WorldWideScience

Sample records for alum-precipitated measles vaccines

  1. Estimation of titers of antibody against Pasteurella multocida in cattle vaccinated with haemorrhagic septicemia alum precipitated vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabia Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out in 100 cattle to assess the antibody response to Haemorrhagic Septicaemia alum precipitated vaccine by Microtiter Agglutination Test (MAT, Indirect Haemaaglutination Assay (IHA and Monoclonal Antibody based Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Materials and Methods: One hundred cattle from a local gaushala of Ludhiana were vaccinated with alum precipitated Haemorrhagic Septicaemia vaccine. Serum was collected at 0, 42, 84 and 128 days post immunization and antibody titers at different stages were estimated by MAT, IHA and ELISA. Results: The animals exhibited the classical pattern of humoral immune response with gradual increase and achievement of peak antibody titers plateau by 42DPI and gradual decline by 128 DPI. The IHA titers in cattle were significantly higher (P<0.05 at 42 days post immunization than the corresponding MAT titers on the same day. ELISA titers were significantly higher (P<0.05 than MAT and IHA titers at 42 DPI. IHA was found to be more sensitive than MAT, and the titers were higher by ELISA than by MAT and IHA throughout the observation period. Conclusion: The results indicate that animals vaccinated with commercial alum precipitated HS vaccine could not develop and sustain adequate levels of antibody for long duration.

  2. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  3. Measles 50 Years After Use of Measles Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, James L; Seward, Jane F

    2015-12-01

    In response to severe measles, the first measles vaccine was licensed in the United States in 1963. Widespread use of measles vaccines for more than 50 years has significantly reduced global measles morbidity and mortality. However, measles virus continues to circulate, causing infection, illness, and an estimated 400 deaths worldwide each day. Measles is preventable by vaccine, and humans are the only reservoir. Clinicians should promote and provide on-time vaccination for all patients and keep measles in their differential diagnosis of febrile rash illness for rapid case detection, confirmation of measles infection, isolation, treatment, and appropriate public health response.

  4. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measles Vaccine. 113.313 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.313 Measles Vaccine. Measles Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture..., less than 12 weeks of age and free of measles antibody, shall be used as test animals (20...

  5. Immune Response After Measles Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A.K

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles immunization of 192 under 5 years of age children was undertaken and the overall seroconversion was 76.0%. Seroconversion rate in the age group of 9-12 months was 70.9% and it was 100% after one year. Immune response in malnourished children was more as compared to normal children. There were negligible side reactions after measles vaccination, and this vaccine passed normal potency tests under field conditions.

  6. Is early measles vaccination better than later measles vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2015-01-01

    WHO recommends delaying measles vaccination (MV) until maternal antibody has waned. However, early MV may improve child survival by reducing mortality from conditions other than measles infection. We tested whether early MV improves child survival compared with later MV. We found 43 studies comparing measles-vaccinated and measles-unvaccinated children; however, only 16 studies had specific information that MV had been provided at 4-13 months of age, many before 9 months of age. In the 10 best studies (4 randomized trials and 6 observational studies) control children did not receive MV during follow-up. In eight of these studies the vaccine efficacy against death (VED) was 60% or more. In four studies with information on MV provided both before and after 12 months of age, the all-cause mortality reduction was significantly larger for children vaccinated in infancy (VED=74%; 95% CI 51-86%) than for children vaccinated after 12 months of age (VED=29%; CI 8-46%). Prevention of measles explained little of the reduction in mortality. In five studies with information on measles infection, VED was 67% (51-78%) and when measles deaths were excluded, VED was only reduced to 65% (47-77%). One natural experiment compared MV at 4-8 months versus MV at 9-11 months of age and found significantly lower all-cause mortality with early vaccination, the difference being 39% (8-60%). Child mortality may be reduced if MV is given earlier than currently recommended by international organizations.

  7. EXPERIMENTAL MEASLES VACCINES: A RESEARCH TOOL IN VACCINATION EVENTS

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    V. A. Liashenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were effective in animal experiments, but they have not been tested in humans. The second group includes live attenuated mucosal measles vaccins applied in combination with immunomodulator(s, as aerosol and intranasally. Efficiency of these vaccines was tested and confirmed by immunization of children and adults. Mucosal measles vaccine induces local production of IgA measles antibodies, along with induced synthesis of circulating IgM and IgG antibodies against measles. The latter experimental variant could be a live attenuated measles vaccine containing some immunity-modulating agent. Elaboration of these variant was based on the known data about transient immunosuppressive activity of measles vaccine. An appropriate experimental variant represents a mixture of attenuated measles vaccine and synthetic immunomodulating agent (MP-2 peptide which protects T-lymphocytes from inhibitory effect of the measles virus. In present revue, some data are presented concerning the mechanisms of immunogenic activity and adverse effects of measles vaccines.

  8. Measles vaccination in children with neurological disorders

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    S. P. Kaplina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on the current vaccination process and specific antibody in 212 children with pathology of nervous systems in age from 1 year to 6 years old, vaccinated against measles. The comparison group consisted of 36 children without neurological disease. 86 children (40,6% were vaccinated measles – mumps vaccine, and 126 children (59,4% only measles vaccine. Post-vaccination period in 77,8% immunized against measles, was uneventful, layering intercurrent infections was noted in 22,2% of vaccine’s, and demonstrated the development of viral respiratory infections, bronchitis, otitis media and exacerbation of underlying disease. It is shown that the level of specific antibody to measles in children with pathology of nervous systems at 30 days after vaccination was 5,04±0,16 log 2, which did not differ from the comparison group (5,88±0,31 log 2. No significant differences in the level of antibody in a smooth and complicated course of vaccination period were found. Immunization of children with disorders of the nervous system of live vaccines is quite effective and leads to the formation of protective antibody titers in all vaccinated.

  9. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

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    Wu Qiaozhen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased susceptibility to measles in young infants in China. Measles IgG in 24 measles infants ≤ 9 months of age and their vaccinated mothers was quantitatively measured. The mean measles neutralizing titer in the vaccinated mothers and in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles were compared. Results All the mothers were confirmed to be vaccinated successfully by the presence of measles IgG. Six vaccinated mothers were positive for measles IgM and had high concentrations of measles IgG and the neutralizing antibody, indicating underwent natural boosting. The mean measles neutralizing titer in 18 vaccinated mothers without natural boosting were significantly lower than that in 13 age-match women with the histories of clinical measles (1:37 vs 1:182, P Conclusions Our results suggest that infants born to mothers who acquired immunity to measles by vaccination may get a relatively small amount of measles antibody, resulting in loss of the immunity to measles before the vaccination age. Measures to improve the immunity in young infants not eligible for measles vaccination would be critical to interrupt the measles transmission in China.

  10. Measles and measles vaccination in an African village*

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    Morley, David C.; Woodland, Margaret; Krugman, Saul; Friedman, Harriet; Grab, Bernard

    1964-01-01

    Over the last five years, a number of reports have appeared drawing attention to the serious results of measles in young West African children. This is borne out by observations over a three-year period on children in the village of Imesi, which showed measles to be a severe and often fatal disease. The original live attenuated measles vaccine developed by Enders has been shown to give good protection and, in combination with immune serum, has been widely used in the USA. However, the need to combine it with immune serum severely limits its usefulness, owing to the small quantities of serum available and the high cost. In the present study, the reaction produced by the original vaccine with immune serum was compared with the reaction produced by a further attenuated vaccine without serum. The latter gave significantly fewer and less severe reactions, but produced a satisfactory serological response. This new vaccine should facilitate large-scale immunization of children in areas such as West Africa where protection against measles is urgently required. PMID:14196817

  11. NLM Grantee's "HealthMap" Helps Uncover Measles Vaccination Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... courtesy of NLM NLM Grantee's "HealthMap" Helps Uncover Measles Vaccination Gap Inadequate vaccine coverage is likely a driving force behind the ongoing Disneyland measles outbreak, according to calculations by a research team ...

  12. Measles vaccination using a microneedle patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, Chris; Collins, Marcus L; Ayers, Jessica; Rota, Paul A; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2013-07-25

    Measles vaccination programs would benefit from delivery methods that decrease cost, simplify logistics, and increase safety. Conventional subcutaneous injection is limited by the need for skilled healthcare professionals to reconstitute and administer injections, and by the need for safe needle handling and disposal to reduce the risk of disease transmission through needle re-use and needlestick injury. Microneedles are micron-scale, solid needles coated with a dry formulation of vaccine that dissolves in the skin within minutes after patch application. By avoiding the use of hypodermic needles, vaccination using a microneedle patch could be carried out by minimally trained personnel with reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission. The goal of this study was to evaluate measles vaccination using a microneedle patch to address some of the limitations of subcutaneous injection. Viability of vaccine virus dried onto a microneedle patch was stabilized by incorporation of the sugar, trehalose, and loss of viral titer was less than 1 log10(TCID50) after storage for at least 30 days at room temperature. Microneedle patches were then used to immunize cotton rats with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine strain. Vaccination using microneedles at doses equaling the standard human dose or one-fifth the human dose generated neutralizing antibody levels equivalent to those of a subcutaneous immunization at the same dose. These results show that measles vaccine can be stabilized on microneedles and that vaccine efficiently reconstitutes in vivo to generate a neutralizing antibody response equivalent to that generated by subcutaneous injection.

  13. Measles vaccination and prevention in big cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Meina, Li; Xiaodong, Liu; Lulu, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progress in controlling measles in China, there was measles outbreak in Beijing which was a result of cluster of unvaccinated people or people failure to vaccinate. In order to accelerate measles control efforts and achieve and high levels of measles immunity, it is helpful to implement more targeted management strategy.

  14. Measles in the United Kingdom 1990-2008 and the effectiveness of measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jick, Hershel; Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox

    2010-06-23

    We identified all children in the UK General Practice Research Database diagnosed with measles from 1990 to 2008 and calculated annual incidence according to age and geographic region by dividing the number of cases per year by the number of children who were active in the population. We evaluated the effectiveness of the measles vaccines by comparing the vaccination histories of children who were diagnosed with measles (cases) to children who were not (controls). The annual incidence of measles fell after the introduction of the MMR vaccine in late 1988. However, a modest outbreak of measles occurred in 1994, leading to large nationwide programs to immunize children. Since 1996, the incidence of measles has fallen by more than 80%. Prior measles vaccination is highly effective and has substantially reduced the risk of measles.

  15. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

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    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with

  16. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, S.; Thysen, Sanne Marie; Rodrigues, A;

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissau...... city for children who received campaign measles vaccine with children who did not receive campaign measles vaccine. Methods Field workers from Bandim Health Project registered all children living in the Bandim Health Project's study area who received measles vaccination at the campaign posts. Children...... not seen during the campaign were visited at home and campaign participation status was assessed. We compared mortality rates of participants vs. non-participants in Cox regression models. Results 5633 children aged 9–59 months (85%) received campaign measles vaccination and 1006 (15%) did not. During...

  17. Genetic characterization of measles vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Takeda, Makoto; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Wenbo; Rota, Paul A

    2011-07-01

    The complete genomic sequences of 9 measles vaccine strains were compared with the sequence of the Edmonston wild-type virus. AIK-C, Moraten, Rubeovax, Schwarz, and Zagreb are vaccine strains of the Edmonston lineage, whereas CAM-70, Changchun-47, Leningrad-4 and Shanghai-191 were derived from 4 different wild-type isolates. Nucleotide substitutions were found in the noncoding regions of the genomes as well as in all coding regions, leading to deduced amino acid substitutions in all 8 viral proteins. Although the precise mechanisms involved in the attenuation of individual measles vaccines remain to be elucidated, in vitro assays of viral protein functions and recombinant viruses with defined genetic modifications have been used to characterize the differences between vaccine and wild-type strains. Although almost every protein contributes to an attenuated phenotype, substitutions affecting host cell tropism, virus assembly, and the ability to inhibit cellular antiviral defense mechanisms play an especially important role in attenuation.

  18. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qiaozhen; Hu Yali; Lu Pei-Shan; Zhao Hong; Yao Wenhu; Zhou Yi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Resurgence or outbreak of measles recently occurred in both developed and developing countries despite long-standing widespread use of measles vaccine. Measles incidence in China has increased since 2002, particularly in infants and in persons ≥ 15 years of age. It is speculated that infants may acquire fewer measles IgG from their mothers, resulting in the reduced duration of protection during their early months of life. This study aimed to clarify the reason of increased...

  19. [Safety and tolerability of monovalent measles and combined measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzer, D; Meyer, H; Keller-Stanislawski, B

    2013-09-01

    Although effective monovalent and combined measles vaccines have been available for several decades in Germany, measles outbreaks continue to occur leading to severe cases of measles and even death. Possible reasons for the low acceptance of the measles vaccination are concerns about adverse events and serious complications following vaccination. In this report, we have summarized and assessed all adverse events reported in Germany from 2001 to 2012 after vaccination with monovalent- and combined measles-containing vaccines. A total of 1,696 suspected adverse reaction reports describing 5,297 adverse events were sent to the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI) between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2012. The calculated mean reporting rate was 5.7 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses released by the PEI. Analysis of the reports indicates that measles-containing vaccines are well tolerated with a constantly low rate of adverse events reported. Compared to the high rate of serious complications following wild-type measles infection, the benefit of measles-containing vaccines clearly outweighs the anticipated risks of adverse events.

  20. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children aged 1 year; reduce and maintain annual measles incidence to less than 5 cases per million; and ... pdf, 1.39Mb Based on current trends of measles vaccination coverage and incidence and the report from the mid-term strategy ...

  1. Will Synergizing Vaccination with Therapeutics Boost Measles Virus Eradication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemper, Richard K; Hammond, Anthea L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measles virus is a major human pathogen responsible for approximately 150,000 measles deaths annually. The disease is vaccine preventable and eradication of the virus is considered feasible in principle. However, a herd immunity exceeding 95% is required to prevent sporadic viral outbreaks in a population. Declining disease prevalence combined with public anxieties about vaccination safety has increased vaccine refusal especially in the European region, which has resulted in measles resurgence in some areas. Areas covered Here, we discuss whether synergizing effective measles therapeutics with vaccination could contribute to solving an endgame conundrum of measles elimination by accelerating the eradication effort. Based on an anticipated use for protection of high-risk contacts of confirmed measles cases through post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify key elements of the desirable drug profile, review current disease management strategies and the state of experimental inhibitor candidates, evaluate the risk associated with viral escape from inhibition, and consider the potential of measles therapeutics for the management of persistent viral infection of the CNS. Assuming a post-measles world with waning measles immunity, we contemplate the possible impact of therapeutics on controlling the threat imposed by closely related zoonotic pathogens of the same genus as measles virus. Expert opinion Efficacious therapeutics given for post-exposure prophylaxis of high-risk social contacts of confirmed index cases may aid measles eradication by closing herd immunity gaps due to vaccine refusal or failure in populations with overall good vaccination coverage. The envisioned primarily prophylactic application of measles therapeutics to a predominantly pediatric and/or adolescent patient population dictates the drug profile; the article must be safe and efficacious, orally available, shelf-stable at ambient temperature, and amenable to cost-effective manufacture

  2. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  3. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  4. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.6%,...... vaccination. These data suggest that it will be necessary to vaccinate before age 9 months to control measles in hyperendemic urban African areas....

  5. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Coughlin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  6. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M.; Beck, Andrew S.; Bankamp, Bettina; Rota, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination. PMID:28106841

  7. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J.; Albert, Steven M.; Cakouros, Brigid E.; Burke, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with res...

  8. Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-01-01

    mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07-.64) between 4-6 months and 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4......BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. METHODS: To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data...... from 2 previously published randomized trials of a 2-dose schedule with MV given at 4-6 months and at 9 months of age. In both trials antibody levels had been measured before early measles vaccination. RESULTS: In trial I (1993-1995), the mortality rate was 0.0 per 1000 person-years among children...

  9. Recombinant measles AIK-C vaccine strain expressing heterologous virus antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Sawada, Akihito; Yamaji, Yoshiaki; Ito, Takashi

    2016-01-04

    Further attenuated measles vaccines were developed more than 50 years ago and have been used throughout the world. Recombinant measles vaccine candidates have been developed and express several heterologous virus protective antigens. Immunogenicity and protective actions were confirmed using experimental animals: transgenic mice, cotton rats, and primates. The recent development of measles vaccine-based vectored vaccine candidates has been reviewed and some information on recombinant measles vaccines expressing respiratory syncytial virus proteins has been shown and discussed.

  10. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramsay, M E

    1994-04-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.

  11. Vaccination against measles: a neverending story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); R.L. de Swart (Rik); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, a highly contagious viral disease, is a major childhood killer in developing countries, accounting for almost 1 million deaths every year globally. Measles virus normally does not cause a persistent infection, no animal reservoir for measles virus exists, no vector is involved i

  12. A game dynamic model for vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers: measles as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Grefenstette, John J; Albert, Steven M; Cakouros, Brigid E; Burke, Donald S

    2012-02-21

    Widespread avoidance of Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccination (MMR), with a consequent increase in the incidence of major measles outbreaks, demonstrates that the effectiveness of vaccination programs can be thwarted by the public misperceptions of vaccine risk. By coupling game theory and epidemic models, we examine vaccination choice among populations stratified into two behavioral groups: vaccine skeptics and vaccine believers. The two behavioral groups are assumed to be heterogeneous with respect to their perceptions of vaccine and infection risks. We demonstrate that the pursuit of self-interest among vaccine skeptics often leads to vaccination levels that are suboptimal for a population, even if complete coverage is achieved among vaccine believers. The demand for measles vaccine across populations driven by individual self-interest was found to be more sensitive to the proportion of vaccine skeptics than to the extent to which vaccine skeptics misperceive the risk of vaccine. Furthermore, as the number of vaccine skeptics increases, the probability of infection among vaccine skeptics increases initially, but it decreases once the vaccine skeptics begin receiving the vaccination, if both behavioral groups are vaccinated according to individual self-interest. Our results show that the discrepancy between the coverages of measles vaccine that are driven by self-interest and those driven by population interest becomes larger when the cost of vaccination increases. This research illustrates the importance of public education on vaccine safety and infection risk in order to maintain vaccination levels that are sufficient to maintain herd immunity.

  13. MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STATEMENT MMRV Vaccine What You Need to Know (Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella) Many Vaccine Information Statements ... and V aricella (chickenpox) can be serious diseases: Measles • Causes rash, cough, runny nose, eye irritation, fever. • ...

  14. The strategy for prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Toshiaki

    2009-05-21

    To eliminate the indigenous measles and rubella virus by 2012 in Japan, the strategy fro prevention of measles and rubella prevalence with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine was proposed. Since the vast majority of 1-year old infants are susceptible to measles and rubella, the first MR vaccine, the first MR vaccine should be administered at 1-year old to sustain the herd immunity. Since significant elevation of measles and rubella antibody titers were eliminated in a half of children after the second dose, the second dose of of MR vaccine within 1 year before elementary school entry is the effective maneuver. Moreover, supplement MR vaccination to the teenage group and 20-29 years' group might be necessary, because the mean measles antibody titers in this group were significantly lower compared with those in the older individuals' groups.

  15. Current progress in pulmonary delivery of measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Diane E

    2014-06-01

    Due to the high infectivity of measles virus, achieving sufficient population immunity to interrupt transmission requires two doses of live attenuated measles virus vaccine. Subcutaneous delivery of vaccine by injection requires trained personnel, maintenance of a cold chain and safe disposal of used needles and syringes. Pulmonary vaccine delivery offers the opportunity for cost-savings and improved coverage, but requires re-licensure. Two aerosol vaccine formulations, nebulized liquid and dry powder, and multiple delivery devices have been evaluated in humans and macaques. Nebulized liquid vaccine is effective for a second dose of vaccine in older children, but less effective for primary vaccination of infants. Dry powder vaccine provides solid protection in macaques and boosts responses in immune adults, but has not yet been tested in infants.

  16. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated who

  17. VACCINATION OF PATIENTS WITH ONCOLOGY DISEASES AGAINST MEASLES AND MUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. One hundred and seven children (45 girls and 62 boys in the age of 20 months — 14 years old (mean 9,62±0,37 suffered from acute lymphoblast leukosis and solid tumors in history have been examined in the clinic of Research Institute of children infections of FMBA. The vaccination history was studied in all children and the titers of specific antibodies to measles and mumps viruses as well as immune status were determined. 83,8% and 85,4% of studied children had no protection against measles and mumps respectively or had low titers of antibodies. Immunological examination of these children conducted within 4 months after finishing of therapy revealed absence of immunodeficiency. It gave opportunities to vaccinate or revaccinate these children against mentioned infections. Fifty three children were immunized against measles and 47 — against mumps. Application of live vaccines was safe because majority of vaccinated against measles (81,1% and mumps (82,9% children had mild vaccination process. It was established that to increase immunological efficacy of vaccination using of polyoxidony during 5 days before vaccination and 5 days after vaccination is reasonable.

  18. Quantifying child mortality reductions related to measles vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study characterizes the historical relationship between coverage of measles containing vaccines (MCV and mortality in children under 5 years, with a view toward ongoing global efforts to reduce child mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using country-level, longitudinal panel data, from 44 countries over the period 1960-2005, we analyzed the relationship between MCV coverage and measles mortality with (1 logistic regressions for no measles deaths in a country-year, and (2 linear regressions for the logarithm of the measles death rate. All regressions allowed a flexible, non-linear relationship between coverage and mortality. Covariates included birth rate, death rates from other causes, percent living in urban areas, population density, per-capita GDP, use of the two-dose MCV, year, and mortality coding system. Regressions used lagged covariates, country fixed effects, and robust standard errors clustered by country. The likelihood of no measles deaths increased nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage (ORs: 13.8 [1.6-122.7] for 80-89% to 40.7 [3.2-517.6] for ≥95%, compared to pre-vaccination risk levels. Measles death rates declined nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage, with benefits accruing more slowly above 90% coverage. Compared to no coverage, predicted average reductions in death rates were -79% at 70% coverage, -93% at 90%, and -95% at 95%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 40 years of experience with MCV vaccination suggests that extremely high levels of vaccination coverage are needed to produce sharp reductions in measles deaths. Achieving sustainable benefits likely requires a combination of extended vaccine programs and supplementary vaccine efforts.

  19. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units......) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  20. Measles incidence rate and a phylogenetic study of contemporary genotype H1 measles strains in China: is an improved measles vaccine needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingwei; Zheng, Jingtong; Huang, Honglan; Hu, Yu; Bian, Jiang; Xu, Deqi; Li, Fan

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of measles in China has increased over the last decade. To evaluate the genetic variation of measles strains, 16 measles wild-type virus strains were isolated from 14 vaccinated cases and 2 nonvaccinated cases in Jilin Province during 2005-2006, and their nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) genes were amplified by RT-PCR. The amplified products were sequenced and compared with the Edmonston virus and the existing vaccine strains (Changchun-47 and Shanghai-191). The results showed that the variation rate between the vaccine and wild-type strains was 9.8-12.0% in the N gene and 5.9-6.9% in the H gene, respectively. In addition, cross-neutralization assays revealed that although sera obtained from infants following primary vaccination effectively neutralized vaccine strains, the capacity in neutralizing H1 wild-type measles virus isolates was decreased fourfold. Antigenic ratios testing revealed that the antigenic relatedness between wild-type measles viruses and existing vaccine strains was notably low. These data suggest that the increased incidence of measles in Jilin Province may be attributed to the antigenic drift between wild-type and vaccine strains. Our findings strengthen the recommendation of supplemental immunization with existing vaccines and also strongly suggest a need for developing new vaccines to better control measles virus outbreaks.

  1. Effectiveness and timing of vaccination during school measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonačić Marinović, Axel Antonio; Swaan, Corien; Wichmann, Ole; van Steenbergen, Jim; Kretzschmar, Mirjam

    2012-09-01

    Despite high vaccination coverage in most European countries, large community outbreaks of measles do occur, normally clustered around schools and resulting from suboptimal vaccination coverage. To determine whether or when it is worth implementing outbreak-response vaccination campaigns in schools, we used stochastic outbreak models to reproduce a public school outbreak in Germany, where no vaccination campaign was implemented. We assumed 2 scenarios covering the baseline vaccination ratio range (91.3%-94.3%) estimated for that school and computed outbreaks assuming various vaccination delays. In one scenario, reacting (i.e., implementing outbreak-response vaccination campaigns) within 12-24 days avoided large outbreaks and reacting within 50 days reduced outbreak size. In the other scenario, reacting within 6-14 days avoided large outbreaks and reacting within 40 days reduced the outbreak size. These are realistic time frames for implementing school outbreak response vaccination campaigns. High baseline vaccination ratios extended the time needed for effective response.

  2. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa M. Coughlin; Beck, Andrew S.; Bankamp, Bettina; Rota, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global cov...

  3. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were cond...

  4. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, CJ; TATEM, A.; Bjornstad, ON; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; S. Takahashi(Kobe University, J-657-8501 Kobe, Japan); Cutts, F.; Grenfell, BT

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time...

  5. [Measles: the disease, epidemiology, history and vaccination programs in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpiano, Luis; Astroza, Leonor; Toro, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Measles, one of most important inmuno-preventable diseases, remains as a worldwide concern issue with an important morbidity and mortality. Particularly in the America region declared free of measles in 2010 by WHO, they still appear imported cases that origin outbreaks of variable magnitude in susceptible subjects usually none vaccinated which is the current situation in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. In this review we present characteristics of the etiological agent, the disease, epidemiological aspects with national historical focus, impact of immunization programs and outbreaks in Chile, in order to contribute to knowledge and management of this always present public health problem.

  6. Vaccination against Measles: evaluation of novel approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, also called morbilli or rubeola, is a highly contagious disease of humans. After an incubation period of 9-11 days characteristic clinical signs develop like coryza, cervical lymphadenitis, so-called Koplik's spots in the mouth, conjunctivitis, photophobia, myalgia, malaise, sne

  7. A measles epidemic threshold in a highly vaccinated population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass vaccination against measles has successfully lowered the incidence of the disease and has changed the epidemic pattern from a roughly biennial cycle to an irregular sequence of outbreaks. A possible explanation for this sequence of outbreaks is that the vaccinated population is protected by solid herd immunity. If so, we would expect to see the fraction of susceptible individuals remaining below an epidemic threshold. An alternative explanation is the occurrence of occasional localised lapses in herd immunity that allow for major outbreaks in areas with a low vaccine coverage. In that case, we would expect the fraction of susceptible individuals to exceed an epidemic threshold before outbreaks occur. These two explanations for the irregular sequence of measles outbreaks can be tested against observations of both the fraction of susceptible individuals and infection attack rates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We have estimated both the fraction of susceptible individuals at the start of each epidemic year and the infection attack rates for each epidemic year in the Netherlands over a 28-y period. During this period the vaccine coverage averaged 93%, and there was no sustained measles transmission. Several measles outbreaks occurred in communities with low vaccine coverage, and these ended without intervention. We show that there is a clear threshold value for the fraction of susceptible individuals, below which only minor outbreaks occurred, and above which both minor and major outbreaks occurred. A precise, quantitative relationship exists between the fraction of susceptible individuals in excess of this threshold and the infection attack rate during the major outbreaks. CONCLUSION: In populations with a high but heterogeneous vaccine coverage, measles transmission can be interrupted without establishing solid herd immunity. When infection is reintroduced, a major outbreak can occur in the communities with low vaccine coverage. During

  8. Is there enough vaccine to eradicate measles? An integrated analysis of measles-containing vaccine supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graegar; Michelson, Joshua; Singh, Rohit; Dabbagh, Alya; Hoekstra, Edward; van den Ent, Maya; Mallya, Apoorva

    2011-07-01

    Responding to regional advancements in combating measles, the World Health Organization in May 2008 called for an assessment of the feasibility of measles eradication, including whether sufficient vaccine supply exists. Interviews with international health officials and vaccine-makers provided data for a detailed model of worldwide demand and supply for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). The study projected global MCV demand through 2025 with and without a global eradication goal. The study found that 5.2 billion MCV doses must be administered during 2010-2025 to maintain current measles programs, and 5.9 billion doses would likely be needed with a 2020 eradication goal; in the most intensive scenario, demand could increase to 7.5 billion doses. These volumes are within existing and planned MCV-manufacturing capacity, although there are risks. In some markets, capacity is concentrated: Supply-chain disruptions could reduce supply or increase prices. Mitigation strategies could include stockpiling, long-term contracts, and further coordination with manufacturers.

  9. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reported. But recent years have seen spikes in measles outbreaks, including 131 cases in the first half of ... nutrition or weakened immune systems. Exposure During a measles outbreak, an injection of measles antibodies (called immune globulin) ...

  10. Aerosol measles vaccination in macaques: Preclinical studies of immune responses and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T. Kuiken (Thijs); J. Fernandez-de Castro (Jorge); M.J. Papania (Mark); J.V. Bennett (John); J.L. Valdespino (José); P.D. Minor; C.L. Witham (Clyde); S. Yüksel (Selma); H.W. Vos (Helma); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe comparative efficacy and safety of measles vaccination via the aerosol route versus subcutaneous injection has not been fully resolved. We vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with the live-attenuated Edmonston-Zagreb measles virus (MV) vaccine and compared different r

  11. Mumps, measles and rubella vaccination in children with PFAPA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraszewska-G Omba, Barbara; Matkowska-Kocjan, Agnieszka; Mi Kiewicz, Katarzyna; Szyma Ska-Toczek, Zofia; Wójcik, Marta; Bany, Dorota; Szenborn, Leszek

    2016-11-21

    There is no published data regarding immunologic response to vaccinations in children with PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis). The aim of this study was to evaluate mumps, measles and rubella immunity in children with PFAPA. 31 children with PFAPA syndrome and 22 healthy children (control group - CG) were recruited to the study. All children were previously vaccinated with one dose of MMR vaccine according to the Polish obligatory vaccination schedule. The patients from both groups were evaluated for anti-measles, anti-mumps and anti-rubella IgG antibodies concentrations (ELISA tests; the reference values for protective antibody levels were 150IU/L, 16RU/L and 11IU/ml respectively). The percentage of patients with protective antibodies levels was as follows: measles - 93.55% of PFAPA and 95.45% of CG patients (p=0.77); mumps - 74.19% of PFAPA and 95.45% of CG patients (p=0.02); rubella - 80.65% of PFAPA and 90.9% of CG patients (p=0.30).

  12. Measles Outbreak in a Vaccinated School Population: Epidemiology, Chains of Transmission and the Role of Vaccine Failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkowane, Benjamin M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of measles occurred in a high school with a documented vaccination level of 98 percent. When measles is introduced in a highly vaccinated population, vaccine failures may play some role in transmission but such transmission is not usually sustained. (Author/LHW)

  13. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination administered after measles vaccine: increased female mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2012-10-01

    In low-income countries, children should receive 3 doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and measles vaccine at 9 months of age. However, there is often a delay in administering the vaccines, and DTP is often given after measles vaccine. Previous observations suggest that this practice is associated with increased mortality for female, but not for male children. Within a vitamin A trial in Guinea-Bissau, vaccination status was registered at the time of measles vaccination at 9 months; 141 (31%) of 455 children were missing 1 or more DTP vaccines and were likely to receive them afterward. We examined whether missing DTP vaccine at this time point was associated with sex-differential effects on mortality. In female children, missing DTP was associated with 3.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-10.26) times higher risk of dying before 36 months of age, whereas it made no difference in male children (0.97 [0.34-2.80]). The result supports that receiving DTP after measles vaccine affects female children negatively.

  14. Safety of measles-containing vaccines in post-marketing surveillance in Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Ya; Sun, Yong; Shen, Yong-Gang; Pan, Hai-Feng; Tang, Ji-Hai; Wang, Bin-Bing; Wu, Chang-Hao; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    The safety of measles vaccination is of great interest and importance to public health practice and the general society. We have analyzed the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) of currently used measles-containing vaccines (including live attenuated measles vaccine, live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine, live attenuated measles and mumps combined vaccine, live attenuated Measles, Mumps and Rubella Combined Vaccine) in Anhui Province, China. From 2009 to 2014, 9.9 million doses of measles-containing vaccines were administrated and 1893 AEFIs were found (191.4 per million doses), of which, 33 serious AEFIs (3.3 per million vaccine doses) were reported. 59.4% (1124 cases) were male cases, and 85.1% (1611 cases) occurred in persons aged < 1 year. 93.3% (1766 cases) occurred at the first dose of vaccination and 95.9% (1815 cases) were found within 3 days after vaccination. This study presents up-to-date data and suggests that the measles-containing vaccines used in Anhui Province of China are safe. PMID:28192490

  15. Safety of measles-containing vaccines in post-marketing surveillance in Anhui, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-Ya; Sun, Yong; Shen, Yong-Gang; Pan, Hai-Feng; Tang, Ji-Hai; Wang, Bin-Bing; Wu, Chang-Hao; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2017-01-01

    The safety of measles vaccination is of great interest and importance to public health practice and the general society. We have analyzed the adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) of currently used measles-containing vaccines (including live attenuated measles vaccine, live attenuated measles and rubella combined vaccine, live attenuated measles and mumps combined vaccine, live attenuated Measles, Mumps and Rubella Combined Vaccine) in Anhui Province, China. From 2009 to 2014, 9.9 million doses of measles-containing vaccines were administrated and 1893 AEFIs were found (191.4 per million doses), of which, 33 serious AEFIs (3.3 per million vaccine doses) were reported. 59.4% (1124 cases) were male cases, and 85.1% (1611 cases) occurred in persons aged < 1 year. 93.3% (1766 cases) occurred at the first dose of vaccination and 95.9% (1815 cases) were found within 3 days after vaccination. This study presents up-to-date data and suggests that the measles-containing vaccines used in Anhui Province of China are safe.

  16. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated...... vaccines [after medium-titer MV (MTMV) or high-titer MV (HTMV)] and a live standard titer MV (after an initial inactivated vaccine). Methods: The trials were conducted in Sudan, Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The intervention group received live MTMV or HTMV from 4 to 5 months...... and then an inactivated vaccine from 9 to 10 months of age; the control children received inactivated vaccine/placebo from 4 to 5 months and standard titer MV from 9 to 10 months of age. We compared mortality from 9 months until end of study at 3 to 5 years of age for children who received inactivated vaccine (after MTMV...

  17. Polymorphisms in key innate immune genes and their effects on measles vaccine responses and vaccine failure in children from Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Holly D; Hayden, Catherine M; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Naniche, Denise; Mandomando, Inacio M; Zhang, Guicheng; Richmond, Peter; Le Souëf, Peter N

    2012-09-21

    Despite an effective vaccine, measles remains a major health problem globally, particularly in developing countries. More than 30% of children show primary vaccine failure and therefore remain vulnerable to measles. Genetic variation in key innate pathogen recognition receptors, such as the measles cell entry receptors CD46 and SLAM, measles attachment receptor DC-SIGN, the antiviral toll-like receptors (TLR)3, TLR7 and TLR8, and the cytosolic antiviral receptor RIG-I, may significantly affect measles IgG antibody responses. Measles is still highly prevalent in developing countries such as those in Africa however there is no previous data on the effect of these innate immune genes in a resident African population. Polymorphisms (n=29) in the candidate genes were genotyped in a cohort of vaccinated children (n=238) aged 6 months-14 years from Mozambique, Africa who either had vaccine failure and contracted measles (cases; n=66) or controls (n=172). Contrasting previous associations with measles responses in Caucasians and/or strong evidence for candidacy, we found little indication that these key innate immune genes affect measles IgG responses in our cohort of Mozambican children. We did however identify that CD46 and TLR8 variants may be involved in the occurrence of measles vaccine failure. This study highlights the importance of genetic studies in resident, non-Caucasian populations, from areas where determining the factors that may affect measles control is of a high priority.

  18. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A.;

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Children younger than 12 months of age are eligible for childhood vaccines through the public health system in Guinea-Bissau. To limit open vial wastage, a restrictive vial opening policy has been implemented; 10-dose measles vaccine vials are only opened if six or more children aged 9......-11 months are present at the vaccination post. Consequently, mothers who bring their child for measles vaccination can be told to return another day. We aimed to describe the household experience and estimate household costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Within a national...... sample of village clusters under demographic surveillance, we interviewed mothers of children aged 9-21 months about their experience with seeking measles vaccination. From information about time and money spent, we calculated household costs of seeking measles vaccination. RESULTS: We interviewed...

  19. The Measles Vaccination Narrative in Twitter: A Quantitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Radzikowski, Jacek; Stefanidis, Anthony; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew; Delamater, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of social media is providing an alternative avenue for information exchange and opinion formation on health-related issues. Collective discourse in such media leads to the formation of a complex narrative, conveying public views and perceptions. Objective This paper presents a study of Twitter narrative regarding vaccination in the aftermath of the 2015 measles outbreak, both in terms of its cyber and physical characteristics. We aimed to contribute to the analysis of...

  20. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  1. Multigenic control of measles vaccine immunity mediated by polymorphisms in measles receptor, innate pathway, and cytokine genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Haralambieva, Iana H; O'Byrne, Megan M; Jacobson, Robert M; Pankratz, V Shane; Poland, Gregory A

    2012-03-09

    Measles infection and vaccine response are complex biological processes that involve both viral and host genetic factors. We have previously investigated the influence of genetic polymorphisms on vaccine immune response, including measles vaccines, and have shown that polymorphisms in HLA, cytokine, cytokine receptor, and innate immune response genes are associated with variation in vaccine response but do not account for all of the inter-individual variance seen in vaccinated populations. In the current study we report the findings of a multigenic analysis of measles vaccine immunity, indicating a role for the measles virus receptor CD46, innate pattern-recognition receptors (DDX58, TLR2, 4, 5, 7 and 8) and intracellular signaling intermediates (MAP3K7, NFKBIA), and key antiviral molecules (VISA, OAS2, MX1, PKR) as well as cytokines (IFNA1, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL12B) and cytokine receptor genes (IL2RB, IL6R, IL8RA) in the genetic control of both humoral and cellular immune responses. This multivariate approach provided additional insights into the genetic control of measles vaccine responses over and above the information gained by our previous univariate SNP association analyses.

  2. Decreasing Seroprevalence of Measles Antibodies after Vaccination – Possible Gap in Measles Protection in Adults in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Jan; Chlibek, Roman; Hanovcova, Irena; Sosovickova, Renata; Smetanova, Libuse; Gal, Peter; Dite, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Aims In recent years, Europe has recorded an increase in the number of measles outbreaks despite the implementation of vaccination into the National Immunization Programs. The Czech Republic introduced vaccination against measles into National Immunization Program in 1969. The aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of IgG antibodies against measles in adults. Methods Our study was designed as a prospective, multicenter cohort study. Samples of blood were taken from adults aged 18 years and over. Specific IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA method. Results A number of 1911 sera samples were obtained. The total seropositivity reached 83.3%, 14.3% of the results were negative and 2.4% were borderline. When comparing the individual age groups, the highest antibody seropositivity (> 96%) was detected in persons aged 50 years and over who were naturally infected in pre-vaccine era. The lowest seropositivity was recorded in the age groups 30–39 years (61.5%), 40–49 years (77.5%) and 18–29 years (81.1%). Conclusions A long term high rate of seropositivity persists after natural measles infection. By contrast, it decreases over time after vaccination. Similarly, the concentrations of antibodies in persons with measles history persist for a longer time at a higher level than in vaccinated persons. Our results indicate possible gap in measles protection in adults born after implementation of vaccination into the National Immunization Programs. There are two probable reasons, decrease of measles antibody seropositivity in time after vaccination in setting of limited natural booster and one-dose vaccination schedule used in the first years after implementation. PMID:28085960

  3. Timeliness vaccination of measles containing vaccine and barriers to vaccination among migrant children in East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  4. Measles vaccination in humanitarian emergencies: a review of recent practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred

  5. Waning of vaccine-induced immunity to measles in kidney transplanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Salvatore; Santilli, Veronica; Cotugno, Nicola; Concato, Carlo; Manno, Emma Concetta; Nocentini, Giulia; Macchiarulo, Giulia; Cancrini, Caterina; Finocchi, Andrea; Guzzo, Isabella; Dello Strologo, Luca; Palma, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients who undergo immunosuppression after transplantation. Data on immune responses and long-term maintenance after vaccinations in such population are still limited.We cross-sectionally evaluated the maintenance of immune response to measles vaccine in kidney transplanted children on immunosuppressive therapy. Measles-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and B-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot were performed in 74 kidney transplant patients (Tps) and in 23 healthy controls (HCs) previously vaccinated and tested for humoral protection against measles. The quality of measles antibody response was measured by avidity test. B-cell phenotype, investigated via flow cytometry, was further correlated to the ability of Tps to maintain protective humoral responses to measles over time.We observed the loss of vaccine-induced immunity against measles in 19% of Tps. Nonseroprotected children showed signs of impaired B-cell distribution as well as immune senescence and lower antibody avidity. We further reported as time elapsed between vaccination and transplantation, as well as the vaccine administration during dialysis are clinical factors affecting the maintenance of the immune memory response against measles.Tps present both quantitative and qualitative alterations in the maintenance of protective immunity to measles vaccine. Prospective studies are needed to optimize the vaccination schedules in kidney transplant recipients in order to increase the immunization coverage over time in this population.

  6. Vaccine-associated measles in the low-incidence country of Korea over a 10-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Young June; Eom, Hye Suk; Bae, Geun-Ryang

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of measles decreases, cases reported as suspected measles will increasingly involve rash associated with measles vaccination itself. In this study, we assessed vaccine-associated measles cases reported in Korea between 2002 and 2012 using a standardized assessment and following by the World Health Organization case definition criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data regarding (i) wild-type measles and (ii) vaccine-associated measles in patients aged 12-23 months. The presence or absence of fever, rash, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and Koplik spots were reviewed. Males were more likely to be reported with vaccine-associated measles than with wild-type measles (68% vs. 47%, P measles peaked between April and July, whereas that of patients with vaccine-associated measles remained relatively constant throughout the year. However, after excluding the cases reported during the 2007 outbreak in Korea, the trend was similar between the two groups. Cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis were more likely to be present in patients with wild-type measles (32-61% vs. 10-43%, P vaccine-associated measles. We therefore conclude that cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis may be useful as key positive findings to distinguish between wild-type measles and vaccine-associated measles infection among 12-23-month-old patients in a country with a low incidence of measles.

  7. Post-vaccine measles in a child with concomitant influenza, Sicily, Italy, March 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramuto, F; Dones, P; D Angelo, C; Casuccio, N; Vitale, F

    2015-05-21

    We describe the occurrence of measles in an 18 month-old patient in Sicily, Italy, in March 2015, who received the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine seven days before onset of prodromal symptoms. Measles virus infection was confirmed by PCR and detection of specific immunoglobulin; viral genotyping permitted the confirmation of a vaccine-associated illness. The patient had a concurrent influenza virus infection, during a seasonal epidemic outbreak of influenza.

  8. MMRV (measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually wait until they recover before getting MMRV vaccine. Children who are only mildly ill may usually get ... than getting measles, mumps, rubella, or chickenpox. Most children who get MMRV vaccine do not have any problems with it. Mild ...

  9. Gender differentials in the timing of measles vaccination in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rammohan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles is a highly contagious but vaccine-preventable disease. Gender differences in measles vaccination outcomes have been widely reported in India. Objective: An overlooked factor is whether female children are less likely to be vaccinated age-appropriately. Methods: In this paper we use data from the nationally representative 2008 District Level Household Survey (DLHS to analyse if there are any gender differences in the propensity to vaccinate a child for measles, and, among the vaccinated sample, whether there are any gender differences in the probability of age-appropriate measles vaccination. Results: Our analysis confirms that girls have both a significantly lower probability of being vaccinated and of being vaccinated age-appropriately.

  10. Reasons for measles cases not being vaccinated with MMR: investigation into parents' and carers' views following a large measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, P; Keenan, A; Ghebrehewet, S

    2016-03-01

    Uptake rates for the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine have been below the required 95% in the UK since a retracted and discredited article linking the MMR vaccine with autism and inflammatory bowel disease was released in 1998. This study undertook semi-structured telephone interviews among parents or carers of 47 unvaccinated measles cases who were aged between 13 months and 9 years, during a large measles outbreak in Merseyside. Results showed that concerns over the specific links with autism remain an important cause of refusal to vaccinate, with over half of respondents stating this as a reason. A quarter stated child illness during scheduled vaccination time, while other reasons included general safety concerns and access issues. Over half of respondents felt that more information or a discussion with a health professional would help the decision-making process, while a third stated improved access. There was clear support for vaccination among respondents when asked about current opinions regarding MMR vaccine. The findings support the hypothesis that safety concerns remain a major barrier to MMR vaccination, and also support previous evidence that experience of measles is an important determinant in the decision to vaccinate.

  11. The genetic basis for interindividual immune response variation to measles vaccine: new understanding and new vaccine approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Kennedy, Richard B; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    The live-attenuated measles vaccine is effective, but measles outbreaks still occur in vaccinated populations. This warrants elucidation of the determinants of measles vaccine-induced protective immunity. Interindividual variability in markers of measles vaccine-induced immunity, including neutralizing antibody levels, is regulated in part by host genetic factor variations. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of measles vaccine immunogenetics relative to the perspective of developing better measles vaccines. Important genetic regulators of measles vaccine-induced immunity, such as HLA class I and HLA class II genotypes, single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytokine/cytokine receptor genes (IL12B, IL12RB1, IL2, IL10) and the cell surface measles virus receptor CD46 gene, have been identified and independently replicated. New technologies present many opportunities for identification of novel genetic signatures and genetic architectures. These findings help explain a variety of immune response-related phenotypes and promote a new paradigm of 'vaccinomics' for novel vaccine development.

  12. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.L.; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, C.

    2008-01-01

    -Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and measles mortality before standard vaccination at 9 months of age. Results 28% of the children tested at 4...... children developed measles; 19% of unvaccinated children had measles before 9 months of age. The monthly incidence of measles among the 441 children enrolled in the treatment arm was 0.7% and among the 892 enrolled in the control arm was 3.1%. Early vaccination with the Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine...... prevented infection; vaccine efficacy for children with serologically confirmed measles and definite clinical measles was 94% (95% confidence interval 77% to 99%), for admissions to hospital for measles was 100% (46% to 100%), and for measles mortality was 100% (-42% to 100%). The number needed to treat...

  13. Reaching Hard-to-Reach Individuals: Nonselective Versus Targeted Outbreak Response Vaccination for Measles

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureabl...

  14. Current vaccination status regarding measles among university students in Dresden, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemenschneider, Henna; Schübel, Jeannine; Bergmann, Antje; Kugler, Joachim; Voigt, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Germany aimed to eliminate measles by 2015, but vaccination coverage is still insufficient, especially in respect to adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional survey with 711 students studying a range of subjects showed a high acceptance regarding vaccination. Actual self-reported vaccination rates were lower; only 65.5% of medical students and 25.3%-39.4% of other student groups reported complete vaccination against measles. Of the students, 12.6%-45% did not know their vaccination status. Vaccination acceptance did not correlate with vaccination behavior: accessible vaccination opportunities at universities should be offered.

  15. Measles vaccination coverage and seroprevalence of anti-measles antibody in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, S; Mokhtari-Azad, T; Zahraei, S M

    2015-09-08

    Discrepancies often exist between recorded immunization coverage and the real immunity level in a community. To estimate the vaccination coverage against measles in south-east Islamic Republic of Iran, a crosssectional study was conducted in 3 districts during summer 2011. Using probability proportional to size cluster sampling, 1368 children aged 30-54 months were selected. Serum samples of 663 who had received 2 injections of mumpsmeasles- rubella (MMR) vaccine were checked for anti-measles IgG. Vaccination coverage for the second dose of MMR vaccine was 93.7%. The prevalence of anti-measles IgG in those who had received at least 2 MMR vaccine doses was 94.6%. There was a statistically significant association between the serological results and variables that reflected poor accessibility to health services. Combining serological results with coverage data, the proportion of the community protected against measles was estimated as 88.6%, which was below the limits defined for the measles elimination goals.

  16. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It spreads easily from person to person. It ... down Tiny white spots inside the mouth Sometimes measles can lead to serious problems. There is no ...

  17. Factors affecting compliance with the measles vaccination schedule in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Logullo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The success of vaccination campaigns depends on the degree of adherence to immunization initiatives and schedules. Risk factors associated with children's failure to receive the measles vaccine at the correct age were studied in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control and exploratory study, in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. METHODS: The caregivers of 122 children were interviewed regarding their perceptions and understanding about the measles vaccination and the disease. RESULTS: The results showed that age, region of residence, marital status and education level were unrelated to taking measles vaccines adequately. Most individuals remembered being informed about the last annual vaccination campaign by television, but no communication channel was significantly associated with vaccination status. The answers to questions about knowledge of the disease or the vaccine, when analyzed alone, were not associated with taking measles vaccinations at the time indicated by health agencies. The results showed that, when parents felt sorry for their children who were going to receive shots, they delayed the vaccination. Most of the children did not take the measles vaccination on the exactly recommended date, but delayed or anticipated the shots. CONCLUSION: It is clear that there is no compliance with the government's recommended measles vaccination schedule (i.e. first dose at nine and second at 15 months of age, as recommended in 1999 and 2000. Feeling sorry for the children receiving shots can delay vaccination taking.

  18. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication.

  19. Development and evaluation of the TD97 measles virus vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Morita, M.; Katoh, M.; Kidokoro, M.; Saika, S.; Yoshizawa, S.; Hashizume, S.; Horiuchi, K.; Okabe, N.; Shinozaki, T. (Chiba Serum Institute (Japan))

    1990-11-01

    The TD97 strain vaccine virus was prepared from the Tanabe strain measles virus by low-temperature passages in primary cell cultures and ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis. The TD97 strain exhibited the following characteristics: highly temperature sensitive, neither multiplying nor forming any plaques at 40 degrees C in Vero cells; genetically stable, maintaining high temperature sensitivity after ten successive passages in CE cells at 30 degrees C or 35 degrees C; and M proteins of this virus about 1 KD slower in mobility in SDS-PAGE than that of the Tanabe strain. The TD97 strain was further confirmed to be attenuated by an inoculation test into primate brain. In field trials, 752 healthy children were inoculated with a live virus vaccine prepared with this strain, and the following results were obtained: the seroconversion rate was 97% (517/533), and the average HI antibody titer was 2(5.2). An antibody-increasing effect was also observed in children who were initially seropositive. In children who seroconverted, the rates of fever were 15.7% (55/351) for 37.5 degrees C or higher and 4.0% (14/351) for 39 degrees C or higher. The rash rate was 7.7% (27/351), and the incidence of local reaction was 5.4% (19/351). The TD97 strain is thus considered to be suitable in use for an attenuated measles vaccine.

  20. Immune response to 1 and 2 dose regimens of measles vaccine in Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hamidah; Akram, Dure Samin; Chandir, Subhash; Khan, Aamir J; Memon, Ashraf; Halsey, Neal A

    2013-12-01

    Measles is a significant problem in Pakistan despite vaccine coverage rates reported at 80%. The purpose of this study was to determine the serologic response in children after one dose of measles vaccine at 9 mo versus two doses at 9 and 15 mo of age. From March through December 2006, children were enrolled from immunization clinics and squatter settlements in Karachi. Blood samples were taken from children in Group A at 9-10 mo of age prior to measles vaccine and 8 to 11 weeks later; from children in Group B at 16-17 mo of age after receiving 2 doses of measles vaccine; and from children in Group C who had received at least one dose of measles vaccine by 5 y of age. After the first dose of measles vaccine, 107/147 (73%) of children in Group A were seropositive, 157/180 (87%) of children in Group B were seropositive after two doses and 126/200 (63%) of children in Group C were seropositive at 5 y of age. The post-vaccination geometric mean antibody concentrations were higher in females than males in groups A (irrespective of pre-vaccination antibody levels) and B. The serologic response to one and two doses of measles vaccine was lower in children in Karachi than has been reported in many other countries. Two doses of vaccine were significantly better than one dose. An in-depth investigation is needed to determine the reason for the lower-than-expected protection rates. Differences in immunogenicity between genders need to be further studied. Recent introduction of supplemental measles vaccine doses should help control measles in Pakistan.

  1. Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Each Vaccine: MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP): Learn about measles, how ... Disease Control and Prevention AAP Urges Parents to Vaccinate Children to Protect Against Measles (1/23/15) American ...

  2. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Tatem, A; Bjornstad, O N; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; Takahashi, S; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2015-05-01

    Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time to the nearest urban centre (⩾50 000 people) with vaccination data from Demographic Health Surveys to assess how remoteness affects coverage in 26 African countries. Building on a statistical mapping of coverage against age and geographical isolation, we quantified how modifying the rate and age range of vaccine delivery affects national coverage. Our scenario analysis considers increasing the rate of delivery of routine vaccination, increasing the target age range of routine vaccination, and enhanced delivery to remote areas. Geographical isolation plays a key role in defining vaccine inequity, with greater inequity in countries with lower measles vaccine coverage. Eliminating geographical inequities alone will not achieve thresholds for herd immunity, indicating that changes in delivery rate or age range of routine vaccination will be required. Measles vaccine coverage remains far below targets for herd immunity in many countries on the African continent and is likely to be inadequate for achieving rubella elimination. The impact of strategies such as increasing the upper age range eligible for routine vaccination should be considered.

  3. Snail shell as coagulant aid in the alum precipitation of malachite green from aqua system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladoja, Nurudeen A., E-mail: bioladoja@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko (Nigeria); Aliu, Yekini D. [Department of Chemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko (Nigeria)

    2009-05-30

    The ability of snail shell (SS) to act as coagulant aid in the alum precipitation of a basic dye (MG) was investigated. The proximate physicochemical characterization of the SS showed the pH{sub solution} to be 8.01, high fraction of the inorganic constituents (ash content = 93.76%), the presence of Ca{sup 2+} (99.74%) as the major metal ion present and the point zero charge (PZC) found at pH 7.9. The X-ray diffractometric analysis revealed the presence of aragonite. The stability and leaching of the SS, tested in different aqua medium (acidic, basic and neutral solutions) showed that the SS was less stable in the acidic medium. Both the alum and the SS were used, differently, for the dye precipitation. The alum alone had no precipitating effect on the MG dye molecules while SS alone was able to reduce the intensity of the dye. When the SS was used as coagulant aid in alum precipitation, the percentage of the MG molecule removed was enhanced. The effects of some process variables (coagulant/coagulant aid dosage, pH and flocculation time) were optimized by method of continuous variation. The optimum pH for the MG removal was found to range between 4 and 5 but the amount of MG removed was appreciable at all the pH studied. Studies on the effect of time on the flocculation of the precipitated MG molecule showed that the problem of redispersion and restabilisation encountered in alum precipitation could be overcome using alum-SS combination. The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained from the use of SS alone and alum-SS combination was studied by measuring the sludge volume index (SVI, mg/g) over time. The value of the SVI (mg/g) showed that the sludge produced from the alum-SS combination had better settling characteristics than the sludge got from the use of SS alone.

  4. Tolerability of Early Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Infants Aged 6-14 Months during a Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Maas, Nicoline A T; Woudenberg, T.; Hahń, S. J M; De Melker, H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In 2013–2014, a measles outbreak spread through the Netherlands. To protect young infants, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was offered to those aged 6–14 months in municipalities with routine first-dose MMR vaccine coverage of <90%. We assessed the tolerability of this early admi

  5. Child mortality related to seroconversion or lack of seroconversion after measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K

    1989-01-01

    children) were excluded from the analysis (P less than 0.01). The difference in mortality was particularly marked among children vaccinated in the age group 9 to 11 months. This as well as other community studies suggest that measles vaccination reduces child mortality from the age of vaccination......When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than...

