increase in the young.

  7. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    OpenAIRE

    Rammohan Anu; Awofeso Niyi; Fernandez Renae C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of p...

  8. Child mortality related to seroconversion or lack of seroconversion after measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K;

    1989-01-01

    When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than seroconvert...

  9. Impact of changing the measles vaccine vial size on Niger's vaccine supply chain: a computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenea Hailu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries, such as Niger, are considering changing their vaccine vial size presentation and may want to evaluate the subsequent impact on their supply chains, the series of steps required to get vaccines from their manufacturers to patients. The measles vaccine is particularly important in Niger, a country prone to measles outbreaks. Methods We developed a detailed discrete event simulation model of the vaccine supply chain representing every vaccine, storage location, refrigerator, freezer, and transport device (e.g., cold trucks, 4 × 4 trucks, and vaccine carriers in the Niger Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI. Experiments simulated the impact of replacing the 10-dose measles vial size with 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes. Results Switching from the 10-dose to the 5-dose, 2-dose and 1-dose vial sizes decreased the average availability of EPI vaccines for arriving patients from 83% to 82%, 81% and 78%, respectively for a 100% target population size. The switches also changed transport vehicle's utilization from a mean of 58% (range: 4-164% to means of 59% (range: 4-164%, 62% (range: 4-175%, and 67% (range: 5-192%, respectively, between the regional and district stores, and from a mean of 160% (range: 83-300% to means of 161% (range: 82-322%, 175% (range: 78-344%, and 198% (range: 88-402%, respectively, between the district to integrated health centres (IHC. The switch also changed district level storage utilization from a mean of 65% to means of 64%, 66% and 68% (range for all scenarios: 3-100%. Finally, accounting for vaccine administration, wastage, and disposal, replacing the 10-dose vial with the 5 or 1-dose vials would increase the cost per immunized patient from $0.47US to $0.71US and $1.26US, respectively. Conclusions The switch from the 10-dose measles vaccines to smaller vial sizes could overwhelm the capacities of many storage facilities and transport vehicles as well as increase the cost per

  10. Measles vaccine efficacy during an outbreak in a highly vaccinated population: incremental increase in protection with age at vaccination up to 18 months.

    OpenAIRE

    De Serres, G.; Boulianne, N.; Meyer, F; Ward, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    During a large measles outbreak in Quebec City in 1989, two investigations conducted in parallel evaluated the relative risk of measles and measles vaccine effectiveness with respect to age at vaccination. The study was a school-based case-control study including 563 cases and 1126 classmate controls. The second was a cohort study of the siblings of school cases including 493 siblings aged between 1 and 19 years. The relative risks (RR) of measles were similar in both settings and the trend t...

  11. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    -Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before...... received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea...

  12. The safety of measles vaccination%麻疹疫苗接种安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴智勤

    2012-01-01

    Measles remains one of the major causes of death among young children. Measles vaccination is one of the best measures to prevent measles,The safety surveillance of measles vaccination is a key factor to ensure immunization program implementation. This paper reviews the safety of measles vaccination,the surveillance of and response strategies for adverse reactions following measles vaccination.%麻疹仍是造成幼儿死亡的主要原因之一,麻疹疫苗接种是预防麻疹最有效的施措之一,对麻疹疫苗接种的安全性监测是保证免疫计划实施的关键因素.此文阐述了麻疹疫苗接种的安全性、对麻疹疫苗接种不良反应的监测以及应对接种不良反应的策略.

  13. Evaluation of live attenuated measles vaccines prepared in human diploid cells for reimmunization.

    OpenAIRE

    Mirchamsy, H.; Shafyi, A; Nazari, P.; Ashtiani, M. P.; Sassani, A.

    1988-01-01

    Two live attenuated measles vaccines developed in baby calf kidney cells, a similar vaccine produced in chick embryo chorioallantoic cells and five vaccines prepared from human diploid cells (HDC) have been studied by subcutaneous injection in groups of susceptible and immune children in three field trials. The results indicated that the vaccine developed in chick embryo cells which caused mild clinical reactions, had induced a lower seroprotection rate in susceptible children and only a low ...

  14. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2013-01-01

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months....

  15. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton C.; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and m...

  16. Long-term survival after Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H;

    1993-01-01

    In an urban area of Guinea-Bissau, 384 children were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing morbidity and mortality rates after receiving high-titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine administered from 4 months of age, with a control group receiving inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine at 4...

  17. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuil, J.; van de Putte, E.M.; Zwaan, C.M.; Koole, F.D.; Meire, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocy

  18. Molecular relationship between field and vaccine strain of measles virus and its persistence in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Masaud; Shams, Sulaiman; Rahman, Ziaur

    2012-01-01

    Background Countrywide 5.9 million, 0-11 Month old children are immunized annually by EPI (Expended Program on Immunization) against 8 vaccine preventable diseases including measles and so on. Unfortunately the basic immunity centers are not uniform throughout the country. Each center provides services to about 27000 people which is inadequate. The purpose of this study was to explore the development of EPI Pakistan in terms of immunization of measles. Methods Nucleotide sequences were analyz...

  19. Measles Vaccine Strain Genotype A from the Skin Rash of a DiGeorge Patient on a TNF Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Pui-Ying Iroh; Hanisch, Benjamin R.; Klammer, Kate; DeVries, Aaron S.

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of measles virus is typically from respiratory, blood or urine specimens. We describe the first known case of measles vaccine-associated disease in a patient on TNF inhibitor therapy in which genotype A Edmonston vaccine strain virus was identified from skin scrapings of the patient’s rash.

  20. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H; Knudsen, K; Thaarup, Jeppe; Poulsen, A; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M; Brink, L; Gansted, U

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of hi...

  1. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia;

    2014-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine is...

  2. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi, stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP vaccines. Methods In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ≤74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+ every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-. After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines. Results For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05. The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05 and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05. In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05. While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+ and 67% (CH- response (P Conclusion Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

  3. A systematic review of human-to-human transmission of measles vaccine virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Kathryn P; Hafiz, Radwan; Ware, Robert S; Lambert, Stephen B

    2016-05-17

    Measles is one of the most contagious human diseases. Administration of the live attenuated measles vaccine has substantially reduced childhood mortality and morbidity since its licensure in 1963. The live but attenuated form of the vaccine describes a virus poorly adapted to replicating in human tissue, but with a replication yield sufficient to elicit an immune response for long-term protection. Given the high transmissibility of the wild-type virus and that transmission of other live vaccine viruses has been documented, we conducted a systematic review to establish if there is any evidence of human-to-human transmission of the live attenuated measles vaccine virus. We reviewed 773 articles for genotypic confirmation of a vaccine virus transmitted from a recently vaccinated individual to a susceptible close contact. No evidence of human-to-human transmission of the measles vaccine virus has been reported amongst the thousands of clinical samples genotyped during outbreaks or endemic transmission and individual case studies worldwide. PMID:27083423

  4. Measles virus hemagglutinin: structural insights into cell entry and measles vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    TakaoHashiguchi; KatsumiMaenaka

    2011-01-01

    Measles is one of the most contagious viral diseases, and remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The measles virus (MV), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, enters cells through a cellular receptor, the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), CD46 or nectin-4. Entry is mediated by two MV envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin (H) and the fusion (F) protein. The H protein mediates receptor attachment, while the F protein causes membrane fusion. Th...

  5. Trials of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Whittle, H; Mordhorst, Camilla;

    1994-01-01

    In two trials of measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau, children were randomized to receive either the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the Schwarz (SW) virus at 9-12 months. In the first trial a medium dose of EZ virus (40,000 p....... Antibody levels in the EZ group, as measured by either method, were significantly lower than the levels in the SW group. The serological results of the present study suggest that lowering the age at measles vaccination to below 9 months is feasible. However, further studies are needed to determine which...... virus strain, dosage and age at vaccination will prove to be optimal in countries where severe measles is common before the age of 9 months....

  6. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.  Created: 6/30/2014 by : National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Division of Viral Diseases; Healthcare Preparedness Activity (HPA); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/30/2014.

  7. Primary Research of Immunological Mechanism of Combined Hepatitis A-Measles-Varicella Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying-hua; GUAN Feng; ZHANG Xi-zhen; ZHAO Hong-guang; LIU Jing-ye; LIN Cheng-he; WANG Peng-fu

    2011-01-01

    To explore the primary humoral and cellular immunological mechanism of the combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine, the mice were inoculated with hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine by intraperitoneally and two weeks later, blood was collected to observe the mice's immunological status. Antibody level was measured to appraise the humoral immunity. At the same time, T lymphocyte surface marker, NK cell activity, LAK cell activity,delayed type hypersensitivity of skin, M phagocytic function, mRNA level of cytokine IL-2 and IFN-γ plus lymphocyte transformation test were used to analyze the cellular immunity. The humoral immunity results show that the combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine produce the same antibody level as their corresponding univalent vaccine, and maintained fine immunogenicity and security. The result of cellular immunity shows that the combined vaccine could activate physical immunocyte, increase the regulative ability of cytokine, enhance the physical immune function and immune defense ability. The present research proved the security and better humoral and cellular immunity of combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine from the immunological point of view, which laid good foundation for further study and development.

  8. Correlates of first dose of measles vaccination delivery and uptake in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renae Fernandez; Anu Rammohan; Niyi Awofeso

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine health systems-related, familial, and cultural factors which influence the delivery and uptake of measles vaccination in Indonesia.Methods: Logistic regression analysis of data collected during the 2007Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey was undertaken by the authors to investigate these factors. The2007 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey dataset is a nationally representative, randomly sampled survey containing15 065 children aged between9and59 months.Results: 72.8% of children had received the measles vaccine. Vaccination coverage was similar for males and females; however, coverage was higher amongst urban children,80.1%, compared to68.5% in rural areas. The key findings of the regression analysis were congruent with the results of previous research targeting vaccination coverage. After controlling for all other factors, maternal age, maternal education, wealth, the use of a skilled birth attendant, and postnatal check-ups were positively and significantly (P< 0.01) correlated with measles vaccination. The number of children per household was negatively correlated (P<0.01).Conclusions: In order to enhance measles vaccination coverage in Indonesia, delivery to, and uptake by, rural and low socio-economic populations require substantial improvements. Mass health education and health systems improvements are also required.

  9. Measles vaccine effectiveness in standard and early immunization strategies, Niger, 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaninda, A V; D. Legros; Jataou, I M; Malfait, P; Maisonneuve, M; Paquet, C; Moren, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An Expanded Programme on Immunization was started in late 1987 in Niger, including vaccination against measles with one dose of standard titer Schwarz vaccine given to infants after 9 months of age. During epidemics an early two-dose strategy was implemented (one dose between 6 and 8 months and one dose after 9 months). From January 1, 1995, until May 7, 1995, 13 892 measles cases were reported in Niamey, Niger. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a crowded area...

  10. Measles outbreak in South of iran, where vaccine coverage was high: a case-series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Moghadam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious viral disease that remains an important cause of mortality among children despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine around the world. We aimed this study to show a measles out-break occurring.In early 2012, a report of measles outbreak was recorded on center for disease control (CDC of Fars province, south of Iran. With this case-series study, characteristics of cases and network transition model were described.The primary case was an Afghan refugee who is likely to carry the measles virus from its country or from anywhere in Iran to Koordeh, a small village in south of Iran. Followed by the Afghan case, 6 secondary and tertiary cases including rural health worker, were occurred. Except a case of 35 year old, in which her vaccination status was unknown, all cases has had adherence to vaccination protocol.More immunologic and vaccine quality investigations are needed to find the main cause of the outbreak. Nonetheless, due to the warm weather, probable bad temperature management of cold chain and technical problem in vaccination are the main suspicious reasons of the outbreak.

  11. Measles vaccine coverage and factors related to uncompleted vaccination among 18-month-old and 36-month-old children in Kyoto, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shigeru

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to low vaccine coverage, Japan has not only experienced outbreaks of measles but has also been exporting it overseas. This study aims to survey measles vaccine coverage and the factors uncompleted vaccination among community-living children. Methods Subjects were the parents whose children had undergone either an 18-month or a 36-month checkup publicly provided by Kyoto City during November 2001 to January 2002. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted. Results The coverage was 73.2% among the 18-month-old children (n = 2707 and 88.9% among the 36-month-old children (n = 2340, respectively. The following characteristics of mothers were related to uncompleted measles vaccination: aged below 30, working, concerned about the adverse events of the vaccine, and had insufficient knowledge. Similarly, the following characteristics among children were related to uncompleted measles vaccination: not the first-born child, interacting with other children in group settings. The coverage was the lowest among the children whose mothers were concerned about the adverse events of the vaccine without proper knowledge of measles and its vaccination. Conclusion To increase vaccine coverage among children, parents' awareness about measles and vaccination against it should be promoted, especially for working mothers. Efforts to enhance access to vaccination services and to communicate with parents about changing vaccination schedules are necessary.

  12. Lack of evidence of endogenous avian leukosis virus and endogenous avian retrovirus transmission to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A. I.; V. Shanmugam; Switzer, W. M.; Tsang, S. X.; Fadly, A.; Thea, D.; Helfand, R; Bellini, W J; Folks, T M; Heneine, W

    2001-01-01

    The identification of endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) and endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines in current use has raised concern about transmission of these retroviruses to vaccine recipients. We used serologic and molecular methods to analyze specimens from 206 recipients of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine for evidence of infection with ALV and EAV. A Western blot assay for detecting antibodies to endogenous ALV was developed and ...

  13. Towards Measles elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Mark; Sciberras, Maria

    2003-01-01

    In many European countries measles is still a cause of great public health concern. Outbreaks of the disease are still occurring because the degree of vaccination coverage required to interrupt transmission has not yet been achieved. Many countries have started to implement measles elimination strategies. These are primarily based on attaining a very high coverage of measles vaccination and strengthening measles surveillance systems.

  14. A large observational study to concurrently assess persistence of measles specific B-cell and T-cell immunity in individuals following two doses of MMR vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; O’Byrne, Megan; Pankratz, V. Shane; Jacobson, Robert M.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of measles-specific neutralizing antibodies, directed against the surface measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion proteins, is considered the gold standard in measles serology. We assessed functional measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels in a racially diverse cohort of 763 young healthy adolescents after receipt of two doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, by the use of an automated plaque reduction microneutralization (PRMN) assay, and evaluated their relevance to pr...

  15. A population-based study of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2002-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish...

  16. Early Onset Optic Neuritis Following Measles-Rubella Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Moradian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report two cases of optic neuritis with onset less than 24 hours following measles-rubella (MR vaccination. CASE REPORT: Two teenage patients developed acute optic neuritis 6 to 7 hours after MR booster vaccination. The first patient demonstrated bilateral papillitis and severe visual loss but improved significantly with pulse intravenous steroid therapy with methylprednisolone 500 mg/day. The second patient had unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and demonstrated excellent visual recovery without intervention. CONCLUSION: Acute optic neuritis is a rare complication of MR vaccination and may occur early after immunization.

  1. Reduced vaccination and the risk of measles and other childhood infections post-Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Saki; Metcalf, C Jessica E; Ferrari, Matthew J; Moss, William J; Truelove, Shaun A; Tatem, Andrew J; Grenfell, Bryan T; Lessler, Justin

    2015-03-13

    The Ebola epidemic in West Africa has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. The outbreak has also disrupted health care services, including childhood vaccinations, creating a second public health crisis. We project that after 6 to 18 months of disruptions, a large connected cluster of children unvaccinated for measles will accumulate across Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. This pool of susceptibility increases the expected size of a regional measles outbreak from 127,000 to 227,000 cases after 18 months, resulting in 2000 to 16,000 additional deaths (comparable to the numbers of Ebola deaths reported thus far). There is a clear path to avoiding outbreaks of childhood vaccine-preventable diseases once the threat of Ebola begins to recede: an aggressive regional vaccination campaign aimed at age groups left unprotected because of health care disruptions. PMID:25766232

  2. Difficulties in eliminating measles and controlling rubella and mumps: a cross-sectional study of a first measles and rubella vaccination and a second measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage of the measles-rubella (MR or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine is greater than 99.0% in Zhejiang province. However, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella remains high. In this study, we assessed MMR seropositivity and disease distribution by age on the basis of the current vaccination program, wherein the first dose of MR is administered at 8 months and the second dose of MMR is administered at 18-24 months. METHODS: Cross-sectional serological surveys of MMR antibodies were conducted by collecting epidemiological data in Zhejiang province, China in 2011. In total, 1015 participants were randomly selected from two surveillance sites. Serum MMR-specific immunoglobulin G levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The geometric mean titers and seroprevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated by age and gender. Proportions of different dose of vaccine by age by vaccine were also identified. Statistically significant differences between categories were assessed by the Chi-square test. RESULTS: Over 95% seroprevalence rates of measles were seen in all age groups except <7 months infants. Children aged 5-9 years were shown lower seropositivity rates of mumps while elder adolescences and young adults were presented lower rubella seroprevalence. Especially, rubella seropositivity was significantly lower in female adults than in male. Nine measles cases were unvaccinated or unknown vaccination history. Among them, 66.67% (6/9 patients were aged 20-29 years while 33.33% (3/9 were infants aged 8-12 months. In addition, 57.75% (648/1122 patients with mumps were children aged 5-9 years, and 50.54% (94/186 rubella cases were aged 15-39 years. CONCLUSIONS: A timely two-dose MMR vaccination schedule is recommended, with the first dose at 8 months and the second dose at 18-24 months. An MR vaccination speed-up campaign may be necessary for elder adolescents and young adults, particularly

  3. "CHANGES IN THE EPIDEMILOGY OF MEASLES DUE TO MASS-VACCINATION IN IRAN (1961-1971 "

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    A. Manteghi

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles is one of the viral and extremely contagious and acute diseases of childhood affecting almost all children. Prior to the discovery of the measles vaccine, the mortality from this disease was one of the highest child mortality figures, especially in the developing countries, with the death rate ranging over 5 to 10% of the infected? Before the vaccination program I was launched in the country, the number of cases of this disease varied between 150.000 to 500,000 during non epidemic and epidemic years, with the mortality more than 10 or 15 per cent the cases in rural and mountainous localities. The available statistics show that the highest figure of measles patient in Iran belongs to the 1-7 years age-group and the highest of its mortality belongs to the age between 1-2 years. In view of the high morbidity and mortality rates of this disease, and thanks to the quick growth under way in public health maters, gradually the significance of this grave problem was more felt. Thus, to control the disease, the ministry of health decided, in 19.6566, to carry out a study program with the help of the Institute of Public Health Research and, with the desired result on hand from the experimental vaccines, to launch a mass vaccination campaign against measles. Consequently, the mass vaccination program was started from 1967, with priority being given to rura1 area and mountainous localities. From 1970, with the cooperation of the ministry of health and Razi Institute the measles vaccine was produced within the country, and, by the end of 1971 the number of vaccinated children was about 3,517,547 which constitutes almost 37% of the susceptible population. The out come has been I an obvious decline in the prevalence and incidence of this disease and an outstanding change in its epidemiological trend. Thus, in the event that the rate of susceptible population coverage by this vaccine (a single shoot or which gives permanent or at least, a long immunity

  4. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys.......Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  5. Profiling of Measles-Specific Humoral Immunity in Individuals Following Two Doses of MMR Vaccine Using Proteome Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana H. Haralambieva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comprehensive evaluation of measles-specific humoral immunity after vaccination is important for determining new and/or additional correlates of vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Methods: We used a novel proteome microarray technology and statistical modeling to identify factors and models associated with measles-specific functional protective immunity in 150 measles vaccine recipients representing the extremes of neutralizing antibody response after two vaccine doses. Results: Our findings demonstrate a high seroprevalence of antibodies directed to the measles virus (MV phosphoprotein (P, nucleoprotein (N, as well as antibodies to the large polymerase (L protein (fragment 1234 to 1900 AA. Antibodies to these proteins, in addition to anti-F antibodies (and, to a lesser extent, anti-H antibodies, were correlated with neutralizing antibody titer and/or were associated with and predictive of neutralizing antibody response. Conclusion: Our results identify antibodies to specific measles virus proteins and statistical models for monitoring and assessment of measles-specific functional protective immunity in vaccinated individuals.

  6. Mumps caused by an inadequately attenuated measles, mumps and rubella vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, WJ; Mathias, RG

    2001-01-01

    PROBLEM: Reports of mumps following measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunization.OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mumps was caused by immunization or whether there was a concurrent epidemic of a wild strain of mumps.DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of surveillance data and a cohort study of three schools that participated in the campaign.OUTCOME MEASURES: Cases of clinical mumps and orchitis, and immunization history and records were reviewed. The MMR vaccine was produced by the Serum Instit...

  7. The economic disease burden of measles in Japan and a benefit cost analysis of vaccination, a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkusa Yasushi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During 1999-2003, Japan experienced a series of measles epidemics, and in Action Plans to Control Measles and the Future Problems, it was proposed that infants be immunized soon after their one-year birthday. In this study, we attempted to estimate the nationwide economic disease burden of measles based on clinical data and the economic effectiveness of this proposal using the benefit cost ratio. Methods Our survey target was measles patients treated at Chiba-Nishi general hospital from January 1999 to September 2001. Two hundred ninety-one cases were extracted from the database. The survey team composed of 3 pediatricians and 1 physician from Chiba-Nishi general hospital examined patient files and obtained additional information by telephone interview. We analyzed data based on a static model, which assumed that the number of measles patients would be zero after 100% coverage of single-antigen measles vaccine. Costs were defined as the direct cost for measles treatment, vaccination and transportation and the indirect cost of workdays lost due to the nursing of patients, hospital visits for vaccination or nursing due to adverse reactions. Benefits were defined as savings on direct and indirect costs. Based on these definitions, we estimated the nationwide costs of treatment and vaccination. Results Using our static model, the nationwide total cost for measles treatment was estimated to be US$ 404 million, while the vaccination cost was US$165 million. The benefit cost ratio of the base case was 2.48 and ranged from 2.21 to 4.97 with sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Although the model has some limitations, we conclude that the policy of immunizing infants soon after their one-year birthday is economically effective.

  8. A Rare Case: Atypical Measles

    OpenAIRE

    Ümmü Sena Sarı; Figen Kaptan

    2016-01-01

    Atypical measles has been described in persons who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. Occasionally, it can be caused by live measles vaccines also. It is a clinical picture different from typical measles. In this report, an adult patient with a history of immunization, who presented with high fever, maculopapular rash starting at the palms and soles, and pneumonia, is presented. Atypical measles that was ...

  9. Exploring The Impact Of The US Measles Outbreak On Parental Awareness Of And Support For Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Nowak, Glen; Evans, Nathaniel J

    2016-02-01

    Despite consensus among health officials that childhood immunizations are a safe and effective means of protecting people from disease, some parents remain hesitant about vaccinating their children. This hesitancy has been linked to a lack of confidence in recommended vaccinations as well as a desire to delay or further space out scheduled vaccinations but also outright refusal of vaccines. Using two national surveys of parents of children ages five and younger, collected immediately prior to and in the weeks following the 2014-15 US measles outbreak, this study examined the awareness of this vaccine-preventable disease outbreak among parents and whether awareness of the outbreak affected their beliefs about childhood vaccination, confidence, and intentions. The study found that while most parents were aware of the outbreak, many were not, and the level of familiarity mattered, particularly on measures of confidence in vaccines and support for mandates requiring childhood vaccination. Increases in vaccine-related concerns were found as well, indicating that disease outbreaks foster not just awareness of vaccines and their potential to prevent disease but a range of parental responses. PMID:26858389

  10. An Epidemiological Study on Measles Cases with Vaccination History of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine%有麻疹减毒活疫苗接种史的麻疹病例流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳荣; 陈恩富; 李倩; 蒋征刚; 何寒青; 凌罗亚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the distribution characteristics of measles cases with vaccination history of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV ) and to provide base data for Measles control and prevention. Methods A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted to analyze measles cases with or without vaccination history of measles attenuated vaccine reported in Zhejiang province in 2009. Results The confirmed measles cases with vaccination history of measles vaccine was obviously lower than (16.44% ) non-measles cases (41.45%). The shortest interval between the latest MV vaccination and onset of measles case was Od, the longest is 25 years, with a median of 3 months. The occurrence of Measles of interval proportions <1 month, 1-11 months, 1-9 years, 10-25 years were 42.10%, 30.19%, 19.50%, 6.92% respectively. The interval distribution was different by age groups. Some symptoms were milder in the cases with MV history than that without MV history. For cases with different interval between recent MV vaccination and onset of measles, conjunctivitis was less in those of 6-10d than others. Conclusion Measles cases with MV history could be resulted from primary or secondary immunization failure, or time vaccinated at the late incubation period. Few cases may actually be vaccine reactions at 6-10d after vaccination.%目的 了解有麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)接种史的麻疹病例的分布特点,为查找原因及提出控制措施提供基础数据.方法 对浙江省2009年报告的有、无MV接种史的麻疹病例进行描述流行病学分析.结果 麻疹确诊病例中,有MV接种史的比例(16.44%)明显低于非麻疹病例(41.45%).末次接种距发病最短间隔为0d,最长为25年,中位数为3个月.接种后<1个月、1~11个月、1~9年、10~25年的发病构成分别为42.10%、30.19%、19.50%、6.92%,不同年龄组末次接种距发病时间分布不同.有MV接种史的麻疹病例与无接种史者相比

  11. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito;

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  12. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik;

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality of...

  13. Vaccine effectiveness and risk factors associated with measles among children presenting to the hospitals of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the risk factors regarding guardian's practices associated with development of Measles and also find out effectiveness of Measles vaccine among children less than 12 years of age presenting to the hospitals of Karachi. Study Design: Matched case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Multicenter surveillance was conducted in 11 public and private sector hospitals of Karachi from January 2011 to September 2012 in consultation with World Health Organization Measles Surveillance Cell. Methodology: Cases were children aged less than 12 years with Measles presenting to the hospitals. Controls for cases were enrolled from the same hospitals without Measles, matched for age and gender. Studied variables were analyzed by multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. Results: Measles cases were more likely to have mothers with lower education (adjusted matched Odds Ratio or mOR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2 - 7.6), for < 5 years of schooling adjusted mOR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0 - 5.7) for 6 - 10 years of schooling). Children with Measles were also more likely to be not given breast milk in initial 2 years of life (adjusted mOR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.0 - 7.0). Cases were also more likely to have never received vaccination (adjusted mOR: 10.1, 95% CI 4.5 - 22.5) and having no other children vaccinated at home (adjusted mOR: 3, 95% CI 1.5 - 5.3). Vaccine effectiveness for single dose was found to be 87.4 (95% CI: 76.1 - 93.4), while for two doses it was approximately 93% (95% CI: 86.2 - 96.6). Conclusion: For Measles elimination, mother's education on breast feeding and appropriate weaning practices is required. (author)

  14. Evaluation of anti-measles and anti-mumps vaccination coverage in a cohort of youth in South-Centre of Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lo Magno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a cohort of young people from South Centre Sicily, Italy, in order to evaluate anti-measles anti-mumps vaccination coverage. It is shown that, in proportion, an antibody protection against mumps is greater than an antibody protection against measles and also it causes acute episodes in some subjects vaccinated.

  15. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Abida; Singhal S; Bal A; Ganguly N; Malik A

    1998-01-01

    Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P) participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study var...

  16. Immunological efficacy of Vaccination against Measles in Children with Down syndrome

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    S. P. Kaplina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of current vaccination process of cellular, humoral immunity and specific antibody formation in 41 children with Down syndrome at the age of 1 year to 6 years old is observed. To prevent easles used measles vaccine (n=12, divaccine -measles-mumps (n=21 and or Priorix vaccine (n=8. The comparison group consisted of 63 children without Down syndrome. The post-vaccination period in 97,6% of children with Down syndrome cases are asymptomatic, only 2,4% of children mentioned layering of intercurrent diseases. The immunological status in children with Down syndrome is characterized by a significant decrease in the  umber leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and absolute number of CD20+, but functional activity of the cells is preserved. By 30 days after immunization they have increased leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD 95+cells. The number of antibodies significantly increased (6,63±0,33 compared to 5,79±0,32 log2, р < 0,05.

  17. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

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    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  18. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara;

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  19. The Influence of Regulatory T cells on the response to the Measles and DTP vaccines in Gambian infants

    OpenAIRE

    Jorjoh Ndure; Sarah Rowland-Jones; Magdalena Plebanski

    2013-01-01

    Despite the key role of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in regulating immune responses to infections, very few studies have reported on their role in controlling the immunogenicity of vaccines in infants. It is still not clear if pre-existing Tregs interfere with the generation of vaccine-induced immunity, and whether they are induced following vaccination in infants. Using a dataset from a randomized trial of 9 month-old infants vaccinated with either measles vaccine (MV) alone, MV + DTwP (d...

  20. A postmarket safety comparison of 2 vaccination strategies for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchio, Silvia; Zanoni, Giovanna; Opri, Roberta; Russo, Francesca; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    It is strategically important to monitor the safety profile of vaccination schedules in order to achieve and maintain high levels of coverage. We analyzed the cohort of individuals actively invited for measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) vaccination in the Veneto region (north-east Italy) from 8/1/2013 to 7/31/2014, assessing the onset of adverse events (AE) relating to 2 different vaccination strategies for MMRV (MMR+V vs MMRV). During the vaccination session at 14 months old, parents were given a form for recording local and systemic reactions to vaccinations for 4 weeks afterwards. Overall, 12,288 forms were returned, and 84.6% of them were included in this analysis (5,130 relating to MMR+V and 5,265 to MMRV); 37.3% of the sample reported no AEs, with no difference between the 2 groups. Local reactions were more common in the MMR+V group (9.6% vs 2.9%; RR 3.33; 95% CI 2.79-3.98), while there was no difference in general reactions between the 2 groups (50% MMR+V vs 52% MMRV). The events most often reported were "fever perception of the AEs occurring in response to their child's vaccination. PMID:26528829

  1. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1. PMID:27523740

  2. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months or...... no early MV, in addition to the usual MV at 9 months. We have previously found interactions between vitamin A and vaccines. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether there were interactions between NVAS and early MV. DESIGN: We compared the mortality of NVAS and placebo recipients: first, from 4.5 to 8...... months for children randomized to early MV or no early MV; and second, from 9 to 17 months in children who had received two MV or one MV. Mortality rates (MR) were compared in Cox models producing mortality rate ratios (MRR). RESULTS: A total of 5141 children were randomized to NVAS (N=3015) or placebo...

  3. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  4. A randomized trial of an early measles vaccine at 4½ months of age in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Søndergaard, Mia; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After measles vaccine (MV), all-cause mortality is reduced more than can be explained by the prevention of measles, especially in females. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the biological mechanisms underlying the observed non-specific and sex-differential effects of MV on mortality. METHODS......: Within a large randomised trial of MV at 4.5 months of age blood samples were obtained before and six weeks after randomisation to early MV or no early MV. We measured concentrations of cytokines and soluble receptors from plasma (interleukin-1 receptor agonist (IL-1Ra), IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis...

  5. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...... a randomized trial providing MV at age 4.5 and 9 months or MV only at age 9 months, thymic size was assessed by ultrasound at age 4.5 months, before randomization to early MV or no early MV, and 4 weeks later. Among 656 children, there was no effect of early MV on thymic size, the geometric mean...... size ratio being 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96-1.02). In a post hoc analysis early MV was associated with a negative effect in healthy children but a positive effect in ill children. In conclusion, early MV at age 4.5 months had no overall effect on thymus size 4 weeks later. Trial registration: http...

  6. An evaluation of respiratory administration of measles vaccine for prevention of acute lower respiratory infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav Suresh S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles was responsible for an estimated 100,000 deaths worldwide in 2008. Despite being a vaccine-preventable disease, measles remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. Although a safe and effective injectable measles vaccine has been available for over 50 years it has not been possible to achieve the uniformly high levels of coverage (required to achieve measles eradication in most parts of the developing world. Aerosolised measles vaccines are now under development with the hope of challenging the delivery factors currently limiting the coverage of the existing vaccine. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments to assess the strengths and weaknesses of this emerging intervention to decrease the burden of childhood pneumonia. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging aerosol vaccines against measles relevant to several criteria of interest. Although there are a number of different aerosol vaccine approaches under development, for the purpose of this exercise, all were considered as one intervention. The criteria of interest were: answerability; cost of development, production and implementation; efficacy and effectiveness; deliverability, affordability and sustainability; maximum potential impact on disease burden reduction; acceptability to the end users and health workers; and effect on equity. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to the sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from the CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each

  7. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.; Bale, C.; Andersen, A.; Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Ravn, H.; Lisse, I.M.; Benn, Christine Stabell; Whittle, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine at...... 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months of age (group C). Main outcome measure Mortality rate ratio between 4.5 and 36 months of age for group A compared with groups B and C. Secondary outcomes...

  8. A Rare Case: Atypical Measles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmü Sena Sarı

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atypical measles has been described in persons who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. Occasionally, it can be caused by live measles vaccines also. It is a clinical picture different from typical measles. In this report, an adult patient with a history of immunization, who presented with high fever, maculopapular rash starting at the palms and soles, and pneumonia, is presented. Atypical measles that was first reported in the 1970s in mostly kids should be considered for differential diagnosis in adult cases presenting with high fever, atypical rash and pneumonia even if patients have a history of immunization

  9. Comparing the health and social protection effects of measles vaccination strategies in Ethiopia: An extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Julia; Olson, Zachary D; Jamison, Dean T; Verguet, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Vaccination coverage rates often mask wide variation in access, uptake, and cost of providing vaccination. Financial incentives have been effective at creating demand for social services in a variety of settings. Using methods of extended cost-effectiveness analysis, we compare the health and economic implications of three different vaccine delivery strategies for measles vaccination in Ethiopia: i) routine immunization, ii) routine immunization with financial incentives, and iii) mass campaigns, known as supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We examine annual birth cohorts of almost 3,000,000 births over a ten year period, exploring variation in these outcomes based on economic status to understand how various options may improve equity. SIAs naturally achieve higher levels of vaccine coverage, but at higher costs. Routine immunization combined with financial incentives bolsters demand among more economically vulnerable households. The relative appeal of routine immunization with financial incentives and SIAs will depend on the policy environment, including short-term financial limitations, time horizons, and the types of outcomes that are desired. While the impact of financial incentives has been more thoroughly studied in other policy arenas, such as education, consideration of this approach alongside standard vaccination models such as SIAs is timely given the dialog around measles eradication. PMID:26189009

  10. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmila Mallik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders

  11. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children No período de março de 1991 a abril de 1992, 250 casos de um total de 293 notificados como sarampo em Niterói, RJ foram estudados. Em 75,9% dos casos o sarampo ocorreu em pessoas de idade escolar (mediana: 11. História de exposição estava presmte em 149 pacientes. O local de transmissão variou de acordo com a idade sendo a escola o mais freqüentemente encoiitrado (45%. Em 127 casos o estado vacinai era conhecido e 76,4% deles tinham sido vacinados antes do primeiro aniversário. Em 68 casos uma ou mais complicações estavam presentes e em 8,9% deles a hospitalização foi necessária. Complicações foram mais freqüentes em menores de um ano de idade (55,6%. História de vacinação prévia não diminuiu o número de complicações dos casos estudados. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram mudanças na epidemiologia do sarampo, com alterações na distribuição etária dos casos da doença, leimido ã ocoiTência de importantes surtos da virose entre adolecentes e adultos jovens.

  12. Differential induction of type I interferons in macaques by wild-type measles virus alone or with the hemagglutinin protein of the Edmonston vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nguyen, Nguyen; Kato, Sei-Ich; Nagata, Kyosuke; Takeuchi, Kaoru

    2016-07-01

    Measles vaccines are highly effective and safe; however, the mechanism(s) underlying their attenuation has not been well understood. In this study, type I IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) induction in macaques infected with measles virus (MV) strains was examined. Type I IFNs were not induced in macaques infected with wild-type MV. However, IFN-α was sharply induced in most macaques infected with recombinant wild-type MV bearing the hemagglutinin (H) protein of the Edmonston vaccine strain. These results indicate that the H protein of MV vaccine strains may have a role in MV attenuation. PMID:27278100

  13. [Attitudes and knowledge among parents who do not want their children to be vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella (MFR-vaccination)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haurum, J; Johansen, M

    1991-03-01

    In a questionnaire investigation concerning attitudes to and knowledge about MFR vaccination among 81 parents who did not want their children to be vaccinated against measles, mumps and German measles, the parents could be divided into two main groups with reasons formulated in advance: 41% stated that "infectious diseases are beneficial for children" including here their somatic and mental development and the parent-child relationship. The remaining parents based their attitudes on defective knowledge about MFR vaccination, fear of side effects, erroneous contraindications and attitudes such as: the MFR diseases are not serious and vaccination may cause serious disease, does not protect effectively or lowers the resistance of the population and that economy is a poor argument in favour of vaccination. Parents who were critical about the total information concerning the MFR programme were also more critical about their general practitioner than the remaining parents. 80% stated that the MFR programme had been introduced because it involved social economy while 56% thought that health benefits were the reason. It is concluded that further well-directed information about the MFR programme is essential, if the necessary vaccine coverage is to be obtained. PMID:2008713

  14. Human Leukocyte Antigen Associations with Humoral and Cellular Immunity Following a Second Dose of Measles-Containing Vaccine: Persistence, Dampening, and Extinction of Associations Found After a First Dose

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Robert M.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Previously we found Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) associations with humoral immunity following a single dose of measles-containing vaccine. In this study, we sought to determine if HLA associations exist with humoral and cellular immunity following a second dose of measles-containing vaccine and if the associations we found with humoral immunity after the first dose persist following a second dose.

  15. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. METHOD: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran. Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42 years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5, and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5. One hundred sixty-eight women (96% had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7% had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01, immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.

  16. Live attenuated measles virus vaccine therapy for locally established malignant glioblastoma tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shammari AM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed M Al-Shammari,1 Farah E Ismaeel,2 Shahlaa M Salih,2 Nahi Y Yaseen11Experimental Therapy Department, Iraqi Center for Cancer and Medical Genetic Researches, Mustansiriya University, 2Departments of Biotechnology, College of Science, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, IraqAbstract: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, with poor prognosis. A new glioblastoma cell line (ANGM5 was established from a cerebral glioblastoma multiforme in a 72-year-old Iraqi man who underwent surgery for an intracranial tumor. This study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor effect of live attenuated measles virus (MV Schwarz vaccine strain on glioblastoma multiforme tumor cell lines in vitro. Live attenuated MV Schwarz strain was propagated on Vero, human rhabdomyosarcoma, and human glioblastoma-multiform (ANGM5 cell lines. The infected confluent monolayer appeared to be covered with syncytia with granulation and vacuolation, as well as cell rounding, shrinkage, and large empty space with cell debris as a result of cell lysis and death. Cell lines infected with virus have the ability for hemadsorption to human red blood cells after 72 hours of infection, whereas no hemadsorption of uninfected cells is seen. Detection of MV hemagglutinin protein by monoclonal antibodies in infected cells of all cell lines by immunocytochemistry assay gave positive results (brown color in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Cell viability was measured after 72 hours of infection by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results showed a significant cytotoxic effect for MV (P≤0.05 on growth of ANGM5 and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines after 72 hours of infection. Induction of apoptosis by MV was assessed by measuring mitochondrial membrane potentials in tumor cells after 48, 72, and 120 hours of infection. Apoptotic cells were counted, and the mean percentage of dead cells was significantly higher after 48, 72

  17. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia C.; Kabuluzi, Storn; Chirwa, Geoffrey; Mwansambo, Charles; Costello, Anthony; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Bar-Zeev, Naor

    2016-01-01

    Background Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV). We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting. Methods Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression. Results Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7–36), 19 days (IQR 8–36) for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3–46) for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule. Conclusion Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes. PMID:27152612

  18. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzie Mvula

    Full Text Available Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV. We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting.Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression.Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36, 19 days (IQR 8-36 for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46 for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule.Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

  19. INTRALESIONAL MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA (MMR VACCINE-AN EFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TOOL IN THE TREATMENT OF WART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are common cutaneous viral infection. Various therapeutic modalities have been using in treatment of wart, but none of them are standardised. Immunotherapy is new current approach in the treatment of wart. AIMS: To know the efficacy and safety profile of Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR Vaccine in the treatment of wart. METHODS: MMR vaccine was injected into a largest single wart intralesionally and subsequent injections given every 2 weeks apart for about 3 to 5 times. Every month followup of patients was done to know the clearance of wart. RESULTS: Complete remission of warts seen in 70.4% of patients, partial remission seen in 22.2% and no response was seen in 7.4% of patients. No serious adverse side effects were seen in the current study. CONCLUSION: MMR vaccine can be considered as a safe, effective, inexpensive intralesional immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of wart.

  20. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect on...... overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo was...... associated with an increased frequency of CRP≥5 mg/l (28 v. 12 %; P=0·005). Six weeks after supplementation, VAS had significant sex-differential effects on leucocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil cell counts, decreasing them in males but increasing them in females. Mainly in females, the effect of VAS...

  1. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tweet Share Compartir Stay safe and healthy when traveling abroad. Measles spreads easily through coughing and sneezing. It ... vaccinated for measles before you travel . Are you traveling abroad? You might not think about measles when you ...

  2. Live attenuated measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus like particles covered with gp160ΔV1V2 is strongly immunogenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although a live attenuated HIV vaccine is not currently considered for safety reasons, a strategy inducing both T cells and neutralizing antibodies to native assembled HIV-1 particles expressed by a replicating virus might mimic the advantageous characteristics of live attenuated vaccine. To this aim, we generated a live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine expressing HIV-1 Gag virus-like particles (VLPs) covered with gp160ΔV1V2 Env protein. The measles-HIV virus replicated efficiently in cell culture and induced the intense budding of HIV particles covered with Env. In mice sensitive to MV infection, this recombinant vaccine stimulated high levels of cellular and humoral immunity to both MV and HIV with neutralizing activity. The measles-HIV virus infected human professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and B cells, and induced efficient presentation of HIV-1 epitopes and subsequent activation of human HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell clones. This candidate vaccine will be next tested in non-human primates. As a pediatric vaccine, it might protect children and adolescents simultaneously from measles and HIV.

  3. Analysis of 7 measles cases associated with the first dose vaccination of measles and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine%7例首剂麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗相关麻疹病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东彦; 毛雯雯; 王中战; 张建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of measles cases associated with the immunization of measles and rubella (MR) combine vaccine and provide evidence for differential diagnosis of measles and MR vaccine associated measles. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of MR vaccine associated measles in Fengtai in 2011. Results Seven MR vaccine associated measles cases were laboratory confirmed in 2011. All the cases were infants aged 8-9 months receving the first dose of MR vaccine injection. All the vaccines used were qualified and in different batches. The incidence was 2. 5 per 10 000 doses. No time and space clustering of the cases was observed, and no second cases occurred. The clinical manifestations of the cases were characterized by respiratory symptom and short interval between fever and rash. Conclusion There are differences in clinical manifestations, laboratory detection results and epidemiological characteristics between measles cases and MR vaccine associated measles cases. Close attention should be paid in differential diagnosis.%目的 调查麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(measles and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine,MR)相关麻疹病例(a vaccine-associated measles case)的特点,与麻疹病例进行鉴别.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对丰台区2011年MR相关麻疹病例进行分析.结果 2011年丰台区实验室确诊7例MR相关麻疹病例,均为8~9月龄幼儿首次接种MR,所用疫苗均为合格疫苗,无批号聚集.发病率为2.5/万剂.病例发病无时间、地点聚集性,与麻疹病例无流行病学联系,亦无二代病例出现,临床表现无咳嗽及呼吸道卡他症状,发热与出疹间隔期短.结论 疫苗相关病例与麻疹病例在临床表现、实验室检测和流行病学特征上有所不同,基层工作者应在实际工作中加以鉴别.

  4. A serologic study of Measles in association with the history of vaccination in 7-11 years old children in Rey in 1371

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari Azad T; Naghavi M; Rakhshandeh

    1994-01-01

    201 blood samples were collected by cluster sampling from 7-11 years old children and measles antibody titer was measured by hemagglutination inhibition test. Despite testing all the sera, the results were analysed on the 139 samples that had documented vaccination records and no history of measles. Among 139 children 44 had received 2 doses of vaccine one dose before 12 and one after 15 months, 64 had one dose after 15 months, 29 had only one dose before 12 months and 2 had not received vacc...