  6. Progress towards Rapid Detection of Measles Vaccine Strains: a Tool To Inform Public Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jill K

    2017-03-01

    Rapid differentiation of vaccine from wild-type strains in suspect measles cases is a valuable epidemiological tool that informs the public health response to this highly infectious disease. Few public health laboratories sequence measles virus-positive specimens to determine genotype, and the vaccine-specific real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) assay described by F. Roy et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 55:735-743, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01879-16) offers a rapid, easily adoptable method to identify measles vaccine strains in suspect cases.

  7. Investigation of an outbreak of measles: failure to vaccinate or vaccine failure in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nujum, Zinia T; Varghese, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Measles outbreaks continue to occur in developing countries. This study attempted to explore the context of an outbreak of measles in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala to find out whether the outbreak was the result of a failure to vaccinate or failure of the vaccine itself. A cross sectional study was conducted in Mukkola village of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. A total of 215 children of ages between 9 and 35 months were studied. Documented evidence of measles vaccination was available only in 71.6% (65.57-77.62) of the children. The risk factors for not being immunized against measles were being third or higher in birth order and having: a father whose occupation is fishing, low family income, lower parental education, Muslim religion and poor knowledge regarding measles and its vaccine. Of the 215 children studied, 43 had a history of measles. Thirty percent of these 43 children were younger than the age of vaccination. Unvaccinated children, children third or higher in birth order and children of families with more than 5 members had a significantly higher risk of contracting measles. Vaccine effectiveness was 76.6% (95% CI: 75.96-77.99). The prevalence of missed vaccination opportunities was found to be 15.8% (34/215). Even with the relatively low vaccine effectiveness, this outbreak could have been prevented by higher vaccination coverage. Lowering the age at administration of the first dose of measles vaccine needs to be considered. Effective utilization of opportunities for vaccination could enhance coverage and prevent outbreaks in the future.

  8. Multicenter Safety and Immunogenicity Trial of an Attenuated Measles Vaccine for NHP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joann L; McChesney, Michael B; Christe, Kari L

    2015-10-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral disease in NHP. The infection can range from asymptomatic to rapidly fatal, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in captive populations. In addition to appropriate quarantine practices, restricted access, the immunization of all personnel in contact with NHP, and the wearing of protective clothing including face masks, measles immunization further reduces the infection risk. Commercially available measles vaccines are effective for use in NHP, but interruptions in their availability have prevented the implementation of ongoing, consistent vaccination programs. This need for a readily available vaccine led us to perform a broad, multicenter safety and immunogenicity study of another candidate vaccine, MVac (Serum Institute of India), a monovalent measles vaccine derived from live Edmonston-Zagreb strain virus that had been attenuated after 22 passages on human diploid cells.

  9. [Influence of genetic and phenotypical factors on the efficiency of the vaccination of young children against diphtheria and measles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeeva, L A; Shabaldin, A V; Semenova, E M; Glushkov, A N

    2006-01-01

    The child's sex was shown to influence the character of antibody formation only after immunization against diphtheria with live measles vaccine: girls exhibited stronger reaction to vaccination than boys. Children of different gender were found to have characteristic HLA DR markers of humoral immune response to diphtheria toxoid and measles vaccine. HLA DR7 proved to be the marker of low production of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and measles vaccine in boys.

  10. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  11. The recombinant globular head domain of the measles virus hemagglutinin protein as a subunit vaccine against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanova, Liubov M; Eng, Nelson F; Satkunarajah, Malathy; Mutwiri, George K; Rini, James M; Zakhartchouk, Alexander N

    2012-04-26

    Despite the availability of live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines, a large number of measles-associated deaths occur among infants in developing countries. The development of a measles subunit vaccine may circumvent the limitations associated with the current live attenuated vaccines and eventually contribute to global measles eradication. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the feasibility of producing the recombinant globular head domain of the MV hemagglutinin (H) protein by stably transfected human cells and to examine the ability of this recombinant protein to elicit MV-specific immune responses. The recombinant protein was purified from the culture supernatant of stably transfected HEK293T cells secreting a tagged version of the protein. Two subcutaneous immunizations with the purified recombinant protein alone resulted in the production of MV-specific serum IgG and neutralizing antibodies in mice. Formulation of the protein with adjuvants (polyphosphazene or alum) further enhanced the humoral immune response and in addition resulted in the induction of cell-mediated immunity as measured by the production of MV H-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 5 (IL-5) by in vitro re-stimulated splenocytes. Furthermore, the inclusion of polyphosphazene into the vaccine formulation induced a mixed Th1/Th2-type immune response. In addition, the purified recombinant protein retained its immunogenicity even after storage at 37°C for 2 weeks.

  12. Immunogenicity of a recombinant measles HIV-1 subtype C vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Richard; Li, Bo; Lorin, Clarisse; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Février, Michèle; Mee, Edward T; Page, Mark; Almond, Neil; Tangy, Frédéric; Voss, Gérald

    2013-12-09

    The HIV epidemic is greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa and India where HIV-1 subtype C is predominant. To control the spread of HIV in these parts of the world a preventive HIV-1 subtype C vaccine is urgently required. Here we report the immunogenicity of a candidate HIV-1 subtype C vaccine delivered by a recombinant measles vector carrying an insert encoding HIV-1 subtype C Gag, RT and Nef (MV1-F4), in MHC-typed non-human primates. HIV-1 specific cytokine secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were detected in 15 out of 16 vaccinees. These HIV-specific T cell responses persisted in lymphoid tissues. Anti-HIV-1 antibody responses were detected in 15 out of 16 vaccinees and titres were boosted by a second immunisation carried out 84 days later. These findings support further exploration of the MV1-F4 vector as a candidate HIV-1 subtype C vaccine or as part of a wider vaccine strategy.

  13. Spotlight on measles in Italy: why outbreaks of a vaccine-preventable infection continue in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirilli, Giulia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Chiereghin, Angela; Serra, Laura; Gabrielli, Liliana; Lanari, Marcello

    2015-03-01

    Measles is a serious infectious disease that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Remarkable progress has been made through measles vaccination in reducing the number of people dying from measles. In the last years, concerns about the safety of vaccines have led to decline in immunization coverage rates and new outbreaks of measles in many European countries, including Italy. We believe that it is important to reinforce the message that measles vaccine is safe and highly effective through appropriate information campaigns and public awareness.

  14. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and measles vaccine in an English population, 1979–1998

    OpenAIRE

    Seagroatt, V.; Goldacre, M

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: To study the hospitalised incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) from 1979 to 1998; and to determine whether the introduction of the measles vaccination programme was associated with an increase in the young.

  15. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone Graff;

    2015-01-01

    -confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study......BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory...

  16. Vaccination coverage for measles, mumps and rubella in anthroposophical schools in Gelderland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.H.; Lier, A. van; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social clustering of unvaccinated children in anthroposophical schools occurs, as inferred from various measles outbreaks that can be traced to these schools. However, accurate vaccination coverage data of anthroposophical schools are not widely available. METHODS: In 2012, we performed

  17. [Study of measles history, vaccination, antibody status, and vaccination effectiveress for school teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinohe, Sadato; Ogawa, Tomoko

    2011-05-01

    To determine an efficient measles vaccination program for school teachers, we studied knowledge about measles history, immunization, and immunity status among 269 school teachers in Ichihara City in 2009. We found that (1) many are uncertain about disease and immunization history, with neither history related to the immunity status of neutralizing antibody titer (NT), (2) particle agglutination (PA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing have replaced NT in commercial laboratories, but persons having antibodies fewer than 8-fold of the NT titer as a sensitivity desigration for measles, and 11 false-positive immunity results are indicated in PA testing (cutoff: 256-fold) and 140 false-positive sensitivity results in EIA testing (cutoff: 16.0 EIA), and (3) sensitivity cases are 7.1% in the naturally infected generation born before 1977 and 23.7% in the vaccinated generation born after 1978. Given "herd" immunity, we concluded that all vaccinated-generation persons should be administered additional vaccination regardless of sensitivity due to history, immunization, and PA or EIA antibody testing.

  18. Measles: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PARENTS | DISEASES and the VACCINES THAT PREVENT THEM | Measles and the Vaccine (Shot) to Prevent It Last ... July 2015 The best way to protect against measles is to get the measles-mumps-rubella shot ( ...

  19. Impact of vaccination on the incidence of measles in Mozambique in the period 2000 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Verani, José Fernando Souza; Simões, Taynãna César; Dgedge, Martinho do Carmo

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute to the better planning of measles elimination actions in Mozambique, by considering the impact of vaccination actions over the period 2000 to 2011. Descriptive and ecological studies and case records made available by the Ministry of Health were used to analyze measles vaccination coverage. Statistical analysis was performed using time series and spatial analysis. Vaccine coverage rates ranged from 82% to 99%. Coverage rates in Maputo city were under 70% and in Niassa province they were over 100%. Coverage showed a clustered pattern in the districts. The measles incidence rate was 1.58 per 100,000 inhabitants (0.00-40.08 per 100,000 inhabitants); districts bordering neighboring countries presented high incidence rates. Although measles morbidity and mortality has decreased in Mozambique, vaccine coverage has been insufficient to interrupt measles transmission. Enhanced surveillance, including investigation of cases and outbreaks, and improvements in measles vaccination are recommended in order to achieve a homogenous coverage rate of ≥ 95% for both routine and mass vaccination campaigns.

  20. Influenza vaccine concurrently administered with a combination measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine to young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lucy Chai See; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Breiman, Robert F; Vesikari, Timo; Sablan, Benjamin P; Chay, Oh Moh; Tantracheewathorn, Taweewong; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Lau, Yu-Lung; Bowonkiratikachorn, Piyaporn; Tam, John S; Lee, Bee Wah; Tan, Kah Kee; Pejcz, Jerzy; Cha, Sungho; Gutierrez-Brito, Maricruz; Kaltenis, Petras; Vertruyen, Andre; Czajka, Hanna; Bojarskas, Jurgis; Brooks, W Abdullah; Cheng, Sheau-Mei; Rappaport, Ruth; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William C; Forrest, Bruce D

    2010-02-10

    Children aged 11 to vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35+/-7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV+Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15 IU/mL threshold (83.9% vs 78.0%) and the prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. In a post hoc analysis using an alternate widely accepted threshold of 10 IU/mL, the noninferiority criteria were met (93.4% vs 89.8%). Concomitant administration with Priorix did not affect the overall influenza protection rate of LAIV (78.4% and 63.8% against antigenically similar influenza strains and any strain, respectively).

  1. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik;

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...... of children having received DTP with or after measles vaccine....

  2. Overview of measles and mumps vaccine: origin, present, and future of vaccine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M

    2013-01-01

    Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates.

  3. Recent resurgence of measles in a community with high vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jin Dong; Xiong, Yong Zhen; Li, Tao; Yu, Xiu Nian; Qian, Bang Qun

    2015-03-01

    Even though 2-dose measles vaccination coverage rate was maintained at more than 95%, the largest measles outbreaks since 1996 still occurred in Wuhu city, P R China. A total of 916 cases were reported during 2005-2010. The annual incidence was 6.7 cases per 100,000 population with the peak incidence of 17.6 cases per 100,000 population in 2008. The highest age-specific incidence rate was 222.1 per 100,000 population and occurred in infants aged between 8 and 12 months; the second was 151.9 per 100,000 population in infants aged incidence being 12.8 per 100,000 population. The characteristics related to age distribution have changed in recent measles outbreaks. It underlines the need for vaccination of susceptible young adults and timely administration of the first dose of the measles vaccine.

  4. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Manning

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection. Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤ 70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002. We report a series of 22 SSPE cases presenting between November 2007 and July 2009 in Madang Province, PNG, including localized clusters with the highest ever reported annual incidence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: as part of a prospective observational study of severe childhood illness at Modilon Hospital, the provincial referral center, children presenting with evidence of meningo-encephalitis were assessed in detail including lumbar puncture in most cases. A diagnosis of SSPE was based on clinical features and presence of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid and/or plasma. The estimated annual SSPE incidence in Madang province was 54/million population aged 100/million/year. The distribution of year of birth of the 22 children with SSPE closely matched the reported annual measles incidence in PNG, including a peak in 2002. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SSPE follows measles infections in very young PNG children. Because PNG children have known low seroconversion rates to the first measles vaccine given at 6 months of age, efforts such as supplementary measles immunisation programs should continue in order to reduce the pool of non-immune people surrounding the youngest and most vulnerable members of PNG communities.

  5. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P Rubella seropositivity among measles seropositives was 90.4%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 72.1% among measles seronegatives. Mumps seropositivity among measles seropositives was 87.0%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 62.3% among measles seronegatives. Results were similar for Israeli-born only. Our findings indicate that measles seroprevalence decreased after the last change in vaccination policy and reach sub-optimal level. Until global eradication is reached, a proactive vaccination program to supplement routine childhood vaccination program should be considered in Israel and in other countries.

  6. The safety of measles vaccination%麻疹疫苗接种安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴智勤

    2012-01-01

    Measles remains one of the major causes of death among young children. Measles vaccination is one of the best measures to prevent measles,The safety surveillance of measles vaccination is a key factor to ensure immunization program implementation. This paper reviews the safety of measles vaccination,the surveillance of and response strategies for adverse reactions following measles vaccination.%麻疹仍是造成幼儿死亡的主要原因之一,麻疹疫苗接种是预防麻疹最有效的施措之一,对麻疹疫苗接种的安全性监测是保证免疫计划实施的关键因素.此文阐述了麻疹疫苗接种的安全性、对麻疹疫苗接种不良反应的监测以及应对接种不良反应的策略.

  7. Protective efficacy of standard Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in infants aged 4.5 months: interim analysis of a randomised clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill; Balé, Carlito; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton C.; Lisse, Ida M.; Aaby, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the protective efficacy of measles vaccination in infants in a low income country before 9 months of age. Design Randomised clinical trial. Participants 1333 infants aged 4.5 months: 441 in treatment group and 892 in control group. Setting Urban area in Guinea-Bissau. Intervention Measles vaccination using standard titre Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 months of age. Main outcome measures Vaccine efficacy against measles infection, admission to hospital for measles, and m...

  8. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos;

    2013-01-01

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months....

  9. Introduction of standard measles vaccination in an urban African community in 1979 and overall child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    in the anthropometric survey. The cohort was followed for 2 years. INTERVENTION: In December 1979, the children were re-examined anthropometrically. The participating children, aged 6 months to 6 years, were offered MV if they did not have a history of measles infection. There were no routine vaccinations in 1979......OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the first introduction of measles vaccine (MV) in Guinea-Bissau in 1979. SETTING: Urban community study of the anthropometric status of all children under 6 years of age. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 1451 children in December 1978; 82% took part......-1980. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for measles vaccinated and not vaccinated children; changes in nutritional status. RESULTS: The nutritional status deteriorated significantly from 1978 to 1979. Nonetheless, children who received MV at the December 1979...

  10. Retinopathy following measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination in an immuno-incompetent girl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuil, J.; van de Putte, E.M.; Zwaan, C.M.; Koole, F.D.; Meire, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 4-year-old girl with subnormal visual acuity due to a bilateral retinopathy. The child had a history of encephalitis following MMR vaccination. Temporary retinopathy associated with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination has been described. Recently an idiopathic CD4+ T lymphocy

  11. Long-term survival after Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Whittle, H

    1993-01-01

    In an urban area of Guinea-Bissau, 384 children were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing morbidity and mortality rates after receiving high-titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine administered from 4 months of age, with a control group receiving inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine at 4...

  12. Live-attenuated measles virus vaccine targets dendritic cells and macrophages in muscle of nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Rennick (Linda); R.D. de Vries (Rory); T.J. Carsillo (Thomas J.); K. Lemon (Ken); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M. Ludlow (Martin); D.T. Nguyen (Tien); S. Yüksel (Selma); R.J. Verbugh (Joyce); P. Haddock (Paula); S. McQuaid (Stephen); W.P. Duprex (Paul); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAlthough live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have been used successfully for over 50 years, the target cells that sustain virus replication in vivo are still unknown. We generated a reverse genetics system for the live-attenuated MV vaccine strain Edmonston- Zagreb (EZ), allowing

  13. Time is of the essence: exploring a measles outbreak response vaccination in Niamey, Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Grais, Rebecca F; Conlan, A.J.K.; Ferrari, M. J.; Djibo, A.; Le Menach, A; O.N. Bjørnstad; Grenfell, B. T.

    2007-01-01

    The current World Health Organization recommendations for response during measles epidemics focus on case management rather than outbreak response vaccination (ORV) campaigns, which may occur too late to impact morbidity and mortality and have a high cost per case prevented. Here, we explore the potential impact of an ORV campaign conducted during the 2003–2004 measles epidemic in Niamey, Niger. We measured the impact of this intervention and also the potential impact of alternative strategie...

  14. Long-term survival in trial of medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Lisse, Ida; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    A trial of protective efficacy which compared medium-titre Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine (10(4.6) p.f.u.) from the age of 4 months with the standard Schwarz (SW) measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months was started in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in 1985. Because trials of hi...

  15. Mutual interference on the immune response to yellow fever vaccine and a combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Silva, Juliana Romualdo; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B; Siqueira, Marilda M; Freire, Marcos de Silva; Castro, Yvone P; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S; Yamamura, Anna Maya Y; Martins, Reinaldo M; Leal, Maria de Luz F

    2011-08-26

    A randomized trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of yellow fever vaccines (YFV) given either simultaneously in separate injections, or 30 days or more after a combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Volunteers were also randomized to YFV produced from 17DD and WHO-17D-213 substrains. The study group comprised 1769 healthy 12-month-old children brought to health care centers in Brasilia for routine vaccination. The reactogenicity was of the type and frequency expected for the vaccines and no severe adverse event was associated to either vaccine. Seroconversion and seropositivity 30 days or more after vaccination against yellow fever was similar across groups defined by YFV substrain. Subjects injected YFV and MMR simultaneously had lower seroconversion rates--90% for rubella, 70% for yellow fever and 61% for mumps--compared with those vaccinated 30 days apart--97% for rubella, 87% for yellow fever and 71% for mumps. Seroconversion rates for measles were higher than 98% in both comparison groups. Geometric mean titers for rubella and for yellow fever were approximately three times higher among those who got the vaccines 30 days apart. For measles and mumps antibodies GMTs were similar across groups. MMR's interference in immune response of YFV and YFV's interference in immune response of rubella and mumps components of MMR had never been reported before but are consistent with previous observations from other live vaccines. These results may affect the recommendations regarding primary vaccination with yellow fever vaccine and MMR.

  16. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to measles and diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliou Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute malaria has been associated with a decreased antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, meningococcal, salmonella, and Hib vaccines. Interest in giving malaria drug therapy and prevention at the time of childhood immunizations has increased greatly following recent trials of intermittent preventive therapy during infancy (IPTi, stimulating this re-analysis of unpublished data. The effect of malaria chemoprophylaxis on vaccine response was studied following administration of measles vaccines and diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis (DTP vaccines. Methods In 1975, six villages divided into two groups of children ≤74 months of age from Burkina Faso, were assigned to receive amodiaquine hydrochloride chemoprophylaxis (CH+ every two weeks for seven months or no chemoprophylaxis (CH-. After five months, children in each group received either one dose of measles or two doses of DTP vaccines. Results For recipients of the measles vaccine, the seroconversion rates in CH+ and CH- children, respectively, were 93% and 96% (P > 0.05. The seroresponse rates in CH+ and CH- children respectively, were 73% and 86% for diphtheria (P > 0.05 and 77% and 91% for tetanus toxoid (P > 0.05. In a subset analysis, in which only children who strictly adhered to chemoprophylaxis criteria were included, there were, likewise, no significant differences in seroconversion or seroresponse for measles, diphtheria, or tetanus vaccines (P > 0.05. While analysis for pertussis showed a 43% (CH+ and 67% (CH- response (P Conclusion Malaria chemoprophylaxis prior to vaccination in malaria endemic settings did not improve or impair immunogenicity of DTP and measles vaccines. This is the first human study to look at the association between malaria chemoprophylaxis and the serologic response to whole-cell pertussis vaccine.

  17. Investigation of a Measles Outbreak in China to Identify Gaps in Vaccination Coverage, Routes of Transmission, and Interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zheng

    Full Text Available A measles outbreak occurred in a western county of China in 2013, the year after China's historic nadir of measles. We conducted a field investigation to identify gaps in measles vaccination coverage and immunization program weaknesses, and to provide recommendations for measles outbreak response and immunization program improvement.We analyzed surveillance data from 2008 to 2013 to describe the measles epidemiology of the county. Measles-containing vaccine coverage was estimated using two methods: previously-reported administrative coverage and an estimation of coverage by clinic-kept vaccination records (n = 542. We conducted a rapid field coverage assessment in a migrant population village to evaluate coverage after emergency vaccination. We conducted a review of hospital records of measles cases to address the role hospital transmission played during the early stage of this outbreak.There were 153 cases in the outbreak, primarily among children too young to vaccinate, unvaccinated children less than 3 years old, and adults. Measles-containing vaccine coverage by the field assessment showed that 20% of children aged 8-17 months had zero doses, and 9% of ≥2 years old children had fewer than two doses. The vaccination statuses of all adult cases were either zero doses or unknown. At least 61% of cases had been hospitalized. The proportion of cases who had been hospital-exposed 7 to 21 days prior to rash onset decreased from 52% to 22% after hospitals strengthen their isolation measures.This outbreak was a result of measles vaccination coverage gaps among young children and adults, and insufficient hospital isolation of cases. The lower coverage seen in the field estimation compared with reported coverage showed that reported coverage could have been overestimated. Hospitals were sites of transmission in the early stage of the outbreak. A strict hospital isolation policy could decrease spread of measles. Emergency vaccination was associated

  18. Single-nucleotide polymorphism associations in common with immune responses to measles and rubella vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Salk, Hannah M; Larrabee, Beth R; Pankratz, V Shane; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-11-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate immune response genes were evaluated for associations with measles- and rubella-specific neutralizing antibodies, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion in two separate association analyses in a cohort of healthy immunized subjects. We identified six SNP associations shared between the measles-specific and rubella-specific immune responses, specifically neutralizing antibody titers (DDX58), secreted IL-6 (IL10RB, IL12B), and secreted IFN-γ (IFNAR2, TLR4). An intronic SNP (rs669260) in the antiviral innate immune receptor gene, DDX58, was significantly associated with increased neutralizing antibody titers for both measles and rubella viral antigens post-MMR vaccination (p values 0.02 and 0.0002, respectively). Significant associations were also found between IL10RB (rs2284552; measles study p value 0.006, rubella study p value 0.00008) and IL12B (rs2546893; measles study p value 0.005, rubella study p value 0.03) gene polymorphisms and variations in both measles- and rubella virus-specific IL-6 responses. We also identified associations between individual SNPs in the IFNAR2 and TLR4 genes that were associated with IFN-γ secretion for both measles and rubella vaccine-specific immune responses. These results are the first to indicate that there are SNP associations in common across measles and rubella vaccine immune responses and that SNPs from multiple genes involved in innate and adaptive immune response regulation may contribute to the overall human antiviral response.

  19. Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign in Ethiopia using oral-fluid antibody surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigatu, Wondatir; Samuel, Dhan; Cohen, Bernard; Cumberland, Phillippa; Lemma, Eshetu; Brown, David W G; Nokes, James

    2008-09-01

    We undertook a study to demonstrate the potential contribution of oral-fluid (OF) antibody prevalence surveys in evaluating measles vaccine campaigns. In Asela town, southern Ethiopia, oral fluids were collected from 1928 children aged 9 months to 5 years attending for campaign immunization in December 1999 and 6 months later, from 745 individuals aged 9 months to 19 years, in the same location. Measles antibody status was determined by microimmune measles specific IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Antibody prevalence was estimated at 48% in children attending for vaccination (pre-campaign), and 85% post-campaign in the comparable age group. The estimated reduction in the susceptible proportion was 75%. In older children the proportion antibody negative post-campaign was 28% in 7-9 year olds, and 13% in 10-14 year olds levels of susceptibility which raise concern over continued measles transmission. This is the first evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign based on oral-fluid seroprevalence surveys and it demonstrates the merit of oral-fluid surveys in informing health authorities about vaccination strategy refinement.

  20. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.  Created: 6/30/2014 by : National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Division of Viral Diseases; Healthcare Preparedness Activity (HPA); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/30/2014.

  1. Primary Research of Immunological Mechanism of Combined Hepatitis A-Measles-Varicella Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying-hua; GUAN Feng; ZHANG Xi-zhen; ZHAO Hong-guang; LIU Jing-ye; LIN Cheng-he; WANG Peng-fu

    2011-01-01

    To explore the primary humoral and cellular immunological mechanism of the combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine, the mice were inoculated with hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine by intraperitoneally and two weeks later, blood was collected to observe the mice's immunological status. Antibody level was measured to appraise the humoral immunity. At the same time, T lymphocyte surface marker, NK cell activity, LAK cell activity,delayed type hypersensitivity of skin, M phagocytic function, mRNA level of cytokine IL-2 and IFN-γ plus lymphocyte transformation test were used to analyze the cellular immunity. The humoral immunity results show that the combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine produce the same antibody level as their corresponding univalent vaccine, and maintained fine immunogenicity and security. The result of cellular immunity shows that the combined vaccine could activate physical immunocyte, increase the regulative ability of cytokine, enhance the physical immune function and immune defense ability. The present research proved the security and better humoral and cellular immunity of combined hepatitis A-measles-varicella vaccine from the immunological point of view, which laid good foundation for further study and development.

  2. Correlates of first dose of measles vaccination delivery and uptake in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renae Fernandez; Anu Rammohan; Niyi Awofeso

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine health systems-related, familial, and cultural factors which influence the delivery and uptake of measles vaccination in Indonesia.Methods: Logistic regression analysis of data collected during the 2007Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey was undertaken by the authors to investigate these factors. The2007 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey dataset is a nationally representative, randomly sampled survey containing15 065 children aged between9and59 months.Results: 72.8% of children had received the measles vaccine. Vaccination coverage was similar for males and females; however, coverage was higher amongst urban children,80.1%, compared to68.5% in rural areas. The key findings of the regression analysis were congruent with the results of previous research targeting vaccination coverage. After controlling for all other factors, maternal age, maternal education, wealth, the use of a skilled birth attendant, and postnatal check-ups were positively and significantly (P< 0.01) correlated with measles vaccination. The number of children per household was negatively correlated (P<0.01).Conclusions: In order to enhance measles vaccination coverage in Indonesia, delivery to, and uptake by, rural and low socio-economic populations require substantial improvements. Mass health education and health systems improvements are also required.

  3. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have found no connection between this or any vaccine and autism. Reviews by all major health organizations in the ... elsewhere all found NO LINK between the MMR vaccine and autism. The study that had first reported a risk ...

  4. Measles vaccine effectiveness in standard and early immunization strategies, Niger, 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaninda, A V; Legros, D; Jataou, I M; Malfait, P.; Maisonneuve, M; Paquet, C; Moren, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An Expanded Programme on Immunization was started in late 1987 in Niger, including vaccination against measles with one dose of standard titer Schwarz vaccine given to infants after 9 months of age. During epidemics an early two-dose strategy was implemented (one dose between 6 and 8 months and one dose after 9 months). From January 1, 1995, until May 7, 1995, 13 892 measles cases were reported in Niamey, Niger. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a crowded area...

  5. Consistency of HLA associations between two independent measles vaccine cohorts: a replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Vierkant, Robert A; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2012-03-09

    Associations between HLA genotypes and measles vaccine humoral and cellular immune responses were examined to better understand immunogenetic drivers of vaccine response. Two independent study cohorts of healthy schoolchildren were examined: cohort one, 346 children between 12 and 18 years of age; and cohort two, 388 children between 11 and 19 years of age. All received two age-appropriate doses of measles-containing vaccine. The purpose of this study was to identify and replicate associations between HLA genes and immune responses following measles vaccination found in our first cohort. Associations of comparable magnitudes and with similar p-values were observed between B*3503 (1st cohort p=0.01; 2nd cohort p=0.07), DQA1*0201 (1st cohort p=0.03; 2nd cohort p=0.03), DQB1*0303 (1st cohort p=0.10; 2 cohort p=0.02), DQB1*0602 (1st cohort p=0.07; 2nd cohort p=0.10), and DRB1*0701 (1st cohort p=0.03; 2nd cohort p=0.07) alleles and measles-specific antibody levels. Suggestive, yet consistent, associations were observed between the B7 (1st cohort p=0.01; 2nd cohort p=0.08) supertype and higher measles antibody levels in both cohorts. Also, in both cohorts, the B*0801 and DRB1*0301 alleles, C*0802 and DPA1*0202 alleles, and DRB1*1303 alleles displayed consistent associations with variations in IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10 secretion, respectively. This study emphasizes the importance of replicating HLA associations with measles vaccine-induced humoral and cellular immune responses and increases confidence in the results. These data will inform strategies for functional studies and novel vaccine development, including epitope-based measles vaccines. This is the first HLA association replication study with measles vaccine-specific immune responses to date.

  6. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine Stabell; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had...... received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea...... enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS...

  7. Measles Outbreak Associated with Vaccine Failure in Adults--Federated States of Micronesia, February-August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakwell, Lucy; Moturi, Edna; Helgenberger, Louisa; Gopalani, Sameer V; Hales, Craig; Lam, Eugene; Sharapov, Umid; Larzelere, Maribeth; Johnson, Eliaser; Masao, Carolee; Setik, Eleanor; Barrow, Lisa; Dolan, Samantha; Chen, Tai-Ho; Patel, Minal; Rota, Paul; Hickman, Carole; Bellini, William; Seward, Jane; Wallace, Greg; Papania, Mark

    2015-10-02

    On May 15, 2014, CDC was notified of two laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), after 20 years with no reported measles. FSM was assisted by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and CDC in investigating suspected cases, identify contacts, conduct analyses to guide outbreak vaccination response, and review vaccine cold chain practices. During February–August, three of FSM’s four states reported measles cases: Kosrae (139 cases), Pohnpei (251), and Chuuk (3). Two thirds of cases occurred among adults aged ≥20 years; of these, 49% had received ≥2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). Apart from infants aged vaccination, measles incidence was lower among children than adults. A review of current cold chain practices in Kosrae revealed minor weaknesses; however, an absence of historical cold chain maintenance records precluded an evaluation of earlier problems. Each state implemented vaccination campaigns targeting children as young as age 6 months through adults up to age 57 years. The preponderance of cases in this outbreak associated with vaccine failure in adults highlights the need for both thorough case investigation and epidemiologic analysis to guide outbreak response vaccination. Routine childhood vaccination coverage achieved in recent years limited the transmission of measles among children. Even in areas where transmission has not occurred for years, maintaining high 2-dose MCV coverage through routine and supplemental immunization is needed to prevent outbreaks resulting from increased measles susceptibility in the population.

  8. Recombinant Measles AIK-C Vaccine Strain Expressing the prM-E Antigen of Japanese Encephalitis Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Akira; Toriniwa, Hiroko; Komiya, Tomoyoshi; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    An inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine, which induces neutralizing antibodies, has been used for many years in Japan. In the present study, the JEV prM-E protein gene was cloned, inserted at the P/M junction of measles AIK-C cDNA, and an infectious virus was recovered. The JEV E protein was expressed in B95a cells infected with the recombinant virus. Cotton rats were inoculated with recombinant virus. Measles PA antibodies were detected three weeks after immunization. Neutralizing antibodies against JEV developed one week after inoculation, and EIA antibodies were detected three weeks after immunization. The measles AIK-C-based recombinant virus simultaneously induced measles and JEV immune responses, and may be a candidate for infant vaccines. Therefore, the present strategy of recombinant viruses based on a measles vaccine vector would be applicable to the platform for vaccine development.

  9. Asthma and allergy in children with and without prior measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Osuna, Christa Elyse; Steuerwald, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    -specific IgE was quantified in the child's serum, and at age 13, the children underwent skin prick tests (SPT). The child's vaccination card was reviewed at examinations. RESULTS: At age 5, 533 of 555 children had been vaccinated for MMR. After confounder adjustment we found early life MMR vaccination......BACKGROUND: The existing literature on the association between measles vaccination and subsequent risk of allergic disease is inconclusive. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine whether measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination administered in early childhood was associated...... with asthma and allergic diseases at ages 5, 7 and 13 years in a birth cohort. METHODS: In the Faroe Islands, 640 children were followed from birth. Follow-up examinations at ages 5, 7 and 13 years included a physical examination and a maternal questionnaire about the child's health. At age 7, total and grass...

  10. Effect of age on the risk of Fever and seizures following immunization with measles-containing vaccines in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Fireman, Bruce; Lewis, Edwin; Nordin, James; Naleway, Allison; Jacobsen, Steven J; Jackson, Lisa A; Tse, Alison; Belongia, Edward A; Hambidge, Simon J; Weintraub, Eric; Baxter, Roger; Klein, Nicola P

    2013-12-01

    IMPORTANCE The first dose of live attenuated measles-containing vaccines is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization among 12- to 23-month-old children. The combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of febrile seizures 7 to 10 days following immunization compared with the separately administered measles, mumps, and rubella and varicella vaccines. It is unknown whether the magnitude of these increased risks depends on age at immunization. OBJECTIVE To examine the potential modifying effect of age on the risk of fever and seizures following immunization with measles-containing vaccines. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study at 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites of a total of 840,348 children 12 to 23 months of age who had received a measles-containing vaccine from 2001 through 2011. EXPOSURES Any measles-containing vaccines and measles-containing vaccines by type. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Fever and seizure events occurring during a 42-day postimmunization observation period. RESULTS In the analysis of any measles-containing vaccines, the increased risk of seizures during the 7- to 10-day risk interval, using the remainder of the observation period as the control interval, was significantly greater among older children (relative risk, 6.5; 95% CI, 5.3-8.1; attributable risk, 9.5 excess cases per 10,000 doses; 95% CI, 7.6-11.5) than among younger children (relative risk, 3.4; 95% CI, 3.0-3.9; attributable risk = 4.0 excess cases per 10,000 doses; 95% CI, 3.4-4.6). The relative risk of postimmunization fever was significantly greater among older children than among younger children; however, its attributable risk was not. In the analysis of vaccine type, measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in the risk of fever and 2-fold increase in the risk of seizures compared with measles, mumps, and

  11. Environmental tobacco exposure is associated with vaccine modified measles in junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Kazuki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nezu, Yoko; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine modified measles (VMM) affects individuals with attenuated vaccine induced immunity. An outbreak of measles occurred in a junior high school, starting from an unvaccinated eighth-grade student who developed natural measles and affected a majority of students who were immunized with a low potent strain of measles vaccine (TD97). To determine whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with the development of VMM in this population, a questionnaire was used asking whether students had VMM symptoms during the outbreak and the smoking status of family members. VMM was defined in the study population as occurrence of fever and/or erythema, along with documented history of measles vaccination. A total of 513 students (85.9%) responded. Overall, the presence of in-house smokers did not differ between VMM students (49.3%) and non-VMM students (50.2%). However, in the ninth grade, presence of an in-house smoker was significantly higher in the family of VMM students (54.0%) than in non-VMM students (36.6%) (P = 0.044). Urinary cotinine levels were also measured in selected students (n = 37). Among families with at least one smoker, urinary cotinine levels were significantly higher in VMM students than in non-VMM students (P = 0.032). Furthermore, a multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a high urinary cotinine level (>10 ng/mg creatinine; 13.5 percentile) was associated with the development of VMM. Our findings suggest that a high level of ETS exposure may be associated with an increased risk of VMM in a population with attenuated vaccine induced immunity against measles.

  12. Measles Virus-Specific Antibody Levels in Individuals in Argentina Who Received a One-Dose Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Argüelles, Marcelo H; Orellana, Mariana L.; Castello, Alejandro A.; Villegas, Guillermo A.; Masini, Matilde; Belizan, Alejandra L.; González Ayala,Silvia; Vera, Osmar D.; Glikmann, Graciela

    2006-01-01

    In spite of active measles virus (MV) vaccination strategies, reemergence continues to occur, impairing global eradication programs. The immune status against measles was evaluated in 350 vaccinated healthy Argentine children and teenagers who received a single dose of the MV Schwarz strain Lirugen vaccine (Aventis Pasteur). Sera were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Enzygnost; Behring), an in-house EIA, and neutralization EIA. Results o...

  13. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases In Pediatric Patients: A Review Of Measles, Mumps, Rubella, And Varicella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Deborah A

    2016-12-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella continue to plague children and adults worldwide. Although public health programs have helped decrease the prevalence and sequelae of these diseases, outbreaks still occur. To limit the spread of these diseases, emergency clinicians must be able to readily identify the characteristic presentations of the rashes associated with measles, rubella, and varicella, as well as the common presenting features associated with mumps. Diagnostic laboratory studies are not usually necessary, as a complete history and physical examination usually lead to an accurate diagnosis. Treatment for these vaccine-preventable diseases usually consists of supportive care, but, in some cases, severe complications and death may occur. This issue provides a review of the clinical features, differential diagnoses, potential complications, and treatment options for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella.

  14. Previous vaccination modifies both the clinical disease and immunological features in children with measles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Measles that develops in previously vaccinated cases has been reported to be associated with modified disease, although severity has usually been assessed by the presence or absence of symptoms. To date no studies have attempted to subjectively grade the severity of the clinical features. AIM: To investigate both the objective and subjective severity of measles in vaccinated and unvaccinated cases in the context of a community outbreak. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study conducted in Christchurch in 2009 using notified data compared the presentation of measles in 14 confirmed cases that had received at least one MMR (measles, mumps, rubella vaccination and 14 age-matched unvaccinated confirmed cases. Additional details on the subjective and objective severity of the illness were obtained from parents/guardians using a standardised telephone questionnaire. RESULTS: The vaccinated group had significantly fewer clinical features on presentation (p=0.01, RR=1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6 and a less severe illness objectively, as measured by height and duration of fever, the number of days needing medication other than paracetamol and days required in bed. Unvaccinated cases were 2.8 times more likely to have more severe clinical features than vaccinated cases (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.0. Unvaccinated cases were 3.0 times more likely to develop IgM antibody (RR=3.0, 95% CI 0.9-9.3. DISCUSSION: Previously vaccinated children who develop measles are likely to have less severe disease and serology results that may be inconclusive, particularly for IgM antibody if tested in the first few days after the rash onset.

  15. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon: a case series study, public health challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njim, Tsi; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Feteh, Fambombi Vitalis; Ngum, Joel Mbigha; Moustapha, Chandini Aliyou

    2015-01-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from 11/03/2015 to 14/05/2015. Six measles cases were recorded during this period; three of them complicated by bacterial infections. Measles should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any febrile rash especially among poorly vaccinated populations. Primary preventive methods implemented by clinicians could help control outbreaks; especially with delays in public health intervention. Also, gaps in health policies in Cameroon should be addressed to scale up vaccination coverage in remote communities like Misaje to reduce the incidence of measles outbreaks.

  16. Introducing combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine in Chandigarh, India: issues and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Madhu; Sharma, Deepak

    2014-06-01

    Cyclical outbreaks of mumps have been noticed across Chandigarh city during winter months. Chandigarh does not provide measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination in the State immunization schedule. Epidemiological shift in age at diagnosis of mumps was noticed with higher incidence in older children and adults. Increased occurrence of complications can be predicted with this age shift. Silent burden of rubella with serious outcomes in newborns further strengthen the case for MMR vaccine inclusion in routine immunization program of Chandigarh.

  17. Early Onset Optic Neuritis Following Measles-Rubella Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Moradian

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report two cases of optic neuritis with onset less than 24 hours following measles-rubella (MR vaccination. CASE REPORT: Two teenage patients developed acute optic neuritis 6 to 7 hours after MR booster vaccination. The first patient demonstrated bilateral papillitis and severe visual loss but improved significantly with pulse intravenous steroid therapy with methylprednisolone 500 mg/day. The second patient had unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and demonstrated excellent visual recovery without intervention. CONCLUSION: Acute optic neuritis is a rare complication of MR vaccination and may occur early after immunization.

  1. Difficulties in eliminating measles and controlling rubella and mumps: a cross-sectional study of a first measles and rubella vaccination and a second measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifang Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage of the measles-rubella (MR or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine is greater than 99.0% in Zhejiang province. However, the incidence of measles, mumps, and rubella remains high. In this study, we assessed MMR seropositivity and disease distribution by age on the basis of the current vaccination program, wherein the first dose of MR is administered at 8 months and the second dose of MMR is administered at 18-24 months. METHODS: Cross-sectional serological surveys of MMR antibodies were conducted by collecting epidemiological data in Zhejiang province, China in 2011. In total, 1015 participants were randomly selected from two surveillance sites. Serum MMR-specific immunoglobulin G levels were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The geometric mean titers and seroprevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated by age and gender. Proportions of different dose of vaccine by age by vaccine were also identified. Statistically significant differences between categories were assessed by the Chi-square test. RESULTS: Over 95% seroprevalence rates of measles were seen in all age groups except <7 months infants. Children aged 5-9 years were shown lower seropositivity rates of mumps while elder adolescences and young adults were presented lower rubella seroprevalence. Especially, rubella seropositivity was significantly lower in female adults than in male. Nine measles cases were unvaccinated or unknown vaccination history. Among them, 66.67% (6/9 patients were aged 20-29 years while 33.33% (3/9 were infants aged 8-12 months. In addition, 57.75% (648/1122 patients with mumps were children aged 5-9 years, and 50.54% (94/186 rubella cases were aged 15-39 years. CONCLUSIONS: A timely two-dose MMR vaccination schedule is recommended, with the first dose at 8 months and the second dose at 18-24 months. An MR vaccination speed-up campaign may be necessary for elder adolescents and young adults, particularly

  2. Impact on Epidemic Measles of Vaccination Campaigns Triggered by Disease Outbreaks or Serosurveys: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Cutts, Felicity T.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine vaccination supplemented by planned campaigns occurring at 2–5 y intervals is the core of current measles control and elimination efforts. Yet, large, unexpected outbreaks still occur, even when control measures appear effective. Supplementing these activities with mass vaccination campaigns triggered when low levels of measles immunity are observed in a sample of the population (i.e., serosurveys) or incident measles cases occur may provide a way to limit the size of outbreaks. Methods and Findings Measles incidence was simulated using stochastic age-structured epidemic models in settings conducive to high or low measles incidence, roughly reflecting demographic contexts and measles vaccination coverage of four heterogeneous countries: Nepal, Niger, Yemen, and Zambia. Uncertainty in underlying vaccination rates was modeled. Scenarios with case- or serosurvey-triggered campaigns reaching 20% of the susceptible population were compared to scenarios without triggered campaigns. The best performing of the tested case-triggered campaigns prevent an average of 28,613 (95% CI 25,722–31,505) cases over 15 y in our highest incidence setting and 599 (95% CI 464–735) cases in the lowest incidence setting. Serosurvey-triggered campaigns can prevent 89,173 (95% CI, 86,768–91,577) and 744 (612–876) cases, respectively, but are triggered yearly in high-incidence settings. Triggered campaigns reduce the highest cumulative incidence seen in simulations by up to 80%. While the scenarios considered in this strategic modeling exercise are reflective of real populations, the exact quantitative interpretation of the results is limited by the simplifications in country structure, vaccination policy, and surveillance system performance. Careful investigation into the cost-effectiveness in different contexts would be essential before moving forward with implementation. Conclusions Serologically triggered campaigns could help prevent severe epidemics in the

  3. A population-based study of measles, mumps and rubella vaccination and autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kreesten Meldgaard; Hviid, Anders; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish...... Civil Registration System, which assigns a unique identification number to every live-born infant and new resident in Denmark. MMR-vaccination status was obtained from the Danish National Board of Health. Information on the children’s autism status was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central...... the age at the time of vaccination, the time since vaccination, or the date of vaccination and the development of autistic disorder. Conclusions This study provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that MMR vaccination causes autism....

  4. Persistence of measles antibodies, following changes in the recommended age for the second dose of MMR-vaccine in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Guilherme; Frade, João; Nunes, Carla; Mesquita, João Rodrigo; Nascimento, Maria São José

    2015-09-22

    In populations vaccinated with two doses of combined measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR), the serum levels of antibodies against measles depend on the vaccination schedule, time elapsed from the last dose and the area-specific epidemiological situation. Variables measuring "schedule" are age at first and second doses of MMR and intervals derived from that. Changes in vaccination schedules have been made in Portugal. The specific objectives of this study were to measure the association between those potential determinants and the concentration of measles-specific IgG antibodies, after the second dose of MMR. Convenience samples of three Portuguese birth cohorts were selected for this study (41, 66 and 60 born, respectively, in 2001-2003, 1990-1993 and 1994-1995). Geometric mean concentrations (GMC) for measles IgG were, respectively, 934, 251 and 144mIU/ml; pmeasles-IgG serum concentration decreased with time since last vaccination (waning immunity) and was not influenced by any other component of vaccination schedule, namely age at vaccination with the second dose of MMR. Waning levels of measles antibodies have been observed elsewhere but not as fast as it was observed in Portuguese birth cohorts in this study. Changes in the vaccination schedules might have to be considered in the future.

  5. "CHANGES IN THE EPIDEMILOGY OF MEASLES DUE TO MASS-VACCINATION IN IRAN (1961-1971 "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manteghi

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles is one of the viral and extremely contagious and acute diseases of childhood affecting almost all children. Prior to the discovery of the measles vaccine, the mortality from this disease was one of the highest child mortality figures, especially in the developing countries, with the death rate ranging over 5 to 10% of the infected? Before the vaccination program I was launched in the country, the number of cases of this disease varied between 150.000 to 500,000 during non epidemic and epidemic years, with the mortality more than 10 or 15 per cent the cases in rural and mountainous localities. The available statistics show that the highest figure of measles patient in Iran belongs to the 1-7 years age-group and the highest of its mortality belongs to the age between 1-2 years. In view of the high morbidity and mortality rates of this disease, and thanks to the quick growth under way in public health maters, gradually the significance of this grave problem was more felt. Thus, to control the disease, the ministry of health decided, in 19.6566, to carry out a study program with the help of the Institute of Public Health Research and, with the desired result on hand from the experimental vaccines, to launch a mass vaccination campaign against measles. Consequently, the mass vaccination program was started from 1967, with priority being given to rura1 area and mountainous localities. From 1970, with the cooperation of the ministry of health and Razi Institute the measles vaccine was produced within the country, and, by the end of 1971 the number of vaccinated children was about 3,517,547 which constitutes almost 37% of the susceptible population. The out come has been I an obvious decline in the prevalence and incidence of this disease and an outstanding change in its epidemiological trend. Thus, in the event that the rate of susceptible population coverage by this vaccine (a single shoot or which gives permanent or at least, a long immunity

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in host antiviral genes: associations with humoral and cellular immunity to measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambieva, Iana H; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Umlauf, Benjamin J; Vierkant, Robert A; Shane Pankratz, V; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2011-11-08

    Host antiviral genes are important regulators of antiviral immunity and plausible genetic determinants of immune response heterogeneity after vaccination. We genotyped and analyzed 307 common candidate tagSNPs from 12 antiviral genes in a cohort of 745 schoolchildren immunized with two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Associations between SNPs/haplotypes and measles virus-specific immune outcomes were assessed using linear regression methodologies in Caucasians and African-Americans. Genetic variants within the DDX58/RIG-I gene, including a coding polymorphism (rs3205166/Val800Val), were associated as single-SNPs (p≤0.017; although these SNPs did not remain significant after correction for false discovery rate/FDR) and in haplotype-level analysis, with measles-specific antibody variations in Caucasians (haplotype allele p-value=0.021; haplotype global p-value=0.076). Four DDX58 polymorphisms, in high LD, demonstrated also associations (after correction for FDR) with variations in both measles-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion in Caucasians (p≤0.001, q=0.193). Two intronic OAS1 polymorphisms, including the functional OAS1 SNP rs10774671 (p=0.003), demonstrated evidence of association with a significant allele-dose-related increase in neutralizing antibody levels in African-Americans. Genotype and haplotype-level associations demonstrated the role of ADAR genetic variants, including a non-synonymous SNP (rs2229857/Arg384Lys; p=0.01), in regulating measles virus-specific IFN-γ Elispot responses in Caucasians (haplotype global p-value=0.017). After correction for FDR, 15 single-SNP associations (11 SNPs in Caucasians and 4 SNPs in African-Americans) still remained significant at the q-valuemeasles vaccine in Caucasians and African-Americans.

  7. Control of a measles outbreak by prohibiting non-vaccinated susceptible students from attending school in Akita Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Noriaki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ishiyama, Akira; Kishimoto, Kaoru; Iwama, Renji; Nakano, Megumi

    2011-01-01

    In 2007-2008, a measles outbreak occurred among children above the age of 10 years in Akita Prefecture, northeastern Japan (population, approximately 1,120,000 at the time). Our group controlled the outbreak by (i) implementing a publically financed urgent vaccination program and (ii) prohibiting non-vaccinated and non-infected students from attending school as per regulations of the school public health law. We encouraged high-risk students to undergo a vaccination program, which resulted in the successful containment of the outbreak without the development of any severe cases. After the outbreak, the Akita Prefectural Government began an annual"Akita measles elimination month" every April, and no measles case found in Akita Prefecture during 2009-2010 subsequently. Our outbreak response initiative can be applied nationally for the complete elimination of measles throughout Japan.

  8. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Don’t Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir Language: English Español (Spanish) ... are not vaccinated are at risk of getting measles Facts about measles How is measles spread? Measles ...

  9. A correlation of measles specific antibodies and the number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is observed after measles vaccination in 9 month old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-León, Miguel L; Bonifaz, Laura C; Espinosa-Torres, Bogart; Hernández-Pérez, Brenda; Cardiel-Marmolejo, Lino; Santos-Preciado, José I; Wong-Chew, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) represents one of the main causes of death among young children, particularly in developing countries. Upon infection, MeV controls both interferon induction (IFN) and the interferon signaling pathway which results in a severe host immunosuppression that can persists for up to 6 mo after infection. Despite the global biology of MeV infection is well studied, the role of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) during the host innate immune response after measles vaccination remains largely uncharacterized. Here we investigated the role of pDCs, the major producers of interferon in response to viral infections, in the development of adaptive immune response against MeV vaccine. We report that there is a strong correlation between pDCs population and the humoral immune response to Edmonston Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccination in 9-month-old mexican infants. Five infants were further evaluated after vaccination, showing a clear increase in pDCs at baseline, one week and 3 months after immunization. Three months postvaccination they showed increase in memory T-cells and pDCs populations, high induction of adaptive immunity and also observed a correlation between pDCs number and the humoral immune response. These findings suggest that the development and magnitude of the adaptive immune response following measles immunization is directly dependent on the number of pDCs of the innate immune response.

  10. A correlation of measles specific antibodies and the number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is observed after measles vaccination in 9 month old infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-León, Miguel L; Bonifaz, Laura C; Espinosa-Torres, Bogart; Hernández-Pérez, Brenda; Cardiel-Marmolejo, Lino; Santos-Preciado, José I; Wong-Chew, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV) represents one of the main causes of death among young children, particularly in developing countries. Upon infection, MeV controls both interferon induction (IFN) and the interferon signaling pathway which results in a severe host immunosuppression that can persists for up to 6 mo after infection. Despite the global biology of MeV infection is well studied, the role of the plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) during the host innate immune response after measles vaccination remains largely uncharacterized. Here we investigated the role of pDCs, the major producers of interferon in response to viral infections, in the development of adaptive immune response against MeV vaccine. We report that there is a strong correlation between pDCs population and the humoral immune response to Edmonston Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccination in 9-month-old mexican infants. Five infants were further evaluated after vaccination, showing a clear increase in pDCs at baseline, one week and 3 months after immunization. Three months postvaccination they showed increase in memory T-cells and pDCs populations, high induction of adaptive immunity and also observed a correlation between pDCs number and the humoral immune response. These findings suggest that the development and magnitude of the adaptive immune response following measles immunization is directly dependent on the number of pDCs of the innate immune response. PMID:26075901

  11. Experimental studies on the prevention and treatment of chickenpox and herpes zoster with measles vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W H; Ming, Z L; Chen, Q; Li, Y

    1989-05-01

    In 151 chickenpox patients treated with live attenuated measles vaccine, the cure rate was 100%. In 145 cases of herpes zoster, the effective rate was 100% (completely cured in 91.7% and improved in 8.3%). In the treated group, the time needed for the subsidence of fever and skin rash and the duration of the disease were markedly shorter than those in the control group (P less than 0.01). It is particularly effective for alleviating pain, preventing and relieving postherpetic neuralgia in patients with zoster. The application of measles vaccine to the patients in the chickenpox incubation period might prevent the development of the disease, and decrease the incidence and death rate of varicella zoster virus infection in highly susceptible patients. The mechanism of its anti-viral action and production of interferon in the body is discussed.

  12. Effect of jet injection on infectivity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in a bench model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Collins, Marcus; Saxon, Gene; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zehrung, Darin; Cappello, Chris; Dhere, Rajeev; Royals, Michael; Papania, Mark; Rota, Paul A

    2015-08-26

    Disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) with single-use, auto disable, needle-free syringes offer the opportunity to avoid hazards associated with injection using a needle and syringe. Clinical studies have evaluated DSJIs for vaccine delivery, but most studies have focused on inactivated, subunit, or DNA vaccines. Questions have been raised about possible damage to live attenuated viral vaccines by forces generated during the jet injection process. This study examines the effect of jet injection on the integrity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), measured by viral RNA content and infectivity. Three models of DSJIs were evaluated, each generating a different ejection force. Following jet injection, the RNA content for each of the vaccine components was measured using RT-qPCR immediately after injection and following passage in Vero cells. Jet injection was performed with and without pig skin as a simulation of human skin. There was little to no reduction of RNA content immediately following jet injection with any of the three DSJIs. Samples passaged in Vero cells showed no loss in infectivity of the measles vaccine following jet injection. Mumps vaccine consistently showed increased replication following jet injection. Rubella vaccine showed no loss after jet injection alone but some infectivity loss following injection through pig skin with two of the devices. Overall, these data demonstrated that forces exerted on a live attenuated MMR vaccine did not compromise vaccine infectivity. The bench model and protocol used in this study can be applied to evaluate the impact of jet injection on other live virus vaccines.

  13. Measles-mumps-rubella-varicella combination vaccine (ProQuad): a guide to its use in children in the E.U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-04-01

    In the EU, the live attenuated, tetravalent measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine ProQuad is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in individuals from 12 months of age using a two-dose schedule and may be used in infants from 9 months of age to conform with a national vaccination schedule, outbreak situations or travel to a region with a high prevalence of measles. Clinical data in young children indicates that vaccination with ProQuad is as immunogenic as the component vaccines, provides long-term protection against these potentially serious childhood infections and has an acceptable safety profile. Combining the viral strains of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine M-M-RVAXPRO and the varicella vaccine Varivax in ProQuad reduces the complexity of vaccination schedules, thereby potentially improving vaccination coverage and the timeliness of vaccination.

  14. Surveillance and vaccination coverage of measles and rubella in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bubba, Laura; Piralla, Antonio; Binda, Sandro; Zanetti, Alessandro; Pariani, Elena; Ranghiero, Alberto; Premoli, Marta; Pellegrinelli, Laura; Coppola, Liliana; Gramegna, Maria; Baldanti, Fausto; Zanetti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are infectious diseases and humans are the only reservoir of these infections. Effective vaccines are available with the potential for measles (MV) and rubella (RuV) virus eradication. According to the World Health Organisation guidelines, a national plan was approved in Italy in 2013 to achieve the MV/RuV elimination by 2015, and active MV/RuV integrated surveillance initiated. Towards this purpose, a regional laboratory centre was set up on 1 September 2013 in Lombardy, Northern Italy. This paper aimed at: (1) evaluating measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine coverage and MV/RuV notified cases retrospectively; and (2) presenting the results of MV/RuV integrated surveillance (laboratory confirmed and viral genetic profiles).   The 95% target for MMR vaccine coverage was achieved in 2001, and coverage increased until 2007 (96.6%), but then a decreasing trend was observed. Since 2000 to 2014, 3026 rubella cases were notified, with nearly 58% of them in the 2002 epidemic. From 2009, less than 45 RuV cases per year were reported. From 2000 to 2014, 5024 measles cases were notified. Since 2008, three large outbreaks (in 2008, 2011, and 2013) were observed. From data obtained during our surveillance activity, there were no rubella cases, and 57.5% (46/80) collected samples were MV-positive by real-time RT-PCR. A fragment of the MV N gene was sequenced from 37 MV-positive samples; D8, D9, and B3 genotypes were detected. Data obtained retrospectively and from active surveillance underline the necessity to achieve and maintain high vaccination coverage and to improve surveillance and the effectiveness of healthcare actions.

  15. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children < 1 year of age (55.6%. The history of previous vaccination did not diminish the number of complications of the cases studied. The results of this work show changes in age distribution of measles leading to sizeable outbreaks among teenagers and young adults.

  16. Measles Outbreak Associated With Low Vaccine Effectiveness Among Adults in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Craig M; Johnson, Eliaser; Helgenberger, Louisa; Papania, Mark J; Larzelere, Maribeth; Gopalani, Sameer V; Lebo, Emmaculate; Wallace, Greg; Moturi, Edna; Hickman, Carole J; Rota, Paul A; Alexander, Hinden S; Marin, Mona

    2016-03-01

    Background.  A measles outbreak in Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia in 2014 affected many persons who had received ≥1 dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV). A mass vaccination campaign targeted persons aged 6 months to 49 years, regardless of prior vaccination. Methods.  We evaluated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of MCV by comparing secondary attack rates among vaccinated and unvaccinated contacts after household exposure to measles. Results.  Among 318 contacts, VE for precampaign MCV was 23.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], -425 to 87.3) for 1 dose, 63.4% (95% CI, -103 to 90.6) for 2 doses, and 95.9% (95% CI, 45.0 to 100) for 3 doses. Vaccine effectiveness was 78.7% (95% CI, 10.1 to 97.7) for campaign doses received ≥5 days before rash onset in the primary case and 50.4% (95% CI, -52.1 to 87.9) for doses received 4 days before to 3 days after rash onset in the primary case. Vaccine effectiveness for most recent doses received before 2010 ranged from 51% to 57%, but it increased to 84% for second doses received in 2010 or later. Conclusions.  Low VE was a major source of measles susceptibility in this outbreak; potential reasons include historical cold chain inadequacies or waning of immunity. Vaccine effectiveness of campaign doses supports rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns in outbreak settings.

  17. A large population-based association study between HLA and KIR genotypes and measles vaccine antibody responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Larrabee, Beth R.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    Human antibody response to measles vaccine is highly variable in the population. Host genes contribute to inter-individual antibody response variation. The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are recognized to interact with HLA molecules and possibly influence humoral immune response to viral antigens. To expand on and improve our previous work with HLA genes, and to explore the genetic contribution of KIR genes to the inter-individual variability in measles vaccine-induced antibody responses, we performed a large population-based study in 2,506 healthy immunized subjects (ages 11 to 41 years) to identify HLA and KIR associations with measles vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. After correcting for the large number of statistical tests of allele effects on measles-specific neutralizing antibody titers, no statistically significant associations were found for either HLA or KIR loci. However, suggestive associations worthy of follow-up in other cohorts include B*57:01, DQB1*06:02, and DRB1*15:05 alleles. Specifically, the B*57:01 allele (1,040 mIU/mL; p = 0.0002) was suggestive of an association with lower measles antibody titer. In contrast, the DQB1*06:02 (1,349 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) and DRB1*15:05 (2,547 mIU/mL; p = 0.0004) alleles were suggestive of an association with higher measles antibodies. Notably, the associations with KIR genotypes were strongly nonsignificant, suggesting that KIR loci in terms of copy number and haplotypes are not likely to play a major role in antibody response to measles vaccination. These findings refine our knowledge of the role of HLA and KIR alleles in measles vaccine-induced immunity. PMID:28158231

  18. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  19. A randomized trial of a standard dose of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine given at 4.5 months of age: effect on total hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S; Andersen, Andreas; Balé, Carlito; Schaltz-Buchholzer, Frederik; Do, Vu An; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Whittle, Hilton; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-06-01

    Observational studies and trials from low-income countries indicate that measles vaccine has beneficial nonspecific effects, protecting against non-measles-related mortality. It is not known whether measles vaccine protects against hospital admissions. Between 2003 and 2007, 6417 children who had received the third dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine were randomly assigned to receive measles vaccine at 4.5 months or no measles vaccine; all children were offered measles vaccine at 9 months of age. Using hospital admission data from the national pediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, we compared admission rates between enrollment and the 9-month vaccination in Cox models, providing admission hazard rate ratios (HRRs) for measles vaccine versus no measles vaccine. All analyses were conducted stratified by sex and reception of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS). Before enrollment the 2 groups had similar admission rates. Following enrollment, the measles vaccine group had an admission HRR of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .52-.95), with a ratio of 0.53 (95% CI, .32-.86) for girls and 0.86 (95% CI, .58-1.26) for boys. For children who had not received NVAS, the admission HRR was 0.53 (95% CI, .34-.84), with an effect of 0.30 (95% CI, .13-.70) for girls and 0.73 (95% CI, .42-1.28) for boys (P = .08, interaction test). The reduction in admissions was separately significant for measles infection (admission HRR, 0 [95% CI, 0-.24]) and respiratory infections (admission HRR, 0.37 [95% CI, .16-.89]). Early measles vaccine may have major benefits for infant morbidity patterns and healthcare costs. Clinical trials registration NCT00168558.

  20. A Rare Case: Atypical Measles

    OpenAIRE

    Ümmü Sena Sarı; Figen Kaptan

    2016-01-01

    Atypical measles has been described in persons who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. Occasionally, it can be caused by live measles vaccines also. It is a clinical picture different from typical measles. In this report, an adult patient with a history of immunization, who presented with high fever, maculopapular rash starting at the palms and soles, and pneumonia, is presented. Atypical measles that was ...

  1. Exploring The Impact Of The US Measles Outbreak On Parental Awareness Of And Support For Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Michael A; Nowak, Glen; Evans, Nathaniel J

    2016-02-01

    Despite consensus among health officials that childhood immunizations are a safe and effective means of protecting people from disease, some parents remain hesitant about vaccinating their children. This hesitancy has been linked to a lack of confidence in recommended vaccinations as well as a desire to delay or further space out scheduled vaccinations but also outright refusal of vaccines. Using two national surveys of parents of children ages five and younger, collected immediately prior to and in the weeks following the 2014-15 US measles outbreak, this study examined the awareness of this vaccine-preventable disease outbreak among parents and whether awareness of the outbreak affected their beliefs about childhood vaccination, confidence, and intentions. The study found that while most parents were aware of the outbreak, many were not, and the level of familiarity mattered, particularly on measures of confidence in vaccines and support for mandates requiring childhood vaccination. Increases in vaccine-related concerns were found as well, indicating that disease outbreaks foster not just awareness of vaccines and their potential to prevent disease but a range of parental responses.

  2. Measles virus genetic evolution throughout an imported epidemic outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Alía, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Casasnovas, José María; Porras-Mansilla, Rebeca; Serrano-Pardo, Ángela; Pagán, Israel; Ordobás, María; Ramírez, Rosa; Celma, María Luisa

    2015-01-22

    Measles virus circulates endemically in African and Asian large urban populations, causing outbreaks worldwide in populations with up-to-95% immune protection. We studied the natural genetic variability of genotype B3.1 in a population with 95% vaccine coverage throughout an imported six month measles outbreak. From first pass viral isolates of 47 patients we performed direct sequencing of genomic cDNA. Whilst no variation from index case sequence occurred in the Nucleocapsid gene hyper-variable carboxy end, in the Hemagglutinin gene, main target for neutralizing antibodies, we observed gradual nucleotide divergence from index case along the outbreak (0% to 0.380%, average 0.138%) with the emergence of transient and persistent non-synonymous and synonymous mutations. Little or no variation was observed between the index and last outbreak cases in Phosphoprotein, Nucleocapsid, Matrix and Fusion genes. Most of the H non-synonymous mutations were mapped on the protein surface near antigenic and receptors binding sites. We estimated a MV-Hemagglutinin nucleotide substitution rate of 7.28 × 10-6 substitutions/site/day by a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. The dN/dS analysis did not suggest significant immune or other selective pressures on the H gene during the outbreak. These results emphasize the usefulness of MV-H sequence analysis in measles epidemiological surveillance and elimination programs, and in detection of potentially emergence of measles virus neutralization-resistant mutants.

  3. Measles outbreak among the Dukpa tribe of Buxa hills in West Bengal, India: epidemiology and vaccine efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuniya, Satinath; Maji, Dipankar; Mandal, Debasis; Mondal, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Although measles is a vaccine preventable disease, its occurrence and outbreaks are common in India. Four remote and inaccessible hamlets, inhabited by the Dukpa tribe, at Buxa Hills under Kalchini Block of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal experienced a measles outbreak during the months of April-June, 2011. The authors conducted an investigation to assess vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE) and to describe the patterns of measles outbreaks in this community. The over-all attack rate was 14.3%; that among males and females were 12.6% and 16.0% respectively (P = 0.189). Attack rate was highest (40%) in 0 to <5 years followed by that in the 5 to <15 years (36.5%). VE was 66.3% (95% of the confidence interval 46.9-78.6%). There is an urgent need to increase the vaccination coverage through special tactics for reaching the unreached.

  4. Measles outbreak among the Dukpa tribe of Buxa hills in West Bengal, India: Epidemiology and vaccine efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinath Bhuniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although measles is a vaccine preventable disease, its occurrence and outbreaks are common in India. Four remote and inaccessible hamlets, inhabited by the Dukpa tribe, at Buxa Hills under Kalchini Block of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal experienced a measles outbreak during the months of April-June, 2011. The authors conducted an investigation to assess vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy (VE and to describe the patterns of measles outbreaks in this community. The over-all attack rate was 14.3%; that among males and females were 12.6% and 16.0% respectively (P = 0.189. Attack rate was highest (40% in 0 to <5 years followed by that in the 5 to <15 years (36.5%. VE was 66.3% (95% of the confidence interval 46.9-78.6%. There is an urgent need to increase the vaccination coverage through special tactics for reaching the unreached.

  5. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Giacinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS.

  6. An Epidemiological Study on Measles Cases with Vaccination History of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine%有麻疹减毒活疫苗接种史的麻疹病例流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳荣; 陈恩富; 李倩; 蒋征刚; 何寒青; 凌罗亚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To know the distribution characteristics of measles cases with vaccination history of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV ) and to provide base data for Measles control and prevention. Methods A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted to analyze measles cases with or without vaccination history of measles attenuated vaccine reported in Zhejiang province in 2009. Results The confirmed measles cases with vaccination history of measles vaccine was obviously lower than (16.44% ) non-measles cases (41.45%). The shortest interval between the latest MV vaccination and onset of measles case was Od, the longest is 25 years, with a median of 3 months. The occurrence of Measles of interval proportions <1 month, 1-11 months, 1-9 years, 10-25 years were 42.10%, 30.19%, 19.50%, 6.92% respectively. The interval distribution was different by age groups. Some symptoms were milder in the cases with MV history than that without MV history. For cases with different interval between recent MV vaccination and onset of measles, conjunctivitis was less in those of 6-10d than others. Conclusion Measles cases with MV history could be resulted from primary or secondary immunization failure, or time vaccinated at the late incubation period. Few cases may actually be vaccine reactions at 6-10d after vaccination.%目的 了解有麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)接种史的麻疹病例的分布特点,为查找原因及提出控制措施提供基础数据.方法 对浙江省2009年报告的有、无MV接种史的麻疹病例进行描述流行病学分析.结果 麻疹确诊病例中,有MV接种史的比例(16.44%)明显低于非麻疹病例(41.45%).末次接种距发病最短间隔为0d,最长为25年,中位数为3个月.接种后<1个月、1~11个月、1~9年、10~25年的发病构成分别为42.10%、30.19%、19.50%、6.92%,不同年龄组末次接种距发病时间分布不同.有MV接种史的麻疹病例与无接种史者相比

  7. Sex differences in the effect of vaccines on the risk of hospitalization due to measles in Guinea-bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlito

    2010-01-01

    Routine immunizations have non-specific and sex-differential effects on childhood mortality and morbidity in low-income countries; BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may reduce and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) may increase the mortality of girls relative to boys....

  8. Measles Outbreak Among Amish Highlights Need for Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... particular, some parents are wary of the MMR vaccine because of a purported link to autism. That link, however, has its roots a study from the 1990s that was later found to be fraudulent. "It's a safe and effective vaccine," Gastanaduy said. If parents have any questions about ...

  9. Measles, Mumps, Rubella and the MMR Vaccine during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the U.S., but vaccination programs have greatly decreased their incidence. These viruses are still common in ... where a woman received the MMR vaccine during pregnancy. They did not experience adverse complications and there was no increased rate of birth defects. I have heard about a ...

  10. Evaluation of anti-measles and anti-mumps vaccination coverage in a cohort of youth in South-Centre of Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lo Magno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined a cohort of young people from South Centre Sicily, Italy, in order to evaluate anti-measles anti-mumps vaccination coverage. It is shown that, in proportion, an antibody protection against mumps is greater than an antibody protection against measles and also it causes acute episodes in some subjects vaccinated.

  11. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months...

  12. Vacinas contra varicela e vacina quádrupla viral Varicella vaccines and measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ferro Bricks

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Apresentar uma revisão atualizada sobre os estudos de eficácia, eventos adversos e esquema vacinal da vacina contra varicela e a nova apresentação combinada com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola. FONTES DOS DADOS: Revisão bibliográfica utilizando a base de dados MEDLINE e LILACS no período de 1999 a 2006. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A vacina contra varicela tem uma eficácia entre 70 a 90% contra a infecção e 95 a 98% de proteção contra as formas graves. É uma vacina bem tolerada e pouco reatogênica. Após o seu licenciamento, foram comprovados apenas três casos de transmissão do vírus vacinal de pessoas previamente saudáveis para contatos domiciliares, que desenvolveram doença leve. Apesar das evidências de que a proteção conferida pela vacina pode diminuir com o passar dos anos, ainda não é possível afirmar que seja necessário, no momento, a aplicação de uma segunda dose, tendo em vista a exposição ao vírus selvagem. Após a vacinação universal, as chances de estímulo natural deverão diminuir, e muito provavelmente será necessário a aplicação de doses de reforço. Recentemente foi licenciada a vacina quádrupla viral, um produto combinado com a vacina contra sarampo, caxumba, rubéola e varicela com elevadas taxas de soroconversão. CONCLUSÃO:A vacina contra varicela é recomendada pela Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP para as crianças a partir de 1 ano de idade. Esperamos que, em breve, a vacina quádrupla viral esteja disponível no Brasil, pois o uso de vacinas combinadas possibilita uma maior cobertura vacinal.OBJECTIVES: To present an up-to-date review of studies investigating the efficacy, adverse events and vaccination regimens of the varicella vaccine and the new presentation combined with the vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella. SOURCES OF DATA: Bibliographic review of the MEDLINE and LILACS databases covering the period 1999 to 2006 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The varicella

  13. Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Santana Viana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. METHODS: Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. After receiving a vaccine booster dose for these antigens the patients had high antibody levels consistent with potential protection against measles, mumps and hepatitis B, but not against rubella. CONCLUSION: Extra doses of measles-mumps-rubella plus hepatitis B vaccines are recommended in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients submitted to treatment after hematologic recovery. After this, viral vaccine antibody levels should be verified to define the individual's protective status.

  14. Immunological efficacy of Vaccination against Measles in Children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kaplina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The data of current vaccination process of cellular, humoral immunity and specific antibody formation in 41 children with Down syndrome at the age of 1 year to 6 years old is observed. To prevent easles used measles vaccine (n=12, divaccine -measles-mumps (n=21 and or Priorix vaccine (n=8. The comparison group consisted of 63 children without Down syndrome. The post-vaccination period in 97,6% of children with Down syndrome cases are asymptomatic, only 2,4% of children mentioned layering of intercurrent diseases. The immunological status in children with Down syndrome is characterized by a significant decrease in the  umber leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and absolute number of CD20+, but functional activity of the cells is preserved. By 30 days after immunization they have increased leucocytes, lymphocytes, CD 95+cells. The number of antibodies significantly increased (6,63±0,33 compared to 5,79±0,32 log2, р < 0,05.

  15. [Vaccination against measles. The situation in Mexico and America. Advances in the method of aerosol immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Castro, J; Kumate, J

    1990-07-01

    We present general comments on the epidemiology of measles considering the pre-vaccine era as well as the post-vaccine period in which some changes can be observed: the decrease in morbidity and mortality, the extension of the inter-epidemic interval, the increase in the mean age of infection, etc. We make some estimations about the vaccine coverage and the ideal age of immunization for the goal of eradication (assuming a lifelong immunity for the vaccinees). The technical problems in measles immunization are also revised explaining why no continental country has been able to eliminate the disease. We describe the epidemiological situation in North America, Mexico and Latin American countries. Lastly we present the Mexican experience with the inhaled aerosolised vaccine: the studies in Monterrey (Sabin et al, 1982), other investigation in Mexico, D.F. and in the State of Jalisco, as well as the mass campaigns in Aguascalientes in 1988 and in Coahuila and Nuevo León in 1989. We propose it as an effective, harmless, simple, inexpensive and practical method.

  16. Differences in female-male mortality after high-titre measles vaccine and association with subsequent vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and inactivated poliovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Samb, Badara;

    2003-01-01

    Females given high-titre measles vaccine (HTMV) have high mortality; diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination might be associated with increased female mortality. We aimed to assess whether DTP or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) administered after HTMV was associated with increased female...

  17. Protective immunity in macaques vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based measles virus vaccine in the presence of passively acquired antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); L.S. Wyatt (Linda); R.L. de Swart (Rik); H.W. Vos (Helma); J. Groen (Jan); G. van Amerongen (Geert); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); S. Rozenblatt (Shmuel); B. Moss (Bernard); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractRecombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), encoding the measles virus (MV) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) (MVA-FH) glycoproteins, was evaluated in an MV vaccination-challenge model with macaques. Animals were vaccinated twice in the absence or presence of passively transferred M

  18. Protective immunity in macaques vaccinated with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based measles virus vaccine in the presence of passively acquired antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); L.S. Wyatt (Linda); R.L. de Swart (Rik); H.W. Vos (Helma); J. Groen (Jan); R.S. van Binnendijk (Rob); S. Rozenblatt (Shmuel); B. Moss (Bernard); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractRecombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), encoding the measles virus (MV) fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) (MVA-FH) glycoproteins, was evaluated in an MV vaccination-challenge model with macaques. Animals were vaccinated twice in the absence or presence of passi

  19. Evaluation of the eight-year period of compulsory measles vaccination in the Czech Socialist Republic (CSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejda, J

    1979-01-01

    The object of the study is the evaluation of a more than 8-year period of compulsory vaccination against measles in the CSR. So far, a total of 1,850,000 children have been vaccinated. A pronounced decrease has been achieved in morbidity while mortality and lethality reached zero values as early as in 1973. Changes occur in the epidemiological characteristic of measles manifested primarily by the shift of the age distribution of notified cases into older age groups, by continuous prolongation of interepidemic intervals and by gradual disappearances of typical seasonal incidence. Regular immunological surveys have become the most efficient tools in epidemiological surveillance of this infection and in monitoring the vaccination programme. The results of immunological surveys indeed led to the introduction in 1975 of so-called second vaccination compulsory for children starting the first year of school attendance. Up to the present, a total of 24,000 cases of measles have been recorded in children vaccinated earlier, i.e., 1.5% of the total of vaccinated children. It can be expected that measles as a mass disease will be eliminated from the territory of the CSR in the next few years.

  20. Interaction between neonatal vitamin A supplementation and timing of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Martins, Cesario L; Fisker, Ane B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Guinea-Bissau we conducted three trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) from 2002 to 2008. None of the trials found a beneficial effect on mortality. From 2003 to 2007, an early measles vaccine (MV) trial was ongoing, randomizing children 1:2 to early MV at 4.5 months...... with vaccines given several months later. This may have implications for the planning of future child intervention programs....... or no early MV, in addition to the usual MV at 9 months. We have previously found interactions between vitamin A and vaccines. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether there were interactions between NVAS and early MV. DESIGN: We compared the mortality of NVAS and placebo recipients: first, from 4.5 to 8 months...

  1. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill

    2009-01-01

    levels being 1.65 (0.98-2.78) (p=0.054) and the geometric mean titre was significantly higher for girls (p=0.007). Children who lived in houses with known measles cases were more likely to have protective levels at 9 months of age even though they had not reported measles infection. Since we had excluded...

  2. Trials of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Whittle, H; Mordhorst, Camilla

    1994-01-01

    In two trials of measles vaccination in Guinea-Bissau, children were randomized to receive either the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) virus at age 4-8 months or, as a control group, a standard dose (5000 p.f.u.) of the Schwarz (SW) virus at 9-12 months. In the first trial a medium dose of EZ virus (40,000 p......, 18 and 55%, respectively, were positive in the ELISA and HAI tests. At 18-20 months, the children who had received the EZ vaccine had a seropositivity of 91% by the ELISA method and one of 89% by the HAI method. The equivalent values for the SW group of children were 100 and 96% respectively....... Antibody levels in the EZ group, as measured by either method, were significantly lower than the levels in the SW group. The serological results of the present study suggest that lowering the age at measles vaccination to below 9 months is feasible. However, further studies are needed to determine which...

  3. Cross-sectional surveys of measles antibodies in the Jiangsu Province of China from 2008 to 2010: the effect of high coverage with two doses of measles vaccine among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanbao Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the epidemiological characteristics of measles since 2007 appeared in the Jiangsu province. Although the reported coverage with two doses of measles vaccine was greater than 95% in most regions of the province, measles incidence remained high across the whole province. Cross-sectional serological surveys of measles antibodies in the Jiangsu province of China were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to assess and track population immunity. METHODS: Measles-specific IgG levels were measured in serum samples using ELISA. GMTs and seroprevalence with 95% CIs were calculated by region, gender, and age. ANOVA and χ(2 tests were used to test for statistically significant differences between groups for GMT levels and seroprevalence, respectively. RESULTS: Seroprevalence showed a significantly increasing trend annually (CMH χ(2 = 40.32, p<0.0001. Although the seroprevalence among children aged 2-15 years was consistently over 95%, vaccine-induced measles antibodies may wane over time. Measles seropositivity in the Jiangsu province was 91.7% (95% CI: 90.1-93.2% in 2010. Among adults aged 15 to 29-year-olds, the seropositivity rate was 88.4% (95% CI: 82.7-92.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination strategies may need to be adjusted depending on the individual age and regions, particularly individuals between the ages of 8 months-14 years old and 20-29 years old. Additional SIAs are likely required to eliminate measles in China.

  4. Effect of Multivitamin Supplementation on Measles Vaccine Response among HIV-Exposed Uninfected Tanzanian Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sudfeld, Christopher Robert; Duggan, Christopher Paul; Histed, A.; Manji, K. P.; Meydani, S. N.; Aboud, S.; Wang, Molin; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Wafaie W Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    Immunization and nutritional interventions are mainstays of child health programs in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few published data exist on their interactions. HIV-exposed (but uninfected) infants enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of multivitamin supplements (vitamins B complex, C, and E) conducted in Tanzania were sampled for an assessment of measles IgG quantity and avidity at 15 to 18 months. Infants were vaccinated between 8.5 and 12 months of age, and all mothers received hi...

  5. No evidence of an increase of bacterial and viral infections following Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Taylor, Brent; Miller, Elizabeth

    2009-02-25

    The suggestion that multi-antigen vaccines might overload the immune system has led to calls for single antigen vaccines. In 2003 we showed that rather than an increase there appeared to be a reduced risk of severe bacterial infection in the three months following Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR). The present analysis of illnesses in a general population is based on an additional 10 years of data for bacterial infections and also includes admissions with viral infections. Analyses were carried out using the self-controlled case-series method and separately for bacterial and viral infection cases, using risk periods of 0-30 days, 31-60 days and 61-90 days post MMR vaccine. An analysis was also carried out for those cases which were given MMR and Meningococcal serogroup C (MCC) vaccines concomitantly. A reduced risk was seen in the 0-30-day period for both bacterial infection (relative incidence=0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.86) and viral infections (relative incidence=0.68, 95% CI 0.49-0.93). There was no increased risk in any period when looking at combined viral or bacterial infections or for individual infections with the single exception of an increased risk in the 31-60 days post vaccination period for herpes infections (relative incidence=1.69, 95% CI 1.06-2.70). For the children given Meningococcal group C vaccines concomitantly no significantly increased risk was seen in either the bacterial (relative incidence=0.54, 95% CI 0.26-1.13) or viral cases (relative incidence=0.46, 95% CI 0.11-1.93). Our study confirms that the MMR vaccine does not increase the risk of invasive bacterial or viral infection in the 90 days after the vaccination and does not support the hypothesis that there is an induced immune deficiency due to overload from multi-antigen vaccines.

  6. Immunogenicity of next-generation HPV vaccines in non-human primates: Measles-vectored HPV vaccine versus Pichia pastoris recombinant protein vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gaurav; Giannino, Viviana; Rishi, Narayan; Glueck, Reinhard

    2016-09-07

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide. HPVs are oncogenic small double-stranded DNA viruses that are the primary causal agent of cervical cancer and other types of cancers, including in the anus, oropharynx, vagina, vulva, and penis. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV is an attractive strategy for preventing cervical cancer and some other types of cancers. However, there are few safe and effective vaccines against HPV infections. Current first-generation commercial HPV vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver. The goal of this study was to develop an alternate potent HPV recombinant L1-based vaccines by producing HPV virus-like particles into a vaccine that is currently used worldwide. Live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccines have a well-established safety and efficacy record, and recombinant MV (rMV) produced by reverse genetics may be useful for generating candidate HPV vaccines to meet the needs of the developing world. We studied in non-human primate rMV-vectored HPV vaccine in parallel with a classical alum adjuvant recombinant HPV16L1 and 18L1 protein vaccine produced in Pichia pastoris. A combined prime-boost approach using both vaccines was evaluated, as well as immune interference due to pre-existing immunity against the MV. The humoral immune response induced by the MV, Pichia-expressed vaccine, and their combination as priming and boosting approaches was found to elicit HPV16L1 and 18L1 specific total IgG and neutralizing antibody titres. Pre-existing antibodies against measles did not prevent the immune response against HPV16L1 and 18L1.

  7. 75 FR 48715 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... we stopped vaccinating. 2. Who should get MMR vaccine and when? Children should get 2 doses of MMR... National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) (42 U.S.C. 300aa-26), the CDC must develop vaccine... representative in the case of a child) receiving vaccines covered under the National Vaccine Injury...

  8. Live attenuated measles and mumps viral strain-containing vaccines and hearing loss: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), United States, 1990--2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Armenak; Pool, Vitali; Chen, Robert T; Kohl, Katrin S; Davis, Robert L; Iskander, John K

    2008-02-26

    Hearing loss (HL) is a known complication of wild measles and mumps viral infections. As vaccines against measles and mumps contain live attenuated viral strains, it is biologically plausible that in some individuals HL could develop as a complication of vaccination against measles and/or mumps. Our objectives for this study were: to find and describe all cases of HL reported in the scientific literature and to the US Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) for the period 1990--2003; and to determine reporting rate of HL after live attenuated measles and/or mumps viral strain-containing vaccines (MMCV) administration. We searched published reports for cases of HL identified after vaccination with MMCV. We also searched for reports of HL after MMCV administration submitted to VAERS from 1990 through 2003 and determined the dose-adjusted reporting rate of HL. Our main outcome measure was reported cases of HL after immunization with MMCV which were classified as idiopathic. We found 11 published case reports of HL following MMCV. The review of the VAERS reports identified 44 cases of likely idiopathic sensorineural HL after MMCV administration. The onset of HL in the majority of VAERS and published cases was consistent with the incubation periods of wild measles and mumps viruses. Based on the annual usage of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, we estimated the reporting rate of HL to be 1 case per 6-8 million doses. Thus, HL following MMCV has been reported in the literature and to the VAERS. Further studies are needed to better understand if there is a causal relationship between MMCV and HL.

  9. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil R Vaidya

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State.

  10. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  11. Effect of an Early Dose of Measles Vaccine on Morbidity Between 18 Weeks and 9 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Vu An; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2017-01-01

    was not associated with a higher risk of the well-known adverse events of fever, rash, and convulsions within the first 14 days. From 15 days after randomization to age 9 months, early measles vaccination was associated with reductions in maternally reported diarrhea (hazard ratio [HR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval...

  12. Self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella in health care personnel in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakura, Shunichi; Onoda, Keiichi; Hirose, Masahiro

    2014-03-01

    Health care personnel are required to be immune against vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported histories of disease and vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella in order to determine the immune status of health care personnel. A self-reported questionnaire of history of previous disease and vaccination against these diseases was administered to a total of 910 health care personnel in Shimane university hospital in Japan, whose results were compared with serological evidences. There were numerous subjects who did not remember a history of disease (greater than 33% each) and of vaccination (greater than 58% each). Self-reported history of disease and vaccination had high positive predictive value against either disease for testing positive for antiviral antibodies. However, a considerable number of false-negative subjects could be found; 88.9% of subjects for measles, 89.3% for mumps, 62.2% for rubella and 96.3% for varicella in the population who had neither a self-reported history of disease nor a vaccination against each disease. In addition, regardless of the disease in question, a negative predictive value in self-reported history of disease and vaccination was remarkably low. These results suggest that self-reported history of disease and vaccination was not predictive to determine the accurate immune status of health care personnel against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. A seroprevalence survey, followed by an adequate immunization program for susceptible subjects, is crucial to prevent and control infection in hospital settings.

  13. An outbreak of adult measles by nosocomial transmission in a high vaccination coverage community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-juan Wang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Hospital exposure 1–2 weeks before infection with measles was the main cause of the measles outbreak. We must be fully aware of the possibility of nosocomial infection in an outbreak of measles; controlling nosocomial infections is a vital step in the prevention and control of the propagation of measles.

  14. Measles update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Beginning May 19, 1998, and lasting through the middle of June, a follow-up vaccination campaign which used measles-mumps-rubella vaccine targeted 2,223,210 children, 1-4 years of age, in Venezuela. The vaccinations were performed at day care centers, health posts, and orphanages; door-to-door vaccination was conducted in rural areas. The measles epidemic began in 1992, with 22,321 confirmed cases of measles and 77 deaths; it lasted until early 1994, when there were 16,561 cases and 47 deaths. In 1994, the country launched a "catch-up" vaccination campaign which targeted all children between 9 months and 14 years of age; 98% coverage was reached. Between 1994 and 1996, when routine immunization services were used, the average coverage was 75%. Since the catch-up campaign, the number of confirmed measles cases decreased from 172 in 1995, to 89 in 1996, and to 27 in 1997. As of July 18, 1998, (epidemiological week 28), 452 suspected cases of measles were reported; none were confirmed. Another follow-up campaign will be conducted. In Bolivia, the measles outbreak began May 21, 1998, in areas bordering Argentina. The municipality of Yacuiba, in the department of Tarija, is primarily affected. The municipality, especially the localities of Yacuiba and Pocitos, borders the province of Salta in Argentina, and people cross the border often to shop. As of July 24, 1998, there were 49 suspected measles cases: 22 in Pocitos; 24 in Yacuiba; and 3 in El Palmar. 28 had serum samples taken, and 18 tested positive. The population group most affected were those between 1-4 years of age. A follow-up measles vaccination campaign, which targeted all children under 6 years of age regardless of their vaccination history, was conducted from June 1 to 21, 1998, in Salvador Masa (Argentina), in Pocitos, and in Yacuiba. As of August 10, 1998, in Argentina, 1874 confirmed measles cases and 11 deaths (6 under the age of 1 year) were reported. The first cases appeared in August 1997, in the

  15. Recombinant measles virus vaccine expressing the Nipah virus glycoprotein protects against lethal Nipah virus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Yoneda

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV is a member of the genus Henipavirus, which emerged in Malaysia in 1998. In pigs, infection resulted in a predominantly non-lethal respiratory disease; however, infection in humans resulted in over 100 deaths. Nipah virus has continued to re-emerge in Bangladesh and India, and person-to-person transmission appeared in the outbreak. Although a number of NiV vaccine studies have been reported, there are currently no vaccines or treatments licensed for human use. In this study, we have developed a recombinant measles virus (rMV vaccine expressing NiV envelope glycoproteins (rMV-HL-G and rMV-Ed-G. Vaccinated hamsters were completely protected against NiV challenge, while the mortality of unvaccinated control hamsters was 90%. We trialed our vaccine in a non-human primate model, African green monkeys. Upon intraperitoneal infection with NiV, monkeys showed several clinical signs of disease including severe depression, reduced ability to move and decreased food ingestion and died at 7 days post infection (dpi. Intranasal and oral inoculation induced similar clinical illness in monkeys, evident around 9 dpi, and resulted in a moribund stage around 14 dpi. Two monkeys immunized subcutaneously with rMV-Ed-G showed no clinical illness prior to euthanasia after challenge with NiV. Viral RNA was not detected in any organ samples collected from vaccinated monkeys, and no pathological changes were found upon histopathological examination. From our findings, we propose that rMV-NiV-G is an appropriate NiV vaccine candidate for use in humans.

  16. Time is of the essence: exploring a measles outbreak response vaccination in Niamey, Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, R F; Conlan, A J K; Ferrari, M J; Djibo, A; Le Menach, A; Bjørnstad, O N; Grenfell, B T

    2008-01-06

    The current World Health Organization recommendations for response during measles epidemics focus on case management rather than outbreak response vaccination (ORV) campaigns, which may occur too late to impact morbidity and mortality and have a high cost per case prevented. Here, we explore the potential impact of an ORV campaign conducted during the 2003-2004 measles epidemic in Niamey, Niger. We measured the impact of this intervention and also the potential impact of alternative strategies. Using a unique geographical, epidemiologic and demographic dataset collected during the epidemic, we developed an individual-based simulation model. We estimate that a median of 7.6% [4.9-8.9] of cases were potentially averted as a result of the outbreak response, which vaccinated approximately 57% (84563 of an estimated 148600) of children in the target age range (6-59 months), 23 weeks after the epidemic started. We found that intervening early (up to 60 days after the start of the epidemic) and expanding the age range to all children aged 6 months to 15 years may lead to a much larger (up to 90%) reduction in the number of cases in a West African urban setting like Niamey. Our results suggest that intervening earlier even with lower target coverage (approx. 60%), but a wider age range, may be more effective than intervening later with high coverage (more than 90%) in similar settings. This has important implications for the implementation of reactive vaccination interventions as they can be highly effective if the response is fast with respect to the spread of the epidemic.

  17. An immune competent mouse model for the characterization of recombinant measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, René R; Knuchel, Marlyse C; Morin, Teldja Neige Azzouz; Naim, Hussein Y

    2015-01-01

    Today, immune compromised interferon-α-receptor deficient mice expressing hCD46 (IFNARCD46tg) are usually used for measles virus (MV) based vaccine characterization. However, for the development of MV-based recombinant vaccine candidates (rMV), an immune competent mouse model is desirable in order to induce and evaluate meaningful immune response. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response induced by rMV in immune competent mice expressing human MV receptor CD46 (hCD46tg) were compared with those induced in wild-type black/6, and IFNARCD46tg mice.   All three strains developed humoral and cellular response against MV, whereas only hCD46tg and IFNARCD46tg mice developed a humoral response against the transgene. Differences were observed in the magnitude of the response, where the IFNARCD46tg mice displayed the strongest immune responses, followed by the hCD46tg mice and the black/6 mice. Interestingly, hCD46tg and wt black/6 mice showed a predominant CD4(+) T-cell response against MV-N, whereas IFNARCD46tg mice developed both, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell response against MV-N. Analysis of the cytokine profile of MV-N specific CD4(+) T-cells and transgene (SIVgag) specific CD8(+) T-cells revealed qualitative differences of the T-cell responses; noticeably a significant reduction of the frequency of CD4(+)IL-2(+) expressing cells in IFNARCD46tg mice as compared with hCD46tg or wt black/6 mice. We show in this study significant quantitative and qualitative differences in immune responses between immune competent and immune-compromised mice. Our results therefore highlight the importance of the animal model and support the use of hCD46tg mice as mouse model for the characterization of the immunological profile induced by recombinant measles virus vaccine candidates.

  18. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...... a randomized trial providing MV at age 4.5 and 9 months or MV only at age 9 months, thymic size was assessed by ultrasound at age 4.5 months, before randomization to early MV or no early MV, and 4 weeks later. Among 656 children, there was no effect of early MV on thymic size, the geometric mean size ratio...... being 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96-1.02). In a post hoc analysis early MV was associated with a negative effect in healthy children but a positive effect in ill children. In conclusion, early MV at age 4.5 months had no overall effect on thymus size 4 weeks later. Trial registration: http...

  19. Absence of detectable measles virus genome sequence in blood of autistic children who have had their MMR vaccination during the routine childhood immunization schedule of UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, M A; Ozoemena, L C; O'Hare, A; Kidger, K A; Bentley, M L; Minor, P D

    2006-05-01

    Leukocyte preparations from children with documented evidence of MMR vaccination and confirmed diagnosis of autism were examined by several assays designed to target multiple regions of the measles virus genome sequence. No sample was found positive by any method. The assays applied were highly sensitive, specific and robust in nature, and were based on the amplification of measles virus RNA transcripts by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) as well as by conventional RT-PCR-nested PCR. The assays applied were potentially able to detect measles virus RNA down to single figure copy numbers per reaction. The amount of total nucleic acid extract of leukocytes subjected to various measles virus-specific investigations was several fold higher than minimally required of a sample where measles virus persistence is well documented. This study failed to substantiate reports of the persistence of measles virus in autistic children with development regression.

  20. Think globally, act locally: the role of local demographics and vaccination coverage in the dynamic response of measles infection to control

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M. J.; Grenfell, B. T.; Strebel, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The global reduction of the burden of morbidity and mortality owing to measles has been a major triumph of public health. However, the continued persistence of measles infection probably not only reflects local variation in progress towards vaccination target goals, but may also reflect local variation in dynamic processes of transmission, susceptible replenishment through births and stochastic local extinction. Dynamic models predict that vaccination should increase the mean age of infection...

  1. Use of combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Mona; Broder, Karen R; Temte, Jonathan L; Snider, Dixie E; Seward, Jane F

    2010-05-07

    This report presents new recommendations adopted in June 2009 by CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding use of the combination measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine (MMRV, ProQuad, Merck & Co., Inc.). MMRV vaccine was licensed in the United States in September 2005 and may be used instead of measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR, M-M-RII, Merck & Co., Inc.) and varicella vaccine (VARIVAX, Merck & Co., Inc.) to implement the recommended 2-dose vaccine schedule for prevention of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella among children aged 12 months-12 years. At the time of its licensure, use of MMRV vaccine was preferred for both the first and second doses over separate injections of equivalent component vaccines (MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine), which was consistent with ACIP's 2006 general recommendations on use of combination vaccines (CDC. General recommendations on immunization: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. MMWR 2006;55;[No. RR-15]). Since July 2007, supplies of MMRV vaccine have been temporarily unavailable as a result of manufacturing constraints unrelated to efficacy or safety. MMRV vaccine is expected to be available again in the United States in May 2010. In February 2008, on the basis of preliminary data from two studies conducted postlicensure that suggested an increased risk for febrile seizures 5-12 days after vaccination among children aged 12-23 months who had received the first dose of MMRV vaccine compared with children the same age who had received the first dose of MMR vaccine and varicella vaccine administered as separate injections at the same visit, ACIP issued updated recommendations regarding MMRV vaccine use (CDC. Update: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP] regarding administration of combination MMRV vaccine. MMWR 2008;57:258-60). These updated recommendations expressed no preference for use of MMRV vaccine over

  2. A recombinant measles vaccine expressing chikungunya virus-like particles is strongly immunogenic and protects mice from lethal challenge with chikungunya virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Samantha; Ruffié, Claude; Combredet, Chantal; Brault, Jean-Baptiste; Najburg, Valérie; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Habel, André; Tauber, Erich; Desprès, Philippe; Tangy, Frédéric

    2013-08-12

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, recently reemerged in the Indian Ocean, India and Southeast Asia, causing millions of cases of severe polyarthralgia. No specific treatment to prevent disease or vaccine to limit epidemics is currently available. Here we describe a recombinant live-attenuated measles vaccine (MV) expressing CHIKV virus-like particles comprising capsid and envelope structural proteins from the recent CHIKV strain La Reunion. Immunization of mice susceptible to measles virus induced high titers of CHIKV antibodies that neutralized several primary isolates. Specific cellular immune responses were also elicited. A single immunization with this vaccine candidate protected all mice from a lethal CHIKV challenge, and passive transfer of immune sera conferred protection to naïve mice. Measles vaccine is one of the safest and most effective human vaccines. A recombinant MV-CHIKV virus could make a safe and effective vaccine against chikungunya that deserves to be further tested in human trials.

  3. Report on public health actions and vaccination strategies to monitor measles epidemic in Local Health Unit A in Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Spadea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: between May 2010 and october 2011 the unit of Preventive Medicine for the developmental ages of district IV, Health unit aSL rM/a, received 136 measles case notifications from the unit of Epidemiology and Prophylaxis of Infectious diseases.
    Methods: in accordance with the infectious diseases monitoring protocol, we introduced a series of preventive measures, such as monitoring subjects in contact with measles-infected patients, recommend- ing the administration of two Measles Mumps and rubella (MMr doses four weeks apart, and informing paediatricians, families and school teachers about the measles epidemic.
    Results: all the activities above led to an increased number of MMr doses administered and a significant improvement of measles immunization coverage among residents of the district IV health unit of rome. concerning MMr 1, in a sample cohort consisting of children ≤24 months, the immunization coverage increased from 77% on the 31/12/09 to 88% on the 31/12/11. Instead, for MMr 2, in a cohort of children ≤6 years, the same ratio improved from 51% on the 31/12/09 to 65% on the 31/12/11.
    Discussion: the results indicate a material increase in the immunization coverage once our public health actions and vaccination strategies had been implemented among young residents of district IV aSL rM/a...

  4. Measles Vaccine Coverage and Series Completion among Children 0 to 8 Years of Age in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, JoLynn P.; Zhang, Ying; Carlson, Bradley; Ewing, Sarah; Wang, Xiexiu; Boulton, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) targeted China for measles elimination by 2012. While China made significant progress, transmission continues, warranting examination of China's measles vaccination program. The WHO recommends that children receive at least two doses of a measles containing vaccine (MCV) to ensure protection. In Tianjin, China, MCV is given in three doses; 8 months (MV), 18-24 months (MMR-1), and 5 years (MMR-2). MMR-2 is important because of the young age for MV administration. This study describes MCV coverage, assesses administration timeliness, and evaluates completion of the MCV series for children living in Tianjin, China. Methods In July 2012, immunization records were selected from Tianjin's Immunization Information Management System. Records were abstracted for children born from 2004 to 2011, who were age 8 months or older. Descriptive statistics characterized the study population and assessed timeliness and coverage for each MCV dose. Results We examined records of 205,982 children living in Tianjin, China. Among children who were age-appropriate for each vaccine, 98.6% received MV, 97.6% received MMR-1, and 76.9% received MMR-2. Of the children who were old enough to receive MMR-2, 78.8% received the complete series, and 71.6% of children were fully immunized for measles by age 6. Conclusions Tianjin has high rates of MV and MMR-1 coverage, with lower levels for MMR-2. Most children who completed the series did so on-time. Maintaining high coverage and timely administration of MV and MMR-1 and increasing coverage of MMR-2 are necessary for China to attain the goal of national measles elimination. PMID:25259932

  5. Measles vaccine coverage and immune response in children of Caiabi and Metuktire Indian tribes living in malarial endemic area: Parque indígena do Xingu, Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, R; Baruzzi, R G; Souza, V A; Ferreira, A W; Avila, S L

    2001-07-01

    Measles vaccination efficiency was evaluated in children from two Indian tribes - Caiabi and Metuktire - living in the Amazon region, in the Parque Indigena do Xingu (PIX). The population sample, selected at random, made up 37 Caiabi and 28 Metuktire children, aged from 20-75 months (40%). For operational and epidemiological reasons, measles vaccine is given from 6 months of age. The average age of children when they received the vaccine was 11.5 months for the first dose and 20 months for the second. The search for IgG antibodies against measles virus and Plasmodium falciparum was made through immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Measles vaccine coverage has reached 60% at 12 months of age and 92% at 18 months, whereas post-vaccine serum conversion was 95% in Caiabi children (geometric mean of titres (GMT) 126) and 89% in Metuktire (GMT 109). The difference in GMT is not statistically significant. Seventy-three per cent of Caiabi children (GMT 101) and 100% of Metuktire children (GMT135) were plasmodium antibody positive, showing they had been exposed to malarial infection. Despite the differences detected, the immune response to measles vaccine was satisfactory in both groups, with a positive percentage consistent with that achieved in non-malarial areas in Americas. The results show the efficiency of a vaccination programme in an indigenous area despite the difficulties in reaching the villages and maintaining the cold chain, and also despite the malaria endemicity.

  6. Deciphering the relative weights of demographic transition and vaccination in the decrease of measles incidence in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merler, Stefano; Ajelli, Marco

    2014-02-22

    In Italy, during the course of the past century to the present-day, measles incidence underwent a remarkable decreasing trend that started well before the introduction of the national immunization programme. In this work, we aim at examining to what extent both the demographic transition, characterized by declining mortality and fertility rates over time, and the vaccination programme are responsible for the observed epidemiological pattern. Making use of a non-stationary, age-structured disease transmission model, we show that in the pre-vaccination era, from 1901 to 1982, the decline in birth rates has resulted in a drastic decrease in the effective transmission rate, which in turn has determined a declining trend of measles incidence (from 25.2 to 10.3 infections per 1000 individuals). However, since 1983, vaccination appears to have become the major contributing factor in the decrease of measles incidence, which otherwise would have remained stable as a consequence of the nearly constant birth rates. This led to a remarkable decrease in the effective transmission rate, to a level well below the critical threshold for disease persistence. These findings call for the adoption of epidemiological models, which deviate the age structure from stationary equilibrium solutions, to better understand the biology of infectious diseases and evaluate immunization programmes.

  7. In situ tumor vaccination with adenovirus vectors encoding measles virus fusogenic membrane proteins and cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis Hoffmann; Wibke Bayer; Oliver Wildner

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether intratumoral expression of measles virus fusogenic membrane glycoproteins H and "F (MV-FMG), encoded by an adenovirus vector Ad.MV-H/ F, alone or in combination with local coexpression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-21 or GM-CSF), can serve as a platform for inducing tumor-specific immune responses in colon cancer.METHODS: We used confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry to analyze cell-cell fusion after expression of MV-FMG by dye colocalization. In a syngeneic bilateral subcutaneous MC38 and Colon26 colon cancer model in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, we assessed the effect on both the directly vector-treated tumor as well as the contralateral, not directly vector-treated tumor. We assessed the induction of a tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response with a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay.RESULTS: We demonstrated in vitro that transduction of MC38 and Colon26 cells with Ad.MV-H/F resulted in dye colocalization, indicative of cell-cell fusion. In addition, in the syngeneic bilateral tumor model we demonstrated a significant regression of the directly vector-inoculated tumor upon intratumoral expression of MV-FMG alone or in combination with the tested cytokines. We observed the highest anti-neoplastic efficacy with MV-FMG and IL-21 coexpression. The degree of tumor regression of the not directly vector-treated tumor correlated with the anti-neoplastic response of the directly vector-treated tumor. This regression was mediated by a tumor-specific CTL response.CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that intratumoral expression of measles virus fusogenic membrane glycoproteins is a promising tool both for direct tumor treatment as well as for tumor vaccination approaches that can be further enhanced by cytokine coexpression.

  8. Lack of association between measles virus vaccine and autism with enteropathy: a case-control study.

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    Mady Hornig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of measles virus (MV RNA in bowel tissue from children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and gastrointestinal (GI disturbances was reported in 1998. Subsequent investigations found no associations between MV exposure and ASD but did not test for the presence of MV RNA in bowel or focus on children with ASD and GI disturbances. Failure to replicate the original study design may contribute to continued public concern with respect to the safety of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this case-control study was to determine whether children with GI disturbances and autism are more likely than children with GI disturbances alone to have MV RNA and/or inflammation in bowel tissues and if autism and/or GI episode onset relate temporally to receipt of MMR. The sample was an age-matched group of US children undergoing clinically-indicated ileocolonoscopy. Ileal and cecal tissues from 25 children with autism and GI disturbances and 13 children with GI disturbances alone (controls were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription (RT-PCR for presence of MV RNA in three laboratories blinded to diagnosis, including one wherein the original findings suggesting a link between MV and ASD were reported. The temporal order of onset of GI episodes and autism relative to timing of MMR administration was examined. We found no differences between case and control groups in the presence of MV RNA in ileum and cecum. Results were consistent across the three laboratory sites. GI symptom and autism onset were unrelated to MMR timing. Eighty-eight percent of ASD cases had behavioral regression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides strong evidence against association of autism with persistent MV RNA in the GI tract or MMR exposure. Autism with GI disturbances is associated with elevated rates of regression in language or other skills and may represent an endophenotype distinct

  9. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of measles vaccine administered alone or with live, attenuated Japanese encephalitis SA 14-14-2 vaccine in Philippine infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatchalian, Salvacion; Yao, Yafu; Zhou, Benli; Zhang, Lei; Yoksan, Sutee; Kelly, Kim; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Yaïch, Mansour; Jacobson, Julie

    2008-04-24

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of disease, disability, and death in Asia. An effective, live, attenuated JE vaccine (LJEV) is available; however, its use in routine immunization schedules is hampered by lack of data on concomitant administration with measles vaccine (MV). This study evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of LJEV and MV when administered at the same or separate study visits in infants younger than 1 year of age. Three groups of healthy infants were randomized to receive LJEV at age of 8 months and MV at 9 months (Group 1; n=100); MV and LJEV together at 9 months (Group 2; n=236); or MV and LJEV at 9 and 10 months, respectively (Group 3; n=235). Blood was obtained 4 weeks after each vaccine administration to determine antibody levels for measles and JE. Reactogenicity was assessed by parental diaries and clinic visits. Four weeks after immunization, measles seroprotection rates (defined as > or =340 mIU/ml) were high and comparable in all three groups and specifically, rates in the combined MV-LJEV (Group 2) were not statistically inferior to those in Group 3 receiving MV separately (96% versus 100%, respectively). Likewise, the LJEV seroprotection rates were high and similar between the three groups. The reactogenicity profiles of the three vaccine schedules were also analogous. LJEV and MV administered together are well tolerated and immunogenic in infants younger than 1 year. These results should facilitate incorporation of LJEV into routine immunization schedules with MV.

  10. Factors associated with non-vaccination against measles in northeastern Brazil: Clues about causes of the 2015 outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Hermano A L; Correia, Luciano L; Campos, Jocileide S; Silva, Anamaria C; Andrade, Francisca O; Silveira, Dirlene I; Machado, Márcia M; Leite, Álvaro J; Cunha, Antônio J L A

    2015-09-11

    Measles is a highly contagious disease that can be effectively prevented through vaccination. The recent increase in vaccination coverage was successful in reducing the mortality globally of the disease by 74%. As a whole, the Americas have been considered a disease-free zone. However, it is known that if an immunization programs fails, there will be an accumulation of susceptible people that can lead to disease outbreaks. Recently, both the United States and Brazil faced outbreaks of measles. The present study aims to identify the determining factors of non-vaccination in Brazil in two different vaccination coverage moments, to provide clues as to the causes of current outbreaks. Data were drawn from five population-based cross-sectional studies that surveyed a representative sample of preschool children from 1987 to 2007 (9585 children in total). To assess children's vaccination status, two different information sources were used: information provided by mothers and information from children's health cards. Multivariate analyses with logistic binary regression models were conducted. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that in 1987, with 48.2% vaccination coverage, socioeconomic, maternal, nutritional factors and access to health facilities were important, while in 2007 (96.7% coverage), nutritional and maternal factors were important. Distinct patterns of determinants of non-vaccination were also found. In addition, the low coverage in 1987 resulted in a current pool of adults who were not immunized as children; this may have contributed to the beginning of the current Brazilian outbreak. Globally, there are two standards of vaccination coverage (low and high). Therefore, discussion of the determinants of non-vaccination is important. Our findings suggest vulnerable groups should receive special attention to ensure they are protected. It is also important to consider the possible impact of pools of adults not immunized.

  11. Poor immune responses of newborn rhesus macaques to measles virus DNA vaccines expressing the hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, Fernando P; Lydy, Shari L; Lee, Sok-Hyong; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Adams, Robert J; Robinson, Harriet L; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-02-01

    A vaccine that would protect young infants against measles could facilitate elimination efforts and decrease morbidity and mortality in developing countries. However, immaturity of the immune system is an important obstacle to the development of such a vaccine. In this study, DNA vaccines expressing the measles virus (MeV) hemagglutinin (H) protein or H and fusion (F) proteins, previously shown to protect juvenile macaques, were used to immunize groups of 4 newborn rhesus macaques. Monkeys were inoculated intradermally with 200 μg of each DNA at birth and at 10 months of age. As controls, 2 newborn macaques were similarly vaccinated with DNA encoding the influenza virus H5, and 4 received one dose of the current live attenuated MeV vaccine (LAV) intramuscularly. All monkeys were monitored for development of MeV-specific neutralizing and binding IgG antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. These responses were poor compared to the responses induced by LAV. At 18 months of age, all monkeys were challenged intratracheally with a wild-type strain of MeV. Monkeys that received the DNA vaccine encoding H and F, but not H alone, were primed for an MeV-specific CD8(+) CTL response but not for production of antibody. LAV-vaccinated monkeys were protected from rash and viremia, while DNA-vaccinated monkeys developed rashes, similar to control monkeys, but had 10-fold lower levels of viremia. We conclude that vaccination of infant macaques with DNA encoding MeV H and F provided only partial protection from MeV infection.

  12. Clinical and epidemiological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with high vaccination coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, 250 measles suspected cases were studied in the Municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The median age found was 11 years and 76.0% of the cases were in school age children. Exposure histories were present in 149 patients and schools were the most frequent sites of transmission (45.0%. Vaccination status was known for 127 studied cases and 76.4% of them had received measles vaccine before their first birthday. One or more complications were reported for 68 cases aitd in 8.9% of the studied cases hospitalization was required. Frequency of complications varied according to each age group studied and were more commonly encountered among children No período de março de 1991 a abril de 1992, 250 casos de um total de 293 notificados como sarampo em Niterói, RJ foram estudados. Em 75,9% dos casos o sarampo ocorreu em pessoas de idade escolar (mediana: 11. História de exposição estava presmte em 149 pacientes. O local de transmissão variou de acordo com a idade sendo a escola o mais freqüentemente encoiitrado (45%. Em 127 casos o estado vacinai era conhecido e 76,4% deles tinham sido vacinados antes do primeiro aniversário. Em 68 casos uma ou mais complicações estavam presentes e em 8,9% deles a hospitalização foi necessária. Complicações foram mais freqüentes em menores de um ano de idade (55,6%. História de vacinação prévia não diminuiu o número de complicações dos casos estudados. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram mudanças na epidemiologia do sarampo, com alterações na distribuição etária dos casos da doença, leimido ã ocoiTência de importantes surtos da virose entre adolecentes e adultos jovens.