  5. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months of ...... age (current policy). Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting The Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau, which maintains a health and demographic surveillance system in an urban area. Participants 6648 children aged 4.5 months of age who had received three doses of diphtheria...

  6. Description of two measles outbreaks in the Lazio Region, Italy (2006-2007. Importance of pockets of low vaccine coverage in sustaining the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magurano Fabio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the launch of the national plan for measles elimination, in Italy, immunization coverage remains suboptimal and outbreaks continue to occur. Two measles outbreaks, occurred in Lazio region during 2006-2007, were investigated to identify sources of infection, transmission routes, and assess operational implications for elimination of the disease. Methods Data were obtained from several sources, the routine infectious diseases surveillance system, field epidemiological investigations, and molecular genotyping of virus by the national reference laboratory. Results Overall 449 cases were reported, sustained by two different stereotypes overlapping for few months. Serotype D4 was likely imported from Romania by a Roma/Sinti family and subsequently spread to the rest of the population. Serotype B3 was responsible for the second outbreak which started in a secondary school. Pockets of low vaccine coverage individuals (Roma/Sinti communities, high school students facilitated the reintroduction of serotypes not endemic in Italy and facilitated the measles infection to spread. Conclusions Communities with low vaccine coverage represent a more serious public health threat than do sporadic susceptible individuals. The successful elimination of measles will require additional efforts to immunize low vaccine coverage population groups, including hard-to-reach individuals, adolescents, and young adults. An enhanced surveillance systems, which includes viral genotyping to document chains of transmission, is an essential tool for evaluating strategy to control and eliminate measles

  7. Measles transmission following the tsunami in a population with a high one-dose vaccination coverage, Tamil Nadu, India 2004–2005

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    Wairgkar Niteen S

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 26 December 2004, a tsunami struck the coast of the state of Tamil Nadu, India, where one-dose measles coverage exceeded 95%. On 29 December, supplemental measles immunization activities targeted children 6 to 60 months of age in affected villages. On 30 December, Cuddalore, a tsunami-affected district in Tamil Nadu reported a cluster of measles cases. We investigated this cluster to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to propose recommendations for control. Methods We received notification of WHO-defined measles cases through stimulated passive surveillance. We collected information regarding date of onset, age, sex, vaccination status and residence. We collected samples for IgM antibodies and genotype studies. We modeled the accumulation of susceptible individuals over the time on the basis of vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy and birth rate. Results We identified 101 measles cases and detected IgM antibodies against measles virus in eight of 11 sera. Cases were reported from tsunami-affected (n = 71 and unaffected villages (n = 30 with attack rates of 1.3 and 1.7 per 1000, respectively. 42% of cases in tsunami-affected villages had an onset date within 14 days of the tsunami. The median ages of case-patients in tsunami-affected and un-affected areas were 54 months and 60 months respectively (p = 0.471. 36% of cases from tsunami-affected areas were above 60 months of age. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the sequences of virus belonged to genotype D8 that circulated in Tamil Nadu. Conclusion Measles virus circulated in Cuddalore district following the tsunami, although there was no association between the two events. Transmission despite high one-dose vaccination coverage pointed to the limitations of this vaccination strategy. A second opportunity for measles immunization may help reducing measles mortality and morbidity in such areas. Children from 6 month to 14 years of age must be targeted for

  8. Comparative sequence analysis of the P-, M- and L-coding region of the measles virus CAM-70 live attenuated vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus is a highly contagious agent which causes a major health problem in developing countries. The viral genomic RNA is single-stranded, nonsegmented and of negative polarity. Many live attenuated vaccines for measles virus have been developed using either the prototype Edmonston strain or other locally isolated measles strains. Despite the diverse geographic origins of the vaccine viruses and the different attenuation methods used, there was remarkable sequence similarity of H, F and N genes among all vaccine strains. CAM-70 is a Japanese measles attenuated vaccine strain widely used in Brazilian children and produced by Bio-Manguinhos since 1982. Previous studies have characterized this vaccine biologically and genomically. Nevertheless, only the F, H and N genes have been sequenced. In the present study we have sequenced the remaining P, M and L genes (approximately 1.6, 1.4 and 6.5 kb, respectively to complete the genomic characterization of CAM-70 and to assess the extent of genetic relationship between CAM-70 and other current vaccines. These genes were amplified using long-range or standard RT-PCR techniques, and the cDNA was cloned and automatically sequenced using the dideoxy chain-termination method. The sequence analysis comparing previously sequenced genotype A strains with the CAM-70 Bio-Manguinhos strain showed a low divergence among them. However, the CAM-70 strains (CAM-70 Bio-Manguinhos and a recently sequenced CAM-70 submaster seed strain were assigned to a specific group by phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method. Information about our product at the genomic level is important for monitoring vaccination campaigns and for future studies of measles virus attenuation.

  9. Measles Susceptibility in Children in Karachi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Sana; Ali, Asad; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Agha, Ajmal; Khowaja, Asif; Allana, Salim; Qureshi, Shahida; Azam, Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    Measles, despite being vaccine preventable is still a major public health problem in many developing countries. We estimated the proportion of measles susceptible children in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan, one year after the nationwide measles supplementary immunization activity (SIA) of 2007–08. Oral fluid specimens of 504 randomly selected children from Karachi, aged 12–59 months were collected to detect measles IgG antibodies. Measles antibodies were detected in only 5...

  10. Effects of the live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, Marloes W; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Armbrust, Wineke; Swart, Joost; Gorter, Simone; de Vries, Lara D; Smits, Gaby P; van Gageldonk, Pieter G; Berbers, Guy A M; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The immunogenicity and the effects of live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are matters of concern, especially in patients treated with immunocompromising therapies. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether M

  11. Sequence analysis of measles virus strains collected during the pre- and early-vaccination era in Denmark reveals a considerable diversity of ancient strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Schöller, S.; Schierup, M. H.;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis of the...... hemagglutinin gene. The strains exhibited a considerable genomic diversity, which is at odds with the assumption that one genome type prevailed among globally circulating MV strains prior to the advent of live-attenuated vaccines. Our data indicate that the similarity of the various vaccine strains is...... attributed to their having originated from the same primary isolate. Consequently, it is implied that a small number of clinical manifestations of MV worldwide from which strains similar to the vaccine strain were identified were vaccine related rather than being caused by members of a persistently...

  12. EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY OF A COMBINATION –MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA VACCINE IN THE TREATMENT OF PLANTAR WARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagat Sobhy Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The treatment of patients with plantar warts continues to be a frustrating matter for both primary care physicians and dermatologists. There are new trends towards the use of immunotherapy in treatment of warts, as the immune system seems to play an important role in the control of warts infection. Aim: Assessing the efficacy of intralesional injection of MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella in the treatment of plantar warts. Patients: One hundred patients complaining of plantar warts were included in this study. Methods: The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1: This group included 50 patients subjected to intralesional injection of measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR. Group 2: This group included 50 patients as a control group and subjected to intralesional injection of 0.3 ml saline. Only single wart was injected. Injections were done at 3-weeks interval until complete clearance or for a maximum of 3 treatments. Follow up of patients was done every month for six months for clinical assessment of results and to show any recurrence. Results: Regarding the response of the target wart, MMR- treated group showed significantly higher rate of complete clearance compared with the control group (82% versus 0% respectively. The rate of partial response was 6% versus 30%, and the rate of no response was 12% versus 70%, respectively. Regarding the response of untreated distant warts, MMR-treated group showed 86.9% complete and 13.1% partial clearance of the warts whereas the control group showed 100% no response. This strongly indicates the development of a widespread HPV-targeted immunity as a response of antigen injection and represents a major advantage of the intra lesional immunotherapy. Conclusions: We found that treatment of plantar warts by MMR vaccine is effective, with good cure rates and excellent safety profile..

  13. The Reemergence of Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, C L; Safdar, N

    2015-12-01

    Measles, or rubeola, is a highly infectious, acute viral illness of childhood that is considered eliminated in the USA but has reemerged in the past few years. Globally, an estimated 20 million cases of measles continue to occur, and it remains a leading cause of death among young children. It is rare in the USA and other first world countries, but numerous outbreaks have occurred in the USA recently, due to a combination of factors including poor vaccine coverage and importation of cases among travelers returning from endemic areas. The diagnosis of measles is usually made clinically, when an individual presents with a constellation of symptoms including cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, high fever, and an erythematous maculopapular rash in a cephalocaudal distribution. Complications are common and include otitis media, pneumonia, encephalitis, and rarely death. A measles vaccine is available in two doses and provides excellent protection against the disease. Despite this, vaccination coverage, especially among young adults, remains poor. Given its resurgence in the USA and other countries, interventions are urgently needed to address low vaccination rates and vaccine hesitancy. Measles awareness should also be a priority among young clinicians, who may have never seen a case or are not familiar with the disease. PMID:26446612

  14. Mumps Postexposure Prophylaxis with a Third Dose of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine, Orange County, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Jacqueline; Curns, Aaron T.; Brandeburg, Christina; Wallace, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Although the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is not recommended for mumps postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), data on its effectiveness are limited. During the 2009–2010 mumps outbreak in the northeastern United States, we assessed effectiveness of PEP with a third dose of MMR vaccine among contacts in Orthodox Jewish households who were given a third dose within 5 days of mumps onset in the household’s index patient. We compared mumps attack rates between persons who received a third MMR dose during the first incubation period after onset in the index patient and 2-dose vaccinated persons who had not. Twenty-eight (11.7%) of 239 eligible household members received a third MMR dose as PEP. Mumps attack rates were 0% among third-dose recipients versus 5.2% among 2-dose recipients without PEP (p = 0.57). Although a third MMR dose administered as PEP did not have a significant effect, it may offer some benefits in specific outbreak contexts. PMID:23965729

  15. Reduced childhood mortality after standard measles vaccination at 4-8 months compared with 9-11 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M; Gomes, J; Fernandes, Marcellino Christian

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age.......To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age....

  16. 母亲接种麻疹疫苗对婴儿首针麻疹疫苗免疫效果的影响%Evaluation on the influence of mothers' measles vaccination before pregnancy on the immune effect of infant's first-dose measles vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永成; 高志刚; 张颖; 张之伦; 曲江文; 丁亚兴; 田宏; 陈德荣; 刘明珠

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价母亲接种麻疹疫苗后对婴儿首针麻疹疫苗免疫成功率的影响,了解孕妇和婴儿的麻疹抗体水平及其关系.方法 按照近10年内母亲是否接种含麻疹成分疫苗选择研究对象,追踪监测孕妇分娩前、新生儿出生时、婴儿8月龄免疫前和接种疫苗后1个月的麻疹IgG抗体水平,采用ELISA法检测.抗体效价>200 mIU/mL为阳性,>1 000 mIU/mL为保护性抗体水平阳性.采用t检验和卡方检验.结果 共调查107对研究对象,其中接种疫苗组41对,未接种疫苗组66对.母亲接种疫苗组新生儿麻疹保护性抗体阳性21名,占51.2%,未接种疫苗组阳性19名,占28.8%(x2 =5.436,P=0.020);新生儿麻疹保护性抗体几何平均效价(GMC)分别为735.3和566.7 mIU/mL(t'=2.064,P=0.043);两组分别检测36名和60名免疫前后的婴儿,母亲接种疫苗组首针免疫成功率为91.7%,未接种疫苗组为90.0%(校正x2=0.075,P=0.785);免疫后1个月麻疹保护性抗体GMC分别为1 055.6和926.0 mIU/mL(t=1.648,P=0.103).结论 母亲接种含麻疹成分疫苗后不影响8月龄婴儿首针麻疹疫苗的免疫成功率和抗体效价,能提高孕妇和新生儿麻疹保护性抗体阳性率,抗体效价也显著增高.%Objective To evaluate the influence of mothers' measles vaccination on the success rate of infants' first-dose measles vaccination and to access the relationship between mothers' anti-measles antibody levels and their infants'.Methods The recruited pregnant women were divided into two groups according to their measles vaccination history in recent 10 years,and their anti measles IgG antibody levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The anti-measles antibody levels of the corresponding infants were detected by ELISA at birth,8-months after birth (before measles vaccination)and one month after measles vaccination.The concentration of anti-measles IgG antibody >200 mIU/mL was considered as seropositive,and 1

  17. Seroprevalence of antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella, and serologic responses after vaccination among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected adults in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiwarith, Romanee; Praparattanapan, Jutarat; Nuket, Khanuengnit; Kotarathitithum, Wilai; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai

    2016-01-01

    Background After the global implementation of national immunization programs for prevention of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), the prevalences of protective antibodies to these viruses are high in general population. However, there are limited data among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected individuals. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to these viruses, and the serologic responses after vaccination among HIV-infected adults in Northern Thailand. Metho...

  18. Encephalitogenicity of measles virus in marmosets.

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, P; Lorenz, D.; Klutch, M J

    1981-01-01

    Marmosets infected intracerebrally with the wild Edmonston strain of measles virus developed encephalitis, demonstrated histologically and by the fluorescent-antibody technique. The infection remained clinically silent over a 14-day observation period. Animals infected intracerebrally with the JM strain of wild measles virus had only mild encephalitic changes but died of the visceral form of measles infection. Marmosets inoculated with measles vaccine had no encephalitis and remained clinical...

  19. A 60-year review on the changing epidemiology of measles in capital Beijing, China, 1951-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Juan; Lu, Li; Pang, Xinghuo; Sun, Meiping; MA, RUI; Liu, Donglei; Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background China pledged to join the global effort to eliminate measles by 2012. To improve measles control strategy, the epidemic trend and population immunity of measles were investigated in 1951–2011 in Beijing. Methods The changing trend of measles since 1951 was described based on measles surveillance data from Beijing Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The measles vaccination coverage and antibody level were assessed by routinely reported measles vaccination data and twenty...

  20. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas; Sartono, Erliyani; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2016-02-01

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo was associated with an increased frequency of CRP≥5 mg/l (28 v. 12 %; P=0·005). Six weeks after supplementation, VAS had significant sex-differential effects on leucocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil cell counts, decreasing them in males but increasing them in females. Mainly in females, the effect of VAS on cytokine responses differed by previous VAS: in previous VAS recipients, VAS increased the pro-inflammatory and T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses, whereas VAS decreased these responses in previously unsupplemented children. In previous VAS recipients, VAS was associated with increased IFN-γ responses to phytohaemagglutinin in females (geometric mean ratio (GMR): 3·97; 95 % CI 1·44, 10·90) but not in males (GMR 0·44; 95 % CI 0·14, 1·42); the opposite was observed in previously unsupplemented children. Our results corroborate that VAS provided with MV has immunological effects, which may depend on sex and previous VAS. VAS may increase the number of leucocytes, but also repress both the innate and lymphocyte-derived cytokine responses in females, whereas this repression may be opposite if the females have previously received VAS. PMID:26678511

  1. Case based measles surveillance in Pune: evidence to guide current and future measles control and elimination efforts in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sekhar Bose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011 are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. METHODS: Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. RESULTS: Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1. CONCLUSION: Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.

  2. Safety and Immunogenicity of Early Measles Vaccination in Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in the United States: Results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Protocol 225

    OpenAIRE

    Chandwani, Sulachni; Beeler, Judy; Li, Hong; Audet, Susette; Smith, Betsy; Moye, John; Nalin, David; Krasinski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Background. PACTG (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group) 225, a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial in the United States evaluated reactogenicity and immunogenicity of 2 vaccination regimens: monovalent measles vaccine (Attenuvax) at 6 months of age and measles, mumps, and rubella, live attenuated (MMRII) vaccine at 12 months of age (2D), or only MMRII at 12 months of age (1D) in human immunodeficiency virus–infected (HIV-infected) (POS) and uninfected (NEG) children in the pre–highly a...

  3. Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as an intralesional immunotherapy in treatment of warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti N. Shah

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Intralesional immunotherapy with MMR vaccine was found to be a simple, effective, and safe treatment for warts. This study proved to be cost effective as patients can be treated with just 03 doses of MMR vaccine given at the interval of two weeks. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 472-476

  4. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Saliou Pierre; Lobel Hans O; Collins William E; Meade Bruce D; Manclark Charles R; Breman Joel G; Rosen Jennifer B; Roberts Jacquelin M; Campaoré Pierre; Miller Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi), stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following...

  5. Indoor Air Pollution and Delayed Measles Vaccination Increase the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in Children: Results from a Case-Control Study in Mwanza, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    PrayGod, George; Mukerebe, Crispin; Magawa, Ruth; Jeremiah, Kidola; Török, M. Estée

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality due to severe pneumonia during childhood in resource-constrained settings is high, but data to provide basis for interventions to improve survival are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe pneumonia in children aged under five years old in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods We conducted a case-control study of children aged 2 to 59 months at Sekou-Toure regional hospital in Mwanza City, north-western, Tanzania from May 2013 to March 2014. Cases were children with severe pneumonia and controls were children with other illnesses. Data on demography, social-economical status, nutritional status, environmental factors, vaccination status, vitamin A supplementation and deworming, and nasopharyngeal carriage were collected and analysed using logistic regression. Results 117 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45 were cases and 72 controls. Cases were younger than controls, but there were no differences in social-economic or nutritional status between the two groups. In multiple regression, we found that an increased risk of severe pneumonia was associated with cooking indoors (OR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.4, 22.1), and delayed measles vaccination (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 14.8). The lack of vitamin A supplementation in the preceding six month and Enterobacter spp nasopharyngeal carriage were not associated with higher risk of severe pneumonia. Age ≥24 months (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.8) and not receiving antibiotics before referral (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) were associated with lower risk for severe pneumonia. Conclusions Indoor air pollution and delayed measles vaccination increase the risk for severe pneumonia among children aged below five years. Interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and to promote timely administration of measles vaccination are urgently needed to reduce the burden of severe pneumonia in children in Tanzania PMID:27508389

  6. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...... levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody...... levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age...

  7. Effect of socioeconomic deprivation on uptake of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination in Liverpool, UK over 16 years: a longitudinal ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, D; Macpherson, P; Farmer, S; Ghebrehewet, S; Seddon, D; Vivancos, R; Keenan, A

    2016-04-01

    Suboptimal uptake of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine by certain socioeconomic groups may have contributed to recent large measles outbreaks in the UK. We investigated whether socioeconomic deprivation was associated with MMR vaccine uptake over 16 years. Using immunization data for 72 351 children born between 1995 and 2012 in Liverpool, UK, we examined trends in vaccination uptake. Generalized linear models were constructed to examine the relative effect of socioeconomic deprivation and year of birth on MMR uptake. Uptake of MMR1 by age 24 months ranged between 82·5% in 2003 [95% confidence interval (CI) 81·2-83·7] and 93·4% in 2012 (95% CI 92·7-94·2). Uptake of MMR2 by age 60 months ranged between 65·3% (95% CI 64·4-67·4) in 2006 and 90·3% (95% CI 89·4-91·2) in 2012. In analysis adjusted for year of birth and sex, children in the most deprived communities were at significantly greater risk of not receiving MMR1 [risk ratio (RR) 1·70, 95% CI 1·45-1·99] and MMR2 (RR 1·36, 95% CI 1·22-1·52). Higher unemployment and lower household income were significantly associated with low uptake. Contrary to concerns about lower MMR uptake in affluent families, over 16 years, children from the most socioeconomically deprived communities have consistently had the lowest MMR uptake. Targeted catch-up campaigns and strategies to improve routine immunization uptake in deprived areas are needed to minimize the risk of future measles outbreaks. PMID:26542197

  8. Biological characterization of clones derived from the edmonston strain of measles virus in comparison with schwarz and CAM-70 vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Junqueira Borges

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Four virus clones were derived from the Edmonston strain of measles virus by repeated plaque purification. These clones were compared with the vaccine strains Schwarz and CAM-70 in terms of biological activities including plaque formation, hemagglutination, hemolysis and replication in Vero cells and chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF. Two clones of intermediate plaque yielded mixed plaque populations on subcultivation whereas the other two, showing small and large plaque sizes, showed stable plaque phenotypes. The vaccine strains showed consistent homogeneous plaque populations. All the Edmonston clones showed agglutination of monkey erythrocytes in isotonic solution while both vaccine strains hemagglutinated only in the presence of high salt concentrations. Variation in the hemolytic activity was observed among the four clones but no hemolytic activity was detected for the vaccine virus strains. Vaccine strains replicated efficiently both in Vero cells and CEF. All four clones showed efficient replication in Vero cells but different replication profiles in CEF. Two of them replicated efficiently, one was of intermediate efficiency and the other showed no replication in CEF. Two of the clones showed characteristics similar to vaccine strains. One in terms of size and homogeneity of plaques, the other for a low hemolytic activity and both for the efficiency of propagation in CEF.

  9. Similar challenges but different responses: Media coverage of measles vaccination in the UK and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Peters, Hans Peter; Allgaier, Joachim; Lo, Yin-Yueh

    2014-01-01

    For several decades scholars have studied media reporting on scientific issues that involve controversy. Most studies so far have focused on the western world. This article tries to broaden the perspective by considering China and comparing it to a western country. A content analysis of newspaper coverage of vaccination issues in the UK and China shows, first, that the government-supported ‘mainstream position’ dominates the Chinese coverage while the British media frequently refer to criticism and controversy. Second, scientific expertise in the British coverage is represented by experts from the health and science sector but by experts from health agencies in the Chinese coverage. These results are discussed with respect to implications for risk communication and scientists’ involvement in public communication. PMID:23825271

  10. Similar challenges but different responses: Media coverage of measles vaccination in the UK and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Peters, Hans Peter; Allgaier, Joachim; Lo, Yin-Yueh

    2014-05-01

    For several decades scholars have studied media reporting on scientific issues that involve controversy. Most studies so far have focused on the western world. This article tries to broaden the perspective by considering China and comparing it to a western country. A content analysis of newspaper coverage of vaccination issues in the UK and China shows, first, that the government-supported 'mainstream position' dominates the Chinese coverage while the British media frequently refer to criticism and controversy. Second, scientific expertise in the British coverage is represented by experts from the health and science sector but by experts from health agencies in the Chinese coverage. These results are discussed with respect to implications for risk communication and scientists' involvement in public communication. PMID:23825271

  11. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiangning

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.

  12. Determinants of European parents' decision on the vaccination of their children against measles, mumps and rubella: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Napoli, Giuseppe; Marchese, Valentina; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Casuccio, Alessandra; Vitale, Francesco; On Behalf Of The Esculapio Working Group

    2016-07-01

    Low measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunization levels in European children highlight the importance of identifying determinants of parental vaccine uptake to implement policies for increasing vaccine compliance. The aim of this paper is to identify the main factors associated with partial and full MMR vaccination uptake in European parents, and combine the different studies to obtain overall quantitative measures. This activity is included within the ESCULAPIO project, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. ORs and CIs were extracted, sources of heterogeneity explored and publication bias assessed. Forty-five papers were retrieved for the qualitative study, 26 of which were included in the meta-analysis. The following factors were associated with lower MMR vaccine uptake: misleading knowledge, beliefs and perceptions on vaccines (OR 0.57, CI 0.37-0.87); negative attitudes and behaviors toward vaccination (OR 0.71, CI 0.52-0.98); demographic characteristics, such as different ethnicity in Southern populations (OR 0.44, CI 0.31-0.61), higher child's age (OR 0.80, CI 0.76-0.85); low socio-economic status (OR 0.64, CI 0.51-0.80), especially low income (OR 0.39, CI 0.25-0.60) and education (OR 0.64, CI 0.48-0.84), high number of children (OR 0.54, CI 0.42-0.69), irregular marital status (OR 0.80, CI 0.66-0.96). The factors explaining heterogeneity were country location, administration modality, collection setting and responses reported on MMR alone or in combination. Findings from this study suggest policy makers to focus communication strategies on providing better knowledge, correct beliefs and perceptions on vaccines, and improving attitudes and behaviors in parents; and to target policies to people of ethnic minority from Southern Europe, low educated and deprived, with higher number of children and non-married marital status. PMID:27163657

  13. The successful induction of T-cell and antibody responses by a recombinant measles virus-vectored tetravalent dengue vaccine provides partial protection against dengue-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-Mei; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Chung, Han-Hsuan; Hsieh, Chun-Hsiang; Chong, Pele; Leng, Chih-Hsiang; Pan, Chien-Hsiung

    2016-07-01

    Dengue has a major impact on global public health, and the use of dengue vaccine is very limited. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a dengue vaccine made from a recombinant measles virus (MV) that expresses envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue-1 to 4. Following immunization with the MV-vectored dengue vaccine, mice developed specific interferon-gamma and antibody responses against dengue virus and MV. Neutralizing antibodies against MV and dengue viruses were also induced, and protective levels of FRNT50 ≥ 10 to 4 serotypes of dengue viruses were detected in the MV-vectored dengue vaccine-immunized mice. In addition, specific interferon-gamma and antibody responses to dengue viruses were still induced by the MV-vectored dengue vaccine in mice that were pre-infected with MV. This finding suggests that the pre-existing immunity to MV did not block the initiation of immune responses. By contrast, mice that were pre-infected with dengue-3 exhibited no effect in terms of their antibody responses to MV and dengue viruses, but a dominant dengue-3-specific T-cell response was observed. After injection with dengue-2, a detectable but significantly lower viremia and a higher titer of anti-dengue-2 neutralizing antibodies were observed in MV-vectored dengue vaccine-immunized mice versus the vector control, suggesting that an anamnestic antibody response that provided partial protection against dengue-2 was elicited. Our results with regard to T-cell responses and the effect of pre-immunity to MV or dengue viruses provide clues for the future applications of an MV-vectored dengue vaccine. PMID:26901482

  14. Western blot analyses of measles virus antibody in normal persons and in patients with multiple sclerosis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, or atypical measles.

    OpenAIRE

    Hankins, R W; Black, F L

    1986-01-01

    A version of the Western blot was developed to detect serum antibodies against measles virus polypeptides. With this technique, a seroepidemiological survey of antibodies to the several measles virus proteins in diverse measles-related conditions was conducted. The sera were obtained from individuals with a recent or long-past history of natural measles, from persons with a history of immunization with live attenuated measles vaccine, and from patients with multiple sclerosis, subacute sclero...

  15. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  16. Not all that rashes is measles:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is a major cause of infant mortality in third world countries, leading to approximately one million deaths each year. The WHO aims to globally eradicate measles virus at the beginning of the next century, which will need a major effort in particular in countries like Sudan. To achieve goal epidemiological studies I am needed to estimate the magnitude of the problem for which accurate diagnostic test are needed. We therefore conducted a study in El hag Yousif area (population 500 000) in Khartoum North where measles is prevalent despite vaccination effort by EPI. We studied the accuracy of the WHO criteria for clinical diagnosis in comparison with laboratory diagnosis during a one-year period. A total of 145 under five suspected measles cases were identified by active, case finding and examined. 111 cases fully complied with the WHO criteria for diagnosis of clinical measles. Out of 103 clinical measles cases, tested using prototype rapid measles test IgM Elisa and Pcr, 77(75%) were measles positive. A battery of virus test was run on 21 sera out of the 26(25%) measles negatives: Herpes virus-6, Epstein-Bar and Dengue viruses were detected in five, one and one case, respectively. It was concluded that one out of every four cases diagnosed by the clinical as measles rash is probably caused by other viruses. (Author)

  17. Eradication of measles: remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Heidemarie; Hengel, Hartmut; Tenbusch, Matthias; Doerr, H W

    2016-06-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years. A rare, but fatal long-term consequence of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Fifteen years ago (2001), WHO has launched a programme to eliminate measles by a worldwide vaccination strategy. This is promising, because MeV is a human-specific morbillivirus (i.e. without relevant animal reservoir), safe and potent vaccine viruses are sufficiently produced since decades for common application, and millions of vaccine doses have been used globally without any indications of safety and efficacy issues. Though the prevalence of wild-type MeV infection has decreased by >90 % in Europe, measles is still not eliminated and has even re-emerged with recurrent outbreaks in developed countries, in which effective vaccination programmes had been installed for decades. Here, we discuss the crucial factors for a worldwide elimination of MeV: (1) efficacy of current vaccines, (2) the extremely high contagiosity of MeV demanding a >95 % vaccination rate based on two doses to avoid primary vaccine failure as well as the installation of catch-up vaccination programmes to fill immunity gaps and to achieve herd immunity, (3) the implications of sporadic cases of secondary vaccine failure, (4) organisation, acceptance and drawbacks of modern vaccination campaigns, (5) waning public attention to measles, but increasing concerns from vaccine-associated adverse reactions in societies with high socio-economic standards and (6) clinical

  18. Epidemiology Characteristics of Measles before and after Supplementary Immunization Activities of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine in Beijing in 2010%北京市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动前后麻疹流行病学特征变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 卢莉; 马蕊; 吴疆; 庞星火

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析北京市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIAs)前后麻疹流行病学特征,评价控制麻疹效果,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 利用2005~2010年麻疹逐月发病数据建立自动回归滑动平均混合模型(Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average,ARIMA),预测2011年发病水平,采用描述流行病学方法,对北京市实施MV SIA前后麻疹监测数据进行分析.结果 预测实施MV SIA前麻疹发病率为49.5/100万,实施MV SIA后麻疹发病率为5/100万,较预测水平下降89.9%.各年龄组麻疹发病率均有大幅下降,削平了季节性流行高峰.实施MV SIA后,≤4岁和15~39岁人群麻疹发病仍占较大的构成比,分别为37.8%和53.1%.结论 北京市2010年实施MV SIA后,麻疹发病大幅下降.为进一步降低麻疹发病水平,应维持高水平常规免疫,提高MV及时接种率,加强学龄前散居儿童和成人查漏补种,最大程度提高免疫水平.%Objective To analyze the epidemiology characteristics of measles before and after measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Beijing in 2010, evaluate the effectiveness of MV SIA and provide the basis for elimination of measles. Methods Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was developed for forecasting measles incidence in 2011. Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on measles surveillance data during 2005-2011. Results Predicted measles incidence was 49.5/1,000,000 in 2011 before MV SIA. The measles incidence was 5/1,000,000 after MV SIA, descending 89.9% compared predicted incidence. MV SIA led to the sharp drop of the measles incidence among all age groups and flatted seasonal epidemic peak. The proportion of children of = 4 years and adults of 15-39 years old were 37.8 % and 53.1 % after MV SIA. Conclusion MV SIA of 2010 in Beijing played a significant role for measles

  19. Molecular strategies for the detection of measles virus in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, N. C.

    1998-01-01

    Hypotheses. i) Atypical exposure to measles virus is a factor in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). ii) Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is a factor in the aetiology of autistic enteropathy. Aims. i) To compare a range of molecular techniques for measles RNA amplification. ii) To develop a sensitive and robust method for the detection of measles RNA. iii) To analyse clinical samples from IBD patients for the presence of measles RNA. iv) To analyse...

  20. Predicting and comparing long-term measles antibody profiles of different immunization policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Min-Shi; Nokes D. James

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Measles outbreaks are infrequent and localized in areas with high coverage of measles vaccine. The need is to assess long-term effectiveness of coverage. Since 1991, no measles epidemic affecting the whole island has occurred in Taiwan, China. Epidemiological models are developed to predict the long-term measles antibody profiles and compare the merits of different immunization policies on the island. METHODS: The current measles immunization policy in Taiwan, China, is 1 dose of m...

  1. Measles--mumps--rubella immunization: the role of the general practitioner in achieving a high uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D.; Roworth, M; Carter, H; Jones, I G

    1989-01-01

    A survey of all general practitioners in Fife conducted prior to the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella immunization on a pilot basis in May 1987 showed that 85% considered mumps worth preventing and 94% believed the rubella programme worth augmenting with universal childhood immunization. Ninety seven per cent considered measles worth preventing and 98% were prepared to recommend measles-mumps-rubella immunization to parents instead of measles vaccine. One year after introducing the measl...

  2. Cotreatment of Congenital Measles with Vitamin A and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the measles vaccine has been part of routine national childhood vaccination programs throughout Europe, measles remains a public health concern. High numbers of cases and outbreaks have occurred throughout the European continent since 2011, and an increasing number of cases have been reported in Turkey since 2012. During a recent measles outbreak in Turkey, 2 pregnant women contracted measles prior to delivering preterm infants at Hacettepe University Hospital. Measles virus genomic RNA and IgM antibodies against measles were detected in the cord blood of infants and mothers in both cases. The infants were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and vitamin A. Transient thrombocytopenia was present in 1 infant and treated with an additional dose of IVIG and vitamin A. The infants were discharged, without complications, within 10 days of birth. The successful treatment of these cases suggests that infants who have been exposed to, or infected with, measles may benefit from cotreatment of vitamin A and IVIG.

  3. Wild-type Measles Virus in Brain Tissue of Children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero, Paola Roxana; Grippo, Jorge; Viegas, Mariana; Mistchenko, Alicia Susana

    2003-01-01

    We studied eight children who had measles at 6 to 10 months of age during the 1998 Argentine measles outbreak and in whom subacute sclerosing panencephalitis developed 4 years later. We report the genetic characterization of brain tissue–associated measles virus samples from three patients. Phylogenetic relationships clustered these viruses with the wild-type D6 genotype isolated during the 1998 outbreak. The children received measles vaccine; however, vaccinal strains were not found.

  4. Measles (Rubeola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rubeola) is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory system that is caused by a virus. It does ... has measles, particularly if the child is an infant or has any medication or condition that weakens the immune system. Call the doctor immediately if the child has ...

  5. Laboratory confirmation of rubella infection in suspected measles cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Jadhav, Santoshkumar M

    2016-10-01

    As a part of measles outbreak based surveillance undertaken by the World Health Organization India, suspected measles cases were referred for the laboratory diagnosis at National Institute of Virology (NIV) Pune and NIV Unit Bengaluru. Altogether, 4,592 serum samples were referred during 2010-2015 from the States of Karnataka (n = 1,173), Kerala (n = 559), and Maharashtra (n = 2,860). Initially, serum samples were tested in measles IgM antibody EIA and samples with measles negative and equivocal results (n = 1,954) were subjected to rubella IgM antibody detection. Overall, 62.9% (2,889/4,592) samples were laboratory confirmed measles, 27.7% (542/1,954) were laboratory confirmed rubella and remaining 25.2% (1,161/4,592) were negative for measles and rubella. The measles vaccination status was available for 1,206 cases. Among the vaccinated individuals, 50.7% (612/1,206) were laboratory confirmed measles. The contribution of laboratory confirmed measles was 493 (40.8%) from Maharashtra, 90 (7.5%) from Karnataka, and 29 (2.4%) from Kerala. Since, 1/3rd of suspected measles cases were laboratory confirmed rubella, an urgent attention needed to build rubella surveillance in India. Additional efforts are required to rule out other exanthematous disease including Dengue and Chikungunya in measles and rubella negatives. J. Med. Virol. 88:1685-1689, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27018071

  6. Progress toward regional measles elimination - worldwide, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert T; Murray, Jillian S; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2015-11-13

    In 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), with MDG4 being a two-thirds reduction in child mortality by 2015, and with measles vaccination coverage being one of the three indicators of progress toward this goal.* In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to fewer than five cases per million population; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (1).† In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan§ with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. WHO member states in all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. This report updates the 2000–2013 report (2) and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000–2014. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 73% worldwide, from 146 to 40 cases per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 79%, from 546,800 to 114,900. However, progress toward the 2015 milestones and elimination goals has slowed markedly since 2010. To resume progress toward milestones and goals for measles elimination, a review of current strategies and challenges to improving program performance is needed, and countries and their partners need to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems. PMID:26562349

  7. Four years of measles elimination in the Czech Socialist Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejda, J

    1987-01-01

    In 1982, Czechoslovakia succeeded in eliminating measles infection throughout the country. The paper describes the strategy of the measles immunization program following its introduction in 1969, showing it to reflect the objective epidemiological situation as revealed by the regular immunological surveys carried out in a broad population sample. As it turned out, decisive for achieving and maintaining a permanent measles elimination in the country was the introduction of second vaccination into the regular immunization schedule. Since 1982, its timing of is from 6 to 10 months after primary immunization. Over the 4-year period between 1982 and 1985, confirmed measles occurred only sporadically in the CSR, 115 cases altogether, and of these as many as 67 were classified as imported or their immediate contacts (38 measles patients were tourists from abroad). Of these 115 measles cases, 52 had had vaccination prior to acquiring the disease, 46 were individuals who had never before been vaccinated and in the remaining 17 patients no vaccination data were available. The vaccine failures, at least in 18 cases, could have been explained by the primary immunization prior to reaching 15 months of age. According to the estimates, at least 670 thousand cases of measles, 470 deaths, 100 thousand complications and some 33 thousand hospitalizations had been averted between 1972 and 1985 on the territory of CSR as a result of the introduction of the measles immunization program in Czechoslovakia. PMID:3429851

  8. Characteristics of patients with measles admitted to allied hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles, a virus borne droplet infection, is one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite presence of a safe and cost-effective vaccine. Objective of our study was to identify the characteristics of measles patients admitted to Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst patients admitted with measles in paediatric units of Rawalpindi Medical College Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. A standard proforma was used to collect data from the respondents. Results: A total of 55 patients (mean age-29.36 months) with measles were included in the study. 65.5% children were vaccinated while 34.5% were not vaccinated. Among those vaccinated 14 were male. Out of the vaccinated children 52.6% were residents of middle class areas, 31.6% lower middle class area, 10.5% upper middle class areas and 5.3% rural areas. In 55.0% of patients who were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles at nine month of age the estimated calendar months of vaccination was March to April while in 30% the overall climatic period of vaccination was of summer (May to September). Twenty one study subjects were exposed to a case of measles in the family and thirty five out of all developed at least one known complication of the disease. Pneumonia was the most common complication reported in patients (63.6%) followed by diarrhoea (27.3%). Conclusion: Majority of the patients suffering from measles were not vaccinated and the most common reason for failure to immunize children was lack of awareness. Educated and well off fathers were more likely to get their children immunized. The vaccinated children who developed measles majority were vaccinated during months of March, April and May. (author)

  9. ALGORITHM OF LABORATORY CONFIRMATION AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF MEASLES INFECTION AT THE STAGE OF THE MEASLES ELIMINATION PROGRAM IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Mamaeva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified algorithm for laboratory confirmation and differential diagnosis of measles infection was developed and used in the laboratory studies of the Russian Laboratory Network (RLN on Measles/Rubella Surveillance within the routine and active measles infection control. The algorithm consists in detecting the IgM, IgG and IgG avidity measles virus antibodies. To approve the modified algorithm sera samples of 637 patients with the measles diagnosis and 423 patients with rush and fever were studied. The IgG avidity measles testing is advisable in the following cases: a only one serum sample is available, b the recommended time interval between the 1st and 2nd sera samples taking is not observed, c no diagnostic increase in titers of the IgG measles virus antibodies is evidenced, d for determination of the type of immune response (primary or secondary and e to exclude the “false positive” results at the stage of detecting the measles virus IgM antibodies. Moreover the data obtained evidenced the involvement of the nonvaccinated (79.7% as well as of vaccinated with 1 or 2 doses of measles vaccine (20.3% population into the measles epidemical process. 

  10. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political in

  11. 麻疹病毒疫苗株沪191和宁波麻疹病毒流行株血清交叉中和试验结果分析%Study on the Cross Neutralizing Antibody between Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine S191 and the Measles Epidemic Strain in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅燕; 许国章; 董红军; 胡逢蛟; 马瑞; 陆圣诞; 焦素黎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the protective level of the current measles vaccine (Shanghai 191. S191) and provide evidence for formulating effective strategies of measles prevention. Methods Neutralizing antibody levels to measles vaccine virus strain S191 and wild type virus strain Ningbo2008-06 from different kinds person' s serum were tested by trace neutralization test. Results The geometric mean titer(GMT)to S191 of primarily vaccination serum, acute phase serum of patients immunized with measles vaccine, serum of convalescence patients, serum of pre-emergency vaccination and serum of post-emergency vaccination werel :35.23,:4.16,: 231.74, : 37.81 and 1:61.03 respectively ;while the GMT to Ningbo 2008-06 of the above serum were 1:19.04,: 2.21,: 596.62,: 32.25 and 1:67.54 respectively. The GMT of the serum of primarily vaccine immunization and the serum of acute phase patients against S191 were 1.85 (t=2.537, P<0.05)and 1.88(t=-2.696, P<0.05) times of those against Ningbo 2008-06 respectively. The GMT of the serum of convalescence patients against Ningbo 2008-06 was 2.57 (t=-3.054, P<0.05) times of that against S191.There was no significant difference between the GMT against S191 and Ningbo2008-06 in post-emergency vaccination serum. For infants, their serum' s GMT against S191 and Ningbo2008-06 declined with their growing up. The GMT against Ningbo2008-06 in 6months and 8months old group were 1:2.60 and 1:1.24 respectively. Conclusions The current measles vaccine S191 can neutraliae Ningbo2008-06,but the neutralizing ability decreased. Emergency vaccination can significantly increasebody s neutralization antibody titer to measles. The antibody from mother almost has no protection after 6 months. It is the time to revise current measles immunization strategies.%目的 分析麻疹病毒疫苗株[上海(沪)191,Shanghai191;S191]的免疫保护性,为探讨有效预防控制麻疹的措施提供参考.方法 用微量中和试验测定不同人群血清

  12. Vaccines: What You Need to Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fauci. "There are two important facts about the measles vaccine. Number one, the measles vaccine is one of the most highly effective vaccines ... the vaccine. Children should also receive the MMR vaccine to protect against measles, mumps, and rubella. The CDC recommends one dose ...

  13. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, 2004–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariyam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly contagious viral infection causing large outbreaks all over the world. Despite the availability of safe and cost effective vaccine, measles remained endemic with persistent periodic outbreaks in the Horn of Africa. The aim of this study is to characterize laboratory confirmed measles cases in Amhara Regional State, which was one of the highly affected regions in Ethiopia. Method A suspected measles case was defined as any person presenting with fever, maculopapu...

  14. Protein-protein and protein-small-molecule inhibitor interactions in the measles virus replication complex

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie A Krumm

    2013-01-01

    The disease measles is caused by the highly contagious measles virus (MeV). MeV belongs to the paramyxovirus family together with respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza viruses and metapneumovirus. Paramyxoviruses are responsible for major pediatric morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of an effective MeV vaccine, measles case numbers increased alarmingly in the past few years especially in Europe. The return of endemic measles in the European population can directly be...

  15. Controlling measles using supplemental immunization activities: A mathematical model to inform optimal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Verguet, Stéphane; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K.; Gauvreau, Cindy L.; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The Measles & Rubella Initiative, a broad consortium of global health agencies, has provided support to measles-burdened countries, focusing on sustaining high coverage of routine immunization of children and supplementing it with a second dose opportunity for measles vaccine through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We estimate optimal scheduling of SIAs in countries with the highest measles burden. Methods We develop an age-stratified dynamic compartmental model of mea...

  16. Estimating the Number of Measles-Susceptible Children and Adolescents in the United States Using Data From the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    2016-07-15

    Despite high measles vaccination rates in the United States, imported measles cases have led to outbreaks in the United States. These outbreaks have not led to sustained measles transmission; however, with each birth cohort of children not fully vaccinated against measles, measles-susceptible individuals accumulate in the population. The total number of measles-susceptible children and adolescents in the United States is unknown. We used age-specific measles vaccination data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2008-2013) to estimate the number of measles-susceptible children aged 17 years or younger, accounting for vaccine effectiveness, infant protection from maternal antibodies, and loss of immunity following childhood cancer treatment. Approximately 12.5% of US children and adolescents are susceptible to measles, with the highest levels of susceptibility being observed in children aged 3 years or younger (24.7% are susceptible to measles). In sensitivity analyses, we found that a sustained decrease in measles vaccination coverage from 91.9% (2013 level) to 90.0% (2009 level) would add nearly 1.2 million susceptible children and adolescents (thus making 14.2% of those aged 17 years or younger susceptible to measles). This reemphasizes the need for high measles vaccination coverage to support population-level immunity and prevent reestablishment of indigenous measles transmission in the United States. PMID:27338281

  17. CLINICAL PROFILE OF MEASLES IN CHILDREN ADMITTED TO A RURAL TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles affects about 20 million people a year. Even with greater than 80% immunization cover, the number of children with measles has registered a steep rise. A retrospective chart review was carried out on all cases of measles admitted to the paediatric wards of a tertiary care medical college hospital in a rural area in north Kerala. A total of 31 cases of measles (n=31 were admitted to the paediatric ward. Age at admission of 67.8% of the patients was above 6 years. The average age of the sample was 7.52 years (S. D = 3.19. Amongst the clinical features, fever and rash were seen in 100%, coryza in 83.8% and conjunctivitis in 67.7%. Koplik spots, pathognomonic of measles were seen only in 32.3%. About 61.3% of those with measles were previously immunized. Regarding the vitamin A supplementation status , only 19.4% of the childr en were administered vitamin A. The fact that 61% of children who developed measles had actually received measles vaccination during infancy , and that majority (67% of them were >6 years at the time of presentation , points to the drop in the protective im munity , after a single dose of measles vaccine, as age advances. To conclude , Measles is now a re - emerging infectious disease and a second dose of measles vaccine to boost up the existing immunity would turn out to be a corner stone in subsequent measles e limination.

  18. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities. PMID:22647743

  19. Suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero a cepas vacinais do vírus do sarampo Susceptibility of Vero cell line to vaccine strains of the measles virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Sayoko Takata

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero ao vírus do sarampo é bem conhecida e sua utilização no controle da potência da vacina contra o sarampo é amplamente difundida. Com o objetivo de comparar a suscetibilidade de células Vero empregadas em titulações, amostras provenientes de dois laboratórios controladores (Vero IB e Vero INCQS, foram testadas frente a três cepas vacinais: Moraten, Schwarz e Biken CAM-70. Foram titulados 72 lotes de vacinas contra o sarampo, sendo 25 produzidos com a cepa Moraten, 24 com a cepa Schwarz e 23 com a cepa Biken CAM-70. A análise estatística dos resultados obtidos nas titulações, feita através dos testes Limites para uma Média e "t" de Student, mostrou que para as cepas Moraten e Biken CAM-70, as diferenças de títulos não foram estatisticamente significantes, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a cepa Schwarz, para a qual as células Vero IB se mostraram mais sensíveis.Vero cells used by distinct measles vaccine control laboratories had their susceptibility to Moraten, Schwarz and Biken CAM-70 vaccine strains assayed. Of a total of 72 lots of measles vaccine whose potency was titrated by microtechnique in two Vero cell samples (Vero IB and Vero INCQS, 25 had been produced with Moraten strain, 24 with Schwarz and 23 with Biken CAM-70. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that both Vero cells assayed presented comparable susceptibility to Moraten and Biken CAM-70 strains. As to the Schwarz strain, Vero IB cells were more susceptible than the other cell sample tested, thus confirming the existence of different sensitivities of Vero cells to some measles vaccine strains, or even to viruses derived from the same strain but with different passage histories. An altered cell susceptibility to virus replication may significantly alter the results in potency testing. Such alteration may be caused not only by the adoption of distinct protocols for the maintenance of cell cultures by

  20. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil Exantema após vacinação do sarampo: análise laboratorial de casos notificados em São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.OBJETIVO: O diagnóstico diferencial de doenças exantemáticas causadas por vírus é geralmente difícil, e equívocos não são raros, especialmente depois da introdução da vacina contra o sarampo e a rubéola. Um estudo laboratorial foi conduzido com o objetivo de estabelecer o diagnóstico etiológico de casos de exantema em crianças que receberam a vacina contra o sarampo. MÉTODOS: Soros de casos de exantema em crianças que

  1. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause;

    2015-01-01

    -transmit during an outbreak. The majority of the cases were unvaccinated (n = 27) or recipients of one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (n = 7). In addition, two fully vaccinated adult cases were reported in 2014. We demonstrate the transmission of measles virus in a population in which the two...

  2. Nosocomial measles cluster in Denmark following an imported case, December 2008-January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, C; Bottiger, Be; Plesner, A; Christiansen, Ah; Glismann, S; Høgh, Birthe

    2009-01-01

    A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule.......A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule....

  3. Toward measles elimination in Bahrain--a Middle East country experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Jaleela S; Al-Sayyad, Adel S; Sataih, Fathiya; Naouri, Boubker; Alexander, James P

    2011-07-01

    Measles was a leading cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality in Bahrain before the introduction of measles vaccine in 1974. With the establishment of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1981 and the introduction of a second dose of measles vaccine in 1985, coverage for first and second doses of measles vaccine increased to 94% by 1997 and has been sustained >97% since 2001. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunization campaigns targeting 12-year-old students were conducted annually during 1998-2006 and achieved coverage of >95%. As a result, the incidence of measles in Bahrain has declined markedly over the past 4 decades, to 2.7 cases per million persons in 2009. Recent confirmed measles cases have occurred sporadically, in undervaccinated children or in infants too young or adults too old to receive measles vaccine. Bahrain has made significant progress toward measles elimination by sustaining high immunization coverage and strengthening case-based measles surveillance activities. Further success will depend on improved identification and immunization of undervaccinated expatriate workers and their families. PMID:21666177

  4. Mass measles rubella immunization campaign: Bhutan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta R Giri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bhutan has attained universal child immunization since 1991. Since then, immunization coverage is maintained at high level through routine immunization, periodic National Immunization Days, and mop up campaigns. Despite high immunization coverage, every year, significant numbers of clinically suspected measles cases were reported. Objective: To assess the cause of continuing high "suspected measles cases" and take appropriate public health measures. Materials and Methods: Febrile rash outbreaks occurred in several districts in 2003. These episodes were investigated. Simultaneously, a retrospective data search revealed evidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in the country. Results: Thirty five percent of the tested samples were positive for rubella but none for measles. There were evidences of the presence of CRS. This was discussed in the annual health conference 2004, amongst health policy makers and district heads who recommended that a possibility of inclusion of rubella as an antigen be looked into. A nationwide measles and rubella immunization campaign was conducted in 2006 followed by introduction of rubella vaccine in the immunization schedule. Conclusion: Febrile rash can be caused by a host of viral infections. Following universal measles immunization, it is pertinent that febrile rash be looked in the light of rubella infections. Following the introduction of rubella vaccination in the national immunization schedule, there has been significant reduction of febrile rash episodes, cases of rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome.

  5. Serological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with vaccine coverage Achados sorológicos durante um surto de sarampo em uma população com alta cobertura vacinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange A. Oliveira

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, serum samples for IgM detection were collected from 112 clinical measles cases reported to the Health Department of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The positivity exceeded 90% for specimens collected from the 5th to the 29th day after the onset of the disease. After day 30 a decline in IgM detection was observed, although positivity has been detected up to 90 days after the onset of the symptoms. Forty-four patients (48.9% with an IgM response had a history of prior measles vaccination. In 5 of the 22 measles-IgM negative cases the infection was due to other agents (rubella: 4 cases, dengue: 1 case. These results show that sensitivity of the test employed for confirming suspected measles cases is high, even in vaccinated patients.No período de março/1991 a abril/1992, foram escolhidas 112 amostras sanguíneas para a detecção de anticorpos da classe IgM de casos de sarampo notificados à Divisão de Epidemiologia da Fundação Municipal de Saúde de Niterói, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A positividade ultrapassou 90% para os espécimens colhidos entre o 5º e o 29º dia após o início da doença. A partir do 30º dia foi observado um declínio na detecção de IgM, embora positividade tenha sido constatada até noventa dias do início dos sintomas. História de vacinação prévia estava presente em 48,9% destes pacientes. Dos 22 casos restantes, em 5 a infecção era devido a outros agentes (rubéola: 4 casos, dengue: 1 caso. Estes resultados demonstram que a sensibilidade do teste empregado para confirmação de casos suspeitos de sarampo é elevada mesmo em pacientes vacinados.

  6. Seroprevalence of measles and natural rubella antibodies among children in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Daba Régis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passively acquired maternal antibodies are necessary to protect infants against circulating measles virus until they reach the eligible age of vaccination. Likewise, high levels of population immunity must be achieved and maintained to reduce measles virus transmission. This study was undertaken to (1 assess the presence of maternally acquired measles-specific IgG antibodies among infants less than 9 months of age in Bangui, Central African Republic and (2 determine the immune status of vaccination-age children and the concordance with reported vaccination status. A secondary objective was to describe the presence of rubella-specific IgG antibody in the study population. Methods Vaccination history and blood samples were collected from 395 children using blotting paper. Samples were analyzed for the presence of measles-specific IgG antibodies using commercial ELISA kits. Results Measles-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 51.3% of vaccinated children and 27.6% of non-vaccinated children. Maternally derived measles IgG antibodies were present in only 14.8% of infants aged 0-3 months and were absent in all infants aged 4-8 months. The presence of IgG-specific measles antibodies varied among children of vaccination age, from 57.3% for children aged 9 months to 5 years, to 50.6% for children aged 6-9 years and 45.6% for chidren aged 10 years and above. The overall prevalence of rubella-specific IgG was 55.4%, with a high prevalence (87.4% among children over 10 years of age. Conclusion The findings suggest that despite efforts to accelerate measles control by giving a second dose of measles vaccine, a large number of children remain susceptible to measles virus. Further research is required to determine the geographic extent of immunity gaps and the factors that influence immunity to measles virus in the Central African Republic.

  7. Effectiveness Assessment of the Supplementary Immunization Activities for Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine in Anhui Province in 2009%安徽省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴智勤; 唐继海; 张伟青; 易厦晖; 刘丹青; 何纳

    2012-01-01

    目的 对安徽省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)的流行病学效果进行评估,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对安徽省2009年MV SIA前后的相关数据进行统计分析.结果 安徽省于2009年10月,对全省8月龄~14岁儿童开展MV SIA.SIA后的2010年,安徽省麻疹发病数和发病率均降至2004年以来的最低水平,分别为439例和0.72/10万;削平了麻疹发病高峰;2010年≤14岁各年龄别麻疹发病率均比2009年大幅度下降.结论 适时开展高质量的MV SIA,能有效控制麻疹流行,减少麻疹发病.MV SIA作为常规免疫的补充,是消除麻疹的重要策略之一.%Objective To evaluate the effect of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV ) supplementary immunization activities (SI As) in Anhui province in 2009, and to provide the reference for measles elimination. Methods Collecting measles epidemiology data before and after the MV SIA of 2009. Analyze the data with descriptive epidemiology. Results The MV SIAs in Anhui province were implemented in the October of 2009. The target population of the SIAs are the children aged from 8 months to 14 years. In 2010, both the number of reported measles cases and the measles incidence dropped to the lowestlevel since 2004, which were 439 cases and 0.72/100,000 respectively. The measles incidence of each age group among the children of 0-14 years old in 2010 dropped a lot comparing with that of 2009. Conclusions Carrying out high quality of SIAs at suitable time can control the epidemic of measles quickly, and decrease measles morbidity. Being a supplementary method for routine immunization, SIA is one of the important strategies to eliminate measles.

  8. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  9. CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEASLES AT SIR RONALD ROSS INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Srikanth Bhatt; Kalyani; Shankar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles remain a leading vaccine - preventable cause of child mortality worldwide and is still a public health problem. According to the World Health Organization ( WHO ), more than 20 million people are affected by measles each year with 95% of measles deaths occurring in countries that have weak health infrastructures. Out breaks of Measles are still common in India. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of th e present study were to determi...

  10. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Photos Recommend ...

  11. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  12. Measles, One of the Re-emerging Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Türe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to stand out the measles which is a highly contagious re-emerging viral illness and may cause severe complications in susceptible population. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on patients who were diagnosed with measles in the department of Infectious Diseases, Erciyes University Hospital, between January 2013 and February 2014. The diagnosis of measles was confirmed by measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody positivity in serum samples. Results: Nine patients were included the study. Three patients had a co-morbid condition including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pregnancy and diabetes mellitus. Four of the patients had hepatitis and one of them had pneumonia as a complication. Conclusion: Susceptible population, especially immunocompromised people are still at risk about measles. Adherence to universal vaccination programs is determinative in terms of breaking out of an outbreak. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 19-22

  13. Preventable measles among U.S. residents, 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-26

    Elimination of endemic measles has been achieved in the United States; however, measles continues to be imported from areas of the world where the disease remains endemic, resulting in substantial morbidity and expenditure of local, state, and federal public health resources. Measles among U.S. residents results from returning residents who become infected while living or traveling abroad, from contact or association with an infected traveler, or from an unknown source. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC by state and local health departments regarding confirmed measles cases among U.S. residents during 2001-2004; an illustrative case report is included. The majority of measles cases occurring among U.S. residents can be prevented by following current recommendations for vaccination, including specific guidelines for travelers. PMID:16121120

  14. Immunogenicity of UV-inactivated measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the antigen extinction limit test it was shown that a triple dose vaccination of guinea pigs with UV-inactivated measles virus gave better results, than a single dose vaccination which was proved by the very low immunogenicity index. For both vaccination schemes (single and triple) the immune response was only sligthly influenced by a change of dose from 105 to 106 HadU50/ml or by the addition of aluminum adjuvant. In the antigen extinction limit test the antibody levels were determined by two methods (HIT and NT) the results of which were statistically equivalent. The UV-inactivated measles virus was also found to induce hemolysis-inhibiting antibodies. (orig.)

  15. Lack of Measles Transmission to Susceptible Contacts from a Health Care Worker with Probable Secondary Vaccine Failure - Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson; Klein, Ron; Popescu, Saskia; Rose, Karen; Kretschmer, Melissa; Carrigan, Alice; Trembath, Felicia; Koski, Lia; Zabel, Karen; Ostdiek, Scott; Rowell-Kinnard, Paula; Munoz, Esther; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Sylvester, Tammy

    2015-08-01

    On January 23, 2015, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) was notified of a suspected measles case in a nurse, a woman aged 48 years. On January 11, the nurse had contact with a patient with laboratory-confirmed measles associated with the Disneyland theme park-related outbreak in California. On January 21, she developed a fever (103°F [39.4°C]), on January 23 she experienced cough and coryza, and on January 24, she developed a rash. The patient was instructed to isolate herself at home. On January 26, serum, a nasopharyngeal swab, and a urine specimen were collected. The following day, measles infection was diagnosed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing of the nasopharyngeal swab and urine specimen and by detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of her symptoms and laboratory results, the patient was considered to be infectious. PMID:26247437

  16. A unique measles B3 cluster in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands linked to air travel and transit at a large international airport, February to April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Lochlainn, Laura; Mandal, Sema; de Sousa, Rita; Paranthaman, Karthik; van Binnendijk, Rob; Ramsay, Mary; Hahné, Susan; Brown, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a joint measles outbreak investigation between public health officials in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands following detection of a measles cluster with a unique measles virus strain. From 1 February to 30 April 2014, 33 measles cases with a unique measles virus strain of genotype B3 were detected in the UK and the Netherlands, of which nine secondary cases were epidemiologically linked to an infectious measles case travelling from the Philippines. Through a combination of epidemiological investigation and sequence analysis, we found that measles transmission occurred in flight, airport and household settings. The secondary measles cases included airport workers, passengers in transit at the same airport or travelling on the same flight as the infectious case and also household contacts. This investigation highlighted the particular importance of measles genotyping in identifying transmission networks and the need to improve vaccination, public health follow-up and management of travellers and airport staff exposed to measles. PMID:27074646

  17. 安徽省380例8~11月龄麻疹病例含麻疹成分疫苗及时接种情况分析%Analysis on Timely Inoculation of Measles-containing Vaccine for 380 Cases from the Age of 8-11 Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆志坚; 丁旭; 唐继海; 苏颖; 沈永刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the timely inoculation rate of Measles cases by the data of measlescontaining vaccine (MCV) inoculation information from the measles surveillance system (MSS) and Childhood Immunization Information Management System(CIIMS),and to provide reference for developing strategies of measles elimination.Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the MCV inoculation information.Results Timely inoculation rate is less than 5% for 380 measles cases from the Age of 8-11 months.The inoculation rate of the children of 11 months is 32.37%.Most cases occurred in 1-2 weeks(10%) after vaccination,while 35.26% of them had immunization history after onset Measles.There is significant difference of inoculation information between MSS and CIIMS.Conclusion It is very important to inoculate vaccine timely,distinguish the general reaction after inoculation,implement interrogation system,reduce incidence after inoculation,improve the MSS basic information and accurate vaccination information.%目的 通过麻疹监测系统(Measles Surveillance System,MSS)和儿童预防接种信息管理系统(Childhood Immunization Information Management System,CIIMS)中,含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)预防接种的信息研究,分析病例的及时接种率,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对MCV预防接种信息进行统计分析.结果 380例8~11月龄麻疹病例MCV及时接种率<5%,11月龄累计预防接种率为32.37%,接种后1、2周内发病最多(10%),发病后有免疫史的占35.26%,MSS和CIIMS的预防接种信息的免疫史记录差异有统计学意义.结论 及时接种MCV尤为重要,应区分预防接种后的一般反应,落实问诊制度,减少发病后的预防接种,提高MSS和CIIMS的基本信息和预防接种信息采集准确性.

  18. 无明胶保护剂在麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗中的应用%Application of gelatin-free stabilizer to live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石金辉; 刘兴文; 单宝龙; 彭健; 张华超; 朱芮波; 公殿力; 郑海发

    2012-01-01

    目的 研制一种安全有效的无明胶保护剂,并应用于麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗的制备.方法 制备麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗原液,取同一批麻疹病毒原液,分别加入不同成分和配比的无明胶保护剂,制成成品,以含明胶保护剂作对照,检测成品外观、病毒滴度及水分,确定保护剂的成分,再确定保护剂的配比.将麻疹与风疹病毒原液混合,加入筛选出的无明胶保护剂,制备麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(共3批),同时制备3批含明胶保护剂对照疫苗.按《中国药典》三部(2010版)要求对联合疫苗原液、半成品、成品进行检定;分别将制备的联合疫苗于2~8℃放置3和6个月,检测疫苗外观、病毒滴度及水分的变化,于37℃放置1、2、3、4周,检测病毒滴度的变化;按《中国药典》二部(2010版)要求进行过敏试验.结果 含海藻糖和右旋糖酐成分的保护剂为首选保护剂.制备的无明胶保护剂联合疫苗原液、半成品及成品的各项检定指标均符合《中国药典》三部(2010版)要求;无明胶保护剂联合疫苗成品于2~8℃放置6个月的水分和病毒滴度及37℃放置4周的病毒滴度与对照组疫苗相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);注射了无明胶保护剂联合疫苗的豚鼠在试验期内均未发生过敏反应,符合《中国药典》二部(2010版)的要求.结论 无明胶保护剂对麻疹和风疹病毒具有较好的保护作用.%Objective To prepare a safe and effective gelatin-free stabilizer and apply to live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine. Methods Bulk of live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine was prepared. The bulks of measles virus of the same batch were added with gelatin-free stabilizers with various formula respectively to prepare final product, then observed for appearance and determined for virus titer and moisture, using those prepared with gelatin-containing stabilizers as control

  19. Estudo de soroconversão com formulações da vacina Biken CAM-70 contra sarampo Comparison of seroconversion rates with CAM-70 measles vaccine at different dosages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio B Camacho

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a resposta sorológica induzida por formulações com diferentes concentrações de vírus da vacina contra sarampo da cepa Biken CAM-70. MÉTODOS: Crianças sadias de 9 a 18 meses de um centro de saúde do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, cujos responsáveis concordaram em participar, foram randomizadas em três grupos vacinados com concentrações de 5.000, 1.000 ou 200 CCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose. Os participantes e o pessoal da pesquisa ignoravam o tipo de vacina administrado. A avaliação sorológica foi realizada pelo teste de redução em plaque de lise. Duas análises intermediárias dos dados foram programadas. RESULTADOS: Das 223 crianças recrutadas, 84% completaram todos os procedimentos; 79% tinham idade menor que 10 meses; e 93% não tinham anticorpos contra sarampo no soro pré-vacinal. As proporções de soroconversão (quadruplicação das concentrações pré-vacinais foram 82%, 55% e 37% (pOBJECTIVES: To compare seroconversion rates induced by Biken CAM-70 measles vaccines at different viral concentrations. METHODS: Healthy children aged 9 to 18 months from a primary health care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and whose guardians agreed with their participation, were randomly assigned to receive one of the following vaccine formulations: 5,000, 1,000 or 200 CCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose. The research team, participants, and data analysts were blinded to the type of vaccine administered. Pre- and post-vaccination antibody levels were assessed through Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Two interim data analyses were planned to assess unequivocal evidence of the superiority of one of the vaccine types. RESULTS: From 223 recruited children, 84% completed the whole course. Of them, 79% were less than 10 months of age, and 93% did not show detectable measles antibodies in pre-vaccination serum. Seroconversion (four-fold increase in antibody levels in groups vaccinated with 5,000, 1,000 or 200 CCID

  20. Severe Measles Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rafat, Cédric; Klouche, Kada; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Messika, Jonathan; Roch, Antoine; Machado, Sonia; Sonneville, Romain; Guisset, Olivier; Pujol, Wilfried; Guérin, Claude; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Mrozek, Natacha; Darmon, Michaël; Chemouni, Frank; Schmidt, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract France has recently witnessed a nationwide outbreak of measles. Data on severe forms of measles in adults are lacking. We sought to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, treatment, and prognostic aspects of the disease in adult patients who required admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 36 adults admitted to a total of 64 ICUs throughout France for complications of measles from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2011. All cases ...

  1. Clinical outcome in measles patients hospitalized with complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is a highly communicable viral illness and is common cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. Keeping in view the high prevalence of measles in the developing world, we carried out this study to look into the complicated measles cases and clinical outcome in patients admitted in children ward of Ayub Teaching Hospital. Detailed history and physical examination of all the hospitalized patients with complication of measles were recorded in a proforma. Immunization and nutritional status of each admitted patient was assessed and the clinical outcome of measles was compared with demographic profile. one hundred thirty six hospitalized patients with complications of measles were studied. There was 60.3% male and 57.3% of patients were vaccinated against measles. Malnourished patients were 71.35% and had longer hospital stay (>5 days). Pneumonia (39.7%) and diarrhoea (38.2%) were the commonest complications. Seven children died and encephalitis (57.1%) was the commonest cause of death. The most common complications of measles are pneumonia and diarrhoea with dehydration requiring admission. Malnutrition results in more complications and longer hospital stay. Mortality is significantly associated with encephalitis. (author)

  2. Relevance of a pre-existing measles immunity prior immunization with a recombinant measles virus vector

    OpenAIRE

    Knuchel, Marlyse C.; Marty, René R.; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Ilter, Orhan; Zuniga, Armando; Naim, Hussein Y.

    2013-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) vectors are promising candidates for designing new recombinant vaccines since the parental live vaccines have a well-known safety and efficacy record. Like all viral vectors, the MV vector efficacy in inducing a protecting immune answer could be affected by the pre-existing immunity among the human population. In order to determine the optimal immunization route and regimen, we mimicked a MV pre-immunity by passively administrating MV neutralizing antibodies (MV-nAb) prior ...

  3. 2010年北京市麻疹疫苗强化免疫宣传效果评价%Effect evaluation of propaganda on measles vaccine mass immunization campaign in Bejjing in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凌云; 黄梨煜; 石建辉; 胡洋; 刘辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 为了保证2010年北京市麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动顺利实施,对其宣传效果进行评价,为调整宣传策略提供科学依据.方法 以北京市居民为调杏对象,采用以Mitofsky-Waksberg法进行分阶段抽样,于2010年9月分别在麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动开展前、中及后期开展电话调查,评价宣传效果.结果 在麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动开展前、中及后期,调查对象对"北京市所有8月龄至14周岁儿童在2010年9月11~20日免费接种麻疹疫苗"的强化免疫政策知晓率分别为52.1%,76.6%和73.3%;家中有8月龄至14周岁儿童的调查对象对该政策知晓率分别为71.5%,92.7%和96.2%;有8月龄至14周岁儿童的家长已经或计划给孩子接种强化免疫的麻疹疫苗的行为意向或行为持有率分别为94.9%、97.5%、97.6%差别具有统计学意义.调查对象获取麻疹疫苗强化免疫政策信息途径主要是大众媒体.结论 北京市麻疹疫苗强化免疫宣传活动效果显著,大众媒体和社区动员相结合可有效促进麻疹疫苗强化免疫政策的传播和目标人群积极主动接种麻疹疫苗.%Objective To evaluate the effect of propaganda on measles vaccine mass immunization campaign in Beijing in 2010, which helped the decision maker adjusted the propaganda on measles vaccine mass immunization campaign to ensure the maximum effectiveness of the propaganda.Methods Adopted two-stage Mitofsky-Waksberg telephone survey of Beijing residents, quantitative data was collected by using computer assisted telephone survey system of Beijing Public Health Hotline (12320) Service Center, and descriptive analysis methods and chi-square test were used to analyze those data.Results As for the three times telephone survey findings, 52.1%, 76.6% and 73.3% the respondents knew the policy of the free measles vaccination program with the goal of reaching children aged between eight months and fourteen years old from September 11 through

  4. Implementation and Effect Evaluation of Supplementary Immunization of Measles Vaccine in Beichen District of Tianjin in 2008%天津市北辰区2008年麻疹疫苗强化免疫实施与效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国和

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结评价2008年天津市北辰区麻疹疫苗强化免疫的效果。方法 利用2007-2009年大疫情报告麻疹发病资料、麻疹专报网专报资料等,总结分析2008年麻疹疫苗强化免疫的效果。结果 该次强化免疫报告接种率,总计调查人数71 581人,接种70 710人,接种率98.78%。评估接种率99.75%,达到目标人群麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率>95%的要求。与强化免疫前的2007、2008年相比,2009年北辰区麻疹发病率显著下降。结论 北辰区2008年麻疹疫苗强化免疫达到预期总目标。%[Objective]To summarize and evaluate the effect of supplementary immunization of measles vaccine in Beichen district of Tianjin in 2008. [ Methods] Using the measles data from large epidemic report and the information from measles special report network during 2007 -2009, the effect of supplementary immunization of measles vaccine was summarized and analyzed. [Results] A total of 71 581 people were surveyed, 70 710 people were inoculated, and the coverage rate was 98.78% . The assessment coverage rate was 99. 75% , and it accorded with the requirement which the coverage rate of supplementary immunization of measles vaccine a-mong target population should reach 95%. Compared with 2007 and 2008 without supplementary immunization, the incidence of measles in 2009 decreased significantly in Beichen district. [ Conclusion ] The supplementary immunization of measles vaccine in Beichen district in 2008 achieves the expected overall target.

  5. German measles outbreak bursts in two unvaccinated border hilly districts of Northern Himachal Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Surender N Gupta; Naveen Gupta; Nirankar S Neki

    2012-01-01

    Background: We investigated German measles outbreak as a suspected one of measles to confirm diagnosis and recommend for control and prevention. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of German measles as the occurrence of febrile rash in any resident of the eight villages from 20 th October to 16 th January, 2007. Case patients were line listed and information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, traveling, treatment history, vaccination status, and pregnancy status were...

  6. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation : analysis of mortality studies from developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aaby, P; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Seck, A. M.; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. DESIGN--An analysis of all studies comparing mortality of unimmunised children and children immunised with standard titre measles vaccine in developing countries. STUDIES--10 cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zair...

  7. Current status of measles in the Republic of Korea: an overview of case-based and seroepidemiological surveillance scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young June Choe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Five Year Measles Elimination Program, measles has been declared eliminated from the Republic of Korea since 2006. However, there remain challenges related to the surveillance of measles in the postelimination phase. Even though the routine surveillance system has revealed a gradual decrease in the number of reported cases since 2002, 4 resurgences have occurred, notably due to outbreaks. Because vaccine-modified measles is becoming widespread due to high vaccination coverage, conducting laboratory confirmation in each case becomes important. Moreover, susceptible individuals with measles have been identified through seroprevalence studies. Lastly, the efforts to improve the timeliness of measles reporting have led to the establishment of an active laboratory-based surveillance network, which has shortened the interval between diagnosis and notification. In these circumstances, searching for more sensitive and effective surveillance measures is important for maintaining the elimination status and preventing future outbreaks of measles in Korea.

  8. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qayoudhi, Abdullah; Al-Kindi, Hanan; Meki, Nabil; Al-Maani, Amal

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis. PMID:27168928

  9. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qayoudhi, Abdullah; Al-Kindi, Hanan; Meki, Nabil; Al-Maani, Amal

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis.

  10. Monitoring progress toward measles elimination by genetic diversity analysis of measles viruses in China 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wang, H; Xu, S; Mao, N; Zhu, Z; Shi, J; Huang, G; Liu, C; Bo, F; Feng, D; Lu, P; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Lei, Y; Chen, M; Chen, H; Wang, C; Fu, H; Li, C; He, J; Gao, H; Gu, S; Wang, S; Ling, H; Liu, Y; Ding, Z; Ba, Z; Feng, Y; Zheng, H; Tang, X; Lei, Y; Xiong, Y; Bellini, W J; Rota, P A; Jee, Y; Xu, W

    2014-09-01

    With the achievement of high coverage for routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), measles incidence in mainland China reached its lowest level in 2010. The proportion of measles cases in the vaccination-targeted population decreased during 2007-2010 after the SIAs. More than 60% of measles cases were in adults or infants, especially in the coastal and eastern provinces during 2009 and 2010. A total 567 isolates of measles virus were obtained from clinical specimens from 27 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2009 and 2010. Except for two vaccine-associated cases, one genotype D4 strain, two genotype D9 strains, and four genotype D11 strains, the other 558 strains were genotype H1 cluster H1a. Genotype H1 has been the only endemic genotype detected in China since surveillance began in 1993. Only genotype H1 was found in mainland China during 1993-2008, except for one detection of genotype H2. More recently, multiple genotypes of imported measles were detected even with the background of endemic genetotype H1 viruses. Analysis of the 450-nucleotide sequencing window of the measles virus N gene showed that the overall genetic diversity of the recent geneotype H1 strains decreased between 2008 and 2010. The lower genetic diversity of H1 strains suggested that enhanced vaccination may have reduced the co-circulating lineages of endemic genotype H1 strains in mainland China. PMID:24438091

  11. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Nepal, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sudhir; Sedai, Tika Ram; Choudary, Ganga Ram; Giri, Jagat Narain; Bohara, Rajendra; Pant, Rajendra; Gautam, Mukunda; Sharapov, Umid M; Goodson, James L; Alexander, James; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Perry, Robert T; Bah, Sunil; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Thapa, Arun

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) established a goal to eliminate measles and to control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)* in SEAR by 2020 (1,2). Current recommended measles elimination strategies in the region include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)(†); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets minimum recommended performance indicators(§); 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. In 2013, Nepal, one of the 11 SEAR member states, adopted a goal for national measles elimination by 2019 (3). This report updates a previous report (4) and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in Nepal during 2007-2014. During 2007-2014, estimated coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 81% to 88%. Approximately 3.9 and 9.7 million children were vaccinated in SIAs conducted in 2008 and 2014, respectively (1). Reported suspected measles incidence declined by 13% during 2007-2014, from 54 to 47 cases per 1 million population. However, in 2014, 81% of districts did not meet the measles case-based surveillance performance indicator target of ≥2 discarded non-measles cases(¶) per 100,000 population per year. To achieve and maintain measles elimination, additional measures are needed to strengthen routine immunization services to increase coverage with MCV1 and a recently introduced second dose of MCV (MCV2**) to ≥95% in all districts, and to enhance sensitivity of measles case-based surveillance by adopting a more sensitive case definition, expanding case-based surveillance sites nationwide, and

  12. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children children 1-14 years old, 22% (n = 1,769) were unvaccinated and 70% (n = 5,518) had received one dose of a measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination. PMID:26967661

  13. The Application Value of Strengthening Measles Vaccine to Block Biphase Displacement for People of Childbearing Age before Pregnancy%育龄人群孕前强化麻疹疫苗对阻断“双相移位”的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀侠; 孙宝霞

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨育龄人群强化麻疹疫苗(MV)注射前后麻疹免疫水平,进一步分析育龄男女麻疹免疫水平对消除麻疹的影响,为最终实现消除麻疹目标提供科学依据.方法选择本院22-35岁育龄医护人员60名,观察MV注射前及注射后26个月的麻疹免疫水平的差异,并采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA),对其MV免疫前后的血清分别检测IgM和IgG抗体.结果育龄男女接种MV前后χ2检验结果:在1200水平上,χ2=7.32,P<0.05;在1800水平,χ2=10.25,P<0.05;注射前后麻疹免疫水平有统计学差异.结论育龄男女或夫妻双方孕前及时、安全接种MV,既可提高育龄人群麻疹抗体水平,同时也可提高出生8月龄婴儿麻疹疫苗初免之前胎传麻疹抗体水平,从而有效降低25岁以上人群及8月龄内婴儿麻疹发病,达到“一代免疫,两代受益”的效果,对阻断“双相移位”具有重要意义.%Objectives Explore the measles immunity levels before and after strengthening measles vaccine(MV) injection for childbearing age population, and further analyze the impact of the childbearing aged women and men's measles immunization level on measles elimination to provide a scientific basis for the ultimate realization of the measles elimination goal. Methods Select 60 child-bearing aged hospital medical staff ranged from 22 to 35 -year-old and observe the differences in measles immunization levels before and after 26 months of MV injection, also adopt enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay test(ELISA) to detect the IgM and IgG antibodies of serum before and after its MV immunity. Results The χ2 test result before and after the women and men of reproductive age were inoculated: in 1 200 level, χ2=7.32, P<0.05, in 1 800 level, χ2=10.25, P<0.05; there exists statistical differences in measles immunization levels before and after the injection. Conclusion Women and men of reproductive age or couples inoculate MV timely and safely before

  14. Measles immunisation in children with allergy to egg.

    OpenAIRE

    Aickin, R.; Hill, D.; A. Kemp

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the occurrence of adverse reactions to measles vaccine given as a single dose to children with egg allergy, and to determine if the administration of single dose to children with a positive result in an intradermal skin prick test with the vaccine is associated with adverse reactions. DESIGN--Review of results of immunisation and prospective study of 96 consecutively presenting children given intradermal skin testing with the vaccine. SETTING--Children's allergy centre. ...

  15. Evolution and Use of Dynamic Transmission Models for Measles and Rubella Risk and Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-07-01

    The devastation caused by periodic measles outbreaks motivated efforts over more than a century to mathematically model measles disease and transmission. Following the identification of rubella, which similarly presents with fever and rash and causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in infants born to women first infected with rubella early in pregnancy, modelers also began to characterize rubella disease and transmission. Despite the relatively large literature, no comprehensive review to date provides an overview of dynamic transmission models for measles and rubella developed to support risk and policy analysis. This systematic review of the literature identifies quantitative measles and/or rubella dynamic transmission models and characterizes key insights relevant for prospective modeling efforts. Overall, measles and rubella represent some of the relatively simplest viruses to model due to their ability to impact only humans and the apparent life-long immunity that follows survival of infection and/or protection by vaccination, although complexities arise due to maternal antibodies and heterogeneity in mixing and some models considered potential waning immunity and reinfection. This review finds significant underreporting of measles and rubella infections and widespread recognition of the importance of achieving and maintaining high population immunity to stop and prevent measles and rubella transmission. The significantly lower transmissibility of rubella compared to measles implies that all countries could eliminate rubella and CRS by using combination of measles- and rubella-containing vaccines (MRCVs) as they strive to meet regional measles elimination goals, which leads to the recommendation of changing the formulation of national measles-containing vaccines from measles only to MRCV as the standard of care. PMID:27277138

  16. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly

  17. Measles (lecture, continuing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article discusses differential diagnosis during different measles periods. Routine and confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, including cytological, serological and molecular genetic methods is outlined. Criteria of suspected, probable and proved diagnosis of measles cases are provided. Principles of diagnosis formulation according to WHO criteria are described. Complications of measles ac¬cording to cause (viral and bacterial, by different systems and particularities in high risk patients are considered. Complications of measles from central nervous system are described in details. Therapeutic management of measles is described in details, including indications for hospital admission, etiotropic therapy, strict indications for steroids and immunoglobulins prescription, vitamin A in dosages, therapy of complications, indications for antibiotics usage and other pathogenetic therapy. Specific therapy of measles complications from central nervous system is outlined. Active and passive immunization, anti-epidemic activities, patient follow-up after episode of measles and disease prognosis are described. The literature reference list consists of 121 items, including Cyrillic, Latin articles and electronic resources.

  18. Measles eradication: recommendations from a meeting cosponsored by the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-13

    Recent successes in interrupting indigenous transmission of measles virus in the Americas and in the United Kingdom prompted the World Health Organization (WHO), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and CDC to convene a meeting in July, 1996 to consider the feasibility of global measles eradication. Presentations at the meeting included an overview of global measles control and elimination efforts; detailed reviews of successful measles elimination efforts in Latin America, the English-speaking Caribbean, Canada, and the United States; surveillance for clinical disease; laboratory tools for antibody detection and virus identification; and other factors that might influence the feasibility of disease eradication. With this background information, meeting organizers asked participants to address five questions: 1) Is global measles eradication feasible? 2) Is measles eradication feasible with current vaccines? 3) What are the appropriate vaccination strategies for measles eradication? 4) How should surveillance for measles be carried out? 5) What role should outbreak control play in the strategy to eliminate measles? Participants agreed that measles eradication is technically feasible with available vaccines and recommended adoption of the goal of global eradication with a target date during 2005-2010, with the proviso that measles eradication efforts should not interfere with poliomyelitis eradication but should build on the successes of the global Poliomyelitis Eradication Initiative. Although existing vaccines are adequate for eradication, vaccination strategies that rely on administration of a single dose of vaccine are not. In the Americas, sustained interruption of indigenous measles virus transmission has been achieved through a three-tiered vaccination strategy that includes a) "catch-up" vaccination of all persons aged 1-14 years, regardless of disease history or vaccination status; b) "keep-up" vaccination of > or = 90% of children in each successive

  19. INFLUENCE OF PROCESS CONDITIONS ON MEASLES VIRUS STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Weiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant measles viruses are currently tested in clinical trials as oncolytic agent to be applied in cancer therapy. Contrary to their use as vaccine where 103 infectious virus particles per dose are needed, for cancer therapy 109 virus particles should be provided per dose. This leads to other challenges for the production process when compared to vaccine production. This study presents measles virus stability with regard to conditions during production and storage of the virus. Relevant process parameters such as temperature (4-37°C, pH (pH 4-11, conductivity (1.5 to 137.5 mS cm-1 and oxygen partial pressure were analyzed. The infectivity of measles virus particles decreased highly at 37 and 32°C, while at 22 and 4°C it remained stable for several hours or even days, respectively. The thermal inactivation reactions followed first order kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters enthalpy and entropy were estimated. Towards changes in pH measles virus particles were very sensitive, while no inactivation could be observed with varying conductivity. Measles virus incubation at an oxygen partial pressure of 100% did not lead to any loss of infectivity. The results show which parameters should be considered and controlled strongly in the production process to further raise measles virus yields for the high amount needed in cancer therapy approaches.

  20. The Health Economic Evaluation for Application of Measles Attennuated Live Vaccine Immunization at Different Period in Zhejiang Province%浙江省不同时期麻疹减毒活疫苗应用效果的卫生经济学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符剑; 何寒青; 赵艳荣; 陈恩富; 李倩; 凌罗亚; 唐学雯

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价浙江省不同时期麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)接种的效果与效益.方法 通过自回归移动平均模型测算麻疹的发病与死亡人数,结合8个县现场调查数据和特尔斐( Delphi)法专家咨询结果,计算工作成本与疾病负担,并分冷链前期(1978~1984年)、冷链时期(1985~1998年)和免疫规划时期(1 999~2007年),对浙江省MV接种进行成本效果分析(Cost Effectiveness,CE)分析、成本效益(Cost Benefit,CB)分析和成本效用(Cost Utility,CU)分析.结果 1978~2007年,浙江省MV使用成本共计1.59亿元,通过实施MV接种,减少麻疹发病3 947 390例,减少死亡112 780例,减少经济损失98.18亿元,减少伤残标化寿命年(Disability-adjusted Life Year,DALY)损失372.23亿.CE为每40元投入便能减少1例麻疹发病,每1410元投入便能减少1例因麻疹死亡.合计CB比为1∶61.75,CU比为1∶234.10DALY.结论 浙江省实施MV接种的CE、CB和CU均十分显著,应继续加强冷链配置和规范化预防接种门诊建设,提高预防接种质量,确保MV及时、有效接种.%Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of measles vaccination during different period in Zhejiang province. Methods Field investigation in 8 counties of Zhejiang province and Delphi consulting were conducted to calculate the costs of measles immunization and diseases burden of Measles. The time series model (ARIMA, autoregressive integrated moving average model) were used to estimate the predicted incidence and mortality of measles. CEA (cost effectiveness analysis), CBA(cost benefit analysis)and CUA(cost utility analysis)to appraise the health economic efficiency were developed during different period (1978-1984, 1985-1998, 1999-2007). Results The incidence and the related mortality rate of measles were reduced to very low level. The total costs for application of the Measles vaccine was 159 million YUAN (Renminbi, RMB)from 1978 to 2007. The

  1. Assessment of the Utility of Whole Genome Sequencing of Measles Virus in the Characterisation of Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Penedos, Ana Raquel; Myers, Richard; Hadef, Besma; Aladin, Farah; Brown, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly infectious disease caused by measles virus (MeV). Despite the availability of a safe and cost-effective vaccine, measles is one of the world-leading causes of death in young children. Within Europe, there is a target for eliminating endemic measles in 2015, with molecular epidemiology required on 80% of cases for inclusion/exclusion of outbreak transmission chains. Currently, MeV is genotyped on the basis of a 450 nucleotide region of the nucleoprotein gene (N-4...

  2. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMA ROBO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with fever”. The diagnosis was established by clinical signs, confirmed by serologic results. Sera samples from all the suspected cases were tested for Measles IgM by ELISA and molecular genotyping of virus by the regional reference laboratory. Results: According to the case definition 16 cases were actively found, 13 (77% were female and 3 (23% male. The mean age was 7.1 years (range: three months to 23 years. Most of the patients had Koplik spots, coryza and conjunctivitis. All cases were unvaccinated. All patients recovered and no fatal cases. Conclusion: Gaps of low vaccine coverage facilitated the measles infection to spread. The vaccination of this community it difficult despite the commitement of the health staff. Families with their children are in ongoing migration all over the country and abroad. As a response to stop the spread of the measles outbreak, the district epidemiological service in Elbasan with the support from the national institute of public health, organised a mass vaccination campaign.

  3. Health burden and economic impact of measles-related hospitalizations in Italy in 2002–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massari Marco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2002–2003. This study evaluates the health burden and economic impact of measles-related hospitalizations in Italy during the specified period. Methods Hospital discharge abstract data for measles hospitalizations in Italy during 2002–2003 were analysed to obtain information regarding number and rates of measles hospitalizations by geographical area and age group, length of hospital stay, and complications. Hospitalization costs were estimated on the basis of Diagnosis-Related Groups. Results A total of 5,154 hospitalizations were identified, 3,478 (67% of which occurred in children Conclusion The nationwide health burden associated with measles during the 2002–2003 outbreak was substantial and a high cost was incurred by the Italian National Health Service for the thousands of measles-related hospitalizations which occurred. By assuming that hospital costs represent 40–50% of the direct costs of measles cases, direct costs of measles for the two years combined were estimated to be between €17.6 – 22.0 million, which equates to the vaccination of 1.5–1.9 million children (3–4 birth cohorts with one dose of MMR. The high cost of measles and the severity of its complications fully justify the commitment required to reach measles elimination.

  4. Monitoring results of immunization successful rate of measles and rubella combined vaccine in Daxingin District of Beijing City in 2011%2011年北京市大兴区麻风疫苗基础免疫成功率监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金凤; 侯文俊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To know the immunization effect of measles and rubella combined vaccine on 8 -month-old infants in Daxin-gin District of Beijing City in 2011, ,and provide a basis for immunization strategy. [Methods]The serum samples of 8 -month-old infants were collected before and 1 month after immunization of measles and rubella combined vaccine, then the IgG antibody of measles and rubella were detected- [ Results ] After immunization , the positive rate of measles antibody was 100% , and GMT reached 1 : 1385. 52; 33 cases were rubella IgG positive with the positive rate of 82. 5% , and GMT reached 1: 31.18. [ Conclusion]The immunogenicity of measles ingredient in current measles and rubella combined vaccine is good in this district, but the effect of rubella ingredient is not so good. Therefore, revaccination is necessary.%目的 了解北京市大兴区2011年8月龄儿童接种麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(简称麻风疫苗)后的免疫效果,为制定麻疹免疫策略提供依据.方法 采集40名8月龄儿童麻风疫苗免疫前、免疫后1个月双份血标本,分别进行麻疹、风疹IgG抗体测定.结果 免后麻疹抗体阳性40人,阳性率100%,GMT 1∶1 385.52;风疹抗体阳性33人,阳性率82.50%,GMT1∶31.18.结论 该区现行的麻风疫苗所包含的麻疹成分免疫原性好,风疹成分免疫效果较差,应进行风疹疫苗复种弥补.