  13. Determinants of students' willingness to accept a measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination during a mumps outbreak: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, H.W.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Akkermans, R.P.; Swaan, C.M.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite high vaccination coverage, a mumps outbreak that affected mainly vaccinated university students and their contacts took place in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2012. We presented university students with a hypothetical case in which we offered them a measles, mumps, and rubel

  14. When, and how, should we introduce a combination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine into the national childhood expanded immunization programme in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Neil A

    2012-09-07

    This article briefly reviews the history and epidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella disease and the case for introducing combination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine into the national childhood immunization schedule in South Africa. Despite adopting the World Health Organization's Measles Elimination strategy in 1996 and achieving a significant decrease the incidence of measles, added effort is needed in South and southern Africa to reach the goal to eliminate endogenous spread measles. Mumps is still common disease of childhood and while there are few sequelae, even the rare complications are important in large populations. Congenital rubella syndrome is seldom reported, but it is estimated that of the million or so children born every year in South Africa over 600 infants are affected to some degree by rubella infection. The naturally acquired immunity to rubella in women of childbearing age in South Africa has been estimated at over 90%, so that introducing a rubella containing vaccine in childhood may paradoxically increase the proportion of girls reaching puberty still susceptible to rubella. The elimination of endogenous measles and rubella is being achieved in many countries in South America, and despite the recent measles epidemic, must still be seriously considered for South and southern Africa. Current constraints and potential steps needed to reach the goal in South Africa are discussed.

  15. THE RESULTS OF STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO THE COMBINED INJECTION VACCINES AGAINST INFLUENZA, MEASLES, RUBELLA AND MUMPS AND DT IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Haritе

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of antibodies to the separate and combined administration of the vaccine plus Grippol® Plus and vaccines against measles, mumps and/or rubella, diphtheria and tetanus (DT in children with chronic medical illnesses, including HIV and organic CNS. Revealed that at low reactogenicity and safety of the vaccine Grippol® Plus, concomitant vaccination does not affect the dynamics of the synthesis (seroprotection, seroconversion, diphtheria, mumps, and rubella antibodies, however, reduces the synthesis of measles antibodies. When combined administration of DT and mumps-measles vaccines + Grippol® Plus suppressed antibody response to a strain of influenza virus A/H3N2. 

  16. Predictors of Uptake and Timeliness of Newly Introduced Pneumococcal and Rotavirus Vaccines, and of Measles Vaccine in Rural Malawi: A Population Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzie Mvula

    Full Text Available Malawi introduced pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13 and monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1 in 2011 and 2012 respectively, and is planning the introduction of a second-dose measles vaccine (MV. We assessed predictors of availability, uptake and timeliness of these vaccines in a rural Malawian setting.Commencing on the first date of PCV13 eligibility we conducted a prospective population-based birth cohort study of 2,616 children under demographic surveillance in Karonga District, northern Malawi who were eligible for PCV13, or from the date of RV1 introduction both PCV13 and RV1. Potential predictors of vaccine uptake and timeliness for PCV13, RV1 and MV were analysed respectively using robust Poisson and Cox regression.Vaccine coverage was high for all vaccines, ranging from 86.9% for RV1 dose 2 to 95.4% for PCV13 dose 1. Median time delay for PCV13 dose 1 was 17 days (IQR 7-36, 19 days (IQR 8-36 for RV1 dose 1 and 20 days (IQR 3-46 for MV. Infants born to lower educated or farming mothers and those living further away from the road or clinic were at greater risk of being not fully vaccinated and being vaccinated late. Delays in vaccination were also associated with non-facility birth. Vaccine stock-outs resulted in both a delay in vaccine timeliness and in a decrease in completion of schedule.Despite high vaccination coverage in this setting, delays in vaccination were common. We identified programmatic and socio-demographic risk factors for uptake and timeliness of vaccination. Understanding who remains most vulnerable to be unvaccinated allows for focussed delivery thereby increasing population coverage and maximising the equitable benefits of universal vaccination programmes.

  17. A ‘post-honeymoon’ measles epidemic in Burundi: mathematical model-based analysis and implications for vaccination timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Katelyn C.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mathematical model with realistic demography, we analyze a large outbreak of measles in Muyinga sector in rural Burundi in 1988–1989. We generate simulated epidemic curves and age × time epidemic surfaces, which we qualitatively and quantitatively compare with the data. Our findings suggest that supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) should be used in places where routine vaccination cannot keep up with the increasing numbers of susceptible individuals resulting from population growth or from logistical problems such as cold chain maintenance. We use the model to characterize the relationship between SIA frequency and SIA age range necessary to suppress measles outbreaks. If SIAs are less frequent, they must expand their target age range. PMID:27672515

  18. A ‘post-honeymoon’ measles epidemic in Burundi: mathematical model-based analysis and implications for vaccination timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn C. Corey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a mathematical model with realistic demography, we analyze a large outbreak of measles in Muyinga sector in rural Burundi in 1988–1989. We generate simulated epidemic curves and age × time epidemic surfaces, which we qualitatively and quantitatively compare with the data. Our findings suggest that supplementary immunization activities (SIAs should be used in places where routine vaccination cannot keep up with the increasing numbers of susceptible individuals resulting from population growth or from logistical problems such as cold chain maintenance. We use the model to characterize the relationship between SIA frequency and SIA age range necessary to suppress measles outbreaks. If SIAs are less frequent, they must expand their target age range.

  19. Seroprevalence of anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG antibodies in pregnant women in Shiraz, Southern Iran: outcomes of a nationwide measles-rubella mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nonimmune pregnant women are at risk of developing congenital rubella syndrome and measles complications. We aimed to identify pregnant women susceptible to rubella or measles in order to determine the need for immunity screening and supplemental immunization in women of childbearing age. METHOD: This seroprevalence survey was conducted by convenience sampling in obstetric hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran. Serum IgG levels were measured by ELISA. RESULT: Mean age of the 175 pregnant women was 27.3±5.3 (range 16 to 42 years. The geometric mean concentration of anti-rubella IgG was 14.9 IU/mL (CI 95%,14.1-15.5, and that of anti-measles IgG was 13.8 IU/mL (CI 95%, 13-14.5. One hundred sixty-eight women (96% had a protective serologic level (>11 IU/mL of IgG against rubella, and 143 (81.7% had a protective level against measles. Except for a significant inverse correlation that was showed by univariate analysis between anti-rubella IgG and the women's age (P = 0.01, immunity did not correlate with demographic or obstetric characteristics or medical history. There was no significant correlation between anti-rubella and anti-measles IgG levels (P = 0.25. CONCLUSION: Nearly a decade after Iran's nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign for the population aged 5-25 years, most pregnant women up to 34 years of age had humoral immunity against rubella. We recommend rubella immunity screening or catch-up immunization for women older than 35 years who wish to become pregnant, and measles immunity screening and appropriate vaccination for all women of childbearing age.

  20. Enabling implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan: developing investment cases to achieve targets for measles and rubella prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Cherian, Thomas; Cochi, Stephen L

    2013-04-18

    Global prevention and control of infectious diseases requires significant investment of financial and human resources and well-functioning leadership and management structures. The reality of competing demands for limited resources leads to trade-offs and questions about the relative value of specific investments. Developing investment cases can help to provide stakeholders with information about the benefits, costs, and risks associated with available options, including examination of social, political, governance, and ethical issues. We describe the process of developing investment cases for globally coordinated management of action plans for measles and rubella as tools for enabling the implementation of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). We focus on considerations related to the timing of efforts to achieve measles and rubella goals independently and within the context of ongoing polio eradication efforts, other immunization priorities, and other efforts to control communicable diseases or child survival initiatives. Our analysis suggests that the interactions between the availability and sustainability of financial support, sufficient supplies of vaccines, capacity of vaccine delivery systems, and commitments at all levels will impact the feasibility and timing of achieving national, regional, and global goals. The timing of investments and achievements will determine the net financial and health benefits obtained. The methodology, framing, and assumptions used to characterize net benefits and uncertainties in the investment cases will impact estimates and perceptions about the value of prevention achieved overall by the GVAP. We suggest that appropriately valuing the benefits of investments of measles and rubella prevention will require the use of integrated dynamic disease, economic, risk, and decision analytic models in combination with consideration of qualitative factors, and that synthesizing information in the form of investment cases may help

  1. Similar immunogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine administrated at 8 months versus 12 months age in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hanqing; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Haiping; Wang, Zhifang; Li, Qian; Yan, Rui; Guo, Jing; Zhou, Yang; Pan, Jinren; Xie, Shuyun

    2014-06-30

    Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) strategy has been recommended by World Health Organization and is also widely adopted in many countries. In order to provide the evidence for perfecting the immunization strategy of MMR, this study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of MMR with different two-dose schedule in infants. 280 participants were enrolled and randomly allocated to Group 1 (first dose at 8 months) or Group 2 (first dose at 12 months), and both groups administered the second dose at 10 months later. Solicited local and general symptoms after each vaccination with MMR were mild and infrequent in all participants of two groups. After administration of the first dose of MMR, seropositive rates were 100% in both groups for measles, 89.3% in Group 1 and 87.1% in Group 2 for mumps (P=0.578), 92.0% in Group 1 and 92.9% in Group 2 (P=0.393). The seropositive rates of mumps decreased significantly (from >86% to measles and rubella. All children get the positive titer for three vaccines in two groups after given the second dose MMR, higher seroconversion rate was found for mumps both in two groups (71.7% vs 77.2%, P=0.370). In conclusion, this study indicated that the MMR was well tolerated and immunogenic against measles, mumps and rubella with schedule of first dose both at 8 months and 12 months age. Our findings strongly supported that two doses of MMR can be introduced by replacing the first dose of MR in current EPI with MMR at 8 months age and the second dose at 18 months in China.

  2. The average cost of measles cases and adverse events following vaccination in industrialised countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kou Ulla

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the annual incidence rate of measles has dramatically decreased in industrialised countries since the implementation of universal immunisation programmes, cases continue to occur in countries where endemic measles transmission has been interrupted and in countries where adequate levels of immunisation coverage have not been maintained. The objective of this study is to develop a model to estimate the average cost per measles case and per adverse event following measles immunisation using the Netherlands (NL, the United Kingdom (UK and Canada as examples. Methods Parameter estimates were based on a review of the published literature. A decision tree was built to represent the complications associated with measles cases and adverse events following imminisation. Monte-Carlo Simulation techniques were used to account for uncertainty. Results From the perspective of society, we estimated the average cost per measles case to be US$276, US$307 and US$254 for the NL, the UK and Canada, respectively, and the average cost of adverse events following immunisation per vaccinee to be US$1.43, US$1.93 and US$1.51 for the NL, UK and Canada, respectively. Conclusions These average cost estimates could be combined with incidence estimates and costs of immunisation programmes to provide estimates of the cost of measles to industrialised countries. Such estimates could be used as a basis to estimate the potential economic gains of global measles eradication.

  3. INTRALESIONAL MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA (MMR VACCINE-AN EFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TOOL IN THE TREATMENT OF WART

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    Raju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are common cutaneous viral infection. Various therapeutic modalities have been using in treatment of wart, but none of them are standardised. Immunotherapy is new current approach in the treatment of wart. AIMS: To know the efficacy and safety profile of Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR Vaccine in the treatment of wart. METHODS: MMR vaccine was injected into a largest single wart intralesionally and subsequent injections given every 2 weeks apart for about 3 to 5 times. Every month followup of patients was done to know the clearance of wart. RESULTS: Complete remission of warts seen in 70.4% of patients, partial remission seen in 22.2% and no response was seen in 7.4% of patients. No serious adverse side effects were seen in the current study. CONCLUSION: MMR vaccine can be considered as a safe, effective, inexpensive intralesional immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of wart.

  4. Analysis of 7 measles cases associated with the first dose vaccination of measles and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine%7例首剂麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗相关麻疹病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东彦; 毛雯雯; 王中战; 张建军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of measles cases associated with the immunization of measles and rubella (MR) combine vaccine and provide evidence for differential diagnosis of measles and MR vaccine associated measles. Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of MR vaccine associated measles in Fengtai in 2011. Results Seven MR vaccine associated measles cases were laboratory confirmed in 2011. All the cases were infants aged 8-9 months receving the first dose of MR vaccine injection. All the vaccines used were qualified and in different batches. The incidence was 2. 5 per 10 000 doses. No time and space clustering of the cases was observed, and no second cases occurred. The clinical manifestations of the cases were characterized by respiratory symptom and short interval between fever and rash. Conclusion There are differences in clinical manifestations, laboratory detection results and epidemiological characteristics between measles cases and MR vaccine associated measles cases. Close attention should be paid in differential diagnosis.%目的 调查麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(measles and rubella combined attenuated live vaccine,MR)相关麻疹病例(a vaccine-associated measles case)的特点,与麻疹病例进行鉴别.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对丰台区2011年MR相关麻疹病例进行分析.结果 2011年丰台区实验室确诊7例MR相关麻疹病例,均为8~9月龄幼儿首次接种MR,所用疫苗均为合格疫苗,无批号聚集.发病率为2.5/万剂.病例发病无时间、地点聚集性,与麻疹病例无流行病学联系,亦无二代病例出现,临床表现无咳嗽及呼吸道卡他症状,发热与出疹间隔期短.结论 疫苗相关病例与麻疹病例在临床表现、实验室检测和流行病学特征上有所不同,基层工作者应在实际工作中加以鉴别.

  5. Sequence analysis of measles virus strains collected during the pre- and early-vaccination era in Denmark reveals a considerable diversity of ancient strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Schöller, S.; Schierup, M. H.;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis of the he...... lineages but merely members of an evolutionary continuum of pre-vaccination era MV strains which by chance or due to an improved capability survived the worldwide partial herd immunity accomplished through vaccination....

  6. A serologic study of Measles in association with the history of vaccination in 7-11 years old children in Rey in 1371

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtari Azad T; Naghavi M; Rakhshandeh

    1994-01-01

    201 blood samples were collected by cluster sampling from 7-11 years old children and measles antibody titer was measured by hemagglutination inhibition test. Despite testing all the sera, the results were analysed on the 139 samples that had documented vaccination records and no history of measles. Among 139 children 44 had received 2 doses of vaccine one dose before 12 and one after 15 months, 64 had one dose after 15 months, 29 had only one dose before 12 months and 2 had not received vacc...

  7. Non-specific effects of standard measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age on childhood mortality: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cecilia; Garly, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine in a randomised trial whether a 25% difference in mortality exists between 4.5 months and 3 years of age for children given two standard doses of Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccines at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those given one dose of measles vaccine at 9 months......-tetanus-pertussis vaccine at least four weeks before enrolment. A large proportion of the children (80%) had previously taken part in randomised trials of neonatal vitamin A supplementation. Intervention Children were randomised to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine...... months of age the mortality rate ratio of children who received two doses of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age compared with those who received a single dose of Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine or Schwarz vaccine at 9 months of age was 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 1...

  8. A serologic study of Measles in association with the history of vaccination in 7-11 years old children in Rey in 1371

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtari Azad T

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available 201 blood samples were collected by cluster sampling from 7-11 years old children and measles antibody titer was measured by hemagglutination inhibition test. Despite testing all the sera, the results were analysed on the 139 samples that had documented vaccination records and no history of measles. Among 139 children 44 had received 2 doses of vaccine one dose before 12 and one after 15 months, 64 had one dose after 15 months, 29 had only one dose before 12 months and 2 had not received vaccine. The antibody titer of the first two groups had no significant difference with those that had received one vaccine dose, before the age 12 months (P<0.001. There were no significant differences in the titer of antibodies with time elapse in none of the vaccination histories. This may be due to efficacy of vaccine and also circulation of wild virus in the community. Regardless of the history of vaccination, 95.5% of children had immunity to measles (titer?3. Considering the results if the current strategy of vaccination implemented completely, the status of immunity would be satisfactory.

  9. Evaluation of a measles vaccine campaign by oral-fluid surveys in a rural Kenyan district: interpretation of antibody prevalence data using mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuma, E O; Okiro, E A; Bett, A; Abwao, J; Were, S; Samuel, D; Vyse, A; Gay, N; Brown, D W G; Nokes, D J

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a measles vaccine campaign in rural Kenya, based on oral-fluid surveys and mixture-modelling analysis. Specimens were collected from 886 children aged 9 months to 14 years pre-campaign and from a comparison sample of 598 children aged 6 months post-campaign. Quantitative measles-specific antibody data were obtained by commercial kit. The estimated proportions of measles-specific antibody negative in children aged 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years were 51%, 42% and 27%, respectively, pre- campaign and 18%, 14% and 6%, respectively, post-campaign. We estimate a reduction in the proportion susceptible of 65-78%, with approximately 85% of the population recorded to have received vaccine. The proportion of 'weak' positive individuals rose from 35% pre-campaign to 54% post-campaign. Our results confirm the effectiveness of the campaign in reducing susceptibility to measles and demonstrate the potential of oral-fluid studies to monitor the impact of measles vaccination campaigns.

  10. Description of two measles outbreaks in the Lazio Region, Italy (2006-2007. Importance of pockets of low vaccine coverage in sustaining the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magurano Fabio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the launch of the national plan for measles elimination, in Italy, immunization coverage remains suboptimal and outbreaks continue to occur. Two measles outbreaks, occurred in Lazio region during 2006-2007, were investigated to identify sources of infection, transmission routes, and assess operational implications for elimination of the disease. Methods Data were obtained from several sources, the routine infectious diseases surveillance system, field epidemiological investigations, and molecular genotyping of virus by the national reference laboratory. Results Overall 449 cases were reported, sustained by two different stereotypes overlapping for few months. Serotype D4 was likely imported from Romania by a Roma/Sinti family and subsequently spread to the rest of the population. Serotype B3 was responsible for the second outbreak which started in a secondary school. Pockets of low vaccine coverage individuals (Roma/Sinti communities, high school students facilitated the reintroduction of serotypes not endemic in Italy and facilitated the measles infection to spread. Conclusions Communities with low vaccine coverage represent a more serious public health threat than do sporadic susceptible individuals. The successful elimination of measles will require additional efforts to immunize low vaccine coverage population groups, including hard-to-reach individuals, adolescents, and young adults. An enhanced surveillance systems, which includes viral genotyping to document chains of transmission, is an essential tool for evaluating strategy to control and eliminate measles

  11. Association of BCG, DTP, and measles containing vaccines with childhood mortality: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Weiser, Karla; López-López, José A; Kakourou, Artemisia; Chaplin, Katherine; Christensen, Hannah; Martin, Natasha K; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Reingold, Arthur L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects on non-specific and all cause mortality, in children under 5, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV); to examine internal validity of the studies; and to examine any modifying effects of sex, age, vaccine sequence, and co-administration of vitamin A. Design Systematic review, including assessment of risk of bias, and meta-analyses of similar studies. Study eligibility criteria Clinical trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies of the effects on mortality of BCG, whole cell DTP, and standard titre MCV in children under 5. Data sources Searches of Medline, Embase, Global Index Medicus, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, supplemented by contact with experts in the field. To avoid overlap in children studied across the included articles, findings from non-overlapping birth cohorts were identified. Results Results from 34 birth cohorts were identified. Most evidence was from observational studies, with some from short term clinical trials. Most studies reported on all cause (rather than non-specific) mortality. Receipt of BCG vaccine was associated with a reduction in all cause mortality: the average relative risks were 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.01) from five clinical trials and 0.47 (0.32 to 0.69) from nine observational studies at high risk of bias. Receipt of DTP (almost always with oral polio vaccine) was associated with a possible increase in all cause mortality on average (relative risk 1.38, 0.92 to 2.08) from 10 studies at high risk of bias; this effect seemed stronger in girls than in boys. Receipt of standard titre MCV was associated with a reduction in all cause mortality (relative risks 0.74 (0.51 to 1.07) from four clinical trials and 0.51 (0.42 to 0.63) from 18 observational studies at high risk of bias); this effect seemed stronger in girls than in boys. Seven observational studies

  12. Comparative sequence analysis of the P-, M- and L-coding region of the measles virus CAM-70 live attenuated vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Santos

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus is a highly contagious agent which causes a major health problem in developing countries. The viral genomic RNA is single-stranded, nonsegmented and of negative polarity. Many live attenuated vaccines for measles virus have been developed using either the prototype Edmonston strain or other locally isolated measles strains. Despite the diverse geographic origins of the vaccine viruses and the different attenuation methods used, there was remarkable sequence similarity of H, F and N genes among all vaccine strains. CAM-70 is a Japanese measles attenuated vaccine strain widely used in Brazilian children and produced by Bio-Manguinhos since 1982. Previous studies have characterized this vaccine biologically and genomically. Nevertheless, only the F, H and N genes have been sequenced. In the present study we have sequenced the remaining P, M and L genes (approximately 1.6, 1.4 and 6.5 kb, respectively to complete the genomic characterization of CAM-70 and to assess the extent of genetic relationship between CAM-70 and other current vaccines. These genes were amplified using long-range or standard RT-PCR techniques, and the cDNA was cloned and automatically sequenced using the dideoxy chain-termination method. The sequence analysis comparing previously sequenced genotype A strains with the CAM-70 Bio-Manguinhos strain showed a low divergence among them. However, the CAM-70 strains (CAM-70 Bio-Manguinhos and a recently sequenced CAM-70 submaster seed strain were assigned to a specific group by phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method. Information about our product at the genomic level is important for monitoring vaccination campaigns and for future studies of measles virus attenuation.

  13. [The measles are here again].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstelten, W.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Warris, A.; Binnendijk, R.S. van; Wolfs, T.F.; Hahne, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the vaccination of Dutch children against the measles through the National Immunisation Programme started in 1976, the incidence of measles has greatly decreased. Local epidemics do still occur, however; these are largely confined to minority groups of orthodox Protestants who object to vaccin

  14. Effects of the live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijstek, Marloes W; Kamphuis, Sylvia; Armbrust, Wineke; Swart, Joost; Gorter, Simone; de Vries, Lara D; Smits, Gaby P; van Gageldonk, Pieter G; Berbers, Guy A M; Wulffraat, Nico M

    2013-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The immunogenicity and the effects of live attenuated measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination on disease activity in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are matters of concern, especially in patients treated with immunocompromising therapies. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether M

  15. The Study of the Best Immunization Time of Measles Vaccine for Newborns%麻疹疫苗最佳免疫月龄的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王联君; 陈超; 周剑惠; 王晶; 刘桂燕

    2001-01-01

    Through the study of measles antibody level of puerpera and their newborns, it found that the measles antibody level in most mature women was low. Measles antibody level of 51 mothers and their newborns were the same and, 7 pairs were different by one titer. It meant that measles antibody level between mothers and their newborns was closely related, therefore newborn's antibody level can be raised by vaccination to mature women. Through detection of maternal-transferred measles antibody level of different month-old infants, it revealed that measles antibody positive rate in newborns was not high and it reduced to 48.3% at 3 months old, to 19% at 6 months old, to 15% at 8 months old, which afforded nearly no protection for the infants. When vaccinating 6 month-old infants and 8 month-old infants, the immunizing successful rates of them were 84.4% and 85.00% respectively and the measles antibody distribution of them showed no difference. Authors suggest that it should be better to change the first vaccination of measles vaccine from 8 months old to 6 months old, and revaccinated at the age of 18 months old. It also should be considered to be vaccinated again for mature women.%对58对25~30岁产妇及其婴儿的麻疹抗体的研究表明,58对母婴中有51对母婴麻疹抗体滴度相同,7对不同,但只相差1个滴度,且两者抗体均处于低水平,说明母婴抗体间有密切关系。通过对胎传抗体追踪观察发现,新生儿抗体水平不高,3月龄时抗体阳性率已降至48.3%,6月龄和8月龄时分别降至19.0%和15.0%,6月龄和8月龄婴儿接种麻疹疫苗后免疫成功率分别为84.5%和85.0%,因此可考虑将麻疹疫苗初免提前到6月龄时进行。

  16. The Inverse Method for a Childhood Infectious Disease Model with Its Application to Pre-vaccination and Post-vaccination Measles Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jude D; Jin, Chaochao; Wang, Hao

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we improve the classic SEIR model by separating the juvenile group and the adult group to better describe the dynamics of childhood infectious diseases. We perform stability analysis to study the asymptotic dynamics of the new model, and perform sensitivity analysis to uncover the relative importance of the parameters on infection. The transmission rate is a key parameter in controlling the spread of an infectious disease as it directly determines the disease incidence. However, it is essentially impossible to measure the transmission rate for certain infectious diseases. We introduce an inverse method for our new model, which can extract the time-dependent transmission rate from either prevalence data or incidence data in existing open databases. Pre- and post-vaccination measles data sets from Liverpool and London are applied to estimate the time-varying transmission rate. From the Fourier transform of the transmission rate of Liverpool and London, we observe two spectral peaks with frequencies 1/year and 3/year. These dominant frequencies are robust with respect to different initial values. The dominant 1/year frequency is consistent with common belief that measles is driven by seasonal factors such as environmental changes and immune system changes and the 3/year frequency indicates the superiority of school contacts in driving measles transmission over other seasonal factors. Our results show that in coastal cities, the main modulator of the transmission of measles virus, paramyxovirus, is school seasons. On the other hand, in landlocked cities, both weather and school seasons have almost the same influence on paramyxovirus transmission.

  17. Combination Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Varicella Vaccine in Healthy Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Immunogenicity and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Li, Xing; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Yao, A-Ling; Chen, Qing

    2015-11-01

    A combined measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine is expected to facilitate universal immunization against these 4 diseases. This study was undertaken to synthesize current research findings of the immunogenicity and safety of MMRV in healthy children.We searched PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and other databases through September 9, 2014. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected and collected independently by 2 reviewers. Meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 and RevMan 5.3.Twenty-four RCTs were included in qualitative synthesis. Nineteen RCTs compared single MMRV dose with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine with or without varicella vaccine (MMR + V/MMR). Similar seroconversion rates of these 4 viruses were found between comparison groups. There were comparable geometric mean titers (GMTs) against mumps and varicella viruses between MMRV group and MMR + V/MMR group. MMRV group achieved enhanced immune response to measles component, with GMT ratio of 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48, 1.86; P measles/rubella-like rash (relative risks 1.44-1.45) in MMRV groups.MMRV had comparable immunogenicity and overall safety profiles to MMR + V/MMR in healthy children based on current evidence.

  18. MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they would return. 2 Wanhdowshheonu?ld get MMR vaccine Children should get 2 doses of MMR vaccine: • First ... be given at the same time as other vaccines. Children between 1 and 12 years of age can ...

  19. Air travel as a risk factor for introduction of measles in a highly vaccinated population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnendijk, R.S. van; Hahne, S.; Timen, A.; Kempen, G. van; Kohl, R.H.; Boot, H.J.; Wolthers, K.C.; Wetsteijn, J.C.F.M.; Vries, A. de; Westert, K.; Brown, K.E.; Swart, R.L. de

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological and molecular investigation of two small measles clusters in The Netherlands in July/August 2007 revealed an association with travel by air of the index cases and nosocomial spread in the first cluster. Although these importations did not result in an outbreak among unvaccinated subj

  20. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengyi Zhang; Yuan Zhao; Lili Yang; Changhong Lu; Ying Meng; Xiaoli Guan; Hongjin An; Meizhong Zhang; Wenqin Guo; Bo Shang; Jing Yu

    2016-01-01

    Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85%) tested ...

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered by disposable-syringe jet injector in healthy Brazilian infants: a randomized non-inferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes Martins, Reinaldo; Curran, Birute; Maia, Maria de Lourdes Sousa; Ribeiro, Maria das Graças Tavares; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; da Silva Freire, Marcos; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Siqueira, Marilda Mendonça; Lemos, Maria Cristina F; de Albuquerque, Elizabeth Maciel; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos Reis; Homma, Akira; Saganic, Laura; Jarrahian, Courtney; Royals, Michael; Zehrung, Darin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to determine if immunogenicity to measles-mumps-rubella vaccine delivered to infants via a disposable-syringe jet injector (DSJI) was non-inferior to that administered by needle and syringe (NS). Vaccination safety was evaluated, as were the use, performance, and acceptability of each delivery method. The DSJI was the PharmaJet 2009 generation-1 device (G1) and the vaccine was measles-mumps-rubella vaccine from Bio-Manguinhos. Five hundred eighty-two healthy Brazilian infants were randomized to receive vaccine via G1 or NS. Seroconversion rates against measles and mumps viruses in the G1 treatment group did not meet non-inferiority criteria when compared with the NS group; however, responses in the G1 group to rubella virus were non-inferior to those of NS vaccinees. Most adverse events were mild or moderate. Crying after injection was more frequent in the NS group, and local skin reactions were more common in the G1 group. Five serious adverse events were judged causally unrelated to treatment and all resolved. Parents/guardians expressed a strong preference for G1 over NS for their children. Vaccinators found the G1 easy to use but noted incomplete vaccine delivery in some cases. Although the G1 has been superseded by an updated device, our results are important for the continued improvement and evaluation of DSJIs, which have the potential to overcome many of the challenges and risks associated with needle-based injections worldwide. Recommendations for future DSJI clinical studies include rigorous training of vaccinators, quantitative measurement of wetness on the skin following injection, and regular monitoring of device and vaccinator performance.

  2. Is there a 'regressive phenotype' of Autism Spectrum Disorder associated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine? A CPEA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer; Luyster, Rhiannon; Risi, Susan; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Dunn, Michelle; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan L; McMahon, William M; Goudie-Nice, Julie; Minshew, Nancy; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M Anne; Goldberg, Wendy A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Volkmar, Fred R; Lord, Catherine

    2006-04-01

    A multi-site study of 351 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 31 typically developing children used caregiver interviews to describe the children's early acquisition and loss of social-communication milestones. For the majority of children with ASD who had experienced a regression, pre-loss development was clearly atypical. Children who had lost skills also showed slightly poorer outcomes in verbal IQ and social reciprocity, a later mean age of onset of autistic symptoms, and more gastrointestinal symptoms than children with ASD and no regression. There was no evidence that onset of autistic symptoms or of regression was related to measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. The implications of these findings for the existence of a 'regressive phenotype' of ASD are discussed.

  3. Vaccine-induced measles virus-specific T cells do not prevent infection or disease but facilitate subsequent clearance of viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsuan W; Pan, Chien-Hsiung; Adams, Robert J; Laube, Beth L; Griffin, Diane E

    2014-04-15

    Infection with wild-type measles virus (MeV) induces lifelong protection from reinfection, and parenteral delivery of the live attenuated measles vaccine (LAV) also provides protection from measles. The level of neutralizing antibody is a good indicator of protection, but the independent roles of MeV-specific antibody and T cells have not been identified. In this study, macaques immunized with LAV through a nebulizer and a mouthpiece developed MeV-specific T-cell responses but not neutralizing antibodies. Upon challenge with wild-type MeV, these animals developed rashes and viremias similar to those in naive animals but cleared viral RNA from blood 25 to 40 days faster. The nebulizer-immunized animals also had more robust MeV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses than the naive animals after challenge, characterized by a higher number and better durability of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells. Induction of MeV-specific circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells capable of producing multiple cytokines correlated with clearance of viral RNA in the nebulizer-immunized macaques. These studies demonstrated that MeV-specific T-cell immunity alone did not prevent measles, but T-cell priming enhanced the magnitude, durability, and polyfunctionality of MeV-specific T cells after challenge infection and correlated with more rapid clearance of MeV RNA. IMPORTANCE The components of vaccine-induced immunity necessary for protection from infection and disease have not been clearly identified for most vaccines. Vaccine development usually focuses on induction of antibody, but T-cell-based vaccines are also under development. The live attenuated measles vaccine (LAV) given subcutaneously induces both T cells and neutralizing antibody and provides solid protection from infection. LAV delivered to the upper respiratory tract through a nebulizer and mouthpiece induced a T-cell response but no neutralizing antibody. These T-cell-primed macaques demonstrated no protection from

  4. 南昌市儿童家长对麻疹疫苗再次强化免疫态度调查%Investigation on attitude about measles vaccine strengthen Immunization again among children s guardian in nanchang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊昌辉; 廖征; 文海蓉; 张艳霞; 彭时辉; 陈淑华; 李剑; 万刚凤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the children parents attitude about measles vaccine strengthen immunization, and provide scientific basis for elimination the measles. Method Using household survey method to investigate the children's parents. Results Attitude about Measles vaccine strengthen immunization among children's parents are different in gender, profession , spousea'profession. usual attitude of the children vaccinated. urban and rural locations, number of children, living witb children, vaccine safety, knowing measles vaccine strengthen immunization, vaccinating measles vaccine, and there are statistically significant difference between them. Conclusions Children's guardian'attitude about measles vaccine strengthen immunization are related to gender, profession, spouses'profession, usual attitude of the children vaccinated, urban and rural locations, number of children, living with children, vaccine safety, knowing measles vaccine strengthen immunization and vaccinating measles vaccine. Because of this we should take appropriate strategy to improve measles vaccine strengthen immunization coverage rates.%目的 了解儿童家长对再次麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度,为消除麻疹提供科学依据.方法 采用入户调查方式对儿童家长进行调查.结果 儿童家长对麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度在性别、职业、配偶职业、平时对孩子接种疫苗态度、城乡位置、孩子数量、与孩子同住、接种疫苗安全、知道麻疹疫苗强化免疫及其孩子强化接种麻疹疫苗这10个方面的差异具有统计学意义.结论 儿童家长对于麻疹疫苗强化免疫的态度与性别、职业、配偶职业、平时重视孩子接种疫苗态度、城乡位置、孩子数量、与孩子同住、接种疫苗安全、知道麻疹疫苗强化免疫及其孩子强化接种麻疹疫苗因素有关,应采取针对性策略,提高麻疹疫苗的强化接种率.

  5. Analysis on epidemiological characteristics of measles before and after measles vaccine supplementary immunization activities in Shijiazhuang%疫苗强化活动对石家庄市麻疹流行病学特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维华; 张双宅; 王晓丽; 徐保红; 赵冬; 张弘

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of measles before and after measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in 2007 and approach measures of measles elimination. Methods: To collect data from Measles Special Surveillance System in 2005 ~ 2009, and analyze with descriptive epidemiology. Results: After SIAs in April 2007, the reported annual measles incidences were 12.18/100000 , 15.70/100000,12.61/100000,1.58/100000 and 1.97/100000 separately. The average age of the incidences were from 7.8 in 2005 down to 6.26 in 2009(t =2.02,P < 0.05). The reported incidences of < 1 year old increasingly counted for 28.9% ( t = 8. 156, P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: A high quality SIAs was a good measure for avoiding high measles incidences. It was recommended of MV to women of childbearing age during SIAs to raise the level of maternal antibodies. Meanwhile, the second vaccination was needed after SIAs for enforcing the effects.%目的:分析2007年进行麻疹疫苗强化活动后,石家庄市(区)麻疹流行病学特征的变化,探讨控制策略.方法:收集2005年-2009年麻疹资料,进行描述统计学分析.结果:2005年-2009年,麻疹发病率分别为12.18/10万,15.70/10万,12.61/10万,1.58/10万,1.97/10万.发病平均年龄由2005年7.8降至2009年6.26(t=2.02,P<0.05).2008年-2009年,<1岁发病婴儿所占构成比增加至28.9%(t=8.156,P<0.01).结论:疫苗强化活动能有效降低麻疹发病率.为保护<8月龄婴儿,应适度加强育龄妇女麻疹疫苗接种.强化活动后,及时进行二次接种,巩固效果.

  6. A Measles Outbreak at a College with a Prematriculation Immunization Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, Bradley S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reports a retrospective cohort study among students living in campus dormitories to examine potential risk factors for measles vaccine failure. As in secondary schools, measles outbreaks can occur among highly vaccinated college populations. Requiring two doses of measles vaccine for college entrants should help reduce measles outbreaks in college…

  7. 母亲接种麻疹疫苗对婴儿首针麻疹疫苗免疫效果的影响%Evaluation on the influence of mothers' measles vaccination before pregnancy on the immune effect of infant's first-dose measles vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永成; 高志刚; 张颖; 张之伦; 曲江文; 丁亚兴; 田宏; 陈德荣; 刘明珠

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价母亲接种麻疹疫苗后对婴儿首针麻疹疫苗免疫成功率的影响,了解孕妇和婴儿的麻疹抗体水平及其关系.方法 按照近10年内母亲是否接种含麻疹成分疫苗选择研究对象,追踪监测孕妇分娩前、新生儿出生时、婴儿8月龄免疫前和接种疫苗后1个月的麻疹IgG抗体水平,采用ELISA法检测.抗体效价>200 mIU/mL为阳性,>1 000 mIU/mL为保护性抗体水平阳性.采用t检验和卡方检验.结果 共调查107对研究对象,其中接种疫苗组41对,未接种疫苗组66对.母亲接种疫苗组新生儿麻疹保护性抗体阳性21名,占51.2%,未接种疫苗组阳性19名,占28.8%(x2 =5.436,P=0.020);新生儿麻疹保护性抗体几何平均效价(GMC)分别为735.3和566.7 mIU/mL(t'=2.064,P=0.043);两组分别检测36名和60名免疫前后的婴儿,母亲接种疫苗组首针免疫成功率为91.7%,未接种疫苗组为90.0%(校正x2=0.075,P=0.785);免疫后1个月麻疹保护性抗体GMC分别为1 055.6和926.0 mIU/mL(t=1.648,P=0.103).结论 母亲接种含麻疹成分疫苗后不影响8月龄婴儿首针麻疹疫苗的免疫成功率和抗体效价,能提高孕妇和新生儿麻疹保护性抗体阳性率,抗体效价也显著增高.%Objective To evaluate the influence of mothers' measles vaccination on the success rate of infants' first-dose measles vaccination and to access the relationship between mothers' anti-measles antibody levels and their infants'.Methods The recruited pregnant women were divided into two groups according to their measles vaccination history in recent 10 years,and their anti measles IgG antibody levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The anti-measles antibody levels of the corresponding infants were detected by ELISA at birth,8-months after birth (before measles vaccination)and one month after measles vaccination.The concentration of anti-measles IgG antibody >200 mIU/mL was considered as seropositive,and 1

  8. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be given at the same time as other vaccines. Children between 1 and 12 years of age can ... other severe problems have been reported after a child gets MMR vaccine, including: Deafness Long-term seizures, coma, or lowered ...

  9. Live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella and the risk of hospital admissions for nontargeted infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Poulsen, Anja;

    2014-01-01

    ). Nationwide Danish registers provided data on vaccinations and hospital admissions. The recommended vaccination schedule was inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) administered at ages 3, 5, and 12 months and MMR at age 15 months...

  10. Impact of a measles elimination strategy on measles incidence in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathy, T S; Zahrin, H Nor; Norhashmimi, H; Az-Ulhusna, A; Zainah, S; Rohani, J

    2009-07-01

    In Malaysia, the two dose measles - mumps - rubella (MMR) vaccine was introduced in the Expanded Program on Immunization in 2002. The Ministry of Health then initiated a measles elimination strategy which included enhanced case-based surveillance with laboratory testing of all suspected cases. The objective of our study was to analyse national measles laboratory data from 2004 to 2008 to study the impact of the nationwide strategy on measles case incidence. Blood samples collected from suspected measles cases during the acute stage of the illness were investigated for measles specific IgM. The estimated incidence of measles ranged from 22.3 cases (in 2004) to 2.27 cases (in 2006) per 100,000 population. During this time, the measles vaccination coverage was above 85%. Laboratory confirmed measles cases dropped from 42.2% in 2004, when sporadic outbreaks were reported, to 3.9% in 2007. Screening for measles IgG levels in 2008 showed that 82.8% of those > 7 years old had adequate immunity. The measles control strategy appears to have been successful in reducing the incidence of measles. Continuing high vaccination coverage rates and ongoing measles surveillance are necessary to achieve our goal of measles elimination.

  11. A 60-year review on the changing epidemiology of measles in capital Beijing, China, 1951-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Juan; LU, Li; Pang, Xinghuo; Sun, Meiping; Ma, Rui; Liu, Donglei; Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background China pledged to join the global effort to eliminate measles by 2012. To improve measles control strategy, the epidemic trend and population immunity of measles were investigated in 1951–2011 in Beijing. Methods The changing trend of measles since 1951 was described based on measles surveillance data from Beijing Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The measles vaccination coverage and antibody level were assessed by routinely reported measles vaccination data and twenty...

  12. The pre-vaccination regional epidemiological landscape of measles in Italy: contact patterns, effort needed for eradication, and comparison with other regions of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmaso Stefania

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong regional heterogeneity and generally sub-optimal rates of measles vaccination in Italy have, to date, hampered attainment of WHO targets for measles elimination, and have generated the need for the new Italian National Measles Elimination Plan. Crucial to success of the plan is the identification of intervention priorities based upon a clear picture of the regional epidemiology of measles derived from the use of data to estimate basic parameters. Previous estimates of measles force of infection for Italy have appeared anomalously low. It has been argued elsewhere that this results from Italian selective under-reporting by age of cases and that the true measles force of infection in Italy is probably similar to that of other European countries. A deeper examination of the evidence for this conjecture is undertaken in the present paper. Methods Using monthly regional case notifications data from 1949 to the start of vaccination in 1976 and notifications by age from 1971–76, summary equilibrium parameters (force of infection (FOI, basic reproductive ratio (R0 and critical vaccination coverage (pc are calculated for each region and for each of 5 plausible contact patterns. An analysis of the spectra of incidence profiles is also carried out. Finally a transmission dynamics model is employed to explore the correspondence between projections using different estimates of force of infection and data on seroprevalence in Italy. Results FOI estimates are lower than comparable European FOIs and there is substantial regional heterogeneity in basic reproductive ratios; certain patterns of contact matrices are demonstrated to be unfeasible. Most regions show evidence of 3-year epidemic cycles or longer, and compared with England & Wales there appears to be little synchronisation between regions. Modelling results suggest that the lower FOI estimated from corrected aggregate national data matches serological data more closely than

  13. Measles control: a global battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Measles kills about 1.4 million children each year. To bring about reductions in measles cases and deaths, WHO has made some recommendations. Public health officials at the community, district, and national levels need to achieve at least 90% measles vaccine coverage. This coverage level reduces cases and deaths, but may not stop transmission. The primary goal should be that health workers deliver at least 1 dose of measles vaccine to all children at the scheduled age. Several complementary strategies are needed within each country to achieve this high coverage. In situations where there is a high incidence of measles in a defined subgroup of older children, older children should receive extra doses of vaccine when they enter school. In-service training of hospital and clinic staff should reduce the number of missed opportunities (i.e., children who visit health facilities but who are not screened and administered needed immunizations). Public health workers need to identify reasons for high drop-out rates and take corrective action. Limited resources should be directed to high risk areas: areas with high population density, low measles immunization coverage, known vitamin A deficiency, or high reported measles incidence or death rate. Unimmunized urban poor children, underserved ethnic minorities, refugees, people in underserved border areas, children admitted to the hospital, and infants of HIV positive mothers comprise high risk groups. Measles outbreaks occur even in areas where measles immunization coverage is high. Control measures are not always effective, especially if taken late in an epidemic. At the very least, health officials should gather data on cases and death (e.g., date of onset and immunization status). They should determine why the outbreak took place. If possible, they should conduct a vaccine efficacy study. To reduce deaths from measles by 95%, immunization, treatment of measles and its complications at an early stage, and vitamin A

  14. One size does not fit all: local determinants of measles vaccination in four districts of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah; Ansari, Umaira

    2009-01-01

    Background Rates of childhood vaccination in Pakistan remain low.There is continuing debate about the role of consumer and service factors in determining levels of vaccination in developing countries. Methods In a stratified random cluster sample of census enumeration areas across four districts in Pakistan, household interviews about vaccination of children and potentially related factors with 10,423 mothers of 14,542 children preceded discussion of findings in separate male and female focus...

  15. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas; Sartono, Erliyani; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2016-02-28

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo was associated with an increased frequency of CRP ≥ 5 mg/l (28 v. 12%; P=0·005). Six weeks after supplementation, VAS had significant sex-differential effects on leucocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil cell counts, decreasing them in males but increasing them in females. Mainly in females, the effect of VAS on cytokine responses differed by previous VAS: in previous VAS recipients, VAS increased the pro-inflammatory and T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses, whereas VAS decreased these responses in previously unsupplemented children. In previous VAS recipients, VAS was associated with increased IFN-γ responses to phytohaemagglutinin in females (geometric mean ratio (GMR): 3·97; 95% CI 1·44, 10·90) but not in males (GMR 0·44; 95% CI 0·14, 1·42); the opposite was observed in previously unsupplemented children. Our results corroborate that VAS provided with MV has immunological effects, which may depend on sex and previous VAS. VAS may increase the number of leucocytes, but also repress both the innate and lymphocyte-derived cytokine responses in females, whereas this repression may be opposite if the females have previously received VAS.

  16. Priming T-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Diane L; Santra, Sampa; Swett-Tapia, Cindy; Custers, Jerome; Song, Kaimei; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh; Naim, Hussein; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Lifton, Michelle; Goudsmit, Jaap; Letvin, Norman; Roederer, Mario; Radošević, Katarina

    2012-09-07

    Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston Zagreb vaccine strain was engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag protein for the purpose of evaluating the immunogenicity of rMV as a vaccine vector in rhesus macaques. rMV-Gag immunization alone elicited robust measles-specific humoral and cellular responses, but failed to elicit transgene (Gag)-specific immune responses, following aerosol or intratracheal/intramuscular delivery. However, when administered as a priming vaccine to a heterologous boost with recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 expressing the same transgene, rMV-Gag significantly enhanced Gag-specific T lymphocyte responses following rAd5 immunization. Gag-specific humoral responses were not enhanced, however, which may be due to either the transgene or the vector. Cellular response priming by rMV against the transgene was highly effective even when using a suboptimal dose of rAd5 for the boost. These data demonstrate feasibility of using rMV as a priming component of heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens for pathogens requiring strong cellular responses.

  17. Case based measles surveillance in Pune: evidence to guide current and future measles control and elimination efforts in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sekhar Bose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011 are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. METHODS: Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. RESULTS: Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1. CONCLUSION: Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.

  18. Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine as an intralesional immunotherapy in treatment of warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti N. Shah

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Intralesional immunotherapy with MMR vaccine was found to be a simple, effective, and safe treatment for warts. This study proved to be cost effective as patients can be treated with just 03 doses of MMR vaccine given at the interval of two weeks. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(2.000: 472-476

  19. 常州市两次麻疹强化免疫效果比较%Comparison of Two Measles Vaccine Supplement Immunity Activity in Changzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琴; 郝超; 张建陶; 姚杏娟; 卞琛; 韩长磊; 凌良健

    2011-01-01

    目的 对比常州市两次麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)强化免疫(SIA)的效果,探讨麻疹控制措施.方法 用描述流行病学分析方法,对比常州市两次麻疹SIA效果.结果 2007年11月MV SIA后,2008年麻疹报告发病率为24.13/10万,较2007年上升91.66%;SIA后8个月麻疹发病同比平均上升118.57%;<15岁年龄组发病构成比同比上升11.17%;SIA前后常住、流动儿童麻疹疫苗接种率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).2009年4月开展MVSIA,SIA前麻疹发病同比平均上升221.30%;SIA后8个月麻疹发病同比平均下降88.69%,<15岁年龄组发病构成比同比下降50.03%;SIA后流动儿童麻疹疫苗接种率明显提高(P<0.05).结论 2007年MV SIA低覆盖是SIA后麻疹高发的主要原因,2009年开展的高质量MV SIA成功削平了麻疹发病高峰.政府参与、多部门配合是开展高质量MV SIA的基础.%Objective To Contrast two measles attenuated live vaccine(MV) supplementary immunization activity(SIA) in Changzhou city and approach measures of measles elimination.Methods Comparison of the different characteristics between two MV SIA was conducted with descriptive epidemiology.Results After SIA in Nov.2007, the reported measles incidence was 24.13/100 000, and increased by 91.60% in 2008 than that in 2007; During the following 8 months after MV SIA ,the reported measles incidence increased by 118.57% averagely; The constituent ratio of the group in which the age was less than 15 increased by 11.17% to the corresponding period of last year.There was no obvions change for the inoculation rate of measles from settled and floating population.Before SIA in Apr.2009, the reported measles incidence increased by 221.30% averagely and after SIA in 2009 ,the reported measles incidence decreased by 88.69% averagely; The constituent ratio the measles incidence in the group in which the age was less than 15 decreased 50.03% to the corresponding period of last year; The inoculation rate of

  20. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar...

  1. Measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine (M-M-R™II): a review of 32 years of clinical and postmarketing experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievano, Fabio; Galea, Susan A; Thornton, Michele; Wiedmann, Richard T; Manoff, Susan B; Tran, Trung N; Amin, Manisha A; Seminack, Margaret M; Vagie, Kristen A; Dana, Adrian; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2012-11-06

    M-M-R™II (measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine live; Merck, Sharp, & Dohme Corp.) is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella in individuals ≥ 12 months of age. Before the vaccine era, these viruses infected most exposed individuals, with subsequent morbidity and mortality. One of the greatest achievements of public health has been to eliminate these 3 diseases in large geographic areas. The safety profile of M-M-R™II is described using data from routine global postmarketing surveillance. Postmarketing surveillance has limitations (including incomplete reporting of case data), but allows collection of real-world information on large numbers of individuals, who may have concurrent medical problems excluding them from clinical trials. It can also identify rare adverse experiences (AEs). Over its 32-year history, ≈ 575 million doses of M-M-R™II have been distributed worldwide, with 17,536 AEs voluntarily reported for an overall rate of 30.5 AEs/1,000,000 doses distributed. This review provides evidence that the vaccine is safe and well-tolerated.

  2. Epidemiology of two large measles virus outbreaks in Catalonia: what a difference the month of administration of the first dose of vaccine makes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Anton, Andres; Barrabeig, Irene; Lafuente, Sara; Parron, Ignasi; Arias, César; Camps, Neus; Costa, Josep; Martínez, Ana; Torra, Roser; Godoy, Pere; Minguell, Sofia; Ferrús, Glòria; Cabezas, Carmen; Domínguez, Ángela; Spain

    2013-03-01

    Measles cases in the European Region have been increasing in the last decade; this illustrates the challenge of what we are now encountering in the form of pediatric preventable diseases. In Catalonia, autochthonous measles was declared eliminated in the year 2000 as the result of high measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) coverage for first and second dose (15 mo and 4 y) since the mid-1990s. From then on, sporadic imported cases and small outbreaks appeared, until in 2006-2007 a large measles outbreak affecting mostly unvaccinated toddlers hit the Barcelona Health Region. Consequently, in January 2008, first dose administration of MMR was lowered from 15 to 12 mo of age. A new honeymoon period went by until the end of 2010, when several importations of cases triggered new sustained transmission of different wild measles virus genotypes, but this time striking young adults. The aim of this study is to show the effect of a change in MMR vaccination schedule policy, and the difference in age incidence and hospitalization rates of affected individuals between both outbreaks.   Epidemiologic data were obtained by case interviews and review of medical records. Samples for virological confirmation and genotyping of cases were collected as established in the Measles Elimination plan guidelines. Incidence rate (IR), rate ratio (RR) and their 95% CI and hospitalization rate (HR) by age group were determined. Statistic z was used for comparing proportions. Total number of confirmed cases was 305 in the 2010 outbreak and 381 in the 2006-2007 outbreak; mean age 20 y (SD 14.8 y; 3 mo to 51 y) vs. 15 mo (SD 13.1 y; 1 mo to 50 y). Highest proportion of cases was set in ≥ 25 y (47%) vs. 24.2% in 2006 (p < 0.001). Differences in IR for ≤ 15 mo (49/100,000 vs. 278.2/100,000; RR: 3,9; 95%CI 2,9-5.4) and in overall HR 29.8% vs. 15.7% were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The change of the month of age for the administration of the first MMR dose proved successful to

  3. [An update on measles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseris, M; Burdet, C; Lepeule, R; Houhou, N; Yeni, P; Yazdanpanah, Y; Joly, V

    2015-05-01

    Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease, which needs more than 95% worldwide vaccination coverage of 2 doses to be eradicated. Despite an important involvement of the WHO for massive immunization, goals have not bean reached, and outbreaks can occur at any time in many countries, including Western Europe. In France, 22,000 cases were identified between 2009 and 2011, mainly in infants and young adults, which are not or not enough vaccinated (one dose). In 2012, even though the number of cases has drastically decreased, the outbreak is still going on, especially in South of France. That is why every clinician needs to be concerned about the clinical manifestations of the disease, and its complications. Besides a febrile rash, measles is often responsible of pneumonia and biologic hepatitis in adults. Hepatitis does not seem frequent in children. Clinicians need to be aware of specific complications, like encephalitis in case of cellular immunodepression, high risk of pneumonia in pregnant women. In patients previously vaccinated, incidence of complications is the same but patients are not contagious. Even if measles diagnosis is clinical, blood confirmation by serology is recommended in France when possible. Outcome is mainly favourable, but measles is not well-tolerated with high levels of hospitalisation even without any complication. Vaccination is the only way to protect against it.

  4. [Measles in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antona, Denise; Baudon, Claire; Freymuth, François; Lamy, Mathieu; Maine, Catherine; Parent du Chatelet, Isabelle; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    From January 2008 to May 2012, over 22,000 cases of measles were reported in France. The highest incidence rate was observed in children below one year of age. Over 50% of cases were reported in young adults. Almost 5,000 patients were hospitalised including 1,023 with severe pneumonia, 27 with encephalitis and/or myelitis : 10 died. This situation is linked to insufficient and heterogeneous vaccination coverage with pockets of susceptible people allowing virus circulation. Although the vaccine coverage in children has now improved for both doses, the issue of convincing young susceptible adults to catch up for measles vaccination remains critical, if the elimination target is to be met, and in order to protect the most vulnerable population unable to benefit from this vaccination (children below 1 year, immunodeficient people, pregnant women).

  5. A measles outbreak in Catania, Sicily: the importance of high vaccination coverage and early notification of cases for health and economic reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Fontana, Rossella; Pinzone, Marilia Rita; Cuccia, Mario; Bellissimo, Francesco; Rapisarda, Liliana; Rinnone, Sebastiano; Rapisarda, Venerando; Pavone, Piero; Cacopardo, Bruno; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Measles is a paediatric exanthematous disease. Even though vaccination has dramatically reduced measles morbidity and mortality, outbreaks still occur due to insufficient vaccination coverage and importation of the virus from endemic regions. Although child vaccination coverage in Italy has been broadened (from 74% in 2000 to 90.1% in 2011), outbreaks are still observed at a regional level. We describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cases reported from January 2009 to May 2010 to the Epidemiology Service of the Provincial Health Authority of Catania. We obtained demographic data and vaccination status from the database of the Epidemiology Service and clinical features and laboratory data from medical records. In all, 522 cases were notified: 286 males (54%), median age 12 years (interquartile range (IQR) 4-18); 401 cases (77%) were notified by the hospital, and 121 (23%) by general practitioners. Only one patient had been previously vaccinated. 52 cases were hospitalized, median age 18 years (IQR 17-23). We observed hypertransaminasaemia in 20 patients (38%), thrombocytopenia in 22 patients (42%) and a creatine phosphokinase increase in 16 (30%). Complications (pneumonia, haemorrhagic cystitis, acute hepatitis) occurred in 10 patients (19%), all older than 18. Recent outbreaks show that immunization practices are still insufficient. Most cases were recorded in adolescents and young adults; even if the vaccine has limited virus circulation in childhood, it did not prevent the infection of other age groups. The number of notifications also suggests that the phenomenon is underestimated. In order to monitor the disease we need early notification of cases and increased vaccination coverage.