  5. Rapid identification of Beijing measles vaccine virus and wild virus by multiplex real-time fluorescent PCR%应用多重实时荧光PCR技术快速鉴别北京麻疹疫苗病毒与野病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萌; 黄芳; 陈维欣; 董梅; 张铁钢; 吴疆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify wild measles virus and vaccine virus by detection nucleic acid of clinical samples from measles patients with immunization history circulating in Beijing through muhiplex real-time fluorescent PCR technology.Methods From July 2011 to Fetbruary 2012,10 throat swabs and 15 urine specimens were collected from 16 suspected measles patients who were 8 -9 months old infants with immunization history in Beijing.The specificity of multiplex real-time fluorescent PCR was firstly tested by measles vaccine virus,wild virus and other respiratory virus.Then the vaccine virus and wild virus were titrated and diluted to test the sensitivity of the PCR method.The result was then compared with it analyzed by PCR-RFLP method.Meanwhile,the clinical sample of the measles patients were tested and confirmed by sequencing method.Results The primer-probe sets of Fam,Joe and Cy5 showed great specificity of measles virus,and could distinguish the measles vaccine virus and wild virus well.The sensitivity of this method to detect measles vaccine virus reached 0.1 CCID50/0.1 ml:and the sensitivity to wild virus reached 0.006 CCID50/0.1 ml; which were both higher than the sensitivity of PCR-RFLP method.Out of the 16 measles patients with vaccination history,3 were negative and the other 13 all belonged to measles virus genotype A,and were confirmed to be vaccine virus by sequencing method.Conclusion Multiplex real-time PCR method is accurate,rapid and sensitive to identify measles vaccine virus and wild virus.The method could greatly help us to find measles patients and to identify the vaccine-related cases.%目的 应用多重实时荧光PCR技术对北京地区有免疫史麻疹患者临床样本进行核酸检测,鉴别麻疹野病毒和疫苗病毒.方法 于2011年7月至2012年2月在北京采集16例8~9月龄初免后疑似麻疹患者的10份咽拭子和15份尿液标本.先用麻疹疫苗病毒、野病毒和其他呼吸道病毒检测多重实时荧光PCR方

  6. the temperature dropped to normal When Rash Had appeared For 12 Hours:an atypical Case of Measles in adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ling Liu; Chun-wei Wang; Ying Liu; Ping Zhou; Xiao-juan Li; Hui-yuan Si; Hong-wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A twenty-eight-year-old male patient with five-day’s fever (the highest body tempreture reached 39.4℃) and 10-hour’s rash (first on face) presented to the department of emergency for “drug rash”, at that time his temperature was 38.6℃. Two hours later, his temperature fell to normal. Then this patient’s entire body rash increased signiifcantly and lasted for 13 hours. Serum measles antibody IgM(+) conifrmed the measles diagnosis. He had received measles vaccine as a baby. Clinicians should be aware of this atypical clinical manifestation of adult measles. If this kind of patients were misdiagnosed as drug rash and given corticosteroid, measles disease may be aggravated. Speciifc serum measles antibody testing may be the only reliable method for differential diagnosis, but the earliest time point for examining the antibodies of measles still needs precise research.

  7. Immune Response and Clinical Reaction to Measles Vaccine in 6-month old Infants%6月龄婴儿麻疹疫苗免疫效果及人体反应观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢莉; 王文胜; 王岩; 柳银芝; 王冬梅; 郭舫如; 辜荫华

    2001-01-01

    In vaccine era, measles antibody in women of childbearing age is vaccine-induced, and the maternal antibody of their infants disappeared in advance. In big city, such as Beijing, more and more <8 month-old infants who do not reach the first immunization age are attacked by measles virus. We selected 119*"6 month-old infants, giving them measles vaccine (MV) , to observe their immune response and clinical reaction. The results showed the maternal antibody in 84% of the 6 month-old infants before vaccination were negative, and the antibody level in rest of them were very low. After MV vaccination, their seropositive rate reached 86.6%, the immunization successful rate was 80.7%, the GMT was 1∶528.45, the rates for fever and rash were 16.8% and 2.52% respectively, suggesting that the first vaccination of MV in 6 month-old infants is feasible. Compared with infants primarily vaccinated at 8 months old, both the immunization successful rate and GMT were lower. This means that there is interference of residual maternal antibody with vaccine but most chiefly contributes to the immature development of the immune system of the infants (age related factor). We recommend to give the first dose of MV to infants of 6 months old and the second dose at 1 year old, but before doing this, it is necessary to do cost effectiveness analysis and to explore new MV with good antigenicity to infants of lower age.%疫苗时代育龄期妇女体内麻疹抗体多为麻疹疫苗所介导,所生婴儿母传抗体消失提前,未及初免月龄已成为易感者。针对北京市及其它一些大城市<8月龄婴儿麻疹发病越来越突出的情况,为控制该人群发病,选取北京市户籍的6月龄婴儿119人进行麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)免疫效果及人体反应观察。结果显示:6月龄婴儿中有84%母传抗体已阴转,阳性者抗体水平也极低。接种MV后抗体阳性率达到86.6%,免疫成功率为80.7%,

  8. Spotlight on measles 2010: measles outbreak in Ireland 2009-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gee, S

    2010-01-01

    Measles cases are increasing in Ireland, with 320 cases notified since August 2009. Nearly two-thirds of these cases (n=206) were unvaccinated. In the early stages of the outbreak a substantial number of cases were linked to the Traveller community with some cases also reported among the Roma community, other citizens from eastern Europe and children whose parents objected to vaccination. By February 2010, there had been considerable spread to the general population.

  9. Practical observations from an epidemiological investigation of a measles outbreak in a district of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, accounting for nearly half of the morbidity associated with global vaccine preventable diseases. Regular outbreaks of Measles are reported in India, of which only a few are investigated. This study was conducted in the Shivpuri District of Madhya Pradesh (India to investigate and asses various epidemiological factors associated with measles outbreak. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 randomly selected sub-centers in 8 blocks of the Shivpuri District of Madhya Pradesh, covering 212 villages, selected by cluster sampling. The villages, which had reported measles cases, were extensively investigated by the field teams through extensive house-to-house surveys during 12-19 May 2004. Results: A total of 1204 cases with 14 deaths were reported with an attack rate of 6.2% and a case fatality rate of 1.2%. In this study, 17.7% of the cases reported post-measles complications with diarrhea as the most common post measles complication. The routine measles vaccine and Vitamin A supplementation in the area was also less than 30%. Conclusions: The majority of the cases had occurred in the unvaccinated children and in under 5 year old population. There are repeated outbreaks and a long delay in reporting of the cases. The occurrence of cases, in a reasonable proportion of the vaccinated population, points toward the fact that there is a possibility of a vaccine failure in older children. This study calls for an improved surveillance system, an improvement in the cold chain, and enhancements for measles vaccination if India is to achieve the goal of measles elimination.

  10. Mitigating measles outbreaks in West Africa post-Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Shaun A; Moss, William J; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 devastated the populations, economies and healthcare systems of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. With this devastation comes the impending threat of outbreaks of other infectious diseases like measles. Strategies for mitigating these risks must include both prevention, through vaccination, and case detection and management, focused on surveillance, diagnosis and appropriate clinical care and case management. With the high transmissibility of measles virus, small-scale reactive vaccinations will be essential to extinguish focal outbreaks, while national vaccination campaigns are needed to guarantee vaccination coverage targets are reached in the long term. Rapid and multifaceted strategies should carefully navigate challenges present in the wake of Ebola, while also taking advantage of current Ebola-related activities and international attention. Above all, resources and focus currently aimed at these countries must be utilized to build up the deficit in infrastructure and healthcare systems that contributed to the extent of the Ebola outbreak. PMID:26489536

  11. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249

  12. Measles: United States, January--May 20, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    Measles is a highly contagious, acute viral illness that can lead to serious complications and death. Endemic or sustained measles transmission has not occurred in the United States since the late 1990s, despite continued importations (1). During 2001--2008, a median of 56 (range: 37--140) measles cases were reported to CDC annually (2); during the first 19 weeks of 2011, 118 cases of measles were reported, the highest number reported for this period since 1996. Of the 118 cases, 105 (89%) were associated with importation from other countries, including 46 importations (34 among U.S. residents traveling abroad and 12 among foreign visitors). Among those 46 cases, 40 (87%) were importations from the World Health Organization (WHO) European and South-East Asia regions. Of the 118, 105 (89%) patients were unvaccinated. Forty-seven (40%) patients were hospitalized and nine had pneumonia. The increased number of measles importations into the United States this year underscores the importance of vaccination to prevent measles and its complications. PMID:21617634

  13. A population screening test for antibody to measles virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In areas where sporadic cases of measles continue to occur in spite of vaccination programs, the availability of a simple screening test for determination of seropositivity to measles virus is desirable. A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) screening test (ST) for the detection of IgG antibody to measles virus, based on a solid phase RIA, is described. The assays were performed on polyvinyl microtiter plates for which the RIAST requires only 5 μl of serum per subject. Antigen consisted of a sonicated extract of measles virus-infected Vero cells. Rabbit antihuman IgG specific for the Fc-segment of human IgG, labelled with 125I, was used to detect human IgG bound to viral antigen. The basic RIA method was characterized by carrying out full titrations of sera of 53 healthy adults, 10 children, and 13 patients with measles-associated illness. These sera were also tested by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) technique; most of the measles sera were also tested by complement fixation (CF). RIAST results (expressed as binding ratios) obtained for 52 healthy adults are compared with their RIA serum titers. Of the 200 sera of patients of various ages tested by the RIAST, 63 borderline sera were also tested by HI. The RIAST, which does not require serum treatment other than inactivation, proved to be more sensitive as an indicator of seropositivity than HI. Implications of the results and practical applications of the screening test are discussed. (author)

  14. Anafilaxia associada à vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola Anafilaxia asociada a la vacuna contra sarampión, varicela y rubéola Anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Maria Novadzki

    2010-04-01

    sensibilización por algún componente residual de la vacuna y posible reacción cruzada con el dextrano.A case-control study was carried out aiming to describe the cases and causes of anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella. A total of 22 reported cases in children who showed mucocutaneous manifestations, during the Campanha Nacional de Vacinação (Brazilian Vaccination Campaign, conducted in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, in 2004, were studied. In addition, 66 children, who were next to these cases and did not show a symptomatology after the vaccine was applied, were selected. Serum measurements of antibodies for vaccine antigens and total IgE, specific IgE antibody measurements for several allergens, and skin tests were performed. Vaccine response was adequate, specific IgE measurement and skin tests showed that potential allergens in vaccines and atopy were not associated with anaphylactic reactions. Skin tests with the vaccine and dextran were positive in the cases exclusively, suggesting sensitization to certain residual components of the vaccine and possible cross-reaction with dextran.

  15. Vaccine Immunogenetics: Bedside to Bench to Population

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory A Poland; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Jacobson, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    The immunogenetic basis for variations in immune response to vaccines in humans remains largely unknown. Many factors can contribute to the heterogeneity of vaccine-induced immune responses, including polymorphisms of immune response genes. It is important to identify those genes involved directly or indirectly in the generation of the immune response to vaccines. Our previous work with measles reveals the impact of immune response gene polymorphisms on measles vaccine-induced humoral and cel...

  16. Measles HI-antibody levels in Lagos children, Nigeria: a follow-up study to resurgence of measles in Lagos metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyefolu, A O; Omilabu, S A

    2001-01-01

    A total of 138 children aged between 0-36 months were bled and screened for measles haemagglutination inhibiting (HI)-antibody. Twenty seven children were from age group (0-4) months with 16 (59.3%) seropositive while, 67 and 44 were bled in the group (5-9) and > or = 12 months with 29 (43.3%) and 31 (70.5%) sero positive sera respectively. The distribution of the antibody titre pattern among various age groups suggest vaccination against measles should be at age 9 month. The antibody titres pattern of seroconverted vaccinees also showed that the vaccine administered at our study centre were potent enough to elicit good and protective immune response in vaccinees when given at age 9 month. Our study agrees with the current policy of vaccinating children against measles at age 9 months in Nigeria and should therefore be continued. Based on observations in this study, we suggest; continued administration of the Edmonston-Zagreb strain of measle vaccine currently-in-use in Nigeria, mother's breast-feeding of children for a longer period before the apporpriate age for vaccination, and the possible administration of Vitamin A-a potent immune enhancer, as a supplement during immunization programmes in Nigeria. The introduction of a booster dose of measles vaccine at elementary school age in order to care for the residual unvaccinated children may be a good strategy for measles eradication necessary to be considered in Nigeria and might probably forestall instances of measles outbreaks in children during their second year in school. PMID:11922159

  17. Measles outbreak investigation in Zaka, Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomerai Kufakwanguzvarova W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A measles outbreak was detected at Ndanga Hospital in Zaka district Masvingo Province on the 5th of May 2010 and there were five deaths. Source of infection was not known and an investigation was carried out to determine factors associated with contracting measles in Zaka district. Materials and methods A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a person residing in Zaka district who developed signs and symptoms of measles or tested IgM positive from 06 May 2010 to 30 August 2010. A control was a person residing in the same community who did not have history of signs and symptoms of measles during the same period. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire (translated into shona was used to solicit information from cases and controls. Ethical consideration like written consent from all participants, respect and confidentiality were observed. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the medical research Council of Zimbabwe and the provincial Medical Directors Masvingo. Epi info was used to calculate frequencies, odds ratios and perform logistic regression to control for confounding variables. Findings A total of 110 cases and 110 controls were recruited. Most cases (63.03% were from the apostolic sect while 44.7% of controls were from orthodox churches. Contact with a measles case [AOR= 41.14, 95% CI (7.47-226.5],being unvaccinated against measles [AOR= 3.96, 95%CI (2.58-6.08] and not receiving additional doses of measles vaccine [AOR 5.48, 95% CI (2.16-11.08] were independent risk factor for contracting measles. Measles vaccination coverage for Zaka district was 75%. The median duration for seeking treatment after onset of illness was three days (Q1=2; Q3=7. There were no emergency preparedness plans in place. Conclusion This outbreak occurred due to a large number of unvaccinated children and a boarding school that facilitated person to person transmission. We recommend mandatory

  18. Identification of peptide sequences as a measure of Anthrax vaccine stability during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, Gail; Wheeler, Jun X.; Rijpkema, Sjoerd

    2014-01-01

    The UK anthrax vaccine is an alum precipitate of a sterile filtrate of Bacillus anthracis Sterne culture (AVP). An increase in shelf life of AVP from 3 to 5 years prompted us to investigate the in vivo potency and the antigen content of 12 batches with a shelf life of 6.4 to 9.9 years and one bulk with a shelf life of 23.8 years. All batches, except for a 9.4-year-old batch, passed the potency test. Mass spectrometry (MS) and in-gel difference 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (DIGE) were use...

  19. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine. PMID:22129866

  20. Epidemiology Of Measles And Its Complications In Non- Hospitalized Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangal N

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 1985-86 amongst non-hospitalized children of jaipur city in33 investigative units having 3791 families with 6183 children in the 0-9 years age group. Measles vaccine coverage was only 21.7% Measles developed in 189 cases. Maximum incidence occurred in the 1-2 years olds and during the first half of the years (January to June. Complication developed in 50 (26.5% children. The most frequent was diarrohea (14.3% followed by respiratory infection (6.9%. No case fatality was reported.

  1. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  2. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  3. Fever with Rash, an Alarm to the Physicians - A Case Report of Atypical Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Prabhakaran; Hussaini, Syed Bahavudeen; Saravanan, Paramasivam; Jeyaram, Kuttuva

    2016-02-01

    Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by Paramyxovirus group. It has been estimated that globally deaths occurs out of measles. The disease still remains as one of the leading cause of death among young children and adults despite the effective vaccination. The outbreak of measles is on rise in recent years with serologically confirmed cases in India. The incidence and complications of atypical measles is usually severe among older age groups even prior immunization. We report a case of 15-year-old male with symptoms of fever and rash with possible differential diagnosis and emphasize on the clinical presentation of atypical measles among adolescent age group with an additional evidence of investigations. PMID:27042506

  4. Avaliação das condições de estocagem de vacinas vivas, atenuadas contra o sarampo, em postos de vacinação credenciados e em centros de saúde do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil An assessment of the storage conditions of live, attenuated vaccines against measles, in authorized vaccination centers and in health services in S. Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio França Mendes

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar as condições de estocagem de vacinas vivas, atenuadas contra o sarampo, da rede de vacinação do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, foram visitados 71 Postos de Vacinação Credenciados particulares (PVC, assim como 117 Centros de Saúde oficiais (CS, sobre os quais interessava saber a respeito da qualidade da estocagem a frio. Os parâmetros adotados foram: a temperatura das geladeiras de uso (+2 a +8°C e de estoque (+ 8°C; b validade do produto; c título das vacinas conservadas nestas geladeiras, avaliado pela inoculação de diluições das amostras de vacinas em células Vero; d proteção à luz. Dos CS pesquisados, 85,33% apresentaram geladeiras com temperatura de acordo com a recomendada e 100% das vacinas neles estocadas com título e validade satisfatórios. Nos PVC foram encontrados, com maior freqüência, lotes de vacina fora do prazo de validade (14,49%, com títulos abaixo do mínimo requerido (3,53% e geladeiras de uso e de estoque com temperaturas inadequadas (33,80%. Necessário se faz que as condições de estocagem das vacinas contra o sarampo (temperatura e proteção à luz, prevalentes no momento, sejam melhoradas e que as bulas passem a acompanhar o produto a eles entregue, para que os responsáveis pela vacinação obedeçam as recomendações do laboratório produtor com relação às condições de estocagem, validade e administração do imunobiológico, uma vez que a pesquisa revelou que estas não são observadas com o rigor necessário.In the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, health centers sponsored by the State, as well as private health services, located in throughout large districts, are in charge of the vaccination against the various diseases affecting children, including measles. In the present study three of the above mentioned districts, covering 385 State Health Centers (SHC and 200 Private Health Services (PHS were surveyed. From these totals 117 SHC and 71 PHS were chosen for the evaluation of: a

  5. Vaccination during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzo, Pina; Narducci, Andrea; Einarson, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Question One of my patients is studying to become a dental hygienist. Owing to the program requirements, she received several vaccinations last week, including measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B (HB) vaccines, as well as a tetanus booster. However, today a blood test confirmed that she is currently 6 weeks pregnant. What is known about the safety of these vaccines during pregnancy, and are there any general recommendations for vaccines for women who are planning to become pregn...

  6. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  7. The Costs and Valuation of Health Impacts of Measles and Rubella Risk Management Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Odahowski, Cassie L

    2016-07-01

    National and global health policymakers require good information about the costs and benefits of their investments in measles and rubella immunization programs. Building on our review of the existing measles and rubella health economics literature, we develop inputs for use in regional and global models of the expected future benefits and costs of vaccination, treatment, surveillance, and other global coordination activities. Given diversity in the world and limited data, we characterize the costs for countries according to the 2013 World Bank income levels using 2013 U.S. dollars (2013$US). We estimate that routine immunization and supplemental immunization activities will cost governments and donors over 2013$US 2.3 billion per year for the foreseeable future, with high-income countries accounting for 55% of the costs, to vaccinate global birth cohorts of approximately 134 million surviving infants and to protect the global population of over 7 billion people. We find significantly higher costs and health consequences of measles or rubella disease than with vaccine use, with the expected disability-adjusted life year (DALY) loss for case of disease generally at least 100 times the loss per vaccine dose. To support estimates of the economic benefits of investments in measles and/or rubella elimination or control, we characterize the probabilities of various sequelae of measles and rubella infections and vaccine adverse events, the DALY inputs for health outcomes, and the associated treatment costs. Managing measles and rubella to achieve the existing and future regional measles and rubella goals and the objectives of the Global Vaccine Action Plan will require an ongoing commitment of financial resources that will prevent adverse health outcomes and save the associated treatment costs. PMID:26249331

  8. Acute and long-term changes in T-lymphocyte subsets in response to clinical and subclinical measles. A community study from rural Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Samb, B; Whittle, H; Jensen, H; Soumare, M; Simondon, F; Aaby, P

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of long-term suppression of T-lymphocyte subsets, we examined children exposed to measles at home during an epidemic in rural Senegal, at time of exposure and 1 and 6 months later. The measles case fatality ratio was 1%. Subclinical measles was common among vaccinated...... children exposed to measles (45%). Both clinical and subclinical cases of measles showed a significant rise in absolute CD4 count in the incubation period. In the prodromal phase and the first week after the rash, the lymphocyte percentage, the white blood cell count and the absolute CD4 cell numbers were...... significantly reduced. There was no persistent decrease of absolute CD4 or CD8 numbers at 1 or 6 months after exposure. Measles infection was followed by significant changes in the subset composition, both CD4 and CD8 percentages being significantly higher in the second month after measles than among non...

  9. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Immunoglobulin M Antibodies against Measles Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Roodbari, F.; Roustai, M. H.; A Mostafaie; Soleimanjdahi, H.; Foroshani, R. Sarrami; F Sabahi

    2003-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious respiratory virus infection, with typical clinical symptoms including maculopapular rash, fever, cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis. Despite implementation of widespread vaccination programs throughout the world, the rates of global morbidity and mortality are still considerable. This study was performed to design a reliable indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure measles-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM). First, human IgM was purified, and th...

  10. Successful public health response to four cases of imported measles in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Nestor; Guerra, Ilka; Abrego, Leyda; Cisneros, Julio; Castillo, Juan; Nieto-Guevara, Javier; Gálvez, Carlos; Moltó, Yadira; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2012-08-01

    In Panama, the last endemic cases of measles occurred in 1995. In this paper, we report four cases of imported measles in three girls and one boy after they returned from a trip to Poland and Israel between 28 April and 11 May 2011. The etiologic diagnosis of the four cases was confirmed by detection of IgM antibodies against measles virus and positive polymerase chain reaction using measles-specific primers. All cases had genotype D4 with close genetic similarity to virus reported from Poland. Public health interventions included isolation of the cases in their homes and an extensive search for and vaccination of contacts of the four cases, regardless of their vaccination status. A nationwide vaccination campaign was also implemented after the first case was identified. A total of 70,950 measles vaccine doses were administered in Panama in the two months following the identification of these cases. In addition, 94,179 persons were confirmed to have their immunization schedule up-to-date and did not receive the vaccine. No secondary cases were detected in Panama in the following six months. PMID:22910566

  11. Epidemiological investigation of mixed outbreaks of measles/varicella in hilly villages of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GuptaSN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background On 26th September 2006, a local health worker informed us about sudden increased number of cases of fever and rash in three villages of district Kangra. We investigated the suspected outbreak to confirm diagnosis and recommendation to prevent and control.Methods A case of measles was defined as occurrence of fever with rash in a child between six months to 17 years of age, from 26th September to 2nd week of January, 2007. The information on age, sex, symptoms, signs, date of onset, residence, traveling history treatment taken and assessment of cold chain system was collected. The outbreak was described by place, time and person characteristics. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study among children between 10 months and 15 years of age to estimate the vaccine efficacy. We confirmed diagnosis clinically, epidemiologically and serologically. Results We identified 29/35 measles and 6/35 were confirmed as epidemiologically linked unvaccinated chickenpox case patients. The overall attack rate (AR was 8.13%; maximally in the age group of 11-17 years ranging in between 17-35%. Sex specific AR was more (17% in females. There was neither any death nor any serious complications. The proportion of the children vaccinated was 95% for measles but nil for varicella. Of 35 case-patients, 27 (78% were vaccinated for measles only with no vitamin A supplementation (relative risk: 5.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.90 – 14.77. The measles vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 82%. 3/3 case-patients for measles IgM antibodies and 2/3 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested positive by PCR and D4 measles strain genotyped.Conclusion Measles/varicella outbreaks were confirmed. We recommended varicella vaccination, second dose opportunity for measles and vitamin A supplementation to all cases in affected areas.

  12. MFR-vaccination og autisme - et populationsbaseret followupstudie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens;

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Summary A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism. Ugeskr Læger 2002; 164: 5741-4. Introduction: It has been suggested that the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination causes autism. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all...

  13. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Measles Cases and Outbreaks Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... ol: Casos y brotes de sarampión Number of measles cases by year since 2010 Year Cases 2010 ...

  14. Monitoring the process of measles elimination by serosurveillance data: The Apulian 2012 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, S; Gallone, M S; Gallone, M F; Pappagallo, M T; Larocca, A; Germinario, C

    2016-04-19

    In 2003 Italy adopted the National Plan for Measles and Congenital Rubella Elimination, but some outbreaks of measles are still occurring, as the target coverage rate (≥95%) for new-borns has currently not been achieved. In order to support the monitoring of the measles elimination programme, the authors carried out a survey about the seroprevalence of measles among Apulia young adults. The study was carried out from May 2011 to June 2012 among blood donors of the Department of Transfusion Medicine of Policlinico General Hospital in Bari. Subjects were enrolled by a convenience sampling. For each enrolled patient we collected a 5mL serum sample. Collected sera were tested by chemiluminescence (CLIA) for anti-Measles IgG. We enrolled 1764 subjects; 1362 (77.2%) were male with a mean age of 38.4±11.7 years. Anti-Measles IgG titre was >16.5UA/mL in 95.1% (95% CI=94.1-96.1) of enrolled subjects with a Geometric Mean Titre (GMT) of 2.3±0.4, which did not differ dividing the enrolled subjects into age groups. As our data showed, the universal routine vaccination changed the epidemiological pattern among adults, in particular young adults (18-24 years), who showed lowest seropositivity rates; in these groups of population there is a risk of the onset of outbreaks due to the presence of susceptible population. This is a paradox linked to the vaccination strategy: when coverage rates keep sub-optimal, measles is more likely to affect young adults and a higher percentage of complications is expected. According to our data, health authorities have to plan a mop-up strategy to actively offer measles vaccination to susceptible young adults. PMID:26988260

  15. Chikungunya vaccines in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522

  16. [Report on a measles epidemic in the Ústí nad Labem Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmal, J; Limberková, R

    2015-09-01

    The Czech Republic is a measles free country where only isolated, mostly imported cases have been reported. A measles epidemic that occurred in the Ústí nad Labem Region is presented, with the first case diagnosed early in February 2014 and the last one reported in August 2014. The index case and source of infection to other susceptible patients was an adult male with a history of travel to India. The diagnosis of measles was difficult to make as the patient presented with feverish condition due to co-infection with dengue fever, chikungunya, and measles. The primary measles outbreak occurred in contacts and spread to health workers of the Masaryk Hospital in Ústí nad Labem. The infection further spread to the general population of adults. In total, 305 persons presented with suspected measles. One hundred and eighty-six and of them (61%) met the criteria for a confirmed case (positive clinical symptoms and laboratory test). Fifty (16.4%) patients developed typical clinical symptoms and were epidemiologically linked to confirmed cases, but turned out to be antibody negative. In 69 (22.6%) patients, measles were ruled out. Cases were confirmed by the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against the measles virus or by RT--PCR. Nearly all cases were verified by the National Reference Laboratory for Rubella, Measles, Mumps, and Parvovirus B 19 of the National Institute of Public Health in Prague. In response to the epidemic, apart from common anti-epidemic measures, emergency vaccination was provided to health professionals of the Masaryk Hospital in Ústí nad Labem. Within two weeks after vaccination, a considerable decline in cases was seen in the vaccinated group. Measles most often occurred in persons born in 1970-1980, but were also observed in the smallest, non-vaccinated children (32 cases). Isolated cases also emerged in duly vaccinated children and adolescents. General recommendations are provided based on practical experience from the epidemic. PMID

  17. Safe immunization of allergic children against measles, mumps, and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen-Backman, K; Peltola, H; Backman, A; Salo, O P

    1987-10-01

    A series of 135 subjects (134 children and one adult) with documented or suspected systemic allergy were prick-tested before a measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination. Atopic eczema was documented in 68, asthma in 47, and cow's-milk allergy in 11 examinees; eight children were evaluated because of severe systemic reactions following diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, measles, or inactivated polio (Salk) vaccinations. In one child, there was only a suspicion of general allergy. The undiluted MMR prick test gave negative reactions in 126 cases (93%). The highest rate of nonreactivity was observed in those with atopic eczema (96%) and in children with asthma (91%) or cow's-milk allergy (82%). All examinees with systemic reactions after other vaccinations also had negative prick-test reactions. A total of 122 (95%) of the 129 examinees were eventually vaccinated with MMR. No untoward reactions developed, except mild generalized urticaria or fever in two vaccinees. We conclude that at least 95% of children with common forms of systemic allergy can be vaccinated safely with MMR and, in general, that allergic diseases should not interfere with execution of the vaccination programs. PMID:3630996

  18. Risk factors associated with the outbreak of measles in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Pakistan, three consecutive epidemics of measles in 2012 - 13 affected many thousands of children. Objectives: To determine the risk factors associated with the outbreak of measles in Lahore. Methods: A population based case-control study with 1: 1 case to control ratio was conducted in Lahore. Pur posive Sampling was done. Results: Out of 100 subjects 50 were cases and 50 were controls. Demographic characteristics were described. The risk estimation was done by Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Logistic regression analysis was employed at significance of alpha 0.05. Among cases 89% children> 9 months of age, 57% males and 43% females came from highly populated areas with lack of vaccine availability (75%), mostly belonging to middle socioeconomic status (83%) and educated families (63%). Fifty five percent were vaccinated against measles from hospital or dispensary and few from mobile teams. 79% had history of travel to epidemic areas and history of breast feeding was present in 66%. Coexisting illness along with measles was present in 30% and 28% had Vitamin - A deficient diet. Twenty four percent parents showed lack of confidence in immunization program. Nineteen per- cent measles patient's mothers were sick and treated during pregnancy. The lack of cold chain, lack of awareness of expanded program of immunization, and malnutrition were found statistically significant. Conclusion: The lack of Expanded Program of Immunization, transmission from surroundings and coexisting illness were found significant in measles epi- demic. (author)

  19. Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network Support for Elimination Goals, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Mick N; Rota, Paul A; Icenogle, Joseph P; Brown, Kevin E; Takeda, Makoto; Rey, Gloria J; Ben Mamou, Myriam C; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Byabamazima, Charles R; Ahmed, Hinda J; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Zhang, Yan; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M; Goodson, James L

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP)* with the objective to eliminate measles and rubella in five World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. In September 2013, countries in all six WHO regions had established measles elimination goals, and additional goals for elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome were established in three regions (1). Capacity for surveillance, including laboratory confirmation, is fundamental to monitoring and verifying elimination. The 2012-2020 Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan of the Measles and Rubella Initiative(†) calls for effective case-based surveillance with laboratory testing for case confirmation (2). In 2000, the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) was established to provide high quality laboratory support for surveillance (3). The GMRLN is the largest globally coordinated laboratory network, with 703 laboratories supporting surveillance in 191 countries. During 2010-2015, 742,187 serum specimens were tested, and 27,832 viral sequences were reported globally. Expansion of the capacity of the GMRLN will support measles and rubella elimination efforts as well as surveillance for other vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including rotavirus, and for emerging pathogens of public health concern. PMID:27148917

  20. The role of travel in measles outbreaks in Australia - An enhanced surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, C R; Karki, S; Sheikh, M; Zwar, N; Heywood, A E

    2016-08-17

    Many developed countries, like Australia, maintain a high population level immunity against measles, however, there remains a risk of acquisition of measles in non-immune travellers and subsequent importation into Australia leading to localised outbreaks. In this study, we estimate the incidence of measles and describe characteristics including immunisation and pre-travel health seeking behaviour of notified cases of measles in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia between February 2013 and January 2014. Cases were followed up by telephone interview using a questionnaire to collect information of demographic and travel characteristics. In NSW, the incidence was highest in age group 0-9years (20/million population) whereas in Victoria the highest incidence was observed in 10-19 (23/million population) years group. Out of 44 cases interviewed, 25 (56.8%) had history of travel outside of Australia during or immediately prior to the onset of measles. Holiday (60%) was the main reason for travel with 44% (11/25) reporting visiting friends and relatives (VFR) during the trip. The major reason described for not seeking prior medical advice before travel were "no perceived risk of diseases" (41%) and "previous overseas travel without any problem" (41%). Of the 25 measles cases with recent overseas travel during the incubation period, one reported a measles vaccine prior to their recent trip. Four cases were children of parents who refused vaccination. Twenty out of 25 (80.0%) had attended mass gathering events. Young adults and VFR travellers should be a high priority for preventive strategies in order to maintain measles elimination status. PMID:27449078

  1. A Vectored Measles Virus Induces Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Antibodies While Protecting Macaques against Measles Virus Challenge▿

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle, Jorge Reyes; Devaux, Patricia; Hodge, Gregory; Wegner, Nicholas J.; McChesney, Michael B.; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) acute and chronic infections remain a major worldwide health problem. Towards developing an anti-HBV vaccine with single-dose scheme potential, we engineered infectious measles virus (MV) genomic cDNAs with a vaccine strain background and expression vector properties. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression cassettes were inserted into this cDNA and three MVs expressing HBsAg at different levels generated. All vectored MVs, which secrete HBsAg as subviral partic...

  2. Evaluation of MMR Vaccination and Autism Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective cohort study of autism in all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998 and those receiving measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccination is reported from the Danish Epidemiology Science Center, Aarhus, Denmark.

  3. Modeling and Managing the Risks of Measles and Rubella: A Global Perspective, Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Cochi, Stephen L

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 50 years, the use of vaccines led to significant decreases in the global burdens of measles and rubella, motivated at least in part by the successive development of global control and elimination targets. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) includes specific targets for regional elimination of measles and rubella in five of six regions of the World Health Organization by 2020. Achieving the GVAP measles and rubella goals will require significant immunization efforts and associated financial investments and political commitments. Planning and budgeting for these efforts can benefit from learning some important lessons from the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). Following an overview of the global context of measles and rubella risks and discussion of lessons learned from the GPEI, we introduce the contents of the special issue on modeling and managing the risks of measles and rubella. This introduction describes the synthesis of the literature available to support evidence-based model inputs to support the development of an integrated economic and dynamic disease transmission model to support global efforts to optimally manage these diseases globally using vaccines. PMID:27424287

  4. Systematic Review of Health Economic Analyses of Measles and Rubella Immunization Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Odahowski, Cassie L

    2016-07-01

    Economic analyses for vaccine-preventable diseases provide important insights about the value of prevention. We reviewed the literature to identify all of the peer-reviewed, published economic analyses of interventions related to measles and rubella immunization options to assess the different types of analyses performed and characterize key insights. We searched PubMed, the Science Citation Index, and references from relevant articles for studies in English and found 67 analyses that reported primary data and quantitative estimates of benefit-cost or cost-effectiveness analyses for measles and/or rubella immunization interventions. We removed studies that we characterized as cost-minimization analyses from this sample because they generally provide insights that focused on more optimal strategies to achieve the same health outcome. The 67 analyses we included demonstrate the large economic benefits associated with preventing measles and rubella infections using vaccines and the benefit of combining measles and rubella antigens into a formulation that saves the costs associated with injecting the vaccines separately. Despite the importance of population immunity and dynamic viral transmission, most of the analyses used static models to estimate cases prevented and characterize benefits, although the use of dynamic models continues to increase. Many of the analyses focused on characterizing the most significant adverse outcomes (e.g., mortality for measles, congenital rubella syndrome for rubella) and/or only direct costs, and the most complete analyses present data from high-income countries. PMID:25545778

  5. Tumor cell marker PVRL4 (nectin 4 is an epithelial cell receptor for measles virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan S Noyce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine and laboratory adapted strains of measles virus can use CD46 as a receptor to infect many human cell lines. However, wild type isolates of measles virus cannot use CD46, and they infect activated lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages via the receptor CD150/SLAM. Wild type virus can also infect epithelial cells of the respiratory tract through an unidentified receptor. We demonstrate that wild type measles virus infects primary airway epithelial cells grown in fetal calf serum and many adenocarcinoma cell lines of the lung, breast, and colon. Transfection of non-infectable adenocarcinoma cell lines with an expression vector encoding CD150/SLAM rendered them susceptible to measles virus, indicating that they were virus replication competent, but lacked a receptor for virus attachment and entry. Microarray analysis of susceptible versus non-susceptible cell lines was performed, and comparison of membrane protein gene transcripts produced a list of 11 candidate receptors. Of these, only the human tumor cell marker PVRL4 (Nectin 4 rendered cells amenable to measles virus infections. Flow cytometry confirmed that PVRL4 is highly expressed on the surfaces of susceptible lung, breast, and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Measles virus preferentially infected adenocarcinoma cell lines from the apical surface, although basolateral infection was observed with reduced kinetics. Confocal immune fluorescence microscopy and surface biotinylation experiments revealed that PVRL4 was expressed on both the apical and basolateral surfaces of these cell lines. Antibodies and siRNA directed against PVRL4 were able to block measles virus infections in MCF7 and NCI-H358 cancer cells. A virus binding assay indicated that PVRL4 was a bona fide receptor that supported virus attachment to the host cell. Several strains of measles virus were also shown to use PVRL4 as a receptor. Measles virus infection reduced PVRL4 surface expression in MCF7 cells, a

  6. An outbreak investigation of measles after the tsunami in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsanam M Balasubramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tsunami struck the entire coastline of Tamil Nadu on 26 th December 2004. After tsunami an outbreak of measles was reported by media in Cuddalore district due to overcrowding of people in relief camps. We had to investigate and report within 12 hours upon this outbreak of measles and determine whether it was related to the tsunami. Materials and Methods: Investigation was done by interviewing health care workers, by visiting villages from where measles was reported and confirmed serologically among children, by looking for clustering of cases and probing for possible reasons for the outbreak. Results : By the day the investigation was carried out, 27 cases had been reported. Of these, 13 cases were from a village not affected by tsunami. There was clustering of cases in a single street in this village. Other reported cases were from villages affected by tsunami, but there was no clustering. No cases were reported from relief camps. All the affected children were above 3 years of age and were immunized previously against measles. No data were available on occurrence of measles in previous years, but it was ascertained that cases of measles occurred around the same season. No common source was identified. Interview with the health workers revealed that reconstituted vaccine was used more than 4 h after reconstitution. A faulty technique was used in route of administration in the immunization. Health workers also said that after the age of 1 year a non-immunized child was not given the vaccine. Conclusions: There was a localized outbreak of measles, but was not related to tsunami. Probable source could not be identified. Possible reasons for outbreak were the faulty use of vaccine and technique of administration. This investigation shows that though in some field situations it may not be possible, or even necessary, to carry out a full-fledged epidemiological investigation, following the epidemiological principles can lead to concrete

  7. Measles among U.S.-bound refugees from Malaysia--California, Maryland, North Carolina, and Wisconsin, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    On August 26, 2011, California public health officials notified CDC of a suspected measles case in an unvaccinated male refugee aged 15 years from Burma (the index patient), who had lived in an urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, which is experiencing ongoing measles outbreaks. Currently, approximately 92,000 such refugees are living in urban communities in Malaysia. Resettlement programs in the United States and other countries are ongoing. The health and vaccination status of urban refugees are largely unknown. PMID:21937975

  8. Combining Global Elimination Of Measles And Rubella With Strengthening Of Health Systems In Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Jon Kim; Cochi, Stephen L; Cooper, Louis Z; Klein, Jonathan D

    2016-02-01

    Global efforts to eliminate measles and rubella can be combined with other actions to accelerate the strengthening of health systems in developing countries. However, there are several challenges standing in the way of successfully combining measles and rubella vaccination campaigns with health systems strengthening. Those challenges include the following: achieving universal vaccine coverage while integrating the initiative with other primary care strategies and developing the necessary health system resilience to confront emergencies, ensuring epidemiological and laboratory surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases, developing the human resources needed to effectively manage and implement national strategies, increasing community demand for health services, and obtaining long-term political support. We describe lessons learned from the successful elimination of measles and rubella in the Americas and elsewhere that strive to strengthen national health systems to both improve vaccine uptake and confront emerging threats. The elimination of measles and rubella provides opportunities for nations to strengthen health systems and thus to both reduce inequities and ensure national health security. PMID:26858388

  9. Post-Ebola Measles Outbreak in Lola, Guinea, January–June 20151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Adela Paez; Kourouma, Mamadou; Derrough, Tarik; Baldé, Mamadou; Honomou, Patric; Kolie, Nestor; Mamadi, Oularé; Tamba, Kaduono; Lamah, Kalaya; Loua, Angelo; Mollet, Thomas; Lamah, Molou; Camara, Amara Nana; Prikazsky, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    During public health crises such as the recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, breakdowns in public health systems can lead to epidemics of vaccine-preventable diseases. We report here on an outbreak of measles in the prefecture of Lola, Guinea, which started in January 2015. PMID:27191621

  10. Post-Ebola Measles Outbreak in Lola, Guinea, January–June 2015 1

    OpenAIRE

    Suk, Jonathan E.; Jimenez, Adela Paez; Kourouma, Mamadou; Derrough, Tarik; Baldé, Mamadou; Honomou, Patric; Kolie, Nestor; Mamadi, Oularé; Tamba, Kaduono; Lamah, Kalaya; Loua, Angelo; Mollet, Thomas; Lamah, Molou; Camara, Amara Nana; Prikazsky, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    During public health crises such as the recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, breakdowns in public health systems can lead to epidemics of vaccine-preventable diseases. We report here on an outbreak of measles in the prefecture of Lola, Guinea, which started in January 2015.

  11. Post-Ebola Measles Outbreak in Lola, Guinea, January-June 2015(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Paez Jimenez, Adela; Kourouma, Mamadou; Derrough, Tarik; Baldé, Mamadou; Honomou, Patric; Kolie, Nestor; Mamadi, Oularé; Tamba, Kaduono; Lamah, Kalaya; Loua, Angelo; Mollet, Thomas; Lamah, Molou; Camara, Amara Nana; Prikazsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    During public health crises such as the recent outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in West Africa, breakdowns in public health systems can lead to epidemics of vaccine-preventable diseases. We report here on an outbreak of measles in the prefecture of Lola, Guinea, which started in January 2015. PMID:27191621

  12. Modeling Measles Transmission in the North American Amish and Options for Outbreak Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Kisjes, Kasper H

    2016-07-01

    Measles outbreaks in the United States continue to occur in subpopulations with sufficient numbers of undervaccinated individuals, with a 2014 outbreak in Amish communities in Ohio pushing the annual cases to the highest national number reported in the last 20 years. We adapted an individual-based model developed to explore potential poliovirus transmission in the North American Amish to characterize a 1988 measles outbreak in the Pennsylvania Amish and the 2014 outbreak in the Ohio Amish. We explored the impact of the 2014 outbreak response compared to no or partial response. Measles can spread very rapidly in an underimmunized subpopulation like the North American Amish, with the potential for national spread within a year or so in the absence of outbreak response. Vaccination efforts significantly reduced the transmission of measles and the expected number of cases. Until global eradication, measles importations will continue to pose a threat to clusters of underimmunized individuals in the United States. Aggressive outbreak response efforts in Ohio probably prevented widespread transmission of measles within the entire North American Amish. PMID:26103154

  13. German measles outbreak bursts in two unvaccinated border hilly districts of Northern Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender N Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated German measles outbreak as a suspected one of measles to confirm diagnosis and recommend for control and prevention. Materials and Methods: We defined a case of German measles as the occurrence of febrile rash in any resident of the eight villages from 20 th October to 16 th January, 2007. Case patients were line listed and information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, traveling, treatment history, vaccination status, and pregnancy status were collected. The outbreak was described by time, place, and person characteristics. Diagnosis was confirmed clinically, epidemiologically, and serologically; first to measles, scrub typhus and later to German measles viruses. Results: We identified 116 cases in eight villages (112/116 clinically and 04/116 laboratory confirmed. The overall attack rate (AR was 11%; highest in the age group of 11-20 years (range 13% to 44%. Sex specific AR for male was 12%. All case patients were <20 years of age with a median age of 12 years. Complication rate was 05%, but no death reported on account of German measles. No pregnant woman was found to be affected. None of them were immunized against rubella. Four tested positive for immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to rubella out of eight samples. Thirty three percent (38/116 had their treatment of choice to the modern medicine. Conclusion: German measles outbreak was confirmed in unvaccinated populations, which was possibly due to the frequent traveling of Bengali colony vendors′ case patients to other areas. We advised the local health authorities to provide MR vaccination to the unexposed in eight affected and neighboring villages.