  6. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® by intramuscular or subcutaneous routes at separate injection sites: a randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When this trial was initiated, the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine was licensed for subcutaneous administration in all European countries and for intramuscular administration in some countries, whereas varicella vaccine was licensed only for subcutaneous administration. This study evaluated the intramuscular administration of an MMR vaccine (M-M-RvaxPro® and a varicella vaccine (VARIVAX® compared with the subcutaneous route. Methods An open-label randomised trial was performed in France and Germany. Healthy children, aged 12 to18 months, received single injections of M-M-RvaxPro and VARIVAX concomitantly at separate injection sites. Both vaccines were administered either intramuscularly (IM group, n = 374 or subcutaneously (SC group, n = 378. Immunogenicity was assessed before vaccination and 42 days after vaccination. Injection-site erythema, swelling and pain were recorded from days 0 to 4 after vaccination. Body temperature was monitored daily between 0 and 42 days after vaccination. Other adverse events were recorded up to 42 days after vaccination and serious adverse events until the second study visit. Results Antibody response rates at day 42 in the per-protocol set of children initially seronegative to measles, mumps, rubella or varicella were similar between the IM and SC groups for all four antigens. Response rates were 94 to 96% for measles, 98% for both mumps and rubella and 86 to 88% for varicella. For children initially seronegative to varicella, 99% achieved the seroconversion threshold (antibody concentrations of ≥ 1.25 gpELISA units/ml. Erythema and swelling were the most frequently reported injection-site reactions for both vaccines. Most injection-site reactions were of mild intensity or small size (≤ 2.5 cm. There was a trend for lower rates of injection-site erythema and swelling in the IM group. The incidence and nature of systemic adverse events were comparable for the two routes

  8. The effect of early measles vaccination at 4.5 months of age on growth at 9 and 24 months of age in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S M; Biering-Sørensen, S; Byberg, S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing an early, additional measles vaccine (MV) at 4.5 months of age has been shown to reduce child mortality in low-income countries. We studied the effects on growth at 9 and 24 months of age. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Guinea-Bissau from 2003...... there was no effect of early MV on anthropometry at 9 months. At 24 months children who had received early MV had a significantly larger mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC/in cm) (Difference = 0.08; 95% CI (0.02;0.14)) compared with children in the control group; this effect was most pronounced among girls (0.12 (0......-2007 including 6,648 children. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age (group A), no vaccine at 4.5 months and Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine at 9 months (group B), or no vaccine at 4.5 months and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months (group C) Data...

  9. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Sørup, Signe; Stensballe, Lone Graff;

    2015-01-01

    -confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study...

  10. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...... levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody...... levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age...

  11. Does oral polio vaccine have non-specific effects on all-cause mortality? Natural experiments within a randomised controlled trial of early measles vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, Andreas; Martins, Cesário L; Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Whittle, Hilton C; Benn, Christine S

    2016-01-01

    Background BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs). If an unplanned intervention with a vaccine (a natural experiment) modifies the estimated effect in a randomised controlled trial (RCT), this suggests NSEs. We used this approach to test NSEs of triple oral polio vaccine (OPV). Methods During an RCT of 2 doses of MV at 4.5 and 9 months versus 1 dose of MV at 9 months of age, we experienced 2 natural experiments with OPV. We assessed whether these OPV experiments modified the effect of 2-dose MV in the MV trial. Setting MV RCT conducted in urban Guinea-Bissau 2003–2009. Interventions Natural experiments with OPV due to missing vaccine and the implementation of OPV campaigns. Main outcome measure Changes in the mortality rate ratio (MRR) for 2-dose MV versus 1-dose MV. Results First, the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) overall was 0.70 (0.52 to 0.94), but the MRR was 1.04 (0.53 to 2.04) when OPV at birth (OPV0) was not given, suggesting that early priming with OPV was important for the effect of 2-dose MV. The effect of OPV0 depended on age of administration; the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.45 (0.29 to 0.71) for children receiving OPV0 in the first week of life, but 3.63 (0.87 to 15.2) for those receiving OPV0 after the first month of life (p=0.007, test of no interaction). Second, campaign-OPV may have reduced the difference between the randomisation groups since the MRR (2-dose/1-dose MV) was 0.60 (0.42 to 0.85) for children who had not received campaign-OPV before RCT-enrolment versus 0.72 (0.23 to 2.31) and 1.42 (0.70 to 2.90) for children who had received 1 or 2 doses of campaign-OPV-before-enrolment, respectively. Conclusions Bissau had no polio infection during this trial, so OPV0 and campaign-OPV may have NSEs since they modified the effect of 2-dose MV in an RCT. Different interventions may interact to a much larger effect than usually assumed. PMID:28011813

  12. Comparison of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Ryan Kent; Thompson, Jerome W

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of the use of cidofovir and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccineas adjunctive treatments to lesion debridement in patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Our study population was made up of 15 children-7 boys and 8 girls, aged 1 to 16 years at diagnosis (mean: 6.2)-with pathologically confirmed RRP who had been followed for at least 1 year. In addition to demographic data, we compiled information on disease severity, the type of adjunctive treatment administered to each patient, the frequency of debridements, the length of observation, and remission rates. Of the 15 patients, 5 had been treated with cidofovirafter debridement (cidofovir-only group), 6 were treated with MMR vaccine after debridement (MMR-only group), 3 were treated with one and later switched to the other based on parental preference, and 1 received neither treatment, only debridement. The initial mean Derkay disease severity scores were 12.6 for the cidofovir-only group and 11.0 for the MMR-only group (p = 0.61). The cidofovir-only patients underwent an average of 11.8 adjunctive treatments and the MMR-only patients an average of 17.7 (p = 0.33). The average duration of observation was 44.0 months in the cidofovir-only group and 64.7 months in the MMR-only group (p = 0.29). Remission rates were 20% in the cidofovir-only group and 50% in the MMR-only group (p = 0.54). Our study found insufficient evidence of any significant differences between cidofovir and the MMR vaccinein terms of the number and frequency of adjunctive treatments and the rates of remission.

  13. Measles: Make Sure Your Child Is Fully Immunized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your state VFC coordinator . To See If Your Child's Vaccine Is Due Check your child's vaccination record , Contact ... learn more about the VFC program, see the Vaccines for Children Program Q&As The Measles and Rubella Initiative ...

  14. MEASLES IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical observation and treatment of 36 children between the ages of 5 months up to 3 years old with measles. In 34 persons. (94.4% diagnosed with typical moderate forms, from 2 people (5.6% — atypical (mitigirovannaya a mild form of the disease. All children are vaccinated against measles. Typical measles char-acterized by moderate forms of cyclical flow with the change of the classical period and the presence of characteristic clinical syndromes. Pathognomonic symptom found: spots Belsky — Filatov — Koplik (67.7%, stages a rash (100%, stages of pigmentation (100%. Causal therapy was VIFERON®. Revealed the rapid disappearance of intoxication and normalization of body temperature, the early decline in the severity and duration of catarrhal syndrome, reducing the severity and frequency of complications, no stratification of SARS.

  15. Biological characterization of clones derived from the edmonston strain of measles virus in comparison with schwarz and CAM-70 vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Junqueira Borges

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Four virus clones were derived from the Edmonston strain of measles virus by repeated plaque purification. These clones were compared with the vaccine strains Schwarz and CAM-70 in terms of biological activities including plaque formation, hemagglutination, hemolysis and replication in Vero cells and chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF. Two clones of intermediate plaque yielded mixed plaque populations on subcultivation whereas the other two, showing small and large plaque sizes, showed stable plaque phenotypes. The vaccine strains showed consistent homogeneous plaque populations. All the Edmonston clones showed agglutination of monkey erythrocytes in isotonic solution while both vaccine strains hemagglutinated only in the presence of high salt concentrations. Variation in the hemolytic activity was observed among the four clones but no hemolytic activity was detected for the vaccine virus strains. Vaccine strains replicated efficiently both in Vero cells and CEF. All four clones showed efficient replication in Vero cells but different replication profiles in CEF. Two of them replicated efficiently, one was of intermediate efficiency and the other showed no replication in CEF. Two of the clones showed characteristics similar to vaccine strains. One in terms of size and homogeneity of plaques, the other for a low hemolytic activity and both for the efficiency of propagation in CEF.

  16. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2016-01-01

    , DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated...

  17. Concomitant administration of hepatitis A vaccine with measles/mumps/rubella/varicella and pneumococcal vaccines in healthy 12- to 23-month-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetman, Robert J; Shepard, Julie S; Duke, Anton; Stek, Jon E; Petrecz, Maria; Klopfer, Stephanie O; Kuter, Barbara J; Schödel, Florian P; Lee, Andrew W

    2013-08-01

    This open-label, multicenter, randomized, comparative study evaluated immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of concomitant (Group 1; n=330) vs. non-concomitant (Group 2; n=323) VAQTA™ (25U/0.5 mL) (hepatitis A vaccine; HAV) with ProQuad™ (measles/mumps/rubella/varicella; MMRV) and Prevnar™ (7-valent pneumococcal; PCV-7) in healthy, 12-23 mo old children. Group 1 received HAV/MMRV/PCV-7 concomitantly on Day 1 and second doses of HAV/MMRV at Week 24. Group 2 received MMRV/PCV-7 on Day 1, HAV at Weeks 6 and 30 and MMRV at Week 34. Hepatitis A seropositivity rate (SPR: ≥10 mIU/mL; 4 weeks postdose 2), varicella zoster-virus (VZV) SPR (≥5 gpELISA units/mL) and geometric mean titers (GMT) to S. pneumoniae were examined. Injection-site and systemic adverse experiences (AEs) and daily temperatures were collected. Hepatitis A SPR were 100% for Group 1 and 99.4% for Group 2 after two HAV doses; risk difference=0.7 (95%CI: -1.4,3.8, non-inferior) regardless of initial serostatus. VZV SPR was 93.3% for Group 1 and 98.3% for Group 2; risk difference=-5.1 (95%CI: -9.3, -1.4; non-inferior). S. pneumoniae GMT fold-difference (7 serotypes) ranged from 0.9 to 1.1; non-inferior. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of individual AEs were seen when HAV was administered concomitantly vs. non-concomitantly. Three (all Group 2 post-administration of MMRV/PCV-7) of 11 serious AEs were considered possibly vaccine-related: dehydration and gastroenteritis (same subject) on Day 52; febrile seizure on Day 9. No deaths were reported. Antibody responses to each vaccine given concomitantly were non-inferior to HAV given non-concomitantly with MMRV and PCV-7. Administration of HAV with PCV-7 and MMRV had an acceptable safety profile in 12- to 23-mo-old children.

  18. Remarkable similarity in genome nucleotide sequences between the Schwarz FF-8 and AIK-C measles virus vaccine strains and apparent nucleotide differences in the phosphoprotein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Chie; Ohgimoto, Shinji; Kato, Seiichi; Sharma, Luna Bhatta; Ayata, Minoru; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ogura, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    The Schwarz FF-8 (FF-8) and AIK-C measles virus vaccine strains are currently used for vaccination in Japan. Here, the complete genome nucleotide sequence of the FF-8 strain has been determined and its genome sequence found to be remarkably similar to that of the AIK-C strain. These two strains are differentiated only by two nucleotide differences in the phosphoprotein gene. Since the FF-8 strain does not possess the amino acid substitutions in the phospho- and fusion proteins which are responsible for the temperature-sensitivity and small syncytium formation phenotypes of the AIK-C strain, respectively, other unidentified common mechanisms likely attenuate both the FF-8 and AIK-C strains.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of a two-dose regimen of a combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live vaccine (ProQuad(®)) in infants from 9 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Becker, Thomas; Gajdos, Vincent; Fiquet, Anne; Thomas, Stéphane; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine

    2012-04-26

    Vaccination against measles, mumps, rubella and varicella (MMRV) is currently recommended in developed countries for infants from 12 months of age. However, measles vaccination at 9 months of age is recommended by the WHO in the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule and it is therefore possible that MMR or MMRV vaccines might also be given at this age. This open-label, randomised, comparative study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a 2-dose schedule of ProQuad(®) (MMRV vaccine) given at a 3-month interval in healthy infants aged ≥9 months. For measles, the non-inferiority of the response rate post-Dose 2 was reached when Dose 1 was administered at 11 months (98%) compared with 12 months (99%) but was not reached when Dose 1 was administered at 9 months (95%). The response rate to measles post-Dose 1 increased with age, from 73% to 88% and 90% at 9, 11 and 12 months, respectively. For mumps, rubella and varicella, response rates were not different after Dose 1 (>95%) or Dose 2 (>99%) regardless of whether Dose 1 was administered at 9, 11 or 12 months of age. In conclusion, the age of administration of the first of a two-dose regimen of ProQuad may be lowered to 11 months. Dose 1 may be administered at 9 months if early protection is required, but it should be recognised that a second dose is required promptly with a minimum of 3-month interval between doses.

  20. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiangning

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.

  1. 麻疹减毒活疫苗接种偶合麻疹野病毒感染病例的麻疹病毒基因特征分析%Genetic character of wild measles virus causing an accidental case after immunization with live attenuated measles vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 周剑惠; 陈超; 徐鑫; 王爽; 常新; 魏雷雷; 于佳动

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析1例接种麻疹减毒活疫苗第9天出现麻疹样症状病例的麻疹病毒基因特征,以确定是麻疹疫苗相关病例还是偶合麻疹野病毒感染.方法 提取该病例咽拭子标本核酸,采用RT-PCR法扩增麻疹病毒核蛋白(Nucleoprotein,NP)基因羧基末端450个核苷酸片段后测序,分析其与全球24个基因型麻疹野病毒代表株、中国疫苗株(Shanghai-191)基因的亲缘关系以及核苷酸、氨基酸序列同源性.结果 该病例感染的病毒属于H1a基因亚型麻疹野病毒.与中国H1基因型麻疹野病毒流行株代表株核苷酸和氨基酸序列的同源性较高,分别为97.5% ~ 99.5%和96.6%,而与麻疹病毒中国疫苗株(Shanghai- 191)核苷酸和氨基酸序列同源性较低,分别仅为91.2%和86.7%.结论 该例接种麻疹减毒活疫苗后出现麻疹样症状的病例为偶合H1基因型麻疹野病毒感染所致,非麻疹疫苗相关病例.%Objective To analyze the genetic character of measles virus causing a measles-like case on day 9 after immunization with live attenuated measles vaccine so as to confirm the case as vaccine-associated one or accidental one caused by wild measles virus. Methods Nucleic acids were extracted from the throat swab of the patient and sequenced after amplification of 450 nucleotides at C-terminus of measles virus nucleoprotein (NP) by RT-PCR, based on which the genetic relationship as well as homologies of nucleotides and amino acids of the strain to the representational strains of wild measles virus strains of all the 24 genotypes and Chinese vaccine strain (Shanghai-191) were analyzed. Results The virus causing the case was wild measles virus of subgenotype Hal, of which the homologies of nucleotides and amino acids were 97. 5% ~ 99. 5% and 96. 6% respectively to those of the representational strain of wild measles virus of genotype H1 epidemic in China, while were only 91. 2% and 86. 7% respectively to those of Shanghai-191

  2. Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...

  3. TPD52: A Novel Vaccine Target for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Cancer Res 1996;2:1255–61. 51. Bright RK, Vocke CD, Emmert- Buck MR, et al. Generation and genetic characterization of immortal human prostate epithelial...total of 2 injections given at 14 day intervals followed by a booster immunization given 35 days after the second immunization. Empty vector DNA...TCCATGACGTTCCTGA CGTT) [25]. The protein vaccines were administered as an alum precipitate and a booster of the same dose was given approximately 2 weeks

  4. Measles Elimination Activities in the Western Pacific Region: Experience from the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Young June; Jee, Youngmee; Oh, Myoung-don; Lee, Jong-koo

    2015-01-01

    We describe the global status of measles control and elimination, including surveillance and vaccination coverage data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). Since 2000, two doses of measles vaccine (MCV2) became recommended globally and the achievement of high vaccination coverage has led to dramatic decrease in the measles incidence. Our finding indicates that, in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), substantial progress has been made to control measles transmission in some countries...

  5. Vaxfectin adjuvant improves antibody responses of juvenile rhesus macaques to a DNA vaccine encoding the measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsuan W; Vilalta, Adrian; Adams, Robert J; Rolland, Alain; Sullivan, Sean M; Griffin, Diane E

    2013-06-01

    DNA vaccines formulated with the cationic lipid-based adjuvant Vaxfectin induce protective immunity in macaques after intradermal (i.d.) or intramuscular (i.m.) delivery of 0.5 to 1 mg of codon-optimized DNA encoding the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of measles virus (MeV). To characterize the effect of Vaxfectin at lower doses of H+F DNA, rhesus macaques were vaccinated twice with 20 μg of DNA plus Vaxfectin i.d., 100 μg of DNA plus Vaxfectin i.d., 100 μg of DNA plus Vaxfectin i.m. or 100 μg of DNA plus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) i.m. using a needleless Biojector device. The levels of neutralizing (P = 0.036) and binding (P = 0.0001) antibodies were higher after 20 or 100 μg of DNA plus Vaxfectin than after 100 μg of DNA plus PBS. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing T cells were induced more rapidly than antibody, but were not improved with Vaxfectin. At 18 months after vaccination, monkeys were challenged with wild-type MeV. None developed rash or viremia, but all showed evidence of infection. Antibody levels increased, and IFN-γ- and interleukin-17-producing T cells, including cells specific for the nucleoprotein absent from the vaccine, were induced. At 3 months after challenge, MeV RNA was detected in the leukocytes of two monkeys. The levels of antibody peaked 2 to 4 weeks after challenge and then declined in vaccinated animals reflecting low numbers of bone marrow-resident plasma cells. Therefore, Vaxfectin was dose sparing and substantially improved the antibody response to the H+F DNA vaccine. This immune response led to protection from disease (rash/viremia) but not from infection. Antibody responses after challenge were more transient in vaccinated animals than in an unvaccinated animal.

  6. Global control and regional elimination of measles, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    Widespread use of measles vaccine since 1980 has led to a substantial decline in global measles morbidity and mortality; measles elimination has been achieved and sustained in the World Health Organization (WHO) Region of the Americas (AMR) since 2002. In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for measles eradication to be reached by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district or equivalent administrative unit; 2) reduce and maintain annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate. The Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) includes monitoring progress toward achievement of goals to reduce or eliminate measles in four WHO regions by 2015 and five WHO regions by 2020. This report updates the previous report and describes progress in global control and regional elimination of measles during 2000-2011. Estimated global MCV1 coverage increased from 72% in 2000 to 84% in 2011, and the number of countries providing a second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) through routine services increased from 97 (50%) in 2000 to 141 (73%) in 2011. During 2000-2011, annual reported measles incidence decreased 65%, from 146 to 52 cases per 1 million population, and estimated measles deaths decreased 71%, from 542,000 to 158,000. However, during 2010-2011, measles incidence increased, and large outbreaks of measles were reported in multiple countries. To resume progress toward achieving regional measles elimination targets, national governments and partners are urged to ensure that measles elimination efforts receive high priority and adequate resources.

  7. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Zhao, Yuan; Yang, Lili; Lu, Changhong; Meng, Ying; Guan, Xiaoli; An, Hongjin; Zhang, Meizhong; Guo, Wenqin; Shang, Bo; Yu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85%) tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3%) tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection. PMID:27366157

  8. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  9. Wild-Type Measles Virus with the Hemagglutinin Protein of the Edmonston Vaccine Strain Retains Wild-Type Tropism in Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Noriyo; Kato, Sei-ich; Ami, Yasushi; Suzaki, Yuriko; Suzuki, Tadaki; Sato, Yuko; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Mori, Kazuyasu; Van Nguyen, Nguyen; Kimura, Hideki; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2012-01-01

    A major difference between vaccine and wild-type strains of measles virus (MV) in vitro is the wider cell specificity of vaccine strains, resulting from the receptor usage of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. Wild-type H proteins recognize the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) (CD150), which is expressed on certain cells of the immune system, whereas vaccine H proteins recognize CD46, which is ubiquitously expressed on all nucleated human and monkey cells, in addition to SLAM. To examine the effect of the H protein on the tropism and attenuation of MV, we generated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing recombinant wild-type MV strains bearing the Edmonston vaccine H protein (MV-EdH) and compared them to EGFP-expressing wild-type MV strains. In vitro, MV-EdH replicated in SLAM+ as well as CD46+ cells, including primary cell cultures from cynomolgus monkey tissues, whereas the wild-type MV replicated only in SLAM+ cells. However, in macaques, both wild-type MV and MV-EdH strains infected lymphoid and respiratory organs, and widespread infection of MV-EdH was not observed. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that SLAM+ lymphocyte cells were infected preferentially with both strains. Interestingly, EGFP expression of MV-EdH in tissues and lymphocytes was significantly weaker than that of the wild-type MV. Taken together, these results indicate that the CD46-binding activity of the vaccine H protein is important for determining the cell specificity of MV in vitro but not the tropism in vivo. They also suggest that the vaccine H protein attenuates MV growth in vivo. PMID:22238320

  10. Impact of a measles immunisation campaign on measles admissions to a Natal hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, S S; Abdool Karim, Q; Chamane, M

    1991-12-07

    During May and June 1990, a national mass measles immunisation campaign was undertaken in South Africa. This study is an assessment of the impact of the campaign on measles admissions to a provincial referral hospital that has specifically designated wards for children with communicable diseases. Data from the measles ward admissions book for the 18 months before the campaign (1 January 1989-30 June 1990) and 6 months after the campaign (1 July 1990-31 December 1990) were compared. Since the campaign, the average number of measles admissions has declined by 64.4% from 87 to 31 per month (P less than 0.01). Before the campaign, 21.3% of measles patients admitted were aged 7-9 months compared with 27.6% after the campaign, highlighting the urgent need to improve the measles vaccination coverage in this age group. An analysis of the geographical source of patients showed that measles continued to occur after the campaign in most of the areas where it existed before the campaign. It is concluded that important gains have been achieved by the campaign. These will be rapidly eroded and epidemics of measles may occur if measles vaccination efforts wane and slump back to pre-campaign levels. It is important to capitalise on the momentum generated through the campaign by continuing to support efforts of existing health care services to improve and maintain high levels of measles immunisation coverage.

  11. Hypocarnitinemic hypoglycemia and heart failure in an infant with a constant parenteral elementary nutrition during measles vaccination-related febrile illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanari, K; Takahashi, M; Maeda, T; Sato, K; Suenobu, S; Izumi, T

    2007-12-01

    A 1-year and 11-month-old female infant with bilateral lesions of the thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellar and brainstem disease died from heart failure 9 days after being administered a measles vaccination. She had a high fever, hypocarnitinemic and non-ketotic hypoglycemia, serum levels of total carnitine 7.4 micromol/L, free carnitine 5.6 micromol/L, acylcarnitine 1.8 micromol/L and glucose 13 mg/dL. Due to feeding difficulty, the patient, however, had been administered parenteral elementary nutrition through a feeding tube since early infancy. The commercially available parenteral nutrition solutions do not contain carnitine. A secondary carnitine deficiency followed by non-ketotic hypoglycemia-related heart failure may readily develop even in a patient without valproic acid, during high fever.

  12. Eradication of measles: remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Heidemarie; Hengel, Hartmut; Tenbusch, Matthias; Doerr, H W

    2016-06-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is an aerosol-borne and one of the most contagious pathogenic viruses known. Almost every MeV infection becomes clinically manifest and can lead to serious and even fatal complications, especially under conditions of malnutrition in developing countries, where still 115,000 to 160,000 patients die from measles every year. There is no specific antiviral treatment. In addition, MeV infections cause long-lasting memory B and T cell impairment, predisposing people susceptible to opportunistic infections for years. A rare, but fatal long-term consequence of measles is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Fifteen years ago (2001), WHO has launched a programme to eliminate measles by a worldwide vaccination strategy. This is promising, because MeV is a human-specific morbillivirus (i.e. without relevant animal reservoir), safe and potent vaccine viruses are sufficiently produced since decades for common application, and millions of vaccine doses have been used globally without any indications of safety and efficacy issues. Though the prevalence of wild-type MeV infection has decreased by >90 % in Europe, measles is still not eliminated and has even re-emerged with recurrent outbreaks in developed countries, in which effective vaccination programmes had been installed for decades. Here, we discuss the crucial factors for a worldwide elimination of MeV: (1) efficacy of current vaccines, (2) the extremely high contagiosity of MeV demanding a >95 % vaccination rate based on two doses to avoid primary vaccine failure as well as the installation of catch-up vaccination programmes to fill immunity gaps and to achieve herd immunity, (3) the implications of sporadic cases of secondary vaccine failure, (4) organisation, acceptance and drawbacks of modern vaccination campaigns, (5) waning public attention to measles, but increasing concerns from vaccine-associated adverse reactions in societies with high socio-economic standards and (6) clinical

  13. Epidemiology Characteristics of Measles before and after Supplementary Immunization Activities of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine in Beijing in 2010%北京市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动前后麻疹流行病学特征变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 卢莉; 马蕊; 吴疆; 庞星火

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析北京市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIAs)前后麻疹流行病学特征,评价控制麻疹效果,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 利用2005~2010年麻疹逐月发病数据建立自动回归滑动平均混合模型(Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average,ARIMA),预测2011年发病水平,采用描述流行病学方法,对北京市实施MV SIA前后麻疹监测数据进行分析.结果 预测实施MV SIA前麻疹发病率为49.5/100万,实施MV SIA后麻疹发病率为5/100万,较预测水平下降89.9%.各年龄组麻疹发病率均有大幅下降,削平了季节性流行高峰.实施MV SIA后,≤4岁和15~39岁人群麻疹发病仍占较大的构成比,分别为37.8%和53.1%.结论 北京市2010年实施MV SIA后,麻疹发病大幅下降.为进一步降低麻疹发病水平,应维持高水平常规免疫,提高MV及时接种率,加强学龄前散居儿童和成人查漏补种,最大程度提高免疫水平.%Objective To analyze the epidemiology characteristics of measles before and after measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) in Beijing in 2010, evaluate the effectiveness of MV SIA and provide the basis for elimination of measles. Methods Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was developed for forecasting measles incidence in 2011. Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on measles surveillance data during 2005-2011. Results Predicted measles incidence was 49.5/1,000,000 in 2011 before MV SIA. The measles incidence was 5/1,000,000 after MV SIA, descending 89.9% compared predicted incidence. MV SIA led to the sharp drop of the measles incidence among all age groups and flatted seasonal epidemic peak. The proportion of children of = 4 years and adults of 15-39 years old were 37.8 % and 53.1 % after MV SIA. Conclusion MV SIA of 2010 in Beijing played a significant role for measles

  14. 婴儿中母体麻疹抗体的持续时间与麻疹初免年龄%Persistence of maternal antibodies against measles in infants and the age for primary vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田博; 白玉; 徐冰

    2009-01-01

    目前,消除麻疹的最佳方法是普种疫苗.新生儿免疫系统不成熟,并且体内存在的母体抗体会中和疫苗病毒,从而导致免疫失败,所以,麻疹疫苗接种的最佳年龄是基于最大百分率婴儿对疫苗产生应答的年龄.然而,这一策略不能预防在母体抗体消失与疫苗提供保护之间易感窗口期的早期感染病例.此文就婴儿体内母体麻疹抗体的持续时间及其对初免年龄的影响做一介绍.%The best way to eliminate measles is universal immunization. Given the immaturity of the immune system as well as the presence of neutralizing maternal antibodies, vaccination of young infants may often fail to induce immunity. Therefore, the optimal age for measles vaccination is based on the age at which the largest percentage of infants will respond to the vaccine. However, this strategy fails to prevent early cases of measles in the window of susceptibility, the interval between the loss of maternal antibodies and the protection induced by vaccination. Persistence of maternal antibodies against measles in infants and its influence on the age for primary vaccination are described in this review.

  15. Cotreatment of Congenital Measles with Vitamin A and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the measles vaccine has been part of routine national childhood vaccination programs throughout Europe, measles remains a public health concern. High numbers of cases and outbreaks have occurred throughout the European continent since 2011, and an increasing number of cases have been reported in Turkey since 2012. During a recent measles outbreak in Turkey, 2 pregnant women contracted measles prior to delivering preterm infants at Hacettepe University Hospital. Measles virus genomic RNA and IgM antibodies against measles were detected in the cord blood of infants and mothers in both cases. The infants were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG and vitamin A. Transient thrombocytopenia was present in 1 infant and treated with an additional dose of IVIG and vitamin A. The infants were discharged, without complications, within 10 days of birth. The successful treatment of these cases suggests that infants who have been exposed to, or infected with, measles may benefit from cotreatment of vitamin A and IVIG.

  16. Progress toward regional measles elimination--worldwide, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert T; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2014-11-14

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. Member states of all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate. This report updates the 2000-2012 report and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000-2013. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 72% worldwide, from 146 to 40 per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 75%, from 544,200 to 145,700. Four of six WHO regions have established regional verification commissions (RVCs); in the European (EUR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR), 19 member states successfully documented the absence of endemic measles. Resuming progress toward 2015 milestones and elimination goals will require countries and their partners to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems.

  17. Progress Toward Regional Measles Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal K; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Dumolard, Laure; Rota, Paul A; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James L

    2016-11-11

    Adopted in 2000, United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 set a target to reduce child mortality by two thirds by 2015, with measles vaccination coverage as one of the progress indicators. In 2010, the World Health Assembly (WHA) set three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (1,2).* In 2012, WHA endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan(†) with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. Countries in all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. Measles elimination is the absence of endemic measles transmission in a region or other defined geographical area for ≥12 months in the presence of a well performing surveillance system. This report updates a previous report (3) and describes progress toward global measles control milestones and regional measles elimination goals during 2000-2015. During this period, annual reported measles incidence decreased 75%, from 146 to 36 cases per 1 million persons, and annual estimated measles deaths decreased 79%, from 651,600 to 134,200. However, none of the 2015 milestones or elimination goals were met. Countries and their partners need to act urgently to secure political commitment, raise the visibility of measles, increase vaccination coverage, strengthen surveillance, and mitigate the threat of decreasing resources for immunization once polio eradication is achieved.

  18. 麻疹减毒活疫苗强化免疫策略及其应用%Strategy and Application of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine Supplementary Immunization Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩

    2010-01-01

    麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)强化免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)作为消除麻疹的主要策略之一,为未免疫和免疫不成功的人群提供第二次MV接种的机会,不论既往有无含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)的免疫史和麻疹患病史,均为目标人群,再接种1剂MV.现就国内外开展MV SIA的接种率、抗体水平、疑似预防接种异常反应、SIA后麻疹发病率等方面进行简要综述.

  19. Measles prevention and control in emergency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Steketee, R W; Waldman, R J; Nieburg, P

    1989-01-01

    Outbreaks of measles continue to be a common occurrence among refugee and famine-affected children in emergency relief camps. Extremely high measles-associated mortality rates have been reported from refugee camps--where undernutrition is common--in several countries over the past 10 years. Mortality from measles is, however, preventable, and immunization against the disease is a high priority in emergency relief programmes, second only in importance to the provision of adequate food rations. All children aged 6 months to 5 years should be immunized with measles vaccine as soon as they enter an organized camp or settlement. Should supplies of measles vaccine be inadequate, children in feeding centres, or those otherwise identified as undernourished, are the top priority for immunization. The occurrence of measles in a camp is not a contraindication to conducting an immunization campaign. Strong coordination by a designated lead agency is needed if such campaigns are to be successful; however, cooperation with the local expanded programme on immunization is essential to ensure that existing cold chain equipment, training protocols, and management manuals are used. If additional equipment is necessary, a complete immunization kit developed by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the World Health Organization, and Oxfam can be procured from Oxfam headquarters in the United Kingdom. Vitamin A supplements should be given routinely at the time of measles immunization in situations where malnutrition is severe. Mortality and morbidity in children with clinical measles can be reduced by administering high doses of vitamin A.

  20. Evaluation on Effect of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine Supplementary Immunization Activities in Fujian Province in 2009%福建省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗强化免疫活动效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金凤; 蔡志坤; 潘伟毅; 杨秀惠; 陈俊磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV)supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)in Fujian province in 2009.Methods Comprehensively anslysing the data of the immunization coverage rate of MY SIAs, antibody level and the data of Measles Surveillance System.Results Total 5 544 453 targeted children of 8 months-14 years old were vaccinated, both reported and survey coverage were >95%, measles IgG antibody positive rate and the GMT level of the population immunized increased significantly.Measles incidence rate decreased to 96.03 % after supplementary immuization activities.The measles annual incidence rate was 0.14/100 000 after immunization between Apr 2009 and Mar 2010.The cases aged ≥ 15 years have a significant increase, the proportion of cases reached by 50.98%.Conclusion The incidence of measles fell to <1/100 000 after MV SIAs In order to remain the achievements of SIA in Fujian province in 2009, the routine immunization coverage rate and continue follow-up campaign should be conducted in time.%目的 评价福建省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)强化免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)效果.方法 综合分析SIA接种率、人群抗体水平和麻疹监测系统资料.结果 MV SIA共接种8月龄~14岁目标儿童5 544 453人,报告接种率和调查接种率均>95%,免疫后人群麻疹抗体阳性率和儿何平均滴度显著升高,麻疹发病率较SIA前下降了96.03%.从SIA后1个月算起,1年的时间全人群麻疹发病率为0.14/10万(2009年4月10日~2010年3月31日).但≥15岁病例构成达50.98%.结论 福建省2009年MV SIA效果显著,发病率己降至<1/10万.为保持SIA取得的成果,应在做好常规免疫的基础上,适时开展后续免疫.

  1. Evaluating the impact of the HIV pandemic on measles control and elimination.

    OpenAIRE

    Helfand, RF; Moss, WJ; Harpaz, R; Scott, S; Cutts, F.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of the HIV pandemic on vaccine-acquired population immunity to measles virus because high levels of population immunity are required to eliminate transmission of measles virus in large geographical areas, and HIV infection can reduce the efficacy of measles vaccination. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to estimate key parameters relating to the potential impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology of measles in sub-Saharan Africa; parameters include...

  2. Survey on measles vaccination rate and measles antibody level in population in Luliang county of Yunnan province, 2010%2010年云南省陆良县人群麻疹接种率调查及抗体水平监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    资素琼; 赵文强

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of measles vaccination and understand the measles antibody level in the population in Luliang. Methods Nine vaccination clinics in 3 townships (Zhongshu, Zhaokua and Majie) were selected by stratified and cluster samplings to conduct survey. Results Totally 390 people were surveyed. the overall measles vaccination rate was 94.10% . the serum antibody positive rate was 99.23% . The measles vaccination rate was 96.83% in Zhongshu, 93.85% in Zhaokua and 91.79% in Majie. The measles vaccination rate in age groups were as follows:71.74% in age group of <1 year old, 100% in age group of l -2 years old, 100% in age group of 3 -4 years old, 100% in age group of 5 -6 years old, 98% in age group of 7 -10 years old, 100% in age group of 11 -14 years old, 89.58% in age group of 15 -19 years old and 91.49% in age group of ≥20 years old. and the serum antibody positive rate was 95.65% in age group of <1 year old, 100% in age group of 1 -2 years old, lOO% in age group of 3 -4 years old, 100% in age group of 5 -6 years old, 98% in age group of 7 -10 years old, 100% in age group of 11 - 14 years old, lOO% in age group of 15 -19 years old and lOO% in age group of ≥20 years old. Conclusion The measles vaccination rate in Zhaokua and Majie should be increased to meet the requirement of > 95% in national immunization program. The serum antibody positive rates of measles in all age groups were >95% (indicating that the herd immunity had been formed) , which would facilitate the measles control and elimination.%目的 为客观评价云南省陆良县麻疹疫苗常规免疫接种情况和掌握人群免疫水平.方法 采取分层和整群抽样(PPS)方法抽取调查单位和调查点.全县共确定3个调查单位(中枢镇、召夸镇、马街镇),9个村级接种点为调查点.结果 共监测390人,麻疹接种率为94.10%,麻疹血清抗体阳性率为99.23%.中枢

  3. Progress toward regional measles elimination - worldwide, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robert T; Murray, Jillian S; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Dabbagh, Alya; Mulders, Mick N; Strebel, Peter M; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie; Rota, Paul A; Goodson, James L

    2015-11-13

    In 2000, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), with MDG4 being a two-thirds reduction in child mortality by 2015, and with measles vaccination coverage being one of the three indicators of progress toward this goal.* In 2010, the World Health Assembly established three milestones for measles control by 2015: 1) increase routine coverage with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) for children aged 1 year to ≥90% nationally and ≥80% in every district; 2) reduce global annual measles incidence to fewer than five cases per million population; and 3) reduce global measles mortality by 95% from the 2000 estimate (1).† In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan§ with the objective to eliminate measles in four World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2015. WHO member states in all six WHO regions have adopted measles elimination goals. This report updates the 2000–2013 report (2) and describes progress toward global control and regional measles elimination during 2000–2014. During this period, annual reported measles incidence declined 73% worldwide, from 146 to 40 cases per million population, and annual estimated measles deaths declined 79%, from 546,800 to 114,900. However, progress toward the 2015 milestones and elimination goals has slowed markedly since 2010. To resume progress toward milestones and goals for measles elimination, a review of current strategies and challenges to improving program performance is needed, and countries and their partners need to raise the visibility of measles elimination, address barriers to measles vaccination, and make substantial and sustained additional investments in strengthening health systems.

  4. Prevention of measles spread on a paediatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapisiz, A; Polat, M; Kara, S S; Tezer, H; Simsek, H; Aktas, F

    2015-03-01

    Since measles is a highly contagious respiratory infection with significant airborne transmission risk in hospitals, effective prevention measures are crucial. After a mother accompanying her child on a paediatric ward lacking a negative pressure room was diagnosed with measles, exposed persons without evidence of immunity (documentary evidence of receiving two doses of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine) were treated with vaccination or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). The interruption of transmission with these treatments was evaluated. There were 44 children and 101 adults exposed to the index patient. Twenty-five children and 88 adults were considered immune, providing evidence of immunity. Nineteen children and 13 adults were either given vaccination or IVIG for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). There were no additional cases of measles after 3 weeks follow-up. We conclude that measles is highly preventable by adequate PEP with vaccination or IVIG in a healthcare setting that lacks the benefit of a negative pressure room.

  5. 2010年玉溪市儿童麻疹强化免疫接种率快速评估%Rapid assessment on supplementary immunization coverage rate for measles vaccination among children in Yuxi City in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽清; 张耀喜; 李秀华; 杨晓娟; 祁昆; 任志艳; 杨晶; 张丽芳; 王卫华

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To assess the effect of supplementary immunization for lire attenuated measles virus vaccine ( MV) in Yuxi City in 2010, summarize experience, and provide the basis for developing the immunization strategies and of measles elimination. [ Methods]The urban area and two districts were sampled from every county, and rapid assessment for field immunization coverage rate was conducted among 30 children in each object area. [Results]The supplementary immunization coverage rate for measles vaccination in Yuxi city was 99. 66%. The supplementary immunization coverage rates for measles vaccination of different age groups reach 99.36% , and those of children with different inhabitation types were above 97.78%. The local and migrant children who had no immunization history were concentrated in 8 months old to 2 years old. [ Conclusion] The measles supplementary immunization in Yuxi City in 2010 has achieved the expected target. In order to realize the target of measles elimination, it is important to strengthen the management in floating children, and duly find and eliminate the immunization blank population.%目的 评估玉溪市2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗(MV)后续强化免疫效果,总结经验,为控制并加快消除麻疹工作进程制定针对性的免疫策略提供依据.方法 每县抽取城区和2个乡镇各30名目标儿童进行现场接种率快速评估.结果 全市麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率为99.66%,不同年龄段麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率均在99.36%以上;不同居住形式麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率均在97.78%以上,0剂次免疫史该县及外地的儿童均集中分布于8月龄~2岁年龄组.结论 玉溪市2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫达到了预期的目标.加强流动儿童管理,发现并适时消除免疫空白人群是实现2012年消除麻疹目标的工作重点.

  6. Attitudinal and Demographic Predictors of Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine (MMR) Uptake during the UK Catch-Up Campaign 2008–09: Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina; Fraser, Graham; Ramsay, Mary; Shanley, Ruth; Cowley, Noel; van Wijgerden, Johan; Toff, Penelope; Falconer, Michelle; Hudson, Michael; Green, John; Kroll, J. Simon; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008–09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. Design Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. Setting and Participants 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5–18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008–09 UK catch-up started. Main Outcome Measures Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s), and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up). Results Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09–2.87) and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68–0.89) were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18–10.05), whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57–35.97). Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. Conclusions Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised), whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised). Older children may be

  7. Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR uptake during the UK catch-up campaign 2008-09: cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be

  8. Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Oliver WC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an effective measles vaccine has been available for almost 40 years, in 2000 there were about 30 million measles infections worldwide and 777,000 measles-related deaths. The history of smallpox suggests that achieving measles eradication depends on several factors; the biological characteristics of the organism; vaccine technology; surveillance and laboratory identification; effective delivery of vaccination programmes and international commitment to eradication. Discussion Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only reservoir for the virus, which causes a visible illness and infection leading to life-long immunity. As the measles virus has only one genetic serotype which is relatively stable over time, the same basic vaccine can be used world-wide. Vaccination provides protection against measles infection for at least 15 years, although efficacy may be reduced due to host factors such as nutritional status. Measles vaccination may also confer other non-specific health benefits leading to reduced mortality. Accurate laboratory identification of measles cases enables enhanced surveillance to support elimination programmes. The "catch-up, keep-up, follow-up" vaccination programme implemented in the Americas has shown that measles elimination is possible using existing technologies. On 17th October 2003 the "Cape Town Measles Declaration" by the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Childrens Fund called on governments to intensify efforts to reduce measles mortality by supporting universal vaccination coverage and the development of more effective vaccination. Summary Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is technically feasible. Growing international support to deliver these programmes means that measles, like smallpox, may very well become a curiosity of history.

  9. Measles in the 21st Century, a Continuing Preventable Risk to Travelers: Data From the GeoSentinel Global Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotir, Mark J; Esposito, Douglas H; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Leder, Karin; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Lim, Poh L; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Hamer, Davidson H; Kuhn, Susan; Connor, Bradley A; Pradhan, Rashila; Caumes, Eric

    2016-01-15

    Measles remains a risk for travelers, with 94 measles diagnoses reported to the GeoSentinel network from 2000 to 2014, two-thirds since 2010. Asia was the most common exposure region, then Africa and Europe. Efforts to reduce travel-associated measles should target all vaccine-eligible travelers, including catch-up vaccination of susceptible adults.

  10. Measles Outbreak among Unvaccinated Children in Bajura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sitaula

    2010-12-01

    CFR of this outbreak is higher than the national CFR. Vaccine efficacy of 50% points towards the need for investigation of vaccine logistics and cold chain system. Moreover, this laboratory test confirmed an outbreak showing that the measles virus could be imported from an endemic region and rapidly spread through a susceptible population who were previously not immunized.

  11. Measles-associated encephalopathy in children with renal transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, A; Jeyaratnam, D; Haworth, F; Sinha, M D; Hughes, E; Cohen, B; Jin, L; Kidd, I M; Rigden, S P A; MacMahon, E

    2006-06-01

    Two children, boys of 8 and 13 years, presented with measles-associated encephalopathy several years after kidney transplantation for congenital nephrotic syndrome. In the absence of prior clinical measles, the neurological symptoms initially eluded diagnosis, but retrospective analysis of stored samples facilitated the diagnosis of measles-associated encephalopathy without recourse to biopsy of deep cerebral lesions. Each had received a single dose of measles mumps and rubella vaccine before 12 months of age. Prior vaccination, reduction of immunosuppression and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and ribavirin may have contributed to their survival. Persistent measles virus RNA shedding, present in one child, was not controlled by treatment with i.v. ribavirin. Two years later, both patients continue to have functioning allografts with only minimal immunosuppression. These cases illustrate the difficulty in diagnosing measles-associated encephalopathy in the immunocompromised host, even in the era of molecular diagnostics, and highlight the renewed threat of neurological disease in communities with incomplete herd immunity.

  12. Study on the feasibility and safety of measles vaccination in women of childbearing age%育龄妇女麻疹疫苗接种的可行性及安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏蝉; 温正旺; 刘琦; 董雷; 邱海凡; 陈益平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the feasibility and safety of measles vaccination in women of childbearing age and to understand the influence of measles vaccination on the fetal transmission measles antibody level of the infants.Methods From January 1,2012 to December 31,2012,600 women of childbearing age were included in this study.The measles IgG antibody was detected,then all participants were randomized according to the IgG level.The measles IgG antibody of participants in non-vaccinated group was detected predelivery in hospital by enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA).That of participants in vaccinated group was detected 3 months after vaccination with measles mumps rubella combined vaccine and predelivery by ELISA.And measles nuclear protein fragment gene (measles virus nucleoprotein,MVN) in the blood was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR).A total of 368 participants gave birth within 2 years after vaccination,and 357 infants 8 months after birth were healthy.In non-vaccinated group,8 infants were diagnosed with measles within 8 months after birth.Finally,349 8-month infants were enrolled in the study,including 52 whose mothers in high antibody without vaccination group,65 whose mothers in high antibody with vaccination group,110 whose mothers in low antibody without vaccination group and 122 whose mothers in low antibody with vaccination group.The measles IgG antibody levels in the blood of all the 8-month infants were detected.Data were analyzed using t test,one-way ANOVA (Newman-Keuls was used for comparison between groups) and Pearson analysis.Results The measles IgG antibody level of expectant women in high antibody without vaccination group was significantly lower compared to that in high antibody with vaccination group ([268.5±74.9] IU/mL vs [578.3t208.1] IU/mL,Q=15.57,P<0.01).That in low antibody without vaccination group was also significantly lower than low antibody with vaccination group ([169.4+42.3] IU/mL vs [584

  13. Is the current prevention strategy based on vaccination coverage and epidemiological surveillance sufficient to achieve measles and rubella elimination in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans-Rubio, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    Elimination of measles and rubella in Europe is a feasible objective, but it requires achieving a maintaining a high prevalence of protected individuals in order to prevent cases and outbreaks from imported cases. The epidemiology of measles and rubella in Europe in the period 2003-2013 suggests that we are far away from the elimination target for measles, while the situation is better for rubella. In this situation, a new preventive strategy based on serological surveillance systems should be developed in Europe in order to identify and immunise individuals in population groups without sufficient herd immunity against measles and rubella.

  14. 2013年~2014年辖区适龄儿童的麻疹疫苗强化免疫效果分析%Analysis of Measles Vaccine Strengthened Immune Effect on Children from 2013 to 2014 in the District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢潮

    2016-01-01

    目的::探究2013年~2014年间辖区内适龄儿童接受麻疹疫苗接种前、后的免疫效果情况。方法:联合疾控相关部门,选择2013年~2014年入某院接受麻疹疫苗接种的309名适龄儿童,评估其接种前、后各项抗体指标情况,探究疫苗接种对麻疹疾病防控的效果。结果:强化免疫前、后,适龄儿童抗体检测阳性率分别是70.23%、91.30%,对比差异较大(P <0.05);不同年龄层次、不同免疫次数儿童的抗体检测指标比对,差异均较大(P <0.05)。结论:麻疹防控工作强化免疫必不可少,并做好健康常识宣教、免疫操作培训等工作。%Objective:To explore the the immune effect of the children before and after receiving measles vaccination from 2013~2014 in the district.Methods:Working together with CDC relevant departments in the city,it chose 309 children having received measles vaccination from 2013 to 2014 in a hospital,and evalu-ated the antibody index before and after receiving vaccination,in order to explore the prevention and control effect of vaccination against measles disease.Results:Positive rate of antibody testing of the children is 70. 23%,91.30% respectively before and after receiving vaccination.The difference is significant (P <0.05);an-tibody testing index of different ages and different immune times have big differences (P <0.05).Conclusion:It's necessary to do prevention and control over strengthening measles vaccination and make healthy common sense mission and immune operation training,etc.

  15. Analysis on effectiveness of measles attenuated live vaccine supplementary immunization activities in Nanchang at 2009%南昌市2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗强化免疫活动效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖征; 彭时辉; 文海蓉; 张艳霞; 熊昌辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价2009年南昌市麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)强化免疫活动(SupplementaryImmunization Activities,SLA)效果,为消除麻疹提供依据.方法 对南昌市2009年10月麻疹疫苗强化免疫期间的摸底调查、现场接种、评估报告等资料和强化免疫前后的中国疾病预防控制信息系统中麻疹疫情资料进行综合分析.结果 该次强化免疫共接种目标儿童988959剂次,报告接种率为97.91%(988959/1010096),快速评估调查接种率为96.94%(1745/1800);MV SIA后人群麻疹抗体阳性率、保护率分别为91.99%、70.83%,抗体GMT从免疫前的1∶555上升到免疫后的1∶1625.28,免疫前后人群麻疹抗体GMT差异有统计学意义(t=4.795,P=0.000).本次强化免疫共报告疑似预防接种异常反应(Adverse Events Following Immunization,AEFI)25例,发生率为2.53/10万;强化免疫后的2009年11月~2010年10月全市报告麻疹病例10例,发病率为0.20/10万,较2008年11月~2009年10月同期病例明显减少.结论 高质量的MV SIA能迅速提高人群的抗体水平,降低麻疹发病率,适时开展MV SIA是加速麻疹控制最安全有效的措施之一.%Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV) supplementary immunization activities (SIA) in Nanchang in 2009 and provide basis for elimination measles. Method Collecting the data of basic investigation, scene vaccination and evaluation reports during measles vaccine supplementary immunization time of October 2009, all them comprehensive analysis with the data before and after supplementary immunization which collected from China Disease Prevention and Control Information System. Results This supplementary immunization had inoculation goal children 988 959 times, the reporting inoculation rate was 97.91% (988 959/1 010 096), the rapid assessment survey inoculation rate was 96. 94% (1 745/1 800) . MV SIA measles antibody positive rate, protection

  16. Measles immunity among pregnant women aged 15–44 years in Namibia, 2008 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina V. Cardemil

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Late in a large measles outbreak, 13% of pregnant women in Namibia, and almost one in four 15–19-year-old pregnant women, remained susceptible to measles. In Namibia, immunization campaigns with measles-containing vaccine should be considered for adults.

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines coadministered with a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in toddlers: a pooled analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kristina; McVernon, Jodie; Marchant, Colin; Nolan, Terry; Marshall, Gary; Richmond, Peter; Marshall, Helen; Nissen, Michael; Lambert, Stephen; Aris, Emmanuel; Mesaros, Narcisa; Miller, Jacqueline

    2012-08-01

    A pooled analysis was conducted of 1257 toddlers who received a fourth dose of Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (HibMenCY-TT) or Hib conjugate vaccine (Hib polysaccharide conjugated to N. meningitidis outer membrane protein) coadministered with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (VAR) vaccines (NCT00134719/NCT00289783). Noninferiority of immunological responses to MMR and VAR was demonstrated between groups and incidences of MMR- and VAR-specific solicited symptoms were similar, indicating that HibMenCY-TT can be coadministered with MMR and VAR.

  18. Analysis of quality control for measles vaccine,live, from 2008 to 2012%2008-2012年麻疹减毒活疫苗的质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易敏; 刘长暖; 权娅茹; 陈震; 李长贵; 袁力勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize results for the quality control and discuss the quality status of measles vaccine , live, applied for lot release from 2008 to 2012 .Methods By reviewing the lots summary protocol and testing the crucial items , in combination with trend analysis , the comprehensive quality for measles vaccine , live, was analyzed .Results The qual-ity for domestic measles vaccine , live was consistent during the recent 5 years, the ratio of obtained certification of lot re-lease is 98.6%.The virus titers of all lots are satisfied with the acceptance criteria of 2010 Chinese Pharmacopoeia , but eight lots were withdrawn by manufactures because of out of trend .Conclusion The data presented here demonstrate that safety and efficiency for the domestic measles vaccine , live on market are guaranteed by the improvement of the vaccine quality and production process , lot release program and the application of trend analysis .%目的:对中国2008-2012年连续5年麻疹减毒活疫苗(简称麻疹疫苗)的批签发情况进行总结,评价其麻疹疫苗的总体质量。方法通过对送检样品的资料审查和关键项目的实验室检定,采用趋势分析法对病毒滴度等进行分析和比较,回顾麻疹疫苗质量的整体情况。结果中国麻疹疫苗整体质量较好,批签发通过率为98.6%。疫苗关键指标数据稳定,病毒滴度100%符合国家标准,其中8批疫苗病毒滴度由于超过警戒线企业主动撤检。结论中国麻疹减毒活疫苗的质量稳中有升。国家疫苗批签发程序对确保上市疫苗的质量发挥重要作用,趋势分析在批签发中的应用更加严格保证了上市疫苗的安全性和有效性。

  19. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political in

  20. Rubella (German Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) Print A A A What's in this article? ... Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles — is an infection that ...

  1. 麻疹病毒疫苗株沪191和宁波麻疹病毒流行株血清交叉中和试验结果分析%Study on the Cross Neutralizing Antibody between Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine S191 and the Measles Epidemic Strain in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅燕; 许国章; 董红军; 胡逢蛟; 马瑞; 陆圣诞; 焦素黎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the protective level of the current measles vaccine (Shanghai 191. S191) and provide evidence for formulating effective strategies of measles prevention. Methods Neutralizing antibody levels to measles vaccine virus strain S191 and wild type virus strain Ningbo2008-06 from different kinds person' s serum were tested by trace neutralization test. Results The geometric mean titer(GMT)to S191 of primarily vaccination serum, acute phase serum of patients immunized with measles vaccine, serum of convalescence patients, serum of pre-emergency vaccination and serum of post-emergency vaccination werel :35.23,:4.16,: 231.74, : 37.81 and 1:61.03 respectively ;while the GMT to Ningbo 2008-06 of the above serum were 1:19.04,: 2.21,: 596.62,: 32.25 and 1:67.54 respectively. The GMT of the serum of primarily vaccine immunization and the serum of acute phase patients against S191 were 1.85 (t=2.537, P<0.05)and 1.88(t=-2.696, P<0.05) times of those against Ningbo 2008-06 respectively. The GMT of the serum of convalescence patients against Ningbo 2008-06 was 2.57 (t=-3.054, P<0.05) times of that against S191.There was no significant difference between the GMT against S191 and Ningbo2008-06 in post-emergency vaccination serum. For infants, their serum' s GMT against S191 and Ningbo2008-06 declined with their growing up. The GMT against Ningbo2008-06 in 6months and 8months old group were 1:2.60 and 1:1.24 respectively. Conclusions The current measles vaccine S191 can neutraliae Ningbo2008-06,but the neutralizing ability decreased. Emergency vaccination can significantly increasebody s neutralization antibody titer to measles. The antibody from mother almost has no protection after 6 months. It is the time to revise current measles immunization strategies.%目的 分析麻疹病毒疫苗株[上海(沪)191,Shanghai191;S191]的免疫保护性,为探讨有效预防控制麻疹的措施提供参考.方法 用微量中和试验测定不同人群血清

  2. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, Northern Philippines, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapanta, Ma Justina; de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Tayag, Enrique; Magpantay, Rio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years). Thirty-two were male (64%). Twenty (40%) were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64%) cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72%) received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96%) knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles. PMID:27766180

  3. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, northern Philippines, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods: Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results: There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years. Thirty-two were male (64%. Twenty (40% were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64% cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72% received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96% knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion: This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles.

  4. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - Nepal, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sudhir; Sedai, Tika Ram; Choudary, Ganga Ram; Giri, Jagat Narain; Bohara, Rajendra; Pant, Rajendra; Gautam, Mukunda; Sharapov, Umid M; Goodson, James L; Alexander, James; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Perry, Robert T; Bah, Sunil; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Thapa, Arun

    2016-03-04

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region (SEAR) established a goal to eliminate measles and to control rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in SEAR by 2020. Current recommended measles elimination strategies in the region include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) in every district, delivered through the routine immunization program or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely measles case-based surveillance system that meets minimum recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. In 2013, Nepal, one of the 11 SEAR member states, adopted a goal for national measles elimination by 2019. This report updates a previous report and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in Nepal during 2007-2014. During 2007-2014, estimated coverage with the first MCV dose (MCV1) increased from 81% to 88%. Approximately 3.9 and 9.7 million children were vaccinated in SIAs conducted in 2008 and 2014, respectively. Reported suspected measles incidence declined by 13% during 2007-2014, from 54 to 47 cases per 1 million population. However, in 2014, 81% of districts did not meet the measles case-based surveillance performance indicator target of ≥2 discarded non-measles cases per 100,000 population per year. To achieve and maintain measles elimination, additional measures are needed to strengthen routine immunization services to increase coverage with MCV1 and a recently introduced second dose of MCV (MCV2) to ≥95% in all districts, and to enhance sensitivity of measles case-based surveillance by adopting a more sensitive case definition, expanding case-based surveillance sites nationwide, and ensuring timely transport of

  5. Controlling measles using supplemental immunization activities: A mathematical model to inform optimal policy

    OpenAIRE

    Verguet, Stéphane; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K; Gauvreau, Cindy L.; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background The Measles & Rubella Initiative, a broad consortium of global health agencies, has provided support to measles-burdened countries, focusing on sustaining high coverage of routine immunization of children and supplementing it with a second dose opportunity for measles vaccine through supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). We estimate optimal scheduling of SIAs in countries with the highest measles burden. Methods We develop an age-stratified dynamic compartmental model of mea...

  6. Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J; Metcalf, C Jessica E; de Swart, Rik L; Osterhaus, A D M E; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2015-05-08

    Immunosuppression after measles is known to predispose people to opportunistic infections for a period of several weeks to months. Using population-level data, we show that measles has a more prolonged effect on host resistance, extending over 2 to 3 years. We find that nonmeasles infectious disease mortality in high-income countries is tightly coupled to measles incidence at this lag, in both the pre- and post-vaccine eras. We conclude that long-term immunologic sequelae of measles drive interannual fluctuations in nonmeasles deaths. This is consistent with recent experimental work that attributes the immunosuppressive effects of measles to depletion of B and T lymphocytes. Our data provide an explanation for the long-term benefits of measles vaccination in preventing all-cause infectious disease. By preventing measles-associated immune memory loss, vaccination protects polymicrobial herd immunity.

  7. Andean region: measles on the way out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In August 1996, health officials, program managers, epidemiologists, laboratory representatives, UNICEF, Rotary International, and Pan American Health Organization staff attended the VII Andean EPI Meeting in Quito, Ecuador, to review the progress of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). All Andean countries have conducted catch-up measles vaccination campaigns targeting children 9 months to 15 years old. These campaigns achieved 90% vaccine coverage and a strong reduction in measles incidence (only 7 confirmed cases in 1996). Follow-up campaigns were conducted during 1995-1996 in Colombia, Peru, and Chile. They were expected in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela during 1997-1999. The Andean countries implemented a national surveillance system for measles in 1995. Meeting representatives made eight recommendations regarding measles. For example, health officials should reach and maintain routine vaccination coverage greater than 95% for children 12-23 months old in each municipality. Laboratory representatives proposed recommendations on uniform criteria for measles diagnosis. The last indigenous wild poliovirus in the Americas was isolated in 1991. Imported wild poliovirus remains a concern. The Andean countries are expanding surveillance of neonatal tetanus activities. Since 1989 the frequency of neonatal tetanus has been falling in the Andean region, especially in Bolivia and Peru. The impact of migration on the control of neonatal tetanus should be a higher priority. Participants repeated the need for systematic use and continuous monitoring of EPI indicators (e.g., vaccination coverage). Three countries plan on analyzing surveys on missed opportunities for vaccination in 1996. Three countries presented progress reports on hepatitis B vaccination and surveillance. Participants issued recommendations on quality control of vaccines. The responsibility for quality control lies with the manufacturers and the government. Vaccines for invasive diseases (e

  8. Progress Toward Measles Elimination - South-East Asia Region, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Arun; Khanal, Sudhir; Sharapov, Umid; Swezy, Virginia; Sedai, Tika; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L; McFarland, Jeffrey

    2015-06-12

    In 2013, the 66th session of the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia Region adopted the goal of measles elimination and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control by 2020 after rigorous prior consultations. The recommended strategies include 1) achieving and maintaining ≥95% coverage with 2 doses of measles- and rubella-containing vaccine in every district through routine or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) developing and sustaining a sensitive and timely case-based measles surveillance system that meets recommended performance indicators; 3) developing and maintaining an accredited measles laboratory network; and 4) achieving timely identification, investigation, and response to measles outbreaks. This report updates previous reports and summarizes progress toward measles elimination in the South-East Asia Region during 2003-2013. Within the region, coverage with the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) increased from 67% to 78%; an estimated 286 million children (95% of the target population) were vaccinated in SIAs; measles incidence decreased 73%, from 59 to 16 cases per million population; and estimated measles deaths decreased 63%. To achieve measles elimination in the region, additional efforts are needed in countries with measles case-based surveillance and laboratory diagnosis of measles.

  9. Measles outbreak associated with an arriving refugee - Los Angeles County, California, August-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Measles is a highly communicable, acute viral illness with potential for severe complications, including death. Although endemic measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000 as a result of widespread vaccination, sporadic measles outbreaks still occur, largely associated with international travel from measles-endemic countries and pockets of unvaccinated persons. On August 26, 2011, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) was notified of suspected measles in a refugee from Burma who had arrived in Los Angeles, California, on August 24, after a flight from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Passengers on the flight included 31 other refugees who then traveled to seven other states, widening the measles investigation and response activities. In California alone, 50 staff members from LACDPH and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) interviewed and reinterviewed 298 contacts. Measles was diagnosed in three contacts of the index patient (patient A). The three contacts with measles were two passengers on the same flight as patient A and a customs worker; no secondary cases were identified. Delayed diagnosis of measles in patient A and delayed notification of health officials precluded use of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine as an outbreak intervention. This outbreak emphasizes the importance of maintaining a high level of vaccination coverage and continued high vigilance for measles in the United States, particularly among incoming international travelers; clinicians should immediately isolate persons with suspected measles and promptly report them to health authorities.

  10. Application of Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Method to Identify H1 Genotype of Measles Virus Infection and Measles Vaccine Related Cases%应用限制性片段长度多态性分析方法鉴别H1基因型麻疹野病毒感染病例和麻疹疫苗相关病例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立群; 余文; 赵智娴; 丁峥嵘

    2012-01-01

    Objective Application the method to rapid identify the wild measles strain and China measles vaccine strain in Yunnan province. Method To apply method of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RT-PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis method to detect 8 strains of measles virus. Results The RT-PCR-RFLP method for H1 genotype was used for identifying 8 strains of measles virus, the 5 specimens of wild-type, measles viruses RT-PCR products were cut into 2 fragments, 408 bp and 159 bp, the results showed that 5 specimens of wild-type measles viruses were caused by H1 genotype. The RT-PCR-RFLP method for China vaccine strain identification was used for identifying 3 specimen of measles. 1 specimen RT-PCR products were cut into 2 fragments, 287 bp and 151 bp, which showed that this case was caused by China vaccine strain. 2 specimens of measles were non-H1 wild-type measles viruses. Conclusion The RT-PCR-RFLP method can be used to identify H1 genotype of measles virus and measles vaccine strain. The results are same as the method of nucleoprotein gene sequencing.%目的 在云南省应用H1基因型麻疹野病毒鉴定方法,鉴别H1基因型麻疹野病毒感染病例,应用中国麻疹疫苗株病毒鉴定方法,鉴别接种麻疹疫苗后出现的麻疹样病例是否为麻疹疫苗相关病例.方法 采用逆转录-聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性分析(Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism,RT-PCR-RFLP)方法、序列分析方法鉴别8株麻疹病毒.结果 应用H1基因型麻疹野病毒RT-PCR-RFLP方法对8份标本进行鉴定,其中5份标本RT-PCR产物经 Sal I酶切后,被切成两个片段,分别为408个碱基对(base pair,bp)和159bp,显示5个病例是由H1基因型麻疹野病毒引起的.应用中国麻疹疫苗株病毒RT-PCR-RFLP方法对3份标本进行鉴定,其中1份标本RT-PCR产物经Af1Ⅱ酶切,被切成两个片段,分别为287

  11. Measles outbreak in Europe: susceptibility of infants too young to be immunized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuridan, E; Sabbe, M; Van Damme, P

    2012-09-07

    As women vaccinated against measles transfer low amounts of antibodies, an increasing number of infants lack early protection through maternal antibodies until being immunised themselves. This paper reviews the literature on disease burden of measles in the population too young to be immunized according to the respective national recommendations during recent outbreaks in EU and EEA/EFTA countries. In addition, specific control strategies adopted to protect this young population are reviewed. Pubmed, Unbound Medline, Web of Knowledge and the Eurosurveillance database were searched using MESH terms: measles and epidemiology, measles and infants, prevalence of measles, measles and outbreaks and measles and epidemic. Additionally, data from Euvac.net and ECDC were consulted. Databases were searched from January 2001 to September 2011. Fifty-three papers were included in the analysis. The percentage of all measles cases during outbreaks affecting young infants ranged from 0.25% to 83.0%. Specific control strategies were adopted: e.g. administration of the first or second vaccine dose earlier than recommended. Infants younger than 12 months are often involved in measles outbreaks, and advancing the first vaccine dose could reduce the burden of disease. However, immunization before 9 months of age is not systematically recommended because of dysmature humoral immune responses of infants. High coverage and timely administration of the recommended series of vaccines are the most important measures to decrease measles incidence and measles circulation and protect vulnerable infants from infection.

  12. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause;

    2015-01-01

    an outbreak. The majority of the cases were unvaccinated (n = 27) or recipients of one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (n = 7). In addition, two fully vaccinated adult cases were reported in 2014. We demonstrate the transmission of measles virus in a population in which the two-dose MMR......Despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines decades ago and joint global public health efforts to eliminate measles, this vaccine-preventable disease continues to pose threats to children's health worldwide. During 2013 and 2014, measles virus was introduced into Denmark through several...... independent importations. This resulted in a number of secondary cases (n = 7), with two clusters in 2013 and one in 2014. In total, there were 44 cases of measles. Most cases (n = 41) were laboratory confirmed by detection of measles virus genome by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and IgM antibodies...

  13. Suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero a cepas vacinais do vírus do sarampo Susceptibility of Vero cell line to vaccine strains of the measles virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Sayoko Takata

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A suscetibilidade da linhagem de células Vero ao vírus do sarampo é bem conhecida e sua utilização no controle da potência da vacina contra o sarampo é amplamente difundida. Com o objetivo de comparar a suscetibilidade de células Vero empregadas em titulações, amostras provenientes de dois laboratórios controladores (Vero IB e Vero INCQS, foram testadas frente a três cepas vacinais: Moraten, Schwarz e Biken CAM-70. Foram titulados 72 lotes de vacinas contra o sarampo, sendo 25 produzidos com a cepa Moraten, 24 com a cepa Schwarz e 23 com a cepa Biken CAM-70. A análise estatística dos resultados obtidos nas titulações, feita através dos testes Limites para uma Média e "t" de Student, mostrou que para as cepas Moraten e Biken CAM-70, as diferenças de títulos não foram estatisticamente significantes, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a cepa Schwarz, para a qual as células Vero IB se mostraram mais sensíveis.Vero cells used by distinct measles vaccine control laboratories had their susceptibility to Moraten, Schwarz and Biken CAM-70 vaccine strains assayed. Of a total of 72 lots of measles vaccine whose potency was titrated by microtechnique in two Vero cell samples (Vero IB and Vero INCQS, 25 had been produced with Moraten strain, 24 with Schwarz and 23 with Biken CAM-70. The statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that both Vero cells assayed presented comparable susceptibility to Moraten and Biken CAM-70 strains. As to the Schwarz strain, Vero IB cells were more susceptible than the other cell sample tested, thus confirming the existence of different sensitivities of Vero cells to some measles vaccine strains, or even to viruses derived from the same strain but with different passage histories. An altered cell susceptibility to virus replication may significantly alter the results in potency testing. Such alteration may be caused not only by the adoption of distinct protocols for the maintenance of cell cultures by

  14. Measles epidemiology and survey of measles immunity level among healthy population in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Kou, Guangping; Du, Hongzhong; Ju, Zhoufeng; Zhong, Li; Cui, Xiuling; Ling, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the epidemiology of measles cases from January 2004 to December 2011 and measles immunity levels among a healthy population from January to June 2012, in Baoji, Shaanxi Province. This study aimed to identify susceptible populations to measles and to establish methods of measles prevention and control. Measles incidence was at the lowest level in 2011 (0.32 per 100,000 populations). Among these patients, the proportion of those younger than 8 months and those older than 27 years of age was relatively high. The overall antibody positive rate was 78.90%, and the average antibody geometric mean concentration was 562.15 mIU/ml. Measles immunity level was high among children aged 8 months to 6 years and low among infants aged 1-7 months. To reduce the incidence of measles among infants younger than 8 months, implementation of measles vaccine (MV) for women of childbearing age is recommended. Measles immunity level was low among some individuals vaccinated with aqueous MV and lyophilized MV. Supplementary immunization will be recommended for freshmen in universities and colleges, where many students are recruited from various parts of China.

  15. Relevance of the Measles Virus Expression in Cancer - an Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharroch, Daniel; Ariad, Samuel; Tadmor, Noa; Nalbandyan, Karen; Lazarev, Irena

    2016-10-01

    Evidence of an association between classical Hodgkin lymphoma and the measles virus has previously been presented by our group. Arguments held against our thesis were reevaluated. Substantiation of a relationship between the measles virus and additional solid tumors was submitted. Moreover, a pathogenic pathway was suggested to support a possible contribution of the measles virus to the development of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We have chosen to exclude a discussion of measles virotherapy, since this carries distinct implications. We now add new evidence regarding the expression of the measles virus phosphoprotein in a few cancers. We also suggest a role in this context for atypical measles syndrome in malignant tumors. Last, we propose a collaboration which may make the best, on the one hand of our cohort of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, half of which carry the measles virus expression in their tumor cells. The planned study will also look into the patients vaccination records and into a previous history of the measles disease. On the other hand, cohorts of patients diagnosed with late onset measles will be assessed for the eventual diagnosis of atypical measles syndrome and will be followed up for the subsequent development of a malignant tumor.

  16. International measles incidence and immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Jolley, Damien

    2011-07-01

    Measles is exquisitely sensitive to immunization programs. We investigated the decline in measles incidence after immunization with 1 or 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV), with or without supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Using data from the World Health Organization, we modeled the impact of measles immunization using a negative binomial regression model. All countries offer measles immunization, and 192 of 193 countries offer a second dose of MCV (MCV2), using either a routine second dose, SIAs, or both. The incidence of measles fell from a median of 70.9 cases/100,000/year when coverage with a first dose of MCV (MCV1) was in the range of 0%-39% to a median of .9 cases/100,000/year when MCV1 coverage was 90%-100%, in both cases with no MCV2. Further reductions followed the introduction of MCV2 and SIAs. Modeling showed that each 1% increase in MCV1 coverage was followed by a 2.0% decrease in incidence in the same and following years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%-1.9%, and 2.1%-1.9%, respectively). For a second dose, a rise of 1% in MCV2 coverage was followed by a decrease in measles incidence by .4% (95% CI, .3%-.5%) in the same year and .3% (95% CI, .2%-.5%) in the following year. SIAs were followed by decreases of measles incidence by 40.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-33.8%) in the same year and 45.2% (95% CI, 51.1%-48.7%) in the following year. A herd immunity effect was demonstrated with MCV1 coverage of >80%, and SIAs are an extraordinarily effective strategy for measles control.

  17. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo...... was associated with an increased frequency of CRP≥5 mg/l (28 v. 12 %; P=0·005). Six weeks after supplementation, VAS had significant sex-differential effects on leucocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil cell counts, decreasing them in males but increasing them in females. Mainly in females, the effect of VAS...

  18. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al-Qayoudhi; Hanan Al-Kindi; Nabil Meki; Amal Al-Maani

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hos...

  19. 应用麻疹发病率估算麻疹疫苗首剂接种率的效果%An evaluation of immunization coverage of the first dose of measles containing vaccine using incidence rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万仓; 林献丹; 王志刚; 郑晓春; 陈玲萍; 孙肖瑜

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the immunization coverage of the first dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV1 )by using the incidence of measles in Wenzhou City.Methods Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze measles cases that reported in Wenzhou city from 2007 to 2012 and evaluate the immunization coverage of the first dose of measles containing vaccine.Results The average annual incidence rate was 10.46/100 000 from 2007 to 2012,and the annual incidence rate was 43.44/100 000 for children aged from 8 months to 83 months (42.59%).Based on the proportion of immunized measles cases vaccine effectiveness (VE)of MCV,the evaluated coverage rate of MCV1 was 73.80% (VE=90%)or 84.92% (VE=95%)in children aged from 13 to 83 months.The evaluated coverage rate of MCV1 was 83.25%(VE=90%)or 90.86%(VE=95%)in local children and 69.5 1%(VE=90%)or 82.02%(VE=95%)in migrating children.The timely immunization rate of MCV1 was 59.48% (VE =90%)or 74.59% (VE =95%).Conclusion The coverage rate and timely coverage rate of MCV1 are still low.It is important to strengthen the management of migrating population and enhance propaganda to ensure a high level vaccination rate to accelerate the elimination of measles.%目的:评价温州市含麻疹成分疫苗(MCV)首剂(MCV1)接种率。方法采用描述性流行病学方法,对温州市2007-2012年报告的麻疹病例分析并对MCV1接种率进行评价。结果温州市2007-2012年麻疹年均发病率为10.46/10万。其中8~83月龄麻疹年均发病率为43.44/10万(占总病例数的42.59%)。13~83月龄儿童MCV1接种率为73.80%(疫苗效力VE=90%)或84.92%(VE=95%);本地、流动儿童MCV1接种率分别为83.25%和69.51%(VE=90%)或90.86%和82.02%(VE=95%),MCV1及时接种率分别为59.48%(VE=90%)或74.59%(VE =95%)。结论温州市MCV1接种率和及时接种率均较低。应加强流动人口管理,提高MV接种率和及时率。

  20. 湖北省农村地区2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫结果分析%Evaluation on the supplementary immunization activity (SIAS)of the attenuated live measles vaccine (MV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎; 许智; 谭晓东; 叶建君; 张迟; 赵明江; 占发先

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the implementation of the supplementary immunization activities (SIAS) of the attenuated live measles vaccine (MV) in Hubei's rural district in 2010. Methods Four hundred and seventy four children between 8 months and 4 yean old were selected with multi-stage stratified cluster sampling in rural area of Hubei. The self-designed questionnaire about MV SIAS was used for field visit and questionnaire survey. SPSS 17.0 was applied for data a-nalysis. Results The immunization coverage rate was 96. 6% , the supplementary inoculation rate after massive immunization stage was 50. 0%. The satisfaction rate of the parents for service attitude, environment and organization were 97. 2% , 96.7% and 97. 8% respectively. Three children had never received any measles vaccination,accounting for 6%o. Conclusion The immunization coverage rate was 95% , reaching the expected target. Further effort is needed to increase the supplementary inoculation rate. Those children never received measles vaccination should be the priority population for the elimination of measles.%目的 评估湖北省2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫在农村实施的情况.方法 采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法抽取湖北省6个郊区(县)8月龄~4岁儿童共474人,采用自编的调查表,以现况调查的方式进行入户问卷调查.结果 本次调查麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率为96.6%,集中接种后,补种率为50%;家长对于接种时医务人员的服务态度、接种点环境、接种组织情况满意者分别为97.2%、96.7%、97.8%;麻疹疫苗接种零剂次者3人,占调查样本的6‰.结论 湖北省农村地区2010年麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率达到了95%的目标.

  1. An outbreak of measles in an undervaccinated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Pamala; DeVries, Aaron S; Wallace, Gregory; Miller, Claudia; Kenyon, Cynthia; Sweet, Kristin; Martin, Karen; White, Karen; Bagstad, Erica; Hooker, Carol; Krawczynski, Gretchen; Boxrud, David; Liu, Gongping; Stinchfield, Patricia; LeBlanc, Julie; Hickman, Cynthia; Bahta, Lynn; Barskey, Albert; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-07-01

    Measles is readily spread to susceptible individuals, but is no longer endemic in the United States. In March 2011, measles was confirmed in a Minnesota child without travel abroad. This was the first identified case-patient of an outbreak. An investigation was initiated to determine the source, prevent transmission, and examine measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine coverage in the affected community. Investigation and response included case-patient follow-up, post-exposure prophylaxis, voluntary isolation and quarantine, and early MMR vaccine for non-immune shelter residents >6 months and measles cases were identified. The median age was 12 months (range, 4 months to 51 years) and 14 (67%) were hospitalized (range of stay, 2-7 days). The source was a 30-month-old US-born child of Somali descent infected while visiting Kenya. Measles spread in several settings, and over 3000 individuals were exposed. Sixteen case-patients were unvaccinated; 9 of the 16 were age-eligible: 7 of the 9 had safety concerns and 6 were of Somali descent. MMR vaccine coverage among Somali children declined significantly from 2004 through 2010 starting at 91.1% in 2004 and reaching 54.0% in 2010 (χ(2) for linear trend 553.79; P measles outbreak in Minnesota in 20 years, and aggressive response likely prevented additional transmission. Measles outbreaks can occur if undervaccinated subpopulations exist. Misunderstandings about vaccine safety must be effectively addressed.

  2. Nosocomial measles cluster in Denmark following an imported case, December 2008-January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, C; Bottiger, Be; Plesner, A;

    2009-01-01

    A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule....

  3. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause; Andersen, Peter Henrik Senten; Rønn, Jesper; Poulsen, Mille Weismann; Franck, Kristina Træholt; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines decades ago and joint global public health efforts to eliminate measles, this vaccine-preventable disease continues to pose threats to children's health worldwide. During 2013 and 2014, measles virus was introduced into Denmark through several independent importations. This resulted in a number of secondary cases (n=7), with two clusters in 2013 and one in 2014. In total, there were 44 cases of measles. Most cases (n=41) were laboratory confirmed by detection of measles virus genome by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and IgM antibodies. The viruses from confirmed cases were genotyped by sequencing. Only one genotype circulated each year, i.e. D8 and B3, respectively. Sequencing of measles virus from different clinical specimens from the same patients revealed that sequence variants of measles viruses might co-exist and co-transmit during an outbreak. The majority of the cases were unvaccinated (n=27) or recipients of one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (n=7). In addition, two fully vaccinated adult cases were reported in 2014. We demonstrate the transmission of measles virus in a population in which the two-dose MMR vaccination coverage rate was 80% and how even vaccinated individuals may be at risk of contracting measles once transmission has been established.

  4. 喷雾型与皮下注射型麻疹减毒活疫苗血清学效果比较的Meta分析%Comparison on serological effect of aerosolized measles vaccine and subcutaneous measles vaccine: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昱; 陈雅萍; 唐学雯; 沈灵智; 郭静

    2014-01-01

    目的 比较喷雾型麻疹减毒活疫苗(AMV)和皮下注射型麻疹减毒活疫苗(SMV)接种后抗体阳转率,评价血清学效果.方法 检索美国国家医学图书馆数据库和Cochrane协作网图书馆等数据库,将研究接种AMV和SMV后比较血清学效果的随机对照实验(RCT)和前瞻性对照研究(PS)的文献全部纳入分析,用RevMan5.1进行分析.结果 共纳入9篇文献,6篇为RCT研究,3篇PS研究,共纳入研究对象2 349名(AMV组1 289名、SMV组1 060名).总体上AMV抗体阳转率与SMV差异无统计学意义(OR=0.91,95%CI:0.36~2.31,P>0.05);6篇RCT文献合并后,AMV抗体阳转率与SMV差异无统计学意义(OR=1.32,95%CI:0.43 ~4.01,Z=0.49,P>0.05);4~18月龄儿童AMV抗体阳转率是SMV的17%(OR=0.17,95%CI:0.04~0.70,P<0.01);5~14岁组AMV抗体阳转率是SMV的3.45倍(OR =3.45,95%CI:1.62~7.35,P<0.01).结论 AMV与SMV的血清学效果无明显差异,小年龄组中SMV接种后血清学效果高于AMV,而大年龄组中AMV接种后血清学效果高于SMV.%Objective To compare the different seroconversion rates after vaccination of aerosolized measles vaccine (AMV) and subcutaneous measles vaccine (SMV).Methods National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and Cochrane Library databases were searched to retrieve all randomized controlled trials (RCT) or controlled prospective study (tS) on comparison of serological effect (SE) after vaccination of AMV and SMV.Statistical analysis was performed by RevMan5.1 software.Results Nine studies (6 RCT documents and 3 PS documents) were selected,including 2 349 subjects enrolled in the study (n=1 289 in AMV group,n=1 060 in SMV group).No significant difference was found in seroconversion rate after AMV compared to SMV (OR=0.91,95% CI:0.36-2.31,P>0.05).In 6 RCT designs,no statistically difference was noted in seroconversion rate between AMV and SMV (OR=1.32,95% CI:0.43-4.01,Z=0.49,P>0.05).The seroconversion rate of AMV was 0

  5. FastStats: Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... for the U.S. Morbidity Reported number of new measles (rubeola) cases: 187 (2013) Reported number of new ...

  6. Imported Measles Outbreak in a University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In 1981, a measles outbreak in an Arkansas university involved 16 students and 4 others. The first two cases were in students who had recently returned from Honduras. Only two of the students were considered adequately immunized. A voluntary immunization clinic held on campus resulted in 67 percent of 3,076 students being vaccinated. (Author/KH)

  7. MEASLES VIRUS IMMUNITY LEVEL STUDY IN PARTICULAR POPULATION GROUPS OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF GLOBAL MEASLES ELIMINATION PROGRAM. REPORT 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles remains one of the main reasons for child mortality in developing countries and periodically leads to the emergence of large outbreaks in different countries. This problem became especially urgent after WHO accepted the strategic plan to fight against measles. The plan has set the goal to decrease measles on a global scale. In 2010–2011 the large outbreaks of measles were registered on the African continent: in the Democratic Republic of Congo in the south of Africa, in Nigeria and in some other African countries. In the Republic of Guinea vaccination against measles is carried out singly to children aged 9 months. In 2014–2015 the increase of measles incidence was noted. Materials and methods. Using ELISA 22 blood serum samples of healthy adult Guineans aged 24–71 and 136 blood serum samples received from children and adults — the patients of hospital in the town of Kindi (Republic of Guinea have been examined. The clinical samples were received in 2015–2016. The following test systems were used: the test systems produced by Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG (Germany: «Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IGM», «Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG»; «Avidity: Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG», and also ELISA Vector-Best IgM-measles test system (Russia. Results and discussion. Only one out of 22 examined healthy individuals hasn’t revealed IgG-antibodies to measles virus. The quantitative titre test of IgG-antibodies, and also their avidity among other 21 individuals testify experiencing measles in the recent or remote past. Having examined 116 blood serum samples of hospital patients in Kindi for IgM-measles-antibodies, the measles case with a 2.5-year-old child has been retrospectively revealed. Having examined 130 blood serum samples for IgG-antibodies to measles virus, 12.3% of seronegative to measles individuals have been revealed. All examined individuals aged 23 and older were seropositive to measles virus, and 60% of them

  8. Epidemiology of measles outbreaks in Kerala, India, during 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Measles imparts high morbidity and mortality in low-income countries with weak health infrastructure. The coverage of measles vaccination in Kerala which is best performing state of India in indicators of health has also not reached the elimination level and outbreaks of measles continue to occur. Aim: The aim of the paper was to study the profile of measles outbreaks in Kerala during the years 2007-2008. Settings and Designs: The study design was cross-sectional and data of the measles surveillance project of Kerala were analyzed . Results: The total number of clinically suspected measles outbreaks in Kerala during the 2-year period of 2007 and 2008 was 29. But only 15(53.6% were found to be ′measles only′ outbreak. The total number of epidemiologically linked measles cases was 718 (314 in 2007 and 404 in 2008. The cases that were immunized but developed the disease were 187 (28.6%, the number of cases that were not immunized was 355 (54.3% and those whose immunization status was unknown were 112 (17.1%. The mean age of occurrence of disease was higher in the vaccinated group as compared to not vaccinated group. Two deaths were recorded in the study. Conclusions: Significant morbidity and mortality due to measles do occur in the most developed state of India. The epidemics were clustered in some districts. The study indicated an age shift in occurrence of measles cases among who received the vaccination.

  9. Immigrants: Potential Menace for Measles Elimination Target in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious disease. By the end of 2013, 84% of children had received at least a single dose of measles vaccine by their second birthday, and 148 countries had included a second dose as part of routine immunization. In 2002, the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education developed a comprehensive strategy to eliminate Measles including mass immunization campaign for people aged 5-25 years (1. Suburban areas where residents usually are nomads or migrants with low socio-economic status (SES, pose a serious threat to the success of any prevention program(2 . There are a huge yet unknown number of Iranian immigrants and illegal refugees living in suburbs of large cities in Iran, where low participation of families in vaccination services might be a challenge (3. In this report, we try to highlight the importance of migrants and immigrants on the success of Measles vaccination programs.

  10. Serological findings during a measles outbreak occurring in a population with vaccine coverage Achados sorológicos durante um surto de sarampo em uma população com alta cobertura vacinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange A. Oliveira

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available From March 1991 to April 1992, serum samples for IgM detection were collected from 112 clinical measles cases reported to the Health Department of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro. The positivity exceeded 90% for specimens collected from the 5th to the 29th day after the onset of the disease. After day 30 a decline in IgM detection was observed, although positivity has been detected up to 90 days after the onset of the symptoms. Forty-four patients (48.9% with an IgM response had a history of prior measles vaccination. In 5 of the 22 measles-IgM negative cases the infection was due to other agents (rubella: 4 cases, dengue: 1 case. These results show that sensitivity of the test employed for confirming suspected measles cases is high, even in vaccinated patients.No período de março/1991 a abril/1992, foram escolhidas 112 amostras sanguíneas para a detecção de anticorpos da classe IgM de casos de sarampo notificados à Divisão de Epidemiologia da Fundação Municipal de Saúde de Niterói, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A positividade ultrapassou 90% para os espécimens colhidos entre o 5º e o 29º dia após o início da doença. A partir do 30º dia foi observado um declínio na detecção de IgM, embora positividade tenha sido constatada até noventa dias do início dos sintomas. História de vacinação prévia estava presente em 48,9% destes pacientes. Dos 22 casos restantes, em 5 a infecção era devido a outros agentes (rubéola: 4 casos, dengue: 1 caso. Estes resultados demonstram que a sensibilidade do teste empregado para confirmação de casos suspeitos de sarampo é elevada mesmo em pacientes vacinados.

  11. Effectiveness Assessment of the Supplementary Immunization Activities for Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine in Anhui Province in 2009%安徽省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴智勤; 唐继海; 张伟青; 易厦晖; 刘丹青; 何纳

    2012-01-01

    目的 对安徽省2009年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)的流行病学效果进行评估,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对安徽省2009年MV SIA前后的相关数据进行统计分析.结果 安徽省于2009年10月,对全省8月龄~14岁儿童开展MV SIA.SIA后的2010年,安徽省麻疹发病数和发病率均降至2004年以来的最低水平,分别为439例和0.72/10万;削平了麻疹发病高峰;2010年≤14岁各年龄别麻疹发病率均比2009年大幅度下降.结论 适时开展高质量的MV SIA,能有效控制麻疹流行,减少麻疹发病.MV SIA作为常规免疫的补充,是消除麻疹的重要策略之一.%Objective To evaluate the effect of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV ) supplementary immunization activities (SI As) in Anhui province in 2009, and to provide the reference for measles elimination. Methods Collecting measles epidemiology data before and after the MV SIA of 2009. Analyze the data with descriptive epidemiology. Results The MV SIAs in Anhui province were implemented in the October of 2009. The target population of the SIAs are the children aged from 8 months to 14 years. In 2010, both the number of reported measles cases and the measles incidence dropped to the lowestlevel since 2004, which were 439 cases and 0.72/100,000 respectively. The measles incidence of each age group among the children of 0-14 years old in 2010 dropped a lot comparing with that of 2009. Conclusions Carrying out high quality of SIAs at suitable time can control the epidemic of measles quickly, and decrease measles morbidity. Being a supplementary method for routine immunization, SIA is one of the important strategies to eliminate measles.

  12. Safety Surveillance of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine and Measles-Mumps-Rubella Combined Attenuated Live Vaccine after Supplementary Immunization Activities in Shanghai, 2010%上海市2010年强化免疫活动中麻疹减毒活疫苗和麻疹-流行性腮腺炎-风疹联合减毒活疫苗的安全性观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白庆瑞; 杨建萍; 陆菁; 黄卓英; 李智; 王于超; 秦晓东; 陶黎纳; 胡家瑜

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解上海市2010年强化免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activites,SIA)中,麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)和麻疹-流行性腮腺炎-风疹联合减毒活疫苗(Measles,Mumps and Rubella Combined Attenuated Live Vaccine,MMR)的安全性.方法 通过上海市疑似预防接种异常反应(Adverse Events Following Immunization,AEFI)监测系统收集MV和MMR联合疫苗的AEFI信息,分析其AEFI发生情况.结果 2010年9月11日~10月20日,上海市SIA共接种81.40万剂MV和97.75万剂MMR联合疫苗.MV的一般反应和异常反应报告发生率分别为109.33/10万剂和13.51/10万剂,MMR联合疫苗一般反应和异常反应报告发生率分别为20.87/10万剂和3.99/10万剂.MV的AEFI病例中,年龄越小所占构成比越大.两种疫苗的AEFI均以发热和局部红肿等一般反应为主,报告的异常反应中以过敏性皮疹为主.结论 使用MV或MMR联合疫苗进行SIA安全性良好.%Objective To investigate the safety of the measles attenuated live vaccine ( MV ) and measles-mumps-rubella combined attenuated live vaccine (MMR) after the supplementary immunization activities (SIA)in Shanghai in 2010. Methods The surveillance data was analyzed which were collected through Shanghai adverse events following immunization (AEFI) surveillance system. Results From September 11, 2010 to October 20, 2010, 0.814 million children were vaccinated by MV and 0.9775 million were vaccinated by MMR. The reported rate of common adverse reaction of MV was 109.33/100,000 and 13.51/100,000, respectively. The reported rate of rare adverse reaction of MMR was 20.87/100,000 and 3.99/100,000, respectively. The younger group is the greater proportion of reported MV AEFI cases. The reported AEFI was mainly common adverse reaction, such as fever and local swelling. The rare adverse reaction was mostly allergic rash. Conclusions The vaccination of MV and MMR in SIA was safe and the most reaction was common adverse

  13. Measles Elimination Activities in the Western Pacific Region: Experience from the Republic of Korea.

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    Choe, Young June; Jee, Youngmee; Oh, Myoung-don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2015-11-01

    We describe the global status of measles control and elimination, including surveillance and vaccination coverage data provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). Since 2000, two doses of measles vaccine (MCV2) became recommended globally and the achievement of high vaccination coverage has led to dramatic decrease in the measles incidence. Our finding indicates that, in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), substantial progress has been made to control measles transmission in some countries; however, the measles virus continues to circulate, causing outbreaks. The Republic of Korea (ROK) experienced a series of resurgence of measles due to the importation and healthcare-associated transmission in infants, however overall incidence and surveillance indicators met the WHO criteria for measles elimination. The ROK was verified to be measles-free along with Australia, Mongolia, and Macau, China in 2014. One of the effective elimination activities was the establishment of solid keep-up vaccination system in school settings. The lessons learnt from the measles elimination activities in Korea may contribute to enhancing the surveillance schemes and strengthening of vaccination programs in member countries and areas of WPR.

  14. The potential for measles transmission in England

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    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  15. Changes of epidemiological characteristics of measles in Beijing before and after supplementary immunization campaigns of measles vaccine in 2010%2010年含麻疹成分疫苗补充免疫前后北京市麻疹流行特征变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马蕊; 卢莉; 张朱佳子; 索罗丹; 李娟; 陈萌; 于霞丽

    2015-01-01

    有效降低了麻疹发病水平,但常规免疫仍需加强;成年人麻疹高发问题较突出;医院、写字楼、大学等特殊场所为北京市麻疹疫情多发场所.%Objective To investigate the changes of epidemiological characteristics of measles in Beijing before and after Supplementary Immunization Campaigns (SIA) (2007-2010 vs 2011-2014) of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) among children aged between 8 months and 14 years in 2010.Methods Descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted on surveillance data of measles cases (clinical cases and laboratory confirmed cases), with the occurrence during 2007-2014, and of outbreaks, with the occurrence during 2009-2014, from National Notifiable Disease Reporting System.MapInfo geographic information system (Version 8.5) was used to illustrate the distribution of measles incidence by district.Annual measles incidence was classified into 5 groups at the same intervals between the upper and lower limits to analyze the morbidity of the different areas.Results In total, 7722 and 3132 measles cases were reported during 2007-2010 and 2011-2014, with the annual incidence of 11.59 and 3.84 cases per 100000 population, respectively.Comparing with the results during 2007-2010, total number of measles cases and average annual incidence during 2011-2014 were decreased by 59.4%, and 66.9%, respectively.Among measles cases during 2011-2014,percentage of cases aged 15 years or above were 57.7%(56/97), 62.0%(49/79), 65.5%(370/565), and 71.4%(1707/2391), respectively, which increased by years.During 2007-2010, the highest risk age for adults was 20-34, while 2011-2014, 5 years older: 25-39.During 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014, 50.3%(447/889), 30.3% (10/33), and 57.8% (201/348), respectively, of measles cases aged 8-17 months were unvaccinated by MCV.Percentages of measles cases aged 0-7 months, 8 months-14 years, 15-39 years and 40years or above during 2013-2014, who visited hospitals 7-21 days

  16. Does Measles Immunization Reduce Diarrhoeal Morbidity

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    Reddaiah V.P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: 1. Will measles vaccination reduce the incidence and during of diarrhoeal episodes in children? 2. Will measles vaccination reduce the morbidity load because of diarrhoea? Objectives: 1. To provide measles immunization to rural children 9 to 24 months of age. 2. to study the occurrence of diarrhoeal episodes by domicillary visits every month for a period of 1 year. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Rural area in the state of Haryana. Participants: Children between the ages of 9 and 24 months with parental informed consent. Study variables: diarrhoeal episodes per child/year, duration of diarrhoea. Outcome Variable: the difference between the two groups (immunized and non- immunized of attack rate and duration of diarrhoeal episodes. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test. Results: immunization coverage was 75%. Attack rates of diarrhoea in immunized children (1.6/child/year was no different to that in the non- immunized (1.5/child/year. The mean duration of diarrhoea in both groups was 2.3 days. The prevalence diarrhoea in immunized and non-immunized was 3.85 and 3.67 respectively. Conclusion: Measles vaccination has no impact on diarrhoeal morbidity.

  17. Measles control and elimination in Somalia: the good, the bad, and the ugly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Assegid, Kebede; Naouri, Boubker; Mirza, Imran Raza; Hirsi, Abdurazak; Mohammed, Abdurahman; Omer, Mohammed; Dualle, Abdi Hassan; Mulugeta, Abraham

    2011-07-01

    Despite enormous challenges, Somalia has been successfully implementing accelerated measles control activities since 2005. Through innovative strategies and with the support of local and international partners, the country has shown potentials of implementing measles mortality reduction activities in complex emergencies. Measles incidence has been reduced by >80% after the measles catch-up campaigns of 2005-2007, and national reported measles routine immunization coverage with first dose measles containing vaccine has reached 59% for the first time in 2009. However, the near collapse of the health care system and the ongoing insecurity continue to hamper the implementation of recommended measles control and elimination strategies in some parts of the country, making these achievements fragile. Somalia exemplifies the challenges in meeting measles elimination goals in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean region. As the region is entering its 2010 measles elimination goals, it appears necessary to establish realistic and flexible interim goals for measles control in Somalia that will take into consideration the specificities of the country. Maintaining flexibility in conducting field operations, securing financial resources, multiplying opportunities for measles vaccination, and improving disease monitoring systems will remain vital to sustain and improve current achievements.

  18. Two measles outbreaks after importation--Utah, March-June 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    Before licensure of a measles vaccine in 1963, more than 500,000 measles cases on average were reported in the United States each year during 1951-1962. By 1993, through measles vaccination and control efforts, only 312 cases were reported nationwide. In 2000, the last year in which an outbreak had occurred in Utah, measles was declared "not endemic in the United States," but measles importations continue to occur, leading to outbreaks, especially among unvaccinated persons. Many U.S. health-care personnel have never seen a measles patient, which might hamper diagnosis and delay reporting. During March-June 2011, local health departments collaborated with the state health department in Utah to investigate two measles outbreaks comprising 13 confirmed cases. The first outbreak, with seven confirmed cases, was associated with an unvaccinated U.S. resident who traveled internationally; the second, with six confirmed cases, had an undetermined source. The genotype D4 sequences obtained from these two outbreaks differed by a single nucleotide, suggesting two separate importations. Health-care providers should remind their patients of the importance of being current with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination; this is especially important before international travel. Measles should be considered in the differential diagnosis of febrile rash illness, especially in unvaccinated persons with recent international travel. Reporting a confirmed or suspected case immediately to public health authorities is critical to limit the spread of measles.

  19. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

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    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Photos Recommend ...

  20. About Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles)

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    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Q&A References & Resources Related Link Global Health – Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) About Rubella ...

  1. Measles, One of the Re-emerging Diseases

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    Zeynep Türe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to stand out the measles which is a highly contagious re-emerging viral illness and may cause severe complications in susceptible population. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on patients who were diagnosed with measles in the department of Infectious Diseases, Erciyes University Hospital, between January 2013 and February 2014. The diagnosis of measles was confirmed by measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody positivity in serum samples. Results: Nine patients were included the study. Three patients had a co-morbid condition including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, pregnancy and diabetes mellitus. Four of the patients had hepatitis and one of them had pneumonia as a complication. Conclusion: Susceptible population, especially immunocompromised people are still at risk about measles. Adherence to universal vaccination programs is determinative in terms of breaking out of an outbreak. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(1: 19-22

  2. Measles outbreaks: what does it represent for the elimination strategy in the region of the Americas? A call for the action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Aguero, María L; Camacho-Badilla, Kattia; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    The US is experiencing a large multi-state measles outbreak that started in California in 2014. At this time, no source case for the outbreak has been identified. Measles was declared eliminated in the US in 2000, because at that time, there were high coverage rates with the two-dose schedule and these vaccines have been very immunogenic. Measles is still endemic in many parts of the world, and outbreaks can occur when unvaccinated groups are exposed to imported measles virus. The current multi-state outbreak underscores the ongoing risk of measles importation, the need for high measles vaccination coverage rates, and the importance of a prompt and appropriate public health response to individual cases and outbreaks. The US outbreak threatens measles control in the Americas. Strengthening immunization programs and keeping vaccination coverage rates above 95% with a two-dose schedule will be necessary for measles control strategies in the Americas.

  3. Lack of Measles Transmission to Susceptible Contacts from a Health Care Worker with Probable Secondary Vaccine Failure - Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson; Klein, Ron; Popescu, Saskia; Rose, Karen; Kretschmer, Melissa; Carrigan, Alice; Trembath, Felicia; Koski, Lia; Zabel, Karen; Ostdiek, Scott; Rowell-Kinnard, Paula; Munoz, Esther; Sunenshine, Rebecca; Sylvester, Tammy

    2015-08-07

    On January 23, 2015, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) was notified of a suspected measles case in a nurse, a woman aged 48 years. On January 11, the nurse had contact with a patient with laboratory-confirmed measles associated with the Disneyland theme park-related outbreak in California. On January 21, she developed a fever (103°F [39.4°C]), on January 23 she experienced cough and coryza, and on January 24, she developed a rash. The patient was instructed to isolate herself at home. On January 26, serum, a nasopharyngeal swab, and a urine specimen were collected. The following day, measles infection was diagnosed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing of the nasopharyngeal swab and urine specimen and by detection of measles-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of her symptoms and laboratory results, the patient was considered to be infectious.

  4. 安徽省380例8~11月龄麻疹病例含麻疹成分疫苗及时接种情况分析%Analysis on Timely Inoculation of Measles-containing Vaccine for 380 Cases from the Age of 8-11 Months

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆志坚; 丁旭; 唐继海; 苏颖; 沈永刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the timely inoculation rate of Measles cases by the data of measlescontaining vaccine (MCV) inoculation information from the measles surveillance system (MSS) and Childhood Immunization Information Management System(CIIMS),and to provide reference for developing strategies of measles elimination.Methods Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the MCV inoculation information.Results Timely inoculation rate is less than 5% for 380 measles cases from the Age of 8-11 months.The inoculation rate of the children of 11 months is 32.37%.Most cases occurred in 1-2 weeks(10%) after vaccination,while 35.26% of them had immunization history after onset Measles.There is significant difference of inoculation information between MSS and CIIMS.Conclusion It is very important to inoculate vaccine timely,distinguish the general reaction after inoculation,implement interrogation system,reduce incidence after inoculation,improve the MSS basic information and accurate vaccination information.%目的 通过麻疹监测系统(Measles Surveillance System,MSS)和儿童预防接种信息管理系统(Childhood Immunization Information Management System,CIIMS)中,含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles-containing Vaccine,MCV)预防接种的信息研究,分析病例的及时接种率,为消除麻疹提供参考.方法 采用描述流行病学方法,对MCV预防接种信息进行统计分析.结果 380例8~11月龄麻疹病例MCV及时接种率<5%,11月龄累计预防接种率为32.37%,接种后1、2周内发病最多(10%),发病后有免疫史的占35.26%,MSS和CIIMS的预防接种信息的免疫史记录差异有统计学意义.结论 及时接种MCV尤为重要,应区分预防接种后的一般反应,落实问诊制度,减少发病后的预防接种,提高MSS和CIIMS的基本信息和预防接种信息采集准确性.

  5. Measles outbreak in South Africa: epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed measles cases and assessment of intervention, 2009-2011.

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    Genevie M Ntshoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1995, measles vaccination at nine and 18 months has been routine in South Africa; however, coverage seldom reached >95%. We describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed measles case-patients and assess the impact of the nationwide mass vaccination campaign during the 2009 to 2011 measles outbreak in South Africa. METHODS: Serum specimens collected from patients with suspected-measles were tested for measles-specific IgM antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and genotypes of a subset were determined. To estimate the impact of the nationwide mass vaccination campaign, we compared incidence in the seven months pre- (1 September 2009-11 April 2010 and seven months post-vaccination campaign (24 May 2010-31 December 2010 periods in seven provinces of South Africa. RESULTS: A total of 18,431 laboratory-confirmed measles case-patients were reported from all nine provinces of South Africa (cumulative incidence 37 per 100,000 population. The highest cumulative incidence per 100,000 population was in children aged 5 years.

  6. Estudo de soroconversão com formulações da vacina Biken CAM-70 contra sarampo Comparison of seroconversion rates with CAM-70 measles vaccine at different dosages

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    Luiz Antonio B Camacho

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a resposta sorológica induzida por formulações com diferentes concentrações de vírus da vacina contra sarampo da cepa Biken CAM-70. MÉTODOS: Crianças sadias de 9 a 18 meses de um centro de saúde do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, cujos responsáveis concordaram em participar, foram randomizadas em três grupos vacinados com concentrações de 5.000, 1.000 ou 200 CCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose. Os participantes e o pessoal da pesquisa ignoravam o tipo de vacina administrado. A avaliação sorológica foi realizada pelo teste de redução em plaque de lise. Duas análises intermediárias dos dados foram programadas. RESULTADOS: Das 223 crianças recrutadas, 84% completaram todos os procedimentos; 79% tinham idade menor que 10 meses; e 93% não tinham anticorpos contra sarampo no soro pré-vacinal. As proporções de soroconversão (quadruplicação das concentrações pré-vacinais foram 82%, 55% e 37% (pOBJECTIVES: To compare seroconversion rates induced by Biken CAM-70 measles vaccines at different viral concentrations. METHODS: Healthy children aged 9 to 18 months from a primary health care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and whose guardians agreed with their participation, were randomly assigned to receive one of the following vaccine formulations: 5,000, 1,000 or 200 CCID50 (50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose. The research team, participants, and data analysts were blinded to the type of vaccine administered. Pre- and post-vaccination antibody levels were assessed through Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Two interim data analyses were planned to assess unequivocal evidence of the superiority of one of the vaccine types. RESULTS: From 223 recruited children, 84% completed the whole course. Of them, 79% were less than 10 months of age, and 93% did not show detectable measles antibodies in pre-vaccination serum. Seroconversion (four-fold increase in antibody levels in groups vaccinated with 5,000, 1,000 or 200 CCID

  7. Progress toward measles elimination—Philippines, 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Yoshihiro; Schluter, W William; Mariano, Kayla Mae L; Diorditsa, Sergey; de Quiroz Castro, Maricel; Ou, Alan C; Ducusin, Maria Joyce U; Garcia, Luzviminda C; Elfa, Dulce C; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L

    2015-04-10

    In 2005, the Regional Committee for the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) established a goal to eliminate measles by 2012.The recommended elimination strategies in WPR include 1) ≥95% 2-dose coverage with measles-containing vaccine (MCV) through routine immunization services and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) high-quality case-based measles surveillance; 3) laboratory surveillance with timely and accurate testing of specimens to confirm or discard suspected cases and detect measles virus genotypes; and 4) measles outbreak preparedness, rapid response, and appropriate case management. In the WPR, the Philippines set a national goal in 1998 to eliminate measles by 2008. This report describes progress toward measles elimination in the Philippines during 1998-2014 and challenges remaining to achieve the goal. WHO-United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)-estimated coverage with the routine first dose of MCV (MCV1) increased from 80% in 1998 to 90% in 2013, and coverage with the routine second dose of MCV (MCV2) increased from 10% after nationwide introduction in 2010 to 53% in 2013. After nationwide SIAs in 1998 and 2004, historic lows in the numbers and incidence of reported measles cases occurred in 2006. Despite nationwide SIAs in 2007 and 2011, the number of reported cases and incidence generally increased during 2007-2012, and large measles outbreaks occurred during 2013-2014 that affected infants, young children, older children, and young adults and that were prolonged by delayed and geographically limited outbreak response immunization activities during 2013-2014. For the goal of measles elimination in WPR to be achieved, sustained investments are required in the Philippines to strengthen health systems, implement the recommended elimination strategies, and develop additional strategies to identify and reduce measles susceptibility in specific geographic areas and older age groups.

  8. Measles case fatality rate in Bihar, India, 2011-12.

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    Manoj V Murhekar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Updated estimates of measles case fatality rates (CFR are critical for monitoring progress towards measles elimination goals. India accounted for 36% of total measles deaths occurred globally in 2011. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to estimate measles CFR and identify the risk factors for measles death in Bihar-one of the north Indian states historically known for its low vaccination coverage. METHODS: We systematically selected 16 of the 31 laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks occurring in Bihar during 1 October 2011 to 30 April 2012. All households of the villages/urban localities affected by these outbreaks were visited to identify measles cases and deaths. We calculated CFR and used multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for measles death. RESULTS: The survey found 3670 measles cases and 28 deaths (CFR: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.47-1.30. CFR was higher among under-five children (1.22% and children belonging to scheduled castes/tribes (SC/ST, 1.72%. On multivariate analysis, independent risk factors associated with measles death were age <5 years, SC/ST status and non-administration of vitamin A during illness. Outbreaks with longer interval between the occurrence of first case and notification of the outbreak also had a higher rate of deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Measles CFR in Bihar was low. To further reduce case fatality, health authorities need to ensure that SC/ST are targeted by the immunization programme and that outbreak investigations target for vitamin A treatment of cases in high risk groups such as SC/ST and young children and ensure regular visits by health-workers in affected villages to administer vitamin A to new cases.

  9. An extremely low body weight infant born to a mother with measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, H; Hashimoto, K; Imamura, T; Sato, M; Kawasaki, Y; Momoi, N; Hosoya, M

    2010-02-01

    The incidence of measles epidemics has decreased recently owing to the development and widespread use of measles vaccine in the United States of America and Europe. However, repeated measles epidemics have been reported in Japan. Here, the authors report a case of an extremely low body weight infant (ELBWI) whose mother had a measles virus infection. Real-time PCR was performed on the infant's blood and urine samples and skin, nasal secretion, and anal swabs, as well as on the mother's breast milk, blood samples and throat swabs. The infant was found to be positive for measles virus by PCR, but not immunoglobulin M positive. An earlier report showed that there were no such cases in which the patient was found to be positive for measles virus by real-time PCR but was not infected by the measles virus.

  10. 云南省麻疹减毒活疫苗补充免疫活动效果评价%Effect Evaluation on Supplementary Immunization Activities of Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文; 黄国斐; 罗梅; 李立群; 张杰; 李徽; 丁峥嵘

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of supplementary immunization activities (SIA)of measles attenuated live vaccine (MV).Methods Collecting immunization data of SIA,field investigation,the population antibody level and data from notifiable diseases reporting system.Analyzing the data with descriptire epidemiology.Result The coverage of SIA of Measles vaccine was 97.90% and 98.10% during 2009-2011 respectively.The coverage rate are > 85% in 90% township by fast evaluation.The population antibody level was 87.22% and 95.03%.Before MV SIA(Jan.-Oct.2008),the measles incidence was 2850 cases,with an incidence rate of 6.314/100,000.After MV SIA,the measles incidence was reduced to 638 cases and the incidence rate to 1.404/100,000 in the same period in 2009 and to 86 cases with the incidence of 0.187/100,000 in 2010.By the end of 2010,the reported measles incidence and incidence rate reduced to the lowest level in the history.ConcIusion The effectiveness of MV SIA was good in Yunnan province in the year of 2008 and 2010.On the basis of routine immunization,MV SIA can rapidly improve herd immunity and effectively block the dissemination of measles virus.For realizing the goal of Measles elimination,it is necessary to improve and maintain the coverage of routine immunization and SIAs,strengthen surveillance and management,conduct evaluation and supervision.%目的 评估云南省2008年和2010年麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)补充免疫活动(Supplementary Immunization Activities,SIA)控制麻疹的效果.方法 收集云南省2008年、2010年MV SIA接种、现场调查、人群抗体水平及法定传染病报告系统的麻疹疫情资料,应用描述流行病学方法评价控制效果.结果 2008年和2010年,MV SIA报告接种率分别为97.90%和98.21%;报告>90%的乡(镇)快速评估接种率>85%;人群麻疹抗体监测阳性率分别为87.22%和95.03%.MV SIA前,即2008年1~10月,麻疹报告发病2850

  11. Sustained outbreak of measles in New South Wales, 2012: risks for measles elimination in Australia

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    Zeina Najjar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: On 7 April 2012, a recently returned traveller from Thailand to Australia was confirmed to have measles. An outbreak of measles subsequently occurred in the state of New South Wales, prompting a sustained and coordinated response by public health authorities. The last confirmed case presented on 29 November 2012. This report describes the outbreak and its characteristics. Methods: Cases were investigated following Australian protocols, including case interviews and assessment of contacts for post-exposure prophylaxis. Results: Of the 168 cases identified, most occurred in south-western and western Sydney (92.9%, n = 156. Notable features of this outbreak were the disproportionately high number of cases in the 10–19-year-old age group (29.2%, n = 49, the overrepresentation among people of Pacific Islander descent (21.4%, n = 36 and acquisition in health-care facilities (21.4%, n = 36. There were no reported cases of encephalitis and no deaths. Discussion: This was the largest outbreak of measles in Australia since 1997. Its occurrence highlights the need to maintain vigilant surveillance systems for early detection and containment of measles cases and to maintain high population immunity to measles through routine childhood immunization. Vaccination campaigns targeting susceptible groups may also be necessary to sustain Australia’s measles elimination status.