  14. 新疆麻疹流行现状和控制策略%Analysis of current epidemiological situation of measles and strategies for controlling measles in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉莲; 戴述齐

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze the current epidemiological situation of measles and to put forward strategies for controlling measles in Xinjiang. Methods A descriptive epidemiology was performed to survey incidence of measles in Xinjiang from 1953~1999. Results  The highest incidence rate of 1 155.14 per 100 000 was reported in 1964. Since 1 965, the measles incidence had dramatically decreased with using measles vaccine in Xinjiang, particularly the action of launching EPI program since 1984. The l owest incidence rate of 7.85 per 100 000 was achieved in 1990. From 1990~1 999 cases mostly concentrated on preschool and school children. Seasonal distri b ution of measles was in April and May. Conclusions It is urgent to improve efficacy of measles vaccine, to establish measles epidemiological an d laboratory surveillance system, and to strengthen immunization for measles and controlling of the outbreak.%目的 分析新疆麻疹流行的现状并提出控制策略 。方法 用描述流行病学方法对1953~1999年新疆麻疹发病情况分析。 结果 1964年报告发病率为1 155.14/10万。 自1965年开始使用麻疹疫苗(MV)以来,特别是1984年开展计划免疫活动以后,我区麻疹 的发病率大幅度下降,流行强度明显降低,到1990年发病率已降至历史最低水平7.85/10万 。1990~1999年麻疹主要在学龄前儿童和小学生中发病,冬春高发,其中4、5月份发病数 最多。结论 应建立监测系统,开展麻疹强化免疫活动,控制麻疹爆发。

  15. Measles surveillance in Taiwan, 2012-2014: Changing epidemiology, immune response, and circulating genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Yueh; Wang, Hsiao-Chi; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan

    2016-05-01

    In Taiwan, although the coverage rate of two doses of measles-containing vaccine has been maintained at over 95% since 2001, measles outbreaks occurred in 2002, 2009, and 2011. The present study reports that 43 cases were confirmed by laboratory testing in Taiwan in 2012-2014 and that adults have emerged as one of groups susceptible to measles virus (MV) infection, who may have discrepant humoral immune reactions-indicated by the level of IgM and IgG antibodies compared to a naïve, susceptible measles case. Thirty-seven of 43 cases confirmed by RT-PCR were further characterized by genotyping. In Taiwan, genotype H1 was the major strain in circulation prior to 2010, while D9 was the most frequently detected MV genotype between 2010 and 2011. The genotyping data collected between 2012 and 2014 revealed that H1 rebounded in 2012 after an absence in 2011 and was imported from China and Vietnam. In 2014, genotype B3 first appeared in Taiwan following import from the Philippines and became the most frequently detected strain. Genotype D8, linked to importation from various countries, including India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam, showed sequence divergence. D9 was imported from Malaysia in 2014. The MV genotypes detected in Taiwan reflected the genotypes of circulating endemic measles strains in neighboring countries. A significant rise in the number of measles cases and in measles with genotypes imported from surrounding countries indicated that measles resurged in Asia in 2014. J. Med. Virol. 88:746-753, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26400063

  16. CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MEASLES AT SIR RONALD ROSS INSTITUTE OF TROPICAL AND COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Bhatt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measles remain a leading vaccine - preventable cause of child mortality worldwide and is still a public health problem. According to the World Health Organization ( WHO , more than 20 million people are affected by measles each year with 95% of measles deaths occurring in countries that have weak health infrastructures. Out breaks of Measles are still common in India. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of th e present study were to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and to discuss the complicated cases that were diagnosed at around Sir Ronald Ross Institute of Tropical and Communicable Diseases ( SRRIT&CD , Nallakunta , Hyderabad. METHODS : All cases admitted at SRRIT&CD , Nallakunta , Hyderabad with signs and symptoms of Measles were studied during the period January 2013 to December 2014.This study included a study population of 1427 cases and the results were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1427 cases of Measles were diagnosed in two year period ( 2013 - 2014 . The majority of the patients were children with slight male predominance. Most of the patients had history of either partial or non - immunization. Most common clinical feature was fever , generalized weakness and rash. Other symptoms like conjunctivitis , coryza ( R unny nose , cough and small spots with white or bluish - white centers on an erythematous base on the buccal mucosa ( Koplik spots . Seventeen cases were presented with com plications like encephalitis , pneumonia , febrile convulsions and diarrhea etc ., CONCLUSION: Measles continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India. This study provides clinical and epidemiological characteristics to assess the overall burden of the disease as disease outbreaks are very commonly reported despite of various immunization programmes. There are several reasons for continued Measles outbreaks in these countries. There is no organized system of surveillance of Measles cases , a nd hence

  17. Prediction Analysis for Measles Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ayako; Ohtomo, Norio; Tanaka, Yukio; Sawamura, Sadashi; Olsen, Lars Folke; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2003-12-01

    A newly devised procedure of prediction analysis, which is a linearized version of the nonlinear least squares method combined with the maximum entropy spectral analysis method, was proposed. This method was applied to time series data of measles case notification in several communities in the UK, USA and Denmark. The dominant spectral lines observed in each power spectral density (PSD) can be safely assigned as fundamental periods. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated using these fundamental periods can essentially reproduce the underlying variation of the measles data. An extension of the LSF curve can be used to predict measles case notification quantitatively. Some discussions including a predictability of chaotic time series are presented.

  18. Vaccination in Elite Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Gärtner, Barbara C.; de Meyer, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or travelin...

  19. Gaps in the 2010 measles SIA coverage among migrant children in Beijing: evidence from a parental survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojiang; Xiao, Suowei; Chen, Binli; Sa, Zhihong

    2012-08-24

    China suffers from high incidence of measles partly due to high population mobility and low vaccination rates among migrants. In this study, we assessed the vaccination coverage of the nationwide measles supplementary immunization activity (SIA) of 2010 and its determinants among migrant children in Beijing. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews with the caregivers of 589 migrant children at train and long-distance bus stations in January 2011, when migrants were traveling home for the Chinese New Year holiday. We estimated that 83.4% of migrant children aged 8 months to 14 years received the measles vaccine during the SIA. This estimated coverage is lower than the official report of 96% among all eligible children in Beijing. Factors associated with being unvaccinated through the SIA included children being at home or in the kindergarten, living in a single-child family, and having a parent who was unaware of the SIA or who had a low level of trust in the government-administered measles campaign. We recommend more focused targeting on migrant children in future measles vaccination campaigns, improved immunization service delivery in unregulated migrant-run kindergartens and at the community level, as well as development of more effective communication methods to reach disadvantaged migrants. PMID:22819988

  20. Routine vaccinations associated with divergent effects on female and male mortality at the paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu;

    2005-01-01

    had been seen at admission, the case fatality ratio for measles-vaccinated children versus measles-unvaccinated children was 0.51 (0.27-0.98), the beneficial effect being significantly stronger for girls than for boys (test of interaction, p=0.050). The protective effect of measles vaccine remained...... was 0.54 (0.28-0.97). Among children having received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio (OPV) as the last vaccines, girls had higher case fatality than boys, the mortality ratio being 1.63 (1.03-2.59). The female to male ratios were significantly inversed for DTP and OPV versus measles...

  1. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattet, Philippe; Alves, Lisa; Herren, Michael; Aguilar, Hector C.

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV), a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV)-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options. PMID:27110811

  2. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattet, Philippe; Alves, Lisa; Herren, Michael; Aguilar, Hector C

    2016-04-01

    Measles virus (MeV), a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV)-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options. PMID:27110811

  3. Measles epidemic in Switzerland and other parts of Europe

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Commission

    2008-01-01

    There has been a measles epidemic in Switzerland since November 2006. By April 2008 the number of cases had reached almost 2500, with over 1300 since the beginning of the year alone. All cantons are affected but to varying degrees, the largest number of cases occurring in the north and east of the country. In all cases, the low vaccination coverage is responsible for the spread of this highly contagious disease. The contagious period starts 4 days before the rash appears and lasts until 4 days afterwards. In the event of infection, children must be kept away from school and measures must be taken to protect those who come into contact with them, which may include vaccination if the infection is less than 72 hours old. The Swiss and international health authorities recommend the following measures to prevent the spread of the disease: those who have already contracted the disease, received 2 doses of the vaccine (often in the form of the combined MMR - measles, mumps, rubella...

  4. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Plattet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options.

  5. An Investigation on Measles Out Break in Navagam Village of Surendranagar District of Gujarat, India in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaydip R Oza, Mallika Chavada, Jagruti Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An outbreak of measles was reported from a Navagam village of Surendranagar District, Gujarat, in July 2008. The present study was conducted to investigate and assess various epidemiological features associated with measles outbreak. Methods: A community based cohort study was carried out in Navagam village of Surendranagar district during month of June 2008. Suspected cases were detected through active case finding in the community. Children <15 years of age with symptoms of Fever and rash and cough or coryza or conjunctivitis (Red eye in Navagam area of Kharaghoda PHC, Surendranagar district from 1st June, 2008 to 1st August, 2008 were identified as case in present outbreak. Blood samples were taken for IgM antibody detection. Results: The study covered 326 houses having 777children. An overall attack rate 11.17% was almost equal in both male & female. Among measles cases, 45 (49.45% had post measles complications. As much as 69.23% children with measles had received measles vaccination in the past. Out of 11 blood samples, 10 were positive for IgM antibody. Conclusions: The outbreaks occurred due to poor vaccine coverage levels and an inefficient surveillance system which failed to generate early warning signals.

  6. The Impact of Immunization Control Activities on Measles Outbreaks in Akwa Ibom State, South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassey Enya B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase of vaccination rates means that fewer children will be vulnerable to vaccine preventable diseases such as measles, which will invariably result in a drop in the infant mortality and morbidity rates. Objective: To assess the impact of the implementation of measles reduction strategies from 2006 to 2008 using the quarterly national program for immunization (NPI in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. Method: Following informed consent, individuals presenting with febrile rash illnesses were routinely bled and tested for measles specific IgM using commercially available ELISA kit-MV-ELISA (Enzygnost; Behring Diagnostics, Marburg, Germany in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Results: A total of four hundred and four individuals comprising of 216 vaccinated and 188 unvaccinated, presenting with febrile rash illness were screened for measles specific IgM antibodies as indication of active infection between January 2006 and December 2008 out of which 122 (30.2% had detectable levels of measles antibodies. Among the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, 32 (14.8% and 90 (47.9% respectively were detected with measles IgM antibodies. The highest and lowest antibody levels were detected in 2006 (vaccinated: 54.7%; unvaccinated: 78.4% and 2008 (vaccinated: 1.2%; unvaccinated: 12% respectively. The distribution of measles burden by year show an overall decline in prevalence from 70% in 2006, 8.9% in 2007 to 3.7% in 2008. While, children under the age of 5 similarly had a decline in measles incidence of 73.3%, 10.7% and 3.3% respectively. Sex distribution of infection within the 3-year period shows that more females (37.4% than males (21.2% expressed measles IgM antibodies, and active infection was detected more in the rural (31.4% than urban area (27.7%. However, findings indicate a tremendous decline in active infection in the rural areas from 67% in 2006 to 0% in 2008, and in the urban areas from 78% in 2006 to 9.3% in 2008

  7. Resurgence of measles in a country of elimination: interim assessment and current control measures in the Republic of Korea in early 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Un Yang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 2014, the Republic of Korea has experienced a resurgence of measles cases. Among the 220 cases confirmed as measles during epidemiological weeks 1–20 (December 29, 2013 to May 17, 2014, 10 imported cases were identified. The predominant genotype was B3, which reflects the circulating measles virus in adjacent countries. Even with the verification of measles elimination in March 2014 by the World Health Organization, recent importation has been related to international travel. Targeted control measures have been implemented in addition to proper isolation and patient care. A vigilant surveillance system and high levels of vaccine coverage should be maintained to sustain the measles elimination status.

  8. Induction of Type I Interferon Secretion through Recombinant Newcastle Disease Virus Expressing Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Stimulates Antibody Secretion in the Presence of Maternal Antibodies▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dhohyung; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Choi, Changsun; Petroff, Natasha; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Niewiesk, Stefan; Carsillo, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) vaccine effectively protects seronegative individuals against infection. However, inhibition of vaccine-induced seroconversion by maternal antibodies after vaccination remains a problem, as it leaves infants susceptible to MV infection. In cotton rats, passive transfer of MV-specific IgG mimics maternal antibodies and inhibits vaccine-induced seroconversion. Here, we report that immunization in the presence of passively transferred IgG inhibits the secretion of neutralizing...

  9. Postexposure Management of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Teri Moser

    2016-01-01

    Because some parents are choosing to not vaccinate or only partially vaccinate their children, vaccine-preventable diseases that once were rarely seen in pediatric practice must now be considered part of the differential diagnosis when caring for these children. Measles, mumps, varicella, meningococcal disease, pertussis, and influenza are reviewed. Recommendations for prevention and treatment of these vaccine-preventable diseases are discussed. PMID:26896379

  10. Estimating measles transmission potential in Italy over the period 2010-2011

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    Marco Ajelli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent history of measles epidemiology in Italy is characterized by the recurrence of spatially localized epidemics. AIM: In this study we investigate the three major outbreaks occurred in Italy over the period 2010-2011 and estimate the measles transmission potential. The epidemics mainly involved individuals aged 10-28 years and the transmission potential, measured as effective reproduction number - i.e. the number of new infections generated by a primary infector - was estimated to be 1.9-5.9. RESULTS: Despite such high values, we found that, in all investigated outbreaks, the reproduction number has remained above the epidemic threshold for no more than twelve weeks, suggesting that measles may hardly have the potential to give rise to new nationwide epidemics. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the performed analysis highlights the need of planning additional vaccination programs targeting those age classes currently showing a higher susceptibility to infection, in order not to compromise the elimination goal by 2015.

  11. Explaining seasonal fluctuations of measles in Niger using nighttime lights imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, N; Tatem, A J; Ferrari, M J; Grais, R F; Djibo, A; Grenfell, B T

    2011-12-01

    Measles epidemics in West Africa cause a significant proportion of vaccine-preventable childhood mortality. Epidemics are strongly seasonal, but the drivers of these fluctuations are poorly understood, which limits the predictability of outbreaks and the dynamic response to immunization. We show that measles seasonality can be explained by spatiotemporal changes in population density, which we measure by quantifying anthropogenic light from satellite imagery. We find that measles transmission and population density are highly correlated for three cities in Niger. With dynamic epidemic models, we demonstrate that measures of population density are essential for predicting epidemic progression at the city level and improving intervention strategies. In addition to epidemiological applications, the ability to measure fine-scale changes in population density has implications for public health, crisis management, and economic development. PMID:22158822

  12. Low molecular weight measles immunoglobulin M in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and acute measles.

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, J. H.; Simpson, D. M.; Trudgett, A.; Hopkins, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty eight patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were investigated. Five patients who previously had measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) detected in unfractionated serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had measles IgM exclusively in the low molecular weight (LMW) fractions of serum and CSF. Measles IgM had previously not been found in unfractionated serum from 33 patients but was detected exclusively in the LMW fractions of serum from 30 patients. Seven children with acute measl...

  13. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  14. Case Based Measles Surveillance in Pune: Evidence to Guide Current and Future Measles Control and Elimination Efforts in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Anindya Sekhar; Jafari, Hamid; Sosler, Stephen; Narula, Arvinder Pal Singh; Kulkarni, V. M.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Oommen, John; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Banpel, R. V.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011) are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. Methods Standard protocols w...

  15. Fatal measles pneumonitis during Hodgkin's lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Lafarge, Marion; Escaut, Lélia; Stern, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of measles pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults is not established. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute pneumonia during a measles infection. On day 13, intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulins were administrated. On day 18, the patient developed acute respiratory failure. An examination of transbronchial pulmonary biopsies showed Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells that are pathognomonic of measles pneumonitis. The patient died despite aggressive sup...

  16. Naturally processed measles virus peptide eluted from class II HLA-DRB1*03 recognized by T lymphocytes from human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first report of the direct identification of a HLA-DRB1*03 measles-derived peptide from measles virus infected EBV-transformed B cells. We purified HLA-DR3-peptide complexes from EBV-B cells infected with measles virus (Edmonston strain) and sequenced the HLA-DR3-peptides by mass spectrometry. A class II peptide, derived from a measles phosphoprotein, ASDVETAEGGEIHELLRLQ (P1, residues 179-197), exhibited the capacity to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells to proliferate. Our data provides direct evidence that the antigenic peptide of measles virus was processed by antigen-presenting cells, presented in the context of HLA class II molecules, and was recognized by peripheral blood T cells from healthy individuals previously immunized with measles vaccine. The approach described herein provides a useful methodology for the future identification of HLA-presented pathogen-derived epitopes using mass spectrometry. The study of cell-mediated immune responses to the measles-derived peptide in immune persons should provide significant insight into the design and development of new vaccines

  17. Fatal measles pneumonitis during Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyplosz, Benjamin; Lafarge, Marion; Escaut, Lélia; Stern, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of measles pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults is not established. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute pneumonia during a measles infection. On day 13, intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulins were administrated. On day 18, the patient developed acute respiratory failure. An examination of transbronchial pulmonary biopsies showed Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells that are pathognomonic of measles pneumonitis. The patient died despite aggressive supportive care. Our case and a review of literature show that measles pneumonitis is routinely fatal in patients with cancer. We suggest that antiviral drugs should be considered as soon as the diagnosis has been established. PMID:24105383

  18. Lentiviral Vectors Displaying Modified Measles Virus gp Overcome Pre-existing Immunity in In Vivo-like Transduction of Human T and B Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lévy, Camille; Amirache, Fouzia; Costa, Caroline; Frecha, Cecilia; Muller, Claude P.; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin; Cosset, François-Loïc; Verhoeyen, Els

    2012-01-01

    Gene transfer into quiescent T and B cells is important for gene therapy and immunotherapy approaches. Previously, we generated lentiviral vectors (LVs) pseudotyped with Edmonston (Ed) measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) glycoproteins (H/F-LVs), which allowed efficient transduction of quiescent human T and B cells. However, a major obstacle in the use of H/F-LVs in vivo is that most of the human population is vaccinated against measles. As the MV humoral immune response is exc...

  19. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred to...

  20. Travelling waves and spatial hierarchies in measles epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell, B. T.; Bjørnstad, O. N.; Kappey, J.

    2001-12-01

    Spatio-temporal travelling waves are striking manifestations of predator-prey and host-parasite dynamics. However, few systems are well enough documented both to detect repeated waves and to explain their interaction with spatio-temporal variations in population structure and demography. Here, we demonstrate recurrent epidemic travelling waves in an exhaustive spatio-temporal data set for measles in England and Wales. We use wavelet phase analysis, which allows for dynamical non-stationarity-a complication in interpreting spatio-temporal patterns in these and many other ecological time series. In the pre-vaccination era, conspicuous hierarchical waves of infection moved regionally from large cities to small towns; the introduction of measles vaccination restricted but did not eliminate this hierarchical contagion. A mechanistic stochastic model suggests a dynamical explanation for the waves-spread via infective `sparks' from large `core' cities to smaller `satellite' towns. Thus, the spatial hierarchy of host population structure is a prerequisite for these infection waves.

  1. Measles outbreak investigation in a remote area of Solomon Islands, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Diau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a measles outbreak and health service response in a remote location in Malaita, Solomon Islands. Methods: Epidemiological review of cases who presented to the Atoifi Adventist Hospital (AAH during the outbreak period from July to December 2014. Rumour surveillance was used to gather information on unreported cases. Results: A total of 117 cases were reported to AAH. The incidence rate was 123 per 10 000 individuals. Fifty-six per cent (66/117 of cases were hospitalized. Children under 5 years had the highest number of cases (n = 41 with 10 cases below 6 months old. The age-specific incidence rate of children under 5 years was 278.5 per 10 000 individuals. Eighty-two per cent of reported cases were 18 years old or younger. Rumour surveillance revealed about three quarters of children in one area of the East Kwaio Mountains had suspected measles not reported to AAH. There were three unreported deaths from measles outside AAH. During the outbreak, a total of 2453 measles-rubella vaccines were given in the AAH catchment area. Conclusion: A high incidence rate was observed in children and young people aged 18 years or younger, reflecting low childhood vaccination coverage. More than 50% of cases required hospitalization due to disease severity and challenges of accessing health services. The rumour surveillance discovered many unreported cases in the mountain areas and a few deaths possibly linked to the outbreak. Improvement of registration methods and follow-up systems and setting up satellite clinics are planned to improve measles surveillance and vaccination coverage.

  2. Molecular evolution of measles viruses circulated in Taiwan 1992-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rota Paul A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic analyses of viral samples from 74 laboratory confirmed measles cases occurring in Taiwan during 1992-2008 identified six viral genotypes D3, D5, D9, G2, H1 and H2. The most frequently detected genotype, H1, was associated with outbreaks in 1994 and 2002, and was the likely indigenous genotype in 1992. In response to the outbreaks, two catch-up campaigns were launched and a routine second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at entry to elementary school was introduced. The vaccination campaigns successfully reduced the number of measles cases in Taiwan, and many of the more recent cases can be traced to importations, primarily from other Asian countries. A number of measles genotypes which were associated with outbreaks in other Asian countries were detected among the more recent cases. The more recent genotype H1 viruses had sequences that were identical to those currently circulating in China or associated with international importation of virus.

  3. [Vaccination for international travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587

  4. Morbidity and mortality pattern of hospitalized children with measles at mayo hospital, lahore (epidemic 2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major outbreak of measles took place in Punjab recently (2013), leading on to increase in hospitalized cases of measles in children wards, with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to find out morbidity and mortality pattern of hospitalized cases of measles and associated factors. Design: Prospective case series conducted at Pediatric Department Mayo Hospital, Lahore for 7 months, i.e. from 1st Jan to 31st Jul 2013 Methods:A total of 628 cases of measles were admitted in the children ward, Unit II, Mayo Hospital, Lahore from Jan-Jul 2013. The diagnosis was assigned using WHO criteria. Cases were admitted through emergency on 24 hour basis and managed in HDU and Measles isolation section. Chest X-Ray and blood complete examination was done in all cases. Complications were noted and managed along with eye consultations where necessary. Data was recorded in a predesigned proforma and entered in computer. Results: 628 admitted cases were enrolled, with comparable sex distribution, having mean age 30.8+-26.25 months and mean weight 9.69+-4.14 Kg. Eighty three percent cases were below 6 years of age (33% <1 year), 71% cases were under weight and 68% were wasted (WHO classification). Sixty six percent cases had not received measles vaccination, 144 (23%) cases had received a single dose and 71 cases (12.2%) had received two doses before admission. Majority of cases belonged to Lahore city and its peri-urban areas (83%). Pneumonia (80%), diarrhea (37%), and encephalitis (7.7%) were common complications. Eye complications (corneal ulcers, keratitis, perforation and blindness) were seen in 7.3% cases. Being under weight, H/O improper measles immunization, presence of anemia, pneumonia and encephalitis were statistically significant risk factors for mortality. The case fatality rate was 8.76%. Conclusion:Recent Measles outbreak further highlights the importance of strengthening the need for routine and mass vaccination for all children. In a

  5. Fotossensibilidade e termoestabilidade de vacinas contra o sarampo (cepa Biken CAM-70 liofilizadas e/ou reconstituídas para administração Photosensitivity and stability of freeze-dried and reconstituted (Biken CAM-70 strain measles vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda de Rizzo

    1990-02-01

    ou reconstituídos para administração apresentaram, além de baixa estabilidade ao calor, pouca homogeneidade com relação a este parâmetro.Three different lots of measles vaccines produced with the Biken CAM-70 virus strain were requested from the central cold store of the Public Health Department of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, and assays on photosensitivity at 2-8° C, and on stability at 28, 36.5 and 45° C were carried out to find out for how long these vaccines would maintain their minimum potency, established as being 3.70 log10 or 5000 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infective dose per human dose. The analysis of the adjusted straight regression lines indicated that, with the passage of time, the potency of lyophilized or reconstituted vaccines, as well as of vaccines exposed to or protected from light decreased. Light-exposed vaccines, however, became less potent than vaccines protected from the light. None of the vaccine lots studied, reconstituted and stored at 2-8° C, exhibited homogeneity as to sensitivity to light. When freeze-dried vaccines had their photosensitivity studied at 2-8° C, lots 1 and 2 presented greater thermal degradation when exposed to light than when protected from it. However, in both instances, it was found that potency fell bellow that taken as minimum for the Biken CAM-70 virus strain. At all other temperatures considered, even when protected from light, lots 1 and 2 did not retain the minimum potency. Lot 3 kept the expected stability for 60 days at 2-8° C when protected from light and for 40 days when unprotected, but its thermal degradation at other temperatures was more intense (28° C: 5 days; 36.5° C: 2 days; 45° C: 0.5 day. Taking into account the potency that measles vaccines produced with the Biken CAM-70 virus strain are required to contain in order to induce effective immunity, the three vaccine lots studied were found to possess low thermal stability and to lack homogeneity both in the freeze-dried as well as in

  6. Sarampo: inquérito sobre antecedentes vacinal e de doença em crianças de 0 a 14 anos, atendidas nos Centros de Saúde Estaduais do Município de São Paulo, 1976 Measles: a survey concerning preceding vaccination and the disease in 0 through 14 year old children seen at the City of S. Paulo State Public Health Centres, 1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victório Barbosa

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Em julho de 1976 foi realizado um inquérito em 3.096 crianças de 0 a 14 anos, que freqüentavam Centros de Saúde Estaduais no Município de São Paulo , Brasil, com o objetivo de identificar a população ainda suscetível ao sarampo, quer por não ter tido a doença quer por não ter sido vacinada. Também destinava-se, esta pesquisa, a obter outras informações locais de importância para a vigilância epidemiológica da moléstia.A survey was undertaken in July 1976, envolving 3096 children, with ages ranging from 0 to 14 years, attending the City of São Paulo State Public Health Centres, Brazil, with the aim of identifying the population still able to contract measles either because they had not the illness or because they had not been vaccinated. The survey also aimed at getting other local informations important to the epidemiological surveillance of measles.

  7. Spread of Measles Virus in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-06

    Dr. Paul Rota, team lead for the Measles Laboratory, Division of Viral Diseases, at CDC, talks about a measles virus survey in Europe, 2008-2011.  Created: 10/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/6/2011.

  8. MMR Vaccination and Febrile Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Hviid, Anders; Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard;

    2004-01-01

    CONTEXT: The rate of febrile seizures increases following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination but it is unknown whether the rate varies according to personal or family history of seizures, perinatal factors, or socioeconomic status. Furthermore, little is known about the long-term outcome...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and...

  10. Imaging findings of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To illustrate the chest radiography and MSCT findings of measles pneumonia in adults. Methods: One hundred and sixty three measles patients underwent chest radiography, MSCT was performed in 3 of them. Measles pneumonia was confirmed in 10 patients (6.13%). Results: Eight of 10 patients had abnormal appearances in initial chest radiography. The characteristic chest radiographic findings were ground-glass opacities (n=6) and bronchial wall thickening (n=2). MSCT showed bilateral multiple ground-glass opacities in 1 patient, unilateral patchy ground-glass opacities with lobular distribution in the right upper lung in 2 patients. Conclusions: Familiarizing with radiographic and MSCT appearances of measles pneumonia in adults is very important for the differential diagnosis and appropriate management of measles pneumonia. Normal initial chest radiography cannot exclude the involvement of the lungs. (authors)

  11. A chimeric measles virus with a lentiviral envelope replicates exclusively in CD4+/CCR5+ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We generated a replicating chimeric measles virus in which the hemagglutinin and fusion surface glycoproteins were replaced with the gp160 envelope glycoprotein of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239). Based on a previously cloned live-attenuated Schwarz vaccine strain of measles virus (MV), this chimera was rescued at high titers using reverse genetics in CD4+ target cells. Cytopathic effect consisted in the presence of large cell aggregates evolving to form syncytia, as observed during SIV infection. The morphology of the chimeric virus was identical to that of the parent MV particles. The presence of SIV gp160 as the only envelope protein on chimeric particles surface altered the cell tropism of the new virus from CD46+ to CD4+ cells. Used as an HIV candidate vaccine, this MV/SIVenv chimeric virus would mimic transient HIV-like infection, benefiting both from HIV-like tropism and the capacity of MV to replicate in dendritic cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.

  12. Universal varicella vaccine immunization in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. PMID:26944711

  13. Analysis of measles antibody level monitoring results of Qiaojia County from 2013 to 2015%巧家县2013-2015年麻疹抗体水平监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝泓; 毛宗荣; 易灵

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To understand the measles antibody level of Qiaojia County from 2013 to 2015,to provide the measles prevention and control data of Qiaojia county.Methods:The measles antibody survey data were selected.They were divided into groups according to the measles vaccination history.838 cases had the vaccination history,28 cases had no vaccination history.The measles antibody(IgG) was detected.Results:In 838 cases with the vaccination history,790 cases of measles antibody were positive, the positive rate was 94.3%.In 28 cases with no vaccination history,10 cases of measles antibody were positive,the positive rate was 35.7% .Conclusion:The effect of measles vaccination in Qiaojia county is satisfactory,but it still needs to be further strengthened in order to improve the immune effect.%目的:了解巧家县2013-2015年麻疹抗体水平,为巧家县提供麻疹防治资料.方法:收集麻疹抗体调查的资料,根据麻疹疫苗接种史进行分组,有接种史838例,无接种史28例,对麻疹抗体(IgG)进行检测.结果:有麻疹疫苗接种史838例,麻疹抗体阳性790例,阳性率94.3%;无接种史28例,麻疹抗体阳性10例,阳性率35.7%.结论:巧家县麻疹疫苗接种效果满意,但仍需要进一步加强,以提高免疫效果.

  14. Immune status of health care workers to measles virus: evaluation of protective titers in four measles IgG EIAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.; Hall, M.A.; Vreeswijk, J.; Vries, J.J. de; Vossen, A.C.; Hulscher, H.I. Ten; Kerkhof, J.; Smits, G.P.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.; Binnendijk, R.S. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the recognition of a measles case in a hospital in The Netherlands, health care workers (HCW) from the premises were screened by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measles IgG to identify persons at risk for measles. At least 10% of the HCW were tested measles IgG-negati

  15. The Measles and Free Riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Katharine

    2016-07-01

    This article takes up a game-theoretic perspective on California's recently passed bill (SB 277) that closes all nonmedical exemptions for school-mandated vaccination. Such a perspective characterizes parental decisions to vaccinate their children as a collective action problem and reveals the presence of an incentive to free ride-to enjoy the benefits of others' efforts to vaccinate their children without vaccinating one's own. This article defends California's legislation as a reasonable means of overcoming the free rider problem and of ensuring that the burdens of vaccination are shared equally. PMID:27348831

  16. Comparison of measles complications in well nourished and mal-nourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles is the most common and the most infectious of the viral infections of childhood. It can cause severe pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, and death. A significant proportion of deaths due to measles in young children worldwide are attributable to low weight for age. To compare the measles complications in well-nourished and mal-nourished children, this cross-sectional study was conducted at Paediatric out-patient department and paediatric unit 1 Bahawal Victoria Hospital Bahawalpur. Total 120 patients were included in the study. All patients presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of measles according to WHO criteria. These patients were divided into well nourished and malnourished according to the modified Gomez classification. Both groups were evaluated for measles complications like pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulceration, thrombocytopenia, otitis media and myocarditis by detailed history and complete physical examination, and statistically analysed. In the studied patients, 75 were males and 45 were females. Mean age was 23 months. Fifty-nine (49.2%) patients were well-nourished and 61 (50.8%) were undernourished. Fifty-two (43.3%) patients were having pneumonia. Fifty-three (44.2%) patients were having diarrhoea. Twenty-six (21.7%) patients were having encephalitis. Corneal ulceration was found in 9 (7.5%) patients. Thrombocytopenia and otitis media was present in 1 patient in each group. Fourteen patients expired. Measles is a global epidemic problem having many serious complications, including pneumonia, diarrhoea, encephalitis, corneal ulcerations etc. Moreover these complications are more frequent in under nourished children. Efforts should be made to improve the nutritional status of the children and to eradicate this disease by effective vaccination. (author)

  17. The Role of Pre-Gravidity Measles–Rubella Immunization of Mothers on the Passive Immunity and Immunizing Effect of MMR Vaccine in their Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ajami

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: After national mass catch-up campaign of measles-rubella (MR immunization on 5-25 year-old individuals in December 2003, in Iran, this research was conducted to assess the role of mothers MR vaccination on persistence of passive immunity against measles-rubella in their infants before MMR, and the effect on the immunogenicity of MMR vaccine in these children. Methods: From June 2005 to March 2006, all healthy 12 month-old infants presented for routine MMR vaccination were enrolled. Before and 4-8 weeks after immunization, sera samples were collected. According to their mothers history of MR vaccination, infants were divided into two-groups. Anti-measles-mumps–rubella antibodies were measured by quantitative ELISA method. The difference of seroconversion rates and mean concentration of antibodies (MCA between the two-groups of infants were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods using SPSS 11. Findings: Totally 112 infants (mean age 12.1 months, 58% male from 112 paired mothers (mean age: 24.3 years, 75% MR vaccinated were recruited. From sera taken before MMR vaccination, 7, 2 and 12 were positive against measles, mumps and rubella, respectively. All seropositive cases for measles and rubella were born to MR vaccinated mothers. Seroconversion rates were: 90.5%, 80% and 53% in infants for measles, mumps and rubella, respectively. Seroconversion rate differences between the two groups of infants for measles, mumps and rubella were not statistically significant (measles: 88.3% of vaccinated vs 96.4% of non-vaccinated, rubella: 51.4% vs 57.1%, respectively. However, anti-measles and anti-rubella MCA differences between the two groups were significant. Conclusions: These study findings indicate that MR vaccination of mothers causes more prolongation of passive immunity persistence in their infants, and may influence the immunogenicity of MMR vaccine in infants. Also results showed that immunogenicity of rubella component of MMR

  18. Measles monitoring and epidemic situation analysis in Heze City in 2011%菏泽市2011年麻疹监测与疫情分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景顺; 马敬仓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the operation level of measles monitoring system, do a good job for measles monitoring and epidemic emergency disposal, and to provide basic data for confirming measles elimination. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the data of measles surveillance and control in our city in 2011. Results 70 suspected measles cases were reported in 2011. The investigating rate was 97.14% within 48 hours after report. The collecting rate of blood serum sample was 85.71% among sporadic cases, while the report rate of blood serum sample was 96.67% after being tested within 7 days. 31 cases were confirmed measles, which were sporadic, and most confirmed cases were under 2 years old. Conclusion The measles monitoring information management system is running well in our city in 2011, and the important progress is made about measles elimination work than 2010. To raise and maintain high level of measles vaccination, including the routine immunization of measles vaccine and timely supplementary immunization of measles-containing vaccines are the focus in the nearly future.%目的 提高麻疹监测系统运转水平,切实做好麻疹监测和疫情应急处置工作,并为证实消除麻疹工作提供基础资料.方法 对2011年菏泽市麻疹监测与控制资料进行描述分析.结果 2011年菏泽市报告麻疹疑似病例70例.麻疹疑似病例报告后48 h内调查率为97.14%,散发病例血标本采集率为85.71%,血标本结果7 d内报告率为96.67%.麻疹确诊病例31例,呈散发,发病以2岁以下儿童为主.结论 菏泽市2011年麻疹监测信息报告管理系统运转情况良好,全市2011年消除麻疹工作较2010年取得重要进展.提高并维持高水平麻疹疫苗接种率,包括常规免疫工作和高质量做好麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动是今后的工作重点.

  19. Resting lymphocyte transduction with measles virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors relies on CD46 and SLAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measles virus (MV) glycoproteins hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) were recently shown to mediate transduction of resting lymphocytes by lentiviral vectors. MV vaccine strains use CD46 or signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as receptor for cell entry. A panel of H protein mutants derived from vaccine strain or wild-type MVs that lost or gained CD46 or SLAM receptor usage were investigated for their ability to mediate gene transfer into unstimulated T lymphocytes. The results demonstrate that CD46 is sufficient for efficient vector particle association with unstimulated lymphocytes. For stable gene transfer into these cells, however, both MV receptors were found to be essential.

  20. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  1. Systematic Review of Measles and Rubella Serology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Odahowski, Cassie L

    2016-07-01

    Serological tests provide information about individual immunity from historical infection or immunization. Cross-sectional serological studies provide data about the age- and sex-specific immunity levels for individuals in the studied population, and these data can provide a point of comparison for the results of transmission models. In the context of developing an integrated model for measles and rubella transmission, we reviewed the existing measles and rubella literature to identify the results of national serological studies that provided cross-sectional estimates of population immunity at the time of data collection. We systematically searched PubMed, the Science Citation Index, and references we identified from relevant articles published in English. We extracted serological data for comparison to transmission model outputs. For rubella, serological studies of women of child-bearing age provide information about the potential risks of infants born with congenital rubella syndrome. Serological studies also document the loss of maternal antibodies, which occurs at different rates for the different viruses and according to the nature of the induced immunity (i.e., infection or vaccine). The serological evidence remains limited for some areas, with studies from developed countries representing a disproportionate part of the evidence. The collection and review of serological evidence can help program managers identify immunity gaps in the population, which may help them better understand the characteristics of individuals within their populations who may participate in transmission and manage risks. PMID:26077609

  2. Cell tropism and pathogenesis of measles virus in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaoruTakeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MV is an enveloped negative strand RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, and causes one of the most contagious diseases in humans. Experimentally infected non-human primates are used as animal models for studies of the pathogenesis of human measles. We established a reverse genetics system based on a highly pathogenic wild-type MV (IC-B strain. Infection of monkeys with recombinant MV strains generated by reverse genetics enabled analysis of the molecular basis of MV pathogenesis. In addition, recombinant wild-type MV strains expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein enable visual tracking of MV-infected cells in vitro and in vivo. To date, 3 different molecules have been identified as receptors for MV. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150, expressed on immune cells, is a major receptor for MV. CD46, ubiquitously expressed in all nucleated cells in humans and monkeys, is a receptor for vaccine and laboratory strains of MV. The newly identified nectin-4 (also called PVRL4 is an epithelial cell receptor for MV. The impact of MV receptor usage in vivo on disease outcomes is now under investigation.

  3. Engineered measles virus Edmonston strain used as a novel oncolytic viral system against human hepatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary, malignant pediatric liver tumor in children. The treatment results for affected children have markedly improved in recent decades. However, the prognosis for high-risk patients who have extrahepatic extensions, invasion of the large hepatic veins, distant metastases and very high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels remains poor. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. An attenuated strain of measles virus, derived from the Edmonston vaccine lineage, was genetically engineered to produce carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We investigated the antitumor potential of this novel viral agent against human HB both in vitro and in vivo. Infection of the Hep2G and HUH6 HB cell lines, at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) ranging from 0.01 to 1, resulted in a significant cytopathic effect consisting of extensive syncytia formation and massive cell death at 72–96 h after infection. Both of the HB lines overexpressed the measles virus receptor CD46 and supported robust viral replication, which correlated with CEA production. The efficacy of this approach in vivo was examined in murine Hep2G xenograft models. Flow cytometry assays indicated an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Intratumoral administration of MV-CEA resulted in statistically significant delay of tumor growth and prolongation of survival. The engineered measles virus Edmonston strain MV-CEA has potent therapeutic efficacy against HB cell lines and xenografts. Trackable measles virus derivatives merit further exploration in HB treatment

  4. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author)

  5. Relevance of a pre-existing measles immunity prior immunization with a recombinant measles virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuchel, Marlyse C; Marty, René R; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Ilter, Orhan; Zuniga, Armando; Naim, Hussein Y

    2013-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) vectors are promising candidates for designing new recombinant vaccines since the parental live vaccines have a well-known safety and efficacy record. Like all viral vectors, the MV vector efficacy in inducing a protecting immune answer could be affected by the pre-existing immunity among the human population. In order to determine the optimal immunization route and regimen, we mimicked a MV pre-immunity by passively administrating MV neutralizing antibodies (MV-nAb) prior intramuscular (i.m.) and/or intranasal (i.n.) immunization with recombinant MV expressing the SIV-gag antigen (rMV-SIVgag). Our results revealed that 500 mIU of MV-nAb allowed the induction of a humoral and cellular immune response against the vector and the transgene, while higher titers of the MV-nAb were significantly inhibitory. In a prime-boost regimen, in the presence of MV-nAb, the intranasal-intramuscular (i.n.-i.m.) or intramuscular-intramuscular (i.m.-i.m.) routes induced higher humoral immune responses against the vector and the transgene (SIV-gag). In naive animals, cellular immune response was significantly higher by i.m. immunization; however, MV pre-immunity did not seem to affect the cellular immune response after an i.n. immunization.   In summary, we show that a pre-existing immunity of up to 500 mIU anti-MV neutralizing antibodies had little effect on the replication of rMV and did not inhibit the induction of significant humoral and cellular immune responses in immune-competent mice. PMID:23324399

  6. Modeling seasonal measles transmission in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenguo; Liu, Dan

    2015-08-01

    A discrete-time deterministic measles model with periodic transmission rate is formulated and studied. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined and used as the threshold parameter in determining the dynamics of the model. It is shown that the disease will die out if R0 1 . Parameters in the model are estimated on the basis of demographic and epidemiological data. Numerical simulations are presented to describe the seasonal fluctuation of measles infection in China.

  7. Seroprevalence of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Antibodies in College Students in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Devanshi J; Kothari, Sweta T; Chaudhari, Amol B; Gunale, Bhagwat K; Kulkarni, Prasad S; Deshmukh, Ranjana A; Chowdhary, Abhay S

    2016-04-01

    Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) are vaccine preventable viral infections, which cause significant mortality and morbidity globally. Increased incidence rates of these infectious diseases are observed in young adults. Information on seroprevalence data on MMR in India is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of IgG antibodies against MMR among young adults. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 192 healthy college students from Maharshi Dayanand College, Mumbai. The project was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Haffkine Institute. Between December 2012 and September 2013, blood samples were collected from individuals of age 18-23 years after obtaining written informed consent from them. The quantitative determination of IgG antibodies in serum specimens against MMR was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Data on history of vaccination were also collected from participants. Among 192 healthy college students (age 18-23 years), MMR seroprevalence was 91%, 97%, and 88%, respectively. The overall seropositivity of MMR was 79%. The highest level of seronegativity was seen with regards to rubella-specific antibodies in 12% of cases. About 96% of the participants did not know about their vaccination history while none of the participants knew about their history of MMR infections. Despite unknown vaccination status, a majority of college students in our study were found seropositive for all three infections, which indicate natural boosting. However, the proportion of seronegativity for measles and rubella was relatively higher. Especially since the study population belonged to reproductive age group, there is a concern of congenital rubella syndrome in the offspring. Although a larger multicentric study is required to confirm the findings, the results indicate that a dose of measles-rubella (MR) vaccine should be offered to these college students. PMID:26910764

  8. 2006-2010年中英两国主流报纸对麻疹疫苗的科技报道研究%A Study on Scientific Report of Measles Vaccine in Mainstream Newspapers in China and UK from 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任杰

    2012-01-01

    This paper consists of a content analysis of Chinese and British newspaper coverage of measles/MMR vaccination in a five-year period 2006-2010. By comparing China with a western country and discussing a better function for scientific reporting and scientist s' involvement in public communication, it aims to expand the research vision of science communication in China as well as making a modest contribution to the globalization of research on vaccine controversies.%本文遴选2006-2010年中英两国主流报纸对麻疹疫苗和MMR的新闻报道样本,采用内容分析方法以“科学的确定性与不确定”和“政府政策意见趋向”为主线分析了不同媒体环境下针对防治麻疹病疫苗的科学报道模式。通过比较研究中西方不同国家的政府、媒体以及科学家如何针对麻疹疫苗争议对公众进行正确健康疏导以及危机处理方式,拓展了科学普及的研究视野并试图从中总结出更加合理的科技报道模式。科学争议以及危机处理需要科学界与媒体正确的引导,随着网络科技报道数量的增加,传统媒体需要重视其他渠道的科技信息,尤其是来自于科学界的信息,从而对原有科技报道模式做出调整和改善。

  9. Oral Polio Vaccination and Hospital Admissions With Non-Polio Infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone G; Krause, Tyra G;

    2016-01-01

    inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib) or live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) as their most recent vaccine. Methods.  A nationwide, register-based, retrospective cohort study of 137 403 Danish children born 1997-1999, who had received 3 doses...

  10. Resurgence of measles in Serbia 2010-2011 highlights the need for supplementary immunization activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljković, J; Rakić Adrović, S; Tasić, G; Kovačević-Jovanović, V; Lončarević, G; Hübschen, J M; Muller, C P

    2016-04-01

    Between December 2010 and August 2011 an outbreak of measles occurred in Serbia with 363 reported cases. Sera and/or nose/throat swabs were collected from 193 patients and tested for measles-specific IgM antibodies by ELISA and viral RNA by RT-PCR, respectively. Epidemiological data were obtained from the surveillance database of the Institute of Public Health of Serbia. Of the 363 cases involved in the outbreak, 113 were laboratory confirmed. More than one third of the patients were hospitalized (n = 130, 35·8%) and for 15 (4·1% of the reported outbreak cases) the infection was complicated by pneumonia. Mostly pre-school children aged ⩽4 years (37·8%) and adults aged ⩾30 years (27·3%) were affected. The majority of patients belonged to the Roma population with a preponderance of female cases (57·0%). Nearly 94% of the patients were either unvaccinated or of unknown vaccination status. The main outbreak virus was the D4-Hamburg strain. The outbreak in Serbia occurred after several years of very low measles incidence despite a high routine immunization coverage in the general population, suggesting that special efforts to identify and vaccinate susceptible population groups are required even in countries with apparently good disease control. PMID:26449667

  11. Vaccination coverage in French 17-year-old young adults: an assessment of mandatory and recommended vaccination statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roblot, F; Robin, S; Chubilleau, C; Giraud, J; Bouffard, B; Ingrand, P

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to assess vaccination coverage (VC) in 17-year-old French young adults (YAs) participating in one mandatory Day of Defence and Citizenship (DDC). Between June 2010 and May 2011, YAs participating in 43 randomly selected mandatory sessions of the DDC programme in Poitou-Charentes (France) were asked to provide their personal vaccination record. Tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae b, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination status were assessed at ages 2, 6, 13 and 17 years. Of 2610 participants, 2111 (81%) supplied documents for evaluation. Of these, 1838 (87%, M:F sex ratio 0·96) were aged 17 years (9% of the global population of this age in the area). The assessment of the 17-year-olds demonstrated the following rates of complete vaccination: diphtheria-tetanus-polio 83%; measles, mumps and rubella 83%; pertussis 69%; H. influenzae b 61%; human papillomavirus 47%; and hepatitis B 40%. At age 6 years, only 46% had received two doses of the vaccine against measles. The YAs were not aware of their status but were in favour of vaccination. VC in YAs is insufficient, particularly for hepatitis B, pertussis and measles. Combined vaccines and the simplification of vaccination schedules should improve VC. Preventive messages should focus on YAs. PMID:26159149

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  13. Re-evaluation of the basic procedures involved in the storage of measles vaccine in public health units of the municipality of Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange A. Oliveira

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the first visit seventeen public health units were visited again and evaluated as to standards of storage recommended by the Brazilian Immunization Programme. In 100% of the units, refrigerators and proper inside location of vaccines in the refrigerator were adequatety or regularfy maintained and checked, respectively. However, when control of temperature was checked, onfy 64.7% presented adequate storage conditions. In 94.1 % of the units, health workers complained of lack of immediate technical support in emergency situations. In 55.2 % the titers vaccine samples of were under the minimal recommended potency. It is necessary that the factors concerning the cold chain be continualfy evaluated so that the quality of the vaccines that will be used is not affected.Quatro anos após a primeira visita, dezessete Unidades Sanitárias do Município de Niterói - RJ foram visitadas novamente e reavaliadas de acordo com as normas técnicas específicas estabelecidas pelo Programa Nacional de Imunização. Constatou-se que em 100% das Unidades visitadas os cuidados com os refrigeradores e a arrumação das vacinas no interior dos aparelhos eram adequados ou regulares mas quanto ao controle de temperatura dos refrigeradores este percentual caía para 64,7%. De todos os itens avaliados, o mais problemático foi o apoio técnico imediato frente a situações de emergência, considerado insuficiente em 94,1% dos casos. Em 55,2% das amostras vacinais recolhidas das unidades sanitárias, os títulos estavam abaixo da potência mínima preconizada para tal produto no momento da aplicação. Verifica-se, deste modo, a necessidade de uma contínua avaliação dos fatores que intervém na cadeia de frio evitando-se, assim, que seja comprometida a qualidade das vacinas a serem utilizadas.

  14. The Safety of Adjuvanted Vaccines Revisited: Vaccine-Induced Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S Sohail; Montomoli, Emanuele; Pasini, Franco Laghi; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Despite the very high benefit-to-risk ratio of vaccines, the fear of negative side effects has discouraged many people from getting vaccinated, resulting in the reemergence of previously controlled diseases such as measles, pertussis and diphtheria. This fear has been amplified more recently by multiple epidemiologic studies that confirmed the link of an AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Germany) used in Europe during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic [A(H1N1) pdm09] with the development of narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder, in children and adolescents. However, public misperceptions of what adjuvants are and why they are used in vaccines has created in some individuals a closed "black box" attitude towards all vaccines. The focus of this review article is to revisit this "black box" using the example of narcolepsy associated with the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. PMID:27228647

  15. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25749248

  16. Measles Virus Induces Functional TRAIL Production by Human Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Azocar, Olga; Lamouille, Barbara; Astier, Anne; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Servet-Delprat, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Measles virus infection induces a profound immunosuppression that can lead to serious secondary infections. Here we demonstrate that measles virus induces tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA and protein expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Moreover, measles virus-infected dendritic cells are shown to be cytotoxic via the TRAIL pathway. PMID:10590149

  17. Measles Virus Induces Functional TRAIL Production by Human Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Azocar, Olga; Lamouille, Barbara; Astier, Anne; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Servet-Delprat, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Measles virus infection induces a profound immunosuppression that can lead to serious secondary infections. Here we demonstrate that measles virus induces tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA and protein expression in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Moreover, measles virus-infected dendritic cells are shown to be cytotoxic via the TRAIL pathway.

  18. 成人麻疹患者护理及预防措施%Nursing care of adult patients with measles and preventive measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林桂梅

    2015-01-01

    本文探讨成人麻疹的临床护理及预防措施。通过对成人麻疹患者20例开展临床护理及健康宣教,全部治愈出院,未发生并发症及造成医源性的麻疹感染和流行。因此,加强预防接种是控制麻疹发病率的基本措施,做好麻疹患者的护理和管理也是预防麻疹发病率的关键。%In this paper,we explored the nursing care of adult patients with measles and preventive measures.20 adult patients with measles were given clinical nursing and health education,and they were all cured,and there was no complication and cause of iatrogenic infection and epidemic of measles.Therefor,to strengthen the vaccination is the basic measure to control the incidence of measles,and good nursing and management for patients with measles is the key to prevent the incidence of measles.

  19. Epidemic situation and research progress of measles in children%儿童麻疹流行及研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立飞; 刘作义

    2008-01-01

    Since the live attenuated vaccine of measles is widely used in the world, the epidemic, morbility and mortality of measles have been controlled and relieved to a great extent. However, the epidemic regularity and clinical manifestation of measles have changed a lot, some variants of measles also have been found. In order to comprehend and control the measles effectively, the associated reports of measles in recent 5 years are reviewed.%自全球广泛使用麻疹减毒活疫苗以来,儿童麻疹的流行、发病率及病死率已经得到很大程度控制和减轻.但是,近几年麻疹的流行规律和临床特征发生了不少变化,麻疹病毒也出现了一些变异.为了更好地认识和控制麻疹,此文对近5年麻疹研究有关文献进行了综述.

  20. Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles in Rizhao City during 2005 -2010%2005-2010年日照市的麻疹流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜洁琼; 李桂双; 刘贤利; 宋艳娟; 苗伟; 张伟; 王茂慈

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析日照市2005-2010年麻疹流行病学特征和预防控制措施,为进一步制定消除麻疹策略及措施提供依据.方法 对日照市2005-2010年麻疹发病情况及采取消除麻疹策略和措施进行描述流行病学分析.结果 日照市2010年麻疹报告发病率为0.071/10万,初步达到消除麻疹的目标.2005-2010年均以3~6月为麻疹发病高峰;年龄别发病率以15岁以上年龄组最高;麻疹病例主要为无麻疹减毒活疫苗(measles attennuated live vaccine,MV)免疫史或免疫史不详者;共发生麻疹暴发疫情3起,其中2起暴发病例均为输入性病例.结论 日照市消除麻疹取得显著进展,高质量的强化免疫(SIA)和查漏补种是减少麻疹发病和阻断麻疹病毒传播的重要手段.应继续保持和巩固高水平儿童基础免疫接种率,加强麻疹疑似病例的监测,做好暴发疫情的预警与控制工作,从而彻底实现消除麻疹的目标.%[Objective] To analyze the epideraiological characteristics and preventive measures of measles in Rizhao City during 2005 -2010, and provide evidence for developing strategy and measures to eliminate measles. [Methods] The descriptive epidemiology was applied to analyze the incidence of measles in Rizhao City during 2005 - 2010 and the adoption of strategy and measures to eliminate measles. [Results] The reported measles incidence was 0.071/100 000 in 2010 which achived the goal of eliminating measles preliminarily. The peak incidence of measles appeared during March to June from 2005 to 2010, children aged ^ 15 years had the highest incidence. Most measles cases had not immune history or unknown immune history of MV. Three measles outbreaks occurred; measles cases of 2 outbreaks were all imported cases. [Conclusion] Significant progress on measles elimination has been a-chieved in Rizhao City. High quality SIA and leakage searching with vaccination are the important means to reduce the incidence of measles and

  1. 2004-2011年江苏省宜兴市麻疹疫情及防控情况分析%Epidemiology of measles and its prevention and control in Yixing , Jiangsu , 2004 -2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史丽敏; 张华君; 谭文文

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles and progress in measles prevention and control in Yixing, and provide evidence to accelerate measles elimination. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of measles and the data of measles vaccination in Yixing from 2004 to 2011. Results A total of 331 measles cases were reported in Yixing during this period with the average annual incidence of 3. 29/Iakh. The incidence peak was in spring. The cases mainly occurred in floating population and were mainly distributed in infants and in adults. Conclusion It is essential to conduct supplementary immunization activity of measles, improve the timeliness of measles vaccination and increase the coverage in floating population to control and eliminate measles in Yixing.%目的 了解近几年江苏省宜兴市麻疹流行病学特征及麻疹防控情况,为加速消除麻疹提供依据.方法 对2004 -2011年麻疹病例及全市麻苗免疫情况进行流行病学分析.结果 宜兴市麻疹发病为散发,平均发病率为3.29/10万.发病高发季节为春季,发病以流动人口为主,年龄向大年龄组及小婴儿两端漂移.结论 应适时开展麻疹疫苗强化免疫,提高麻疹疫苗接种及时率,消除流动人口的免疫空白,是宜兴市控制和消除麻疹的重点.

  2. A simple model to quantitatively account for periodic outbreaks of the measles in the Dutch Bible Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Martin; Brak, Bastiaan

    2015-04-01

    In the Netherlands there has been nationwide vaccination against the measles since 1976. However, in small clustered communities of orthodox Protestants there is widespread refusal of the vaccine. After 1976, three large outbreaks with about 3000 reported cases of the measles have occurred among these orthodox Protestants. The outbreaks appear to occur about every twelve years. We show how a simple Kermack-McKendrick-like model can quantitatively account for the periodic outbreaks. Approximate analytic formulae to connect the period, size, and outbreak duration are derived. With an enhanced model we take the latency period in account. We also expand the model to follow how different age groups are affected. Like other researchers using other methods, we conclude that large scale underreporting of the disease must occur.

  3. Natural killer cell activity during measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, D E; Ward, B J; Jauregui, E; Johnson, R T; Vaisberg, A

    1990-01-01

    Natural killer cells are postulated to play an important role in host anti-viral defences. We measured natural killer cell activity in 30 individuals with acute measles (73 +/- 21 lytic units (LU)/10(7) cells) and 16 individuals with other infectious diseases (149 +/- 95 LU) and found it reduced compared with values for adults (375 +/- 70 LU; P less than 0.001) or children (300 +/- 73 LU, P less than 0.01) without infection. Reduced natural killer cell activity was found in measles patients with (84 +/- 30 LU) and without (55 +/- 18 LU) complications and was present for at least 3 weeks after the onset of the rash. Activity was increased by in vitro exposure of cells to interleukin-2. Depressed natural killer cell activity parallels in time the suppression of other parameters of cell-mediated immunity that occurs during measles. PMID:1696863

  4. Viral Nucleic Acids in Live-Attenuated Vaccines: Detection of Minority Variants and an Adventitious Virus▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria, Joseph G.; Wang, Chunlin; Jones, Morris S.; Jaing, Crystal; McLoughlin, Kevin; Gardner, Shea; Delwart, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    Metagenomics and a panmicrobial microarray were used to examine eight live-attenuated viral vaccines. Viral nucleic acids in trivalent oral poliovirus (OPV), rubella, measles, yellow fever, varicella-zoster, multivalent measles/mumps/rubella, and two rotavirus live vaccines were partially purified, randomly amplified, and pyrosequenced. Over half a million sequence reads were generated covering from 20 to 99% of the attenuated viral genomes at depths reaching up to 8,000 reads per nucleotides...

  5. Deaths following vaccination: What does the evidence show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elaine R; Moro, Pedro L; Cano, Maria; Shimabukuro, Tom T

    2015-06-26

    Vaccines are rigorously tested and monitored and are among the safest medical products we use. Millions of vaccinations are given to children and adults in the United States each year. Serious adverse reactions are rare. However, because of the high volume of use, coincidental adverse events including deaths, that are temporally associated with vaccination, do occur. When death occurs shortly following vaccination, loved ones and others might naturally question whether it was related to vaccination. A large body of evidence supports the safety of vaccines, and multiple studies and scientific reviews have found no association between vaccination and deaths except in rare cases. During the US multi-state measles outbreak of 2014-2015, unsubstantiated claims of deaths caused by measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine began circulating on the Internet, prompting responses by public health officials to address common misinterpretations and misuses of vaccine safety surveillance data, particularly around spontaneous reports submitted to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We summarize epidemiologic data on deaths following vaccination, including examples where reasonable scientific evidence exists to support that vaccination caused or contributed to deaths. Rare cases where a known or plausible theoretical risk of death following vaccination exists include anaphylaxis, vaccine-strain systemic infection after administration of live vaccines to severely immunocompromised persons, intussusception after rotavirus vaccine, Guillain-Barré syndrome after inactivated influenza vaccine, fall-related injuries associated with syncope after vaccination, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease or associated neurologic disease, serious complications from smallpox vaccine including eczema vaccinatum, progressive vaccinia, postvaccinal encephalitis, myocarditis, and dilated cardiomyopathy, and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis from oral

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  7. [Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases by vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M

    1997-04-01

    Prevention of virus-related neurological diseases are surveyed. Patients of poliomyelitis has recently been drastically reduced by world-wide administrating live vaccines. In view of rare incidence of paralysis after giving live vaccine, adoption of inactivated vaccine has recently been reconsidered. A live varicella vaccine was developed and has been world-wide used for normal and high-risk children. Incidence of zoster in vaccinated acute leukemic children is several times higher in those who with rash after vaccination as compared with those without rash, and as no or few rash appears after vaccination of normal children, it is expected that vaccination of normal children would lead to reduction of zoster after their aging. Measles encephalitis has rapidly been reduced by world-wide use of live vaccines. Mouse-brain derived vaccine against Japanese encephalitis(JE) has been used in Asian countries. Development of tissue-culture derived JE vaccine is under way. PMID:9103901

  8. The growing risk from measles and other childhood infections in the wake of Ebola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Saki; Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Ferrari, Matthew J.; Moss, William J.; Truelove, Shaun A.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola epidemic in West Africa has caused significant morbidity and mortality. The outbreak has also disrupted health care services, including childhood vaccinations, creating a second public health crises. We project that after 6–18 months of disruptions, a large connected cluster of children unvaccinated for measles will accumulate across Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. This pool of susceptibility increases the expected size of a regional outbreak from 127,000 to 227,000 cases after 18 months, resulting in 2,000–16,000 additional deaths (comparable to the numbers of Ebola deaths reported thus far). There is a clear path to avoiding outbreaks of childhood vaccine-preventable diseases once the threat of Ebola begins to recede: an aggressive regional vaccination campaign aimed at age groups left unprotected due to health care disruptions. PMID:25766232

  9. Measles Epidemiology and Progress Towards Measles Elimination in China, 2011%中国2011年麻疹流行病学特征与消除麻疹进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马超; 郝利新; 苏琪茹; 马静; 张燕; 曹雷; 罗会明

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析中国(未包括香港、澳门特别行政区和台湾地区,下同)2011年麻疹流行病学特征和采取的措施,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 对全国麻疹发病、麻疹监测系统(Measles Surveillance System,MSS)运转指标及采取的消除麻疹措施进行描述流行病学分析.结果 全国2011年麻疹报告发病率为0.74/10万,较2010年下降74.12%,降至历史新低.西藏、新疆、青海、甘肃、陕西省(自治区,下同)报告发病率居全国前5位,新疆、四川、浙江、陕西、甘肃省麻疹病例数居全国前5位,5个省的病例数占全国病例总数的57.61%.年龄别发病率以<5岁儿童最高(8.21/10万),其中尤以<1岁儿童(23.52/10万)和1岁儿童(8.87/10万)最高.≤1岁病例占病例总数的53.90%,≥15岁病例占27.58%.全国2011年共报告疑似麻疹病例34642例,排除麻疹病例报告发病率为1.84/10万,疑似麻疹病例48h内完整调查率93.30%,散发疑似麻疹病例血标本采集率90.37%,血清学检测结果7d内报告率93.85%,62起麻疹爆发中血清学确诊比例为98.39%,采集病原学标本的起数占75.81%.全国共报告223例麻疹病例的病原学标本基因亚型鉴定结果,221例为Hla基因亚型,2例为d11基因型.结论 中国预防控制麻疹成效显著,麻疹发病水平降至历史新低,MSS运转质量进一步提高.但要达到消除麻疹目标仍需更大努力,应将提高适龄儿童含麻疹成份疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)及时、全程接种率作为核心的免疫措施,继续做好重点地区MCV的集中查漏补种和麻疹疫情的调查与处置,杜绝二代病例的发生,从而阻断麻疹病毒持续传播,最终实现消除麻疹.%Objective This study is to analyze the epidemiological characteristics and summarize progress towards measles elimination in China (exclude Hongkong and Macao Special Administrative Region, and Taiwan Sheng) in 2011, so as to provide evidence for measles

  10. A Review of Factors Affecting Vaccine Preventable Disease in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Ching, Michael SL

    2014-01-01

    Japan is well known as a country with a strong health record. However its incidence rates of vaccine preventable diseases (VPD) such as hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella remain higher than other developed countries. This article reviews the factors that contribute to the high rates of VPD in Japan. These include historical and political factors that delayed the introduction of several important vaccines until recently. Access has also been affected by vaccines being divided ...

  11. Addressing Parental Vaccine Concerns: Engagement, Balance, and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Glanz, Jason M.; Kraus, Courtney R.; Daley, Matthew F.

    2015-01-01

    The recent United States measles epidemic has sparked another contentious national discussion about childhood vaccination. A growing number of parents are expressing concerns about the safety of vaccines, often fueled by misinformation from the internet, books, and other nonmedical sources. Many of these concerned parents are choosing to refuse or delay childhood vaccines, placing their children and surrounding communities at risk for serious diseases that are nearly 100% preventable with vac...

  12. Wild-type measles virus is intrinsically dual-tropic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MakotoTakeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious disease that causes temporary and severe immunosuppression in patients. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM expressed on cells of the immune system functions as a receptor for measles virus (MV. In addition to SLAM, vaccine strains of MV also use a ubiquitously expressed complement regulatory protein, CD46, as a receptor, whereas wild-type (wt MV strains do not use this receptor. However, recent studies have indicated that SLAM is not the sole receptor for wt MV strains. These strains have an intrinsic ability to enter both immune and epithelial cells using distinct receptor binding sites in their hemagglutinin (H protein. Recently, a clear answer was obtained through the identification of an epithelial MV receptor, nectin4, expressed at adherens junctions, thereby greatly improving our knowledge of MV receptors. It is now clear that MV specifically targets two cell types, immune cells and epithelial cells, using SLAM and nectin4, respectively. MV loses the ability to use either SLAM or nectin4 when it possesses specific mutations in the H protein. However, nectin4-blind MV still infects SLAM-positive immune cells efficiently (SLAM-tropic, and conversely, SLAM-blind MV infects nectin4-positive epithelial cells efficiently (nectin4-tropic. In this regard, MV is intrinsically dual-tropic to immune cells and epithelial cells. Although many aspects and molecular mechanisms underlying immunosuppressive effects and a highly contagious nature of MV still remain to be elucidated, analyses of physiological functions of these two receptors would provide deep insights into MV pathogenesis.

  13. The characteristics of Internet media's dissemination of Measles Vaccine Supplemental Immunization Activities in 2010%"2010年全国麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动"网络媒体报道的传播特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑; 陶茂萱

    2013-01-01

    目的 以"2010年全国麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动"为例,了解此项活动在网络传播中的报道特点,为今后的新闻宣传工作提供工作参考.方法 使用传播学中的内容分析方法,选择4个网站作为收集报道的目标网络媒体.将人民网、新华网作为官方网络媒体代表,腾讯网和新浪网作为商业网络媒体代表,从报道的框架构建和报道内容两方面进行统计分析.结果 官方网络媒体(65.3%)在麻疹疫苗强化免疫活动前期发布信息数量高于商业网络媒体(57.9%),中期低于商业网络媒体(24.7%vs 34.8%);官方网络媒体标题语义向性负面文章(1.9%)比例低于商业网络媒体(8.9%);商业网络媒体各目录文章比例划分较为平均,官方网络媒体三级目录文章最多(52.9%);官方网络媒体报道内容中,领导行为(11.6%)、政策宣传(71.2%)、麻疹预防措施(29.4%)均高于商业网络媒体,已发生的不良反应(2.1%)和接种事故(0.0%)均低于商业网络媒体,以上差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 在把握不同网络媒体传播特点的情况下,卫生部门可以采取不同的沟通策略,针对网络媒体中丰富的目录类别,设计不同议题,对健康相关信息展开深入细致的讨论,让公众从多角度科学地认知健康传播信息.%Objective To summarize the characteristics of internet media' s dissemination on Measles Vaccine Supplemental Immunization Activities in 2010 ( MVSIA) , and provide the suggestion for the future propaganda work. Methods Four websites were taken as target internet medias with the method of content analysis. In the four websites, there were 2 official medias, people, com. en and xinhua. com, and 2 commercial medias, sina. com. en and tencent. com. The statistical analysis was made with report' s frame and content. Results The official websites released 798 reports, while the commercial websites, 1101. The official reports of prophase, the mid and late stage of

  14. Analysis on measles surveillance and effect of measles elimination in Fuyang, 2009~2011%阜阳市2009~2011年麻疹监测与消除麻疹效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋晓东; 万俊峰; 赵仲达; 徐海洋; 李国岚; 张威

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析阜阳市2009~2011年麻疹监测结果与消除麻疹干预效果,为如期消除麻疹提供理论依据.方法 采用描述流行病学方法对麻疹监测数据进行统计分析.结果 2009~2011年麻疹监测系统报告疑似麻疹1 447例,实验室诊断为麻疹394例,临床诊断399例,≥15岁及﹤18个月龄儿童发病较高,分别占25.3%和28.6%.18个月龄内儿童发病率逐年增高;8个月龄以上人群未免疫接种和免疫史不详者占57.7%,应免疫2剂次无确切全程免疫史的占85%以上.结论 阜阳市消除麻疹干预措施效果显著,通过麻疹疫苗强化、查漏补种等,麻疹发病率逐年下降,2011年达历史最低水平;≥8个月龄人群麻疹疫苗漏种或不全程接种是麻疹发病的主要因素;﹤8个月龄和﹥15岁人群属免疫空白和薄弱人群,推行育龄妇女和15岁以上麻疹疫苗强化免疫工作值得探讨.%Objective To understand the epidemic feature of measles and the effect of measles elimination in Fuyang from 2009 to 2011 so as to provide scientific evidence for measles elimination. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the epidemiology of measles from 2009 to 2011 based on the data collected from Measles Surveillance System. Results A total of 1 447 suspected cases ( 394 cases in laboratory diagnosis ; 399 cases in clinical diagnosis ) were reported in Fuyang from 2009 to 2011. There was obvious age difference in the onset of measles. The total amount of measles cases centered on the population with 15 years older and children less than 18 months, which accounted for 25. 3% and 28. 6% respectively. The incidence of measles for children with age between 0 to 18 months increased year by year. Conclusion The intervention measures for measles elimination are proved to be effective in Fuyang. The incidence in 2011 is the lowest for recent years. Omitting vaccination is the major factor in the occurrence of measles. It is worth study for

  15. Epidemiologic and laboratory surveillance of the measles outbreak in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, February 2014-April 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimović-Bešić, I; Šeremet, M; Hübschen, J M; Hukić, M; Tihić, N; Ahmetagić, S; Delibegović, Z; Pilav, A; Mulaomerović, M; Ravlija, J; Muller, C P; Dedeić-Ljubović, A

    2016-06-01

    A measles outbreak with two epidemic waves involving 4649 probable and laboratory-confirmed cases was recorded in six out of ten cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina between February 2014 and April 2015. The majority of the patients had never received measles vaccination (3115/4649, 67.00%), and the vaccination status of another 23% was unknown (1066/4649). A total of 281 blood samples were tested serologically. Virus detection was performed using 44 nasopharyngeal swabs. About 57% (161/281) of the laboratory-investigated sera were immunoglobulin M positive, and 95% (42/44) of the swabs were reverse transcriptase-PCR positive. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences obtained from 30 swab samples showed circulation of two variants of genotype D8, but no genotype D4 strains as detected in 2007. Similar involvement of all age groups indicates a problem with vaccine refusal resulting from antivaccination activities in addition to gaps in immunization coverage during the war and postwar period (1992-1998). Differences in ethnicity, vaccine coverage, compliance with review policies of vaccination records and potentially also travel habits may partially explain why only six of ten cantons were affected by the outbreak. The second epidemic wave may in part be due to large-scale migrations due to catastrophic floods in 2014. As a result of the epidemic, 6- to 12-month-old children may now be vaccinated against measles during outbreaks, and public health recommendations for interventions have been strengthened. Additional efforts are required to implement the measures throughout the cantons. PMID:26928202

  16. Measles: epidemiological diagnostic study, in Peri-urban area in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    200 cases of clinical measles in El Hag Yousif area and K. C. E. H, A. G. H. between (March 97-August 98) were studied for epidemiological parameters: 39(20%) were infants, 112 (55%) were 1 to 5 years old and 49 (25%) were over 5 years. History of measles vaccination was obtained in 87 (44%). 150 cases were studied in details: overcrowding was observed in 73 patients (48.6%), 63 patients (42%) gave history of house hold contact, 142 patients (94.6%) had intercurrent infections and 60 (40%) were cases of severe measles: 35 (58%) were females, 7 (20%) of them died with severe infections, the overall mortality was 16 (CFR= 8%). The newly developed prototype field test was done for 66 (46.2%), it was positive in 55 (83.3%), negative in 6 (9%) and doubtful in 5 (7.7%). In comparison with standard specific IgM ELISA test: ELISA test was positive in 47/55, 8 patients had false positive field test (14.5%), 4 with negative field test had a positive ELISA = 4/6 false negative field test (66.6%), so the field test is not sensitive and not specific. (Author)

  17. Epidemic Models for SARS and Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Recent events have led to an increased interest in emerging infectious diseases. This article applies various deterministic models to the SARS epidemic of 2003 and a measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 1999-2000. We take a historical approach beginning with the well-known logistic curve and a lesser-known extension popularized by Pearl and Reed…

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of measles in Pingguo County of Guangxi from 2001-2011%2001-2011年广西壮族自治区平果县麻疹流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建华; 蒙世庭

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Pingguo County, explore the effective measles control policies, and provide a scientific basis for sustainable measles elimination. [ Methods] The descriptive epidemiological analysis was applied to analyze the incidence of measles, and the strategy and measures to eliminate measles in Pingguo County during 2001-2011. [Results] During 2001-2005, the average annual incidence of measles was 20. 15/lakh, the peak season was January to May, the disease mainly occurred in four towns where surrounding the county town, most of patients were children aged 8 month to 7 years old. A majority of measles cases havent received the immunity, which was related to the weak link of children EPI management. There were five measles outbreaks with 1 death case. During 2006-2009, the average annual incidence of measles was 0.72/lakh, and most were scattered cases. No measles cases were reported from 2010-2011, which indicated that the goal of measles elimination has been achieved. [ Conclusion] Low coverage of routine measles vaccination is the main cause of the high incidence of measles. The supplementary immunization and revaccination are the effective measures of measles elimination. The goal of measles elimination has been achieved in Pingguo County, and it is necessary to keep the high coverage of measles vaccination in susceptible population, strengthen the monitoring of imported measles cases, to achieve the goal of sustainable measles elimination.%目的 通过了解平果县麻疹流行病学特征,探讨有效的控制策略,为持续消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 对2001-2011年麻疹发病情况及采取消除麻疹的策略和措施进行描述流行病学分析.结果 2001-2005年麻疹年平均发病率为20.15/10万,发病季节高峰在1-5月,县城周边4镇为高发乡镇,发病年龄以8月~<7岁儿童组最高,麻疹病例主要为无免疫史,与儿童的计划免疫管理存

  19. 消除麻疹定义的演变及证实%Evolvement on the Definition of Measles Elimination and Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹锡玲; 罗会明; 梁晓峰

    2011-01-01

    Since measles elimination was first proposed before measles vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1962, definitions of measles elimination have evolved and progressed from" assuming a reduction to zero of the incidence of measles "to" the absence of endemic measles transmission", and "incidence of measlesmeasles elimination as" the absence of endemic measles transmission in a defined geographical area(e.g.region)for≥l2 months under the presence of a well performing surveillance system", which emphasized the significance of well performing measles surveillance system. Measles elimination requires an objective, external verification process. The WHO Regional Offices for the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe and Western Pacific have established or are establishing processes and criteria for verification of measles elimination, which including vaccination coverage, disease incidence, virological surveillance, comprehensive surveillance quality, and sustainability of national immunization programmes. National verification committee ( NVC ) is necessary to be established in China to evaluate the target and indicators of measles elimination are achieved objectively and independently.%1962年,美国批准使用麻疹疫苗前夕,即提出消除麻疹(Measles Elimination)这一富有挑战性的目标.此后消除麻疹的定义不断发展演变、完善细化,从“假定麻疹发病率为0”,至“阻断本土麻疹病毒传播”以及“发病率< 1/100万作为消除麻疹的可操作性定义”等.2010年12月,世界卫生组织(WHO)定义消除麻疹:麻疹监测系统(Measles Surveillance System,MSS)运转良好的前提下,明确的地理区域内无本土麻疹病毒传播≥12个月.强调MSS运转良好的重要性.消除麻疹要求有客观的、外部的证实过程.WHO美洲区(Regional Office for the Americas,AMRO)、东地中海区(Regional Office for

  20. Two highly immunized hilly areas versus double measles outbreak investigations in district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India, in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender N Gupta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We investigated two sequential outbreaks of measles in seven villages of Kangra, to confirm the diagnosis and to formulate recommendations for prevention and control. Methods: We defined a case of measles as occurrence of fever with rash in a child aged six months to 17 years during the period 3 rd September to 23 rd November 2006. We collected information on age, sex, residence, date of onset, symptoms, signs, treatment taken, traveling history and vaccination status. We described the outbreak by time, place and person. We estimated vaccine coverage and efficacy in the affected villages. We confirmed diagnosis clinically, serologically and through genotyping of the virus. Results: We identified 69 cases. Overall attack rates ranged between 4.2% and 6%. All case patients were between 6 years to 11 years of age. Age-specific attack rate in double outbreaks ranged in between 1.7% and 21.6%, the highest being in the age range 11-17 years. No deaths or complications were reported. The epidemic curve was suggestive of typical propagated pattern. The first outbreak imported virus after an interschool game competition (relative risk, 6.44%; 95% confidence interval, 3.81-10.91; followed by the second outbreak, in which people exchanged foods in the festival in one infected village of the first outbreak (relative risk, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.90-14.77; P < .001. The calculated immunization coverage (93% coincided nearly with administrative claims. The vaccine efficacies were estimated to be 85% and 81% in the first and second outbreaks respectively. Eleven of the 16 case patients were tested for measles IgM antibodies, while two nasopharyngeal swabs were positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and are genotyped D4 measles strain. Vitamin A supplementations were only given in four villages. Conclusion: Measles outbreaks were confirmed in high-immunization-coverage areas. We recommended (i second dose opportunity for measles in

  1. MMR vaccination of children with egg allergy is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorthe Vestergård; Jørgensen, Inger Merete

    2013-01-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination is part of the Danish Childhood Vaccination Programme. It is known that children may react with anaphylaxis to MMR vaccines containing traces of egg protein. In Denmark, national clinical guidelines recommend that children with egg allergy be referred to...... vaccination at a paediatric ward despite changed recommendations in other countries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether children with egg allergy presented with anaphylactic/allergic reactions to MMR vaccination and to discuss whether Danish recommendations should be upheld....

  2. A Case of Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura After Rabies Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Joy M; Williams, Sarah E; Pahud, Barbara A

    2015-10-01

    We describe a case of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) occurring 15 days after the first dose of a 4-dose rabies vaccination series. ITP is thought to be an immune-mediated process triggered by an infection or toxin. There is little evidence in the literature beyond case reports of an association of ITP with vaccines other than with the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. This is the third reported case of ITP associated with rabies vaccination. Because of the rare occurrence of this adverse event relative to the severity of rabies infection, the benefits of rabies vaccination, when indicated, outweigh the low and possible risk of ITP. PMID:26165405

  3. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Italy during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Magurano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In view of the goal of measles elimination, it is of great importance to assess the circulation of wild-type measles virus (MV. Genetic analysis is indispensable to understand the epidemiology of measles. A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2008, with over 4000 cases reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system introduced in 2007, 37% of which were laboratory confirmed. METHODS. Urine and saliva samples were collected during 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of measles sequences was performed in order to understand the epidemiological situation of wild-type (MV circulation in that period. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Data showed predominant circulation of the genotype D4. Genotypes A, D8, D9 and H1 were also detected in a small number of samples, probably representing imported cases.

  4. Analysis on Surveillance of Measles Epidemiology in Jiangxi Province%江西省麻疹流行病学监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 涂秋凤; 邹秋平

    2001-01-01

    为进一步了解江西省麻疹流行状况,以达到控制麻疹的目的,对江西省1999年至2000年1~10月的麻疹流行病学监测资料进行了分析。结果显示,全省报告麻疹3!184例,死亡1例。麻疹发病主要在15岁以下儿童,7~10岁为麻疹高发年龄段,有免疫史的麻疹病例集中在4~10岁。麻疹病例分布广泛,流行模式为散发与暴发并存,局部麻疹暴发影响了全省麻疹发病强度。预防和控制麻疹暴发是我省目前控制麻疹的基本策略。%We analyzed the surveillance data of measles from January 1999 to October 2000 in Jiangxi Province for the aim of measles control. The results showed that 3*!184 measles cases were reported from the province and 1 reported case died. Most of the reported measles cases were under 15 years old. The incidence of measles in age group between 7-10 years old was higher than that in other age groups and most of the reported cases having vaccination histroy were 4-10 year old children. Both the sporadic and epidemic measles in some districts existed at the same time and the reported measles cases extensively distributed in all districts of Jiangxi Province. The outbreaks of measles in some districts had affected the morbidity of measles of the whole province To prevent and control measles outbreak are the main effective measures to control this disease.

  5. Keep Kids Current on Vaccines (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-24

    The Vaccines for Children program was created in response to a major measles epidemic. This podcast discusses the program’s efforts to provide vaccinations for children whose parents cannot afford them.  Created: 3/24/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/24/2014.

  6. Clinical characteristics of 207 measles cases with etiological diagnosis%经病原学确诊的207例儿童麻疹临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄辉; 邓莉; 郑崇光; 邓洁; 陈冬梅; 钱渊

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To understand the influence of measles vaccination on clinical manifestations of measles in children, different characteristics of measles in infants and children in order to improve early diagnosis of measles by analyzing the characteristics of measles cases with laboratory confirmed etiological data. Methods Clinical data were collected from children who visited the Department of Outpatient Infectious Diseases and hospitalized with clinical diagnosis of measles and confirmed by measles specific IgM and measles virus N gene fragment from January 2002 to December 2010. Measles specific IgM antibodies were tested using serum samples with ELISA. Measles virus N gene fragment was amplified from specimens of throat swabs and fresh urine by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR ). Analyses were performed in vaccinated and unvaccinated cased separately. Results ① In total, 207 cases of measles in children with etiological diagnosis were analyzed, including 123 males and 84 females, 53 vaccinated and 154 unvaccinated. Age distribution ranged from 0 to 15 years, including 69 cases ( 33. 3% ) of younger than 8 months ( who had not reached the age for primary measles vaccination ), and 45 cases ( 21. 7% ) of younger than 1 year of age. ②Cases with Beijing local residency was more common in vaccinated group than that in unvaccinated group. The peak incidence was found in April for all cases in two groups. 15.4% ( 24/154 ) cases with known exposure history in measles unvaccinated group and in unvaccinated group and 16. 9% ( 9/53 ) in measles vaccinated group, with no significant difference between two groups. ③The proportions of measles with symptoms of mucosa spots ( Koplik spots ) and cough were significantly lower in vaccinated group than in unvaccinated group while the other symptoms had no significant difference betweentwo groups. ④ Of 154 unvaccinated cases, 97 were younger than 1 and 57 older than 1 year old. Symptoms of eyes was

  7. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098

  8. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B Gilkey

    Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  9. Measles transmission in health care waiting rooms: implications for public health response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Conaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seventeen cases of locally acquired measles occurred in South Western Sydney and Sydney local health districts between July and October 2011. Three of the cases were known to have at least one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine. Seven cases were infected within a health care setting waiting room by five index cases. Current national protocols require follow-up of all susceptible contacts in the same waiting room for any length of time for up to two hours after the index case has left.Methods: Cases were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Information included: demographics, illness and activities during the exposure and infectious periods. Health care settings provided arrival and discharge times, maps of floor layouts and location of patients during stay.Results: All health care setting transmission occurred in cases who were present at the same time as their index cases, with cross-over time ranging from 20 to 254 minutes. No index case was isolated. Index cases were between day four and six of illness when transmission occurred. None of the five index cases and one of seven secondary cases had received at least one dose of MMR vaccine. Of the seven secondary cases, two were one year of age, one was 17 years old and four were between 30 and 39 years old.Conclusion: As Australia moves towards measles elimination, follow-up of cases is important; however, with limited public health resources a targeted response is vital. In this small but well-documented series of secondary cases acquired in a health care setting, all were infected following direct, proximate contact of at least 20 minutes. Changes to the national guidelines may be warranted, ensuring that limited resources are focused on following up contacts at greatest risk of disease.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of the transmission of measles: Beyond the mass action principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Nouredine; Clerc, Jean Pierre

    2002-04-01

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation of the transmission of measles within a population sample during its growing and equilibrium states by introducing two different vaccination schedules of one and two doses. We study the effects of the contact rate per unit time ξ as well as the initial conditions on the persistence of the disease. We found a weak effect of the initial conditions while the disease persists when ξ lies in the range 1/L-10/L (L being the latent period). Further comparison with existing data, prediction of future epidemics and other estimations of the vaccination efficiency are provided. Finally, we compare our approach to the models using the mass action principle in the first and another epidemic region and found the incidence independent of the number of susceptibles after the epidemic peak while it strongly fluctuates in its growing region. This method can be easily applied to other human, animal, and plant diseases and includes more complicated parameters.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of the transmission of measles: Beyond the mass action principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a Monte Carlo simulation of the transmission of measles within a population sample during its growing and equilibrium states by introducing two different vaccination schedules of one and two doses. We study the effects of the contact rate per unit time ξ as well as the initial conditions on the persistence of the disease. We found a weak effect of the initial conditions while the disease persists when ξ lies in the range 1/L-10/L (L being the latent period). Further comparison with existing data, prediction of future epidemics and other estimations of the vaccination efficiency are provided. Finally, we compare our approach to the models using the mass action principle in the first and another epidemic region and found the incidence independent of the number of susceptibles after the epidemic peak while it strongly fluctuates in its growing region. This method can be easily applied to other human, animal, and plant diseases and includes more complicated parameters

  12. Measles in India: Challenges & recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Saurabh RamBihariLal; Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh; Ramasamy, Jegadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by Morbillivirus, with a secondary attack rate in excess of 80%, that usually affects children (1). However, multiple outbreaks of the disease have even been reported among adults in heterogeneous settings (urban areas, university campuses, disaster sites, during international travel, etc.) (2–5). The disease is characterized by the presence of fever, cough, and coryza, followed by the appearance of a typical rash (1, 6). The disease is generally transm...

  13. The study of countermeasures on measles control in infants%小月龄婴儿麻疹发病控制对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王联君; 康顺爱; 刘英; 姜晓春; 孙丽英; 姜忠林

    2001-01-01

    目的 了解育龄妇女、新生儿麻疹抗体水平及其关系,婴儿胎传抗体衰减情况,不同月龄婴儿对麻疹疫苗的免疫应答情况,探讨减少小月龄麻疹病例的对策。方法 采用ELISA方法测定血清中麻疹IgG抗体水平。结果 58对育龄妇女及其婴儿中有51对麻疹抗体相同,7对不同,但只相差1个滴度,且两者抗体均处于低水平。通过对胎传抗体追踪观察发现,新生儿抗体水平不高,3月龄时降低50%,6月龄和8月龄降到15%左右,抗体水平很低,几乎无保护作用,且6月龄和8月龄婴儿接种疫苗后免疫成功率间无差别。 结论 说明母婴麻疹抗体间有密切关系, 由于目前育龄妇女麻疹抗体水平低,因此,可通过对育龄妇女接种麻疹疫苗来提高婴儿抗体水平,同时建议在某些地区将麻疹初免时间从8月龄提前到6月龄时进行。%Objective To understand: a) measles antibody levels in puerpera and their newborns, and the relation between them, b) maternal transferred measles antibody level of different age group infants, c) immunization rates of success in 6 and 8 month old infants, d) to study measles control countermeasures on infants. Method To test measles IgG antibody levels of infant's blood using ELISA method. Results Antibody levels of measles in 58 pairs of mother and their newborns, 51 pairs were the same, while 7 pairs were different. Measles antibody levels in newborns was not high and reduced to 50% in 3 months, 20% in 6 months, and 15% in 8 months. The antibody levels in 6 and 8 month olds were low, nearly no protection to children. It was found that rates of immunization success and the antibody distribution were not statistically different between 6 and 8 months olds after measles vaccination. Conclusion It was found that the measles antibody level in most matured women was low. Since mother's measles antibody level has close relation to their newborns, it seems

  14. 成人麻疹32例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 32 Cases with Measles in Adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵彬; 张文福

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of measles inadult. Method The clinical data of 32 cases with measles in adult were analyzed retrospectively. Result In 32 cases with measles, the onset of 25 cases with measles (78.13%) occurred from March to May, the mean age of onset was 20.4 years. 29 patients (90.63%) were soldiers and students at school, 10 cases had obvious inoculation history against measles, 13 cases (40.63%) had no obvious symptoms, severe complications were less and their prognosis was good. Conclusion The measles in adult is diverging and tends to occur at the end of spring and at the beginning of summer. The sick rate is high in young and adult people. The vaccination against measles in young people can control its spread and epidenic, relieve its clinical symptoms and decrease its complications.%目的 探讨成人麻疹临床特点。方法 对32例成人麻疹的临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果 32例患者中,3~5月份发病25例(78.13%);发病年龄平均20.4岁,战士和在校学生共29例(90.63%),10例有明确的麻疹疫苗接种史,不典型病例13例(40.63%),严重并发症不多,预后良好。结论 成人麻疹散发,流行季节有向春末夏初推移趋势。以青壮年发病率高。加强对青少年麻疹疫苗的强化免疫,可控制成人麻疹的传播和流行,减轻临床症状,减少严重并发症。

  15. Measles Epidemic in Guang'an, 2008-2010%2008-2010年广安市麻疹疫情

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁富; 刘小华; 廖红英

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Guang'an from 2008 to 2010, and provide scientific evidence for measles control and elimination. Methods Measles cases reported in Guang'an during 2008 -2010 was analyzed by using descriptive epidemiology method. Results During these 3 years, 40 cases of measles were reported, with the annaul average incidence rate was 0. 29/105. The male to female ratio was 2. 08: 1. Cases were mainly distributed in children aged 0 to 14 years, accounting for 85. 00% of the total, in which scattered children were most, accounting for 47. 50% , followed by preschool children and the students, accounting for 27. 5% and 12. 5% respectively. Thirty - two cases were immune blank, accounting for 80. 0%. Conclusion Children were high - risk population of measles in Guang'an, so that surveillance should be strengthened to improve routine immunization rate of measles vaccine, and reduce the incidence of measles.%目的 分析广安市2008 - 2010年的麻疹疫情,为控制和消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 采用描述流行病学对2008-2010年广安市麻疹病例进行分析.结果 3年间共报告麻疹40例,3年平均发病率0.29/10万;男∶女=2.08∶1;病例主要分布于0~14岁儿童,占85.00%;散居儿童发病最多,占病例总数的47.50%,其次是幼托儿童和学生,分别占病例总数的27.5%、12.5%.免疫空白32人,占80.0%.结论 广安市儿童为麻疹的高发人群,应加强麻疹疫情监测,提高麻疹疫苗基础免疫接种率,降低麻疹发病率.