  12. Measles vaccination survey and immunization effect evaluation in Nantong Development Zone from 2009-2011%2009-2011年南通市开发区麻疹疫苗接种情况调查及免疫效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊峰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the measles vaccination status of children in Nantong Development Zone from 2009-2011, to evaluate the immunization effect, so as to speed up the process of eliminating measles. [Methods]The reported vaccination rate and rapid assessed vaccination rate of measles supplementary immunization campaign among children aged 8 months-14 years in Development Zone from 2009-2011, reported vaccination rate of routine immunization and the measles incidence in reporting system of infectious diseases from 2010-2011 were analyzed descriptively. [Results] The reported vaccination rate and rapid assessed vaccination rate of measles supplementary immunization campaign in 2009 and reported vaccination rate of routine immunization from 2010-2011 were all greater than 95% of the work indicators. During May to December 2009, 4 cases of measles were reported, decreasing by 66.7% of 12 cases in the same period in 2008, no case was reported in 2011. [ Conclusion] To maintain high levels of routine immunization of measles vaccine, to timely carry out school-age children immunization can improve the immunity of people and reduce or eliminate measles susceptibility groups so as to achieve the goals of effective control and the gradual elimination of measles.%目的 了解南通市开发区2009-2011年儿童麻疹疫苗接种情况及评价免疫效果,以加速消除麻疹工作进程.方法 对开发区2009年实施的8月龄~14岁儿童麻疹疫苗强化免疫报告接种率、快速评估接种率以及2010-2011年麻疹疫苗常规免疫报告接种率和法定传染病报告系统麻疹发病率等资料进行描述性分析.结果 2009年麻疹疫苗强化免疫报告接种率、快速评估接种率和2010-2011年常规免疫报告接种率均大于95%的工作指标,2009年5-12月,麻疹发病4例,较2008年同期12例下降66.7%,2011年未有麻疹病例报告.结论 保持麻疹疫苗高水平的常规免疫,并适时开展适龄儿童的强化免

  13. A Measles Outbreak in an Underimmunized Amish Community in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastañaduy, Paul A; Budd, Jeremy; Fisher, Nicholas; Redd, Susan B; Fletcher, Jackie; Miller, Julie; McFadden, Dwight J; Rota, Jennifer; Rota, Paul A; Hickman, Carole; Fowler, Brian; Tatham, Lilith; Wallace, Gregory S; de Fijter, Sietske; Parker Fiebelkorn, Amy; DiOrio, Mary

    2016-10-06

    Background Although measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, importations of the virus continue to cause outbreaks. We describe the epidemiologic features of an outbreak of measles that originated from two unvaccinated Amish men in whom measles was incubating at the time of their return to the United States from the Philippines and explore the effect of public health responses on limiting the spread of measles. Methods We performed descriptive analyses of data on demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory evaluations, and vaccination coverage. Results From March 24, 2014, through July 23, 2014, a total of 383 outbreak-related cases of measles were reported in nine counties in Ohio. The median age of case patients was 15 years (range, Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination coverage with at least a single dose was estimated to be 14% in affected Amish households and more than 88% in the general (non-Amish) Ohio community. Containment efforts included isolation of case patients, quarantine of susceptible persons, and administration of the MMR vaccine to more than 10,000 persons. The spread of measles was limited almost exclusively to the Amish community (accounting for 99% of case patients) and affected only approximately 1% of the estimated 32,630 Amish persons in the settlement. Conclusions The key epidemiologic features of a measles outbreak in the Amish community in Ohio were transmission primarily within households, the small proportion of Amish people affected, and the large number of people in the Amish community who sought vaccination. As a result of targeted containment efforts, and high baseline coverage in the general community, there was limited spread beyond the Amish community. (Funded by the Ohio Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  14. Implementation and Effect Evaluation of Supplementary Immunization of Measles Vaccine in Beichen District of Tianjin in 2008%天津市北辰区2008年麻疹疫苗强化免疫实施与效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐国和

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结评价2008年天津市北辰区麻疹疫苗强化免疫的效果。方法 利用2007-2009年大疫情报告麻疹发病资料、麻疹专报网专报资料等,总结分析2008年麻疹疫苗强化免疫的效果。结果 该次强化免疫报告接种率,总计调查人数71 581人,接种70 710人,接种率98.78%。评估接种率99.75%,达到目标人群麻疹疫苗强化免疫接种率>95%的要求。与强化免疫前的2007、2008年相比,2009年北辰区麻疹发病率显著下降。结论 北辰区2008年麻疹疫苗强化免疫达到预期总目标。%[Objective]To summarize and evaluate the effect of supplementary immunization of measles vaccine in Beichen district of Tianjin in 2008. [ Methods] Using the measles data from large epidemic report and the information from measles special report network during 2007 -2009, the effect of supplementary immunization of measles vaccine was summarized and analyzed. [Results] A total of 71 581 people were surveyed, 70 710 people were inoculated, and the coverage rate was 98.78% . The assessment coverage rate was 99. 75% , and it accorded with the requirement which the coverage rate of supplementary immunization of measles vaccine a-mong target population should reach 95%. Compared with 2007 and 2008 without supplementary immunization, the incidence of measles in 2009 decreased significantly in Beichen district. [ Conclusion ] The supplementary immunization of measles vaccine in Beichen district in 2008 achieves the expected overall target.

  15. 含麻疹成分疫苗常规免疫首剂接种率评价指标分析%Analysis of indexes used to evaluate immunization coverage rate of first dose of measles containing vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮莉萍; 张丽; 唐宁; 王涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To obtain an objective index of evaluating the immunization coverage rate of first dose of measles containing vaccine ( MCV,) by comparison of the indexes in Guizhou Province. Methods: Multistage random sampling method was applied to draw subjects from healthy children who had no measles history and aged from 8 months to 6 years of age. The investigated immunization coverage rate (IIR) and the estimated immunization coverage rate ( EIR) were evaluated according to the positive rate of measles antibody as a gold standard, and the data of incidence cases as a reference. Results:The IIR was 86.0% for the group aged from 8 months to 1 year, 90. 1% for the group aged from 2 to 3 years and 90. 2% for the group aged from 4 to 6 years. The adjusted estimated immunization coverage rate (AIIR) was 89. 8% , 94. 8% and 95. 3% , respectively. Given the vaccine efficacy ( VE) was 82. 9% , the EIR1 was 59. 8% , 71. 6% and 77. 9% , respectively and the AEIR1 was 68. 2% , 79. 7% and 86. 8% , respectively; given the VE was 95% , the EIR1 was 84. 3% , 90. 1% and 92. 7% , respectively, and the AEIR1 was 88.6% , 93.4% and 96. 0% , respectively. The EIR2 was 97. 9% , 94. 5% and 91. 4% , respectively. The relative difference was from 0 to 2.4% when compared with the estimated positive rate of AIIR and AEIR1 given the VE was 95% with the actual positive rate of measles antibody, the difference had no statistical significance (P >0. 05 ). The relative error was low for the estimate positive rates of AIIR and EIR2 and AEIR1 (given the VE was 95% ) for the children that had not suffered from measles, the relative error varied from 7.0% to 15. 8%. Conclusion: The investigated immunization coverage rate after adjustment and the AEIR1 ( VE 95% ) were in line with the actual positive rate of measles antibody, which suggests that we should set an integral evaluation system for the immunization coverage rate based on AIIR and AEIR1.%目的:对贵州省含麻疹成分疫苗(measles

  16. What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know About Measles and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-07-01

    From January 1 to April 3, 2015, 159 people from 18 states and the District of Columbia were reported as having measles. Most cases are part of an outbreak linked to a California amusement park. Because measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, most U.S. clinicians are unfamiliar with the condition. We reviewed information on the current outbreak, measles manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and infection-control recommendations. To identify information on measles and pregnancy, we reviewed reports with 20 or more measles cases during pregnancy that included data on effects on pregnant women or pregnancy outcomes. These reports were identified through MEDLINE from inception through February 2015 using the following strategy: (((pregnan*) AND measles) AND English[Language]) NOT review[Publication Type]. Reference lists also were reviewed to identify additional articles. Pregnant women infected with measles are more likely to be hospitalized, develop pneumonia, and die than nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm birth, and low birth weight, are associated with maternal measles; however, the risk of congenital defects does not appear to be increased. No antiviral therapy is available; treatment is supportive. Early identification of possible cases is needed so that appropriate infection control can be instituted promptly. The recent measles outbreak highlights the role that obstetric health care providers play in vaccine-preventable illnesses; obstetrician-gynecologists should ensure that patients are up to date on all vaccines, including measles-containing vaccines, and should recommend and ideally offer a measles-containing vaccine to women without evidence of measles immunity before or after pregnancy.

  17. Progress toward measles elimination--Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleb, Nadia; Lebo, Emmaculate; Ahmed, Hinda; Hossam, Abdel Rahman; El Sayed, El Tayeb; Dabbagh, Alya; Strebel, Peter; Rota, Paul; Alexander, James

    2014-06-13

    In 1997, the 22 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) adopted a goal of measles elimination by 2010. To achieve this goal, the WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) developed a four-pronged strategy: 1) achieve ≥ 95% vaccination coverage of children with the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) in every district of each country through routine immunization services, 2) achieve ≥ 95% vaccination coverage with the second dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) in every district of each country either through a routine 2-dose vaccination schedule or through supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), 3) conduct high-quality, case-based surveillance in all countries, and 4) provide optimal clinical case management, including supplementing diets with vitamin A. Although significant progress was made toward measles elimination in the EMR during 1997-2007, the measles elimination goal was not reached by the target date of 2010, and the date was revised to 2015. This report updates previous reports and summarizes the progress made toward measles elimination in EMR during 2008-2012. From 2008 to 2012, large outbreaks occurred in countries with a high incidence of measles, and reported annual measles cases in EMR increased from 12,186 to 36,456. To achieve measles elimination in EMR, efforts are needed to increase 2-dose vaccination coverage, especially in countries with high incidence of measles and in conflict-affected countries, and to implement innovative strategies to reach populations at high risk in areas with poor access to vaccination services or with civil strife.

  18. Recurring Measles Epidemic in Vietnam 2005-2009: Implication for Strengthened Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephtha C Nmor, Hoang T Thanh, Kensuke Goto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles remains a serious vaccine preventable cause of mortality in developing nations. Vietnam is aiming to achieve the level of immunity required to eliminate measles by maintaining a high coverage of routine first vaccinations in infants, routine second vaccinations at school entry and supplementary local campaigns in high-risk areas. Regular outbreaks of measles are reported, during 2005-2009.Methods: National measles case-based surveillance data collected during 2005-June 2009 was analyzed to assess the epidemiological trend and risk factors associated with measles outbreak in Vietnam.Results: Of the 36,282 measles suspected cases reported nationwide, only 7,086 cases were confirmed through laboratory examination. Although cyclical outbreaks occurred between 2005 and 2009, there was no definite trend in measles outbreaks during these periods. Overall, 2438 of measles confirmed cases were among children ≤5 years and 3068 cases were among people ≥16 years. The distribution with respect to gender skewed towards male (3667 cases significant difference was not observed (P= 0.1693. Unsurprisingly, 4493 of the confirmed cases had no history of vaccination (X2 <0.01. The northern and highland regions were identified as the main endemic foci and the spatial distribution changed with time. The occurrence of cases, in a considerable proportion of vaccinated population, is not only a reflection of the high vaccination coverage in Vietnam but also portrays a possibility of less than 100% vaccine efficacy. More so, in order to prevent measles in adults, high-risk groups must be identified and catch-up for selected groups selected.Conclusions: This study therefore reinforces the need for continued improvement of surveillance system and to probe into the possible role of changes in age-distribution of cases if the effective control of measles is to be achieved.

  19. Measles outbreaks in displaced populations: a review of transmission, morbidity and mortality associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamigaki Taro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease with a significant public health impact especially among displaced populations due to their characteristic mass population displacement, high population density in camps and low measles vaccination coverage among children. While the fatality rate in stable populations is generally around 2%, evidence shows that it is usually high among populations displaced by disasters. In recent years, refugees and internally displaced persons have been increasing. Our study aims to define the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors associated with measles outbreaks in displaced populations. Methods We reviewed literature in the PubMed database, and selected articles for our analysis that quantitatively described measles outbreaks. Results A total of nine articles describing 11 measles outbreak studies were selected. The outbreaks occurred between 1979 and 2005 in Asia and Africa, mostly during post-conflict situations. Seven of eight outbreaks were associated with poor vaccination status (vaccination coverage; 17-57%, while one was predominantly due to one-dose vaccine coverage. The age of cases ranged from 1 month to 39 years. Children aged 6 months to 5 years were the most common target group for vaccination; however, 1622 cases (51.0% of the total cases were older than 5 years of age. Higher case-fatality rates (>5% were reported for five outbreaks. Consistent factors associated with measles transmission, morbidity and mortality were vaccination status, living conditions, movements of refugees, nutritional status and effectiveness of control measures including vaccination campaigns, surveillance and security situations in affected zones. No fatalities were reported in two outbreaks during which a combination of active and passive surveillance was employed. Conclusion Measles patterns have varied over time among populations displaced by natural and man-made disasters. Appropriate

  20. 民工子弟学校新生麻疹疫苗接种及家长认知情况调查%Study on cognition condition about measles vaccine and immunization among freshmen' s parents in schools for children of migrant workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎桂福; 费金花; 郑英杰; 郁晞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the basic situation of freshmen' s measles vaccine and their parents' cognition on measles vaccine and immunization in schools for children of migrant workers, and explore the influencing factors of the immunization coverage of measles in Qingpu District, Shanghai. Methods 606 freshmen were sampled by multistage random sampling method. The parents of them were investigated by a questionnaire. Results 38. 29% of freshmen couldn' t show their immunization record, 37. 95% of them had been inoculated with measles vaccine at least 2 doses. The doses of measles vaccine and the awareness of the parents' were associated with kind of school, place of birth, household incoming, number of family child, age of the parents and parental education level ( P < 0. 05 ). The average score of the parents awareness was 2. 72, meanwhile, 68. 98% were lower than 3. 88. 94% of the parents thought measles vaccine was necessary to their children. 89.61% of them got measles related knowledge from health care workers, plat materials, radio and TV. Conclusion The immunization coverage of measles vaccine was low in investigated schools, meanwhile, the parents' awareness rate of measles vaccine and immunization was low. Targeted strategy should be carried to change the population' s behaviors of immunization from the passive status into active.%目的 了解上海市青浦区民工子弟学校新生麻诊疫苗接种情况及其家长对接种认知情况,探讨民工子弟麻疹疫苗接种的影响因素.方法 通过多阶段随机整群抽样方法,在全区抽取606名民工子弟学校新入校学生,对学生家长进行问卷调查.结果 606名新生中,38.29%的学生无预防接种证或丢失,37.95%的学生麻疹疫苗接种≥2剂,接种次数和知晓率与学校类别、出生地、此前就学地、家庭经济收入、家庭孩子数、父母年龄、父母文化程度等因素有关,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).

  1. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qayoudhi, Abdullah; Al-Kindi, Hanan; Meki, Nabil; Al-Maani, Amal

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis.

  2. Acute Measles Encephalitis in an Immigrant Syrian Child: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Qayoudhi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of measles vaccination programs and broad coverage worldwide has meant this infection a rare encounter for pediatricians. In Oman, with almost 100% measles vaccination coverage for children, this infection disappeared from the list of fever and rash differential diagnoses. Encephalitis is a well-known complication of measles infection and sometimes can be the only manifestation especially in adults. We report a seven-year-old Syrian immigrant who was admitted to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, with acute encephalitis secondary to wild measles infection. Although she had a classical presentation of measle infection, the diagnosis was missed in the private and regional hospital she attended before getting referred to Royal Hospital. She was later identified to be exposed to an outbreak of the infection in an unvaccinated population. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal intensity of both basal ganglia suggestive of measles encephalitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of measles virus from her urine and blood, and a throat swab. The isolated measles virus was D8 serotype, which was prevalent in Syria around the same time. The child was treated with steroids and vitamin A. She achieved full recovery despite her severe presentation. A high degree of suspicion for measles infection should be maintained in unvaccinated children with a compatible presentation of the infection or its complications. There might be a role for steroid use in cases of acute measles encephalitis.

  3. Monitoring progress toward measles elimination by genetic diversity analysis of measles viruses in China 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wang, H; Xu, S; Mao, N; Zhu, Z; Shi, J; Huang, G; Liu, C; Bo, F; Feng, D; Lu, P; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Lei, Y; Chen, M; Chen, H; Wang, C; Fu, H; Li, C; He, J; Gao, H; Gu, S; Wang, S; Ling, H; Liu, Y; Ding, Z; Ba, Z; Feng, Y; Zheng, H; Tang, X; Lei, Y; Xiong, Y; Bellini, W J; Rota, P A; Jee, Y; Xu, W

    2014-09-01

    With the achievement of high coverage for routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), measles incidence in mainland China reached its lowest level in 2010. The proportion of measles cases in the vaccination-targeted population decreased during 2007-2010 after the SIAs. More than 60% of measles cases were in adults or infants, especially in the coastal and eastern provinces during 2009 and 2010. A total 567 isolates of measles virus were obtained from clinical specimens from 27 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2009 and 2010. Except for two vaccine-associated cases, one genotype D4 strain, two genotype D9 strains, and four genotype D11 strains, the other 558 strains were genotype H1 cluster H1a. Genotype H1 has been the only endemic genotype detected in China since surveillance began in 1993. Only genotype H1 was found in mainland China during 1993-2008, except for one detection of genotype H2. More recently, multiple genotypes of imported measles were detected even with the background of endemic genetotype H1 viruses. Analysis of the 450-nucleotide sequencing window of the measles virus N gene showed that the overall genetic diversity of the recent geneotype H1 strains decreased between 2008 and 2010. The lower genetic diversity of H1 strains suggested that enhanced vaccination may have reduced the co-circulating lineages of endemic genotype H1 strains in mainland China.

  4. Acute and long-term changes in T-lymphocyte subsets in response to clinical and subclinical measles. A community study from rural Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Samb, B; Whittle, H;

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of long-term suppression of T-lymphocyte subsets, we examined children exposed to measles at home during an epidemic in rural Senegal, at time of exposure and 1 and 6 months later. The measles case fatality ratio was 1%. Subclinical measles was common among vaccinated...

  5. Progress toward measles elimination--Western Pacific Region, 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Committee for the Western Pacific Region (WPR) resolved that WPR should aim to eliminate measles by 2012. The recommended measles elimination strategies in WPR include 1) achieving and maintaining high (≥95%) coverage with 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine (MCV) through routine immunization services and by implementing supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), when required; 2) conducting high-quality, case-based measles surveillance; 3) ensuring high-quality laboratory surveillance, with timely and accurate testing of specimens to confirm or discard suspected cases and detect measles virus for genotyping and molecular analysis; and 4) establishing and maintaining measles outbreak preparedness for rapid response and ensuring appropriate case management. This report updates the previous report and describes progress toward eliminating measles in WPR during 2009-2012. During this period, measles incidence reached a historic low, decreasing by 83%, from 34.0 to 5.9 cases per million population. However, to achieve measles elimination in WPR, additional efforts are needed to strengthen routine immunization services in countries and areas with measles-susceptible populations in countries and areas that have ongoing measles virus transmission.

  6. 育龄人群孕前强化麻疹疫苗对阻断“双相移位”的应用价值%The Application Value of Strengthening Measles Vaccine to Block Biphase Displacement for People of Childbearing Age before Pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀侠; 孙宝霞

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Explore the measles immunity levels before and after strengthening measles vaccine(MV) injection for childbearing age population, and further analyze the impact of the childbearing aged women and men's measles immunization level on measles elimination to provide a scientific basis for the ultimate realization of the measles elimination goal. Methods Select 60 child-bearing aged hospital medical staff ranged from 22 to 35 -year-old and observe the differences in measles immunization levels before and after 26 months of MV injection, also adopt enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay test(ELISA) to detect the IgM and IgG antibodies of serum before and after its MV immunity. Results The χ2 test result before and after the women and men of reproductive age were inoculated: in 1 200 level, χ2=7.32, P<0.05, in 1 800 level, χ2=10.25, P<0.05; there exists statistical differences in measles immunization levels before and after the injection. Conclusion Women and men of reproductive age or couples inoculate MV timely and safely before pregnancy can not only improve the level of measles antibody of childbearing aged people but also can improve the 8 -month-old infants' measles antibody level of fetal transmission of measles before measles vaccine, which is able to effectively reduce the incidence of measles among people over 25 years old and below 8 -month-old infant, so that the effect of ‘one generation immune while two generations benefit' can be achieved. It is significant for blocking biphase displacement.%  目的探讨育龄人群强化麻疹疫苗(MV)注射前后麻疹免疫水平,进一步分析育龄男女麻疹免疫水平对消除麻疹的影响,为最终实现消除麻疹目标提供科学依据.方法选择本院22-35岁育龄医护人员60名,观察MV注射前及注射后26个月的麻疹免疫水平的差异,并采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA),对其MV免疫前后的血清分别检测IgM和IgG抗体.结果育龄男女接种MV前后χ2

  7. The measles outbreak in Bulgaria, 2009-2011: An epidemiological assessment and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Marinova, Lili; Mankertz, Annette; Gatcheva, Nina; Mihneva, Zafira; Santibanez, Sabine; Kunchev, Angel; Filipova, Radosveta; Kojouharova, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Measles re-emerged in a nationwide outbreak in Bulgaria from 2009 to 2011 despite reported high vaccination coverage at national level. This followed an eight-year period since the last indigenous cases of measles were detected. The Bulgarian National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases collated measles surveillance data for 2009-2011. We analysed data for age group, sex, ethnicity, diagnosis confirmation, vaccination, hospitalisation, disease complications, and death and describe the outbreak control measures taken. The outbreak started in April 2009 following an importation of measles virus and affected 24,364 persons, predominantly Roma. Most cases (73%) were among children measles-containing vaccine. Twenty-four measles-related deaths were reported. The Roma ethnic group was particularly susceptible to measles. The magnitude of the outbreak resulted primarily from the accumulation of susceptible children over time. This outbreak serves as a reminder that both high vaccination coverage and closing of immunity gaps across all sections of the population are crucial to reach the goal of measles elimination.

  8. Economic Costs of Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands, 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, A.W.; Woudenberg, T.; Hahne, S.J.; Lochlainn, L.N.; Melker, H.E. de; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Lugner, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Netherlands experienced a measles outbreak in orthodox Protestant communities with low measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage. Assessing total outbreak costs is needed for public health outbreak preparedness and control. Total costs of this outbreak were an estimated $4.7 m

  9. Economic Costs of Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suijkerbuijk, Anita W M; Woudenberg, Tom; Hahné, Susan J M; Nic Lochlainn, Laura; de Melker, Hester E; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Lugnér, Anna K

    2015-11-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Netherlands experienced a measles outbreak in orthodox Protestant communities with low measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage. Assessing total outbreak costs is needed for public health outbreak preparedness and control. Total costs of this outbreak were an estimated $4.7 million.

  10. Economic Costs of Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands, 2013–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Suijkerbuijk, A.W.; Woudenberg, T.; Hahne, S.J.; Lochlainn, L.N.; de Melker, H. E.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Lugner, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 and 2014, the Netherlands experienced a measles outbreak in orthodox Protestant communities with low measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage. Assessing total outbreak costs is needed for public health outbreak preparedness and control. Total costs of this outbreak were an estimated $4.7 million.

  11. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures.

  12. The cornea in measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W.H.M. Dekkers (Nico)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractThe involvement of the cornea in the acute stage of measles is the subject of the present study. The best study on the measles-keratitis now available is still the one by Trantas in 1903. It seems wo.:thwhile therefore to study this self-limiting keratitis with the investigative tools no

  13. 不同滴度麻疹腮腺炎风疹联合减毒活疫苗安全性观察%SECURITY CHECK ON DIFFERENT TITERS OF MEASLES MUMPS RUBELLA COMBINED LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王标; 陶红; 叶循; 王树巧; 储艳; 荀以标

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To discuss the security of different liters of measles, mumps, rubella combined live attenuated vaccine(MMR) in Biological Products of shanghai institute. To provide the scientific basis for scientific use. [Methods] Selected three hundred children aged 8 to IS months to vaccinate high-liter of Shanghai MMR, low-tiler of Shanghai MMR. While selected one hundred and a half children aged 8 to 15 months for MMR vaccine in the Beijing Biological Institute as controls for safely observation. (Results j After 8 to IS months children were vaccinated wilh high-tiler of Shanghai MMR vaccine, low- liter of Shanghai MMR vaccine and Beijing MMR, the incidence of adverse reactions was 17.33%. 21.33% and 17.33%, respectively. And incidence of fever was 15.33%,15.67%,14.67% respectively. Among them, all reactions to Beijing MMR vaccination were mtld fever, 3 cases of strong reaction of fever with high-liter of Shanghai MMR vaccination. One case of fever strong reaction occurred after low -tiler of Shanghai MMR vaccination. The abnormal responses of high and low liters of Shanghai MMR vaccination compared with the control vaccine were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The different tilers of Shanghai MMR vaccine have the same immunization safely with vaccine currently used.%[目的]研究上海生物制品研究所的不同滴度麻疹,腮腺炎、风疹三联联合减毒活疫苗(MMR)的安全性,为疫苗的使用提供科学依据.[方法]分别选择8~15月龄儿童各300名接种高滴度沪MMR、低滴度沪MMR,同时选择8~15月龄儿童150名接种北京生物所MMR疫苗作对照,进行安全性观察.[结果]8~15儿童接种高滴度沪MMR疫苗、低滴度沪MMR疫苗、京MMR后,不良反应的发生率分别为17.33%、21.33%、17.33%.发热反应发生率分别依次为:15.33%,15.67%,14.67%.其中京MMR全部为中轻度发热反应,高滴度沪MMR接种后发生3例发热强反应,低滴度MMR接种后发生1例发热强反

  14. Antibody response to measles immunization in India*

    OpenAIRE

    Job, J. S.; John, T J; Joseph, A.

    1984-01-01

    Antibody response to measles vaccine was measured in 238 subjects aged 6-15 months. Seroconversion rates ranged from 74% at 6 months of age to 100% at 13-15 months; the differences in age-specific rates were not statistically significant. The postimmunization antibody titres increased with increasing age of the vaccinee. Seroconversion rates and antibody titres in 49 subjects with grades I and II malnutrition were not significantly different from those in the 189 normal subjects.

  15. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

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    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly

  16. The Health Economic Evaluation for Application of Measles Attennuated Live Vaccine Immunization at Different Period in Zhejiang Province%浙江省不同时期麻疹减毒活疫苗应用效果的卫生经济学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符剑; 何寒青; 赵艳荣; 陈恩富; 李倩; 凌罗亚; 唐学雯

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价浙江省不同时期麻疹减毒活疫苗(Measles Attenuated Live Vaccine,MV)接种的效果与效益.方法 通过自回归移动平均模型测算麻疹的发病与死亡人数,结合8个县现场调查数据和特尔斐( Delphi)法专家咨询结果,计算工作成本与疾病负担,并分冷链前期(1978~1984年)、冷链时期(1985~1998年)和免疫规划时期(1 999~2007年),对浙江省MV接种进行成本效果分析(Cost Effectiveness,CE)分析、成本效益(Cost Benefit,CB)分析和成本效用(Cost Utility,CU)分析.结果 1978~2007年,浙江省MV使用成本共计1.59亿元,通过实施MV接种,减少麻疹发病3 947 390例,减少死亡112 780例,减少经济损失98.18亿元,减少伤残标化寿命年(Disability-adjusted Life Year,DALY)损失372.23亿.CE为每40元投入便能减少1例麻疹发病,每1410元投入便能减少1例因麻疹死亡.合计CB比为1∶61.75,CU比为1∶234.10DALY.结论 浙江省实施MV接种的CE、CB和CU均十分显著,应继续加强冷链配置和规范化预防接种门诊建设,提高预防接种质量,确保MV及时、有效接种.%Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of measles vaccination during different period in Zhejiang province. Methods Field investigation in 8 counties of Zhejiang province and Delphi consulting were conducted to calculate the costs of measles immunization and diseases burden of Measles. The time series model (ARIMA, autoregressive integrated moving average model) were used to estimate the predicted incidence and mortality of measles. CEA (cost effectiveness analysis), CBA(cost benefit analysis)and CUA(cost utility analysis)to appraise the health economic efficiency were developed during different period (1978-1984, 1985-1998, 1999-2007). Results The incidence and the related mortality rate of measles were reduced to very low level. The total costs for application of the Measles vaccine was 159 million YUAN (Renminbi, RMB)from 1978 to 2007. The

  17. Measles transmission from an anthroposophic community to the general population, Germany 2008

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    Krenn-Lanzl Irene

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Germany, measles vaccination coverage with two doses is not yet sufficient to prevent regional outbreaks. Among the 16 German federal states, vaccination coverage was lowest in Bavaria with 85% in 2008. From March to mid-April 2008, four neighbouring Bavarian counties reported 55 measles-cases mostly linked to an ongoing measles outbreak in an anthroposophic school in Austria. We investigated this outbreak to guide future public health action. Methods We applied the German national case-definition for measles and collected data using the national surveillance system and a questionnaire. Measles cases with disease onset a maximum of 18 days apart and spatial contact (e.g. same household, same school were summed up in clusters. Two different interventions, which were implemented in schools and kindergartens in Bavaria, were compared by their impact on the size and duration of measles clusters. Susceptible persons were excluded from schools or kindergartens either with the first (intervention A or second (intervention B measles case occurring in the respective institution. Results Among the 217 Bavarian measles cases identified from March-July 2008, 28 (13% cases were attendees of the anthroposophic school in Austria. In total, vaccination status was known in 161 (74% cases and 156 (97% of them were not vaccinated. The main factor for non-vaccination was "fear of vaccine-related adverse events" (33%. Twenty-nine (18% of 161 cases suffered complications. Exclusively genotype D5 was detected. Overall, 184 cases could be epidemiologically grouped into 59 clusters. Of those, 41 clusters could be linked to households and 13 to schools or kindergartens. The effect of intervention A and B was analysed in 10 school or kindergarten clusters. Depending on the respective intervention A or B, the median number of cases per cluster was 3 versus 13 (p = 0.05, and the median duration of a cluster was 3 versus 26 days (p = 0.13. Conclusions

  18. Elevated levels of measles antibodies in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Jensen, Ryan L

    2003-04-01

    Virus-induced autoimmunity may play a causal role in autism. To examine the etiologic link of viruses in this brain disorder, we conducted a serologic study of measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus. Viral antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the serum of autistic children, normal children, and siblings of autistic children. The level of measles antibody, but not mumps or rubella antibodies, was significantly higher in autistic children as compared with normal children (P = 0.003) or siblings of autistic children (P molecular weight. The antibody to this antigen was found in 83% of autistic children but not in normal children or siblings of autistic children. Thus autistic children have a hyperimmune response to measles virus, which in the absence of a wild type of measles infection might be a sign of an abnormal immune reaction to the vaccine strain or virus reactivation.

  19. Atypical measles syndrome: unusual hepatic, pulmonary, and immunologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H M; Krugman, S

    1981-01-01

    The atypical measles syndrome is a relatively new disease that was first recognized 15 years ago. Initially, it occurred in children who were exposed to wild measles virus several years after they were immunized with killed measles vaccine. It was characterized by a two- to three-day prodrome of high fever, cough, headache, and myalgia followed by a rash that resembled Rocky Mountain spotted fever, scarlet fever, or varicella and associated with roentgenographic evidence of pneumonia with or without pleural effusion. This report highlights three unusual manifestations of this syndrome: 1) transient hepatitis, 2) persistence of pulmonary lesions for several years, and 3) occurrence of excessively high measles hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers. Today, this syndrome occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults.

  20. Measles (lecture, continuing

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    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article discusses differential diagnosis during different measles periods. Routine and confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, including cytological, serological and molecular genetic methods is outlined. Criteria of suspected, probable and proved diagnosis of measles cases are provided. Principles of diagnosis formulation according to WHO criteria are described. Complications of measles ac¬cording to cause (viral and bacterial, by different systems and particularities in high risk patients are considered. Complications of measles from central nervous system are described in details. Therapeutic management of measles is described in details, including indications for hospital admission, etiotropic therapy, strict indications for steroids and immunoglobulins prescription, vitamin A in dosages, therapy of complications, indications for antibiotics usage and other pathogenetic therapy. Specific therapy of measles complications from central nervous system is outlined. Active and passive immunization, anti-epidemic activities, patient follow-up after episode of measles and disease prognosis are described. The literature reference list consists of 121 items, including Cyrillic, Latin articles and electronic resources.

  1. Measles outbreak in the Children’s Hospital in Saint-Petersburg, 2012

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    M. A. Bichurina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles was imported to Saint-Petersburg from the Chechen Republic by the patient admitted to the Children’s Clinical Hospital where the measles focus out of 94 cases was formed within the period of January – March, 2012. The typical clinical form of infection was revealed for all measles cases. The general signs of the infection were fever, rash, cough, rhinitis, conjunctivitis. Children under 17 years old consisted three quarters of patients. Among measles patients 75% of cases were the non vaccinated children in the age of 5 months – 14 years. Measles was confirmed by detection of IgM antibodies to measles virus in ELISA in 93.6% of sera samples. Molecular studies of the biological samples from the patient who was the source of the infection as well as from the other patients revealed the measles virus genotype D4 “Iran 2010”. This genotype widely circulated in Iran, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan as well as in some regions of Russia in 2010–2012. The later diagnostic and isolation of the first measles patient in this hospital facilitated the transmission of measles virus infection in the Hospital where the most part of the non vaccinated children were also treated.

  2. Health burden and economic impact of measles-related hospitalizations in Italy in 2002–2003

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    Massari Marco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2002–2003. This study evaluates the health burden and economic impact of measles-related hospitalizations in Italy during the specified period. Methods Hospital discharge abstract data for measles hospitalizations in Italy during 2002–2003 were analysed to obtain information regarding number and rates of measles hospitalizations by geographical area and age group, length of hospital stay, and complications. Hospitalization costs were estimated on the basis of Diagnosis-Related Groups. Results A total of 5,154 hospitalizations were identified, 3,478 (67% of which occurred in children Conclusion The nationwide health burden associated with measles during the 2002–2003 outbreak was substantial and a high cost was incurred by the Italian National Health Service for the thousands of measles-related hospitalizations which occurred. By assuming that hospital costs represent 40–50% of the direct costs of measles cases, direct costs of measles for the two years combined were estimated to be between €17.6 – 22.0 million, which equates to the vaccination of 1.5–1.9 million children (3–4 birth cohorts with one dose of MMR. The high cost of measles and the severity of its complications fully justify the commitment required to reach measles elimination.

  3. Monitoring results of immunization successful rate of measles and rubella combined vaccine in Daxingin District of Beijing City in 2011%2011年北京市大兴区麻风疫苗基础免疫成功率监测结果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐金凤; 侯文俊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]To know the immunization effect of measles and rubella combined vaccine on 8 -month-old infants in Daxin-gin District of Beijing City in 2011, ,and provide a basis for immunization strategy. [Methods]The serum samples of 8 -month-old infants were collected before and 1 month after immunization of measles and rubella combined vaccine, then the IgG antibody of measles and rubella were detected- [ Results ] After immunization , the positive rate of measles antibody was 100% , and GMT reached 1 : 1385. 52; 33 cases were rubella IgG positive with the positive rate of 82. 5% , and GMT reached 1: 31.18. [ Conclusion]The immunogenicity of measles ingredient in current measles and rubella combined vaccine is good in this district, but the effect of rubella ingredient is not so good. Therefore, revaccination is necessary.%目的 了解北京市大兴区2011年8月龄儿童接种麻疹风疹联合减毒活疫苗(简称麻风疫苗)后的免疫效果,为制定麻疹免疫策略提供依据.方法 采集40名8月龄儿童麻风疫苗免疫前、免疫后1个月双份血标本,分别进行麻疹、风疹IgG抗体测定.结果 免后麻疹抗体阳性40人,阳性率100%,GMT 1∶1 385.52;风疹抗体阳性33人,阳性率82.50%,GMT1∶31.18.结论 该区现行的麻风疫苗所包含的麻疹成分免疫原性好,风疹成分免疫效果较差,应进行风疹疫苗复种弥补.

  4. Measles Outbreak in a Roma Community in Albania

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    ALMA ROBO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles reporting is mandatory in Albania. Despite the very high immunization coverage for MMR a measles outbreak was reported by district epidemiologist to national public health institute in june 2006. All affected persons were from a Roma community living in the town of Elbasan. We report the epidemiological features of this epidemic. Method: Active surveillance was conducted and cases analyzed had to meet the national case definition “rash maculopapular with fever”. The diagnosis was established by clinical signs, confirmed by serologic results. Sera samples from all the suspected cases were tested for Measles IgM by ELISA and molecular genotyping of virus by the regional reference laboratory. Results: According to the case definition 16 cases were actively found, 13 (77% were female and 3 (23% male. The mean age was 7.1 years (range: three months to 23 years. Most of the patients had Koplik spots, coryza and conjunctivitis. All cases were unvaccinated. All patients recovered and no fatal cases. Conclusion: Gaps of low vaccine coverage facilitated the measles infection to spread. The vaccination of this community it difficult despite the commitement of the health staff. Families with their children are in ongoing migration all over the country and abroad. As a response to stop the spread of the measles outbreak, the district epidemiological service in Elbasan with the support from the national institute of public health, organised a mass vaccination campaign.

  5. Travellers returning with measles from Thailand to Finland, April 2012: infection control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantele, A; Valtonen, K; Davidkin, I; Martelius, T; Võželevskaja, N; Skogberg, K; Liesmaa, I; Lyytikäinen, O

    2012-05-31

    Countries with no autochthonous measles run the risk of the virus being imported by travellers and transmitted to unprotected citizens. In April 2012, two travellers from Finland and one from Estonia were diagnosed with measles after returning from Phuket, Thailand. They were contagious on their return flights and subsequently exposed several individuals, prompting extensive infection control measures. Two secondary cases were detected: one child who had received one vaccine dose and another who was fully vaccinated.

  6. Measles outbreak in a refugee settlement in Calais, France: January to February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G; Haeghebaert, S; Merlin, B; Antona, D; Simon, N; Elmouden, M; Battist, F; Janssens, M; Wyndels, K; Chaud, P

    2016-01-01

    We report a measles outbreak in a refugee settlement in Calais, France, between 5 January and 11 February 2016. In total, 13 confirmed measles cases were identified among migrants, healthcare workers in hospital and volunteers working on site. A large scale vaccination campaign was carried out in the settlement within two weeks of outbreak notification. In total, 60% of the estimated target population of 3,500 refugees was vaccinated during the week-long campaign.

  7. [Surveillance Plan on Recent Outbreak of Measles and Rubella in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Torner, Nuria; Vidal, Ma José

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are two immuno-preventive illnesses. In Catalonia, since 1988 all children are given two doses of measles and rubella vaccine with high levels of vaccination coverage. The measles elimination programme has been carried out since 1990 in Catalonia. This programme includes achieving and keeping high immunization levels among population with high vaccination coverage, intense epidemiological surveillance and an immediate response to the appearance of a case or outbreak. In 2014, the measles incidence rate was 1.9 cases/ 100,000 inhabitants. There were 4 recent outbreaks in 2006, 2011, 2013 and 2014 that affected 381, 289, 31 and 124 people respectively. All outbreaks were triggered by an imported case. In 2011 and 2014 measles outbreaks, 6% and 5.5% of affected people were health care workers. All outbreaks presented a great variety of measles genotypes. Concerning rubella elimination programme, since 2002, 68 cases of postnatal rubella and 5 cases of congenital rubella were confirmed. Regarding measles and rubella surveillance and control, in addition to strengthen vaccination coverage, it is essential immediate notification, within the first 24 hours since suspicion and laboratory confirmation. In addition there is a need to enforce vaccination among health care workers as well as in other susceptible and unvaccinated people. It is recommended to vaccinate all people who were born after 1966 and who have not been vaccinated with two doses of trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Furthermore, we have to emphasize that the progress concerning genotypes study allows identifying various imported cases from other European countries with active outbreaks, aspect that makes easier the surveillance of these illnesses.

  8. Rapid identification of Beijing measles vaccine virus and wild virus by multiplex real-time fluorescent PCR%应用多重实时荧光PCR技术快速鉴别北京麻疹疫苗病毒与野病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈萌; 黄芳; 陈维欣; 董梅; 张铁钢; 吴疆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify wild measles virus and vaccine virus by detection nucleic acid of clinical samples from measles patients with immunization history circulating in Beijing through muhiplex real-time fluorescent PCR technology.Methods From July 2011 to Fetbruary 2012,10 throat swabs and 15 urine specimens were collected from 16 suspected measles patients who were 8 -9 months old infants with immunization history in Beijing.The specificity of multiplex real-time fluorescent PCR was firstly tested by measles vaccine virus,wild virus and other respiratory virus.Then the vaccine virus and wild virus were titrated and diluted to test the sensitivity of the PCR method.The result was then compared with it analyzed by PCR-RFLP method.Meanwhile,the clinical sample of the measles patients were tested and confirmed by sequencing method.Results The primer-probe sets of Fam,Joe and Cy5 showed great specificity of measles virus,and could distinguish the measles vaccine virus and wild virus well.The sensitivity of this method to detect measles vaccine virus reached 0.1 CCID50/0.1 ml:and the sensitivity to wild virus reached 0.006 CCID50/0.1 ml; which were both higher than the sensitivity of PCR-RFLP method.Out of the 16 measles patients with vaccination history,3 were negative and the other 13 all belonged to measles virus genotype A,and were confirmed to be vaccine virus by sequencing method.Conclusion Multiplex real-time PCR method is accurate,rapid and sensitive to identify measles vaccine virus and wild virus.The method could greatly help us to find measles patients and to identify the vaccine-related cases.%目的 应用多重实时荧光PCR技术对北京地区有免疫史麻疹患者临床样本进行核酸检测,鉴别麻疹野病毒和疫苗病毒.方法 于2011年7月至2012年2月在北京采集16例8~9月龄初免后疑似麻疹患者的10份咽拭子和15份尿液标本.先用麻疹疫苗病毒、野病毒和其他呼吸道病毒检测多重实时荧光PCR方

  9. Measles to the Rescue: A Review of Oncolytic Measles Virus

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    Sarah Aref

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This paramyxovirus vaccine has a proven safety record and is amenable to careful genetic modification in the laboratory. Overexpression of the measles virus (MV receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM in oncolysis. Successful attempts to retarget MV by inserting genes for tumour-specific ligands to antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CD20, CD38, and by engineering the virus to express synthetic microRNA targeting sequences, and “blinding” the virus to the natural viral receptors are exciting measures to increase viral specificity and enhance the oncolytic effect. Sodium iodine symporter (NIS can also be expressed by MV, which enables in vivo tracking of MV infection. Radiovirotherapy using MV-NIS, chemo-virotherapy to convert prodrugs to their toxic metabolites, and immune-virotherapy including incorporating antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors can also increase the oncolytic potential. Anti-viral host immune responses are a recognized barrier to the success of MV, and approaches such as transporting MV to the tumour sites by carrier cells, are showing promise. MV Clinical trials are producing encouraging preliminary results in ovarian cancer, myeloma and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and the outcome of currently open trials in glioblastoma multiforme, mesothelioma and squamous cell carcinoma are eagerly anticipated.

  10. the temperature dropped to normal When Rash Had appeared For 12 Hours:an atypical Case of Measles in adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-ling Liu; Chun-wei Wang; Ying Liu; Ping Zhou; Xiao-juan Li; Hui-yuan Si; Hong-wei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A twenty-eight-year-old male patient with five-day’s fever (the highest body tempreture reached 39.4℃) and 10-hour’s rash (first on face) presented to the department of emergency for “drug rash”, at that time his temperature was 38.6℃. Two hours later, his temperature fell to normal. Then this patient’s entire body rash increased signiifcantly and lasted for 13 hours. Serum measles antibody IgM(+) conifrmed the measles diagnosis. He had received measles vaccine as a baby. Clinicians should be aware of this atypical clinical manifestation of adult measles. If this kind of patients were misdiagnosed as drug rash and given corticosteroid, measles disease may be aggravated. Speciifc serum measles antibody testing may be the only reliable method for differential diagnosis, but the earliest time point for examining the antibodies of measles still needs precise research.

  11. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.

  12. Practical observations from an epidemiological investigation of a measles outbreak in a district of India

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    Mishra Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Measles is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality, accounting for nearly half of the morbidity associated with global vaccine preventable diseases. Regular outbreaks of Measles are reported in India, of which only a few are investigated. This study was conducted in the Shivpuri District of Madhya Pradesh (India to investigate and asses various epidemiological factors associated with measles outbreak. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 30 randomly selected sub-centers in 8 blocks of the Shivpuri District of Madhya Pradesh, covering 212 villages, selected by cluster sampling. The villages, which had reported measles cases, were extensively investigated by the field teams through extensive house-to-house surveys during 12-19 May 2004. Results: A total of 1204 cases with 14 deaths were reported with an attack rate of 6.2% and a case fatality rate of 1.2%. In this study, 17.7% of the cases reported post-measles complications with diarrhea as the most common post measles complication. The routine measles vaccine and Vitamin A supplementation in the area was also less than 30%. Conclusions: The majority of the cases had occurred in the unvaccinated children and in under 5 year old population. There are repeated outbreaks and a long delay in reporting of the cases. The occurrence of cases, in a reasonable proportion of the vaccinated population, points toward the fact that there is a possibility of a vaccine failure in older children. This study calls for an improved surveillance system, an improvement in the cold chain, and enhancements for measles vaccination if India is to achieve the goal of measles elimination.

  13. Spotlight on measles 2010: measles outbreak in Ireland 2009-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gee, S

    2010-01-01

    Measles cases are increasing in Ireland, with 320 cases notified since August 2009. Nearly two-thirds of these cases (n=206) were unvaccinated. In the early stages of the outbreak a substantial number of cases were linked to the Traveller community with some cases also reported among the Roma community, other citizens from eastern Europe and children whose parents objected to vaccination. By February 2010, there had been considerable spread to the general population.

  14. Mitigating measles outbreaks in West Africa post-Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, Shaun A; Moss, William J; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak in 2014-2015 devastated the populations, economies and healthcare systems of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. With this devastation comes the impending threat of outbreaks of other infectious diseases like measles. Strategies for mitigating these risks must include both prevention, through vaccination, and case detection and management, focused on surveillance, diagnosis and appropriate clinical care and case management. With the high transmissibility of measles virus, small-scale reactive vaccinations will be essential to extinguish focal outbreaks, while national vaccination campaigns are needed to guarantee vaccination coverage targets are reached in the long term. Rapid and multifaceted strategies should carefully navigate challenges present in the wake of Ebola, while also taking advantage of current Ebola-related activities and international attention. Above all, resources and focus currently aimed at these countries must be utilized to build up the deficit in infrastructure and healthcare systems that contributed to the extent of the Ebola outbreak.

  15. Anafilaxia associada à vacina contra sarampo, caxumba e rubéola Anafilaxia asociada a la vacuna contra sarampión, varicela y rubéola Anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella

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    Iolanda Maria Novadzki

    2010-04-01

    sensibilización por algún componente residual de la vacuna y posible reacción cruzada con el dextrano.A case-control study was carried out aiming to describe the cases and causes of anaphylaxis associated with the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella. A total of 22 reported cases in children who showed mucocutaneous manifestations, during the Campanha Nacional de Vacinação (Brazilian Vaccination Campaign, conducted in the city of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, in 2004, were studied. In addition, 66 children, who were next to these cases and did not show a symptomatology after the vaccine was applied, were selected. Serum measurements of antibodies for vaccine antigens and total IgE, specific IgE antibody measurements for several allergens, and skin tests were performed. Vaccine response was adequate, specific IgE measurement and skin tests showed that potential allergens in vaccines and atopy were not associated with anaphylactic reactions. Skin tests with the vaccine and dextran were positive in the cases exclusively, suggesting sensitization to certain residual components of the vaccine and possible cross-reaction with dextran.

  16. [Progress in the elimination of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, M; Jankovic, D; Goel, A; Butler, R; Pfeifer, D

    2013-09-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region toward reaching the goal of measles and rubella elimination. We analyzed the surveillance data of 2012 on measles and rubella for age-group, diagnosis confirmation status (clinical, laboratory-confirmed and epidemiologically linked), vaccination status, and measles-related deaths. For 2012, there were 23,871 measles cases and 29,361 rubella cases reported in the region, mostly among unvaccinated persons. Almost one in three patients with measles and one in five patients with rubella were aged 20 years and older. In a few countries, widespread outbreaks or indigenous transmission of measles persisted in 2012. While most countries in the region have controlled rubella, a small number still reported a high incidence and several outbreaks. Therefore, more efforts are required to achieve the goal of eliminating measles and rubella in the WHO European Region by 2015, particularly in high-incidence countries. The WHO measles and rubella elimination plan stipulates that all countries should achieve and maintain the required high vaccination coverage while conducting high-quality surveillance.

  17. Resurgence of measles in the French military forces in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, A; Verret, C; Haus-Cheymol, R; Duron, S; De Laval, F; Sbai-Idrissi, K; Imbert, P; Janville, M; Munoz, P; Armand-Tolvy, M; Thauvin, X; Decam, C; Meynard, J-B; Deparis, X; Migliani, R

    2011-08-01

    Since the start of 2010 there has been a flare-up of measles in France, following on the resurgence observed in 2008. The aim of this study was to present results of the epidemiological surveillance of measles in the French armed forces and to describe the increase in incidence. Measles was surveyed from 1992 to 2010. Criteria for report were those used for French national compulsory notification. The data, concerning active military personnel, were provided by the physicians in the armed forces using anonymous data collection forms. Between 1992 and July 2010, 689 cases of measles were notified. Since 2002, the mean incidence rate was 1 case per 100,000. A significant increase has been observed for 2010 (13.9 cases per 100,000 in 2010 versus 1.8 in 2009). The 28 cases reported in 2010 involved five clusters and three isolated cases. The mean age of affected subjects was 27 years. Only 30% of cases had been vaccinated. The epidemic resurgence of measles observed in 2010 in the French armed forces follows the same pattern as that observed nationally and at European level, and can be seen as the likely consequence of inadequate vaccination cover.

  18. Progress toward measles preelimination--African Region, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masresha, Balcha G; Kaiser, Reinhard; Eshetu, Messeret; Katsande, Reggis; Luce, Richard; Fall, Amadou; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Naouri, Boubker; Byabamazima, Charles R; Perry, Robert; Dabbagh, Alya J; Strebel, Peter; Kretsinger, Katrina; Goodson, James L; Nshimirimana, Deo

    2014-04-04

    In 2008, the 46 member states of the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region (AFR) adopted a measles preelimination goal to reach by the end of 2012 with the following targets: 1) >98% reduction in estimated regional measles mortality compared with 2000, 2) annual measles incidence of fewer than five reported cases per million population nationally, 3) >90% national first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage and >80% MCV1 coverage in all districts, and 4) >95% MCV coverage in all districts by supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Surveillance performance objectives were to report two or more cases of nonmeasles febrile rash illness per 100,000 population, one or more suspected measles cases investigated with blood specimens in ≥80% of districts, and 100% completeness of surveillance reporting from all districts. This report updates previous reports and describes progress toward the measles preelimination goal during 2011-2012. In 2012, 13 (28%) member states had >90% MCV1 coverage, and three (7%) reported >90% MCV1 coverage nationally and >80% coverage in all districts. During 2011-2012, four (15%) of 27 SIAs with available information met the target of >95% coverage in all districts. In 2012, 16 of 43 (37%) member states met the incidence target of fewer than five cases per million, and 19 of 43 (44%) met both surveillance performance targets. In 2011, the WHO Regional Committee for AFR established a goal to achieve measles elimination by 2020. To achieve this goal, intensified efforts to identify and close population immunity gaps and improve surveillance quality are needed, as well as committed leadership and ownership of the measles elimination activities and mobilization of adequate resources to complement funding from global partners.

  19. Resurgence of measles in a country of elimination: interim assessment and current control measures in the Republic of Korea in early 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tae Un; Kim, Ju Whi; Eom, Hye Eun; Oh, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Eun Seong; Kang, Hae Ji; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Ki Soon; Kim, Sung Soon; Lee, Chan Kyu; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok

    2015-04-01

    Since the beginning of 2014, the Republic of Korea has experienced a resurgence of measles cases. Among the 220 cases confirmed as measles during epidemiological weeks 1-20 (December 29, 2013 to May 17, 2014), 10 imported cases were identified. The predominant genotype was B3, which reflects the circulating measles virus in adjacent countries. Even with the verification of measles elimination in March 2014 by the World Health Organization, recent importation has been related to international travel. Targeted control measures have been implemented in addition to proper isolation and patient care. A vigilant surveillance system and high levels of vaccine coverage should be maintained to sustain the measles elimination status.

  20. The historical association between measles and pertussis: A case of immune suppression?

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    Stephen Coleman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: According to historical medical reports, many children with measles subsequently contracted pertussis, often with fatal results. The likelihood of a child contracting pertussis after a measles infection is increased by its immune-suppressing effects. This research aims to verify the historical reports. Methods: The analysis examines statistically the historical relationship between average measles and pertussis incidence rates in the United States from 1938 to 1954 at the state level and in average weekly rates. Analysis of incidence rates is cross-sectional at the state level using public health data. Results: The results show that, on average and over time, states with higher measles rates have higher pertussis rates, and the peaks and nadirs of average weekly incidence rates of pertussis lag measles by a delay of about 3–4 weeks, well within the duration of immune suppression. Measles and pertussis have similar geographical distributions. Conclusion: The research tentatively supports the hypothesis that because of its immune-suppressing effects, measles causes an increase in pertussis, but other factors may be involved. Epidemic models should give more attention to the possibility of immune suppression for diseases such as measles where that might be a risk factor. The findings reemphasize the importance of measles vaccination for the prevention of other diseases.