  16. Poliovirus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Isik Yalcin

    2008-01-01

    The two types of poliovirus vaccines are inactivated vaccine, given parenterally, and live virus vaccine, given orally. Oral poliovirus is the vaccine of choice for global eradication. Either inactivated vaccine or oral vaccine may be given concurrently with other routinely recommended childhood vaccines. No serious adverse events have been associated with the vaccine. Oral poliovirus vaccine can cause vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

  17. The influence of the school year on measles epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Viggo

    The measles incidence record for Copenhagen 1880-1966 shows that the date of admission of new pupils has major impact on the structure of the epidemics, suggesting that measles transmission should be modelled in a way that accounts for the pulsed influx of new pupils. Assuming that the school year...

  18. Sex-differential and non-specific effects of routine vaccinations in a rural area with low vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Nielsen, Jens; Benn, Christine Stabell;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the potential sex-differential and non-specific effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and measles vaccine (MV) in a rural area of Senegal. METHODS: The 4133 children born in the area between 1996 and 1999 were included in the study...

  19. Measles in Italy, laboratory surveillance activity during 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fortuna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO/Europe developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. This study describes the measles laboratory surveillance activity performed by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità during 2010. METHODS: Urine, oral fluid and capillary blood samples from 211 suspected measles cases arrived to the NRL from different regions of Italy for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Serological and/or molecular assays were performed; after molecular detection, positive samples were sequenced and genotyped. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 85% (180/211 of the specimens were confirmed as measles cases and 139 of these were analyzed phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a co-circulation of D4 and D8 genotypes for the reviewed period.

  20. 林西县2014年成年人麻疹流行病学特征分析%Analysis on Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles in 2014 in Linxi County Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖崟丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe and analyze adult measles epidemic characteristic in 2014 in Linxi county and control ing measures of measles epidemic, to provide scientific basis for measles prevention and controlling strategies. Methods To describe the epidemiological methods to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in 2014 in Linxi county. Results Between April 2014 and June 2014, Linxi county, the measles incidence of 12 cases, cases cover my county four townships, incidence of 4.98/10. Conclusion The accumulation of susceptible population and aggregation is a major cause of Linxi county 2014 measles epidemic. Ensure high level of measles vaccination rates, and improve the routine immunization coverage is the key to control and eliminate measles.%目的:描述、分析林西县2014年成年人麻疹流行特征,探讨控制麻疹流行的措施,为制定麻疹防控策略提供科学依据。方法应用描述流行病学方法对林西县2014年麻疹流行情况进行分析。结果2014年4~6月,林西县麻疹发病数为12例,病例覆盖我县4个乡镇,发病率达到4.98/10万。结论易感人群的积累和聚集是导致林西县2014麻疹流行的主要原因。确保高水平麻疹疫苗接种率,是提高常规免疫接种率是控制和消除麻疹的关键措施。

  1. The analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 patients with adult measles%成人麻疹99例流行病学和临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of adult measles,and to search methods for preventing and controlling measles epidemic. Methods The clinical data of 99 patients with adult measles were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results The incidence of adult measles showed increasing trend. The patients with adult measles had the typical clinical manifestations including severe systemic toxic responses, high fever(79/99,79.80%),diarrhea(60/99,60.60%)and liver dysfunction(54/99,54.54%). Measles was easily misdiagnosed in earlier period(58/99,58.58%). But the incidence of complicationg was less(12/99,12.12%). Conclusions The key to prevent and control measles is diagnosing ,segregating and treating patients with measles in earlier period and vaccination in susceptible population.%目的 探讨本次成人麻疹流行病学和临床特点,以期更好的预防和控制麻疹.方法 对住院的99例麻疹患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 成人麻疹发病有增加趋势,临床症状典型,中毒症状重,多高热(79/99,79.80%)腹泻者多见(60/99,60.60%),易损害肝脏(54/99,54.54%),并发症不多(12/99,12.12%),早期容易误诊(58/99,58.58%).结论 对麻疹患者早诊断、早隔离、早治疗,对易感者加强麻疹疫苗接种是预防和控制麻疹的关键.

  2. Rationalizing the development of live attenuated virus vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lauring, Adam S.; Jones, Jeremy O.; Andino, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of the protective effects of vaccinia inoculation, vaccination has been one of the medicine’s greatest successes. The design of vaccines against viral disease has evolved considerably over the last 50 years. Classically attenuated viruses, those created by passaging a virus in cultured cells, have proven to be an effective means for preventing many viral diseases, including smallpox, polio, measles, mumps, and yellow fever. However, empiric attenuation is not a r...

  3. Vaccine Hesitancy in Children—A Call for Action

    OpenAIRE

    Annabelle de St. Maurice; Edwards, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunizations have made an enormous impact on the health of children by decreasing childhood morbidity and mortality from a variety of vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. The eradication of polio from Nigeria and India is one of the most recent victories for one of the greatest technological advances in human history. Despite these international successes, the United States has experienced the re-emergence of measles, driven largely by increasing parental refusal of vaccines. Pediatrician...

  4. Measles Epidemics Among Children in Vietnam: Genomic Characterization of Virus Responsible for Measles Outbreak in Ho Chi Minh City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van H. Pham

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Measles viruses responsible for outbreaks in Southern Vietnam belonged to a genotype D8 variant group which had unique amino acid sequences in the N gene. Our report provides important genomic information about the virus for measles elimination in Southeast Asia.

  5. Vaccinations: A public health triumph and a public relations tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Routine vaccination has been hailed as one of the top public health achievements of the last century. However, despite the reduced number of cases of and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases such as pertussis and measles, outbreaks continue to occur as more parents fail to adequately vaccinate their children because of misinformation about immunizations. This article describes the challenges of making sure all children in the United States are fully immunized and what physicians need to know to effectively work with parents who may be hesitant to vaccinate their children. PMID:22953473

  6. 惠州市2004-2010年麻疹流行病学特征分析%Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of measles in Huizhou City, 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方巧云; 曾健君; 刘燕; 罗泽燕; 杨剑英; 琚雄飞

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解惠州市麻疹流行特征和预防控制措施,为进一步控制和消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法,分析2004-2010年惠州市麻疹疫情特点;采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测血清麻疹IgM抗体.结果 2004-2010年惠州市共报告麻疹病例2 842例,年平均发病率11.69/10万,发病模式以散发为主,病例分布广泛,并有明显的季节性,5~7月是麻疹高发季节,14岁以下年龄组为麻疹高发年龄.病例中无免疫史和免疫史不详者占90.04%.结论 应进一步加强麻疹疫苗(measles vaccine,MV)的基础免疫接种工作,消除免疫空白,适时开展MV强化免疫,提高免疫覆盖率.同时要考虑对大年龄组人群接种MV,继续加强麻疹监测.%Objective This study was conducted to find out the epidemiological characteristics of measles and e-valuate the measles for its control and prevention. Methods Statistical analysis was conducted on the data of measles inci-dence in Huizhou City from 2004 to 2010. ELISA was adopted to detect IgM antibody in serum. Results A total of 2 842 cases were reported during the seven-year period, the annually average morbidity was 11.69/100 000. A sporadic epidemic pattern was evident with widely distributed affected cases and significant seasonality. Measles mainly occurred during May to July, the incidence of measles between 0-14 years old groups was higher than that of the other age groups. Unimmu-nized cases or cases with unknown immunization history accounted for 90.04% of the overall cases. Conclusions Routine immunization of measles should be reinforced and boost vaccination should be carried out in proper time to prevent and con-trol measles, at the same time the measles campaign should be implemented to adult. In addition, perfecting measles sur-veillance system must be taken.

  7. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  8. Analysis of the measles epidemic trend in Donghe district of Baotou city during year 1959-2008%1959~2008年包头市东河区麻疹流行趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemic trend of measles in Donghe District during the year 1959 ~ 2008,to fully grasp the epidemic dynamics of measles,and provide scientific basis for developing measles elimination strategy. Methods We collect the data of measles report through a method of retrospective survey,using excell2003 for statistical data processing. Results The incidence rate of measles and the constituent ratio of Donghe District,were overall downward trend.Spring is the peak of the disease,the age of onset ranged from 3 months to 50 years old,childhood had the highest incidence of the disease. Conclusion To strengthen Routine vaccination of measles vaccine for floating population,to develop measles antibody detection in a specific population,timely replant measles vaccine to prevent measles outbreaks and rebound.%目的:了解1959~2008年东河区麻疹的流行趋势,全面掌握麻疹的流行动态,为制订消除麻疹策略提供科学依据。方法用回顾性调查的方法搜集了麻疹疫情报告资料并用Excel2003对数据进行统计处理。结果东河区麻疹的发病率、发病构成总体呈下降趋势,春季是发病的高峰期,发病年龄介于3个月~50岁之间,儿童发病数最多。结论加强对流动人口麻疹疫苗的常规接种,在特定人群中开展麻疹抗体检测,及时进行麻疹疫苗补种,防止出现麻疹疫情反弹。

  9. 母亲外周血与脐带血麻疹抗体水平研究%Study of Maternal and Cord Blood Measles Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙群英; 黎海芪; 曾利花; 宾冬梅; 宋湛

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究母亲、新生儿麻疹抗体水平与麻疹发病的关系.方法 采集60名妊娠母亲外周静脉血与脐带血分离血清,采用ELISA法检测麻疹IgG抗体水平.结果 妊娠母亲外周静脉血、脐带血麻疹IgG抗体浓度分别为(4.883±4.687) ng/ml、(7.280±6.061) ng/ml;妊娠母亲麻疹IgG抗体浓度同正常育龄妇女(P>0.05);母亲平均血清麻疹IgG浓度低于新生儿(P<0.05);母血与脐血麻疹IgG抗体水平呈正的直线相关关系(r=0.946,P=0.000);曾有麻疹感染史的母亲静脉血麻疹IgG抗体浓度明显增加(β=0.259,t=2.058,P=0.044);自然感染麻疹母亲的脐血麻疹IgG浓度显著高于曾接种麻疹疫苗母亲的脐血麻疹IgG (P< 0.05).结论 母亲麻疹IgG抗体水平是影响婴儿麻疹发病率的重要原因.%OBJECTIVE To study the relations between the incidence of measles and the blood measles antibody in mothers and new bom infants. METHODS Maternal and cord blood samples from 60 pregnant women were collected and centrifuged, and the serum was separated. ELISA was conducted to establish the measles antibody IgG in serum of pregnant women. RESULTS The rate of measles antibody IgG for the pregnant women's maternal and cord blood were 4.8S3±4.687ng/ml and 7.280± 6.061ng/ml respectively. The rate of measles antibody IgG of the controlled pregnant women was the same as that of normal reproductive women (P > 0.05). The average measles antibody IgG of the mothers was lower than that of the newborn infants (P < 0.05), and a linear positive correlation between the measles antibody IgG of the maternal blood and that of the cord blood was exhibited (r = 0.946, P = 0.000). An obvious increase in measles antibody IgG had been noted in mothers previously infected with measles (β = 0.259, t = 2.058, P = 0.044), and their measles antibody IgG in the cord blood is much higher than that of those who have received measles vaccine IgG (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION The measles antibody IgG of

  10. Keep Kids Current on Vaccines (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-24

    Twenty years ago, the Vaccines for Children program was created in response to a major measles epidemic. This program provides vaccinations for children whose parents cannot afford them. In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger discusses the importance of keeping children up-to-date on their vaccinations.  Created: 3/24/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/24/2014.

  11. The contribution of vaccination to global health: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has made an enormous contribution to global health. Two major infections, smallpox and rinderpest, have been eradicated. Global coverage of vaccination against many important infectious diseases of childhood has been enhanced dramatically since the creation of WHO's Expanded Programme of Immunization in 1974 and of the Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunization in 2000. Polio has almost been eradicated and success in controlling measles makes this infection another potential...

  12. [Measles and chickenpox susceptibility among immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gétaz, Laurent; Casillas, Alejandra; Wolff, Hans

    2016-05-01

    Exposure of immigrants to infectious diseases in their country of origin influences their susceptibility to infections later in life. Susceptibility to certain infections may significantly differs between immigrants depending on their regions of origin. Both measles and chickenpox (varicella) are conditions for which the level of exposure in the country of origin influences the preventive measures that immigrant health providers should propose. Through these two illustrative examples, this article summarizes the practical implications for clinicians who care for immigrants originating from southern countries. PMID:27323481

  13. 2010年台州市麻疹流行病学特征分析%Epidemiologicai analysis of measles in Taizhou City in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文; 王连华; 王滨有

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the epidemiology of measles in Taizhou in 2010 and provide the evidence for the measles elimination strategies. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the data of measles cases in Taizhou City, which was collected from the China Information System for Diseases Control and Prevention. Results A total of 99 measles cases were confirmed in Taizhou City in 2010 which mainly occurred during April-June. The incidence among the children<12 months was high, accounting for 33. 33% of the total cases, the cases at the age of 20 - 40 years also had a small incidence peak. The cases without vaccination history or unknown vaccination history accounted for 76.76 % and the cases among the floating population accounted for 23.23 %. 26.26 % measles cases accounted for hospital infection. Conclusions The infants aged<12 months are the priority population for the measles control. It is urgent to enhance the routine primary vaccination among younger age children and vaccination reseeding among proper age children opportunely, and to increase measles vaccine cover age among the children in immigrant population and improve the measles surveillance in order to prevent and control measles outbreak.%目的 了解2010年浙江省台州市麻疹发病情况并分析其流行病学特征.方法 根据中国疾病监测信息报告管理系统的专病管理系统资料,对2010年台州市麻疹流行病学特征进行描述性分析.结果 2010年台州市确诊麻疹病例99例,主要发生在4~6月,年龄小于1周岁组为麻疹高发年龄组,占总病例数的33.33%,20~40岁年龄组存在发病小高峰.无免疫史者和免疫史不详者占76.76%.流动人口病例数占总病例数的23.23%,麻疹病例院感史例数占26.26%.结论 年龄小于1周岁婴儿为麻疹控制中的重点人群.应尽可能提高儿童麻疹疫苗接种的及时性,加大查漏补种工作的力度,提高外来流动儿童的免疫覆盖率,

  14. 2004-2009年攀枝花市麻疹流行病学特征分析%Epidemiological Characteristics of Measles in Panzhihua, 2004-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝羲; 魏小庆

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析2004 -2009年攀枝花市麻疹监测系统的麻疹流行病学特征.方法 收集攀枝花市2004 -2009年麻疹专病监测资料,采用描述性流行病学方法进行分析.结果 2004-2009年麻疹发病呈现为2个高峰,2004年报告麻疹413例,报告发病率38.75/10万,其中225例为暴发病例;2007年麻疹报告643例,报告发病率59.54/10万;2009年发病降到历史最低水平,为0.92/10万.以每年12月至次年2月为发病高峰;病例主要集中在城乡结合部和边远少数民族地区;总体以巧岁以下儿童发病为主,但小于8月龄和大于15岁病例所占比例有逐年增加趋势;麻疹病例中无免疫史的和免疫史不详的占全部麻疹病例的66.32%,流动人口麻疹病例中有免疫史的占其病例的10.68%.结论 2004-2009年攀枝花市麻疹发病率波动较大,总体呈下降趋势,发病出现明显的季节分布,病例中无免疫史和免疫史不详比例较高.%Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Panzhihua under measles surveillance system from 2004 to 2009. Methods Data from national notifiable disease reporting system and the measles surveillance system from 2004 to 2009 was collected and analyzed by the method of descriptive epidemiology. Results The incidence of measles presented two peaks during 2004 - 2009. In 2004, 413 cases of measles were reported, reported incidence rate was 38. 75/105, im which 225 cases for outbreak; 643 cases of measles were resported in 2007 , reported incidence rate was 59. 54/105 ; by the year of 2009, incidence dropped by historically lowest level, as 0. 92/105. The incidence peaked from December to the next February. Cases were mainly concentrated in urban and remote ethnic minority areas. The overall incidence of measles mainly occurred in children under the age of 15, but the incidence in cases less than 8 months old and more than 14 years old were mcreased by years. Measles cases with no vaccination history

  15. 病原学确诊成人麻疹53例临床特征分析%Clinical characteristics analysis of 53 adult measles cases with etiologic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成栋; 李真; 王燕; 张雪梅; 白爱华

    2015-01-01

    . 05) in the clinical manifestation,but the duration of fever,rash,the rash of abnormal sequential time,gastrointestinal symptoms,the incidence of two groups had no significant difference( P ﹥ 0. 05). ③Lymphocyte absolute value and percentage in the measles group decreased significantly( P﹤ 0. 05);ALT,CK - MB,LDH were significantly higher( P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion The clinical manifestation of measles is not typical,sug-gesting to strengthen vaccination on over 16 years old young,which has important significance to reduce the incidence rate of measles.

  16. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Measles, Rubella and Varicella among Asylum Seekers Arriving in Lower Saxony, Germany, November 2014-October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toikkanen, Salla E; Baillot, Armin; Dreesman, Johannes; Mertens, Elke

    2016-01-01

    The number of asylum seekers arriving in Germany has increased rapidly since 2014 and cases of vaccine-preventable diseases at reception centres were reported. Asylum seekers 12 years and older arriving in Lower Saxony were serologically screened for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella between November 2014 and October 2015. We calculated the seroprevalence from the screening data by disease, country of origin and age group and compared them to literature-based herd immunity thresholds in order to identify immunisation gaps. In total, 23,647 specimens were included in our study. Although the vast majority of asylum seekers tested positive for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella, the seroprevalences were not sufficient to ensure herd immunity. The seroprevalences varied substantially between countries of origin and increased with age. Immunisation of asylum seekers against measles, rubella and varicella is needed and the detailed information on seroprevalences among subgroups of asylum seekers can be used for targeted immunisations at reception centres. PMID:27376309

  17. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 μg of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells. (Auth.)

  18. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  19. Analysis on measles antibody levels and immune effect of reproductive women%育龄妇女麻疹抗体水平及免疫效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖征; 文海容; 彭时辉; 熊昌辉; 张艳霞; 吴越; 冯长华

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解南昌市育龄妇女麻疹抗体水平,探讨育龄妇女接种麻疹疫苗的可行性,为完善麻疹免疫策略及控制麻疹疫情提供依据.方法:在南昌市的12个县(区)随机抽取健康育龄妇女,观察育龄妇女强化接种麻疹疫苗(MV)前后的麻疹IgG抗体,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测麻疹IgG抗体.结果:南昌市育龄期妇女麻疹抗体血清几何平均滴度(GMT)为1:482.64,抗体阳性率为80.79%,有随年龄增长呈下降的趋势;流动育龄期妇女麻疹抗体GMT和抗体阳性率均高于常住育龄期妇女,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);有免疫史与无免疫史两组麻疹抗体GMT和抗体阳性率差异均有统计学意义(P =0.000),有免疫史者高于无免疫史者;育龄期妇女强化接种MV后麻疹抗体GMT为1:1 616.47,抗体阳性率为98.52%,均显著高于接种前,差异有统计学意义(P=0.000).结论:建议对育龄妇女婚前接种含麻疹成分的疫苗,提高育龄期妇女麻疹抗体水平,降低育龄妇女和MV初始免疫月龄前婴儿麻疹发病率.%Objective: To know the measles antibody levels of reproductive women in Nanchang, to study the feasibility of vaccinating measles vaccination ( MV) , in order to provide the basis for control of measles outbreaks. Methods; The healthy reproductive women in 12 counties (districts) of Nanchang were randomly selected , and the measles IgG antibody were observed before and after vaccinating MV by enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (EUSA) . Results: The geometric mean titer (GMT) of measles antibody serum of the reproductive women in Nanchang was 1: 482. 64, the positive rate of measles antibody was 80. 79% , and had a trend of drop along with the age; GMT and the positive rate of measles antibody of the floating reproductive women were higher than the permanent reproductive women, the differences were statically significant ( P < 0.05); GMT and the positive rate of measles antibody in having

  20. Stability, biophysical properties and effect of ultracentrifugation and diafiltration on measles virus and mumps virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviben, Dora; Forčić, Dubravko; Kurtović, Tihana; Halassy, Beata; Brgles, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Measles virus and mumps virus (MeV and MuV) are enveloped RNA viruses used for production of live attenuated vaccines for prophylaxis of measles and mumps disease, respectively. For biotechnological production of and basic research on these viruses, the preparation of highly purified and infectious viruses is a prerequisite, and to meet that aim, knowledge of their stability and biophysical properties is crucial. Our goal was to carry out a detailed investigation of the stability of MeV and MuV under various pH, temperature, shear stress, filtration and storage conditions, as well as to evaluate two commonly used purification techniques, ultracentrifugation and diafiltration, with regard to their efficiency and effect on virus properties. Virus titers were estimated by CCID50 assay, particle size and concentration were measured by Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) measurements, and the host cell protein content was determined by ELISA. The results demonstrated the stability of MuV and MeV at pH 9. Storage without stabilizer did not result in structural changes, but the reduction in infectivity after 24 hours was significant at +37 °C. Vortexing of the viruses resulted in significant particle degradation, leading to lower virus titers, whereas pipetting had much less impact on virus viability. Diafiltration resulted in higher recovery of both total and infectious virus particles than ultracentrifugation. These results provide important data for research on all upstream and downstream processes on these two viruses regarding biotechnological production and basic research. PMID:26935920

  1. 中宁县2006~2010年麻疹监测分析%Analysis on monitoring of measles in Zhongning County from 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振华; 肖雄; 王静

    2013-01-01

    目的 客观评价中宁县麻疹监测系统现状,探讨控制和消除麻疹的策略.方法 对中宁县2006~2010年麻疹流行病学监测,采取控制措施和进展结果进行分析.结果 中宁县麻疹发病率由2007年的0.73/10万上升至2010年的102.26/10万,年龄发病呈现1岁组儿童和15岁以上人群上升趋势的“双向移位”现象;流动人口病例≤14岁儿童中无免疫史者占比例较大为96.3%;麻疹疑似病例各项监测指标提高到75%以上.结论 中宁县加速控制和消除麻疹,应继续加强对麻疹病例监测和流动人口麻疹疫苗接种管理工作.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate monitoring system situation of measles in Zhongning, and provide control and elimination strategy of measles. METHODS Analyzed the epidemiological surveillance, control measures and progress results of measles in Zhongning from 2006 to 2010. RESULTS The incidence of measles increased from 0.73/100 000 in 2007 to 102.26/100 000 in 2010. Age incidence showed one year infants and 15-year-old and older population had the rising trend of "two-way shift" phenomenon. Flow of cases≤14 years old without immune history accounted for a larger proportion of 96.3%, the monitoring indicators of suspected measles cases had improved more than 75%. CONCLUSION In order to accelerate the control and elimination of measles, we should continue to strengthen the monitoring of measles cases and the management of measles vaccination in floating population.

  2. [Public laboratories for vaccine production: a new paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, A; di Fabio, J L; de Quadros, C

    1998-10-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, public laboratories that produce vaccines have contributed in varying degrees to the control and eradication of vaccine-preventable diseases, and several of them are manufacturing vaccines that are routinely applied in national immunization programs, such as the vaccine against tuberculosis (made with the bacillus of Calmette-Guérin, BCG), the triple vaccine against diphtheriatetanus-pertussis (DTP), tetanus toxoid (TT), the vaccine against measles and the oral vaccine against polio. Thanks to recent scientific strides, one can foresee an important increase in the number of safe and effective vaccines that will be available in the near future for use in routine vaccination programs. However, there are high costs involved in developing such vaccines and in protecting the intellectual property rights involved, and few laboratories in Latin America have the technical capacity to research and develop these vaccines. Such factors will affect the speed with which they are assimilated into vaccination programs in countries of the Region. Currently, public laboratories that manufacture vaccines in the Region are not equipped to compete in this new scenario and run the risk of being completely outmarketed. Thus, they must radically change their style of management and their scientific and technical capabilities, backed by a commitment from governments to improve and strengthen those political and financial aspects that can assure that national laboratories participate in the sustainable supply of vaccines to immunization programs, as well as in researching, developing, and producing new vaccines. PMID:9924504

  3. Effect of alum co-adjuvantation of oil adjuvant vaccine on emulsion stability and immune responses against haemorhagic septicaemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS, caused by Pasteurella multocida, is the most important bacterial disease of cattle and buffaloes in India. Oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV is the most potent vaccine available for the control of HS. The study aims to evaluate the effect of alum co-adjuvantation of OAV on emulsion stability and immune response.Materials and Methods: Two different oil adjuvant vaccines viz., standard oil adjuvant vaccine (OAV and alum precipitated oil adjuvant vaccine (A–OAV were prepared with Pasteurella multocida antigen. Emulsion stability was tested by centrifugation, storage at 37 oC for 3 months and microscopy. Immune responses were evaluated by ELISA antibody titer, CD4, CD8 T cell populations and survival post challenge by P. multocida in mice.Results: The separation of aqueous and oil phase of emulsion by centrifugation and storage test were 0 and 6.76% in A-OAV as compared to 11.00 and 26.39% in OAV, respectively. The mean droplet size was significantly smaller (p<0.01 in A–OAV as compared to OAV. The A–OAV recorded higher ELISA antibody titer (p<0.05 up to 21st days post vaccination, and higher CD4 (p>0.05 and CD8 T cell (p<0.05 populations compared to OAV. The A–OAV group conferred 100% protection after challenge with both 100 LD50 and 1000 LD50 as compared to 100 and 60% respective protection by OAV group.Conclusion: The results indicates that A–OAV had better emulsion stability, produces higher level of CD4, CD8 T cells and antibody titer with better protection compared to oil adjuvant vaccine.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus but not cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced vaccine antibody responses in Gambian infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Holder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV are persistent herpesviruses that have various immunomodulatory effects on their hosts. Both viruses are usually acquired in infancy in Sub-Saharan Africa, a region where childhood vaccines are less effective than in high income settings. To establish whether there is an association between these two observations, we tested the hypothesis that infection with one or both viruses modulate antibody responses to the T-cell independent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and the T-cell dependent measles vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Infection with EBV and CMV was diagnosed by the presence of virus-specific IgM in the peripheral blood or by the presence of IgG at higher levels than that found in umbilical cord blood. Anti-meningococcus IgG and IgM were quantified by ELISA. Anti-measles antibody responses were quantified by haemagglutinin antibody inhibition assay. Infants infected with EBV had reduced IgG and IgM antibody responses to meningococcal polysaccharides and to measles vaccine. Infection with CMV alone predicted no changes in the response to meningococcal polysaccharide. While CMV alone had no discernable effect on the antibody response to measles, the response of infants infected with both CMV and EBV was similar to that of infants infected with neither, suggesting that the effects of CMV infection countered the effects of EBV on measles antibody responses. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this exploratory study indicate that infection with EBV is associated with reduced antibody responses to polysaccharides and to measles vaccine, but suggest that the response to T-cell dependent antigens such as measles haemagglutinin may be restored by infection with CMV.

  5. Harnessing the beneficial heterologous effects of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Helen S; Ahmed, S Sohail; Curtis, Nigel; Kollmann, Tobias R; Levy, Ofer; Netea, Mihai G; Pollard, Andrew J; van Crevel, Reinout; Wilson, Christopher B

    2016-06-01

    Clinical evidence strongly suggests that certain live vaccines, in particular bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and measles vaccines, can reduce all-cause mortality, most probably through protection against non-targeted pathogens in addition to the targeted pathogen. The underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. We discuss how heterologous lymphocyte activation and innate immune memory could promote protection beyond the intended target pathogen and consider how vaccinologists could leverage heterologous immunity to improve outcomes in vulnerable populations, in particular the very young and the elderly. PMID:27157064

  6. Contact tracing of in-flight measles exposures: lessons from an outbreak investigation and case series, Australia, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Selvey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a 2010 outbreak of nine cases of measles in Australia possibly linked to an index case who travelled on an international flight from South Africa while infectious.Methods: Three Australian state health departments, Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales, were responsible for the investigation and management of this outbreak, following Australian public health guidelines.Results: An outbreak of measles occurred in Australia after an infectious case arrived on a 12-hour flight from South Africa. Only one of four cases in the first generation exposed to the index case en route was sitting within the two rows recommended for contact tracing in Australian and other guidelines. The remaining four cases in subsequent generations, including two health care workers, were acquired in health care settings. Seven cases were young adults. Delays in diagnosis and notification hampered disease control and contact tracing efforts.Conclusion: Review of current contact tracing guidelines following in-flight exposure to an infectious measles case is required. Alternative strategies could include expanding routine contact tracing beyond the two rows on either side of the case’s row or expansion on a case-by-case basis depending on cabin layout and case and contact movements in flight. Releasing information about the incident by press release or providing generic information to everyone on the flight using e-mail or text messaging information obtained from the relevant airline, may also be worthy of consideration. Disease importation, inadequately vaccinated young adults and health care-related transmission remain challenges for measles control in an elimination era.

  7. Varicella vaccination in Europe – taking the practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadzot-Delvaux Catherine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varicella is a common viral disease affecting almost the entire birth cohort. Although usually self-limiting, some cases of varicella can be serious, with 2 to 6% of cases attending a general practice resulting in complications. The hospitalisation rate for varicella in Europe ranges from 1.3 to 4.5 per 100,000 population/year and up to 10.1% of hospitalised patients report permanent or possible permanent sequelae (for example, scarring or ataxia. However, in many countries the epidemiology of varicella remains largely unknown or incomplete. In countries where routine childhood vaccination against varicella has been implemented, it has had a positive effect on disease prevention and control. Furthermore, mathematical models indicate that this intervention strategy may provide economic benefits for the individual and society. Despite this evidence and recommendations for varicella vaccination by official bodies such as the World Health Organization, and scientific experts in the field, the majority of European countries (with the exception of Germany and Greece have delayed decisions on implementation of routine childhood varicella vaccination, choosing instead to vaccinate high-risk groups or not to vaccinate at all. In this paper, members of the Working Against Varicella in Europe group consider the practicalities of introducing routine childhood varicella vaccination in Europe, discussing the benefits and challenges of different vaccination options (vaccination vs. no vaccination, routine vaccination of infants vs. vaccination of susceptible adolescents or adults, two doses vs. one dose of varicella vaccine, monovalent varicella vaccines vs. tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines, as well as the optimal interval between two doses of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccines. Assessment of the epidemiology of varicella in Europe and evidence for the effectiveness of varicella vaccination provides support for

  8. Is it Right Time to Introduce Mumps Vaccine in Indias Universal Immunization Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S R; Hamde, V S

    2016-06-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella are vaccine preventable diseases. However, morbidity and mortality due to these diseases remain largely unnoticed in India. Measles has received much attention; mumps and rubella still need to garner attention. According to the World Health Organization, near-elimination of mumps could be achieved by maintaining high vaccine coverage using a two-dose strategy. However, Government of India has not yet decided on mumps vaccine. In this review, we have reviewed sero-prevalence studies, vaccine studies, outbreak investigations, virus isolation and virus genotyping studies on mumps. Overall, mumps seems to be a significant public health problem in India, but does not garner attention due to the absence of a surveillance and documentation system. Thus, inclusion of mumps antigen in the Universal immunization program would have added advantages, the economic burden imposed by the cost of the vaccine offset by a reduction in disease burden. PMID:27376598

  9. Childhood vaccination in informal urban settlements in Nairobi, Kenya: Who gets vaccinated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettarh Remare R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trends in global vaccination coverage have shown increases with most countries reaching 90% DTP3 coverage in 2008, although pockets of undervaccination continue to persist in parts of sub-Saharan Africa particularly in the urban slums. The objectives of this study were to determine the vaccination status of children aged between 12-23 months living in two slums of Nairobi and to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Methods The study was carried out as part of a longitudinal Maternal and Child Health study undertaken in Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. These slums host the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS run by the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC. All women from the NUHDSS area who gave birth since September 2006 were enrolled in the project and administered a questionnaire which asked about the vaccination history of their children. For the purpose of this study, we used data from 1848 children aged 12-23 months who were expected to have received all the WHO-recommended vaccinations. The vaccination details were collected during the first visit about four months after birth with follow-up visits repeated thereafter at four month intervals. Full vaccination was defined as receiving all the basic childhood vaccinations by the end of 24 months of life, whereas up-to-date (UTD vaccination referred to receipt of BCG, OPV 1-3, DTP 1-3, and measles vaccinations within the first 12 months of life. All vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards which were sighted during the household visit as well as by recall from mothers. Multivariate models were used to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Results Measles coverage was substantially lower than that for the other vaccines when determined using only vaccination cards or in addition to maternal recall. Up-to-date (UTD coverage with all vaccinations

  10. Serologic vaccination response after solid organ transplantation: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases after solid organ transplantation (SOT are one of the major complications in transplantation medicine. Vaccination-based prevention is desirable, but data on the response to active vaccination after SOT are conflicting. METHODS: In this systematic review, we identify the serologic response rate of SOT recipients to post-transplantation vaccination against tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis A and B, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, tick-borne encephalitis, rabies, varicella, mumps, measles, and rubella. RESULTS: Of the 2478 papers initially identified, 72 were included in the final review. The most important findings are that (1 most clinical trials conducted and published over more than 30 years have all been small and highly heterogeneous regarding trial design, patient cohorts selected, patient inclusion criteria, dosing and vaccination schemes, follow up periods and outcomes assessed, (2 the individual vaccines investigated have been studied predominately only in one group of SOT recipients, i.e. tetanus, diphtheria and polio in RTX recipients, hepatitis A exclusively in adult LTX recipients and mumps, measles and rubella in paediatric LTX recipients, (3 SOT recipients mount an immune response which is for most vaccines lower than in healthy controls. The degree to which this response is impaired varies with the type of vaccine, age and organ transplanted and (4 for some vaccines antibodies decline rapidly. CONCLUSION: Vaccine-based prevention of infectious diseases is far from satisfactory in SOT recipients. Despite the large number of vaccination studies preformed over the past decades, knowledge on vaccination response is still limited. Even though the protection, which can be achieved in SOT recipients through vaccination, appears encouraging on the basis of available data, current vaccination guidelines and recommendations for post-SOT recipients

  11. Controversies in vaccine mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L

    2010-03-01

    Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the

  12. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    ALMA ROBO; AGIM VERCANI; ARTAN SIMAKU; ERIDA NELAJ; EUGENA TOMINI; SILVA BINO

    2014-01-01

    Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with ...

  13. Analysis on the epidemiological characteristics of measles patients and risk factors%浅谈麻疹患者流行病学特点与发病危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段向阳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of measles patients. Methods 200 cases of measles patients as research subjects, retrospective analysis of clinical data. Results The incidence of measles distributed in age from 2 to 15 years old;no difference in incidence between men and women;resident population is higher than the incidence of migrants;3 to August for multiple months;50 cases of patients with history of measles immunization, 150 patients did not measles immunization. Conclusion Measles epidemic of measles immunization may not standardized, vaccine antibody titers decreased, climate change has a relationship;complications mainly bronchitis, liver damage.%目的:探讨麻疹患者的流行病学特点与发病危险因素。方法选取200例麻疹患者作为研究对象,回顾性分析患者的临床资料。结果麻疹发病年龄多分布于2~15岁;男女发病率无差别;常驻人口发病率高于流动人口;3~8月为多发月份;50例患者有麻疹免疫接种史,150例患者未接种麻疹免疫。结论麻疹流行可能与麻疹免疫接种不规范、疫苗抗体滴度下降、气候环境变化有关系;其并发症主要有支气管炎、肝损害等。

  14. Detection of Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Gene by RT-PCR%麻疹病毒H基因的特异性逆转录-聚合酶链反应检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅燕; 卢亦愚; 张严峻

    2001-01-01

    Using RT-PCR, we can detect measles virus hemagglutinin gene (H gene) of 635bp length directly from measles vaccine strain Shanghai-191, Edmonston strain, nasopharyngeal aspirates and throat swabs of the measles patients. The primers of RT-PCR based on H gene sequence of measles virus did not give the same products from rubella virus and influenza viruses (A1, A3, B). By second PCR amplification, the minimum quantity of measles virus required to give a positive signal was<0.01TCID50. Since the IgM antibody positive rate in early stage of measles patients is always low, the specificity and sensitivity of RT-PCR method may help diagnosing measles cases.%采用逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)直接从麻疹疫苗沪191株、Edmonston株以及临床麻疹患者的含漱液和咽拭子中检测出635bp的特异性H基因目的条带;而对风疹病毒和流行性感冒甲1型、甲3型、乙型病毒均未检测到相应条带。通过对RT-PCR产物的第2次扩增,可以使检测的灵敏度达到0.01TCID50。针对麻疹患者发病初期血清中IgM抗体阳性率偏低的特点,可以利用该方法的特异性和敏感性对临床麻疹病例作辅助处理。

  15. Tyrosine 110 in the measles virus phosphoprotein is required to block STAT1 phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measles virus (MV) P gene encodes three proteins: P, an essential polymerase cofactor, and C and V, which have multiple functions including immune evasion. We show here that the MV P protein also contributes to immune evasion, and that tyrosine 110 is required to block nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription factors (STAT) after interferon type I treatment. In particular, MV P inhibits STAT1 phosphorylation. This is shown not only by transient expression but also by reverse genetic analyses based on a new functional infectious cDNA derived from a MV vaccine vial (Moraten strain). Our study also identifies a conserved sequence around P protein tyrosine 110 as a candidate interaction site with a cellular protein

  16. Mitophagy switches cell death from apoptosis to necrosis in NSCLC cells treated with oncolytic measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mao; Meng, Gang; Jiang, Aiqin; Chen, Aiping; Dahlhaus, Meike; Gonzalez, Patrick; Beltinger, Christian; Wei, Jiwu

    2014-06-15

    Although apoptotic phenomena have been observed in malignant cells infected by measles virus vaccine strain Edmonston B (MV-Edm), the precise oncolytic mechanisms are poorly defined. In this study we found that MV-Edm induced autophagy and sequestosome 1-mediated mitophagy leading to decreased cytochrome c release, which blocked the pro-apoptotic cascade in non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLCs). The decrease of apoptosis by mitophagy favored viral replication. Persistent viral replication sustained by autophagy ultimately resulted in necrotic cell death due to ATP depletion. Importantly, when autophagy was impaired in NSCLCs MV-Edm-induced cell death was significantly abrogated despite of increased apoptosis. Taken together, our results define a novel oncolytic mechanism by which mitophagy switches cell death from apoptosis to more efficient necrosis in NSCLCs following MV-Edm infection. This provides a foundation for future improvement of oncolytic virotherapy or antiviral therapy. PMID:25004098

  17. Genotyping of circulating measles strains in Italy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Baggieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. In Italy, laboratory surveillance activity is implemented by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome. The role of the National Reference Laboratory is to strengthen surveillance systems through rigorous case investigation and laboratory confirmation of suspected sporadic cases and outbreaks. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus is an essential component of the laboratory-based surveillance. This study describes the molecular characterization of measles virus strains isolated during 2010. METHODS: Dried blood spots, urine and oral fluid samples were collected from patients with a suspected measles infection. Serological tests were performed on capillary blood, and viral detection was performed on urine and oral fluid samples through molecular assay. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The phylogenetic analysis showed a co-circulation of genotypes D4 and D8, and sporadic cases associated to genotypes D9 and B3. Then, molecular epidemiology of measles cases permitted to establish that D4 and D8 were the endemic genotypes in Italy during 2010.

  18. Investigation and Handling of the Outbreak of Adult Measles Case in Guizhou Province%贵州省一起高校麻疹爆发疫情的调查及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 陈建; 叶新贵; 穆秋玥; 唐小敏; 吴德飞; 张明英; 王应刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analysis the investigation and Conduction of the outbreak of adult measles case in Guizhou Province. Methods Information on epidemiology and clinical manifestation of the case was collected from interview the keyperson and referring to related medical records. Medical observation was undergone among the close contacts of the cases. Serum of the measles cases during acute phases were collected and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect special antibody. Result There were 5 adult measles cases in Anshun collage during 9 Jun.-24 Jun. In 2009 in Cuizhou Province. All measles cases" were male. Three cases were 20 years old; two cases were 21 years old,measles antibody IgM of 4 measles cases is positive. After that* no measles case was found in this college again. 5 cases of measles vaccination history are not available, the first measles case had a travelling history. Conclusion The isolation cure of measles cases, the immunization coverage investigation, actively searched for measles cases, take disinfect of the environment and health education were conducted in Anshun college to control measles outbreak, no additional measles case was found. The outbreak of adult measles in Anshun college indicated that measles case surveillance and health education should be strengthened in college.%目的 分析贵州省一起高校学生麻疹爆发疫情的调查及处理情况.方法 访谈病例发病前后情况,查阅临床病历,对病例及其密切接触者进行医学观察.采集病例血标本应用酶联免疫吸附试验进行检测.结果 2009年6月9~24日在安顺学院发生学生麻疹爆发疫情.本次疫情共发现5例麻疹病例,均为男性,其中20岁3例,21岁2例;5例病例麻疹减毒活疫苗接种史均不详;5例血标本麻疹IgM抗体阳性4例.结论 采取了包括隔离治疗、主动搜索、环境消毒、健康教育等多项措施,阻断了疫情的蔓延.此起高校学生麻疹爆发疫情的发

  19. Acute encephalitis associated with measles: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.Y.; Cho, W.H.; Kim, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, H.D. [Department of Paediatrics, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, 760-1 Sanggye-7 dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139707 (Korea); Kim, I.O. [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28, Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul 110744 (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    We document the MRI features in six patients aged 5-14 years with acute encephalitis following measles. The diagnosis was made on a characteristic morbiliform rash and detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The symptoms of encephalitis occurred 1-11 days after the appearance of the rash. All patients underwent MRI within 1-4 days of the onset of neurological symptoms. Diffusion weighted images (DWI) were obtained in three patients. In all patients, T2-weighted images showed widely distributed, multifocal high signal in both cerebral hemispheres with swelling of the cortex, with bilateral, symmetrical involvement of the putamen and caudate nucleus. The lesions had showed low apparent diffusion coefficients. Three patients showed subacute gyriform haemorrhage, and asymmetrical gyriform contrast enhancement on follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  20. Vaccine Hesitancy: Causes, Consequences, and a Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-12-01

    Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the

  1. Investigation on the level of maternal transferred measles antibody in neonates and relative factors%新生儿母传麻疹抗体水平与相关因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方; 王珊; 王晨; 李书明; 张国辉; 黄平

    2012-01-01

    ) , the ability of maternal transferred measles antibody in neonates whose mothers was less than 30 years old was statistically significantly higher than that in neonates whose mothers was 30 years old or more than 30 years old (t = 2. 636, P = 0. 009) . Conclusion; Maternal measles antibody level and the ability of maternal transferred measles antibody are important factors affecting neonatal antibody level; at this stage, enhancing measles vaccine immunization is an important method to control the onset of measles in infants, when the premature infants and neonates born by mothers of older age were threatened by measles, it is considered that vaccination with measles vaccine should be advanced to six months.·%目的:了解新生儿及其母亲麻疹抗体水平,探讨新生儿与母体抗体水平关系以及影响新生儿抗体水平的可能因素,为控制小月龄儿童麻疹发病提供有效建议.方法:采集孕妇产前静脉血和新生儿脐带血共156对,使用ELLSA方法进行麻疹IgG抗体水平检测.结果:母亲麻疹抗体几何平均浓度为546.48 mIU/ml,新生儿为746.64 mIU/ml,是母亲的1.37倍;母亲麻疹抗体对数浓度与新生儿的呈正相关,相关系数为0.883(P=0.000);母亲麻疹抗体水平与母亲年龄、户籍和出生地等因素的关系有统计学意义,30岁及以上组母亲的麻疹抗体几何平均浓度高于30岁以下组(t=-2.078,P=0.039),外省户籍母亲的麻疹抗体儿何平均浓度高于北京市户籍组(t=-2.073,P=0.040),两两比较发现农村地区出生母亲的麻疹抗体几何平均浓度高于城市组(LSD法:P=0.005);胎传抗体能力与胎龄、母亲年龄的关系有统计学意义,两两比较发现胎龄38 ~40周的新生儿其胎传抗体能力高于胎龄小于38周的新生儿(LSD法:P=0.014),母亲年龄在30岁以下组的新生儿胎传抗体能力高于30岁及以上组(t =2.636,P=0.009).结论:母亲麻疹抗体水平和胎传抗体能力是影响新生儿抗体水平

  2. Vaccine Hesitancy in Children—A Call for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle de St. Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunizations have made an enormous impact on the health of children by decreasing childhood morbidity and mortality from a variety of vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. The eradication of polio from Nigeria and India is one of the most recent victories for one of the greatest technological advances in human history. Despite these international successes, the United States has experienced the re-emergence of measles, driven largely by increasing parental refusal of vaccines. Pediatricians should be trained to be very knowledgeable about vaccines and should continue to advocate for parents to immunize their children.

  3. Perfil epidemiológico do sarampo no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, de 1996 a 2000 Measles epidemiology in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 1996-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Sousa Santos Faversani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo ecológico, baseado nos dados secundários da vigilância epidemiológica e usando município como unidade de análise, mostrou que as coberturas da vacina contra sarampo foram menores de níveis necessários para erradicação (95% e controle (90% em grande parte do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, antes e durante a epidemia de 1997, principalmente da segunda dose da vacina, prevista para 15 meses de idade dentro da vacina triviral. Houve melhora nos anos seguintes, mas continuou faltando a homogeneidade da cobertura. Baixas coberturas vacinais foram associadas com maior incidência de sarampo, mas, no ano epidêmico de 1997, surtos menores de sarampo ocorreram até em alguns municípios com coberturas acima de 95% no primeiro ano de vida, com maior concentração naqueles com baixa cobertura da vacina triviral. Cerca de 80% dos casos de sarampo no período de 1996-2000 ocorreram entre escolares e jovens adultos. A circulação do vírus do sarampo no ano anterior e a densidade populacional aumentaram o risco de sarampo. Dois casos importados em 2004 ilustram bem porque ainda não podemos falar de erradicação e sim de eliminação do sarampo no Estado.This ecological study, based on an analysis of secondary data from epidemiological surveillance and using the municipality (county as the unit of analysis, showed that measles vaccine coverage was lower than necessary for eradication (95% and control (90% in many municipalities in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, both before and during the last epidemic in 1997, particularly regarding the second dose of the vaccine, applied as a component of the MMR vaccine, scheduled at 15 months of age. Low vaccine coverage was associated with higher measles incidence. However, during the 1997 epidemic small-scale measles outbreaks were recorded even in municipalities with first-dose coverage of 95% or higher, particularly among those which also had low second-dose coverage for MMR

  4. Measles in Changping District of Beijing, 2010%2010年北京市昌平区麻疹流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective In order to understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles in 2010, provide evidence for developing scientific and targeted prevention and control measures of measles in future. Methods Descriptive research methods were used for epidemiological analysis with 2010 measles epidemic information. Results A total of 239 cases of measles were reported in Changping district in 2010 with the annual incidence rate of 30. 87/105 per year. Area clustering was obvious, the concentration of population flow between urban and rural areas had a higher incidence of measles, such as Dongxiaokou town and Beiqijia town. The incidence peaked from April to June (70.29%). Among 239 cases of measles, 57.32% were > 15 years old, 28.03% were < 1 years old, that indicated the adult and young age groups onset mode. There were 21. 34% , 76. 57% and 2. 09% of the cases with immune history, non - immune history and unknown immune history. For if there was an fever, cough, catarrhal symptoms, coriolis spot, lymph node enlargement and joint pain, the course of measles, no significantly difference was observed between goups with different immune history. The blood collection rate of suspected measles cases was 92. 01%. The laboratory confirmed cases accounted for 86. 19% of all cases. Conclusion Improving routine immunization rate, strengthening the measles epidemic monitoring and disposal are the key work of measles district control. Strict execution nursery and entrance children inoculation certificate inspection, college students' measles vaccination are the key to eliminate the immune blank and establishing immunological barrier.%目的 为了解2010年麻疹疫情特点,为今后制定科学的、有针对性的预防控制麻疹措施提供依据.方法 利用描述性研究方法,对2010年麻疹疫情资料进行流行病学分析.结果 2010年昌平区麻疹发病239例,发病率为30.87/10万.昌平区麻疹发病有地区聚集性,东小口、北七家等流动人

  5. Surveillance of atibody lvel of measles among healthy population in Huaihua City%怀化市健康人群麻疹抗体水平监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉蓉; 瞿中武; 谢文

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解怀化市健康人群麻疹抗体水平和人群免疫状况,为有效地实施麻疹预防措施和控制策略提供科学依据.方法 2010年对7个年龄组共347名健康人群采集静脉血,用酶联免疫吸附试验法进行麻疹特异性LgG抗体水平检测.结果 麻疹抗体阳性率为86.74%.不同区(县)麻疹抗体阳性率之间差异无统计学意义(x2=3.47,P>0.05);不同年龄组麻疹抗体阳性率差异有统计学意义(x2=41.64,P≤0.05);男性与女性麻疹抗体阳性率之间差异无统计学意义(x2=0.37,P>0.05);城市与农村抗体阳性率之间差异无统计学意义(x2=0.49,P>0.05).结论 该市健康人群麻疹抗体水平低于95%,为实现消除麻疹目标,应在大年龄组儿童、育龄妇女及成人中进行麻疹疫苗接种,提高并维持全人群较高的麻疹抗体水平.%[Objective]To understand the measles antibody level of healthy population in Huaihua City and immunization status of people, and provide a scientific basis for the effective implementation of measles prevention and control strategies. [Methods] In 2010, venous blood samples of 347 healthy people from 7 age groups were collected for the detection of specific IgG antibody levels of measles by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. [ Results] The positive rate of measles antibody was 86. 74%. The positive rate of measles antibody was significantly different between different districts ( counties ) ( x2= 3. 47 , P > 0. 05) ; the positive rate of measles antibody between different age groups was significantly different ( x2 =41. 64, P≤0. 05 ) ; measles antibody positive rate was not significantly different genders (x2=0. 37, P>0. 05) ; and that was not significantly different between urban and rural area ( x2= 0.49, P > 0. 05 ). [ Conclusion] The measles antibody level in healthy population is less than 95% in this city. In order to achieve the goal of measles elimination, measles vaccination should be

  6. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy. PMID:27338346

  7. Dismantling the Taboo against Vaccines in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio de Martino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinating pregnant women in order to protect them, the fetus, and the child has become universal in no way at all. Prejudice in health professionals add to fears of women and their families. Both these feelings are not supported by even the smallest scientific data. Harmlessness for the mother and the child has been observed for seasonal, pandemic, or quadrivalent influenza, mono, combined polysaccharide or conjugated meningococcal or pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis, human papillomavirus, cholera, hepatitis A, Japanese encephalitis, rabies, anthrax, smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, measles and rubella combined, typhoid fever, inactivated or attenuated polio vaccines, and Bacillus Calmétte Guerin vaccines. Instead, the beneficial effects of influenza vaccine for the mother and the child as well as of pertussis vaccine for the child have been demonstrated. Obstetrician-gynecologists, general practitioners, and midwives must incorporate vaccination into their standard clinical care. Strong communication strategies effective at reducing parental vaccine hesitancy and approval of regulatory agencies for use of vaccines during pregnancy are needed. It must be clear that the lack of pre-licensure studies in pregnant women and, consequently, the lack of a statement about the use of the vaccine in pregnant women does not preclude its use in pregnancy.

  8. Anestesia em criança com síndrome de Guillain-Barré após vacina de sarampo: relato de caso Anestesia en un niño con síndrome de Guillain-Barré después de la vacuna de sarampión: relato de caso Anesthesia in Guillain-Barré pediatric patient after measles vaccination: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deoclécio Tonelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A síndrome de Guillain-Barré após vacina de sarampo é rara. O diagnóstico muitas vezes é tardio, o que leva a um aumento da morbidade. O presente relato apresenta um caso avançado e os cuidados especiais exigidos durante a anestesia. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, com quatro anos de idade com síndrome de Guillain-Barré desde um ano de idade, foi submetido a gastrostomia sob anestesia geral sem intercorrências, com sevoflurano e sem bloqueadores neuromusculares. CONCLUSÕES: O caso ilustra a raridade etiológica de uma síndrome importante na prática anestésica assim como os eventos adversos pós-vacinação, a melhor escolha para a equipe anestésica e as complicações da síndrome de Guillain-Barré na infância.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El síndrome de Guillain-Barré después de la vacuna de sarampión es rara. El diagnóstico en la mayoría de las veces es tardío, lo que lleva a un aumento de la morbidez. Este actual relato presenta un caso avanzado y todas las atenciones especiales exigidas durante la anestesia. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo masculino, con cuatro años de edad con síndrome de Guillain-Barré desde hace un año de edad, fue sometido a gastrostomía bajo anestesia general sin intercurrencias, con sevoflurano y sin bloqueadores neuromusculares. CONCLUSIONES: El caso ilustra la rareza etiológica de una síndrome importante en la práctica anestésica, así como los eventos adversos pos-vacunación, la mejor elección para el equipo anestésico y las complicaciones de la síndrome de Guillain-Barré en la infancia.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guillain-Barré syndrome following measles vaccination is uncommon. Diagnosis is often delayed, leading to increased morbidity. This report describes an advanced Guillain-Barré case and the special approaches required during anesthesia. CASE REPORT: Male patient, four years old, with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at 1 year of

  9. 1999-2010年山东省泰安市麻疹流行特征与防控策略探讨%Epidemiology of measles in Taian city from 1999 to 2010 and discussion of strategy for measles prevention and control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱国

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of measles and the prevention and control measures in the period of measles elimination. Methods The analysis was conducted on the incidence data of measles in Taian from 1999 to 2010 to understand the measles cases distributions in this area and related factors. Results The local outbreaks often influenced the epidemic strength in whole T, aian in the year with high incidence of measles. The proportion of measles cases in urban area and suburb had increased since 2005. The cases in children less than 2 years old and adults accounted for high proportion of the total measles cases. The cases in infants less than 8 months old were correlated with nosocominal infection, medical care seeking was the major infection route. The incidence peak of measles was still in spring during a year. The epidemic strength in a year was related with the cases in last winter and the first and last cases in that year. Conclusion It is necessary to strengthen the measles immunization in key area and risk population on the basis of mass measles vaccination. It is essential to conduct measles patients' triage and isolation treatment to achieve the goal of measles elimination. Infection source surveillance, detecting case in low incidence period and early response of outbreak would facilitate the reduction of the case number during the incidence peak period of April.%目的 探讨麻疹消除阶段的流行规律与防控策略.方法 根据泰安市麻疹监测与防控资料,分析1999-2010年泰安市麻疹确诊病例三间分布特征及其影响因素.结果 在麻疹高发年份,局部疫情常左右全市流行强度,2005年以后,城区及附近乡镇病例构成增加;现阶段1岁左右病例与成年人病例构成病例主体,<8月龄病例与医源性感染有相关性,就诊途径成为主要感染方式;麻疹疫情仍存在春季季节高峰与夏秋季季节低谷,流行强度与上年度冬季病例及当年

  10. Measles reporting completeness during a community-wide epidemic in inner-city Los Angeles.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewert, D P; S Westman; Frederick, P D; Waterman, S. H.

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the extent of measles underreporting among preschool-age children. In two community surveys conducted in inner-city Los Angeles during 1990 and 1991, respondents were asked whether preschool-age children in their households had ever been ill with measles. Information about measles episodes was obtained and medical records were reviewed, when available. A probable measles case was defined as having 3 or more days of rash with fever of 38.3 degrees centigrade...

  11. Nucleoprotein gene analysis of the wild-type measles viruses circulated in Beijing in 2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢正德; 申昆玲; 许文波; 照日格图; 朱贞

    2004-01-01

    @@ The hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes are the most variable regions on the genome of the measles virus. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the H and/or N genes has been used to describe different genetic groups of wild-type measles virus.1-3 This genetic information has been used in molecular epidemiological studies to identify the transmission pathways of measles virus. The present study was conducted to reveal the genotype of measles viruses which circulated in Beijing in 2001.

  12. Vaccinations for Neuroinfectious Disease: A Global Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovitch, Emily C; Jacobson, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Vaccines for neuroinfectious diseases are becoming an ever-increasing global health priority, as neurologic manifestations and sequelae from existing and emerging central nervous system infections account for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. The prevention of neurotropic infections can be achieved through globally coordinated vaccination campaigns, which have successfully eradicated nonzoonotic agents such as the variola viruses and, hopefully soon, poliovirus. This review discusses vaccines that are currently available or under development for zoonotic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including Japanese and tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, Zika, encephalitic equine viruses, and chikungunya. Also discussed are nonzoonotic agents, including measles and human herpesviruses, as well as select bacterial, fungal, and protozoal pathogens. While therapeutic vaccines will be required to treat a multitude of ongoing infections of the nervous system, the ideal vaccination strategy is pre-exposure vaccination, with the ultimate goals of minimizing disease associated with zoonotic viruses and the total eradication of nonzoonotic agents. PMID:27365085

  13. STUDY ON EPIDEMIC STATUS AND THE ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF MEASLES IN INFANTS IN TIANJIN%天津市婴儿麻疹流行状况及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆晓艳; 曲江文; 丁亚兴; 田宏; 雷玥; 高志刚; 齐秀英

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To understand epidemic status and the associated factors of measles in infants in Tianjin, so as to provide strategies for the control of measles. [Methods] Measles surveillance data and survey data were analyzed by using epidemiological method. IgG antibody against measles were detected in infants by ELLSA. [Results] The incidence of measles in infants aged below one year was the highest in annual year, and the constituent ratios of infant measles cases to all cases in creased from 2005 to 2009. 73.97% of measles cases aged from eight month to one year were not immunized by measles vaccine. IgG antibody against measles from mother in infants aged below eight months old decreased along with the growing of month. The positive rate of IgG antibody in infants aged seven months old decreased to 16.67%. History of visiting hospital was significantly related to measles, and its OR was 15.4. [Conclusion] The incidence of measles in infants aged below one year is the highest and the constituent ratios of infant measles cases to all cases increased from 2005 to 2009. Lack of immunization, lower level of antibody against measles from mother and the history of visiting hospital were associated with the high risk of the infant measles.%[目的]分析天津市婴儿麻疹流行状况及相关因素,为控制麻疹提出策略.[方法]对天津市历年法定传染病报告系统麻疹监测数据和流行病学调查资料进行分析,用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)间接法检测麻疹 IgG 抗体.[结果]天津市麻疹发病显示明显的年龄分布特点,2005~2009 年间均是 1 岁以下婴儿发病率最高,婴儿麻疹占麻疹病例的构成比呈增高趋势.73.97%的 8 月龄~1 岁婴儿麻疹病例未进行过免疫接种.8 月龄以下婴儿随月龄增长抗体阳性率逐渐下降,7 月龄时抗体阳性率降至 16.67%.医院就诊史与 1 岁以下婴儿麻疹有关,OR=15.4.[结论]天津市 2005~2009 年间麻疹发病均是 1 岁以

  14. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS(®) Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS(®) CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  15. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) AI > 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  16. 北京市怀柔区2007~2010年麻疹发病情况分析%Epidemiological Analysis of Measles Incidence in Huairou District of Beijing from 2007 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉琴

    2011-01-01

    目的:总结分析2007~2010 年北京市怀柔区麻疹流行病学特征,为预防控制麻疹疫情提供科学依据.方法:利用麻疹病例个案流调资料,对麻疹发病特征进行流行病学分析.结果:麻疹发病以春季为主,发病人群以0岁组和15 岁组以上人群为主;散居儿童发病最多,占33.75%;病例主要分布在城镇、城乡结合部,占发病总数的70%;有免疫史病例占总病例的20%.结论:本区麻疹防治工作时间应以春季为主,人群应以0岁组和15 岁以上为主,提高麻疹疫苗的及时接种率及适时地加强免疫是预防麻疹最有效、最经济的手段.%Objective:To analyze the 2007~2010 epidemiological characteristics of measles in Huairou District of Beijing, for the prevention and control of measles outbreak and to provide the scientific basis.Methods:Use epidemiological investigation information of measles cases, to epidemiological analysis the epidemiological characteristics of measles.Results: Measles cases in Huairou District, mainly in spring, and mainly occurred among the age group of 0 and above 15; scattered children have the highest incidence, accounting for 33.75%; cases are mainly in towns and urban fringe, accounting for 70% of the total cases; the cases with vaccination history accounts for 20% of the total cases.Conclusion:The time of Measles prevention and control in this area should be mainly in spring, the crowd should be mainly 0 age group and above 15 year- old age group, to improve the coverage rate of measles vaccine in a timely manner and to strengthen measles immunization is the most effective and economic means/method.

  17. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... Girls ages 11 and 12 should receive the HPV vaccine series: The vaccine is given in three shots ...

  18. Analysis on Epidemiology of Measles in Hebei District, Tianjin City from 2004 to 2011%2004-2011年天津市河北区麻疹流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 王梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解河北区近年来麻疹流行病学特征,探讨控制麻疹的策略与措施.方法 采用描述性流行病学方法对2004-2011年河北区麻疹发病情况进行分析.结果 河北区2004-2011年麻疹发病呈散发的流行病学特点.2-5月是麻疹的高发季节.<8月龄和≥15岁麻疹病例数为353例,占全区报告发病总数的84.86%.结论 保持儿童麻疹疫苗及时有效的高水平的基础免疫,加强麻疹疫苗的复种工作,适时开展强化免疫,建立牢固的免疫屏障.同时,加强流动人口管理,提高流动儿童接种率.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological characteristics ot measles in Hebei District,Tianjin,and to explore the strategies and measures for controlling measles.Methods The data of measles in Hebei District during the period of 2004-2011 were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological methods.Results Measles eases occurred in a sporadic pattern in Hebei District during the period of 2004-2011.Measles mainly occurred during February to May.353 measles cases occurred in children aged < 8monthsand≥ 15 years,accounting for 84.86 % of the total cases.Conclusions Toprevent the spread of measles cases,it is important to maintain high level of measles immunization in children,strengthen measles revaccination,carry out supplementary immunization campaigns timely,and build a strong immune barrier.At the same time,it is necessary to strengthen floating population management and improve the vaccination rate among floating children.

  19. [Towards a new vaccine economy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, P; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    When Jonas Salk announced in the mid-50s the availability of a new vaccine against poliomyelitis, the world had the impression that it was now controlling infectious diseases. In fact, the success of this vaccine has been considerable and although some innovations lead to the launch of vaccines against flu, measles, rubella or mumps, the world vaccine market remained remarkably stable till the mid-80s. However, since 1984 (launch of the hepatitis B vaccine) there have been very substantial changes and further change is expected in the next ten years in the world market. Today, big companies are making a concentrated supply: Pasteur Mérieux with its subsidiary Connaught, SmithKline Beecham who acquired the Belgian company RIT, and Merck & Co. who is joining its forces with Pasteur Mérieux. Medium sized and small companies remain and reflect the situation of the past, but must work hard to secure their long term existence eventhough the world demand is going to double before the year 2000. Very substantial technological innovations explain to a large extent the development of the supply: progress in molecular biology, and particularly genetic engineering, lead to recombinant vaccines of which hepatitis B is the best example with worldwide sales in the range of $600 million a year. Similarly, conjugation technologies have allowed the development of new vaccines against meningitis, particularly Haemophilus influenzae type b. More recently, an efficacious vaccine against hepatitis A has been launched and many new products will be marketed in the next years against herpes, Lyme disease, and agents of other meningitis, etc.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7921683

  20. 北京市≥15岁常住人口麻疹抗体水平研究%Analysis of Measles Antibody Level in Persistent Population Aged ≥15 Years Old in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东磊; 孙美平; 卢莉; 王冬梅; 刘芳; 徐若辉; 宁召起; 张曙光; 庞星火

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解北京市≥15岁常住人口麻疹抗体水平和影响因素,评价成人麻疹易感性.方法 采用分层多级整群抽样的方法,按照城区、近郊、远郊分层选择调查对象,收集个人基本信息、麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)接种史、患病史等信息,使用酶联免疫吸附试验检测麻疹IgG抗体.结果 北京市≥15岁常住人口麻疹抗体阳性率为92.83%;多因素分析显示,居住的地理位置、年龄、患病史均对抗体水平有影响.结论 北京市≥15岁常住人口麻疹抗体阳性率较高,不会发生大范围的爆发或流行,但成人活动范围广,作为传染源的意义重大,从消除麻疹的要求考虑,仍有必要对成人接种MV.%Objective To explore the measles antibody level and among the population ≥ 15 years old and the influence factors in Beijing, so as to eraluate the sasceptability of adult to the Measles.Methods Using multi-cluster sampling to select the objects from downtown, suburban and rural areas.Private information, history of vaccination and illness were collected. IgG antibody was measured by ELISA assay in Beijing CDC. Result The seropositive rate ≥ 15 years old was 92.83%. In multivariate analysis model, the site of living location, age, and history of illness were main influence factors to the antibody level using multiple regression analysis. Conclusion The seropositive rate among the population ≥ 15 years old was high enough to prevent outbreak and epidemic of measles. Adult measles cases are main resources for measles transmission. Vaccination for adult is a key measure to eliminate measles.

  1. 广州市番禺区2005-2011年麻疹疫情分析及防制对策%Analysis and strategy of measles epidemic from 2005 to 2011 in Panyu district of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓伟均; 陈光艳; 王晓捷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To master the measles epidemic feature and factors of Panyu district in recent years,so as to provide reference to formulate and adjust the measles elimination strategy.Methods The measles outbreak surveillance data from 2005 to 2011 were analyzed by epidemiological descriptive method.Results A total of 1 504 diagnosed measles cases were reported in the direct network reporting system from 2005 to 2011.The average annual incidence rate was 120.37/1 000 000,including 10 cases of confirmed measles cases in 2010,and only one case in 2011.There was a sharp decline of the measles incidence in 2011 compared to the previous five years.The incidence from the highest 368.31/1 000 000 in 2006 declined to 0.56/1 000 000 in 2011.Results showed that the peak of incidence reached from April to August.Cases were mainly concentrated in towns that of dense migrant population,such as Shiqiao Street,Dashi Town,Nancun Town and Shiqi Town.The population distribution of measles cases was mainly concentrated in the scattered children,accounting for 55.78%.The age distribution of measles cases was mainly concentrated in the 0 ~ 10 years old age group,accounting for 72.80%.According to the unified deployment of Guangdong Province,Panyu district performed the measles vaccine leak replant activities from 2006 to 2008,and carried out large measles immunization activities in 2009 and 2010.The rates of measles vaccination were more than 95%.Conclusions Activities of measles vaccine leak replant from 2006 to 2008 and large measles immunization activities from 2009 to 2010 received good effects.There was a pretty well control in the measles epidemic.Based on a high rate of routine immunization coverage,activities of measles vaccine leak replant and large measles immunization are the keys to improve the level of measles immunization in the population,reduce the rate of susceptible population and achieve the goal of measles elimination in 2012.%目的 掌握近年来番禺区麻

  2. Update on autism spectrum disorder: vaccines, genomes, and social skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Teena M

    2015-04-01

    Despite making significant progress in understanding autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its genetic underpinnings, controversy remains regarding ASD and its historical, erroneous association with vaccines. This controversy includes the latest anti-vaccine movement that caused a recurrence of the almost vanquished measles and mumps diseases. The history of ASD, complexities of research involving ASD genetics, and benefits of social skills training are explored. PMID:25800558

  3. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

  4. Adolescent Vaccination Strategies: Interventions to Increase Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Corinne E; Brady, Rebecca C; Battley, Reuben O; Huggins, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    While vaccines have decreased the burden of disease, many adolescents still remain under-immunized, particularly for human papillomavirus (HPV) and influenza. We review the most current data regarding adolescent immunizations in the United States and discuss proven strategies that work for increasing vaccination rates. Strategies that have been shown to improve rates include provider feedback, immunization information systems (or registries), and enhanced access outside of provider offices, such as school-based immunization programs. Overall, practices may want to consider multimodal quality improvement approaches to enhance practice vaccination rates. The public health and cost benefits of immunizing adolescents are well known, yet recent measles outbreaks in the United States have highlighted issues with state immunization laws and vaccine refusals. Providers should be clear in their advice regarding vaccines and use effective reminder strategies as parents commonly cite not having enough information or knowledge that a vaccine was needed for their adolescent. Additional research is needed regarding adolescent consent for vaccines, as well as adolescent and parental refusal, in order to design systems that will help inform families and allow for widespread vaccine availability. PMID:27146296

  5. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  6. Analysis for epidemiological characteristics of measles in Shantou during 2004-2009%汕头市2004~2009年麻疹流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖敏; 徐八一; 蔡亚军; 王普生; 黄建晖; 蔡咏娜; 江霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析2004~2009年汕头市麻疹流行病学特征,为消除麻疹提供有针对性的防控策略.方法 采用描述流行病学方法对麻疹监测数据进行统计学分析.结果 2004~2009年汕头市报告麻疹2069例,年平均发病率为6.91/10万.1~6岁儿童发病率最高,其次是15~40岁成人;4~7月份为发病高峰,占病例总数的61.09%;潮南区、潮阳区、龙湖区发病数居全市前3位,累计发病分别占总发病的26.44%、25.13%、17.01%;对麻疹病例免疫史分析,有麻疹疫苗(MV)免疫史、无免疫史、免疫史不详的分别占13.8%、51.5%和34.7%.结论 做好麻疹常规免疫接种,适时开展高质量的麻疹强化免疫,扩大外来务工人员麻疹疫苗接种覆盖范围,加强麻疹监测,是控制消除麻疹的有效手段.%OBJECTIVE To analyze epidemiological characteristics of measles in Shantou during 2004-2009 to provide evidence for formulating strategies and measures to eliminate measles. METHODS Data of measles were analyzed by descriptive epidemiological method. RESULTS During 2004 and 2009, a total of 2 069 cases of measles were reported in Shantou and annual incidence of measles averaged 6.91 per hundred thousand. The peak of measles occurred in April to July, accounting for 61.09 percent of the total. District of Chaonan, Chaoyang and Chenghai ranked the top three places of the district in measles incidence, accounting for 26.44%, 25.13% and 17.01%, respectively. People aged 1-6 years and 15-40 years had highest incidence. According to the analysis of vaccine immunization history of measles cases, 13.8% had measles vaccine immunization history, 51.5% were not immunized, and 34.7% had unknown immunization history. CONCLUSION Regular immunization with measles vaccine should be strengthened with supplementary immunization at suitable time. It is effective way to eliminate measles by increasing immunization coverage in adults and migrant workers from rural areas

  7. Trained innate immunity as underlying mechanism for the long-term, nonspecific effects of vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Bastiaan A; Arts, Rob J W; van Crevel, Reinout;

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence shows that the innate immune system has adaptive characteristics that involve a heterologous memory of past insults. Both experimental models and proof-of-principle clinical trials show that innate immune cells, such as monocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, can...... protective, nonspecific effects induced by vaccines, such as BCG, measles vaccination, and other whole-microorganism vaccines. In this review, we will present the mechanisms of trained immunity responsible for the long-lasting effects of vaccines on the innate immune system....

  8. Sixteen years of global experience with the first refrigerator-stable varicella vaccine (Varilrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreth, Hans W; Lee, Bee-Wah; Kosuwon, Pensri; Salazar, Jose; Gloriani-Barzaga, Nina; Bock, Hans L; Meurice, François

    2008-01-01

    Without vaccination, chickenpox (varicella) will affect almost every person in the world during their lifetime. The burden of disease due to varicella is often unrecognized. Varilrix is a varicella vaccine derived from the Oka strain of varicella virus. The vaccine, as a frozen formulation, was licensed for use in 1984 and was the first commercially available varicella vaccine. It subsequently became the first refrigerator-stable varicella vaccine; its development commenced in 1991 and it has been licensed for use since 1994. Varilrix is indicated for use in high-risk groups, potentially immunocompromised individuals, and healthy subjects in many countries. This article reviews data from extensive worldwide experience with the refrigerator-stable version of the vaccine, including information derived from its use in over 10,000 individuals participating in clinical trials investigating its immunogenicity, efficacy, effectiveness, and safety, as well as postmarketing data including its use in universal mass vaccination programs. Sixteen years of clinical and postmarketing experience with the same formulation represents the longest and most extensive experience with a refrigerator-stable varicella vaccine worldwide. Varilrix, in conjunction with the trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine Priorix, has also been the basis for clinical development of the tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine (Priorix-Tetra). PMID:18998756

  9. Measles immune suppression: lessons from the macaque model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D de Vries

    Full Text Available Measles remains a significant childhood disease, and is associated with a transient immune suppression. Paradoxically, measles virus (MV infection also induces robust MV-specific immune responses. Current hypotheses for the mechanism underlying measles immune suppression focus on functional impairment of lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells, caused by infection with or exposure to MV. We have generated stable recombinant MVs that express enhanced green fluorescent protein, and remain virulent in non-human primates. By performing a comprehensive study of virological, immunological, hematological and histopathological observations made in animals euthanized at different time points after MV infection, we developed a model explaining measles immune suppression which fits with the "measles paradox". Here we show that MV preferentially infects CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, resulting in high infection levels in these populations. After the peak of viremia MV-infected lymphocytes were cleared within days, followed by immune activation and lymph node enlargement. During this period tuberculin-specific T-lymphocyte responses disappeared, whilst strong MV-specific T-lymphocyte responses emerged. Histopathological analysis of lymphoid tissues showed lymphocyte depletion in the B- and T-cell areas in the absence of apoptotic cells, paralleled by infiltration of T-lymphocytes into B-cell follicles and reappearance of proliferating cells. Our findings indicate an immune-mediated clearance of MV-infected CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, which causes temporary immunological amnesia. The rapid oligoclonal expansion of MV-specific lymphocytes and bystander cells masks this depletion, explaining the short duration of measles lymphopenia yet long duration of immune suppression.

  10. Measles in children with HIV infection: report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia de Carvalho

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with AIDS have a high incidence of skin problems due to the immunosuppression and malnourishment that are inherent to the progression of this disease. Clinical manifestation of these skin lesions and their severity are different in AIDS patients. We made a prospective study of five cases of measles in children with HIV infection during a community outbreak, and there were typical as well as atypical forms of the disease, including one case with negative serology. There were pulmonary complications, but none of the patients died. The anti-retroviral treatment may have contributed to the decrease in measles morbidity in these pediatric AIDS patients.

  11. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Measles Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to monitor the measles effect observed in WFPC observations. The goals of this program are: 1. Look for changes in measle numbers/characteristics 2. Have before/after images in place for decontaminations. This program will also build up a high quality flat field. The observations are done only with PC with a frequency of once every two weeks. The sequence (during a single earth occultation) is: F517N+OPEN, F517N+F122M, F517N+OPEN

  12. Survey and analysis on measles epidemic situation in Qianjiang Distric of Chongqing City during 2014%重庆市黔江区2014年麻疹疫情调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚凤; 唐海霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Qianjiang District of Chongqing City during 2014,and to investigate the strategies and measures for preventing and ontrolling measles. Methods The data of measles surveillance information system were collected and statistically processed by using SASV8.0 statistical analysis software. The epi-demiological characteristics and influence factors of measles in this district during 2014 were analyzed. Results There were 155 cases of measles in Qianjiang District during 2014,the report incidence rate was 10.49/100000. The morbidity mainly occurred from October to December. The onset was dominated by the cases in urban area ,accounting for 64.52%,and the cases in one measles epidemic outbreak accounted for 72.90%. the onset was mainly scattered children ,which accounted for 61.29%and the cases were mainly from 8 months old to 8 years old ,accounting for 62.58%;the cases without measles immune history and un-known immune history accounted for 87.10%and the rest cases had measles immunization history. Conclusion The low routine immunization rate and increase of floating children in urban area are the main reason leading to the high incidence of measles;it is prompted that measles prevention and control is a arduous task. The routine immunization of measles vaccine and inspection of missing immunization should be further done well,the measles case surveillance and management should be normatively carried out for effectively controlling the measles epidemic situation.%目的分析重庆市黔江区麻疹流行特征,探讨预防控制策略和措施。方法搜集整理麻疹监测信息系统的数据,采用SASV8.0统计学分析软件对数据进行统计学处理,分析2014年重庆市黔江区麻疹流行病学特征和影响因素。结果2014年重庆市黔江区共有麻疹病例155例,报告发病率10.49/10万;10~12月为发病高峰;发病以城区病例为主,占64.52%

  13. Immunogenic Subviral Particles Displaying Domain III of Dengue 2 Envelope Protein Vectored by Measles Virus

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    Indira S. Harahap-Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines against dengue virus (DV are commercially nonexistent. A subunit vaccination strategy may be of value, especially if a safe viral vector acts as biologically active adjuvant. In this paper, we focus on an immunoglobulin-like, independently folded domain III (DIII from DV 2 envelope protein (E, which contains epitopes that elicits highly specific neutralizing antibodies. We modified the hepatitis B small surface antigen (HBsAg, S in order to display DV 2 DIII on a virus-like particle (VLP, thus generating the hybrid antigen DIII-S. Two varieties of measles virus (MV vectors were developed to express DIII-S. The first expresses the hybrid antigen from an additional transcription unit (ATU and the second additionally expresses HBsAg from a separate ATU. We found that this second MV vectoring the hybrid VLPs displaying DIII-S on an unmodified HBsAg scaffold were immunogenic in MV-susceptible mice (HuCD46Ge-IFNarko, eliciting robust neutralizing responses (averages against MV (1:1280 NT90, hepatitis B virus (787 mIU/mL, and DV2 (1:160 NT50 in all of the tested animals. Conversely, the MV vector expressing only DIII-S induced immunity against MV alone. In summary, DV2 neutralizing responses can be generated by displaying E DIII on a scaffold of HBsAg-based VLPs, vectored by MV.

  14. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps, rubella, varicella–zoster and hepatitis A–C in Emirati medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheek-Hussein Mohamud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the seroprevalence of vaccine-preventable infections in Emirati medical students, and to provide scientific evidence for implementation of a cost-effective immunization guideline and policy for medical school admission. Methods This prospective cohort study involved 261 (61% female Emirati medical students (preclinical and clinical attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences at UAE University. Data on vaccination and history of infectious diseases were collected from participants. Blood samples were collected between July 1, 2011 and May 30, 2012 for serological testing and QuantiFERON®-TB assay. Results All students tested negative for infection with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus. The prevalence of seropositivity to rubella virus was 97%, varicella–zoster virus 88%, mumps virus 84%, measles virus 54%, hepatitis B virus (HBV 48%, and hepatitis A virus 21%. The QuantiFERON®-TB test was positive in 8% and indeterminate in 2%. Forty percent of students received HBV vaccine at birth; their HBV titers (mean ± SD were 17.2 ± 62.9 mIU/mL (median = 1.64. The remaining 60% received it at school and their titers were 293.4 ± 371.0 mIU/mL (median = 107.7, p = 0.000. Conclusion About 50% of students were susceptible to HBV and measles virus; therefore, pre-matriculation screening for antibodies against these viruses is highly recommended. Moreover, tuberculosis screening is necessary because of the high influx of expatriates from endemic areas. Students with inadequate protection should be reimmunized prior to contact with patients.

  15. Vaccination against Canine Distemper Virus Infection in Infant Ferrets with and without Maternal Antibody Protection, Using Recombinant Attenuated Poxvirus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Welter, Janet; Taylor, Jill; Tartaglia, James; Paoletti, Enzo; Stephensen, Charles B.

    2000-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets is clinically and immunologically similar to measles, making this a useful model for the human disease. The model was used to determine if parenteral or mucosal immunization of infant ferrets at 3 and 6 weeks of age with attenuated vaccinia virus (NYVAC) or canarypox virus (ALVAC) vaccine strains expressing the CDV hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) protein genes (NYVAC-HF and ALVAC-HF) would induce serum neutralizing antibody and protect agains...

  16. Since The Start Of The Vaccines For Children Program, Uptake Has Increased, And Most Disparities Have Decreased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brendan; Doherty, Edel; O'Neill, Ciaran

    2016-02-01

    The Vaccines for Children program is a US government intervention aimed at increasing vaccination uptake by removing financial barriers that may prevent US children from accessing vaccinations. This study examined the impact that this intervention had on race and ethnicity-related and income-related disparities for diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis, measles-mumps-rubella, and polio vaccinations, using data from the National Immunization Survey, 1995-2013. Vaccination rates increased across all races, ethnicities, and income groups following the introduction of the Vaccines for Children program. Disparities among race and ethnic groups narrowed considerably over time since the introduction of the vaccine program, although income-related disparities changed at different rates within racial and ethnic groups and in some cases increased. Government interventions aimed solely at reducing certain financial barriers to vaccination may fail to address other important aspects of cost or perceived benefits that influence vaccination uptake, especially among poorer children. PMID:26858392

  17. What Counts as "Truth" -- Reason Versus Emotion in Vaccine Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnookin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Vaccines are without question one of the most successful public health interventions the world has ever known. Despite this, for the past decade-and-a-half, industrialized countries around the world, from the United States to Germany and from Australia to Israel, have been confronted with specious panics about vaccine safety and efficacy, many of which center around claims that vaccines can cause autism. These fears can be traced to two events: a since-retracted paper published by a disgraced gastroenterologist claiming the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine was linked to a gut disease which, in turn, was linked to autism; and the United States's decision to remove a mercury-based preservative called thimerosal from standard pediatric vaccines in the late 1990s. The effects of these scares are being felt worldwide. Each year for the past several years, the US has had more measles outbreaks than at any time since the mid-1990s, a fact which is especially frightening given that the WHO declared measles eliminated from North America in 2000. In France, a nationwide measles outbreak has caused thousands of hospitalizations and a number of deaths. I will address several issues central to this topic: Given the overwhelming amount of evidence showing vaccines are safe and the total lack of evidence showing they cause autism, why do these fears persist, and what can be done to combat them? Has the public health establishment's response to these fears been sufficient? To what extent do concerns about vaccines function as proxies for more opaque concerns regarding modern-day health care? And finally, what is the effect of a lack of evidence-based research on the best way to combat misinformation?

  18. 西湖区2004~2010年麻疹流行病学特征分析%Analysis on the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Xihu County in 2004-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丛笑; 钱晨颖; 郑琳; 宋凯; 张寒芸

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles in Xihu County from 2004 to 2010, and then provide scientific basis for measles control and prevention. METHODS Descriptive study was based on (he data from case investigation of measles. RESULTS 481 measles cases were reported in 2004-2010, and the average annual incidence rale of measles was 12.14/100 000. The incidence rates in 2005 and 2008 reached to 21.48/100 000 and 37.10/100 000, respectively. The incidence peaked at March to June. Main measles cases were distributed in Sandun Town and Jiangcunwenxin Street. The proportion of 8-month-I year group. 20-30-year梠ld group and 30-40-year-old group were higher. They accounted for 28.0%, 26.4%, 20.2%, respectively. 8-month-l-year-old residents who had no measles vaccination accounted for 58.62%. However the coetaneous emigrants accounted for 61.54%. CONCLUSION The periodic fluctuation of measles exists in Xihu County. The measles cases are concentrated in the population Less than 1 year old or more than 20 years old, live in the suburbs. In order to reduce the incidence of measles, we should further improve the timely vaccination rate in children and the intensive immunization in adults. Meanwhile, effective strategy should be carried out to control measles.%目的 分析西湖区2004~2010年麻疹流行病学特征,为预防控制麻疹提供策略依据.方法 对2004~2010年西湖区麻疹个案调查数据进行描述性统计分析.结果 2004~2010年西湖区共报告481例麻疹病例,年平均发病率12.14/10万,2005年和2008年分别高达21.48/10万和37.10/10万.每年的3~6月份为发病高峰,高发地区分布在三墩镇、蒋村文新街道;小于1周岁、20~30岁、30~40岁年龄组所占比例相对较高,分别为28.0%、26.4%和20.2%;8月龄~1周岁常住儿童无麻疹免疫史的占58.62%,流动儿童无免疫史的占61.54%.结论 西湖区麻疹年发病起伏较大,每年呈周

  19. 贵州省麻疹病例传播链及漏报调查分析%Analysis and Investigation on Chain of Transmission of Measles Cases and Missing Report in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱青; 吴升伟; 徐飞; 唐宁; 杜雯

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析贵州省麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)强化免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)后,麻疹病例的感染来源和麻疹监测系统(Measles Surveillance System,MSS)的敏感性,探讨在较大地理范围内开展高质量MV SIA能否实现一次性消除麻疹.方法 采用随机抽样的方法进行横断面调查,综合分析麻疹病例感染、居民及医疗机构漏报资料.结果 贵州省MV SIA后,麻疹病例中66.7% (24/36)无MV接种史,44.4% (16/34)为流动儿童,41.7% (15/34)的病例发病前有外出史.居民漏报率和医疗机构漏报率分别为12.9% (4/31)和6.3% (4/63).结论 在一个省开展MV SIA不能实现消除麻疹,为实现消除麻疹的目标,应考虑在全国范围内同步开展MV SIA,并应重点关注流动儿童的预防接种,加强常规免疫,提高MSS的敏感性,对每一例麻疹确诊病例周围进行及时调查和处置.%Objective To analyze infection resource of measles cases and sensitivity of measles surveillance system (MSS) after measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activity (SIA) in Guizhou province, and explore whether measles can be eliminated by high quality MV SIA in large scope. Methods Using cross-sectional study by random sampling, to analyze the infection resource of infected measles virus, missing report of resident and medical institutions. Results 66.7% (24/36) has no history of MV, 44.4% (16/34) is migrant children, and 41.7 %( 15/34) has the history of going out before onset measles. Missing report rate of resident and medical institutions is 12.9% (4/31 ) and 6.3% (4/63) respectively. Conclusion It is impossible to eliminate measles by MV SIA in one province. In order to elimination measles, it should be discussed to conduct MV SIA nationally at same time, and to pay more attention to migrant children, strengthen routine immunization, raise sensitivity of MSS, and conduct epidemiological survey

  20. Analysis on the cause and preventive strategy for increased measles incidence in infants%婴儿麻疹发病率升高的原因及其控制策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成骢; 赵红; 陆培善; 周乙华

    2011-01-01

    mothers of the infants with measles. Conclusion The main reason for the increased susceptibility to measles in infants less than 1 year old is that the infants have not acquired sufficient measles antibody from their mothers. It appears to be logical and more practical to offer an additional measles vaccine in women before pregnancy.