  1. ANALYSIS ON EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CASES OF MEASLES VACCINE IMMUNITY FAILURE IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE DURING 2004-2008%广东省2004~2008年麻疹疫苗免疫失败病例流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    疏俊; 吴承刚; 彭志强; 谭秋

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To analyse the epidemiological characterisUcs of cases of measles vaccine immunity failure and the relevant factors in Guangdong Province during 2004-2008. [ Methods] Descriptive epidemiological study was applied to analyse the data from reporting system of infectious diseases and measles monitoring system during 2004-2008. [ Results] A total of 8 197 cases of measles vaccine immunity failure were reported in Guangdong Province during 2004-2008. The cases were reported in every city in Guangdong Province. More cases of measles vaccine immunity failure were reported in Shenzhen,Guangzhou, Zhongshan and Dongguan city. However, the proportion of measles cases was different in different regions. There were more cases from April to July each year There weren 't differences in the month of distribution and the toral cases (Z = -0.17, P = 0.87). The sex ratio for men and women of measles vaccine immunity failure cases was 1∶ 0.75 (4 694/3 503). The rate of the floating measles vaccine immunity failure cases in the total immunity failure cases was 55.80% (4 574/8 197). The age distribution in measles vaccine immunity failure cases and the total cases was the significantly different (Z = -2.88, P =O.OO). The age distribution in measles vaccine immunity failure eases in different regions and years were the significantly different (retSion: x2= 707.78, P= 0.00, year: x2 = 35.21, P = 0.00). [Conclusion] Measles vacine unmunity failure cases are found with a certain percentage in measles cases. It is worth of paying aUention to the fact that the floating populalion and the younger-age cases.%[目的]分析广东省2004~2008年麻疹疫苗免疫失败病例流行病学特征,探析相关影响因素.[方法]通过传染病报告系统和麻疹监测系统收集有关数据,并进行描述性流行病学分析.[结果]2004~2008年间广东省共有8197例麻疹疫苗免疫失败病例报告,全省各市均有病例报告,免疫失败个案以深圳、广州

  2. Measles outbreak in Venezuela: a new challenge to postelimination surveillance and control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Héctor; Cobo, Oswaldo Barrezueta; Morice, Ana; Zapata, Roger; Benitez, María Victoria; Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    The circulation of wild measles virus was interrupted in Venezuela in February 2007 after the catch-up vaccination (1994) and monitoring (1998) and in response to the measles outbreak in 2001. Traditionally, the routine coverage with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine does not exceed 85%. In February 2006, a measles outbreak started by importation in the State Miranda; this extended to 7 states and lasted 50 weeks with an intermediate period of 17 weeks without reported cases. New cases were reported in the States Guarico and Amazon. The pattern of circulation of the silent period was determined through the use of retrospective search for measles; this showed that 57% of suspected cases did not enter the surveillance system. Molecular epidemiology made it possible to identify B3 as only genotype, which also circulated in Spain. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of measles have been modified; these determine outbreaks identified late, of slow expansion, silent, and with limited case-fatality, compared with classical outbreaks. The outbreak spread by that behavior was not recognized and the classical control measures did not result. The beginning of a broader and intense vaccination was delayed, partly by weaknesses in the sensitivity of the system. It is crucial to recognize the new behavior of measles and the effectiveness of the classical control measures, and especially to establish criteria for interruption of the circulation to control an outbreak in this stage of elimination.

  3. Measles outbreak investigation in Zaka, Masvingo Province, Zimbabwe, 2010

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    Pomerai Kufakwanguzvarova W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A measles outbreak was detected at Ndanga Hospital in Zaka district Masvingo Province on the 5th of May 2010 and there were five deaths. Source of infection was not known and an investigation was carried out to determine factors associated with contracting measles in Zaka district. Materials and methods A 1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a person residing in Zaka district who developed signs and symptoms of measles or tested IgM positive from 06 May 2010 to 30 August 2010. A control was a person residing in the same community who did not have history of signs and symptoms of measles during the same period. A structured interviewer administered questionnaire (translated into shona was used to solicit information from cases and controls. Ethical consideration like written consent from all participants, respect and confidentiality were observed. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the medical research Council of Zimbabwe and the provincial Medical Directors Masvingo. Epi info was used to calculate frequencies, odds ratios and perform logistic regression to control for confounding variables. Findings A total of 110 cases and 110 controls were recruited. Most cases (63.03% were from the apostolic sect while 44.7% of controls were from orthodox churches. Contact with a measles case [AOR= 41.14, 95% CI (7.47-226.5],being unvaccinated against measles [AOR= 3.96, 95%CI (2.58-6.08] and not receiving additional doses of measles vaccine [AOR 5.48, 95% CI (2.16-11.08] were independent risk factor for contracting measles. Measles vaccination coverage for Zaka district was 75%. The median duration for seeking treatment after onset of illness was three days (Q1=2; Q3=7. There were no emergency preparedness plans in place. Conclusion This outbreak occurred due to a large number of unvaccinated children and a boarding school that facilitated person to person transmission. We recommend mandatory

  4. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...

  5. Epidemiology Of Measles And Its Complications In Non- Hospitalized Children

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    Mangal N

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 1985-86 amongst non-hospitalized children of jaipur city in33 investigative units having 3791 families with 6183 children in the 0-9 years age group. Measles vaccine coverage was only 21.7% Measles developed in 189 cases. Maximum incidence occurred in the 1-2 years olds and during the first half of the years (January to June. Complication developed in 50 (26.5% children. The most frequent was diarrohea (14.3% followed by respiratory infection (6.9%. No case fatality was reported.

  6. 麻疹减毒活疫苗S191生产用毒株的遗传稳定性%Genetic Stability of S191 Strain for Production of Live Attenuated Measles Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵炜炜; 封多佳; 董小曼

    2009-01-01

    目的 分析麻疹减毒活疫苗S191生产用毒株病毒结构基因的遗传稳定性.方法 将北京天坛生物制品股份有限公司(天坛生物)用于麻疹疫苗生产的S191株25代病毒(S191-BJ25)传至29代(S191-BJ29),上海生物制品研究所保存的S191株24代病毒(S191-SH24)传至33代(S191-SH33).从S191株传代病毒中提取RNA,对病毒结构基因片段N、M、F,H进行扩增及测序.将测序结果与GenBank中1994年收录的S191株麻疹病毒的相应序列进行比较分析.结果 S191-BJ25传代病毒N、M、F、H 4个基因的总突变率为0.02%,S191-SH2A传代病毒为0.15%;与1994年的S191疫苗株相比,S191-BJ25传代病毒N、M、F、H 4个基因的总突变率为0.3%,S191-SH24传代病毒为0.4%.结论 目前天坛生物使用的麻疹疫苗S191株生产用三级种子库具有可靠的遗传稳定性,从主代种子到疫苗的传代过程中,N、M、F、H结构基因表现出稳定的分子遗传特征.目前使用的S191毒株的4个结构基因较1994年以前的疫苗株发生了变化.但目前没有证据表明这些变化对免疫原性产生不利影响.%Objective To analyze the genetic stability of structural gene of S191 strain for production of live attenuated measles vaccine.Methods The S191 strain for production of measles vaccine by Beijing Tiantan Biological Products Co.Ltd Was subcuhured from passage 25(S191-BJ25)to 29 (S191-BJ29),and that by Shanghai Institute of Biological Products from passage 24(S191-SH24)to 33(S191-SH33).RNAs were extracted from the subcultured strains for amplification and sequencing of structural gene fragments N,M,F and H.The sequencing results were compared with those of the corresponding sequences of S191 strain included in GenBank in 1994.Results The total mutation rate of N,M,F and H genes of subcultured S191-BJ25 Was 0.02%.while that of subcuhured S191-SH24 was 0.15%.Compared with those of S191 strain included in GenBank in 1994,the total mutation rate of the four genes of

  7. Avaliação das condições de estocagem de vacinas vivas, atenuadas contra o sarampo, em postos de vacinação credenciados e em centros de saúde do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil An assessment of the storage conditions of live, attenuated vaccines against measles, in authorized vaccination centers and in health services in S. Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inácio França Mendes

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar as condições de estocagem de vacinas vivas, atenuadas contra o sarampo, da rede de vacinação do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, foram visitados 71 Postos de Vacinação Credenciados particulares (PVC, assim como 117 Centros de Saúde oficiais (CS, sobre os quais interessava saber a respeito da qualidade da estocagem a frio. Os parâmetros adotados foram: a temperatura das geladeiras de uso (+2 a +8°C e de estoque (+ 8°C; b validade do produto; c título das vacinas conservadas nestas geladeiras, avaliado pela inoculação de diluições das amostras de vacinas em células Vero; d proteção à luz. Dos CS pesquisados, 85,33% apresentaram geladeiras com temperatura de acordo com a recomendada e 100% das vacinas neles estocadas com título e validade satisfatórios. Nos PVC foram encontrados, com maior freqüência, lotes de vacina fora do prazo de validade (14,49%, com títulos abaixo do mínimo requerido (3,53% e geladeiras de uso e de estoque com temperaturas inadequadas (33,80%. Necessário se faz que as condições de estocagem das vacinas contra o sarampo (temperatura e proteção à luz, prevalentes no momento, sejam melhoradas e que as bulas passem a acompanhar o produto a eles entregue, para que os responsáveis pela vacinação obedeçam as recomendações do laboratório produtor com relação às condições de estocagem, validade e administração do imunobiológico, uma vez que a pesquisa revelou que estas não são observadas com o rigor necessário.In the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, health centers sponsored by the State, as well as private health services, located in throughout large districts, are in charge of the vaccination against the various diseases affecting children, including measles. In the present study three of the above mentioned districts, covering 385 State Health Centers (SHC and 200 Private Health Services (PHS were surveyed. From these totals 117 SHC and 71 PHS were chosen for the evaluation of: a

  8. Successful control and impending elimination of measles in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Gouya, Mohamad M; Azad, Talat Mokhtari; Soltanshahi, Rambod; Sabouri, Azam; Naouri, Boubker; Alexander, James P

    2011-07-01

    Measles is still one of the most common infectious killers of children in the world, especially in developing countries. In Iran, during the prevaccine era, 150,000-500,000 cases of measles were reported annually, with a death rate of 10%-15%. After the establishment of Expanded Program on Immunization program in 1984, vaccination rates for the first and second doses of measles vaccine increased to >90% by the mid-1990s, and the number of measles cases decreased to 2652 in 1996. In response to increased numbers of cases in older age groups during 1996-2002, a nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign was conducted in 2003, and 33,100,000 persons (99%) aged 5-25 years were vaccinated. During 2004-2009, 221 laboratory-confirmed measles cases (<1 case per million population) were detected, primarily in rural areas and among migrant groups who traveled to or came from high-incidence countries. High routine immunization coverage, low disease incidence, and surveillance system data suggest that interruption of endemic virus transmission might have already been achieved in Iran, but challenges remain and continued efforts are needed to sustain this accomplishment.

  9. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

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    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  10. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  11. The state of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, M; Shefer, A; Ben Mamou, M; Spataru, R; Jankovic, D; Deshevoy, S; Butler, R; Pfeifer, D

    2014-05-01

    Measles and rubella persist in the World Health Organization European Region despite long-standing and widespread use of vaccines against them. Our aim was to review the epidemiology of measles and rubella in relation to the goal of eliminating these diseases from the Region by 2015. We report on the number of measles and rubella cases by country in 2012 and present an analysis of preliminary measles and rubella surveillance data for 2013. We analysed data of these diseases for 2013 by age group, diagnosis confirmation (clinical, laboratory-confirmed and epidemiologically linked), and vaccination, hospitalization and importation status. We also report on measles-related deaths. For 2012, there were 26,785 [corrected] measles cases and 29,601 rubella cases reported in the Region. For 2013, these figures were 31,520 and 39,367 respectively. Most measles cases in 2013 (96%; n = 30,178) were reported by nine countries: Georgia (7830), Germany (1773), Italy (2216), the Netherlands (2499), Romania (1074), the Russian Federation (2174), Turkey (7404), Ukraine (3308) and the United Kingdom (1900). In 2013, most measles cases were among unvaccinated persons and over one in three patients were aged 20 years and older. For 2013, almost all rubella cases were reported by Poland (n = 38,585; 98%). High population immunity and high-quality surveillance are the cornerstones to eliminate measles and rubella. Without sustained political commitment and accelerated action by Member States and partners, the elimination of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region may not be achieved.

  12. Clinical Impact of Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Puja H; Daza, Alejandro Delgado; Livornese, Lawrence L

    2016-01-01

    The discovery and development of immunization has been a singular improvement in the health of mankind. This chapter reviews currently available vaccines, their historical development, and impact on public health. Specific mention is made in regard to the challenges and pursuit of a vaccine for the human immunodeficiency virus as well as the unfounded link between autism and measles vaccination.

  13. Clinical observation of epithelial herpes simplex keratitis treated by live attenuated measles vaccine%麻疹减毒活疫苗治疗上皮型单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于静; 张明昌; 向其元

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨麻疹减毒活疫苗治疗上皮型单纯疱疹病毒性角膜炎(HSK)的临床效果.方法 选取在钟祥市人民医院眼科门诊确诊的60例(60眼)上皮型HSK患者,随机分为对照组和试验组,每组30例.对照组给予更昔洛韦滴眼液滴眼,每日8次;试验组球结膜下注射麻疹减毒活疫苗,隔日1次,每次0.5 mL,联合更昔洛韦滴眼液滴眼,每日8次,治疗3周.观察治疗后1、2、3周的治疗效果,随访2a,观察其复发率.结果 对照组在治疗后第1、2、3周的症状与体征评分分别为2.533±0.507、2.133±0.730、1.433±0.728,试验组分别为2.200±0.252、1.800±0.761、1.067±0.254,2组各相应时间点评分比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗后第1、2、3周2组间各时间对应点角膜知觉情况比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).对照组在治疗后第2、3周眼部炎症反应的治愈率分别为13.33% (4/30)、26.67%(8/30),试验组分别为33.33% (10/30)、66.67% (20/30),2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).随访2a,对照组复发率为26.67%,试验组为6.67%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)).2组患者均未出现明显不良反应.结论 应用更昔洛韦滴眼液联合麻疹减毒活疫苗球结膜下注射治疗上皮型HSK具有治愈率高、不良反应少、复发率低等优点.%Objective To investigate clinical effect of epithelial herpes simplex keratitis( HSK) treated by live attenuated measles vaccine. Methods Sixty epithelial HSK patients diagnosed at Zhongxiang people's hospital were enrolled. All the patients were divided into control group and experimental group randomly ,30 patients in each group. The control group patients were treated by ganciclovir eye drops,8 times per day,while experimental group patients were treated by ganciclovir eye drops (8 times per day) as well as sub-conjunctival injection oflive attenuated measles vaccine(0.5 mL per time, every other day). All patients were treated

  14. [Immunization Programme and Coverage against Measles and Rubella in Spain. Challenges for Achieving their Elimination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora; Molina Olivas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization had established the achievement and sustainability of very high coverage with two doses of vaccine against measles and at least one against rubella as one of the key strategies for the elimination of both measles and rubella. The current immunization programme in Spain includes the immunization with two doses of combined vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella at 12 months and 3-4 years of age. Since 2000 coverage with first dose is over the target of 95% but the coverage with the second dose remains between 90 and 95%. In 2014, at subnational level three regions had coverage below the objective and only eight regions achieved the objective for the second dose. The challenges and some activities to strengthen the immunization programme in order to achieve the elimination of measles and rubella are discussed.

  15. Evaluation on Immunization Coverage Rate of the First-Dose Measles Containing Vaccine in Tianjin%天津市含麻疹成分疫苗首剂接种率评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁亚兴; 孙静; 田宏; 陈伟; 黄海涛; 万丽霞; 高志刚; 张颖

    2015-01-01

    目的 对天津市含麻疹成分疫苗(Measles Containing Vaccine,MCV)首剂(MCV1)接种率进行评价.方法 2009-2012年采用多阶段随机抽样法抽取天津市8月龄~6岁健康儿童开展麻疹血清学抗体监测,以麻疹抗体阳性率来评价该年龄组MCV1接种率.结果 2009-2012年天津市8月龄~6岁组MCV1调查接种率(Investigated Immunization Coverage Rate,IIR)分别为92.59%、98.25%、99.04%和98.53%;当疫苗效力(Vaccine Efficacy,VE)取82.9%和95%时,2009-2011年估算接种率(Estimated Immunization Coverage Rate,EIR)分别为15.45%、60.67%、77.82%和38.46%、84.07%、92.31%;免疫规划信息系统统计的全市MCV1接种率分别为:95.46%、96.47%、98.11%和99.03%.血清学监测抗体阳性率2009-2012年分别为94.22%、97.07%、96.91%和95.45%,经统计分析,除2012年外,IIR、EIR和信息系统接种率估算出来的抗体阳性率和血清学监测阳性率之间有显著性差异(P<0.05).结论 血清学监测能评价疫苗接种率,真实反映人群免疫力.

  16. The Costs and Valuation of Health Impacts of Measles and Rubella Risk Management Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Odahowski, Cassie L

    2016-07-01

    National and global health policymakers require good information about the costs and benefits of their investments in measles and rubella immunization programs. Building on our review of the existing measles and rubella health economics literature, we develop inputs for use in regional and global models of the expected future benefits and costs of vaccination, treatment, surveillance, and other global coordination activities. Given diversity in the world and limited data, we characterize the costs for countries according to the 2013 World Bank income levels using 2013 U.S. dollars (2013$US). We estimate that routine immunization and supplemental immunization activities will cost governments and donors over 2013$US 2.3 billion per year for the foreseeable future, with high-income countries accounting for 55% of the costs, to vaccinate global birth cohorts of approximately 134 million surviving infants and to protect the global population of over 7 billion people. We find significantly higher costs and health consequences of measles or rubella disease than with vaccine use, with the expected disability-adjusted life year (DALY) loss for case of disease generally at least 100 times the loss per vaccine dose. To support estimates of the economic benefits of investments in measles and/or rubella elimination or control, we characterize the probabilities of various sequelae of measles and rubella infections and vaccine adverse events, the DALY inputs for health outcomes, and the associated treatment costs. Managing measles and rubella to achieve the existing and future regional measles and rubella goals and the objectives of the Global Vaccine Action Plan will require an ongoing commitment of financial resources that will prevent adverse health outcomes and save the associated treatment costs.

  17. Identification of different lineages of measles virus strains circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India

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    Shakya Akhalesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic analysis of measles viruses associated with recent cases and outbreaks has proven to bridge information gaps in routine outbreak investigations and has made a substantial contribution to measles control efforts by helping to identify the transmission pathways of the virus. Materials and methods The present study describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Uttar Pradesh, India isolated between January 2008 and January 2011. In the study, 526 suspected measles cases from 15 outbreaks were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and tested for the presence of measles specific IgM; throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-PCR. Genotyping of circulating measles viruses in Uttar Pradesh was performed by sequencing a 450-bp region encompassing the nucleoprotein hypervariable region and phylogenetic analysis. Results and conclusion Based on serological results, all the outbreaks were confirmed as measles. Thirty eight strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of circulating measles strains (n = 38 in Uttar Pradesh from 235 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases from 526 suspected measles cases between 2008 and 2011 showed that all viruses responsible for outbreaks were within clade D and all were genotype D8. Analysis of this region showed that it is highly divergent (up to 3.4% divergence in the nucleotide sequence and 4.1% divergence in the amino acid sequence between most distant strains. Considerable genetic heterogeneity was observed in the MV genotype D8 viruses in North India and underscores the need for continued surveillance and in particular increases in vaccination levels to decrease morbidity and mortality attributable to measles.

  18. Poliomyelitis, measles and neonatal tetanus: a hospital based epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shazly, M K; Atta, H Y; Kishk, N A

    1997-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases constitute a major health problem contributing to the morbidity and mortality in many developing countries including Egypt. WHO adopted resolutions to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000, eliminate neonatal tetanus by the year 1995, and reduce measles mortality by 95% and morbidity by 90%, compared to the pre-immunization levels by 1995. Evaluation of preventive programs for these diseases necessitates availability of up to date information on their occurrence. The present study was undertaken to determine the current epidemiological features of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles, to identify the trends of these diseases as well as to determine their outcomes and hospital loads. Data about the admitted cases of poliomyelitis, neonatal tetanus and measles were collected from the hospital register of Alexandria fever hospital for five successive years (1992-96). Available information on age, sex, residence, diagnosis, outcome of treatment, dates of admission and discharge were collected. The total number of cases of the three diseases admitted to the hospital during the period 1992-96 were 1406, measles represented 85.4%, neonatal tetanus 13.9% and poliomyelitis 0.7%. The results revealed that in the year 1994 only one case of poliomyelitis was admitted and since then no other cases were reported. The number of measles cases increased gradually in the latter years and about 78% of them were older than five years of age. A significant increase in the age of measles occurrence was observed. A gradual decline in the number of neonatal tetanus cases was observed. These cases were more apt to occur among early neonates but still clustered in certain geographical areas. The results of the study pinpoint the long term impact of the well run program aiming at eradicating poliomyelitis in Alexandria. However, for elimination of neonatal tetanus and controlling measles morbidity, further activities are required including strengthening

  19. Challenges in measuring measles case fatality ratios in settings without vital registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Robin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Measles, a highly infectious vaccine-preventable viral disease, is potentially fatal. Historically, measles case-fatality ratios (CFRs have been reported to vary from 0.1% in the developed world to as high as 30% in emergency settings. Estimates of the global burden of mortality from measles, critical to prioritizing measles vaccination among other health interventions, are highly sensitive to the CFR estimates used in modeling; however, due to the lack of reliable, up-to-date data, considerable debate exists as to what CFR estimates are appropriate to use. To determine current measles CFRs in high-burden settings without vital registration we have conducted six retrospective measles mortality studies in such settings. This paper examines the methodological challenges of this work and our solutions to these challenges, including the integration of lessons from retrospective all-cause mortality studies into CFR studies, approaches to laboratory confirmation of outbreaks, and means of obtaining a representative sample of case-patients. Our experiences are relevant to those conducting retrospective CFR studies for measles or other diseases, and to those interested in all-cause mortality studies.

  20. [The State of Measles and Rubella in the WHO European region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Mark; Ben Mamou, Myriam; Shefer, Abigail; Jankovic, Dragan; Deshevoy, Sergei; Butler, Robb

    2015-01-01

    The long-standing and widespread use of vaccines against measles has resulted in a dramatic decline in cases and measles mortality worldwide compared with the pre-vaccination era.All regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have measles elimination goals and the WHO regions of the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific also have rubella elimination goals. This article aims to report on progress toward elimination of measles and rubella in the WHO European Region based on the latest available data. We also discuss current challenges and actions needed to reach this goal in the Region. Despite substantial progress made towards controlling measles and rubella, the countries of the WHO European Region continue to face challenges in interrupting endemic transmission of these diseases. Widespread outbreaks and endemic transmission of measles and rubella persisted in some countries of the Region in 2014 and have continued in 2015. Interrupting endemic transmission in each and every country is necessary to declare elimination for the entire Region. High population immunity and high-quality surveillance are the cornerstones to eliminate measles and rubella. In the absence of sustained political commitment and implementation of the required strategies by all countries, the goal of eliminating these diseases in the WHO European Region is at stake.

  1. Measles Resurgence Associated with Continued Circulation of Genotype H1 Viruses in China, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Featherstone David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Measles morbidity and mortality decreased significantly after measles vaccine was introduced into China in 1965. From 1995 to 2004, average annual measles incidence decreased to 5.6 cases per 100,000 population following the establishment of a national two-dose regimen. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country in China during 1995-2004. A total of 124,865 cases and 55 deaths were reported from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS in 2005, which represented a 69.05% increase compared with 2004. Over 16,000 serum samples obtained from 914 measles outbreaks and the measles IgM positive rate was 81%. 213 wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 18 of 31 provinces in China during 2005, and all of the isolates belonged to genotype H1. The ranges of the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence homologies of the 213 genotype H1 strains were 93.4%-100% and 90.0%-100%, respectively. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused the measles resurgence in China in 2005. H1 genotype has the most inner variation within genotype, it could be divided into 2 clusters, and cluster 1 viruses were predominant in China throughout 2005.

  2. Measles surveillance in Taiwan, 2012-2014: Changing epidemiology, immune response, and circulating genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Yueh; Wang, Hsiao-Chi; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan

    2016-05-01

    In Taiwan, although the coverage rate of two doses of measles-containing vaccine has been maintained at over 95% since 2001, measles outbreaks occurred in 2002, 2009, and 2011. The present study reports that 43 cases were confirmed by laboratory testing in Taiwan in 2012-2014 and that adults have emerged as one of groups susceptible to measles virus (MV) infection, who may have discrepant humoral immune reactions--indicated by the level of IgM and IgG antibodies compared to a naïve, susceptible measles case. Thirty-seven of 43 cases confirmed by RT-PCR were further characterized by genotyping. In Taiwan, genotype H1 was the major strain in circulation prior to 2010, while D9 was the most frequently detected MV genotype between 2010 and 2011. The genotyping data collected between 2012 and 2014 revealed that H1 rebounded in 2012 after an absence in 2011 and was imported from China and Vietnam. In 2014, genotype B3 first appeared in Taiwan following import from the Philippines and became the most frequently detected strain. Genotype D8, linked to importation from various countries, including India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam, showed sequence divergence. D9 was imported from Malaysia in 2014. The MV genotypes detected in Taiwan reflected the genotypes of circulating endemic measles strains in neighboring countries. A significant rise in the number of measles cases and in measles with genotypes imported from surrounding countries indicated that measles resurged in Asia in 2014.

  3. Measles Outbreak in Macedonia: Epidemiological, Clinical and Laboratory Findings and Identification of Susceptible Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Irena T Kondova; Zvonko Milenkovic; Sanja P Marinkovic; Golubinka Bosevska; Gordana Kuzmanovska; Goran Kondov; Sonja Alabakovska; Muller, Claude P.; Hübschen, Judith M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite a 92-99% national vaccination coverage since 2000, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia experienced a large measles outbreak between 2010 and 2011. Here we investigate the characteristics of patients hospitalized during this outbreak at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Skopje. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data of 284 measles patients, including 251 from Skopje (43.80% of the 573 reported cases) and 33 from elsewhere in Macedonia were collected...

  4. Most U.S. Adults Support Routine Child Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_163392.html Most U.S. Adults Support Routine Child Vaccine Survey finds 80 percent have positive view of ... Americans support mandatory measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination for children attending public schools, a new survey finds. Despite ...

  5. Measles imported to the United States by children adopted from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiru; Zhang, Yanyang; Ma, Yating; Zheng, Xiang; Han, Tongwu; Li, Feng; Hao, Lixin; Ma, Chao; Wang, Huaqing; Li, Li; Luo, Huiming

    2015-04-01

    In July 2013, the National Immunization Program of China was notified by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that measles was detected in 3 newly adopted, special needs children with cerebral palsy (CP) from China. We report an investigation of measles transmission in China that led to infection of these children. Interviews were conducted with welfare institute staff and panel physicians; health records of the potentially exposed population were reviewed; and immunization coverage was assessed among institute residents. Five residents with CP, all unvaccinated against measles, among who were the 3 adoptees, were linked epidemiologically into 3 generations of measles transmission antecedent to the US outbreak. In a random sample of residents, first dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV1) and MCV2 coverage was 16 of 17 (94%) and 7 of 11 (64%) among children with CP, and 100% (32 of 32) and 96% (21 of 22) among children without CP. Vaccinators reported reluctance to vaccinate children with CP because the China pharmacopeia lists encephalopathy as a contraindication to vaccination. Panel physicians reported to investigators no necessity of vaccination for adoptees to the United States if US parents sign an affidavit exempting the child from vaccination. We recommend that the China pharmacopeia vaccine contraindications be reviewed and updated, the United States should reconsider allowing vaccination exemptions for internationally adopted children unless there are true medical contraindications to vaccination, and US pediatricians should counsel adopting parents to ensure that their child is up-to-date on recommended vaccinations before coming to the United States.

  6. Epidemiological investigation of mixed outbreaks of measles/varicella in hilly villages of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh, India

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    GuptaSN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background On 26th September 2006, a local health worker informed us about sudden increased number of cases of fever and rash in three villages of district Kangra. We investigated the suspected outbreak to confirm diagnosis and recommendation to prevent and control.Methods A case of measles was defined as occurrence of fever with rash in a child between six months to 17 years of age, from 26th September to 2nd week of January, 2007. The information on age, sex, symptoms, signs, date of onset, residence, traveling history treatment taken and assessment of cold chain system was collected. The outbreak was described by place, time and person characteristics. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study among children between 10 months and 15 years of age to estimate the vaccine efficacy. We confirmed diagnosis clinically, epidemiologically and serologically. Results We identified 29/35 measles and 6/35 were confirmed as epidemiologically linked unvaccinated chickenpox case patients. The overall attack rate (AR was 8.13%; maximally in the age group of 11-17 years ranging in between 17-35%. Sex specific AR was more (17% in females. There was neither any death nor any serious complications. The proportion of the children vaccinated was 95% for measles but nil for varicella. Of 35 case-patients, 27 (78% were vaccinated for measles only with no vitamin A supplementation (relative risk: 5.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.90 – 14.77. The measles vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 82%. 3/3 case-patients for measles IgM antibodies and 2/3 nasopharyngeal swabs were tested positive by PCR and D4 measles strain genotyped.Conclusion Measles/varicella outbreaks were confirmed. We recommended varicella vaccination, second dose opportunity for measles and vitamin A supplementation to all cases in affected areas.

  7. Vaccines and autism: evidence does not support a causal association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, F

    2007-12-01

    A suggested association between certain childhood vaccines and autism has been one of the most contentious vaccine safety controversies in recent years. Despite compelling scientific evidence against a causal association, many parents and parent advocacy groups continue to suspect that vaccines, particularly measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs), can cause autism.

  8. "The study of Measles cases and suspected cases in southern Tehran (1379 "

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    Dalilan M "

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Measles, as one of the most contagious diseases, because of the risks of mortality, mental and physical disabilities which may afflict on the patients, has always been so important to the scientists and researchers. With respect to burden of diseases, numerous measures have been taken to control and eliminate measles. In our country, vaccination is considered as the most important strategy to control the measles, however, the surveillance on the patients is on the second place. Screening (Active & passive, prompt and appropriate control of measles in high risk areas can help to control the disease. Materials and Methods: There are 1375283 people with a variety of demographic traits who live in southern Tehran. Southern Tehran covering 10th, 11th, 16th, 17th, 19th divisions of Tehran municipality consists of high risk areas. Because of too many immigrants, overcrowded areas, malnutrition and poverty, the south of Tehran is considered as one of high risk areas, predisposed to measles epidemics. So in 1999, a cross-sectional study was done. Results: On 230 subjects suspected to be measles in south of Tehran, 147 subjects were diagnosed as measles by para clinic evidence, 121 subjects of which were men. Most of these were of the age 20 to 24 years old who lived in the eleventh part of Tehran municipality area. The majority of patients were found among soldiers who lived in dormitories in Horr garrison and military training college located on the above-mentioned area. Unfortunately, most of them did not have reliable history of vaccination. Most of these patients had been in close contact with the colleagues who were measled (61.2 percent. The rate of measles incidence during winter soars at most. Conclusion: The most important factor to be researched is that, the age of these patients differs much from what is expected, due to unknown reason.

  9. Assessment of routine surveillance data as a tool to investigate measles outbreaks in Mozambique

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    Sahay Sundeep

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles remains a major public health problem in Mozambique despite significant efforts to control the disease. Currently, health authorities base their outbreak control on data from the routine surveillance system while vaccine coverage and efficacy are calculated based on mathematical projections of the target population. The aim of this work was to assess the quality of the measles reporting system during two outbreaks that occurred in Maputo City (1998 and in Manica Province (2002. Methods Retrospectively, we collected data from the routine surveillance system, i.e. register books at health facilities and weekly provincial and national epidemiological reports. To test whether the provinces registered an outbreak, the distribution of measles cases was compared to an endemic level established based on cases reported in previous years. Results There was a significant under-notification of measles cases from the health facilities to the province and national level. Register books, the primary sources of information for the measles surveillance system, were found to be incomplete for two main variables: "age" and "vaccination status". Conclusion The Mozambican surveillance system is based on poor quality records, receives the notification of only a fraction of the total number of measles in the country and may result in failures do detect epidemics. The measles reporting system does not provide the data needed by Expanded Program on Immunisation managers to make evidence-based decisions, nor does it allow in-depth analysis to monitor measles epidemiology in the country. The progress of Mozambique to the next stage of measles elimination will require an improvement of the routine surveillance system and a stronger Health Information System.

  10. Measles vaccination status and related factors among infants in Ouhai district in Wenzhou city, Zhejiang province%浙江省温州市瓯海区麻疹疫苗免疫接种状况及其影响因素调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀敏; 刘丽琳; 陈佩; 郑剑勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the vaccination rate and timely vaccination rate of measles containing vaccine (MV) immunization among local and migrant infants and the related factors of missing vaccination or non-timely vaccination, and provide scientific evidence to develop strategy of eliminating measles. Methods The multistage cluster sampling survey was conducted among 225 local children and 225 migrant children who were born between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2010. Results The first dose vaccination rates of MV were 99.56% and 97. 33% , the qualified vaccination rates were 97. 33% and 91. 56% , the timely vaccination rates were 76. 44% and 63. 56% and the second dose vaccination rates of MV were 99. 33% and 90. 58% respectively in local children and migrant children. Among the children who missed vaccination or received non timely vaccination, 67.51% were due to illness. Conclusion The activities of providing the second immunization opportunity and supplementary immunization of MV in migrant children had made great achievement in Ouhai n recent years, but the management of MV vaccination and health education about vaccination should be strengthened to improve the vaccination rate and timely vaccination rate of MV.%目的 了解浙江省温州市瓯海区本地和外来儿童麻疹疫苗(MV,包括含麻疹成分疫苗)接种率和及时接种率,分析未接种和不及时接种原因,为制定消除麻疹免疫策略提供科学依据.方法 采用分阶段整群抽样方法,调查2007年4月1日至2010年3月31日出生的本地和外来儿童各225名.结果 本地儿童MV初免接种率、初免合格接种率、初免及时接种率和复免接种率分别为99.56%、97.33%、76.44%和99.33%;外地儿童MV初免接种率、初免合格接种率、初免及时接种率和复免接种率分别为97.33%、91.56%、63.56%和90.58%.未接种和不及时接种MV以“孩子患病未去接种和孩子患病医生不予接种”等为主,占67.51

  11. 江西省麻疹强化免疫后疑似预防接种异常反应病例分析%STUDY ON THE ADVERSE EVENTS FOLLOWING IMMUNIZATION AFTER THE MEASLES VACCINE FOLLOW-UP IMMUNIZATION IN JIANGXI PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭世成; 涂秋凤; 吴静; 谭祥勇; 张洪荣

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析江西省麻疹强化免疫后报告的疑似预防接种异常反应病例,评价AEFI监测系统运转情况、疫苗的安全性和预防接种服务质量.[方法]通过网络平台AEFI监测系统收集报告的麻疹强化后AEFI个案数据,采用描述性方法对相关指标进行流行病学分析.[结果]江西省麻疹疫苗强化后共报告AEFI病例115例,报告发生率为12.7/100万剂,南昌报告病例最多占21.7%;所有病例中过敏性紫癜61例,占53.0%;所有病例中有35.7%的病例有发热症状,有13.9%有局部红肿.[结论]麻疹疫苗的安全性和预防接种服务质量良好.但江西省AEFI监测系统敏感性不高,有待进一步加强.%[Objective] To analyse the epidemiological characters of the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) after the measles vaccine follow-up immunization, evaluate the running state of the AEFI surveillance system, the safety of the measles vaccine. [Methods] Collected the AEFI cases from the AEFI surveillance system and analysed it with the descriptive methodology. [Results] 115 AEFI cases was reported after the measles vaccine follow-up immunization, the reported inci dence rate was 12.7 pre 1 million doses, 21.7% of all the reported AEFI cases reported in Nanchang city. Anaphylactoid purpu ra patients were 61 cases, accounting for 53.0%; About 35.7% cases had the fever and 13.9% cases had symptoms of red swelling of the skin. [Results] The safety and the quantity of the vaccine is well, but the sensitivity of the AEFI surveillance system must be improved in the future.

  12. Monitoring the process of measles elimination by serosurveillance data: The Apulian 2012 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, S; Gallone, M S; Gallone, M F; Pappagallo, M T; Larocca, A; Germinario, C

    2016-04-19

    In 2003 Italy adopted the National Plan for Measles and Congenital Rubella Elimination, but some outbreaks of measles are still occurring, as the target coverage rate (≥ 95%) for new-borns has currently not been achieved. In order to support the monitoring of the measles elimination programme, the authors carried out a survey about the seroprevalence of measles among Apulia young adults. The study was carried out from May 2011 to June 2012 among blood donors of the Department of Transfusion Medicine of Policlinico General Hospital in Bari. Subjects were enrolled by a convenience sampling. For each enrolled patient we collected a 5 mL serum sample. Collected sera were tested by chemiluminescence (CLIA) for anti-Measles IgG. We enrolled 1764 subjects; 1362 (77.2%) were male with a mean age of 38.4 ± 11.7 years. Anti-Measles IgG titre was >16.5UA/mL in 95.1% (95% CI=94.1-96.1) of enrolled subjects with a Geometric Mean Titre (GMT) of 2.3 ± 0.4, which did not differ dividing the enrolled subjects into age groups. As our data showed, the universal routine vaccination changed the epidemiological pattern among adults, in particular young adults (18-24 years), who showed lowest seropositivity rates; in these groups of population there is a risk of the onset of outbreaks due to the presence of susceptible population. This is a paradox linked to the vaccination strategy: when coverage rates keep sub-optimal, measles is more likely to affect young adults and a higher percentage of complications is expected. According to our data, health authorities have to plan a mop-up strategy to actively offer measles vaccination to susceptible young adults.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a Wild-Type Measles Virus Isolated during a 2016 Winter Outbreak in a Refugee Settlement in Calais, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Justine; Antona, Denise; Vabret, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Measles outbreaks are regularly reported in European countries despite efforts to improve vaccination coverage. In January 2016, an outbreak occurred in a refugee settlement in Calais, France. We report here the complete genome sequence of a wild-type measles virus isolated from a health care worker (MVi/Calais. FRA/01.16) infected during this outbreak. PMID:28280010

  14. Disease detection or public opinion reflection? Content analysis of tweets, other social media, and online newspapers during the measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, L.; Harmsen, I.A.; Broekhuizen, E.; Clijnk, R.; Melker, H. de; Paulussen, T.G.W.M.; Kok, G.J.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Das, H.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In May 2013, a measles outbreak began in the Netherlands among Orthodox Protestants who often refuse vaccination for religious reasons. Objective: Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of onli

  15. Disease detection or public opinion reflection? content analysis of tweets, other social media, and online newspapers during the measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, L.; Harmsen, I.A.; Broekhuizen, E.; Clijnk, R.; Melker, H. de; Paulussen, T.; Kok, G.; Ruiter, R.; Das, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In May 2013, a measles outbreak began in the Netherlands among Orthodox Protestants who often refuse vaccination for religious reasons. Objective: Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of onli

  16. LIPOSOMES AS AN IMMUNOADJUVANT SYSTEM FOR STIMULATION OF MUCOSAL AND SYSTEMIC ANTIBODY-RESPONSES AGAINST INACTIVATED MEASLES-VIRUS ADMINISTERED INTRANASALLY TO MICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHAAN, A; TOMEE, JFC; HUCHSHORN, JP; WILSCHUT, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the immune-stimulatory activity of liposomes in an inactivated whole measles virus vaccine preparation administered intranasally to mice. Liposomes, simply mixed with inactivated whole measles virus, significantly stimulated the serum IgG response relative to the response to th

  17. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Measles Cases and Outbreaks Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... ol: Casos y brotes de sarampión Number of measles cases by year since 2010 Year Cases 2010 ...

  18. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    and a more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vaccines' introduction, and the implications on child survival. METHODS: This observational cohort study...... received measles vaccine after 12 months of age using data from 1999-2006; and compared child mortality after age 12 months in children who had received measles vaccine and those who had not using data from 1999 to 2006. FINDINGS: The proportion of children who were fully vaccinated by 12 months of age......-2006, child mortality was higher in children who had not received measles vaccine than in those who had. FUNDING: DANIDA, European Research Council, the Danish Independent Research Council, European Union FP7 via OPTIMUNISE, and Danish National Research Foundation....

  19. [Report on a measles epidemic in the Ústí nad Labem Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmal, J; Limberková, R

    2015-09-01

    The Czech Republic is a measles free country where only isolated, mostly imported cases have been reported. A measles epidemic that occurred in the Ústí nad Labem Region is presented, with the first case diagnosed early in February 2014 and the last one reported in August 2014. The index case and source of infection to other susceptible patients was an adult male with a history of travel to India. The diagnosis of measles was difficult to make as the patient presented with feverish condition due to co-infection with dengue fever, chikungunya, and measles. The primary measles outbreak occurred in contacts and spread to health workers of the Masaryk Hospital in Ústí nad Labem. The infection further spread to the general population of adults. In total, 305 persons presented with suspected measles. One hundred and eighty-six and of them (61%) met the criteria for a confirmed case (positive clinical symptoms and laboratory test). Fifty (16.4%) patients developed typical clinical symptoms and were epidemiologically linked to confirmed cases, but turned out to be antibody negative. In 69 (22.6%) patients, measles were ruled out. Cases were confirmed by the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against the measles virus or by RT--PCR. Nearly all cases were verified by the National Reference Laboratory for Rubella, Measles, Mumps, and Parvovirus B 19 of the National Institute of Public Health in Prague. In response to the epidemic, apart from common anti-epidemic measures, emergency vaccination was provided to health professionals of the Masaryk Hospital in Ústí nad Labem. Within two weeks after vaccination, a considerable decline in cases was seen in the vaccinated group. Measles most often occurred in persons born in 1970-1980, but were also observed in the smallest, non-vaccinated children (32 cases). Isolated cases also emerged in duly vaccinated children and adolescents. General recommendations are provided based on practical experience from the epidemic.

  20. Empirical determinants of measles metapopulation dynamics in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkenstädt, B; Grenfell, B.

    1998-01-01

    A key issue in metapopulation dynamics is the relative impact of internal patch dynamics and coupling between patches. This problem can be addressed by analysing large spatiotemporal data sets, recording the local and global dynamics of metapopulations. In this paper, we analyse the dynamics of measles meta-populations in a large spatiotemporal case notification data set, collected during the pre-vaccination era in England and Wales. Specifically, we use generalized linear statistical models ...

  1. Cost analysis of measles in refugees arriving at Los Angeles International Airport from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Margaret S; Burke, Heather M; Welstead, Bethany L; Mitchell, Tarissa; Taylor, Eboni M; Shapovalov, Dmitry; Maskery, Brian A; Joo, Heesoo; Weinberg, Michelle

    2017-01-09

    Background On August 24, 2011, 31 US-bound refugees from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL) arrived in Los Angeles. One of them was diagnosed with measles post-arrival. He exposed others during a flight, and persons in the community while disembarking and seeking medical care. As a result, 9 cases of measles were identified. Methods We estimated costs of response to this outbreak and conducted a comparative cost analysis examining what might have happened had all US-bound refugees been vaccinated before leaving Malaysia. Results State-by-state costs differed and variously included vaccination, hospitalization, medical visits, and contact tracing with costs ranging from $621 to $35,115. The total of domestic and IOM Malaysia reported costs for US-bound refugees were $137,505 [range: $134,531 - $142,777 from a sensitivity analysis]. Had all US-bound refugees been vaccinated while in Malaysia, it would have cost approximately $19,646 and could have prevented 8 measles cases. Conclusion A vaccination program for US-bound refugees, supporting a complete vaccination for US-bound refugees, could improve refugees' health, reduce importations of vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States, and avert measles response activities and costs.

  2. Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network Support for Elimination Goals, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Mick N; Rota, Paul A; Icenogle, Joseph P; Brown, Kevin E; Takeda, Makoto; Rey, Gloria J; Ben Mamou, Myriam C; Dosseh, Annick R G A; Byabamazima, Charles R; Ahmed, Hinda J; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Zhang, Yan; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Strebel, Peter M; Goodson, James L

    2016-05-06

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP)* with the objective to eliminate measles and rubella in five World Health Organization (WHO) regions by 2020. In September 2013, countries in all six WHO regions had established measles elimination goals, and additional goals for elimination of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome were established in three regions (1). Capacity for surveillance, including laboratory confirmation, is fundamental to monitoring and verifying elimination. The 2012-2020 Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan of the Measles and Rubella Initiative(†) calls for effective case-based surveillance with laboratory testing for case confirmation (2). In 2000, the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) was established to provide high quality laboratory support for surveillance (3). The GMRLN is the largest globally coordinated laboratory network, with 703 laboratories supporting surveillance in 191 countries. During 2010-2015, 742,187 serum specimens were tested, and 27,832 viral sequences were reported globally. Expansion of the capacity of the GMRLN will support measles and rubella elimination efforts as well as surveillance for other vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs), including rotavirus, and for emerging pathogens of public health concern.

  3. Evaluation of MMR Vaccination and Autism Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective cohort study of autism in all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998 and those receiving measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR vaccination is reported from the Danish Epidemiology Science Center, Aarhus, Denmark.

  4. MMR vaccine and autism: an update of the scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Frank; Thompson, William W

    2004-02-01

    An hypothesis published in 1998 suggested that measles-mumps-rubella vaccine may cause autism as a result of persistent measles virus infection of the gastrointestinal tract. Results of early studies were not supportive and in 2001 a review by the Institute of Medicine concluded that the evidence favors the rejection of a causal relationship at the population level between measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autistic spectrum disorder. Studies published since the Institute of Medicine report have continued not to find an increased risk of autistic spectrum disorder associated with measles-mumps-rubella. The vaccine also has not been found to be associated with a unique syndrome of developmental regression and gastrointestinal disorders. The evidence now is convincing that the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine does not cause autism or any particular subtypes of autistic spectrum disorder.

  5. Epidemiological and molecular approaches for management of a measles outbreak in Liguria, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, A; Alicino, C; Patria, A G; Parodi, V; Carloni, R; Turello, V; Comaschi, M; Moscatelli, P; Orengo, G; Martini, M; De Florentiis, D

    2010-06-01

    Since March 2010 a measles outbreak has been occurred in Genoa, Liguria, an administrative Region in Northern Italy. Epidemiological and molecular data on the outbreak, obtained from the passive mandatory notification system, the laboratory surveillance and an innovative syndrome surveillance system, were investigated. Overall 39 cases were reported in the urban area. Information about demography, vaccination status, hospitalization and geographic distribution of measles cases are available. 19 cases (48.7%) were laboratory-confirmed and were characterized by sequence analysis: 18 strains belonged to genotype D8, so identifying a new measles variant within the Liguria population. Adopted control measures seem to have limited viral circulation. The outbreak allowed to test the efficacy of the 3 surveillance systems active in Liguria, highlighting their advantages and some important limitations. More efforts are needed to collect and integrate any epidemiological and virological available data in order to better describe the local measles transmission dynamics.

  6. Measles outbreak in Greater Manchester, England, October 2012 to September 2013: epidemiology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegorie, M; Shankar, K; Welfare, W S; Wilson, R W; Khiroya, C; Munslow, G; Fiefield, D; Bothra, V; McCann, R

    2014-12-11

    This paper describes the epidemiology and management of a prolonged outbreak of measles across the 2.7 million conurbation of Greater Manchester in the United Kingdom. Over a period of one year (from October 2012 to September 2013), over a thousand suspected measles cases (n = 1,073) were notified across Greater Manchester; of these, 395 (37%) were laboratory-confirmed, 91 (8%) were classed as probable, 312 (29%) were classed as possible and 275 (26%) excluded. Most confirmed and probable cases occurred in children within two age groups—infants (too young to be eligible for measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination according to the national immunisation programme) and children aged 10-19 years (low vaccine uptake in this cohort because of unfounded alleged links between the MMR vaccine and autism). During this one year period, there were a series of local outbreaks and many of these occurred within the secondary school setting. A series of public health measures were taken to control this prolonged outbreak: setting up incident management teams to control local outbreaks, a concerted immunisation catch-up campaign (initially local then national) to reduce the pool of children partially or totally unprotected against measles, and the exclusion of close contacts from nurseries and school settings for a period of 10 days following the last exposure to a case of measles.

  7. Measles outbreak in Macedonia: epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings and identification of susceptible cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena T Kondova

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Despite a 92-99% national vaccination coverage since 2000, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia experienced a large measles outbreak between 2010 and 2011. Here we investigate the characteristics of patients hospitalized during this outbreak at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Skopje. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data of 284 measles patients, including 251 from Skopje (43.80% of the 573 reported cases and 33 from elsewhere in Macedonia were collected. RESULTS: The most affected age groups were children up to 4 years of age and adolescents/adults of 15 years and older. Most patients were unvaccinated (n=263, 92.61% and many had non-Macedonian nationalities (n=156, 54.93% or belonged to the Roma ethnicity (n=73, 25.70%. Bronchopneumonia and diarrhea were the most common complications. Eighty-two out of 86 tested patients (95.35% had measles-specific IgM antibodies. The outbreak was caused by the measles variant D4-Hamburg. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemic identified pockets of susceptibles in Skopje and indicated that additional vaccination opportunities in particular for people with non-Macedonian nationality and traveler communities are warranted to ensure efficient measles control in Macedonia. The high attack rate among children of less than 1 year suggests that vaccination before 12 months of age should be considered in high risk settings.

  8. Distribution of serum measles-neutralizing antibodies according to age in women of childbearing age in France in 2005-2006: impact of routine immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquier, Didier; Gagneur, Arnaud; Aubert, Marie; Brissaud, Olivier; Le Guen, Christèle Gras; Hau-Rainsard, Isabelle; Picherot, Georges; De Pontual, Loïc; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Reinert, Philippe

    2007-08-01

    Measles antibody titers were measured in 210 French women. Ninety-four percent had protective values (>120 mIU/mL). Geometric mean titers were significantly different (P < 0.001) between women born before and after 1983, when measles vaccination was recommended (731 and 1358 mIU/mL, respectively). geometric mean titers in 4 age cohorts decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with increasing birth year. These data may help identify the appropriate age for infant vaccination.

  9. An Agent-Based Model of School Closing in Under-Vacccinated Communities During Measles Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Wayne M; Carlson, Colin; Dougherty, Eric; Porco Francis, Travis C; Salter, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The winter 2014-15 measles outbreak in the US represents a significant crisis in the emergence of a functionally extirpated pathogen. Conclusively linking this outbreak to decreases in the measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccination rate (driven by anti-vaccine sentiment) is critical to motivating MMR vaccination. We used the NOVA modeling platform to build a stochastic, spatially-structured, individual-based SEIR model of outbreaks, under the assumption that R0 ≈ 7 for measles. We show this implies that herd immunity requires vaccination coverage of greater than approximately 85%. We used a network structured version of our NOVA model that involved two communities, one at the relatively low coverage of 85% coverage and one at the higher coverage of 95%, both of which had 400-student schools embedded, as well as students occasionally visiting superspreading sites (e.g. high-density theme parks, cinemas, etc.). These two vaccination coverage levels are within the range of values occurring across California counties. Transmission rates at schools and superspreading sites were arbitrarily set to respectively 5 and 15 times background community rates. Simulations of our model demonstrate that a 'send unvaccinated students home' policy in low coverage counties is extremely effective at shutting down outbreaks of measles.

  10. A Research on Influence Factors of Timely Inoculation Rate of Measles Containing Vaccine in Children%儿童麻疹疫苗初免及时率影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡昱; 戚小华; 陈雅萍; 李倩; 蒋征刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the coverage rate and impact factors of timely inoculation rate of Measles Containing Vaccine (MCV) in 8 ~ 35 - month old Children in Zhejiang province, providing evidence for scientific immunization strategies.Methods A two -stage random stratified sampling survey was implemented and standard face - to - face interviews were conducted with 695 children aged 8 ~35 months from 3 counties.Information including demographic characteristics, information on first dose of MCV, utilization and satisfaction of immunization service provided by local immunization clinics were collected, exploring the influencing factors of timely inoculation rate of MCV.Results Coverage rate of MCV was 93.09% (95.40% in local children and 91.72% in emigrant children, P > 0.05), the timely inoculation rate of MCV was 67.77% (77.31% in local children and 57.69% in emigrant children, P < 0.01 ).Logistic regression showed that factors such as the inoculation appointment, geographic convenience and environment of vaccination clinics, caregiver' s education level and work status, were associated with coverage rate in local children, and the interval time of vaccination notice after immigration,inoculation appointment, paid vaccination service, caregiver's education level and work status, and the birth place were associated with coverage rate of emigrant children.Conclusion It is necessary to establish the evaluation standards of timely inoculation of MCV and put it into National Immunization Information Surveillance System (NⅡSS) for assessment.Effective intervention should be implemented to improve the timely inoculation rate of MCV.%目的 了解浙江省8~35月龄儿童含麻疹成分疫苗(MCV)初免及时接种率及其影响因素,为制定干预措施提供依据.方法 采用二阶段分层抽样方法,在3个县现场调查695名适龄儿童及其监护人的人口学特征,预防接种服务利用和满意度情况,MCV初免接种信息,分

  11. Tumor cell marker PVRL4 (nectin 4 is an epithelial cell receptor for measles virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan S Noyce

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine and laboratory adapted strains of measles virus can use CD46 as a receptor to infect many human cell lines. However, wild type isolates of measles virus cannot use CD46, and they infect activated lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages via the receptor CD150/SLAM. Wild type virus can also infect epithelial cells of the respiratory tract through an unidentified receptor. We demonstrate that wild type measles virus infects primary airway epithelial cells grown in fetal calf serum and many adenocarcinoma cell lines of the lung, breast, and colon. Transfection of non-infectable adenocarcinoma cell lines with an expression vector encoding CD150/SLAM rendered them susceptible to measles virus, indicating that they were virus replication competent, but lacked a receptor for virus attachment and entry. Microarray analysis of susceptible versus non-susceptible cell lines was performed, and comparison of membrane protein gene transcripts produced a list of 11 candidate receptors. Of these, only the human tumor cell marker PVRL4 (Nectin 4 rendered cells amenable to measles virus infections. Flow cytometry confirmed that PVRL4 is highly expressed on the surfaces of susceptible lung, breast, and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Measles virus preferentially infected adenocarcinoma cell lines from the apical surface, although basolateral infection was observed with reduced kinetics. Confocal immune fluorescence microscopy and surface biotinylation experiments revealed that PVRL4 was expressed on both the apical and basolateral surfaces of these cell lines. Antibodies and siRNA directed against PVRL4 were able to block measles virus infections in MCF7 and NCI-H358 cancer cells. A virus binding assay indicated that PVRL4 was a bona fide receptor that supported virus attachment to the host cell. Several strains of measles virus were also shown to use PVRL4 as a receptor. Measles virus infection reduced PVRL4 surface expression in MCF7 cells, a

  12. Stability of the age distribution of measles cases over time during outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesen, Eric; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Goodson, James L; Anand, Abhijeet; Mach, Ondrej; Thapa, Arun; O'Connor, Patrick; Linayage, Jayantha; Diorditsa, Serguei; Hasan, A S M Mainul; Uzzaman, Sharif; Jalil Mondal, M D Abdul

    2011-07-01

    Despite recommendations from WHO to conduct measles outbreak response vaccination campaigns based on the age distribution of cases at the beginning of an outbreak, few data exist to specifically examine whether the age distribution of cases remains constant over time in a measles outbreak. This analysis explores this question with use of measles outbreak surveillance data from Bangladesh from the period 2004-2006. Pearson χ(2) tests were conducted of age distributions over 2 periods during 41 large laboratory-confirmed measles outbreaks. Statistically significant changes in age distribution over time were observed in 24% of the outbreaks. No single pattern was detected in the shifts in age distribution; however, an increase in the proportion of cases occurring among infants outbreaks. These findings suggest a need to consider the possibility of a shift in the age distribution over time when planning an outbreak response vaccination campaign.

  13. An outbreak investigation of measles after the tsunami in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudharsanam M Balasubramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tsunami struck the entire coastline of Tamil Nadu on 26 th December 2004. After tsunami an outbreak of measles was reported by media in Cuddalore district due to overcrowding of people in relief camps. We had to investigate and report within 12 hours upon this outbreak of measles and determine whether it was related to the tsunami. Materials and Methods: Investigation was done by interviewing health care workers, by visiting villages from where measles was reported and confirmed serologically among children, by looking for clustering of cases and probing for possible reasons for the outbreak. Results : By the day the investigation was carried out, 27 cases had been reported. Of these, 13 cases were from a village not affected by tsunami. There was clustering of cases in a single street in this village. Other reported cases were from villages affected by tsunami, but there was no clustering. No cases were reported from relief camps. All the affected children were above 3 years of age and were immunized previously against measles. No data were available on occurrence of measles in previous years, but it was ascertained that cases of measles occurred around the same season. No common source was identified. Interview with the health workers revealed that reconstituted vaccine was used more than 4 h after reconstitution. A faulty technique was used in route of administration in the immunization. Health workers also said that after the age of 1 year a non-immunized child was not given the vaccine